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Sample records for facilitate intestinal colonization

  1. Colon in acute intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla

    2009-04-01

    The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.

  2. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae.

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    Salvador Almagro-Moreno

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms.

  3. Intestinal Iron Homeostasis and Colon Tumorigenesis

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    Yatrik M. Shah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in industrialized countries. Understanding the mechanisms of growth and progression of CRC is essential to improve treatment. Iron is an essential nutrient for cell growth. Iron overload caused by hereditary mutations or excess dietary iron uptake has been identified as a risk factor for CRC. Intestinal iron is tightly controlled by iron transporters that are responsible for iron uptake, distribution, and export. Dysregulation of intestinal iron transporters are observed in CRC and lead to iron accumulation in tumors. Intratumoral iron results in oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and DNA damage with consequent promotion of oncogene activation. In addition, excess iron in intestinal tumors may lead to increase in tumor-elicited inflammation and tumor growth. Limiting intratumoral iron through specifically chelating excess intestinal iron or modulating activities of iron transporter may be an attractive therapeutic target for CRC.

  4. Effects of bacterial colonization on the porcine intestinal proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Marianne; Hornshøj, Henrik; Siggers, Richard Harvey

    2007-01-01

    comparison of 12 animals. Our results showed that bacterial colonization differentially affected mechanisms such as proteolysis, epithelial proliferation, and lipid metabolism, which is in good agreement with previous studies of other germ-free animal models. We have also found that E. coli has a profound...... effect on actin remodeling and intestinal proliferation, which may be related to stimulated migration and turnover of enterocytes. Regulations related to L. fermentum colonization involved individual markers for immunoregulatory mechanisms...

  5. Successful small intestine colonization of adult mice by Vibrio cholerae requires ketamine anesthesia and accessory toxins.

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    Verena Olivier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae colonizes the small intestine of adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, the physical and genetic parameters that facilitate this colonization were investigated. Successful colonization was found to depend upon anesthesia with ketamine-xylazine and neutralization of stomach acid with sodium bicarbonate, but not streptomycin treatment. A variety of common mouse strains were colonized by O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 strains. All combinations of mutants in the genes for hemolysin, the multifunctional, autoprocessing RTX toxin (MARTX, and hemagglutinin/protease were assessed, and it was found that hemolysin and MARTX are each sufficient for colonization after a low dose infection. Overall, this study suggests that, after intragastric inoculation, V. cholerae encounters barriers to infection including an acidic environment and an immediate immune response that is circumvented by sodium bicarbonate and the anti-inflammatory effects of ketamine-xylazine. After initial adherence in the small intestine, the bacteria are subjected to additional clearance mechanisms that are evaded by the independent toxic action of hemolysin or MARTX. Once colonization is established, it is suggested that, in humans, these now persisting bacteria initiate synthesis of the major virulence factors to cause cholera disease. This adult mouse model of intestinal V. cholerae infection, now well-characterized and fully optimized, should serve as a valuable tool for studies of pathogenesis and testing vaccine efficacy.

  6. Endometriotic stricture of the sigmoid colon presenting with intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to an emergency department with intestinal obstruction secondary to an endometriotic stricture of the sigmoid colon, without evidence of disease elsewhere in the peritoneal cavity. Although large-bowel obstruction is usually caused by a malignant tumour, it can sometimes result from rare causes such as endometriosis.

  7. Colonic carcinoma with multiple small bowel perforations mimicking intestinal obstruction

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    Khanna Rahul

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoma of the colon may present with perforation proximal to the site of malignancy. Caecum is the commonest site of perforation if the ileocecal valve is patent and the jejunal and ileal perforations are very rare. Case presentation A 35 year male presented with intestinal obstruction. Emergency laparotomy revealed carcinoma of the transverse colon with multiple pinpoint perforations along antimesenteric border of ileum, which were wrapped with omentum, and no peritoneal contamination was present. Extended right hemicolectomy with jejunocolic anastomosis was done. Patient made uneventful recovery in postoperative period and was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusion Patients with colonic carcinoma and incompetent ileocecal valve may present with intestinal perforation. Increased intraluminal pressure and closed loop obstruction may lead to ischemia and perforation of the small bowel.

  8. Zebrafish Axenic Larvae Colonization with Human Intestinal Microbiota.

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    Arias-Jayo, Nerea; Alonso-Saez, Laura; Ramirez-Garcia, Andoni; Pardo, Miguel A

    2018-04-01

    The human intestine hosts a vast and complex microbial community that is vital for maintaining several functions related with host health. The processes that determine the gut microbiome composition are poorly understood, being the interaction between species, the external environment, and the relationship with the host the most feasible. Animal models offer the opportunity to understand the interactions between the host and the microbiota. There are different gnotobiotic mice or rat models colonized with the human microbiota, however, to our knowledge, there are no reports on the colonization of germ-free zebrafish with a complex human intestinal microbiota. In the present study, we have successfully colonized 5 days postfertilization germ-free zebrafish larvae with the human intestinal microbiota previously extracted from a donor and analyzed by high-throughput sequencing the composition of the transferred microbial communities that established inside the zebrafish gut. Thus, we describe for first time which human bacteria phylotypes are able to colonize the zebrafish digestive tract. Species with relevant interest because of their linkage to dysbiosis in different human diseases, such as Akkermansia muciniphila, Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Prevotella spp., or Roseburia spp. have been successfully transferred inside the zebrafish digestive tract.

  9. [Colonic duplication revealed by intestinal obstruction due to fecal impaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azahouani, A; Hida, M; Benhaddou, H

    2015-12-01

    Colonic duplications are very rare in children. With rectal duplications, they are the rarest locations of alimentary tract duplications, most often diagnosed in the first years of life. We report an unusual case of colic duplication with fecal impaction in a 9-month-old boy revealed by intestinal obstruction. We discuss the main diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this malformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Malrotation with transverse colon volvulus in early pregnancy: a rare cause for acute intestinal obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Digvijoy; Parameshwaran, Rajesh; Dani, Tushar; Shetty, Prashanth

    2013-01-01

    Colonic volvulus is a relatively uncommon cause of large bowel obstruction, accounting for 10% of colonic obstructions. Volvulus of the transverse colon is quite rare, accounting for only 4–11% of all reported cases. We report an unusual case of documented volvulus of the transverse colon in a pregnant woman with intestinal malrotation and concomitant acute intestinal obstruction by congenital bands and adhesions. PMID:23964051

  11. Intestinal spirochetosis and colon diverticulosis Espiroquetose intestinal e diverticulose do cólon

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    Marcus Aurelho de Lima

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A case of intestinal spirochetosis in a 62-year-old white male is reported. The condition was characterized by chronic flatulence and episodes of intestinal hemorrhage, in addition to the evidence of hypotonic diverticular disease, with a large number of slender organisms in the colon epithelium and cryptae. Spirochetes were demonstrated by Whartin-Starry stain. The serologic tests for syphilis and HIV were positive. Spirochetosis was treated with penicillin G, and the patient remains free of intestinal complaints 20 months later.Um caso de espiroquetose intestinal é relatado em um homem branco de 62 anos. A condição foi caracterizada por flatulência crônica e episódios de hemorragia intestinal, além da evidência de doença diverticular hipotônica dos cólons, com numerosos organismos filamentosos no epitélio e nas criptas do cólon. Os espiroquetas foram demonstrados pela coloração de Whartin-Starry. Os testes sorológicos para sífilis e HIV foram positivos. A espiroquetose foi tratada com penicilina G e o paciente permanece sem queixas intestinais após 20 meses.

  12. Intestinal Microbiota Containing Barnesiella Species Cures Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Vanni; Caballero, Silvia; Djukovic, Ana; Toussaint, Nora C.; Equinda, Michele; Lipuma, Lauren; Ling, Lilan; Gobourne, Asia; No, Daniel; Taur, Ying; Jenq, Robert R.; van den Brink, Marcel R. M.; Xavier, Joao B.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria causing infections in hospitalized patients are increasingly antibiotic resistant. Classical infection control practices are only partially effective at preventing spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria within hospitals. Because the density of intestinal colonization by the highly antibiotic-resistant bacterium vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) can exceed 109 organisms per gram of feces, even optimally implemented hygiene protocols often fail. Decreasing the density of intestinal colonization, therefore, represents an important approach to limit VRE transmission. We demonstrate that reintroduction of a diverse intestinal microbiota to densely VRE-colonized mice eliminates VRE from the intestinal tract. While oxygen-tolerant members of the microbiota are ineffective at eliminating VRE, administration of obligate anaerobic commensal bacteria to mice results in a billionfold reduction in the density of intestinal VRE colonization. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of intestinal bacterial populations isolated from mice that cleared VRE following microbiota reconstitution revealed that recolonization with a microbiota that contains Barnesiella correlates with VRE elimination. Characterization of the fecal microbiota of patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation demonstrated that intestinal colonization with Barnesiella confers resistance to intestinal domination and bloodstream infection with VRE. Our studies indicate that obligate anaerobic bacteria belonging to the Barnesiella genus enable clearance of intestinal VRE colonization and may provide novel approaches to prevent the spread of highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:23319552

  13. Intestinal nitric oxide synthase activity changes during experimental colon obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palásthy, Zsolt; Kaszaki, József; Lázár, György; Nagy, Sándor; Boros, Mihály

    2006-08-01

    The experiments in this study were designed to follow the time course of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the large bowel during acute mechanical ileus. Occlusion of the mid-transverse colon was maintained for 420 min in anesthetized dogs. Strain-gauge transducers were used to analyze motility changes on the hepatic and lienal flexures, respectively. Constitutive NO synthase (cNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) activities were determined in tissue biopsies, and plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) level was measured in the portal blood. Following completion of the baseline studies, the animals were treated with either 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, selective neuronal NOS inhibitor), or N-nitro-L-arginine (NNA, non-selective NOS inhibitor). In the sham-operated group the cNOS activities differed significantly in the oral and aboral tissue samples (oral: 102.9; versus aboral: 62.1 fmol/mg protein/min). The obstruction elicited a significant increase in portal NOx and elevated tissue inducible NO synthase (iNOS) activity. NNA treatment decreased the motility index in both intestinal segments for 60 min, but 120 min later the motility index was significantly elevated (2.5-fold increase in the oral part, and 1.8-fold enhancement in the aboral segment, respectively). Treatment with 7-NI decreased the cNOS activity in the oral and aboral parts by approximately 40% and 70%, respectively, and suppressed the motility increase in the aboral colon segment. The motility of the colon was either significantly increased or decreased, depending on the type and selectivity of the NOS inhibitor compounds applied. NO of neuronal origin is a transmitter that stimulates peristaltic activity; but an increased iNOS/nNOS ratio significantly moderates the obstruction-induced motility increase.

  14. Sexually dimorphic characteristics of the small intestine and colon of prepubescent C57BL/6 mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegenga, Wilma T; Mischke, Mona; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V; Pruis, Maurien Gm; Lendvai, Agnes; Verkade, Henkjan J; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; Plösch, Torsten; Müller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increasing appreciation for sexually dimorphic effects, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are only partially understood. In the present study, we explored transcriptomics and epigenetic differences in the small intestine and colon of prepubescent male and

  15. A20 restricts wnt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells and suppresses colon carcinogenesis.

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    Ling Shao

    Full Text Available Colon carcinogenesis consists of a multistep process during which a series of genetic and epigenetic adaptations occur that lead to malignant transformation. Here, we have studied the role of A20 (also known as TNFAIP3, a ubiquitin-editing enzyme that restricts NFκB and cell death signaling, in intestinal homeostasis and tumorigenesis. We have found that A20 expression is consistently reduced in human colonic adenomas than in normal colonic tissues. To further investigate A20's potential roles in regulating colon carcinogenesis, we have generated mice lacking A20 specifically in intestinal epithelial cells and interbred these with mice harboring a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC(min. While A20(FL/FL villin-Cre mice exhibit uninflamed intestines without polyps, A20(FL/FL villin-Cre APC(min/+ mice contain far greater numbers and larger colonic polyps than control APC(min mice. We find that A20 binds to the β-catenin destruction complex and restricts canonical wnt signaling by supporting ubiquitination and degradation of β-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, acute deletion of A20 from intestinal epithelial cells in vivo leads to enhanced expression of the β-catenin dependent genes cyclinD1 and c-myc, known promoters of colon cancer. Taken together, these findings demonstrate new roles for A20 in restricting β-catenin signaling and preventing colon tumorigenesis.

  16. A Case of Advanced Descending Colon Cancer in an Adult Patient with Intestinal Malrotation

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    Yoshifumi Nakayama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents an operative case of advanced descending colon cancer in an adult patient with intestinal malrotation. A 63-year-old Japanese male was suffering from left side abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and constipation. An endoscopic examination revealed an advanced tumor in the descending colon. Computed tomography (CT of the abdomen revealed the thickening of the descending colon wall and superior mesenteric vein rotation. An opaque enema detected severe stenosis of the descending colon. An abdominal X-ray examination revealed the dilation of the colon and small intestine with niveau. At the insertion of an ileus tube, the C-loop of the duodenum was observed to be absent and the small intestine was located on the right side of the abdomen. After the decompression of the bowel contents, laparotomy was performed. Descending colon cancer was observed to have directly invaded the left side of the transverse colon. Left hemicolectomy, lymph node dissection, and appendectomy were performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged from the hospital on the 16th day after surgery. This report presents a rare operative case of descending colon cancer in an adult patient with intestinal malrotation.

  17. The CT diagnostic value of emergency intestinal obstruction caused by colon carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhuohong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the value of CT in the diagnosis of emergency intestinal obstruction (EIOB) caused by colon carcinoma. Methods: 17 cases with EIOB caused by colon carcinoma were submitted to CT scanning. Contrast enhanced scans were performed in 11 cases. The locations and characters of EIOB in CT imaging were recorded and compared with operation results. Results: The locations of the obstructions were 3 cases in cecum, 1 in ascending colon, 1 in transverse colon, 2 in descending colon, and 10 in sigmoid colon. Compared with operation results, the accuracy of CT in locating obstruction was 94%, and in qualitative diagnosis of colon carcinomas was 70%. Conclusion: CT can display very well the obstruction location of EIOB, and It has certain value in character izing colon carcinoma with EIOB. (authors)

  18. Clostridium difficile suppresses colonic vasoactive intestinal peptide associated with altered motility

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    A. Nassif

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether Clostridium difficile toxin alters colonic tissue levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP at the expense of changes in colonic motility in the isolated perfused rabbit left colon. Colonic inflammation was induced by the intracolonic administration of 10−8 M C. difflcile toxin. Strain gauge transducers were sewn onto the serosal surface of the colon to evaluate colonic motility. C. difflcile administration produced histologic changes consistent with epithelial damage. This was associated with an increased production of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2. Tissue levels of VIP but not substance P were significantly reduced. This was associated with an increased number of contractions per minute and an average force of each colonic contraction. These results suggest that tissue levels of VIP are suppressed by C. difflcile and may participate in colonic dysmotility during active inflammation.

  19. Mono-colonization with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects the intestinal metabolome in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper

    (NCFM) on the intestinal metabolome (jejunum, caecum, and colon) in mice by comparing NCFM mono-colonized (MC) mice with GF mice using liquid chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). The study adds to existing evidence that NCFM in vivo affects the bile acid signature of mice......-tocopherol acetate) in higher levels in the intestine of GF mice compared to MC mice, suggesting that NCFM either metabolizes the compound or indirectly affects the absorption by changing the metabolome in the intestine. The use of NCFM to increase the uptake of vitamin E supplements in humans and animals...

  20. Gut microbial colonization orchestrates TLR2 expression, signaling and epithelial proliferation in the small intestinal mucosa.

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    Nives Hörmann

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is an environmental factor that determines renewal of the intestinal epithelium and remodeling of the intestinal mucosa. At present, it is not resolved if components of the gut microbiota can augment innate immune sensing in the intestinal epithelium via the up-regulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs. Here, we report that colonization of germ-free (GF Swiss Webster mice with a complex gut microbiota augments expression of TLR2. The microbiota-dependent up-regulation of components of the TLR2 signaling complex could be reversed by a 7 day broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. TLR2 downstream signaling via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2 and protein-kinase B (AKT induced by bacterial TLR2 agonists resulted in increased proliferation of the small intestinal epithelial cell line MODE-K. Mice that were colonized from birth with a normal gut microbiota (conventionally-raised; CONV-R showed signs of increased small intestinal renewal and apoptosis compared with GF controls as indicated by elevated mRNA levels of the proliferation markers Ki67 and Cyclin D1, elevated transcripts of the apoptosis marker Caspase-3 and increased numbers of TUNEL-positive cells per intestinal villus structure. In accordance, TLR2-deficient mice showed reduced proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Our findings suggest that a tuned proliferation response of epithelial cells following microbial colonization could aid to protect the host from its microbial colonizers and increase intestinal surface area.

  1. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli senses low biotin status in the large intestine for colonization and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Feng, Lu; Wang, Fang; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that infects humans by colonizing the large intestine. Here we identify a virulence-regulating pathway in which the biotin protein ligase BirA signals to the global regulator Fur, which in turn activates LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement) genes to promote EHEC adherence in the low-biotin large intestine. LEE genes are repressed in the high-biotin small intestine, thus preventing adherence and ensuring selective colonization of the large intestine. The presence of this pathway in all nine EHEC serotypes tested indicates that it is an important evolutionary strategy for EHEC. The pathway is incomplete in closely related small-intestinal enteropathogenic E. coli due to the lack of the Fur response to BirA. Mice fed with a biotin-rich diet show significantly reduced EHEC adherence, indicating that biotin might be useful to prevent EHEC infection in humans. PMID:25791315

  2. Transplantation of Expanded Fetal Intestinal Progenitors Contributes to Colon Regeneration after Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordham, Robert P; Yui, Shiro; Hannan, Nicholas R F

    2013-01-01

    Regeneration and homeostasis in the adult intestinal epithelium is driven by proliferative resident stem cells, whose functional properties during organismal development are largely unknown. Here, we show that human and mouse fetal intestine contains proliferative, immature progenitors, which can...... be expanded in vitro as Fetal Enterospheres (FEnS). A highly similar progenitor population can be established during intestinal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells. Established cultures of mouse fetal intestinal progenitors express lower levels of Lgr5 than mature progenitors and propagate...... in the presence of the Wnt antagonist Dkk1, and new cultures can be induced to form mature intestinal organoids by exposure to Wnt3a. Following transplantation in a colonic injury model, FEnS contribute to regeneration of colonic epithelium by forming epithelial crypt-like structures expressing region...

  3. The effect of Daikenchuto on postoperative intestinal motility in patients with right-side colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Matsuda, Michihiro Koizumi Akihisa; Shinji, Seiichi; Yokoyama, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Goro; Iwai, Takuma; Takeda, Kouki; Ohta, Keiichiro; Uchida, Eiji

    2017-07-01

    Daikenchuto (DKT) has a stimulant effect on intestinal motility and reportedly has a positive effect on postoperative intestinal motility in patients with sigmoid colon cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of DKT in patients with right-side colon cancer. This retrospective study included 88 patients with right-side colon cancer. We orally administered 7.5 g of DKT in the DKT group and did not administer any DKT to patients in the no-DKT group. All patients ingested radiopaque markers 2 h before surgery, which were used to assess intestinal motility. The postoperative intestinal motility was radiologically assessed by counting the numbers of residual markers in the large and small intestines. The DKT and no-DKT groups showed no marked differences in the total number of residual markers or number of residual markers in the small intestine. However, in the elderly subgroup, the total number of residual markers in the DKT group was significantly less than in the no-DKT group. Although DKT had some small effect on the postoperative intestinal motility for most patients, it may have positive effects in elderly patients.

  4. Studies on colon cancer prone rats. Spontaneous small intestinal carcinomas and tumor induction of small intestine by x-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeura, Y [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1979-12-01

    Histological investigation was carried out for Wister-Furth (WF) rats, prone to cancers of the colon and small intestine. Gastric cancer was observed in about 1/4 of the rats with the cancers of the colon and the small intestine, indicating that these rats could be the model animals of the cancer family syndrome with multi-cancers in the gastrointestinal tracts. The small intestine of WF and SD (Sprague-Dowley) rats as exposed to 1000, 2 x 1000, 1500, and 2000 R of x-rays at a dose rate of 157 R/min. In each group the stomach, small intestine, cecum, and colon were histologically investigated, immediately and 15, 25, and 35 weeks after irradiation. The rates of cancer occurrence in 15, 25, and 35 weeks were 5/17, 9/19, and 9/14 for WF strain and 1/8, 2/7, and 2/8 for SD strain, respectively. The rate increased with the increment of the days after irradiation. It was suggested that the atypical epithelium of the gastrointestinal tracts induced the cancer in high rates when some trigger was added.

  5. Epidemiological Features of Clostridium difficile Colonizing the Intestine of Jordanian Infants

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    Eman N. Abu-Khader

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is commonly found in the intestine of infants without causing any disease. This study investigated the most important epidemiological features of C. difficile strains colonizing intestine of Jordanian infants. A total of 287 fecal samples were collected from infants admitted to the Jordan University Hospital (JUH over the period of 2015. Samples were cultured for C. difficile and their growth was identified using microbiological culture and PCR. The overall C. difficile colonization rate among hospitalized and nonhospitalized infants was 37/287 (12.9%. Neonates were less colonized than other infants (8.7% verses 19.5%. Colonization of the infants with C. difficile toxigenic strains (TcdA and TcdB was observed in 54% of the isolates, whereas those colonized with nontoxigenic strains were 46% and only one isolate was positive for binary toxin. Breast feeding of infants is a significant factor associated with decreased colonization with C. difficile. All C. difficile strains were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole, while high resistance rate to ciprofloxacin (78.4% and less resistance rate to erythromycin (29.7% were detected among the isolates. The results showed that 40.5% of the isolates carried mutated gyrA and gyrB genes which have cross-resistance to ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin. This study represents useful epidemiological features about C. difficile colonizing intestine of infants living in a developing country.

  6. Metabolomics analysis identifies intestinal microbiota-derived biomarkers of colonization resistance in clindamycin-treated mice.

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    Robin L P Jump

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota protect the host against enteric pathogens through a defense mechanism termed colonization resistance. Antibiotics excreted into the intestinal tract may disrupt colonization resistance and alter normal metabolic functions of the microbiota. We used a mouse model to test the hypothesis that alterations in levels of bacterial metabolites in fecal specimens could provide useful biomarkers indicating disrupted or intact colonization resistance after antibiotic treatment.To assess in vivo colonization resistance, mice were challenged with oral vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus or Clostridium difficile spores at varying time points after treatment with the lincosamide antibiotic clindamycin. For concurrent groups of antibiotic-treated mice, stool samples were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess changes in the microbiota and using non-targeted metabolic profiling. To assess whether the findings were applicable to another antibiotic class that suppresses intestinal anaerobes, similar experiments were conducted with piperacillin/tazobactam.Colonization resistance began to recover within 5 days and was intact by 12 days after clindamycin treatment, coinciding with the recovery bacteria from the families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, both part of the phylum Firmicutes. Clindamycin treatment caused marked changes in metabolites present in fecal specimens. Of 484 compounds analyzed, 146 (30% exhibited a significant increase or decrease in concentration during clindamycin treatment followed by recovery to baseline that coincided with restoration of in vivo colonization resistance. Identified as potential biomarkers of colonization resistance, these compounds included intermediates in carbohydrate or protein metabolism that increased (pentitols, gamma-glutamyl amino acids and inositol metabolites or decreased (pentoses, dipeptides with clindamycin treatment. Piperacillin

  7. Klebsiella pneumoniae capsule expression is necessary for colonization of large intestines of streptomycin-treated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favre-Bonte, S.; Licht, Tine Rask; Forestier, C.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (K antigen) during colonization of the mouse large intestine was assessed with mild-type K. pneumoniae LM21 and its isogenic capsule-defective mutant. When bacterial strains were fed alone to mice, the capsulated bacteria persisted...... in the intestinal tract at levels of 10(8) CFU/g of feces while the capsule-defective strain colonized at low levels, 10(4) CFU/g of feces. In mixed-infection experiments, the mutant was rapidly outcompeted by the wild type. In situ hybridization on colonic sections revealed that bacterial cells of both strains...... were evenly distributed in the mucus layer at day 1 after infection, while at day 20 the wild type remained dispersed and the capsule-defective strain was seen in clusters in the mucus layer. These results suggest that capsular polysaccharide plays an important role in the gut colonization ability of K...

  8. Staphylococcus aureus MnhF mediates cholate efflux and facilitates survival under human colonic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Sannasiddappa, Thippeswamy; Hood, Graham; Hanson, Kevan; Costabile, Adele; Gibson, Glenn; Clarke, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to the innate defenses of the intestine is crucial for the survival and carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, a common colonizer of the human gut. Bile salts produced by the liver and secreted into the intestines are one such group of molecules with potent antimicrobial activity. The mechanisms by which S. aureus is able to resist such defenses in order to colonize and survive in the human gut are unknown. Here we show that mnhF confers resistance to bile salts, which can be abrogated...

  9. SELECTIVE INTESTINAL DECONTAMINATION FOR PREVENTION OF WOUND COLONIZATION IN SEVERELY BURNED PATIENTS - A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSON, WL; KLASEN, HJ; SAUER, EW; OLIEMAN, A

    In this study the effect of selective intestinal decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) on wound colonization was investigated. Ninety-one patients with at least 25 per cent total burned surface area (TBSA) were included in this study. All patients received oral polymyxin. In 63 patients oral

  10. Antimicrobial resistances do not affect colonization parameters of intestinal E. coli in a small piglet group

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    Schierack Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although antimicrobial resistance and persistence of resistant bacteria in humans and animals are major health concerns worldwide, the impact of antimicrobial resistance on bacterial intestinal colonization in healthy domestic animals has only been rarely studied. We carried out a retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibility status and the presence of resistance genes in intestinal commensal E. coli clones from clinically healthy pigs from one production unit with particular focus on effects of pheno- and/or genotypic resistance on different nominal and numerical intestinal colonization parameters. In addition, we compared the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes with the occurrence of virulence associated genes typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Results In general, up to 72.1% of all E. coli clones were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole or tetracycline with a variety of different resistance genes involved. There was no significant correlation between one of the nominal or numerical colonization parameters and the absence or presence of antimicrobial resistance properties or resistance genes. However, there were several statistically significant associations between the occurrence of single resistance genes and single virulence associated genes. Conclusion The demonstrated resistance to the tested antibiotics might not play a dominant role for an intestinal colonization success in pigs in the absence of antimicrobial drugs, or cross-selection of other colonization factors e.g. virulence associated genes might compensate "the cost of antibiotic resistance". Nevertheless, resistant strains are not outcompeted by susceptible bacteria in the porcine intestine. Trial Registration The study was approved by the local animal welfare committee of the "Landesamt für Arbeitsschutz, Gesundheitsschutz und technische Sicherheit" Berlin

  11. Development and function of secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs in the small intestine and the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Buettner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of the gut has evolved a number of specific lymphoid structures that contribute to homeostasis in the face of microbial colonization and food-derived antigenic challenge. These lymphoid organs encompass Peyer’s patches (PP in the small intestine and their colonic counterparts that develop in a programmed fashion before birth. In addition, the gut harbors a network of lymphoid tissues that is commonly designated as solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT. In contrast to PP, SILT develop strictly after birth and consist of a dynamic continuum of structures ranging from small cryptopatches (CP to large, mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF. Although the development of PP and SILT follow similar principles, such as an early clustering of lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi cells and the requirement for lymphotoxin beta (LTβ receptor-mediated signaling, the formation of CP and their further maturation into ILF is associated with additional intrinsic and environmental signals. Moreover, recent data also indicate that specific differences exist in the regulation of ILF formation between the small intestine and the colon. Importantly, intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans is associated with a strong expansion of the lymphoid network in the gut. Recent experiments in mice suggest that these structures, although they resemble large, mature ILF in appearance, may represent de novo-induced tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO. While so far it is not clear whether intestinal TLO contribute to the exacerbation of inflammatory pathology, it has been shown that ILF provide the critical microenvironment necessary for the induction of an effective host response upon infection with enteric bacterial pathogens. Regarding the importance of ILF for intestinal immunity, interfering with the development and maturation of these lymphoid tissues may offer novel means for manipulating the immune response during intestinal infection or inflammation.

  12. Development and Function of Secondary and Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in the Small Intestine and the Colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Manuela; Lochner, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The immune system of the gut has evolved a number of specific lymphoid structures that contribute to homeostasis in the face of microbial colonization and food-derived antigenic challenge. These lymphoid organs encompass Peyer’s patches (PP) in the small intestine and their colonic counterparts that develop in a programed fashion before birth. In addition, the gut harbors a network of lymphoid tissues that is commonly designated as solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT). In contrast to PP, SILT develop strictly after birth and consist of a dynamic continuum of structures ranging from small cryptopatches (CP) to large, mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF). Although the development of PP and SILT follow similar principles, such as an early clustering of lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the requirement for lymphotoxin beta (LTβ) receptor-mediated signaling, the formation of CP and their further maturation into ILF is associated with additional intrinsic and environmental signals. Moreover, recent data also indicate that specific differences exist in the regulation of ILF formation between the small intestine and the colon. Importantly, intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans is associated with a strong expansion of the lymphoid network in the gut. Recent experiments in mice suggest that these structures, although they resemble large, mature ILF in appearance, may represent de novo-induced tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO). While, so far, it is not clear whether intestinal TLO contribute to the exacerbation of inflammatory pathology, it has been shown that ILF provide the critical microenvironment necessary for the induction of an effective host response upon infection with enteric bacterial pathogens. Regarding the importance of ILF for intestinal immunity, interfering with the development and maturation of these lymphoid tissues may offer novel means for manipulating the immune response during intestinal infection or inflammation. PMID

  13. Development and Function of Secondary and Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in the Small Intestine and the Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Manuela; Lochner, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The immune system of the gut has evolved a number of specific lymphoid structures that contribute to homeostasis in the face of microbial colonization and food-derived antigenic challenge. These lymphoid organs encompass Peyer's patches (PP) in the small intestine and their colonic counterparts that develop in a programed fashion before birth. In addition, the gut harbors a network of lymphoid tissues that is commonly designated as solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT). In contrast to PP, SILT develop strictly after birth and consist of a dynamic continuum of structures ranging from small cryptopatches (CP) to large, mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF). Although the development of PP and SILT follow similar principles, such as an early clustering of lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the requirement for lymphotoxin beta (LTβ) receptor-mediated signaling, the formation of CP and their further maturation into ILF is associated with additional intrinsic and environmental signals. Moreover, recent data also indicate that specific differences exist in the regulation of ILF formation between the small intestine and the colon. Importantly, intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans is associated with a strong expansion of the lymphoid network in the gut. Recent experiments in mice suggest that these structures, although they resemble large, mature ILF in appearance, may represent de novo-induced tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO). While, so far, it is not clear whether intestinal TLO contribute to the exacerbation of inflammatory pathology, it has been shown that ILF provide the critical microenvironment necessary for the induction of an effective host response upon infection with enteric bacterial pathogens. Regarding the importance of ILF for intestinal immunity, interfering with the development and maturation of these lymphoid tissues may offer novel means for manipulating the immune response during intestinal infection or inflammation.

  14. Intestinal helminth infection drives carcinogenesis in colitis-associated colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pastille

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, strongly associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer development. Parasitic infections caused by helminths have been shown to modulate the host's immune response by releasing immunomodulatory molecules and inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs. This immunosuppressive state provoked in the host has been considered as a novel and promising approach to treat IBD patients and alleviate acute intestinal inflammation. On the contrary, specific parasite infections are well known to be directly linked to carcinogenesis. Whether a helminth infection interferes with the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC is not yet known. In the present study, we demonstrate that the treatment of mice with the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus at the onset of tumor progression in a mouse model of CAC does not alter tumor growth and distribution. In contrast, H. polygyrus infection in the early inflammatory phase of CAC strengthens the inflammatory response and significantly boosts tumor development. Here, H. polygyrus infection was accompanied by long-lasting alterations in the colonic immune cell compartment, with reduced frequencies of colonic CD8+ effector T cells. Moreover, H. polygyrus infection in the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS mediated colitis significantly exacerbates intestinal inflammation by amplifying the release of colonic IL-6 and CXCL1. Thus, our findings indicate that the therapeutic application of helminths during CAC might have tumor-promoting effects and therefore should be well-considered.

  15. Colonic arteriovenous malformation in a child misinterpreted as an idiopathic colonic varicosis on angiography: remarks on current classification of childhood intestinal vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defreyne, L.; Meersschaut, V.; Damme, S. van; Praet, M.; Berrevoet, F.; Robberecht, E.

    2003-01-01

    A case of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a child caused by an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the colon is presented. On diagnostic angiography, the lesion was misinterpretated as an idiopathic colonic varicosis because none of the characteristic features of an AVM were present. The role of angiography and shortcomings in nomenclature and classification of intestinal vascular anomalies in childhood are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Multicopy Single-Stranded DNA Directs Intestinal Colonization of Enteric Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfenbein, Johanna R.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Ansong, Charles; Brewer, Heather M.; Bogomolnaya, Lydia; Adams, L. Garry; McClelland, Michael; Adkins, Joshua N.; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L.; Fang, Ferric C.

    2015-09-14

    Multicopy single-stranded DNAs (msDNAs) are hybrid RNA-DNA molecules encoded on retroelements called retrons and produced by the action of retron reverse transcriptases. Retrons are widespread in bacteria but the natural function of msDNA has remained elusive despite 30 years of study. The major roadblock to elucidation of the function of these unique molecules has been the lack of any identifiable phenotypes for mutants unable to make msDNA. We report that msDNA of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium is necessary for colonization of the intestine. Similarly, we observed a defect in intestinal persistence in an enteropathogenic E. coli mutant lacking its retron reverse transcriptase. Under anaerobic conditions in the absence of msDNA, proteins of central anaerobic metabolism needed for Salmonella colonization of the intestine are dysregulated. We show that the msDNA-deficient mutant can utilize nitrate but not other alternate electron acceptors in anaerobic conditions. Consistent with the availability of nitrate in the inflamed gut, a neutrophilic inflammatory response partially rescued the ability of a mutant lacking msDNA to colonize the intestine. These findings together indicate that the mechanistic basis of msDNA function during Salmonella colonization of the intestine is proper production of proteins needed for anaerobic metabolism. We further conclude that a natural function of msDNA is to regulate protein abundance, the first attributable function for any msDNA. Our data provide novel insight into the function of this mysterious molecule that likely represents a new class of regulatory molecules.

  17. Synchronous perforation of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the small intestine and colon: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baidoun Fadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the small and large bowel presenting as a perforated viscus entity with peritonitis is extremely rare. A thorough literature review did not reveal any cases where primary lymphoma of the jejunum presented with perforation and peritonitis synchronously with primary lymphoma of the descending colon. Case presentation This report concerns a 64-year-old Caucasian woman admitted with severe abdominal pain and fever. An emergency laparotomy revealed a large mass with perforation in the proximal jejunum with intense mesenteric thickening and lymphadenopathy. The descending colon was edematous and covered with fibrinous exudate. Histopathological examination of the resected segment of jejunum revealed a T cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. On post-operative day 10, a computed tomography scan of our patient's abdomen and pelvis showed leakage of contrast into the pelvis. Re-exploration revealed perforation of the descending colon. The histopathology of the resected colon also showed T cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Her post-operative course was complicated by acute renal and respiratory failure. The patient died on post-operative day 21. Conclusions Lymphoma of the small intestine has been reported to have a poor prognosis. The synchronous occurrence of lesions in the small intestine or colon is unusual, and impacts the prognosis adversely. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to improve the prognosis of bowel perforation in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  18. Dynamic alteration of the colonic microbiota in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

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    Fan Wang

    Full Text Available Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R plays an important role in critical illnesses. Gut flora participate in the pathogenesis of the injury. This study is aimed at unraveling colonic microbiota alteration pattern and identifying specific bacterial species that differ significantly as well as observing colonic epithelium change in the same injury model during the reperfusion time course.Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE was used to monitor the colonic microbiota of control rats and experimental rats that underwent 0.5 hour ischemia and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 72 hours following reperfusion respectively. The microbiota similarity, bacterial diversity and species that characterized the dysbiosis were estimated based on the DGGE profiles using a combination of statistical approaches. The interested bacterial species in the gel were cut and sequenced and were subsequently quantified and confirmed with real-time PCR. Meanwhile, the epithelial barrier was checked by microscopy and D-lactate analysis. Colonic flora changed early and differed significantly at 6 hours after reperfusion and then started to recover. The shifts were characterized by the increase of Escherichia coli and Prevotella oralis, and Lactobacilli proliferation together with epithelia healing.This study shows for the first time that intestinal ischemia-reperfusion results in colonic flora dysbiosis that follows epithelia damage, and identifies the bacterial species that contribute most.

  19. Antioxidative effects in vivo and colonization of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 in the murine intestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Xing, Zhuqing; Hu, Wei; Li, Chao; Wang, Jinju; Wang, Yanping

    2016-08-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 was isolated from traditional Chinese Tibet kefir grains, which possess several excellent properties and functions. We previously demonstrated the antioxidant activities of this bacterium in vitro. However, the maintenance and survival of L. plantarum MA2 inside the murine intestinal tract, where it exerts its probiotic properties, and whether its effects are elicited directly on the host remain unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the mechanisms of L. plantarum MA2 in aging mice following D-galactose administration. The levels of malondialdehyde decreased significantly in the L. plantarum MA2 groups after oral ingestion compared to the D-galactose model group, and total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities increased significantly in the serum and liver. We combined fluorescein isothiocyanate labeling and green fluorescent protein expression to dynamically monitor the colonization and distribution of L. plantarum MA2 in the murine intestinal tract. The results indicated that L. plantarum MA2 was detected in the ileum, colon, and feces after single and continuous oral administration at day 21 and was maintained at 10(4)-10(5) CFU/g. These results suggest that L. plantarum MA2 colonizes and survives in the murine intestinal tract to exert its antioxidative effects.

  20. Kynurenic acid inhibits intestinal hypermotility and xanthine oxidase activity during experimental colon obstruction in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszaki, J; Palásthy, Z; Erczes, D; Rácz, A; Torday, C; Varga, G; Vécsei, L; Boros, M

    2008-01-01

    Kynurenic acid (KynA), an endogenous antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors, protects the central nervous system in excitotoxic neurological diseases. We hypothesized that the inhibition of enteric glutamate receptors by KynA may influence dysmotility in the gastrointestinal tract. Group 1 of healthy dogs served as the sham-operated control, in group 2, the animals were treated with KynA, while in groups 3 and 4 mechanical colon obstruction was maintained for 7 h. Group 4 was treated with KynA at the onset of ileus. Hemodynamics and motility changes were monitored, and the activities of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were determined from tissue samples. Colon obstruction induced a hyperdynamic circulatory reaction, significantly elevated the motility index and increased the mucosal leucocyte accumulation and the XOR activity. The KynA treatment augmented the tone of the colon, permanently decreased the motility index of the giant colonic contractions and reduced the increases in XOR and MPO activities. These effects were concomitant with the in vitro inhibition of XOR activity. In conclusion, KynA antagonizes the obstruction-induced motility responses and XOR activation in the colon. Inhibition of enteric NMDA receptors may provide an option to influence intestinal hypermotility and inflammatory changes.

  1. Lactobacillus frumenti Facilitates Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function Maintenance in Early-Weaned Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Chen, Lingli; Zheng, Wenyong; Shi, Min; Liu, Liu; Xie, Chunlin; Wang, Xinkai; Niu, Yaorong; Hou, Qiliang; Xu, Xiaofan; Xu, Baoyang; Tang, Yimei; Zhou, Shuyi; Yan, Yiqin; Yang, Tao; Ma, Libao; Yan, Xianghua

    2018-01-01

    Increased intestinal epithelial barrier function damages caused by early weaning stress have adverse effects on swine health and feed utilization efficiency. Probiotics have emerged as the promising antibiotic alternatives used for intestinal barrier function damage prevention. Our previous data showed that Lactobacillus frumenti was identified as a predominant Lactobacillus in the intestinal microbiota of weaned piglets. However, whether the intestinal epithelial barrier function in piglets was regulated by L. frumenti is still unclear. Here, piglets received a PBS vehicle or PBS suspension (2 ml, 108 CFU/ml) containing the L. frumenti by oral gavage once a day during the period of 6–20 days of age prior to early weaning. Our data demonstrated that oral administration of L. frumenti significantly improved the intestinal mucosal integrity and decreased the serum endotoxin and D-lactic acid levels in early-weaned piglets (26 days of age). The intestinal tight junction proteins (including ZO-1, Occludin, and Claudin-1) were significantly up-regulated by L. frumenti administration. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels were significantly increased by L. frumenti administration. Furthermore, our data revealed that oral administration of L. frumenti significantly increased the relative abundances of health-promoting microbes (including L. frumenti, Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, Parabacteroides distasonis, and Kazachstania telluris) and decreased the relative abundances of opportunistic pathogens (including Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Candida humilis). Functional alteration of the intestinal bacterial community by L. frumenti administration was characterized by the significantly increased fatty acids and protein metabolism and decreased diseases-associated metabolic pathways. These findings suggest that L. frumenti facilitates intestinal epithelial barrier function maintenance

  2. Abdominal Hernias, Giant Colon Diverticulum, GIST, Intestinal Pneumatosis, Colon Ischemia, Cold Intussusception, Gallstone Ileus, and Foreign Bodies: Our Experience and Literature Review of Incidental Gastrointestinal MDCT Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Di Grezia, G.; Gatta, G.; Rella, R.; Donatello, D.; Falco, G.; Grassi, R.; Grassi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Incidental gastrointestinal findings are commonly detected on MDCT exams performed for various medical indications. This review describes the radiological MDCT spectrum of appearances already present in the past literature and in today’s experience of several gastrointestinal acute conditions such as abdominal hernia, giant colon diverticulum, GIST, intestinal pneumatosis, colon ischemia, cold intussusception, gallstone ileus, and foreign bodies which can require medical and surgical interven...

  3. Cell surface glycopeptides from human intestinal epithelial cell lines derived from normal colon and colon adenocarcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youakim, A.; Herscovics, A.

    1985-01-01

    The cell surface glycopeptides from an epithelial cell line (CCL 239) derived from normal human colon were compared with those from three cell lines (HCT-8R, HCT-15, and CaCo-2) derived independently from human colonic adenocarcinomas. Cells were incubated with D-[2- 3 H]mannose or L-[5,6- 3 H]fucose for 24 h and treated with trypsin to release cell surface components which were then digested exhaustively with Pronase and fractionated on Bio-Gel P-6 before and after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. The most noticeable difference between the labeled glycopeptides from the tumor and CCL 239 cells was the presence in the former of an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-resistant high molecular weight glycopeptide fraction which was eluted in the void volume of Bio-Gel P-6. This fraction was obtained with both labeled mannose and fucose as precursors. However, acid hydrolysis of this fraction obtained after incubation with [2- 3 H]mannose revealed that as much as 60-90% of the radioactivity was recovered as fucose. Analysis of the total glycopeptides (cell surface and cell pellet) obtained after incubation with [2- 3 H]mannose showed that from 40-45% of the radioactivity in the tumor cells and less than 10% of the radioactivity in the CCL 239 cells was recovered as fucose. After incubation of the HCT-8R cells with D-[1,6- 3 H]glucosamine and L-[1- 14 C]fucose, strong acid hydrolysis of the labeled glycopeptide fraction excluded from Bio-Gel P-6 produced 3 H-labeled N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine

  4. The small intestine and colon: Scintigraphic quantitation of motility in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, M.A. (Saint Mark' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Medical Physiology Unit)

    1992-10-01

    Radioisotopes allow accurate quantitation of the pattern and effectiveness of the transit of chyme through the small and large intestines. Abnormalities of small bowel transit can be demonstrated in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome, and patients with chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction due to either a visceral myopathy or neuropathy. In the colon, radioisotopic studies of transit have demonstrated the site of delayed transit in some severely constipated patients. In patients with these disorders of transit, functional studies may influence the choice of medical or surgical therapy although there are few prospective studies which have established their worth in this context. Radioisotope studies can also be utilised to study the effectiveness of delivery of drugs to the small and large bowel, and to study the adequacy of rectal evacuation in patients with a defaecatory disturbance. The low radiation dose and possibility of frequent observations make radioisotope studies valuable for clinical and research studies in functional gastrointestinal disorders. (orig.).

  5. Intestinal preparation for colon enema with fosfo-soda fleet versus the conventional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchioli Caldazza, A.; Celi, G.; De Franco, A.; Parrella, A.; Minordi, L.M.; Marano, P.

    1999-01-01

    The authors evaluate the possible optimization of a well-tolerated and versatile method of intestinal preparation able to adequately free the lumen and consequently improve diagnostic results with a lower risk of prolonged hospital stay for incorrectly prepared patients. They examined 40 patients, namely 20 men and 20 women referred to the Institute of radiology of the 'Sacro Cuore' Catholic University of Rome (Italy), Gastrointestinal tract unit, to undergo double contrast colonic enema. The statistical analysis of all data was performed with Wilcoxon test. Intestinal preparation with fosfo-soda fleet appeared to be definitely better than the conventional method relative to tolerance, while providing similarly satisfactory data relative to the other parameters [it

  6. The small intestine and colon: Scintigraphic quantitation of motility in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamm, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Radioisotopes allow accurate quantitation of the pattern and effectiveness of the transit of chyme through the small and large intestines. Abnormalities of small bowel transit can be demonstrated in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome, and patients with chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction due to either a visceral myopathy or neuropathy. In the colon, radioisotopic studies of transit have demonstrated the site of delayed transit in some severely constipated patients. In patients with these disorders of transit, functional studies may influence the choice of medical or surgical therapy although there are few prospective studies which have established their worth in this context. Radioisotope studies can also be utilised to study the effectiveness of delivery of drugs to the small and large bowel, and to study the adequacy of rectal evacuation in patients with a defaecatory disturbance. The low radiation dose and possibility of frequent observations make radioisotope studies valuable for clinical and research studies in functional gastrointestinal disorders. (orig.)

  7. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase in the colonic mucosa of children with inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Kriszta; Vannay, Ádám; Szebeni, Beáta; Bánki, Nóra Fanni; Sziksz, Erna; Cseh, Áron; Győrffy, Hajnalka; Lakatos, Péter László; Papp, Mária; Arató, András; Veres, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate intestinal alkaline phosphatase (iAP) in the intestinal mucosa of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: Colonic biopsy samples were taken from 15 newly diagnosed IBD patients and from 10 healthy controls. In IBD patients, specimens were obtained both from inflamed and non-inflamed areas. The iAP mRNA and protein expression was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis, respectively. Tissue localization of iAP and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 was investigated by immunofluorescent staining. RESULTS: The iAP protein level in the inflamed mucosa of children with Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) was significantly decreased when compared with controls (both P < 0.05). Similarly, we found a significantly decreased level of iAP protein in the inflamed mucosa in CD compared with non-inflamed mucosa in CD (P < 0.05). In addition, the iAP protein level in inflamed colonic mucosa in patients with UC was decreased compared with non-inflamed mucosa in patients with CD (P < 0.05). iAP protein levels in the non-inflamed mucosa of patients with CD were similar to controls. iAP mRNA expression in inflamed colonic mucosa of children with CD and UC was not significantly different from that in non-inflamed colonic mucosa with CD. Expression of iAP mRNA in patients with non-inflamed mucosa and in controls were similar. Co-localization of iAP with TLR4 showed intense staining with a dotted-like pattern. iAP was present in the inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa of patients with CD, UC, and in control biopsy specimens, irrespective of whether it was present in the terminal ileum or in the colon. However, the fluorescent signal of TLR4 was more pronounced in the colon compared with the terminal ileum in all groups studied. CONCLUSION: Lower than normal iAP protein levels in inflamed mucosa of IBD patients may indicate a role for iAP in inflammatory lesions in IBD. Based on our results

  8. Diaphragmatic rupture with right colon and small intestine herniation after blunt trauma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muroni Mirko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias are an unusual presentation of trauma, and are observed in about 10% of diaphragmatic injuries. The diagnosis is often missed because of non-specific clinical signs, and the absence of additional intra-abdominal and thoracic injuries. Case presentation We report a case of a 59-year-old Italian man hospitalized for abdominal pain and vomiting. His medical history included a blunt trauma seven years previously. A chest X-ray showed right diaphragm elevation, and computed tomography revealed that the greater omentum, a portion of the colon and the small intestine had been transposed in the hemithorax through a diaphragm rupture. The patient underwent laparotomy, at which time the colon and small intestine were reduced back into the abdomen and the diaphragm was repaired. Conclusions This was a unusual case of traumatic right-sided diaphragmatic hernia. Diaphragmatic ruptures may be revealed many years after the initial trauma. The suspicion of diaphragmatic rupture in a patient with multiple traumas contributes to early diagnosis. Surgical repair remains the only curative treatment for diaphragmatic hernias. Prosthetic patches may be a good solution when the diaphragmatic defect is severe and too large for primary closure, whereas primary repair remains the gold standard for the closure of small to moderate sized diaphragmatic defects.

  9. The SIRT1 deacetylase suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis and colon cancer growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Firestein

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous longevity genes have been discovered in model organisms and altering their function results in prolonged lifespan. In mammals, some have speculated that any health benefits derived from manipulating these same pathways might be offset by increased cancer risk on account of their propensity to boost cell survival. The Sir2/SIRT1 family of NAD(+-dependent deacetylases is proposed to underlie the health benefits of calorie restriction (CR, a diet that broadly suppresses cancer in mammals. Here we show that CR induces a two-fold increase SIRT1 expression in the intestine of rodents and that ectopic induction of SIRT1 in a beta-catenin-driven mouse model of colon cancer significantly reduces tumor formation, proliferation, and animal morbidity in the absence of CR. We show that SIRT1 deacetylates beta-catenin and suppresses its ability to activate transcription and drive cell proliferation. Moreover, SIRT1 promotes cytoplasmic localization of the otherwise nuclear-localized oncogenic form of beta-catenin. Consistent with this, a significant inverse correlation was found between the presence of nuclear SIRT1 and the oncogenic form of beta-catenin in 81 human colon tumor specimens analyzed. Taken together, these observations show that SIRT1 suppresses intestinal tumor formation in vivo and raise the prospect that therapies targeting SIRT1 may be of clinical use in beta-catenin-driven malignancies.

  10. Intestinal microbiota shifts towards elevated commensal Escherichia coli loads abrogate colonization resistance against Campylobacter jejuni in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Maxie Haag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne enterocolitis in humans worldwide. The understanding of immunopathology underlying human campylobacteriosis is hampered by the fact that mice display strong colonization resistance against the pathogen due to their host specific gut microbiota composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since the microbiota composition changes significantly during intestinal inflammation we dissected factors contributing to colonization resistance against C. jejuni in murine ileitis, colitis and in infant mice. In contrast to healthy animals C. jejuni could stably colonize mice suffering from intestinal inflammation. Strikingly, in mice with Toxoplasma gondii-induced acute ileitis, C. jejuni disseminated to mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood. In infant mice C. jejuni infection induced enterocolitis. Mice suffering from intestinal inflammation and C. jejuni susceptible infant mice displayed characteristical microbiota shifts dominated by increased numbers of commensal Escherichia coli. To further dissect the pivotal role of those distinct microbiota shifts in abrogating colonization resistance, we investigated C. jejuni infection in healthy adult mice in which the microbiota was artificially modified by feeding live commensal E. coli. Strikingly, in animals harboring supra-physiological intestinal E. coli loads, colonization resistance was significantly diminished and C. jejuni infection induced enterocolitis mimicking key features of human campylobacteriosis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Murine colonization resistance against C. jejuni is abrogated by changes in the microbiota composition towards elevated E. coli loads during intestinal inflammation as well as in infant mice. Intestinal inflammation and microbiota shifts thus represent potential risk factors for C. jejuni infection. Corresponding interplays between C. jejuni and microbiota might

  11. Evaluation of the intestinal colonization by microencapsulated probiotic bacteria in comparison with the same uncoated strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Piano, Mario; Carmagnola, Stefania; Andorno, Silvano; Pagliarulo, Michela; Tari, Roberto; Mogna, Luca; Strozzi, Gian Paolo; Sforza, Filomena; Capurso, Lucio

    2010-09-01

    Beneficial findings concerning probiotics are increasing day by day. However, one of the most important parameter which affects the probiotic activity of a microorganism is its survival during the gastroduodenal transit. Some microencapsulation techniques could be applied to bacterial cells to improve this parameter. A comparison between the intestinal colonization by microencapsulated bacteria and the same not microencapsulated strains has been conducted in a double blind, randomized, cross-over study. The study (April to July 2005) involved 44 healthy volunteers. In particular, participants were divided into 2 groups: group A (21 participants) received a mix of probiotic strains Lactobacillus plantarum LP01 (LMG P-21021) and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 (DSM 16604) in an uncoated form, group B (23 participants) was given the same strains microencapsulated with a gastroresistant material. The not microencapsulated strains were administered at 5 x 10(9) colony forming units/strain/d for 21 days, whereas the microencapsulated bacteria were given at 1 x 10(9) colony forming units/strain/d for 21 days. At the end of the first period of treatment with probiotics a 3 weeks washout phase has been included in the study protocol. At the end of the washout period the groups were crossed: in detail, group A had the microencapsulated and group B the uncoated bacteria. The administered amounts of each strain were the same as the first treatment. The quantitative evaluation of intestinal colonization by strains microencapsulated or not microencapsulated was made by fecal samples examination at the beginning of the clinical trial, after 10 and 21 days of each treatment period. In particular, fecal heterofermentative Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria have been counted. A statistically significant increase in the fecal amounts of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria was recorded in both groups at the end of each treatment compared with d0 or d42 (Pstrains to colonize the human gut, either

  12. Protein-losing Enteropathy Caused by Intestinal or Colonic Lymphangiectasia Complicated by Sporadic Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Koichi; Yoshimi, Kaku; Shibuya, Tomoyoshi; Hayashi, Takuo; Mitani, Keiko; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Ichikawa, Masako; Asao, Tetsuhiko; Suzuki, Yohei; Sato, Tadashi; Shiota, Satomi; Kodama, Yuzo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Seyama, Kuniaki

    2017-01-01

    This report describes two patients with sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis complicated by protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). Imaging studies indicated retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyomas and abnormalities of the adjacent digestive tract. Endoscopic mucosal biopsy revealed colonic lymphangiectasia in one patient; whereas the site in the other patient was intestinal. Treatment with sirolimus led to the complete resolution of PLE within several months; additionally, marked shrinkage was observed in the lymphangioleiomyomas of both cases. These findings suggest that colonic or intestinal lymphatic congestion due to neighboring lymphangioleiomyomas was the mechanism for the development of PLE. At the time of writing this report, the beneficial effect of sirolimus has lasted for more than 3 years.

  13. Immunization of Mice with Lactobacillus casei Expressing a Beta-Intimin Fragment Reduces Intestinal Colonization by Citrobacter rodentium ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, P. C. D.; da Silva, J. B.; Piazza, R. M. F.; Eckmann, L.; Ho, P. L.; Oliveira, M. L. S.

    2011-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a common cause of diarrhea in children from developing countries. Intimate adhesion of the bacteria to intestinal cells occurs via binding of the adhesin intimin to the TIR receptor exposed on cell surfaces. Here, Lactobacillus casei expressing a fragment of β-intimin (L. casei-Intcv) was tested as mucosal vaccines in mice against intestinal colonization with the murine pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Oral or sublingual immunization of C57BL/6 mice ...

  14. Colonization and Gut Flora Modulation of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 in the Intestinal Tract of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhuqing; Tang, Wei; Yang, Ying; Geng, Weitao; Rehman, Rizwan Ur; Wang, Yanping

    2018-06-01

    This study evaluated the distribution and colonization of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 and determined its capacity to modulate the gut microbiota in an animal model. Based on (1) fluorescence imaging, (2) flow cytometry, and (3) qPCR, we found that ZW3 successfully adhered to mouse mucous tissue and colonized the mouse ileum. Gut microbiota profiling was performed using high-throughput sequencing. After continuous intubation with ZW3 for 1 week, the proportion of Lachnospiraceae, a family of butyric acid-producing bacteria, increased at day 7 (11.9% at day 0 versus 18.4% at day 7). In addition, Lactobacillaceae showed an increasing trend (4% at day 0 versus 13% at day 7) that was accompanied by an observable decline in the Rikenellaceae family (1.58% at day 7, 0.14% at day 14, and 0.75% at day 21) in the tested mouse. The results demonstrate that ZW3 could successfully adhere to and colonize the mouse gut throughout the course of the experiment. The profiling analysis of the gut microbiota also provided evidence supporting the function of ZW3 in improving the intestinal flora of mice.

  15. A hypermorphic epithelial β-catenin mutation facilitates intestinal tumorigenesis in mice in response to compounding WNT-pathway mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Buchert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway occurs in the vast majority of colorectal cancers. However, the outcome of the disease varies markedly from individual to individual, even within the same tumor stage. This heterogeneity is governed to a great extent by the genetic make-up of individual tumors and the combination of oncogenic mutations. In order to express throughout the intestinal epithelium a degradation-resistant β-catenin (Ctnnb1, which lacks the first 131 amino acids, we inserted an epitope-tagged ΔN(1-131-β-catenin-encoding cDNA as a knock-in transgene into the endogenous gpA33 gene locus in mice. The resulting gpA33ΔN-Bcat mice showed an increase in the constitutive Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation that shifts the cell fate towards the Paneth cell lineage in pre-malignant intestinal epithelium. Furthermore, 19% of all heterozygous and 37% of all homozygous gpA33ΔN-Bcat mice spontaneously developed aberrant crypt foci and adenomatous polyps, at frequencies and latencies akin to those observed in sporadic colon cancer in humans. Consistent with this, the Wnt target genes, MMP7  and Tenascin-C, which are most highly expressed in benign human adenomas and early tumor stages, were upregulated in pre-malignant tissue of gpA33ΔN-Bcat mice, but those Wnt target genes associated with excessive proliferation (i.e. Cdnn1, myc were not. We also detected diminished expression of membrane-associated α-catenin and increased intestinal permeability in gpA33ΔN-Bcat mice in challenge conditions, providing a potential explanation for the observed mild chronic intestinal inflammation and increased susceptibility to azoxymethane and mutant Apc-dependent tumorigenesis. Collectively, our data indicate that epithelial expression of ΔN(1-131-β-catenin in the intestine creates an inflammatory microenvironment and co-operates with other mutations in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway to facilitate and promote tumorigenesis.

  16. Antibiotic selection of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 in a mouse intestinal colonization model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Frederik Boetius; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The ability of different antibiotics to select for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli remains a topic of discussion. In a mouse intestinal colonization model, we evaluated the selective abilities of nine common antimicrobials (cefotaxime, cefuroxime, dicloxacillin...... day, antibiotic treatment was initiated and given subcutaneously once a day for three consecutive days. CFU of E. coli ST131, Bacteroides, and Gram-positive aerobic bacteria in fecal samples were studied, with intervals, until day 8. Bacteroides was used as an indicator organism for impact on the Gram......, clindamycin, penicillin, ampicillin, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and amdinocillin) against a CTX-M-15-producing E. coli sequence type 131 (ST131) isolate with a fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype. Mice (8 per group) were orogastrically administered 0.25 ml saline with 10(8) CFU/ml E. coli ST131. On that same...

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus infection facilitates acute colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vrankrijker, Angélica M M; Wolfs, Tom F W; Ciofu, Oana

    2009-01-01

    virus infections in facilitating colonization and infection with P. aeruginosa. A study was undertaken to determine whether respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection could facilitate the initiation of an acute infection with P. aeruginosa in vivo. Balb/c mice were infected intranasally with P......Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals and patients ventilated mechanically and is the major pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis, in which it causes chronic infections. Epidemiological, in vitro and animal data suggest a role for respiratory....... These results suggest that RSV can facilitate the initiation of acute P. aeruginosa infection without the RSV infection being clinically apparent. This could have implications for treatment strategies to prevent opportunistic P. aeruginosa lung infection....

  18. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on growth performance and intestinal colonization with Campylobacter jejuni in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Engberg, Ricarda Greuel

    2016-01-01

    samples were taken. Body weight and feed consumption of broilers were registered on days 13, 22 and 35. On day 35, litter dry matter (DM) was measured and the condition of the foot pads was evaluated. There was no significant effect of CKMS on the colonization of C. jejuni. Body weight of the broilers...... with the inclusion of CKMS on broiler diets as a result of a higher DM content in the litter material. It is concluded that CKMS did not influence intestinal Campylobacter colonization, but improved the foot pad health of broilers.......An infection trial and a production trial over 35 days were conducted in parallel to study the influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on the intestinal Campylobacter jejuni colonization and broiler performance, respectively. The CKMS was used at dietary inclusion levels of 15...

  19. Plasma hormones facilitated the hypermotility of the colon in a chronic stress rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbai Liang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between brain-gut peptides, gastrointestinal hormones and altered motility in a rat model of repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS, which mimics the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted daily to 1-h of water avoidance stress (WAS or sham WAS (SWAS for 10 consecutive days. Plasma hormones were determined using Enzyme Immunoassay Kits. Proximal colonic smooth muscle (PCSM contractions were studied in an organ bath system. PCSM cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion and IKv and IBKca were recorded by the patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: The number of fecal pellets during 1 h of acute restraint stress and the plasma hormones levels of substance P (SP, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, motilin (MTL, and cholecystokinin (CCK in WAS rats were significantly increased compared with SWAS rats, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH in WAS rats were not significantly changed and peptide YY (PYY in WAS rats was significantly decreased. Likewise, the amplitudes of spontaneous contractions of PCSM in WAS rats were significantly increased comparing with SWAS rats. The plasma of WAS rats (100 µl decreased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of controls. The IKv and IBKCa of PCSMs were significantly decreased in WAS rats compared with SWAS rats and the plasma of WAS rats (100 µl increased the amplitude of IKv and IBKCa in normal rats. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that WAS leads to changes of plasma hormones levels and to disordered myogenic colonic motility in the short term, but that the colon rapidly establishes a new equilibrium to maintain the normal baseline functioning.

  20. The influence of maternal vaginal flora on the intestinal colonization in newborns and 3-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Iwona; Olejek, Anita; Stencel-Gabriel, Krystyna; Wielgoś, Miroslaw

    2018-06-01

    The role of maternal vaginal bacteria on the colonization of neonatal gut is still a matter of discussion. Our aim was to estimate the role of maternal vaginal flora on the development of intestinal flora in neonates and 3-month-old infants. Seventy-nine maternal-neonatal pairs were included in the study. Vaginal swabs were taken before the rupture of membranes after admission to the delivery ward. First neonatal stool (meconium) and stool at 3-month-old infants were collected and cultured. All samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium (including C. difficile), Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Candida. Maternal vagina was colonized mainly by streptococci (67%) followed by lactobacilli (58%) and Candida spp. (39%). Vaginal streptococci influenced the intestinal colonization in infants with staphylococci, C. difficile, and candida. Vaginal lactobacilli influenced colonization with C. difficile, and Candida. Vaginal flora is a potent factor influencing the development of bacterial flora in the neonatal and infantile gut. The extension of the observation period until 3 months of life allow to discover the potential changes in the intestinal flora of children.

  1. High-protein diet differently modifies intestinal goblet cell characteristics and mucosal cytokine expression in ileum and colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Annaïg; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Liu, Xinxin; Descatoire, Véronique; Desclée de Maredsous, Caroline; Davila, Anne-Marie; Walker, Francine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that high-protein (HP) diet ingestion causes marked changes in the luminal environment of the colonic epithelium. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of such modifications on small intestinal and colonic mucosa, two segments with different transit time and physiological functions. Rats were fed with either normal protein (NP; 14% protein) or HP (53% protein) isocaloric diet for 2 weeks, and parameters related to intestinal mucous-secreting cells and to several innate/adaptive immune characteristics (myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine and epithelial TLR expression, proportion of immune cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues) were measured in the ileum and colon. In ileum from HP animals, we observed hyperplasia of mucus-producing cells concomitant with an increased expression of Muc2 at both gene and protein levels, reduction of mucosal myeloperoxidase activity, down-regulation of Tlr4 gene expression in enterocytes and down-regulation of mucosal Th cytokines associated with CD4+ lymphocyte reduction in mesenteric lymph nodes. These changes coincided with an increased amount of acetate in the ileal luminal content. In colon, HP diet ingestion resulted in a lower number of goblet cells at the epithelial surface but increased goblet cell number in colonic crypts together with an increased Muc3 and a slight reduction of Il-6 gene expression. Our data suggest that HP diet modifies the goblet cell distribution in colon and, in ileum, increases goblet cell activity and decreases parameters related to basal gut inflammatory status. The impact of HP diet on intestinal mucosa in terms of beneficial or deleterious effects is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lack of efficacy of blueberry in nutritional prevention of azoxymethane-initiated cancers of rat small intestine and colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xianli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberries may lower relative risk for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Previous work indicated an inhibitory effect of consumed blueberry (BB on formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF in colons of male Fisher F344 rats (inbred strain. However, effects of BB on colon tumors and in both genders are unknown. Methods We examined efficacy of BB in inhibition of azoxymethane (AOM-induced colon ACF and intestine tumors in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (outbred strain. Pregnant rats were fed a diet with or without 10% BB powder; progeny were weaned to the same diet as their dam and received AOM as young adults. Results Male and female rats on control diet had similar numbers of ACF at 6 weeks after AOM administration. BB increased (P P P > 0.05 to reduce overall gastrointestinal tract tumor incidence in males, however, tumor incidence in females was unaffected (P > 0.1 by BB. There was a tendency (0.1 > P > 0.05 for fewer adenocarcinomas (relative to total of adenomatous polyps plus adenocarcinomas in colons of female than male tumor-bearing rats; in small intestine, this gender difference was significant (P P Conclusion Results did not indicate robust cancer-preventive effects of BB. Blueberry influenced ACF occurrence in distal colon and tumor progression in duodenum, in gender-specific fashion. Data indicate the potential for slowing tumor progression (adenomatous polyp to adenocarcinoma by BB.

  3. Bloom and bust: intestinal microbiota dynamics in response to hospital exposures and Clostridium difficile colonization or infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Caroline; Miller, Mark A; Edens, Thaddeus J; Mehrotra, Sudeep; Dewar, Ken; Manges, Amee R

    2016-03-14

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading infectious cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Hospitalized patients are at increased risk of developing CDI because they are exposed to C. difficile spores through contact with the hospital environment and often receive antibiotics and other medications that can disrupt the integrity of the indigenous intestinal microbiota and impair colonization resistance. Using whole metagenome shotgun sequencing, we examined the diversity and composition of the fecal microbiota in a prospective cohort study of 98 hospitalized patients. Four patients had asymptomatic C. difficile colonization, and four patients developed CDI. We observed dramatic shifts in the structure of the gut microbiota during hospitalization. In contrast to CDI cases, asymptomatic patients exhibited elevated relative abundance of potentially protective bacterial taxa in their gut at the onset of C. difficile colonization. Use of laxatives was associated with significant reductions in the relative abundance of Clostridium and Eubacterium; species within these genera have previously been shown to enhance resistance to CDI via the production of secondary bile acids. Cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone exposure decreased the frequency of Clostridiales Family XI Incertae Sedis, a bacterial family that has been previously associated with decreased CDI risk. This study underscores the detrimental impact of antibiotics as well as other medications, particularly laxatives, on the intestinal microbiota and suggests that co-colonization with key bacterial taxa may prevent C. difficile overgrowth or the transition from asymptomatic C. difficile colonization to CDI.

  4. Mono-colonization with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects the intestinal metabolome as compared to germ-free mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper

    Every single species of the gut microbiota produce low-molecular-weight compounds that are absorbed constantly from the intestinal lumen and carried to systemic circulation where they play a direct role in health and disease. However, very few studies address the host metabolome as a function...... of colonizing bacteria. In this study the effect of the Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM strain was investigated by comparing the metabolome of mono-colonized and germ-free mice in several compartments. By liquid-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, we were able to show that the metabolome differed...

  5. Antibiotic suppression of intestinal microbiota reduces heme-induced lipoperoxidation associated with colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, O C B; Lin, C; Naud, N; Tache, S; Raymond-Letron, I; Corpet, D E; Pierre, F H

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that heme iron from red meat is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. In carcinogen-induced-rats, a heme iron-rich diet increases the number of precancerous lesions and raises associated fecal biomarkers. Heme-induced lipoperoxidation measured by fecal thiobarbituric acid reagents (TBARs) could explain the promotion of colon carcinogenesis by heme. Using a factorial design we studied if microbiota could be involved in heme-induced carcinogenesis, by modulating peroxidation. Rats treated or not with an antibiotic cocktail were given a control or a hemoglobin-diet. Fecal bacteria were counted on agar and TBARs concentration assayed in fecal water. The suppression of microbiota by antibiotics was associated with a reduction of crypt height and proliferation and with a cecum enlargement, which are characteristics of germ-free rats. Rats given hemoglobin diets had increased fecal TBARs, which were suppressed by the antibiotic treatment. A duplicate experiment in rats given dietary hemin yielded similar results. These data show that the intestinal microbiota is involved in enhancement of lipoperoxidation by heme iron. We thus suggest that microbiota could play a role in the heme-induced promotion of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  6. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on growth performance and intestinal colonization with Campylobacter jejuni of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Engberg, Ricarda Margarete

    2016-01-01

    An infection trial and a production trial over 35 days were conducted in parallel to study the influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on the intestinal Campylobacter jejuni colonization and broiler performance, respectively. The CKMS was used at dietary inclusion levels of 15% and 30% in maize-based diets. Broilers were orally inoculated with 2 × 10(5) log cfu/ml C. jejuni on day 14. Four birds from each pen were randomly selected and killed by cervical dislocation on days 3, 6, 9, 14 and 21 post infection and intestinal contents from ileum, caeca and rectum as well as liver samples were taken. Body weight and feed consumption of broilers were registered on days 13, 22 and 35. On day 35, litter dry matter (DM) was measured and the condition of the foot pads was evaluated. There was no significant effect of CKMS on the colonization of C. jejuni. Body weight of the broilers supplemented with 15% CKMS was comparable with the control maize-based feed, whereas addition of 30% CKMS reduced broiler body weight (P broilers significantly improved with the inclusion of CKMS on broiler diets as a result of a higher DM content in the litter material. It is concluded that CKMS did not influence intestinal Campylobacter colonization, but improved the foot pad health of broilers.

  7. Abdominal Hernias, Giant Colon Diverticulum, GIST, Intestinal Pneumatosis, Colon Ischemia, Cold Intussusception, Gallstone Ileus, and Foreign Bodies: Our Experience and Literature Review of Incidental Gastrointestinal MDCT Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, G.; Rella, R.; Donatello, D.; Falco, G.; Grassi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Incidental gastrointestinal findings are commonly detected on MDCT exams performed for various medical indications. This review describes the radiological MDCT spectrum of appearances already present in the past literature and in today's experience of several gastrointestinal acute conditions such as abdominal hernia, giant colon diverticulum, GIST, intestinal pneumatosis, colon ischemia, cold intussusception, gallstone ileus, and foreign bodies which can require medical and surgical intervention or clinical follow-up. The clinical presentation of this illness is frequently nonspecific: abdominal pain, distension, nausea, fever, rectal bleeding, vomiting, constipation, or a palpable mass, depending on the disease. A proper differential diagnosis is essential in the assessment of treatment and in this case MDCT exam plays a central rule. We wish that this article will familiarize the radiologist in the diagnosis of this kind of incidental MDCT findings for better orientation of the therapy. PMID:28638830

  8. Abdominal Hernias, Giant Colon Diverticulum, GIST, Intestinal Pneumatosis, Colon Ischemia, Cold Intussusception, Gallstone Ileus, and Foreign Bodies: Our Experience and Literature Review of Incidental Gastrointestinal MDCT Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Grezia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidental gastrointestinal findings are commonly detected on MDCT exams performed for various medical indications. This review describes the radiological MDCT spectrum of appearances already present in the past literature and in today’s experience of several gastrointestinal acute conditions such as abdominal hernia, giant colon diverticulum, GIST, intestinal pneumatosis, colon ischemia, cold intussusception, gallstone ileus, and foreign bodies which can require medical and surgical intervention or clinical follow-up. The clinical presentation of this illness is frequently nonspecific: abdominal pain, distension, nausea, fever, rectal bleeding, vomiting, constipation, or a palpable mass, depending on the disease. A proper differential diagnosis is essential in the assessment of treatment and in this case MDCT exam plays a central rule. We wish that this article will familiarize the radiologist in the diagnosis of this kind of incidental MDCT findings for better orientation of the therapy.

  9. Abdominal Hernias, Giant Colon Diverticulum, GIST, Intestinal Pneumatosis, Colon Ischemia, Cold Intussusception, Gallstone Ileus, and Foreign Bodies: Our Experience and Literature Review of Incidental Gastrointestinal MDCT Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Grezia, G; Gatta, G; Rella, R; Donatello, D; Falco, G; Grassi, R; Grassi, R

    2017-01-01

    Incidental gastrointestinal findings are commonly detected on MDCT exams performed for various medical indications. This review describes the radiological MDCT spectrum of appearances already present in the past literature and in today's experience of several gastrointestinal acute conditions such as abdominal hernia, giant colon diverticulum, GIST, intestinal pneumatosis, colon ischemia, cold intussusception, gallstone ileus, and foreign bodies which can require medical and surgical intervention or clinical follow-up. The clinical presentation of this illness is frequently nonspecific: abdominal pain, distension, nausea, fever, rectal bleeding, vomiting, constipation, or a palpable mass, depending on the disease. A proper differential diagnosis is essential in the assessment of treatment and in this case MDCT exam plays a central rule. We wish that this article will familiarize the radiologist in the diagnosis of this kind of incidental MDCT findings for better orientation of the therapy.

  10. Small intestinal efflux mediated by MRP2 and BCRP shifts sulfasalazine intestinal permeability from high to low, enabling its colonic targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-08-01

    Sulfasalazine is characterized by low intestinal absorption, which essentially enables its colonic targeting and therapeutic action. The mechanisms behind this low absorption have not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of efflux transporters in the intestinal absorption of sulfasalazine as a potential mechanism for its low small-intestinal absorption and colonic targeting following oral administration. The effects of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitors on sulfasalazine bidirectional permeability were studied across Caco-2 cell monolayers, including dose-response analysis. Sulfasalazine in vivo permeability was then investigated in the rat jejunum by single-pass perfusion, in the presence vs. absence of inhibitors. Sulfasalazine exhibited 19-fold higher basolateral-to-apical (BL-AP) than apical-to-basolateral (AP-BL) Caco-2 permeability, indicative of net mucosal secretion. MRP2 inhibitors (MK-571 and indomethacin) and BCRP inhibitors [fumitremorgin C (FTC) and pantoprazole] significantly increased AP-BL and decreased BL-AP sulfasalazine Caco-2 transport in a concentration-dependent manner. No effect was observed with the P-gp inhibitors verapamil and quinidine. The IC50 values of the specific MRP2 and BCRP inhibitors MK-571 and FTC on sulfasalazine secretion were 21.5 and 2.0 microM, respectively. Simultaneous inhibition of MRP2 and BCRP completely abolished sulfasalazine Caco-2 efflux. Without inhibitors, sulfasalazine displayed low (vs. metoprolol) in vivo intestinal permeability in the rat model. MK-571 or FTC significantly increased sulfasalazine permeability, bringing it to the low-high permeability boundary. With both MK-571 and FTC present, sulfasalazine displayed high permeability. In conclusion, efflux transport mediated by MRP2 and BCRP, but not P-gp, shifts sulfasalazine permeability from high to low, thereby enabling its

  11. Zonulin Regulates Intestinal Permeability and Facilitates Enteric Bacteria Permeation in Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanwei; Gao, Min; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Caiyu; Zhou, Faying; Hu, Zhangxu; Zeng, Chunyu

    2016-06-29

    Several studies have reported an association between enteric bacteria and atherosclerosis. Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene belong to Enterobacteriaceae have been detected in atherosclerotic plaques. How intestinal bacteria go into blood is not known. Zonulin reversibly modulate intestinal permeability (IP), the circulating zonulin levels were increased in diabetes, obesity, all of which are risk factors for atherosclerosis. It is unclear whether the circulating zonulin levels were changed in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and modulate IP. The 16S rRNA gene of bacteria in blood sample was checked by 454 pyrosequencing. The zonulin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. The distribution of zonulin was detected by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Bacteria and Caco-2 cell surface micro-structure were checked by transmission electron microscopy. A high diversity of bacterial 16S rRNA gene can be detected in samples from CAD patients, most of them (99.4%) belong to Enterobacteriaceaes, eg. Rahnella. The plasma zonulin levels were significantly higher in CAD patients. Pseudomonas fluorescens exposure significantly increased zonulin expression and decreased IP in a time dependent manner. The elevated zonulin increase IP and may facilitate enteric translocation by disassembling the tight junctions, which might explain the observed high diversity of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in blood samples.

  12. Low and high dose rate heavy ion radiation-induced intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis in APC1638N/+ mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Fornace, Albert J.; Datta, Kamal

    2017-05-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a recognized risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) and astronauts undertaking long duration space missions are expected to receive IR doses in excess of permissible limits with implications for colorectal carcinogenesis. Exposure to IR in outer space occurs at low doses and dose rates, and energetic heavy ions due to their high linear energy transfer (high-LET) characteristics remain a major concern for CRC risk in astronauts. Previously, we have demonstrated that intestinal tumorigenesis in a mouse model (APC1638N/+) of human colorectal cancer was significantly higher after exposure to high dose rate energetic heavy ions relative to low-LET γ radiation. The purpose of the current study was to compare intestinal tumorigenesis in APC1638N/+ mice after exposure to energetic heavy ions at high (50 cGy/min) and relatively low (0.33 cGy/min) dose rate. Male and female mice (6-8 weeks old) were exposed to either 10 or 50 cGy of 28Si (energy: 300 MeV/n; LET: 70 keV/μm) or 56Fe (energy: 1000 MeV/n; LET: 148 keV/μm) ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Mice (n = 20 mice/group) were euthanized and intestinal and colon tumor frequency and size were counted 150 days after radiation exposure. Intestinal tumorigenesis in male mice exposed to 56Fe was similar for high and low dose rate exposures. Although male mice showed a decreasing trend at low dose rate relative to high dose rate exposures, the differences in tumor frequency between the two types of exposures were not statistically significant after 28Si radiation. In female mice, intestinal tumor frequency was similar for both radiation type and dose rates tested. In both male and female mice intestinal tumor size was not different after high and low dose rate radiation exposures. Colon tumor frequency in male and female mice after high and low dose rate energetic heavy ions was also not significantly different. In conclusion, intestinal and colonic tumor

  13. Dysfunctions at human intestinal barrier by water-borne protozoan parasites: lessons from cultured human fully differentiated colon cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2013-06-01

    Some water-borne protozoan parasites induce diseases through their membrane-associated functional structures and virulence factors that hijack the host cellular molecules and signalling pathways leading to structural and functional lesions in the intestinal barrier. In this Microreview we analyse the insights on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Entamoeba intestinalis, Giardia and Cryptosporidium observed in the human colon carcinoma fully differentiated colon cancer cell lines, cell subpopulations and clones expressing the structural and functional characteristics of highly specialized fully differentiated epithelial cells lining the intestinal epithelium and mimicking structurally and functionally an intestinal barrier. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Like will to like: abundances of closely related species can predict susceptibility to intestinal colonization by pathogenic and commensal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, Bärbel; Chaffron, Samuel; Käppeli, Rina; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Freedrich, Susanne; Weber, Thomas C; Kirundi, Jorum; Suar, Mrutyunjay; McCoy, Kathy D; von Mering, Christian; Macpherson, Andrew J; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal ecosystem is formed by a complex, yet highly characteristic microbial community. The parameters defining whether this community permits invasion of a new bacterial species are unclear. In particular, inhibition of enteropathogen infection by the gut microbiota ( = colonization resistance) is poorly understood. To analyze the mechanisms of microbiota-mediated protection from Salmonella enterica induced enterocolitis, we used a mouse infection model and large scale high-throughput pyrosequencing. In contrast to conventional mice (CON), mice with a gut microbiota of low complexity (LCM) were highly susceptible to S. enterica induced colonization and enterocolitis. Colonization resistance was partially restored in LCM-animals by co-housing with conventional mice for 21 days (LCM(con21)). 16S rRNA sequence analysis comparing LCM, LCM(con21) and CON gut microbiota revealed that gut microbiota complexity increased upon conventionalization and correlated with increased resistance to S. enterica infection. Comparative microbiota analysis of mice with varying degrees of colonization resistance allowed us to identify intestinal ecosystem characteristics associated with susceptibility to S. enterica infection. Moreover, this system enabled us to gain further insights into the general principles of gut ecosystem invasion by non-pathogenic, commensal bacteria. Mice harboring high commensal E. coli densities were more susceptible to S. enterica induced gut inflammation. Similarly, mice with high titers of Lactobacilli were more efficiently colonized by a commensal Lactobacillus reuteri(RR) strain after oral inoculation. Upon examination of 16S rRNA sequence data from 9 CON mice we found that closely related phylotypes generally display significantly correlated abundances (co-occurrence), more so than distantly related phylotypes. Thus, in essence, the presence of closely related species can increase the chance of invasion of newly incoming species into the gut

  15. Mechanisms of the intestinal effects of dietary fats and milk products on colon carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderMeer, R; Lapre, JA; Govers, MJAP; Kleibeuker, JH

    1997-01-01

    Dietary fat may promote colon cancer by increasing fatty acids (FA) and secondary bile acids (BA) in the colonic lumen. These cytotoxic surfactants can damage colonic epithelial cells and thus induce a compensatory hyperproliferation of crypt Cells. Our studies show that the hyperproliferative

  16. Colon-specific delivery of a probiotic-derived soluble protein ameliorates intestinal inflammation in mice through an EGFR-dependent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Cao, Hanwei; Cover, Timothy L.; Washington, M. Kay; Shi, Yan; Liu, LinShu; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Peek, Richard M.; Wilson, Keith T.; Polk, D. Brent

    2011-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria can potentially have beneficial effects on the clinical course of several intestinal disorders, but our understanding of probiotic action is limited. We have identified a probiotic bacteria–derived soluble protein, p40, from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), which prevents cytokine-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. In the current study, we analyzed the mechanisms by which p40 regulates cellular responses in intestinal epithelial cells and p40’s effects on experimental colitis using mouse models. We show that the recombinant p40 protein activated EGFR, leading to Akt activation. Activation of EGFR by p40 was required for inhibition of cytokine-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, we developed a pectin/zein hydrogel bead system to specifically deliver p40 to the mouse colon, which activated EGFR in colon epithelial cells. Administration of p40-containing beads reduced intestinal epithelial apoptosis and disruption of barrier function in the colon epithelium in an EGFR-dependent manner, thereby preventing and treating DSS-induced intestinal injury and acute colitis. Furthermore, p40 activation of EGFR was required for ameliorating colon epithelial cell apoptosis and chronic inflammation in oxazolone-induced colitis. These data define what we believe to be a previously unrecognized mechanism of probiotic-derived soluble proteins in protecting the intestine from injury and inflammation. PMID:21606592

  17. Colonic insufflation with carbon monoxide gas inhibits the development of intestinal inflammation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takagi Tomohisa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is complex, and an effective therapeutic strategy has yet to be established. Recently, carbon monoxide (CO has been reported to be capable of reducing inflammation by multiple mechanisms. In this study, we evaluated the role of colonic CO insufflation in acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS in rats. Methods Acute colitis was induced with TNBS in male Wistar rats. Following TNBS administration, the animals were treated daily with 200 ppm of intrarectal CO gas. The distal colon was removed to evaluate various parameters of inflammation, including thiobarbituric acid (TBA-reactive substances, tissue-associated myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, and the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-1 in colonic mucosa 7 days after TNBS administration. Results The administration of TNBS induced ulceration with surrounding edematous swelling in the colon. In rats treated with CO gas, the colonic ulcer area was smaller than that of air-treated rats 7 days after TNBS administration. The wet colon weight was significantly increased in the TNBS-induced colitis group, which was markedly abrogated by colonic insufflation with CO gas. The increase of MPO activity, TBA-reactive substances, and CINC-1 expression in colonic mucosa were also significantly inhibited by colonic insufflation with CO gas. Conclusions Colonic insufflation with CO gas significantly ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Clinical application of CO gas to improve colonic inflammatory conditions such as IBD might be useful.

  18. Fabrication of lipidic nanocarriers of loratadine for facilitated intestinal permeation using multivariate design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Samridhi; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Verma, Priya Ranjan Prasad

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, multivariate design approach was employed to develop self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of loratadine and to exploit its potential for intestinal permeability. Drug solubility was determined in various vehicles and existence of self-nanoemulsifying region was evaluated by phase diagram studies. The influence of formulation variables X1 (Capmul MCM C8) and X2 (Solutol HS15) on SNEDDS was assessed for mean globule sizes in different media (Y1-Y3), emulsification time (Y4) and drug-release parameters (Y5-Y6), to improve quality attributes of SNEDDS. Significant models were generated, statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and validated using the residual and leverage plots. The interaction, contour and response plots explicitly demonstrated the influence of one factor on the other and displayed trend of factor-effect on responses. The pH-independent optimized formulation was obtained with appreciable global desirability (0.9266). The strenuous act of determining emulsification time is innovatively replaced by the use of oil-soluble dye to produce visibly distinct globules that otherwise may be deceiving. TEM images displayed non-aggregated state of spherical globules (size < 25 nm) and also revealed the structural transitions occurring during emulsification. Optimized formulation exhibited non-Newtonian flow justified by the model-fit and also presented the stability to dilution effects and thermodynamic stress testing. The ex vivo permeation study using confocal laser scanning microscopy indicate strong potential of rhodamine 123-loaded loratadine-SNEDDS to inhibit P-gp efflux and facilitate intestinal permeation. To conclude, the effectiveness of design yields a stable optimized SNEDDS with enhanced permeation potential, which is expected to improve oral bioavailability of loratadine.

  19. The effect of probiotics on broiler growth and intestinal morphology when used to prevent Campylobacter jejuni colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Ştef

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to establish the effect of probiotic microorganisms on growth performance and intestinal changes caused by Campylobacter jejuni colonization.In this respect, we used four probiotic microorganisms, namely: Lactobacillus paracasei JR, L. rhamnosus 15b, Y L. lactis and L. lactis FOA.The administration of probiotic microorganisms in different combinations and in different periods of growth does not significantly influence the bioproductive indices of broilers,that is,the total gain, feed intake and FCR (p>0.05. After studying the intestinal mucosa, it was concluded that the four microorganisms administered in broilers’s food determineschanges in the mucosa, inhibiting the development of Campylobacter jejuni,by the presence of smaller caliciform cells and the presence ofreduced leukocyte infiltration in the chorion of the mucosal.

  20. Intestinal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colostomy ) is required to relieve an obstruction. Understanding Colostomy In a colostomy, the large intestine (colon) is cut. The part ... 1 What Causes Intestinal Strangulation? Figure 2 Understanding Colostomy Gastrointestinal Emergencies Overview of Gastrointestinal Emergencies Abdominal Abscesses ...

  1. Tissue sulfomucin and sialomucin content in colon mucosa without intestinal transit subjected to intervention with Curcuma longa (curcumin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Antonio José Tiburcio; Pereira, José Aires; Pansani, Adrieli Heloísa Campardo; Magro, Daniela Oliveira; Coy, Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2017-03-01

    To measure the tissue sulfomucin and sialomucin content of the colon mucosa without fecal flow, subjected to intervention with curcumin, and the influence of the concentration used and the intervention time. Thirty-six rats were subjected to proximal right colostomy and distal mucous fistula. They were divided into two groups according to whether sacrifice was performed two or four weeks after the intervention. Each group was divided into three subgroups according to the enema applied daily: saline alone; curcumin at 50 mg/kg/day or curcumin at 200 mg/kg/day. Acid mucins were diagnosed using the Alcian blue technique. The mucin content was quantified by means of computer-assisted image analysis. The significance level of 5% was used throughout (p curcumin, both after two weeks (p Curcumin enemas increase the quantity of acid mucins in the intestinal flow in the excluded colon, with dose and time dependency.

  2. MRP2 mediated drug-drug interaction: indomethacin increases sulfasalazine absorption in the small intestine, potentially decreasing its colonic targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-02-15

    We have recently shown that efflux transport, mediated by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), is responsible for sulfasalazine low-permeability in the small intestine, thereby enabling its colonic targeting and therapeutic action. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential pharmacokinetic interaction between indomethacin and sulfasalazine, in the mechanism of efflux transporter competition. The concentration-dependent effects of indomethacin on sulfasalazine intestinal epithelial transport were investigated across Caco-2 cell monolayers, in both apical to basolateral (AP-BL) and BL-AP directions. The interaction was then investigated in the in situ single-pass rat jejunal perfusion model. Sulfasalazine displayed 30-fold higher BL-AP than AP-BL Caco-2 permeability, indicative of net mucosal secretion. Indomethacin significantly increased AP-BL and decreased BL-AP sulfasalazine Caco-2 transport, in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC(50) values of 75 and 196 microM respectively. In the rat model, higher sulfasalazine concentrations resulted in higher intestinal permeability, consistent with saturation of efflux transporter. Without indomethacin, sulfasalazine demonstrated low rat jejunal permeability (vs. metoprolol). Indomethacin significantly increased sulfasalazine P(eff), effectively shifting it from BCS (biopharmaceutics classification system) Class IV to II. In conclusion, the data indicate that concomitant intake of indomethacin and sulfasalazine may lead to increased absorption of sulfasalazine in the small intestine, thereby reducing its colonic concentration and potentially altering its therapeutic effect. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibitory Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on the Tonus of the Small Intestine and the Colon of Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trivic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is widely used in folk medicine. Patients very often use the plant preparation with no concern for purity. They also tend to increase the dosage by themselves and this may result in certain insufficiently researched acute effects. Due to this extremely widespread application, the aim of this work is an examination of the possible acute effects of Ginkgo bilobaon the motility of the small and the large intestine of rabbits. Тhe effects of Gingium® - a standardized ginkgo biloba extract (GBE [one milliliter preparation contained 8.8–10.8 mg ginkgo flavonol glycoside and 2.0–2.8 mg lactone ring-containing terpenes (ginkgolides and bilobalides], on the tonus of isolated segments of the ileum and the colon of rabbits were examined. The experiments were carried out on isolated bowel incisions according to the Magnus method. Data was registered by physiography (Narco-Bio-System. Our results show that GBE (0.006 g/L, - 0.06 g/L concentration-dependently reduces the tonus of the ileum and the colon of rabbits. Apart from that, GBE reduces the increase of the tonus of the ileum caused by acetylcholine (ACh, but does not change colon tonus intensified by ACh. This indicates that the effects of the used extract in the ileum are predominantly achieved through cholinergic mechanisms, while the relaxant effects in the colon are achieved in some other way.

  4. D-Alanine-Controlled Transient Intestinal Mono-Colonization with Non-Laboratory-Adapted Commensal E. coli Strain HS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Miguelangel; Pfister, Simona P; Buschor, Stefanie; Bayramova, Firuza; Hernandez, Sara B; Cava, Felipe; Kuru, Erkin; Van Nieuwenhze, Michael S; Brun, Yves V; Coelho, Fernanda M; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Soon after birth the mammalian gut microbiota forms a permanent and collectively highly resilient consortium. There is currently no robust method for re-deriving an already microbially colonized individual again-germ-free. We previously developed the in vivo growth-incompetent E. coli K-12 strain HA107 that is auxotrophic for the peptidoglycan components D-alanine (D-Ala) and meso-diaminopimelic acid (Dap) and can be used to transiently associate germ-free animals with live bacteria, without permanent loss of germ-free status. Here we describe the translation of this experimental model from the laboratory-adapted E. coli K-12 prototype to the better gut-adapted commensal strain E. coli HS. In this genetic background it was necessary to complete the D-Ala auxotrophy phenotype by additional knockout of the hypothetical third alanine racemase metC. Cells of the resulting fully auxotrophic strain assembled a peptidoglycan cell wall of normal composition, as long as provided with D-Ala and Dap in the medium, but could not proliferate a single time after D-Ala/Dap removal. Yet, unsupplemented bacteria remained active and were able to complete their cell cycle with fully sustained motility until immediately before autolytic death. Also in vivo, the transiently colonizing bacteria retained their ability to stimulate a live-bacteria-specific intestinal Immunoglobulin (Ig)A response. Full D-Ala auxotrophy enabled rapid recovery to again-germ-free status. E. coli HS has emerged from human studies and genomic analyses as a paradigm of benign intestinal commensal E. coli strains. Its reversibly colonizing derivative may provide a versatile research tool for mucosal bacterial conditioning or compound delivery without permanent colonization.

  5. Up-regulation of CNDP2 facilitates the proliferation of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Conglong; Zhang, Zhenwei; Yu, Honglan; Yu, Miao; Yuan, Kaitao; Yang, Ting; Miao, Mingyong; Shi, Hanping

    2014-05-21

    Cytosolic nonspecific dipetidase (CN2) belongs to the family of M20 metallopeptidases. It was stated in previous articles that higher expression levels of CN2 were observed in renal cell carcinoma and breast cancer. Our study explored the correlation between CN2 and colon carcinogenesis. We analysed the relationship between 183 patients clinicopathological characteristics and its CN2 expression. To detect the levels of CN2 in colon cancer cell lines and colon cancer tissues by western blot. To verify cell proliferation in colon cancer cells with knockdown of CNDP2 and explore the causes of these phenomena. The expression levels of CN2 in clinical colon tumors and colon cancer cell lines were significantly higher than that in normal colon mucosa and colon cell lines. The difference in CN2 levels was associated with tumor location (right- and left-sided colon cancer), but there was no significant association with age, gender, tumor size, tumor grade, tumor stage or serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Knockdown of CNDP2 inhibited cell proliferation, blocked cell cycle progression and retarded carcinogenesis in an animal model. The signaling pathway through which knockdown of CNDP2 inhibited cell proliferation and tumorigenesis involved in EGFR, cyclin B1 and cyclin E. Knockdown of CNDP2 can inhibit the proliferation of colon cancer in vitro and retarded carcinogenesis in vivo.

  6. Up-regulation of CHAF1A, a poor prognostic factor, facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zehua; Cui, Feifei; Yu, Fudong; Peng, Xiao; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Dawei [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated First People’s Hospital, 85 Wujin Road, Shanghai 200080 (China); Lu, Su [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated First People’s Hospital, 85 Wujin Road, Shanghai 200080 (China); Tang, Huamei, E-mail: tanghuamei@gmail.com [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated First People’s Hospital, 85 Wujin Road, Shanghai 200080 (China); Peng, Zhihai, E-mail: zhihai.peng@hotmail.com [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated First People’s Hospital, 85 Wujin Road, Shanghai 200080 (China)

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • We identified that CHAF1A was up-regulated in colon tumor mucosa in TMA. • The expression pattern of CHAF1A was validated with qPCR and western-blot. • CHAF1A overexpression is an independent indicator for poor colon cancer survival. • CHAF1A facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer both in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Deregulation of chromatin assembly factor 1, p150 subunit A (CHAF1A) has recently been reported to be involved in the development of some cancer types. In this study, we identified that the frequency of positive CHAF1A staining in primary tumor mucosa (45.8%, 93 of 203 samples) was significantly elevated compared to that in paired normal mucosa (18.7%, 38 of 203 samples). The increased expression was strongly associated with cancer stage, tumor invasion, and histological grade. The five-year survival rate of patients with CHAF1A-positive tumors was remarkably lower than that of patients with CHAF1A-negative tumors. Colon cancer cells with CHAF1A knockdown exhibited decreased cell growth index, reduction in colony formation ability, elevated cell apoptosis rate as well as impaired colon tumorigenicity in nude mice. Hence, CHAF1A upregulation functions as a poor prognostic indicator of colon cancer, potentially contributing to its progression by mediating cancer cell proliferation.

  7. Up-regulation of CHAF1A, a poor prognostic factor, facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zehua; Cui, Feifei; Yu, Fudong; Peng, Xiao; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Dawei; Lu, Su; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We identified that CHAF1A was up-regulated in colon tumor mucosa in TMA. • The expression pattern of CHAF1A was validated with qPCR and western-blot. • CHAF1A overexpression is an independent indicator for poor colon cancer survival. • CHAF1A facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer both in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Deregulation of chromatin assembly factor 1, p150 subunit A (CHAF1A) has recently been reported to be involved in the development of some cancer types. In this study, we identified that the frequency of positive CHAF1A staining in primary tumor mucosa (45.8%, 93 of 203 samples) was significantly elevated compared to that in paired normal mucosa (18.7%, 38 of 203 samples). The increased expression was strongly associated with cancer stage, tumor invasion, and histological grade. The five-year survival rate of patients with CHAF1A-positive tumors was remarkably lower than that of patients with CHAF1A-negative tumors. Colon cancer cells with CHAF1A knockdown exhibited decreased cell growth index, reduction in colony formation ability, elevated cell apoptosis rate as well as impaired colon tumorigenicity in nude mice. Hence, CHAF1A upregulation functions as a poor prognostic indicator of colon cancer, potentially contributing to its progression by mediating cancer cell proliferation

  8. Up-regulation of CNDP2 facilitates the proliferation of colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Conglong; Zhang, Zhenwei; Yu, Honglan; Yu, Miao; Yuan, Kaitao; Yang, Ting; Miao, Mingyong; Shi, Hanping

    2014-01-01

    Background Cytosolic nonspecific dipetidase (CN2) belongs to the family of M20 metallopeptidases. It was stated in previous articles that higher expression levels of CN2 were observed in renal cell carcinoma and breast cancer. Our study explored the correlation between CN2 and colon carcinogenesis. Methods We analysed the relationship between 183 patients clinicopathological characteristics and its CN2 expression. To detect the levels of CN2 in colon cancer cell lines and colon cancer tissues...

  9. Bariumexaminations of the small intestine and the colon in inflammatory bowel disease; Konventionelle Duenn- und Dickdarmdiagnostik bei entzuendlichen Darmerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antes, G. [Abteilung fuer Radiologie, Klinikum Kempten-Oberallgaeu g, GmbH, Kempten (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the possibilities of conventional radiography in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease of the small intestine and colon.Material and methods For more than 25 years we examine the small bowel employing enteroclysis with barium and methylcellulose and the colon with the usual double-contrast method. In the last 152 months 1560 small bowel enemas were performed. In the last 40 months 410 examinations of the colon were performed. There is a thirty percent decrease in enteroclysis examinations within the past 5 years,however, the rate of examinations with positive results increased from 46 to 57%.The proportion of the inflammatory small intestinal diseases (not only Crohn's disease) remained constant with 18%.Concerning the examinations of the colon for inflammatory disease we confirmed the diagnosis in seven cases.The radiation exposure for the enteroclysis in inflammatory diseases was 7mSv, for colon examinations 14 mSv. Barium examinations, especially of the stomach and colon are decreasing in frequency.Therefore the art of performance and interpretation might get lost.Enteroclysis, however, is still the method of reference for the other imaging methods.The advantages compared to the other imaging methods are the excellent presentation of the details of the mucosal surface and the observation of functional disorders. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung Diese Uebersichtsarbeit soll die Moeglichkeiten der konventionellen Roentgendiagnostik an Duenndarm und Kolon bei entzuendlichen Darmerkrankungen aufzeigen.Material und Methoden Seit mehr als 25 Jahren untersuchen wir den Duenndarm mit dem Enteroklysma mit Barium und Methylzellulose und das Kolon mit der ueblichen Doppelkontrastmethode. In den letzten 152 Monaten wurden 1560 Duenndarmuntersuchungen durchgefuehrt. In den letzten 40 Monaten erfolgten 410 Kolonuntersuchungen.Ergebnisse Bei den Duenndarmuntersuchungen wurde in den letzten 5 Jahren ein Rueckgang um 30% beobachtet

  10. Appendicostomy irrigation for facilitating colonic evacuation in colostomy patients. Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotanagi, H; Koyama, K; Sato, Y; Takahashi, K

    1998-08-01

    A method for bowel irrigation through an appendicostomy (antegrade colonic enema) for patients with a left colostomy is described. The appendicostomy is easily constructed without morbidity. Irrigation through the appendicostomy is performed with minimum equipment, uses a small volume of irrigation water, and takes a relatively short time. This may improve colonic evacuation in patients with left colostomy.

  11. Colonic lipoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, M.S.; Khatri, A.R.; Quraishy, M.S.; Fatima, L.; Muzaffar, S.

    2003-01-01

    Lipoma of the colon is rare and may lead to intestinal obstruct. We have presented two cases of colonic lipoma. Both were elderly females, one presented with diarrhea and the other with sub-acute intestinal obstruction. After colonoscopy surgical removal was done. Histopathology revealed lipoma. (author)

  12. Seroepidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae colonizing the intestinal tract of healthy chinese and overseas chinese adults in Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yi-Tsung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Capsular serotypes K1 and K2 of Klebsiella pneumoniae are thought to the major virulence determinants responsible for liver abscess. The intestine is one of the major reservoirs of K. pneumoniae, and epidemiological studies have suggested that the majority of K. pneumoniae infections are preceded by colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. The possibility of fecal-oral transmission in liver abscess has been raised on the basis of molecular typing of isolates. Data on the serotype distribution of K. pneumoniae in stool samples from healthy individuals has not been previously reported. This study investigated the seroepidemiology of K. pneumoniae isolates from the intestinal tract of healthy Chinese in Asian countries. Stool specimens from healthy adult Chinese residents of Taiwan, Japan, Hong Kong, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam were collected from August 2004 to August 2010 for analysis. Results Serotypes K1/K2 accounted for 9.8% of all K. pneumoniae isolates from stools in all countries. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of K1/K2 isolates among the countries excluding Thailand and Vietnam. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was nearly the same in K. pneumoniae isolates. The result of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed no major clonal cluster of serotype K1 isolates. Conclusions The result showed that Chinese ethnicity itself might be a major factor predisposing to intestinal colonization by serotype K1/K2 K. pneumoniae isolates. The prevalent serotype K1/K2 isolates may partially correspond to the prevalence of K. pneumoniae liver abscess in Asian countries.

  13. Cytomegalovirus-induced colonic stricture presenting as acute intestinal obstruction in an immunocompetent adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, B V; Selvaraju, Karthikeyan; Kumar, Sampath; Thota, Sumath

    2013-09-10

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection causes significant morbidty and mortality in immunopromised patients. Though it is usually silent in immunocompetent adults, rarely it can cause serious life-threatening complications. Gastrointestinal tract is one of the commonly involved organs, where it produces a spectrum of clinical manifestation ranging from mild non-specific abdominal pain and diarrhoea to severe infection with toxic megacolon and death. We present a 65-year-old immunocompetent male patient admitted with acute colonic obstruction secondary to CMV-induced colonic stricture, highlighting the importance of considering it as a differential diagnosis for colonic obstruction and reviewing its management.

  14. Immunization of mice with Lactobacillus casei expressing a beta-intimin fragment reduces intestinal colonization by Citrobacter rodentium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, P C D; da Silva, J B; Piazza, R M F; Eckmann, L; Ho, P L; Oliveira, M L S

    2011-11-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a common cause of diarrhea in children from developing countries. Intimate adhesion of the bacteria to intestinal cells occurs via binding of the adhesin intimin to the TIR receptor exposed on cell surfaces. Here, Lactobacillus casei expressing a fragment of β-intimin (L. casei-Int(cv)) was tested as mucosal vaccines in mice against intestinal colonization with the murine pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Oral or sublingual immunization of C57BL/6 mice with L. casei-Int(cv) induced anti-Int(cv) IgA in feces but no IgG in sera. Conversely, anti-Int(cv) IgG was induced in the sera of mice after sublingual immunization with purified Int(cv). All vaccines were able to decrease C. rodentium recovery from feces. However, this reduction was more evident and sustained over time in mice immunized with L. casei-Int(cv) by the sublingual route. These mice also displayed an increase in interleukin 6 (IL-6) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion by spleen cells 10 days after infection. Additionally, oral or sublingual immunization of C3H/HePas mice, which are highly susceptible to C. rodentium infection, with L. casei-Int(cv) induced anti-Int(cv) antibodies and significantly increased survival after challenge. Immunohistological analysis of colon sections revealed that C. rodentium was located in deep fractions of the tissue from C3H/HePas mice immunized with L. casei whereas superficial staining was observed in colon sections from mice immunized with L. casei-Int(cv.) The results indicate that vaccines composed of L. casei expressing intimin may represent a promising approach and that the C3H/HePas infection model with C. rodentium can be used to evaluate potential vaccines against EPEC.

  15. Immunization of Mice with Lactobacillus casei Expressing a Beta-Intimin Fragment Reduces Intestinal Colonization by Citrobacter rodentium ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, P. C. D.; da Silva, J. B.; Piazza, R. M. F.; Eckmann, L.; Ho, P. L.; Oliveira, M. L. S.

    2011-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a common cause of diarrhea in children from developing countries. Intimate adhesion of the bacteria to intestinal cells occurs via binding of the adhesin intimin to the TIR receptor exposed on cell surfaces. Here, Lactobacillus casei expressing a fragment of β-intimin (L. casei-Intcv) was tested as mucosal vaccines in mice against intestinal colonization with the murine pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Oral or sublingual immunization of C57BL/6 mice with L. casei-Intcv induced anti-Intcv IgA in feces but no IgG in sera. Conversely, anti-Intcv IgG was induced in the sera of mice after sublingual immunization with purified Intcv. All vaccines were able to decrease C. rodentium recovery from feces. However, this reduction was more evident and sustained over time in mice immunized with L. casei-Intcv by the sublingual route. These mice also displayed an increase in interleukin 6 (IL-6) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion by spleen cells 10 days after infection. Additionally, oral or sublingual immunization of C3H/HePas mice, which are highly susceptible to C. rodentium infection, with L. casei-Intcv induced anti-Intcv antibodies and significantly increased survival after challenge. Immunohistological analysis of colon sections revealed that C. rodentium was located in deep fractions of the tissue from C3H/HePas mice immunized with L. casei whereas superficial staining was observed in colon sections from mice immunized with L. casei-Intcv. The results indicate that vaccines composed of L. casei expressing intimin may represent a promising approach and that the C3H/HePas infection model with C. rodentium can be used to evaluate potential vaccines against EPEC. PMID:21900533

  16. Diet- and colonization-dependent intestinal dysfunction predisposes to necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild, Per T.; Siggers, Richard H.; Schmidt, Mette

    2006-01-01

    Background & Aims: Preterm birth and formula feeding are key risk factors associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants, but little is known about intestinal conditions that predispose to disease. Thus, structural, functional, and microbiologic indices were used to investigate...

  17. Effect of radiation on apoptosis in small intestine and colon of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Guirong; Guo Guozhen; Tian Furong; Wang Jin; Zhang Liyan; Guo Yao

    2000-01-01

    To discuss the changes of apoptosis level in small bowel and colon of mice after γ-ray irradiation. The mice were irradiated with different doses (1,6,12 Gy). The incidence of apoptosis in small bowel and colon were observed at different time (6,12,24h) after irradiation using morphological method. Then results indicate that there were apoptosis in small bowel of normal mice, the number of apoptotic cell was 0.038 +- 0.059 per whole crypt. No apoptosis was observed in colon of normal mice and irradiated mice; The incidence of apoptosis significantly increased in small bowel after different doses of irradiation (p < 0.05). The apoptosis peak appeared at 12, 24, 6 h after 1, 6, 12 Gy irradiation; The incidence of apoptosis was higher in small bowel than that of colon after different doses of irradiation and at different time after irradiation. From the results the authors propose that the radiation-damaged cells might be more effectively removed in small bowel than in colon after irradiation. Radiation-damaged cells may tend to remain in colon and related to later tumorigenesis

  18. Global grass (Poaceae) success underpinned by traits facilitating colonization, persistence and habitat transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, H P; Lehmann, Caroline E R; Archibald, Sally; Osborne, Colin P; Richardson, David M

    2018-05-01

    Poaceae (the grasses) is arguably the most successful plant family, in terms of its global occurrence in (almost) all ecosystems with angiosperms, its ecological dominance in many ecosystems, and high species richness. We suggest that the success of grasses is best understood in context of their capacity to colonize, persist, and transform environments (the "Viking syndrome"). This results from combining effective long-distance dispersal, efficacious establishment biology, ecological flexibility, resilience to disturbance and the capacity to modify environments by changing the nature of fire and mammalian herbivory. We identify a diverse set of functional traits linked to dispersal, establishment and competitive abilities. Enhanced long-distance dispersal is determined by anemochory, epizoochory and endozoochory and is facilitated via the spikelet (and especially the awned lemma) which functions as the dispersal unit. Establishment success could be a consequence of the precocious embryo and large starch reserves, which may underpin the extremely short generation times in grasses. Post-establishment genetic bottlenecks may be mitigated by wind pollination and the widespread occurrence of polyploidy, in combination with gametic self-incompatibility. The ecological competitiveness of grasses is corroborated by their dominance across the range of environmental extremes tolerated by angiosperms, facilitated by both C 3 and C 4 photosynthesis, well-developed frost tolerance in several clades, and a sympodial growth form that enabled the evolution of both annual and long-lived life forms. Finally, absence of investment in wood (except in bamboos), and the presence of persistent buds at or below ground level, provides tolerance of repeated defoliation (whether by fire, frost, drought or herbivores). Biotic modification of environments via feedbacks with herbivory or fire reinforce grass dominance leading to open ecosystems. Grasses can be both palatable and productive

  19. Impact of metal ion homeostasis of genetically modified Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and K12 (W3110) strains on colonization properties in the murine intestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupz, Andreas; Fischer, André; Nies, Dietrich H; Grass, Gregor; Göbel, Ulf B; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M

    2013-09-01

    Metal ions are integral parts of pro- as well as eukaryotic cell homeostasis. Escherichia coli proved a valuable in vitro model organism to elucidate essential mechanisms involved in uptake, storage, and export of metal ions. Given that E. coli Nissle 1917 is able to overcome murine colonization resistance, we generated several E. coli Nissle 1917 mutants with defects in zinc, iron, copper, nickel, manganese homeostasis and performed a comprehensive survey of the impact of metal ion transport and homeostasis for E. coli colonization capacities within the murine intestinal tract. Seven days following peroral infection of conventional mice with E. coli Nissle 1917 strains exhibiting defined defects in zinc or iron uptake, the respective mutant and parental strains could be cultured at comparable, but low levels from the colonic lumen. We next reassociated gnotobiotic mice in which the microbiota responsible for colonization resistance was abrogated by broad-spectrum antibiotics with six different E. coli K12 (W3110) mutants. Seven days following peroral challenge, each mutant and parental strain stably colonized duodenum, ileum, and colon at comparable levels. Taken together, defects in zinc, iron, copper, nickel, and manganese homeostasis do not compromise colonization capacities of E. coli in the murine intestinal tract.

  20. Zonulin Regulates Intestinal Permeability and Facilitates Enteric Bacteria Permeation in Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chuanwei; Gao, Min; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Caiyu; Zhou, Faying; Hu, Zhangxu; Zeng, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported an association between enteric bacteria and atherosclerosis. Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene belong to Enterobacteriaceae have been detected in atherosclerotic plaques. How intestinal bacteria go into blood is not known. Zonulin reversibly modulate intestinal permeability (IP), the circulating zonulin levels were increased in diabetes, obesity, all of which are risk factors for atherosclerosis. It is unclear whether the circulating zonulin levels were cha...

  1. Intestinal colonization of broiler chickens by Campylobacter spp. in an experimental infection study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Vigre, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of poultry meat is considered as one of the main sources of human campylobacteriosis, and there is clearly a need for new surveillance and control measures based on quantitative data on Campylobacter spp. colonization dynamics in broiler chickens. We conducted four experimental...... infection trials, using four isolators during each infection trial to evaluate colonization of individual broiler chickens by Campylobacter jejuni over time. Individual and pooled faecal samples were obtained at days 4, 7 and 12 post-inoculation (p.i.) and caecal samples at day 12 p.i. There were large...

  2. The influence of a colonic microbiota on HPMA copolymer lectin conjugates binding in rodent intestine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wróblewski, S.; Říhová, Blanka; Rossmann, Pavel; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Řeháková, Zuzana; Kopečková, P.; Kopeček, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2001), s. 85-94 ISSN 1061-186X R&D Projects: GA MPO PZ-Z2/24 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : colonic microflora * germ-free * glycoproteins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.186, year: 2001

  3. Metabolism of sinigrin (2-propenyl glucosinolate) by the human colonic microflora in a dynamic in vitro large-intestinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krul, Cyrille; Humblot, Christèle; Philippe, Catherine; Vermeulen, Martijn; van Nuenen, Marleen; Havenaar, Robert; Rabot, Sylvie

    2002-06-01

    Cruciferous vegetables, such as Brassica, which contain substantial quantities of glucosinolates, have been suggested to possess anticarcinogenic activity. Cutting and chewing of cruciferous vegetables releases the thioglucosidase enzyme myrosinase, which degrades glucosinolates to isothiocyanates and other minor metabolites. Cooking of cruciferous vegetables inactivates the myrosinase enzyme, allowing intact glucosinolates to reach the large intestine, where they can be degraded by the indigenous microflora into isothiocyanates. This local release of isothiocyanates may explain the protective effect of cruciferous vegetables on the colon epithelium. However, little is known about the amounts and identities of glucosinolate metabolites produced by the human microflora. The production of allyl isothiocyanate from sinigrin was investigated in a dynamic in vitro large-intestinal model, after inoculation with a complex microflora of human origin. Sinigrin and allyl isothiocyanate concentrations were analysed in the lumen and dialysis fluid of the model. Peak levels of allyl isothiocyanate were observed between 9 and 12 h after the addition of sinigrin. The model was first set up with a pooled and cultured human microflora, in which 1 and 4% of, respectively, 1 and 15 mM sinigrin, was converted into AITC. However, the conversion rate was remarkably higher if different individual human microflora were used. Between 10% and 30% (mean 19%) of the sinigrin was converted into allyl isothiocyanate. The results of this study suggest that allyl isothiocyanate is converted further into other, yet unknown, metabolites.

  4. Reduction of inflammatory hyperplasia in the intestine in colon cancer-prone mice by water-extract of Cistanche deserticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yamin; Guan, Qiunong; Guo, Yuhai; Du, Caigan

    2012-06-01

    Cistanche deserticola has commonly been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat many health problems including irritable bowel syndrome or constipation. This study was designed to test the efficacy of a water-extract of C. deserticola in the prevention of colorectal cancer in a mouse model. Polysaccharide-rich water-extract of C. deserticola was prepared by boiling its stem powder in distilled water. Tgfb1Rag2 null mice were used as an experimental model. Here we showed that feeding of water-extract of C. deserticola significantly reduced the number of mucosal hyperplasia and intestinal helicobacter infection in mice. This beneficial effect correlated with significant stimulation of the immune system, evidenced by the enlargement of the spleens with increased number of splenic macrophage and natural killer cells, and with more potent cytotoxicity of splenocytes. In vitro water-extract of C. deserticola enhanced the cytotoxicity of naïve splenocytes against a human colon cancer cell line, and in macrophage cultures up-regulated nitric oxide synthase II expression and stimulated phagocytosis. In conclusion, our data indicate that oral administration of C. deserticola extract reduces inflammatory hyperplastic polyps and helicobacter infection in mice by its immune-stimulatory activity, suggesting that C. deserticola extract may have potential in preventing intestinal inflammation disorders including colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Regulation of APC and AXIN2 expression by intestinal tumor suppressor CDX2 in colon cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Krüger; Coskun, Mehmet; Bzorek, Michael

    2013-01-01

    was associated with endogenous downregulation of APC and AXIN2 expression in Caco-2 cells but did not affect GSK3β expression. Furthermore, elevated levels of nuclear β-catenin and reduced levels of cytoplasmic APC were correlated to a low CDX2 expression in migrating colon cancer cells in vivo. These results......Wnt signaling is often constitutively active in colorectal cancer cells. The expression of the intestinal specific transcription factor CDX2 is found to be transiently decreased in invasive cells at the tumor/stroma interface. A recent ChIP-Seq study has indicated that several Wnt signaling......-related genes are regulated by CDX2. The aim was to investigate the role of decreased CDX2 level on the expression of APC, AXIN2 and GSK3β in migrating colon cancer cells at the invasive front. CDX2-bound promoter and enhancer regions from APC, AXIN2 and GSK3β were analyzed for gene regulatory activity...

  6. Gut microbiota facilitates dietary heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation by opening the mucus barrier in colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijssennagger, Noortje; Belzer, Clara; Hooiveld, Guido J; Dekker, Jan; van Mil, Saskia W C; Müller, Michael; Kleerebezem, Michiel; van der Meer, Roelof; van Mil, SWC

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer risk is associated with diets high in red meat. Heme, the pigment of red meat, induces cytotoxicity of colonic contents and elicits epithelial damage and compensatory hyperproliferation, leading to hyperplasia. Here we explore the possible causal role of the gut microbiota in

  7. Identification of interstitial cells of Cajal. Significance for studies of human small intestine and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1994-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) were described a century ago by Ramón y Cajal a.o. as primitive neurons in the intestines. In the period 1900-1960 a large number of light microscopical studies of ICC were published, in which ICC were identified by heir characteristic morphology. After 1960...... electron microscopical studies emphasized similarities between ICC and fibroblasts. In our early studies of ICC in the external musculature of mouse small intestine, we identified ICC by their characteristic morphology and topography, and we analyzed the relation between ICC, autonomic nerves and smooth...... muscle. These studies strongly suggested that ICC were fundamental regulators of external muscle function. These hypotheses have since been supported by independent morphological and electrophysiological evidence, strongly suggesting a pacemaker role of some ICC populations as well as other regulatory...

  8. Acute and delayed radiation injuries in the small intestine and colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, H.

    1981-01-01

    The group of patients with severe actinic intestinal injuries consists of 67 patients, 46 female and 21 male. The main indication of irradiation were gynaecologic tumours with 67%. The irradiation was carried out with a telekobalt unit combined with radium. From the pathogenetic point of view, acute inflammation and necrobiotic processes in the intestinal mucosa and a restriction of the ability to regenerate are the main radiation-induced acute injuries; delayed injuries are mainly the narrowing and rarefaction of the vessels with lacking capillary budding. The cause of the completely different intervals of up to 26 years until the manifestation of the delayed injury remained unclear. The majority of the delayed symptoms were unspecific; therefore, the danger of misinterpretation was pointed out. A resection with primary anastomosis of the ends of the intestines is the goal to be reached operation-technically. The postoperative complication rate was 45.0%. The most frequent complications were the recurrence of a fistula and the formation of a new fistula, respectively, followed by anastomotic and wound insufficiency, and gastrointestinal bleedings. The postoperative lethality was 18.3%. The causes of death were, according to their frequency, peritonitis, acute failure of the coronary circulation, pneumonia, and massive bleedings. (orig./MG) [de

  9. E Durans Strain M4-5 Isolated From Human Colonic Flora Attenuates Intestinal Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avram-Hananel, L.; Stock, J.; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2010-01-01

    to examine in vivo effects of prevention and therapy with E durans on clinical, biochemical, and histologic parameters of inflammation. RESULTS: In the coculture model, treatment with E durans and with butyrate reduced basal as well as E coli stimulated secretion of IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α and increased...... inflammation, and inhibited colonic transcription of proinflammatory immune factors. The effect of therapeutic treatment alone on these parameters was more moderate but still significant. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that E durans strain M4 to 5 and its metabolic product butyrate induce significant anti...

  10. Intestinal Obstruction due to Colonic Lithobezoar: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Şenol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bezoar is defined as the accumulation of undigested foreign bodies or nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. These foreign bodies can be hair (trichobezoar, fibers or seeds of vegetables and fruits (phytobezoar, or remnants of milk (lactobezoar and stones (lithobezoar. Lithobezoar, the accumulation of stones in the digestive tract, is commonly seen in stomach. In this paper, a 7-year-old girl with colonic lithobezoar who presented with constipation, abdominal pain, and the history of pica was successfully treated by the extraction of the stones under general anesthesia.

  11. [Three Cases of Unresectable, Advanced, and Recurrent Colorectal Cancer Associated with Gastrointestinal Obstruction That Were Treated with Small Intestine-Transverse Colon Bypass Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Arika; Miyaki, Akira; Miyauchi, Tatsuomi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2016-11-01

    Herein, we report 3cases of unresectable, advanced, and recurrent colorectal cancer associated with gastrointestinal obstruction. The patients were treated with small intestine-transverse colon bypass surgery, which improved the quality of life (QOL)in all cases. Case 1 was an 80-year-old woman who presented with subileus due to ascending colon cancer. After surgery, her oral intake was reestablished, and she was discharged home. Case 2 was an 89-year-old woman whose ileus was caused by cecal cancer with multiple hepatic metastases. After surgery, the patient was discharged to a care facility. Case 3 was an 83-year-old man whose ileus was caused by a local recurrence and small intestine infiltration after surgery for rectosigmoid cancer. He underwent surgery after a colonic stent was inserted. His oral intake was re-established and he was discharged home. Small bowel-transverse colon bypass surgery can be used to manage various conditions rostral to the transverse colon. It is still possible to perform investigations in patients whose general condition is poorer than that of patients who undergo resection of the primary lesion. This avoids creating an artificial anus and allows continuation of oral intake, which are useful for improving QOL in terminal cases.

  12. Demonstration of Brachyspira aalborgi lineages 2 and 3 in human colonic biopsies with intestinal spirochaetosis by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Teglbjærg, Peter S.; Lindboe, Christian F.

    2004-01-01

    of these organisms in human intestinal spirochaetosis. Seventeen human colonic biopsies from Norway and Denmark with intestinal spirochaetosis caused by Brachyspira-like organisms different from the type strain of B. aalborgi (lineage 1) were examined. Application of the probe gave a positive signal in two Norwegian...... biopsies, whereas the 15 other biopsies were hybridization-negative. The positive reaction visualized the spirochaetes as a fluorescent, 3-5 mum-high fringe on the surface epithelium, extending into the crypts. The study verified the presence of B. aalborgi lineages 2 and 3 and identified the bacteria...

  13. Light/Dark Shifting Promotes Alcohol-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis: Possible Role of Intestinal Inflammatory Milieu and Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Bishehsari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is associated with the modern lifestyle. Chronic alcohol consumption—a frequent habit of majority of modern societies—increases the risk of CRC. Our group showed that chronic alcohol consumption increases polyposis in a mouse mode of CRC. Here we assess the effect of circadian disruption—another modern life style habit—in promoting alcohol-associated CRC. Method: TS4Cre × adenomatous polyposis coli (APClox468 mice underwent (a an alcohol-containing diet while maintained on a normal 12 h light:12 h dark cycle; or (b an alcohol-containing diet in conjunction with circadian disruption by once-weekly 12 h phase reversals of the light:dark (LD cycle. Mice were sacrificed after eight weeks of full alcohol and/or LD shift to collect intestine samples. Tumor number, size, and histologic grades were compared between animal groups. Mast cell protease 2 (MCP2 and 6 (MCP6 histology score were analyzed and compared. Stool collected at baseline and after four weeks of experimental manipulations was used for microbiota analysis. Results: The combination of alcohol and LD shifting accelerated intestinal polyposis, with a significant increase in polyp size, and caused advanced neoplasia. Consistent with a pathogenic role of stromal tryptase-positive mast cells in colon carcinogenesis, the ratio of mMCP6 (stromal/mMCP2 (intraepithelial mast cells increased upon LD shifting. Baseline microbiota was similar between groups, and experimental manipulations resulted in a significant difference in the microbiota composition between groups. Conclusions: Circadian disruption by Light:dark shifting exacerbates alcohol-induced polyposis and CRC. Effect of circadian disruption could, at least partly, be mediated by promoting a pro-tumorigenic inflammatory milieu via changes in microbiota.

  14. Intestinal microbial dysbiosis and colonic epithelial cell hyperproliferation by dietary α-mangostin is independent of mouse strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Orozco, Fabiola; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Galley, Jeffrey D; Bailey, Michael T; Clinton, Steven K; Lesinski, Gregory B; Failla, Mark L

    2015-01-22

    Beverages and supplements prepared from mangosteen fruit are claimed to support gut health and immunity, despite the absence of supporting evidence from clinical trials. We recently reported that α-mangostin (α-MG), the most abundant xanthone in mangosteen fruit, altered the intestinal microbiome, promoted dysbiosis, and exacerbated colitis in C57BL/6J mice. The objective of this study was to determine whether induction of dysbiosis by dietary α-MG is limited to the C57BL/6J strain or represents a more generic response to chronic intake of the xanthone on the gut microbiota of mice. C3H, Balb/c, Nude FoxN1nu, and C57BL/6J mice, each demonstrating unique microbiomes, were fed standard diet or diet containing 0.1% α-MG for four weeks. Dietary α-MG significantly altered the cecal and colonic microbiota in all four strains of mice, promoting a reduction in generally assumed beneficial bacterial groups while increasing the abundance of pathogenic bacteria. Consumption of α-MG was associated with reduced abundance of Firmicutes and increased abundance of Proteobacteria. The abundance of Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Lactobacillaceae was reduced in α-MG-fed mice, while that of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcaceae was increased. Dietary α-MG also was associated with increased proliferation of colonic epithelial cells, infiltration of immune cells, infiltration of immune cells and increased fluid content in stool. These results suggest that ingestion of pharmacologic doses of xanthones in mangosteen-containing supplements may adversely alter the gut microbiota and should be used with caution.

  15. Intestinal Microbial Dysbiosis and Colonic Epithelial Cell Hyperproliferation by Dietary α-Mangostin is Independent of Mouse Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Gutierrez-Orozco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beverages and supplements prepared from mangosteen fruit are claimed to support gut health and immunity, despite the absence of supporting evidence from clinical trials. We recently reported that α-mangostin (α-MG, the most abundant xanthone in mangosteen fruit, altered the intestinal microbiome, promoted dysbiosis, and exacerbated colitis in C57BL/6J mice. The objective of this study was to determine whether induction of dysbiosis by dietary α-MG is limited to the C57BL/6J strain or represents a more generic response to chronic intake of the xanthone on the gut microbiota of mice. C3H, Balb/c, Nude FoxN1nu, and C57BL/6J mice, each demonstrating unique microbiomes, were fed standard diet or diet containing 0.1% α-MG for four weeks. Dietary α-MG significantly altered the cecal and colonic microbiota in all four strains of mice, promoting a reduction in generally assumed beneficial bacterial groups while increasing the abundance of pathogenic bacteria. Consumption of α-MG was associated with reduced abundance of Firmicutes and increased abundance of Proteobacteria. The abundance of Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Lactobacillaceae was reduced in α-MG-fed mice, while that of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcaceae was increased. Dietary α-MG also was associated with increased proliferation of colonic epithelial cells, infiltration of immune cells, infiltration of immune cells and increased fluid content in stool. These results suggest that ingestion of pharmacologic doses of xanthones in mangosteen-containing supplements may adversely alter the gut microbiota and should be used with caution.

  16. Rare cause of intestinal obstruction - submucous lipoma of the sigmoid colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, L S; Andrei, A C; Usurelu, D L; Puscasu, L I; Dima, C; Preda, E; Lupescu, I; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2014-01-01

    The lipoma of the colon is a benign and rare tumor. Most lipomas are asymptomatic, their discovery being fortuitous. The diagnosis is ussualy easy by colonoscopy associated with biopsies. The abdominal CT scan also has its role in the diagnostic process and in the assesment of the tumoral extension.The treatment depends essentially on the clinical picture, on the size and location of the lipoma and involves endoscopic or surgical excision. We present the case of a 56 years old woman in which a random colonoscopic and than tomographic diagnosis of a sigmoidian lipoma was made 2 years ago when the patient presented with different symptoms, the submucosal lipoma being small sized at the time; the surgical treatment(sigmoidectomy including the tumor) was currently indicated by the sub-occlusive syndrome and haematochezia, due to the intraluminal proliferation of the tumor. Celsius.

  17. Effect of dietary fiber on the activity of intestinal and fecal beta-glucuronidase activity during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj, G; Thampi, B S; Leelamma, S; Menon, P V

    2001-01-01

    The effects of fiber isolated from black gram (Phaseolus mungo) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) kernel on the metabolic activity of intestinal and fecal beta glucuronidase activity during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis were studied. The results indicated that the inclusion of fiber from black gram and coconut kernel generally supported lower specific activities and less fecal output of beta-glucuronidase than did the fiber free diet. This study suggests that the fibers isolated from coconut or black gram may potentially play a role in preventing the formation of colon tumors induced by the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine by reducing the activity of the intestinal as well as fecal beta-glucuronidase.

  18. Host lysozyme-mediated lysis of Lactococcus lactis facilitates delivery of colitis-attenuating superoxide dismutase to inflamed colons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Sonia A.; Veiga, Patrick; Fenn, Kathrin; Michaud, Monia; Kim, Jason H.; Gallini, Carey Ann; Glickman, Jonathan N.; Quéré, Gaëlle; Garault, Peggy; Béal, Chloé; Derrien, Muriel; Courtin, Pascal; Kulakauskas, Saulius; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Garrett, Wendy S.

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microbes that target molecules and pathways, such as oxidative stress, which can negatively affect both host and microbiota, may hold promise as an inflammatory bowel disease therapy. Prior work showed that a five-strain fermented milk product (FMP) improved colitis in T-bet−/− Rag2−/− mice. By varying the number of strains used in the FMP, we found that Lactococcus lactis I-1631 was sufficient to ameliorate colitis. Using comparative genomic analyses, we identified genes unique to L. lactis I-1631 involved in oxygen respiration. Respiration of oxygen results in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Also, ROS are produced at high levels during intestinal inflammation and cause tissue damage. L. lactis I-1631 possesses genes encoding enzymes that detoxify ROS, such as superoxide dismutase (SodA). Thus, we hypothesized that lactococcal SodA played a role in attenuating colitis. Inactivation of the sodA gene abolished L. lactis I-1631’s beneficial effect in the T-bet−/− Rag2−/− model. Similar effects were obtained in two additional colonic inflammation models, Il10−/− mice and dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice. Efforts to understand how a lipophobic superoxide anion (O2−) can be detoxified by cytoplasmic lactoccocal SodA led to the finding that host antimicrobial-mediated lysis is a prerequisite for SodA release and SodA’s extracytoplasmic O2− scavenging. L. lactis I-1631 may represent a promising vehicle to deliver antioxidant, colitis-attenuating SodA to the inflamed intestinal mucosa, and host antimicrobials may play a critical role in mediating SodA’s bioaccessibility. PMID:26056274

  19. Escherichia coli EDL933 Requires Gluconeogenic Nutrients To Successfully Colonize the Intestines of Streptomycin-Treated Mice Precolonized with E. coli Nissle 1917

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinner, Silvia A. C.; Mokszycki, Matthew E.; Adediran, Jimmy; Leatham-Jensen, Mary; Conway, Tyrrell

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli MG1655, a K-12 strain, uses glycolytic nutrients exclusively to colonize the intestines of streptomycin-treated mice when it is the only E. coli strain present or when it is confronted with E. coli EDL933, an O157:H7 strain. In contrast, E. coli EDL933 uses glycolytic nutrients exclusively when it is the only E. coli strain in the intestine but switches in part to gluconeogenic nutrients when it colonizes mice precolonized with E. coli MG1655 (R. L. Miranda et al., Infect Immun 72:1666–1676, 2004, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.72.3.1666-1676.2004). Recently, J. W. Njoroge et al. (mBio 3:e00280-12, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00280-12) reported that E. coli 86-24, an O157:H7 strain, activates the expression of virulence genes under gluconeogenic conditions, suggesting that colonization of the intestine with a probiotic E. coli strain that outcompetes O157:H7 strains for gluconeogenic nutrients could render them nonpathogenic. Here we report that E. coli Nissle 1917, a probiotic strain, uses both glycolytic and gluconeogenic nutrients to colonize the mouse intestine between 1 and 5 days postfeeding, appears to stop using gluconeogenic nutrients thereafter in a large, long-term colonization niche, but continues to use them in a smaller niche to compete with invading E. coli EDL933. Evidence is also presented suggesting that invading E. coli EDL933 uses both glycolytic and gluconeogenic nutrients and needs the ability to perform gluconeogenesis in order to colonize mice precolonized with E. coli Nissle 1917. The data presented here therefore rule out the possibility that E. coli Nissle 1917 can starve the O157:H7 E. coli strain EDL933 of gluconeogenic nutrients, even though E. coli Nissle 1917 uses such nutrients to compete with E. coli EDL933 in the mouse intestine. PMID:25733524

  20. Steam explosion enhances digestibility and fermentation of corn stover by facilitating ruminal microbial colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Guodong; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi; Yu, Zhongtang

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate steam explosion as a pretreatment to enhance degradation of corn stover by ruminal microbiome. The steam explosion conditions were first optimized, and then the efficacy of steam explosion was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Steam explosion altered the physical and chemical structure of corn stover as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively, and increased its cellulose content while decreasing hemicellulose content. Steam-exploded corn stover also increased release of reducing sugars, rate of fermentation, and production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in vitro. The steam explosion treatment increased microbial colonization and in situ degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose of corn stover in the rumen of dairy cows. Steam explosion may be a useful pretreatment of corn stover to improve its nutritional value as forage for cattle, or as feedstock for biofuel production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction of PHM, PHI and 24-glutamine PHI with human VIP receptors from colonic epithelium: comparison with rat intestinal receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laburthe, M.; Couvineau, A.; Rouyer-Fessard, C.; Moroder, L.

    1985-01-01

    PHM, the human counterpart of porcine Peptide Histidine Isoleucine amide (PHI), is shown to be a VIP agonist with low potency on human VIP receptors located in colonic epithelial cell membranes. Its potency is identical to that of PHI but by 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of VIP itself in inhibiting 125 I-VIP binding and in stimulating adenylate cyclase activity. This contrasts markedly with the behavior of PHI on rat VIP receptors located in intestinal epithelial cell membranes where PHI is a potent agonist with a potency that is 1/5 that of VIP. In another connection, the authors show that 24-glutamine PHI has the same affinity as 24-glutamic acid PHI (the natural peptide) for rat or human VIP receptors. These results indicate that while PHI may exert some physiological function through its interaction with VIP receptors in rodents, its human counterpart PHM is a very poor agonist of VIP in human. Furthermore, they show that the drastic change in position 24 of PHI (neutral versus acid residue) does not affect the activity of PHI, at least on VIP receptors. 21 references, 1 figure

  2. A 3D intestinal tissue model supports Clostridioides difficile germination, colonization, toxin production and epithelial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Lamyaa; Chen, Ying; Fasciano, Alyssa C; Lin, Yinan; Kaplan, David L; Kumamoto, Carol A; Mecsas, Joan

    2018-04-01

    Endospore-forming Clostridioides difficile is a causative agent of antibiotic-induced diarrhea, a major nosocomial infection. Studies of its interactions with mammalian tissues have been hampered by the fact that C. difficile requires anaerobic conditions to survive after spore germination. We recently developed a bioengineered 3D human intestinal tissue model and found that low O 2 conditions are produced in the lumen of these tissues. Here, we compared the ability of C. difficile spores to germinate, produce toxin and cause tissue damage in our bioengineered 3D tissue model versus in a 2D transwell model in which human cells form a polarized monolayer. 3D tissue models or 2D polarized monolayers on transwell filters were challenged with the non-toxin producing C. difficile CCUG 37787 serotype X (ATCC 43603) and the toxin producing UK1 C. difficile spores in the presence of the germinant, taurocholate. Spores germinated in both the 3D tissue model as well as the 2D transwell system, however toxin activity was significantly higher in the 3D tissue models compared to the 2D transwells. Moreover, the epithelium damage in the 3D tissue model was significantly more severe than in 2D transwells and damage correlated significantly with the level of toxin activity detected but not with the amount of germinated spores. Combined, these results show that the bioengineered 3D tissue model provides a powerful system with which to study early events leading to toxin production and tissue damage of C. difficile with mammalian cells under anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, these systems may be useful for examining the effects of microbiota, novel drugs and other potential therapeutics directed towards C. difficile infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High proportion of intestinal colonization with successful epidemic clones of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a neonatal intensive care unit in Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveka Nordberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Neonatal infections caused by Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing bacteria are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. No data are available on neonatal colonization with ESBL-producing bacteria in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of intestinal colonization with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, their resistance pattern and risk factors of colonization in a neonatal intensive care unit in Ecuador. METHODS: During a three month period, stool specimens were collected every two weeks from hospitalized neonates. Species identification and susceptibility testing were performed with Vitek2, epidemiologic typing with automated repetitive PCR. Associations between groups were analyzed using the Pearson X (2 test and Fisher exact test. A forward step logistic regression model identified significant predictors for colonization. RESULTS: Fifty-six percent of the neonates were colonized with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Length of stay longer than 20 days and enteral feeding with a combination of breastfeeding and formula feeding were significantly associated with ESBL-colonization. The strains found were E. coli (EC, 89% and K. pneumoniae (KP, 11% and epidemiological typing divided these isolates in two major clusters. All EC and KP had bla CTX-M group 1 except for a unique EC isolate that had bla CTX-M group 9. Multi-locus sequence typing performed on the K. pneumoniae strains showed that the strains belonged to ST855 and ST897. The two detected STs belong to two different epidemic clonal complexes (CC, CC11 and CC14, which previously have been associated with dissemination of carbapenemases. None of the E. coli strains belonged to the epidemic ST 131 clone. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the neonates were colonized with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae where the main risk factor for colonization was length of hospital stay. Two of the isolated clones were epidemic and known

  4. Salmonella Typhi Colonization Provokes Extensive Transcriptional Changes Aimed at Evading Host Mucosal Immune Defense During Early Infection of Human Intestinal Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Nickerson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Commensal microorganisms influence a variety of host functions in the gut, including immune response, glucose homeostasis, metabolic pathways and oxidative stress, among others. This study describes how Salmonella Typhi, the pathogen responsible for typhoid fever, uses similar strategies to escape immune defense responses and survive within its human host. To elucidate the early mechanisms of typhoid fever, we performed studies using healthy human intestinal tissue samples and “mini-guts,” organoids grown from intestinal tissue taken from biopsy specimens. We analyzed gene expression changes in human intestinal specimens and bacterial cells both separately and after colonization. Our results showed mechanistic strategies that S. Typhi uses to rearrange the cellular machinery of the host cytoskeleton to successfully invade the intestinal epithelium, promote polarized cytokine release and evade immune system activation by downregulating genes involved in antigen sampling and presentation during infection. This work adds novel information regarding S. Typhi infection pathogenesis in humans, by replicating work shown in traditional cell models, and providing new data that can be applied to future vaccine development strategies. Keywords: Typhoid fever, Salmonella, Snapwell™ system, Human tissue, Terminal ileum, Immune system, Innate immunity, Immune evasion, Host-pathogen interaction, Vaccine development, Intestinal organoids, Organoid monolayer

  5. Calcium in milk products precipitates intestinal fatty acids and secondary bile acids and thus inhibits colonic cytotoxicity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, MJAP; Termont, DSML; Lapre, JA; Kleibeuker, JH; Vonk, RJ; VanderMeer, R

    1996-01-01

    Dietary calcium may reduce the risk of colon cancer, probably by precipitating cytotoxic surfactants, such as secondary bile acids, in the colonic lumen. We previously showed that milk mineral, an important source of calcium, decreases metabolic risk factors and colonic proliferation in rats, We non

  6. Intestinal colonization of IL-2 deficient mice with non-colitogenic B. vulgatus prevents DC maturation and T-cell polarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IL-2 deficient (IL-2(-/- mice mono-colonized with E. coli mpk develop colitis whereas IL-2(-/--mice mono-colonized with B. vulgatus mpk do not and are even protected from E. coli mpk induced colitis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated if mono-colonization with E. coli mpk or B. vulgatus mpk differentially modulates distribution, activation and maturation of intestinal lamina propria (LP dendritic cells (DC. LP DC in mice mono-colonized with protective B. vulgatus mpk or co-colonized with E. coli mpk/B. vulgatus mpk featured a semi-mature LP DC phenotype (CD40(loCD80(loMHC-II(hi whereas mono-colonization with colitogenic E. coli mpk induced LP DC activation and maturation prior to onset of colitis. Accordingly, chemokine receptor (CCR 7 surface expression was more strikingly enhanced in mesenteric lymph node DC from E. coli mpk than B. vulgatus mpk mono- or co-colonized mice. Mature but not semi-mature LP DC promoted Th1 polarization. As B. vulgatus mpk promotes differentiation of semi-mature DC presumably by IL-6, mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 was investigated in LP DC. The data demonstrated that IL-6 mRNA and protein was increased in LP DC of B. vulgatus mpk as compared to E. coli mpk mono-colonized IL-2(-/--mice. The B. vulgatus mpk mediated suppression of CCR7 expression and DC migration was abolished in IL-6(-/--DC in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: From this data we conclude that the B. vulgatus triggered IL-6 secretion by LP DC in absence of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-12 or TNF-alpha induces a semi-mature LP DC phenotype, which might prevent T-cell activation and thereby the induction of colitis in IL-2(-/--mice. The data provide new evidence that IL-6 might act as an immune regulatory cytokine in the mucosa by targeting intestinal DC.

  7. The influence of arachidonic acid metabolites on cell division in the intestinal epithelium and in colonic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, F M; Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1984-09-01

    Various metabolites of arachidonic acid are now known to influence cell division. In this paper the effects on cell proliferation of arachidonic acid, some inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism and some analogs of arachidonic acid metabolites is described. The epithelial cell proliferation rate in the jejunum, in the descending colon and in dimethylhydrazine-induced tumors of rat colon was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. Administration of arachidonic acid resulted in retardation of cell proliferation in each of the tissues examined. A cyclooxygenase inhibitor (Flurbiprofen) prevented this effect of arachidonic acid in the jejunal crypts and in colonic tumors, but not in colonic crypts. In contrast, inhibitors of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase (Benoxaprofen and BW755c) prevented the effect of arachidonic acid in the colonic crypts and reduced its effect on colonic tumours but did not alter its effect on the jejunum. An inhibitor of thromoboxane A2 synthetase (U51,605) was also able to prevent the inhibitory effect of arachidonic acid on colonic tumors. Treatment with 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 inhibited cell proliferation in jejunal crypts and in colonic tumors, as did a thromboxane A2 mimicking agent, U46619. Nafazatrom, an agent that stimulates prostacyclin synthesis and inhibits lypoxygenase, promoted cell proliferation in the jejunal crypts and colonic crypts, but inhibited cell proliferation in colonic tumours.

  8. Randomized Clinical Trial: Impact of Oral Administration of Saccharomyces boulardii on Gene Expression of Intestinal Cytokines in Patients Undergoing Colon Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Marcella Lobato D; da Silva, Raphael Steinberg; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Bruña-Romero, Oscar; da Silva, Rodrigo Gomes; de Vasconcelos Generoso, Simone; Correia, Maria Isabel T D

    2016-11-01

    When intestinal microbiota is imbalanced, a patient becomes more vulnerable to infectious complications; intervention with beneficial probiotics may help lower risk for infection. The aim of this study was to measure levels of inflammatory cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) in surgical samples of intestinal mucosal tissues from patients who were given the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii before undergoing colon surgery. Thirty-three patients undergoing colon resection were randomly assigned to receive at least 7-day preoperative probiotic treatment (n = 15) or conventional (n = 18) treatment. Probiotic treatment consisted of oral lyophilized S boulardii Cytokine mRNA levels (interleukin [IL]-10, IL-1β, IL-23A, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-12B, interferon-γ [INF-γ], and IL-17A) were measured in samples obtained during the operation. Postoperative infections were also assessed. Patients who received probiotics had significantly lower mucosal IL-1β, IL-10, and IL-23A mRNA levels than the control group (P = .001, P = .04, and P = .03, respectively). However, mRNA expression of other cytokines did not differ between the 2 groups (P > .05). The incidence of postoperative infectious complications was 13.3% and 38.8% in probiotic and control groups, respectively (P > .05). There was no perioperative mortality in either group. The mean total length of hospital stay was similar between the groups (P > .05). Probiotic treatment with S boulardii downregulates both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the intestinal colonic mucosa with no statistical impact on postoperative infection rates. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  9. Compression anastomotic ring-locking procedure (CARP) is a safe and effective method for intestinal anastomoses following left-sided colonic resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhjalmsson, Dadi; Appelros, Stefan; Toth, Ervin

    2015-01-01

    -sided colonic resection. Time for evacuation of the anastomotic rings, perioperative compression pressure, and adverse effects were recorded. Postoperative blood samples were collected daily, and flexible sigmoidoscopy was performed 8-12 weeks after surgery to examine the anastomoses. RESULTS: Fourteen out......BACKGROUND: Compression anastomotic ring-locking procedure (CARP) is a novel procedure for creating colonic anastomoses. The surgical procedure allows perioperative quantification of the compression pressure between the intestinal ends within the anastomosis and postoperative monitoring...... device evacuated spontaneously in all patients by the natural route after a median of 10 days. Perioperative compression pressure ranged between 85 and 280 mBar (median 130 mBar). Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed smooth anastomoses without signs of pathological inflammation or stenosis in all cases...

  10. Quality of life of patients with an intestinal stoma constructed in the course of treatment of rectal and sigmoid colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Pierzak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increased human life span is accompanied by a growing number of carcinomas, including colorectal cancer. This is due not only to genetic conditioning but also exposure to hazardous factors present in the environment. A stoma is the consequence of surgical treatment of colorectal cancer. Aim of the research : The objective of the study is to determine the level of quality of life of patients with an intestinal stoma, which would allow an evaluation of the effect of a stoma on the bio-psychosocial functioning of patients, as well as precise specification of discomfort of living with a stoma. Material and methods: The study was conducted during the period from January to April 2015, in the Surgical Clinic of the Regional Cancer Centre in Kielce, and included 102 patients with a stoma, aged 35–75. The study group included 65 males and 37 females, with a stoma constructed mainly from the sigmoid colon or rectum within various periods after surgical treatment. The method of a diagnostic survey was applied, and a questionnaire was selected as the research instrument. The patients were both rural and urban inhabitants. Statistical calculations were performed using the 2 test. Results: Based on the analysis of the results of the study, the quality of life of patients with an intestinal stoma formed in the course of surgical treatment of sigmoid colon and rectal cancer was investigated. The quality of life of patients is at a medium level (neither good nor poor. Conclusions: The quality of life of patients with an intestinal stoma depends on the degree of acceptance of the stoma and the present body image. The quality of life of patients with an intestinal stoma depends on the duration of the disease and of the stoma. There is no relationship between the degree of acceptance of the stoma by the patient and support received from family and friends. The stoma affects the quality of the sex life of patients.

  11. Integrative ChIP-seq/microarray analysis identifies a CTNNB1 target signature enriched in intestinal stem cells and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhide; Biesinger, Jacob; Salmans, Michael L; Roberts, Brian S; Arthur, William T; Cleary, Michele; Andersen, Bogi; Xie, Xiaohui; Dai, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Deregulation of canonical Wnt/CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) pathway is one of the earliest events in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. Mutations in APC or CTNNB1 are highly frequent in colon cancer and cause aberrant stabilization of CTNNB1, which activates the transcription of Wnt target genes by binding to chromatin via the TCF/LEF transcription factors. Here we report an integrative analysis of genome-wide chromatin occupancy of CTNNB1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) and gene expression profiling by microarray analysis upon RNAi-mediated knockdown of CTNNB1 in colon cancer cells. We observed 3629 CTNNB1 binding peaks across the genome and a significant correlation between CTNNB1 binding and knockdown-induced gene expression change. Our integrative analysis led to the discovery of a direct Wnt target signature composed of 162 genes. Gene ontology analysis of this signature revealed a significant enrichment of Wnt pathway genes, suggesting multiple feedback regulations of the pathway. We provide evidence that this gene signature partially overlaps with the Lgr5+ intestinal stem cell signature, and is significantly enriched in normal intestinal stem cells as well as in clinical colorectal cancer samples. Interestingly, while the expression of the CTNNB1 target gene set does not correlate with survival, elevated expression of negative feedback regulators within the signature predicts better prognosis. Our data provide a genome-wide view of chromatin occupancy and gene regulation of Wnt/CTNNB1 signaling in colon cancer cells.

  12. Integrative ChIP-seq/microarray analysis identifies a CTNNB1 target signature enriched in intestinal stem cells and colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhide Watanabe

    Full Text Available Deregulation of canonical Wnt/CTNNB1 (beta-catenin pathway is one of the earliest events in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. Mutations in APC or CTNNB1 are highly frequent in colon cancer and cause aberrant stabilization of CTNNB1, which activates the transcription of Wnt target genes by binding to chromatin via the TCF/LEF transcription factors. Here we report an integrative analysis of genome-wide chromatin occupancy of CTNNB1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq and gene expression profiling by microarray analysis upon RNAi-mediated knockdown of CTNNB1 in colon cancer cells.We observed 3629 CTNNB1 binding peaks across the genome and a significant correlation between CTNNB1 binding and knockdown-induced gene expression change. Our integrative analysis led to the discovery of a direct Wnt target signature composed of 162 genes. Gene ontology analysis of this signature revealed a significant enrichment of Wnt pathway genes, suggesting multiple feedback regulations of the pathway. We provide evidence that this gene signature partially overlaps with the Lgr5+ intestinal stem cell signature, and is significantly enriched in normal intestinal stem cells as well as in clinical colorectal cancer samples. Interestingly, while the expression of the CTNNB1 target gene set does not correlate with survival, elevated expression of negative feedback regulators within the signature predicts better prognosis.Our data provide a genome-wide view of chromatin occupancy and gene regulation of Wnt/CTNNB1 signaling in colon cancer cells.

  13. Estudo histomorfométrico de anastomoses primárias de cólon em coelhos, com e sem preparo intestinal Histomorfometric analysis of colonic anastomosis in rabbits with and without intestinal preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal da Rocha Torres Neto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O preparo intestinal é muito utilizado em cirurgias do cólon. A LIATO (lavagem intestinal anterógrada trans-operatória promove limpeza do cólon, conferindo incremento de tempo ao ato cirúrgico e maior risco de infecção pela maior manipulação do conteúdo intestinal .Este estudo compara confecção de anastomoses colônicas com e sem preparo intestinal, pela análise histomorfométrica. Foram submetidos à cirurgia 30 coelhos divididos em 2 grupos: grupo 1, controle e grupo 2, que submeteu-se a LIATO, e comparados os seus resultados. A presença de infiltrado inflamatório agudo teve média discretamente maior nas anastomoses do grupo 2. Infiltrado inflamatório crônico obteve média de 1,9 nas anastomoses do grupo 2 e de 2,1 nas sem preparo. Necrose esteve presente em 15,7% dos casos onde se realizou LIATO contra 13,5% no grupo sem preparo. Calcificações foram encontradas em 43% das anastomoses com preparo e em 30% das sem preparo. Observou-se maior quantidade de colágeno nas anastomoses feitas com a lavagem intestinal. O padrão entrelaçado das fibras colágenas foi observado em 86% das anastomoses do grupo 2 e 70% no 1. Estudo estatístico foi realizado com programa Prism® 4 para pColon laudering is used in many colon surgeries. The LIATO, that promotes cleanness of colon, demonstrates an increase of the surgical time and increase risk of infection. This study compares colonic anastomosis with and without preparation, through histomorfometric analysis. 30 rabbits were submitted to the surgery treatment and had been evaluated and divided in groups: group 1 (control and group 2 (LIATO. Carried through statistical study with the program Prism® 4 for p< 5%. The analisis found acute inflammatory infiltrated with discrete bigger average in the anastomoses of group 2. Chronic inflammatory infiltrated with average of 1,9 in the anastomoses of group 2 and of 2,1 in the ones without preparation. Necrosis in 15,7% in the LIATO against 13

  14. Polystyrene nanoparticles facilitate the internalization of impermeable biomolecules in non-tumour and tumour cells from colon epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabeza, Laura [University of Granada, Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Institute of Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine (IBIMER) (Spain); Cano-Cortés, Victoria; Rodríguez, María J. [University of Granada, Department of Pharmaceutical and Organic Chemistry (Spain); Vélez, Celia; Melguizo, Consolación, E-mail: melguizo@ugr.es [University of Granada, Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Institute of Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine (IBIMER) (Spain); Sánchez-Martín, Rosario M., E-mail: rmsanchez@ugr.es [University of Granada, Department of Pharmaceutical and Organic Chemistry (Spain); Prados, Jose [University of Granada, Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Institute of Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine (IBIMER) (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Advanced colon cancer has a poor prognosis due to the limited effectiveness of current chemotherapies. Treatment failures may be avoided by the utilization of nanoparticles, which can enhance the effects of antitumor drugs, reduce their side effects and increase their directionality. Polystyrene nanoparticles have shown high biocompatibility and appropriate physicochemical properties and may represent a novel and more effective approach against colon cancer. In the present study, polystyrene nanoparticles were synthesized and fluorescently labelled, analyzing their cell internalization, intracellular localization and capacity to release transported molecules in tumour and non-tumour human colon cell lines (T84 and CCD-18). Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy studies demonstrated that polystyrene nanoparticles are an effective vehicle for the intracellular delivery of small molecules into colon epithelium cells. The percentage cell uptake was around 100 % in both T84 and CCD-18 cell lines after only 24 h of exposure and was cell confluence-independent. The polystyrene nanoparticles showed no cytotoxicity in either colon cell line. It was found that small molecules can be efficiently delivered into colon cells by using a disulphide bridge as release strategy. Analysis of the influence of the functionalization of the polystyrene nanoparticles surface on the internalization efficiency revealed some morphological changes in these cells. These results demonstrate that polystyrene nanoparticles may improve the transport of biomolecules into colon cells which could have a potential application in chemotherapeutic treatment against colon cancer.

  15. Polystyrene nanoparticles facilitate the internalization of impermeable biomolecules in non-tumour and tumour cells from colon epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabeza, Laura; Cano-Cortés, Victoria; Rodríguez, María J.; Vélez, Celia; Melguizo, Consolación; Sánchez-Martín, Rosario M.; Prados, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Advanced colon cancer has a poor prognosis due to the limited effectiveness of current chemotherapies. Treatment failures may be avoided by the utilization of nanoparticles, which can enhance the effects of antitumor drugs, reduce their side effects and increase their directionality. Polystyrene nanoparticles have shown high biocompatibility and appropriate physicochemical properties and may represent a novel and more effective approach against colon cancer. In the present study, polystyrene nanoparticles were synthesized and fluorescently labelled, analyzing their cell internalization, intracellular localization and capacity to release transported molecules in tumour and non-tumour human colon cell lines (T84 and CCD-18). Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy studies demonstrated that polystyrene nanoparticles are an effective vehicle for the intracellular delivery of small molecules into colon epithelium cells. The percentage cell uptake was around 100 % in both T84 and CCD-18 cell lines after only 24 h of exposure and was cell confluence-independent. The polystyrene nanoparticles showed no cytotoxicity in either colon cell line. It was found that small molecules can be efficiently delivered into colon cells by using a disulphide bridge as release strategy. Analysis of the influence of the functionalization of the polystyrene nanoparticles surface on the internalization efficiency revealed some morphological changes in these cells. These results demonstrate that polystyrene nanoparticles may improve the transport of biomolecules into colon cells which could have a potential application in chemotherapeutic treatment against colon cancer

  16. Three-Dimensional Organotypic Co-Culture Model of Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Macrophages to Study "Salmonella Enterica" Colonization Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Mark; Yang, J; Barilla, J.; Crabbe, A.; Sarker, S. F.; Liu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional/3-D organotypic models of human intestinal epithelium mimic the differentiated form and function of parental tissues often not exhibited by 2-D monolayers and respond to Salmonella in ways that reflect in vivo infections. To further enhance the physiological relevance of 3-D models to more closely approximate in vivo intestinal microenvironments during infection, we developed and validated a novel 3-D intestinal co-culture model containing multiple epithelial cell types and phagocytic macrophages, and applied to study enteric infection by different Salmonella pathovars.

  17. TNF Receptor-2 Facilitates an Immunosuppressive Microenvironment in the Liver to Promote the Colonization and Growth of Hepatic Metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ham, Boram; Wang, Ni; D'Costa, Zarina

    2015-01-01

    Successful colonization by a cancer cell of a distant metastatic site requires immune escape in the new microenvironment. TNF signaling has been implicated broadly in the suppression of immune surveillance that prevents colonization at the metastatic site and therefore must be blocked. In this st......Successful colonization by a cancer cell of a distant metastatic site requires immune escape in the new microenvironment. TNF signaling has been implicated broadly in the suppression of immune surveillance that prevents colonization at the metastatic site and therefore must be blocked...... chemotherapy-naïve colon cancer patients confirmed the presence of CD33(+)HLA-DR(-)TNFR2(+) myeloid cells in the periphery of hepatic metastases. Overall, our findings implicate TNFR2 in supporting MDSC-mediated immune suppression and metastasis in the liver, suggesting the use of TNFR2 inhibitors...

  18. Impact of Campylobacter jejuni cj0268c knockout mutation on intestinal colonization, translocation, and induction of immunopathology in gnotobiotic IL-10 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus M Heimesaat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although Campylobacter jejuni infections have a high prevalence worldwide and represent a significant socioeconomic burden, the underlying molecular mechanisms of induced intestinal immunopathology are still not well understood. We have recently generated a C. jejuni mutant strain NCTC11168::cj0268c, which has been shown to be involved in cellular adhesion and invasion. The immunopathological impact of this gene, however, has not been investigated in vivo so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gnotobiotic IL-10 deficient mice were generated by quintuple antibiotic treatment and perorally infected with C. jejuni mutant strain NCTC11168::cj0268c, its complemented version (NCTC11168::cj0268c-comp-cj0268c, or the parental strain NCTC11168. Kinetic analyses of fecal pathogen loads until day 6 post infection (p.i. revealed that knockout of cj0268c did not compromise intestinal C. jejuni colonization capacities. Whereas animals irrespective of the analysed C. jejuni strain developed similar clinical symptoms of campylobacteriosis (i.e. enteritis, mice infected with the NCTC11168::cj0268c mutant strain displayed significant longer small as well as large intestinal lengths indicative for less distinct C. jejuni induced pathology when compared to infected control groups at day 6 p.i. This was further supported by significantly lower apoptotic and T cell numbers in the colonic mucosa and lamina propria, which were paralleled by lower intestinal IFN-γ and IL-6 concentrations at day 6 following knockout mutant NCTC11168::cj0268c as compared to parental strain infection. Remarkably, less intestinal immunopathology was accompanied by lower IFN-γ secretion in ex vivo biopsies taken from mesenteric lymphnodes of NCTC11168::cj0268c infected mice versus controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We here for the first time show that the cj0268c gene is involved in mediating C. jejuni induced immunopathogenesis in vivo. Future studies will provide further

  19. Comparison of the kinetics of intestinal colonization by associating 5 probiotic bacteria assumed either in a microencapsulated or in a traditional, uncoated form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Mario D; Carmagnola, Stefania; Ballarè, Marco; Balzarini, Marco; Montino, Franco; Pagliarulo, Michela; Anderloni, Andrea; Orsello, Marco; Tari, Roberto; Sforza, Filomena; Mogna, Luca; Mogna, Giovanni

    2012-10-01

    Beneficial findings concerning probiotics are increasing day by day. However, one of the most important parameters able to significantly affect the probiotic value of a microorganism is its survival during the transit through the stomach and the duodenum. Some techniques may be applied that aim to improve this parameter, but microencapsulation of bacterial cells remains one of the most important. A recent study assessed the kinetics of intestinal colonization by a mixture of 2 probiotic strains, given either in a microencapsulated or in a traditional, uncoated form. A comparison between the intestinal colonization by associating 5 microencapsulated bacteria and the same uncoated strains was performed by a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. The study (December 2007 to January 2009) involved 53 healthy volunteers. In particular, subjects were divided into 2 groups: group A (27 subjects) was given a mix of probiotic strains Probiotical S.p.A. (Novara, Italy), Lactobacillus acidophilus LA02 (DSM 21717), Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR04 (DSM 16605), L. rhamnosus GG, or LGG (ATCC 53103), L. rhamnosus LR06 (DSM 21981), and Bifidobacterium lactis BS01 (LMG P-21384) in an uncoated form, whereas group B (26 subjects) received the same strains microencapsulated with a gastroprotected material. The uncoated strains were administered at 5×10⁹ cfu/strain/d (a total of 25×10⁹ cfu/d) for 21 days, whereas the microencapsulated bacteria were given at 1×10⁹ cfu/strain/d (a total of 5×10⁹ cfu/d) for 21 days. At the end of the first period of supplementation with probiotics, a 3-week wash-out phase was included in the study setting. At the end of the wash-out period, the groups crossed over their treatment regimen; that is, group A was administered the microencapsulated bacteria and group B the uncoated bacteria. The administered quantities of each strain were the same as the first treatment. A quantitative evaluation of intestinal colonization by probiotics, either

  20. Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide facilitates restoration of injured intestinal mucosal immunity in Muscovy duck reovirus-infected Muscovy ducklings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yijian; Jiang, Huihui; Zhu, Erpeng; Li, Jian; Wang, Quanxi; Zhou, Wuduo; Qin, Tao; Wu, Xiaoping; Wu, Baocheng; Huang, Yifan

    2018-02-01

    To elucidate the effect of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (HEP) on the intestinal mucosal immunity in normal and Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV)-infected Muscovy ducklings, 1-day-old healthy Muscovy ducklings were pretreated with 0.2g/L HEP and/or following by MDRV infection in this study, duodenal samples were respectively collected at 1, 3, 6, 10, 15 and 21day post-infection, tissue sections were prepared for observation of morphological structure and determination of intestinal parameters (villus height/crypt depth ratio, villus surface area) as well as counts of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells, mast cells. Additionally, dynamics of secretory immunoglobin A (sIgA), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) productions in intestinal mucosa were measured with radioimmunoassay. Results showed that HEP significantly improved intestinal morphological structure and related indexes, and significantly inhibited the reduction of intestinal mucosal IELs, goblet cells and mast cells caused by MDRV infection. Furthermore, HEP significantly increased the secretion of sIgA, IFN-γ and IL-4 to enhance intestinal mucosal immune functions. Our findings indicate that HEP treatment can effectively repair MDRV-caused injures of small intestinal mucosal immune barrier, and improve mucosal immune function in sick Muscovy ducklings, which will provide valuable help for further application of HEP in prevention and treatment of MDRV infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. An obesity-associated gut microbiome reprograms the intestinal epigenome and leads to altered colonic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yufeng; Roberts, John D; Grimm, Sara A; Lih, Fred B; Deterding, Leesa J; Li, Ruifang; Chrysovergis, Kaliopi; Wade, Paul A

    2018-01-23

    The gut microbiome, a key constituent of the colonic environment, has been implicated as an important modulator of human health. The eukaryotic epigenome is postulated to respond to environmental stimuli through alterations in chromatin features and, ultimately, gene expression. How the host mediates epigenomic responses to gut microbiota is an emerging area of interest. Here, we profile the gut microbiome and chromatin characteristics in colon epithelium from mice fed either an obesogenic or control diet, followed by an analysis of the resultant changes in gene expression. The obesogenic diet shapes the microbiome prior to the development of obesity, leading to altered bacterial metabolite production which predisposes the host to obesity. This microbiota-diet interaction leads to changes in histone modification at active enhancers that are enriched for binding sites for signal responsive transcription factors. These alterations of histone methylation and acetylation are associated with signaling pathways integral to the development of colon cancer. The transplantation of obesogenic diet-conditioned microbiota into germ free mice, combined with an obesogenic diet, recapitulates the features of the long-term diet regimen. The diet/microbiome-dependent changes are reflected in both the composition of the recipient animals' microbiome as well as in the set of transcription factor motifs identified at diet-influenced enhancers. These findings suggest that the gut microbiome, under specific dietary exposures, stimulates a reprogramming of the enhancer landscape in the colon, with downstream effects on transcription factors. These chromatin changes may be associated with those seen during colon cancer development.

  2. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment improves intestinal permeability and modulates inflammatory response and homeostasis of spleen and colon in experimental model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khailova, Ludmila; Baird, Christine H; Rush, Aubri A; Barnes, Christopher; Wischmeyer, Paul E

    2017-12-01

    Recent clinical trials and in vivo models demonstrate probiotic administration can reduce occurrence and improve outcome of pneumonia and sepsis, both major clinical challenges worldwide. Potential probiotic benefits include maintenance of gut epithelial barrier homeostasis and prevention of downstream organ dysfunction due to systemic inflammation. However, mechanism(s) of probiotic-mediated protection against pneumonia remain poorly understood. This study evaluated potential mechanistic targets in the maintenance of gut barrier homeostasis following Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) treatment in a mouse model of pneumonia. Studies were performed in 6-8 week old FVB/N mice treated (o.g.) with or without LGG (10 9  CFU/ml) and intratracheally injected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or saline. At 4, 12, and 24 h post-bacterial treatment spleen and colonic tissue were collected for analysis. Pneumonia significantly increased intestinal permeability and gut claudin-2. LGG significantly attenuated increased gut permeability and claudin-2 following pneumonia back to sham control levels. As mucin expression is key to gut barrier homeostasis we demonstrate that LGG can enhance goblet cell expression and mucin barrier formation versus control pneumonia animals. Further as Muc2 is a key gut mucin, we show LGG corrected deficient Muc2 expression post-pneumonia. Apoptosis increased in both colon and spleen post-pneumonia, and this increase was significantly attenuated by LGG. Concomitantly, LGG corrected pneumonia-mediated loss of cell proliferation in colon and significantly enhanced cell proliferation in spleen. Finally, LGG significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in colon and spleen post-pneumonia. These data demonstrate LGG can maintain intestinal barrier homeostasis by enhancing gut mucin expression/barrier formation, reducing apoptosis, and improving cell proliferation. This was accompanied by reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the

  3. Apramycin treatment affects selection and spread of a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain able to colonize the human gut in the intestinal microbiota of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Zachariasen, Camilla; Hansen, Monica Hegstad

    2016-01-01

    of treatment, and apramycin treatment resulted in significantly higher counts compared to the non-treated group. This represents the first demonstration of how antimicrobial treatment affects spread of resistant bacteria in pig production. The use of apramycin may lead to enhanced spread of gentamicin-resistant......The effect of apramycin treatment on transfer and selection of an Escherichia coli strain (E. coli 912) in the intestine of pigs was analyzed through an in vivo experiment. The strain was sequenced and assigned to the sequence type ST101 and serotype O11. It carried resistance genes to apramycin......-treated (pen 3), along with a non-inoculated control group (pen 1). Two pigs of pen 2 and 3 were inoculated intragastrically with a rifampicin resistant variant of the strain. Apramycin treatment in pen 2 was initiated immediately after inoculation. Strain colonization was assessed in the feces from all pigs...

  4. Interactions between bacteria and the gut mucosa: Do enteric neurotransmitters acting on the mucosal epithelium influence intestinal colonization or infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intestinal epithelium is a critical barrier between the internal and external milieux of the mammalian host. Epithelial interactions between these two host environments have been shown to be modulated by several different, cross-communicating cell types residing in the gut mucosa. These include ...

  5. Capability of the two microorganisms Bifidobacterium breve B632 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 to colonize the intestinal microbiota of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogna, Luca; Del Piano, Mario; Mogna, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The total number of bacteria present in the gut microbiota of a newborn is consistently lower than the average found in adults, with the extent of this difference being directly related to body weight and age. It could be assumed that a lower number of viable probiotic cells is necessary to achieve significant gut colonization in infants and children. This study assessed the capability of Bifidobacterium breve B632 (DSM 24706) and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 (DSM 16604), 2 strains able to significantly inhibit some gram-negative bacteria in vitro, to integrate into the intestinal microbiota of children. Ten healthy children aged an average of 5.7±2.6 were given an oily suspension containing B. breve B632 and B. breve BR03 for 21 consecutive days. The daily dose was 100 million live cells of each strain. Fecal specimens were collected and analyzed at the beginning (d0) and at the end of the study (d21). Total fecal bifidobacteria and coliforms have been quantified by microbiological plate counts. A significant increase in total fecal bifidobacteria (from 8.99 to 9.47 log10 CFU/g, P=0.042) and a parallel decrease in total coliforms (from 8.60 to 7.93 log10 CFU/g, P=0.048) was recorded after 21 days of supplementation. An oily suspension has proved an effective way of providing probiotics to children. A lower viable cells concentration was sufficient to mediate this effect in the light of the fact that the intestinal microbiota of children harbors a considerably smaller amount of total bacteria compared with adults. In addition to gut colonization in healthy children, B. breve B632 and B. breve BR03 were able to decrease total fecal coliforms, therefore supporting their potential specific use in colicky infants.

  6. Interactions between bacteria and the intestinal mucosa: Do enteric neurotransmitters acting on epithelium cells influence mucosal colonization or infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms governing the ability of bacteria to adhere to and colonize human and animal hosts in health and disease are still incompletely understood. Throughout the extensive mucosal surfaces of the body that are in contact with the external environment, epithelial cells represent the first po...

  7. Food-grade TiO2 impairs intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis, initiates preneoplastic lesions and promotes aberrant crypt development in the rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Sarah; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Cartier, Christel; Coméra, Christine; Gaultier, Eric; Dupuy, Jacques; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Grysan, Patrick; Reguer, Solenn; Thieriet, Nathalie; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Thiaudière, Dominique; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Carrière, Marie; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Pierre, Fabrice H; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence; Houdeau, Eric

    2017-01-20

    Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) containing a nanoscale particle fraction (TiO 2 -NPs) is approved as a white pigment (E171 in Europe) in common foodstuffs, including confectionary. There are growing concerns that daily oral TiO 2 -NP intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In rats orally exposed for one week to E171 at human relevant levels, titanium was detected in the immune cells of Peyer's patches (PP) as observed with the TiO 2 -NP model NM-105. Dendritic cell frequency increased in PP regardless of the TiO 2 treatment, while regulatory T cells involved in dampening inflammatory responses decreased with E171 only, an effect still observed after 100 days of treatment. In all TiO 2 -treated rats, stimulation of immune cells isolated from PP showed a decrease in Thelper (Th)-1 IFN-γ secretion, while splenic Th1/Th17 inflammatory responses sharply increased. E171 or NM-105 for one week did not initiate intestinal inflammation, while a 100-day E171 treatment promoted colon microinflammation and initiated preneoplastic lesions while also fostering the growth of aberrant crypt foci in a chemically induced carcinogenesis model. These data should be considered for risk assessments of the susceptibility to Th17-driven autoimmune diseases and to colorectal cancer in humans exposed to TiO 2 from dietary sources.

  8. Effects of correcting in situ ruminal microbial colonization of feed particles on the relationship between ruminally undegraded and intestinally digested crude protein in concentrate feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Javier; Mouhbi, Rabiaa; Guevara-González, Jesús Alberto; Arroyo, José María

    2018-02-01

    In situ estimates of ruminally undegraded protein (RUP) and intestinally digested protein (IDP) of ten concentrates, uncorrected or corrected for the ruminal microbial colonization, were used to examine the effects of this correction on the relationship between IDP and RUP values. Both variables were established for three rumen and duodenum cannulated wethers using 15 N labeling-techniques and considering measured rates of ruminal particle comminution (k c ) and outflow (k p ). A covariance analysis showed that the close relationship found between both variables (IDP = -0.0132 ± 0.00679 + 0.776 ± 0.0002 RUP; n = 60; P content in concentrates and industrial by-products can be predicted from RUP values, thus avoiding the laborious and complex procedure of determining intestinal digestibility; however, a larger sample of feeds is necessary to achieve more accurate predictions. The lack of influence of the correction for microbial contamination on the prediction observed in the present study increases the data available for this prediction. However, only the use of corrected values may provide an accurate evaluation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Volunteer Challenge With Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli That Express Intestinal Colonization Factor Fimbriae CS17 and CS19

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Serotype was determined by classic serological methods at the Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico [UNAMl. H- indrcates non-motility. b CF...Levine MM, Merson MM. Serologic differentiation between antitoxin responses to infection with Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli...prototype cholera B subunit-colonization factor antigen cnterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine. Vaccine 1993; 1[:929-34. 15. Levine MM, Nalin DR

  10. Genetic diversity, phylogroup distribution and virulence gene profile of pks positive Escherichia coli colonizing human intestinal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarshar, Meysam; Scribano, Daniela; Marazzato, Massimiliano; Ambrosi, Cecilia; Aprea, Maria Rita; Aleandri, Marta; Pronio, Annamaria; Longhi, Catia; Nicoletti, Mauro; Zagaglia, Carlo; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Conte, Maria Pia

    2017-11-01

    Some Escherichia coli strains of phylogroup B2 harbor a (pks) pathogenicity island that encodes a polyketide-peptide genotoxin called colibactin. It causes DNA double-strand breaks and megalocytosis in eukaryotic cells and it may contribute to cancer development. Study of bacterial community that colonizes the adenomatous polyp lesion, defined as precancerous lesions, could be helpful to assess if such pathogenic bacteria possess a role in the polyp progression to cancer. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1500 E. coli isolates were obtained from biopsies of patients presenting adenomatous colon polyps, the normal tissues adjacent to the polyp lesion and patients presenting normal mucosa. pks island frequency, phylogenetic grouping, fingerprint genotyping, and virulence gene features of pks positive (pks + ) E. coli isolates were performed. We found pks + E. coli strongly colonize two patients presenting polypoid lesions and none were identified in patients presenting normal mucosa. Predominant phylogroups among pks + E. coli isolates were B2, followed by D. Clustering based on fragment profiles of composite analysis, typed the pks + isolates into 5 major clusters (I-V) and 17 sub-clusters, demonstrating a high level of genetic diversity among them. The most prevalent virulence genes were fimH and fyuA (100%), followed by vat (92%), hra and papA (69%), ibeA (28%), and hlyA (25%). Our results revealed that pks + E. coli can colonize the precancerous lesions, with a high distribution in both the polyp lesions and in normal tissues adjacent to the lesion. The high differences in fingerprinting patterns obtained indicate that pks + E. coli strains were genetically diverse, possibly allowing them to more easily adapt to environmental variations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MACC1 facilitates chemoresistance and cancer stem cell‑like properties of colon cancer cells through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiankai; Wang, Wenjuan; Cai, Hongyi; Du, Binbin; Zhang, Lijuan; Ma, Wen; Hu, Yongguo; Feng, Shifang; Miao, Guoying

    2017-12-01

    With regards to colon cancer, resistance to 5‑fluorouracil (5‑FU)‑based chemotherapy and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered important factors underlying therapy failure. Metastasis‑associated colon cancer 1 (MACC1) has been associated with poor prognosis and the promotion of metastasis within several types of cancer. However, the biological behavior of MACC1 in chemoresistance and CSC‑like properties remains unclear. In the present study, various methods including gene knockdown, gene overexpression, western blotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and MTT assay, have been adopted. According to the results of the present study, MACC1 was depleted in two colon cancer cell lines resistant to 5‑FU; subsequently, CSC‑like properties and 5‑FU sensitivity were investigated. Within 5‑FU‑resistant cells, cell death was facilitated by MACC1 knockdown. Furthermore, sphere formation and the expression levels of pluripotent markers, including cluster of differentiation (CD) 44, CD133 and Nanog were reduced due to MACC1 depletion. Additionally, it was indicated that the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway may be associated with 5‑FU resistance and CSC‑like properties via MACC1.

  12. MACC1 facilitates chemoresistance and cancer stem cell-like properties of colon cancer cells through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiankai; Wang, Wenjuan; Cai, Hongyi; Du, Binbin; Zhang, Lijuan; Ma, Wen; Hu, Yongguo; Feng, Shifang; Miao, Guoying

    2017-01-01

    With regards to colon cancer, resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered important factors underlying therapy failure. Metastasis-associated colon cancer 1 (MACC1) has been associated with poor prognosis and the promotion of metastasis within several types of cancer. However, the biological behavior of MACC1 in chemoresistance and CSC-like properties remains unclear. In the present study, various methods including gene knockdown, gene overexpression, western blotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and MTT assay, have been adopted. According to the results of the present study, MACC1 was depleted in two colon cancer cell lines resistant to 5-FU; subsequently, CSC-like properties and 5-FU sensitivity were investigated. Within 5-FU-resistant cells, cell death was facilitated by MACC1 knockdown. Furthermore, sphere formation and the expression levels of pluripotent markers, including cluster of differentiation (CD) 44, CD133 and Nanog were reduced due to MACC1 depletion. Additionally, it was indicated that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway may be associated with 5-FU resistance and CSC-like properties via MACC1. PMID:28990068

  13. Development of a dual vaccine for prevention of Brucella abortus infection and Escherichia coli O157:H7 intestinal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannino, Florencia; Herrmann, Claudia K; Roset, Mara S; Briones, Gabriel

    2015-05-05

    Zoonoses that affect human and animal health have an important economic impact. In the study now presented, a bivalent vaccine has been developed that has the potential for preventing the transmission from cattle to humans of two bacterial pathogens: Brucella abortus and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). A 66kDa chimeric antigen, composed by EspA, Intimin, Tir, and H7 flagellin (EITH7) from STEC, was constructed and expressed in B. abortus Δpgm vaccine strain (BabΔpgm). Mice orally immunized with BabΔpgm(EITH7) elicited an immune response with the induction of anti-EITH7 antibodies (IgA) that clears an intestinal infection of E. coli O157:H7 three times faster (t=4 days) than mice immunized with BabΔpgm carrier strain (t=12 days). As expected, mice immunized with BabΔpgm(EITH7) strain also elicited a protective immune response against B. abortus infection. A Brucella-based vaccine platform is described capable of eliciting a combined protective immune response against two bacterial pathogens with diverse lifestyles-the intracellular pathogen B. abortus and the intestinal extracellular pathogen STEC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. TNFα/IFNγ Mediated Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction Is Attenuated by MicroRNA-93 Downregulation of PTK6 in Mouse Colonic Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricci J Haines

    Full Text Available Since inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD represent significant morbidity and mortality in the US, the need for defining novel drug targets and inflammatory mechanisms would be of considerable benefit. Although protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6, also known as breast tumor kinase BRK has been primarily studied in an oncogenic context, it was noted that PTK6 null mice exhibited significantly enhanced colonic epithelial barrier function. Considering that the inflammatory functions of PTK6 have not yet been explored, we hypothesized that cytokines responsible for mediating IBD, such as TNFα/IFNγ, may solicit the action of PTK6 to alter barrier function. After first assessing critical mediators of TNFα/IFNγ driven epithelial barrier dysfunction, we further explored the possibility of PTK6 in this inflammatory context. In this report, we showed that PTK6 siRNA and PTK6 null young adult mouse colonic epithelial cells (YAMC exhibited significant attenuation of TNFα/IFNγ induced barrier dysfunction as measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS assay and permeability assays. In addition, PTK6 null cells transfected with PTK6 cDNA displayed restored barrier dysfunction in response to TNFα/IFNγ, while the cells transfected with vector alone showed similar attenuation of barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, using subcellular fractionation and immunocytochemistry experiments, we found that PTK6 plays a role in FoxO1 nuclear accumulation leading to down-regulation of claudin-3, a tight junction protein. Moreover, we searched for relevant miRNA candidates putative for targeting PTK6 in order to identify and assess the impact of microRNA that target PTK6 with respect to TNFα/IFNγ induced barrier dysfunction. Subsequently, we assayed likely targets and determined their effectiveness in attenuating PTK6 expression as well as cytokine induced barrier dysfunction. Results showed that miR-93 reduced PTK6 expression and attenuated TNF

  15. A Case of Sigmoid Colon Tuberculosis Mimicking Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Seong-Min; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Min-Dae; Lee, Hee-Ryong; Jung, Peel; Ryu, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Il-Seon

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the sigmoid colon is a rare disorder. An 80-year-old man visited Bongseng Memorial Hospital for medical examination. A colonoscopy was performed, and a lesion in the sigmoid colon that was suspected to be colon cancer was found. A biopsy was performed, and tuberculous enteritis with chronic granulomatous inflammation was diagnosed. Intestinal tuberculosis is most frequent in the ileocecal area, followed by the ascending colon, transverse colon, duodenum, stomach, and sigmoid c...

  16. Oligomannose-Rich Membranes of Dying Intestinal Epithelial Cells Promote Host Colonization by Adherent-Invasive E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Dumych

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel mechanism is revealed by which clinical isolates of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC penetrate into the epithelial cell layer, replicate, and establish biofilms in Crohn's disease. AIEC uses the FimH fimbrial adhesin to bind to oligomannose glycans on the surface of host cells. Oligomannose glycans exposed on early apoptotic cells are the preferred binding targets of AIEC, so apoptotic cells serve as potential entry points for bacteria into the epithelial cell layer. Thereafter, the bacteria propagate laterally in the epithelial intercellular spaces. We demonstrate oligomannosylation at two distinct sites of a glycoprotein receptor for AIEC, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6 or CD66c, on human intestinal epithelia. After bacterial binding, FimH interacts with CEACAM6, which then clusters. The presence of the highest-affinity epitope for FimH, oligomannose-5, on CEACAM6 is demonstrated using LC-MS/MS. As mannose-dependent infections are abundant, this mechanism might also be used by other adherent-invasive pathogens.

  17. Potential probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus and Enterococcus strains isolated from traditional dadih fermented milk against pathogen intestinal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, M Carmen; Surono, Ingrid S; Meriluoto, Jussi; Salminen, Seppo

    2007-03-01

    Traditional fermented buffalo milk in Indonesia (dadih) has been believed to have a beneficial impact on human health, which could be related to the properties of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involved in its fermentation process. In previous studies, it was discovered that strains of dadih lactic isolates possessed some beneficial properties in vitro. In the present study, the adhesion capacity of specific LAB isolates from dadih to intestinal mucus was analyzed. Further, the ability to inhibit model human pathogens and displace them from mucus was assessed. The adhesion of tested LAB strains was strain-dependent and varied from 1.4 to 9.8%. The most adhesive Lactobacillus plantarum strain was IS-10506, with 9.8% adhesion. The competition assay between dadih LAB isolates and pathogens showed that a 2-h preincubation with L. plantarum at 37 degrees C significantly reduced pathogen adhesion to mucus. All tested LAB strains displaced and inhibited pathogen adhesion, but the results were strain-specific and dependent on time and pathogen strains. In general, L. plantarum IS-10506 showed the best ability against pathogen adhesion.

  18. Attenuated Escherichia coli strains expressing the colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (LThK63) enhance clearance of ETEC from the lungs of mice and protect mice from intestinal ETEC colonization and LT-induced fluid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Wyatt; Boedeker, Edgar C

    2013-03-15

    Although enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are important causes of infantile and traveler's diarrhea there is no licensed vaccine available for those at-risk. Our goal is to develop a safe, live attenuated ETEC vaccine. We used an attenuated E. coli strain (O157:H7, Δ-intimin, Stx1-neg, Stx2-neg) as a vector (ZCR533) to prepare two vaccine strains, one strain expressing colonization factor antigen I (ZCR533-CFA/I) and one strain expressing CFA/I and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63) to deliver ETEC antigens to mucosal sites in BALB/c mice. Following intranasal and intragastric immunization with the vaccine strains, serum IgG and IgA antibodies were measured to the CFA/I antigen, however, only serum IgG antibodies were detected to the heat-labile enterotoxin. Intranasal administration of the vaccine strains induced respiratory and intestinal antibody responses to the CFA/I and LT antigens, while intragastric administration induced only intestinal antibody responses with no respiratory antibodies detected to the CFA/I and LT antigens. Mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strains showed enhanced clearance of wild-type (wt) ETEC bacteria from the lungs. Mice immunized intranasally and intragastrically with the vaccine strains were protected from intestinal colonization following oral challenge with ETEC wt bacteria. Mice immunized intragastrically with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain had less fluid accumulate in their intestine following challenge with ETEC wt bacteria or with purified LT as compared to the sham mice indicating that the immunized mice were protected from LT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation. Thus, mice intragastrically immunized with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain were able to effectively neutralize the activity of the LT enterotoxin. However, no difference in intestinal fluid accumulation was detected in the mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strain as compared to the sham

  19. Human Intestinal Spirochaetosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Human intestinal spirochaetosis is a condition of the colon that is characterized by the presence of spirochaetes attached to the mucosal cells of the colon. These spirochaetes belong to the family Brachyspiraceae and two species are known to occur in humans: Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira

  20. Gastric and intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Theresa W; Hedlund, Cheryl S

    2003-09-01

    Gastric surgery is commonly performed to remove foreign bodies and correct gastric dilatation-volvulus and is less commonly performed to treat gastric ulceration or erosion, neoplasia, and benign gastric outflow obstruction. Intestinal surgery, although commonly performed by veterinarians, should never be considered routine. The most common procedures of the small intestinal tract performed in dogs and cats include enterotomy and resection/anastomosis. Surgery of the large intestine is indicated for lesions causing obstruction, perforations, colonic inertia, or chronic inflammation.

  1. Compared with Raw Bovine Meat, Boiling but Not Grilling, Barbecuing, or Roasting Decreases Protein Digestibility without Any Major Consequences for Intestinal Mucosa in Rats, although the Daily Ingestion of Bovine Meat Induces Histologic Modifications in the Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberli, Marion; Lan, Annaïg; Khodorova, Nadezda; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Walker, Francine; Piedcoq, Julien; Davila, Anne-Marie; Blachier, François; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles; Gaudichon, Claire

    2016-08-01

    Cooking may impair meat protein digestibility. When undigested proteins are fermented by the colon microbiota, they can generate compounds that potentially are harmful to the mucosa. This study addressed the effects of typical cooking processes and the amount of bovine meat intake on the quantity of undigested proteins entering the colon, as well as their effects on the intestinal mucosa. Male Wistar rats (n = 88) aged 8 wk were fed 11 different diets containing protein as 20% of energy. In 10 diets, bovine meat proteins represented 5% [low-meat diet (LMD)] or 15% [high-meat diet (HMD)] of energy, with the rest as total milk proteins. Meat was raw or cooked according to 4 processes (boiled, barbecued, grilled, or roasted). A meat-free diet contained only milk proteins. After 3 wk, rats ingested a (15)N-labeled meat meal and were killed 6 h later after receiving a (13)C-valine injection. Meat protein digestibility was determined from (15)N enrichments in intestinal contents. Cecal short- and branched-chain fatty acids and hydrogen sulfide were measured. Intestinal tissues were used for the assessment of protein synthesis rates, inflammation, and histopathology. Meat protein digestibility was lower in rats fed boiled meat (94.5% ± 0.281%) than in the other 4 groups (97.5% ± 0.0581%, P HMD) and on myeloperoxidase activity in the proximal colon (HMD > LMD), but not on other outcomes. The ingestion of bovine meat, whatever the cooking process and the intake amount, resulted in discrete histologic modifications of the colon (epithelium abrasion, excessive mucus secretion, and inflammation). Boiling bovine meat at a high temperature (100°C) for a long time (3 h) moderately lowered protein digestibility compared with raw meat and other cooking processes, but did not affect cecal bacterial metabolites related to protein fermentation. The daily ingestion of raw or cooked bovine meat had no marked effect on intestinal tissues, despite some slight histologic modifications

  2. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma; Colon carcinoma ... eat may play a role in getting colon cancer. Colon cancer may be linked to a high-fat, ...

  3. The Differential Impact of High-Intensity Swimming Exercise and Inflammatory Bowel Disease on IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 Gene Expression in the Small Intestine and Colon in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Ju Choi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: We aimed to examine the impact of high-intensity swimming exercise and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD on IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 gene expression in the small intestine and colon of mice. Material and Methods: Forty male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups: the control group (CON, swimming exercise group (EX, 50% ethanol (EtoH control group (50%EtoH CON, and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid group (TNBS. The EX group performed 4 weeks of exercise. Intrarectal TNBS injection induced IBD in the TNBS group; the 50%EtoH CON group received control injections. Reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to examine IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 mRNA expression in the small intestine and colon. Results: IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 mRNA expression was significantly increased in the EX group compared to that in the CON group (p’s<0.05. IL-1β and COX-2 mRNA expression was significantly increased in the TNBS group compared to that in the 50%EtoH CON group (p’s<0.05. Conclusion: Thus, inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and COX-2 expression in the small intestine and colon was increased in both high-intensity swimming exercise and IBD models. However, TNF-α was increased only in the swimming exercise model. Further research is required to confirm these observations and establish swimming exercise regimes appropriate for patients with IBD.

  4. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin

    2010-01-01

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer

  5. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

  6. Structural, functional and molecular analysis of the effects of aging in the small intestine and colon of C57BL/6 J mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegenga, W.T.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Boekschoten, M.V.; IJssenagger, N.; Lute, C.; Keshtkar, S.; Grootte Bromhaar, M.M.; Kampman, E.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Muller, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Background By regulating digestion and absorption of nutrients and providing a barrier against the external environment the intestine provides a crucial contribution to the maintenance of health. To what extent aging-related changes in the intestinal system contribute to the functional decline

  7. Breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) limits net intestinal uptake of quercetin in rats by facilitating apical efflux of glucuronides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, A.L.A.; Arts, I.C.W.; Boer, de V.C.J.; Breedveld, P.; Schellens, J.H.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of the flavonoid quercetin in rats is limited by the secretion of glucuronidated metabolites back into the gut lumen. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the intestinal efflux transporters breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1)/Abcg2 and multidrug

  8. Breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) limits net intestinal uptake of quercetin in rats by facilitating apical efflux of glucuronides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, A.L.; Arts, I.C.; Boer, V.C. de; Breedveld, P.; Schellens, J.H.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of the flavonoid quercetin in rats is limited by the secretion of glucuronidated metabolites back into the gut lumen. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the intestinal efflux transporters breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1)/Abcg2 and multidrug

  9. FGT-1 is a mammalian GLUT2-like facilitative glucose transporter in Caenorhabditis elegans whose malfunction induces fat accumulation in intestinal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Kitaoka

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans is an attractive animal model for biological and biomedical research because it permits relatively easy genetic dissection of cellular pathways, including insulin/IGF-like signaling (IIS, that are conserved in mammalian cells. To explore C. elegans as a model system to study the regulation of the facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT, we have characterized the GLUT gene homologues in C. elegans: fgt-1, R09B5.11, C35A11.4, F53H8.3, F48E3.2, F13B12.2, Y61A9LA.1, K08F9.1 and Y37A1A.3. The exogenous expression of these gene products in Xenopus oocytes showed transport activity to unmetabolized glucose analogue 2-deoxy-D-glucose only in FGT-1. The FGT-1-mediated transport activity was inhibited by the specific GLUT inhibitor phloretin and exhibited a Michaelis constant (Km of 2.8 mM. Mannose, galactose, and fructose were able to inhibit FGT-1-mediated 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake (P < 0.01, indicating that FGT-1 is also able to transport these hexose sugars. A GFP fusion protein of FGT-1 was observed only on the basolateral membrane of digestive tract epithelia in C. elegans, but not in other tissues. FGT-1::eGFP expression was observed from early embryonic stages. The knockdown or mutation of fgt-1 resulted in increased fat staining in both wild-type and daf-2 (mammalian insulin receptor homologue mutant animals. Other common phenotypes of IIS mutant animals, including dauer formation and brood size reduction, were not affected by fgt-1 knockdown in wild-type or daf-2 mutants. Our results indicated that in C. elegans, FGT-1 is mainly a mammalian GLUT2-like intestinal glucose transporter and is involved in lipid metabolism.

  10. Urokinase and the intestinal mucosa: evidence for a role in epithelial cell turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, P; Birchall, I; Rosella, O; Albert, V; Finch, C; Barkla, D; Young, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—The functions of urokinase in intestinal epithelia are unknown. 
Aims—To determine the relation of urokinase expressed by intestinal epithelial cells to their position in the crypt-villus/surface axis and of mucosal urokinase activity to epithelial proliferative kinetics in the distal colon. 
Methods—Urokinase expression was examined immunohistochemically in human intestinal mucosa. Urokinase activity was measured colorimetrically in epithelial cells isolated sequentially from the crypt-villus axis of the rat small intestine. In separate experiments, urokinase activity and epithelial kinetics (measured stathmokinetically) were measured in homogenates of distal colonic mucosa of 14 groups of eight rats fed diets known to alter epithelial turnover. 
Results—From the crypt base, an ascending gradient of expression and activity of urokinase was associated with the epithelial cells. Median mucosal urokinase activities in each of the dietary groups of rats correlated positively with autologous median number of metaphase arrests per crypt (r=0.68; p<0.005) and per 100 crypt cells (r=0.75; p<0.001), but not with crypt column height. 
Conclusions—Localisation of an enzyme capable of leading to digestion of cell substratum in the region where cells are loosely attached to their basement membrane, and the association of its activity with indexes of cell turnover, suggest a role for urokinase in facilitating epithelial cell loss in the intestine. 

 Keywords: urokinase; intestinal epithelium; colon; epithelial proliferation PMID:9824347

  11. Feeding of the water extract from Ganoderma lingzhi to rats modulates secondary bile acids, intestinal microflora, mucins, and propionate important to colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongshou; Nirmagustina, Dwi Eva; Kumrungsee, Thanutchaporn; Okazaki, Yukako; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2017-09-01

    Consumption of reishi mushroom has been reported to prevent colon carcinogenesis in rodents, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate this effect, rats were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% water extract from either the reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lingzhi) (WGL) or the auto-digested reishi G. lingzhi (AWGL) for three weeks. Both extracts markedly reduced fecal secondary bile acids, such as lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid (colon carcinogens). These extracts reduced the numbers of Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum (secondary bile acids-producing bacteria) in a per g of cecal digesta. Fecal mucins and cecal propionate were significantly elevated by both extracts, and fecal IgA was significantly elevated by WGL, but not by AWGL. These results suggest that the reishi extracts have an impact on colon luminal health by modulating secondary bile acids, microflora, mucins, and propionate that related to colon cancer.

  12. Epidemiology and Characteristics of Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 (ST131) from Long-Term Care Facility Residents Colonized Intestinally with Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jennifer H.; Garrigan, Charles; Johnston, Brian; Nachamkin, Irving; Clabots, Connie; Bilker, Warren B.; Santana, Evelyn; Tolomeo, Pam; Maslow, Joel; Myers, Janice; Carson, Lesley; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Johnson, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate molecular and epidemiologic factors associated with Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) among long-term care facility (LTCF) residents who acquired gastrointestinal tract colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli (FQREC). Colonizing isolates from 37 residents who newly developed FQREC colonization at three LTCFs from 2006–2008 were evaluated. Twenty-nine (78%) of 37 total FQREC colonizing isolates were ST131. Most ST131 isolates had a distinctive combination of gyrA and parC replacement mutations. The ST131 and non-ST131 isolates differed significantly for the prevalence of many individual virulence factors but not for the proportion that qualified molecularly as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) or aggregate virulence factor scores. E. coli ST131 was highly prevalent among LTCF residents with FQREC colonization. Future studies should determine the risk factors for infection among ST131-colonized residents, and assess the potential for increased transmissibility of ST131 in the long-term care setting. PMID:27939288

  13. Co-administration of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravates colon ulceration of acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis via facilitation of NO/COX-2/miR-210 cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gowelli, Hanan M., E-mail: dr_Hanan_el_gowali@hotmail.com; Saad, Evan I.; Abdel-Galil, Abdel-Galil A.; Ibrahim, Einas R.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine demonstrated significant protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats. We proposed that α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine co-administration might modulate their individual effects. Induction of ulcerative colitis in rats was performed by intra-rectal acetic acid (5% v/v) administration for 3 consecutive days. Effects of individual or combined used of α-lipoic acid (35 mg/kg ip) or cyclosporine (5 mg/kg sc) for 6 days starting 2 days prior to acetic acid were assessed. Acetic acid caused colon ulceration, bloody diarrhea and weight loss. Histologically, there was mucosal atrophy and inflammatory cells infiltration in submucosa, associated with depletion of colon reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and elevated colon malondialdehyde, serum C-reactive protein (C-RP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Colon gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and miR-210 was also elevated. These devastating effects of acetic acid were abolished upon concurrent administration of α-lipoic acid. Alternatively, cyclosporine caused partial protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis. Cyclosporine did not restore colon reduced glutathione, catalase activity, serum C-RP or TNF-α. Unexpectedly, co-administration of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravated colon ulceration. Concomitant use of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine significantly increased nitric oxide production, cyclooxygenase-2 and miR-210 gene expression compared to all other studied groups. The current findings suggest that facilitation of nitric oxide/cyclooxygenase-2/miR-210 cascade constitutes, at least partially, the cellular mechanism by which concurrent use of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravates colon damage. Collectively, the present work highlights the probable risk of using α-lipoic acid/cyclosporine combination in ulcerative colitis patients. - Highlights: • Lipoic acid is more effective than

  14. The Mouse Intestinal Bacterial Collection (miBC) provides host-specific insight into cultured diversity and functional potential of the gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Pukall, Rüdiger; Abt, Birte

    2016-01-01

    species are specific to the mouse intestine and that a minimal consortium of 18 strains covered 50-75% of the known functional potential of metagenomes. The present work will sustain future research on microbiota-host interactions in health and disease, as it will facilitate targeted colonization...

  15. Laparoscopic intestinal derotation: original technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Mario; Federici, Orietta; Tarantino, Enrico; Corona, Francesco; Garofalo, Alfredo

    2009-06-01

    The intestinal derotation technique, introduced by Cattel and Valdoni 40 years ago, is carried out using a laparoscopic procedure, which is described here for the first time. The method is effective in the treatment of malign lesions of the III and IV duodenum and during laparoscopic subtotal colectomy with anastomosis between the ascending colon and the rectum. Ultimately, the procedure allows for the verticalization of the duodenal C and the anterior positioning of the mesenteric vessels, facilitating biopsy and resection of the III and IV duodenal portions and allowing anastomosis of the ascending rectum, avoiding both subtotal colectomy and the risk of torsion of the right colic loop. Although the procedure calls for extensive experience with advanced video-laparoscopic surgery, it is both feasible and repeatable. In our experience we have observed no mortality or morbidity.

  16. Hirschsprung's disease - Postsurgical intestinal dysmotility

    OpenAIRE

    Romaneli, Mariana Tresoldi das Neves; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Bustorff-Silva, Joaquim Murray; de Carvalho, Rita Barbosa; Lomazi, Elizete Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the case of an infant with Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis, which, after surgical resection of the aganglionic segment persisted with irreversible functional intestinal obstruction; discuss the difficulties in managing this form of congenital aganglionosis and discuss a plausible pathogenetic mechanism for this case. Case description: The diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis was establi...

  17. Dietary fibre, transit-time, faecal bacteria, steroids, and colon cancer in two Scandinavian populations. Report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer Intestinal Microecology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, R; Jensen, O M

    1977-07-30

    A comparison of dietary intake and faecal characteristics in population samples from two areas of Denmark and Finland with 4-fold variation in colon-cancer incidence suggests that the aetiology of colon cancer may be multifactorial and is not associated in a simple manner with dietary fat, neutral steroids, acid steroids, or their bacterial metabolites. However, meat consumption was greater in the high-incidence areas. Higher intakes of dietary fibre and milk in the low-incidence area suggest a possible protective effect, unrelated to mouth-anus transit-time. Further careful dietary and metabolic studies are needed to clarify the relationships between possible carcinogenic and protective effects of diet.

  18. Combined inadequacies of multiple B-vitamins amplify colonic Wnt-signaling and promote intestinal tumorigenesis in BAT-LacZ X Apc1638N mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Wnt pathway is a pivotal signaling cascade in colorectal carcinogenesis. The purpose of this work is to determine whether depletion of folate and other metabolically-related one-carbon vitamins induces in vivo activation of intestinal Wnt signaling, and whether this occurs in parallel with incre...

  19. Combined inadequacies of multiple B-vitamins amplify colonic Wnt-signaling and promote intestinal tumorigenesis in BAT-LacZxApc1368N mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Wnt pathway is a pivotal signaling cascade in colorectal carcinogenesis. The purpose of this work is to determine whether depletion of folate and other metabolically-related one-carbon vitamins induces in vivo activation of intestinal Wnt signaling, and whether this occurs in parallel with incre...

  20. Análisis clínico-epidemiológico de la portación intestinal de enterococos resistentes a vancomicina en una unidad de terapia intensiva Clinical and epidemiologic analysis of intestinal tract colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci in an intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Togneri

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available En un período de cinco meses y 25 días se investigó la portación intestinal de enterococos resistentes a vancomicina (EVR. Se estudiaron 124 pacientes (73% de 171 admitidos en la unidad de terapia intensiva (UTI, 35 de los cuales (28% resultaron ser portadores. Los aislamientos de EVR (n=35 fueron identificados como Enterococcus faecium (n=18, Enterococcus gallinarum (n=16 y Enterococcus raffinosus (n=1. Todos los aislamientos estudiados fueron resistentes a vancomicina (VAN (CIM90= 512 µg/ml y teicoplanina (CIM90= 32 µg/ml y portaban el gen vanA. Los estudios de tipificación molecular mostraron un alto grado de homología entre los aislamientos de E. faecium (un clon dominante y E. gallinarum (dos tipos clonales, sugiriendo su diseminación a modo de brote. No se encontraron diferencias significativas con la edad y el sexo de los pacientes no portadores (p>0,05, pero si con el tiempo de hospitalización y el uso de esquemas antibióticos de amplio espectro (pIntestinal tract colonization with vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE was studied during five months and 25 days. Out of 171 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit, 124 (73% were included in this study. Thirty five of them (28% were recognized as colonized with VRE. VRE isolates (n = 35 were identified as Enterococcus faecium (n=18, Enterococcus gallinarum (n=16, and Enterococcus raffinosus (n=1. All of them were resistant to vancomycin (MIC90= 512 µg/ml and to teicoplanin (MIC90= 32 µg/ml, having the vanA gene. By means of molecular methods a high homology was found among E. faecium and E. gallinarum isolates, respectively, suggesting their spread as a kind of outbreak. No significant differences in age or sex were found among colonized and non-colonized patients (p>0.05. On the other hand, the hospitalization time and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics were associated with colonization. From this study we highlight the importance of enhancing all measures of

  1. Evaluation by computerized morphometry of histopathological alterations of the colon wall in segments with and without intestinal transit in rats Avaliação por morfometria computadorizada das alterações histopatológicas da parede cólica em segmentos com e sem trânsito intestinal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vieira de Sousa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate histopathological alterations of the colon wall in segments with and without intestinal transit, by computer-assisted imaging, and to correlate these with the length of time diversion. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to intestinal transit diversion by a proximal colostomy and distal mucosa fistula. The animals were divided into three experimental groups according to how long after the initial surgical procedure they were sacrificed: six, twelve and eighteen weeks. Colon segments with and without transit were subjected to histopathological study. The variables colon crypt length, mucosal ulceration, muscle layer thickness of the muscularis mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria, vascular congestion, number of caliciform cells, inflammatory grade and degree of inflammation, comparing the two colon segments in the different experimental groups were studied. Intestinal crypt length, muscle layer thickness of the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria and caliciform cells were measured by computer-assisted imaging method. Mean equality, variance analysis and correlation tests were used in the statistical analysis, and the significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Comparison between segments with and without transit showed that the latter presented reduced length of colon crypts and increased muscle layer thickness of the muscularis mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria. There were greater quantities of ulceration of the mucosal and greater degree of inflammation with increasing time without transit. Mucosal ulceration, submucosal vascular congestion, increased thickness of the submucosal and muscularis propria layers, presence of caliciform cells, inflammatory infiltrate and inflammatory grade correlated significantly with the length of time without transit. CONCLUSIONS: Histological alterations occurred in all layers of the colon wall, in the segments without intestinal transit. Ulcerations in the

  2. Transfer of the pheromone-inducible plasmid pCF10 among Enterococcus faecalis microorganisms colonizing the intestine of mini-pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Laugesen, D.; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2002-01-01

    A new animal model, the streptomycin-treated mini-pig, was developed in order to allow colonization of defined strains of Enterococcus faecalis in numbers sufficient to study plasmid transfer. Transfer of the pheromone-inducible pCF10 plasmid between streptomycin-resistant strains of E. faecalis OG...

  3. Gland segmentation in colon histology images : The glas challenge contest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Pluim, J.P.W.; Chen, Hao; Qi, Xiaojuan; Heng, Pheng Ann; Guo, Yun Bo; Wang, Li Yang; Matuszewski, Bogdan J.; Bruni, Elia; Sanchez, Urko; Böhm, Anton; Ronneberger, Olaf; Cheikh, Bassem Ben; Racoceanu, Daniel; Kainz, Philipp; Pfeiffer, Michael; Urschler, Martin; Snead, David R.J.; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal adenocarcinoma originating in intestinal glandular structures is the most common form of colon cancer. In clinical practice, the morphology of intestinal glands, including architectural appearance and glandular formation, is used by pathologists to inform prognosis and plan the treatment

  4. Intestinal myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Udgaonkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. Materials and Methods: We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar. This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Results: Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Conclusions: S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  5. Intestinal myiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udgaonkar, U S; Dharamsi, R; Kulkarni, S A; Shah, S R; Patil, S S; Bhosale, A L; Gadgil, S A; Mohite, R S

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar). This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  6. Use of the mCherry Fluorescent Protein To Study Intestinal Colonization by Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA and Lactobacillus plantarum 423 in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Winschau F.; Deane, Shelly M.

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of humans and animals, and some LAB species receive considerable attention due to their health benefits. Although many papers have been published on probiotic LAB, only a few reports have been published on the migration and colonization of the cells in the GIT. This is due mostly to the lack of efficient reporter systems. In this study, we report on the application of the fluorescent mCherry protein in the in vivo tagging of the probiotic strains Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA and Lactobacillus plantarum 423. The mCherry gene, encoding a red fluorescent protein (RFP), was integrated into a nonfunctional region on the genome of L. plantarum 423 by homologous recombination. In the case of E. mundtii ST4SA, the mCherry gene was cloned into the pGKV223D LAB/Escherichia coli expression vector. Expression of the mCherry gene did not alter the growth rate of the two strains and had no effect on bacteriocin production. Both strains colonized the cecum and colon of mice. PMID:26116681

  7. Defining the role of polyamines in colon carcinogenesis using mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Ignatenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetics and diet are both considered important risk determinants for colorectal cancer, a leading cause of death in the US and worldwide. Genetically engineered mouse (GEM models have made a significant contribution to the characterization of colorectal cancer risk factors. Reliable, reproducible, and clinically relevant animal models help in the identification of the molecular events associated with disease progression and in the development of effictive treatment strategies. This review is focused on the use of mouse models for studying the role of polyamines in colon carcinogenesis. We describe how the available mouse models of colon cancer such as the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min mice and knockout genetic models facilitate understanding of the role of polyamines in colon carcinogenesis and help in the development of a rational strategy for colon cancer chemoprevention.

  8. Acute pseudo-obstruction of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beese, M.; Heller, M.

    1988-01-01

    The radiological correlate to the pseudo-obstruction of the colon is not specific, but it does supply a pointer to the disease of it shows dilation of the caecum, colon ascendens and colon transversum with air-pockets and reflected imaging as well as a usually not dilated colon descendens with remarkably little air. To make the diagnosis quite sure we must exclude intestinal obstruction by using X-ray contrast media or by coloscopy. (orig./GDG) [de

  9. Generation of an inducible colon-specific Cre enzyme mouse line for colon cancer research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Paul W.; Kretzschmar, Kai; Begthel, Harry; Van Den Born, Maaike; Korving, Jeroen; Morsink, Folkert; Farin, Henner; Van Es, Johan H.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Current mouse models for colorectal cancer often differ significantly from human colon cancer, being largely restricted to the small intestine. Here, we aim to develop a colon-specific inducible mouse model that can faithfully recapitulate human colon cancer initiation and progression. Carbonic

  10. Host and Environmental Factors Affecting the Intestinal Microbiota in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kers, Jannigje G; Velkers, Francisca C; Fischer, Egil A J; Hermes, Gerben D A; Stegeman, J A; Smidt, Hauke

    2018-01-01

    The initial development of intestinal microbiota in poultry plays an important role in production performance, overall health and resistance against microbial infections. Multiplexed sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is often used in studies, such as feed intervention or antimicrobial drug trials, to determine corresponding effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, considerable variation of intestinal microbiota composition has been observed both within and across studies. Such variation may in part be attributed to technical factors, such as sampling procedures, sample storage, DNA extraction, the choice of PCR primers and corresponding region to be sequenced, and the sequencing platforms used. Furthermore, part of this variation in microbiota composition may also be explained by different host characteristics and environmental factors. To facilitate the improvement of design, reproducibility and interpretation of poultry microbiota studies, we have reviewed the literature on confounding factors influencing the observed intestinal microbiota in chickens. First, it has been identified that host-related factors, such as age, sex, and breed, have a large effect on intestinal microbiota. The diversity of chicken intestinal microbiota tends to increase most during the first weeks of life, and corresponding colonization patterns seem to differ between layer- and meat-type chickens. Second, it has been found that environmental factors, such as biosecurity level, housing, litter, feed access and climate also have an effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As microbiota studies have to deal with many of these unknown or hidden host and environmental variables, the choice of study designs can have a great impact on study outcomes and interpretation of the data. Providing details on a broad range of host and environmental factors in articles and sequence data repositories is highly recommended. This creates opportunities to

  11. Host and Environmental Factors Affecting the Intestinal Microbiota in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannigje G. Kers

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The initial development of intestinal microbiota in poultry plays an important role in production performance, overall health and resistance against microbial infections. Multiplexed sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is often used in studies, such as feed intervention or antimicrobial drug trials, to determine corresponding effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, considerable variation of intestinal microbiota composition has been observed both within and across studies. Such variation may in part be attributed to technical factors, such as sampling procedures, sample storage, DNA extraction, the choice of PCR primers and corresponding region to be sequenced, and the sequencing platforms used. Furthermore, part of this variation in microbiota composition may also be explained by different host characteristics and environmental factors. To facilitate the improvement of design, reproducibility and interpretation of poultry microbiota studies, we have reviewed the literature on confounding factors influencing the observed intestinal microbiota in chickens. First, it has been identified that host-related factors, such as age, sex, and breed, have a large effect on intestinal microbiota. The diversity of chicken intestinal microbiota tends to increase most during the first weeks of life, and corresponding colonization patterns seem to differ between layer- and meat-type chickens. Second, it has been found that environmental factors, such as biosecurity level, housing, litter, feed access and climate also have an effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As microbiota studies have to deal with many of these unknown or hidden host and environmental variables, the choice of study designs can have a great impact on study outcomes and interpretation of the data. Providing details on a broad range of host and environmental factors in articles and sequence data repositories is highly recommended. This creates

  12. Colonic potassium handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Matos, Joana E.; Prætorius, Helle

    2010-01-01

    , intestinal K+ losses caused by activated ion secretion may become life threatening. This topical review provides an update of the molecular mechanisms and the regulation of mammalian colonic K+ absorption and secretion. It is motivated by recent results, which have identified the K+ secretory ion channel...... regulated by hormones and adapts readily to changes in dietary K+ intake, aldosterone and multiple local paracrine agonists. In chronic renal insufficiency, colonic K+ secretion is greatly enhanced and becomes an important accessory K+ excretory pathway. During severe diarrheal diseases of different causes...

  13. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  14. Different populations of CD11b+ dendritic cells drive Th2 responses in the small intestine and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Johannes U.; Demiri, Mimoza; Agace, William Winston

    2017-01-01

    and Schistosoma mansoni eggs do not develop in mice with IRF-4-deficient DCs (IRF-4f/f CD11c-cre). Adoptive transfer of conventional DCs, in particular CD11b-expressing DCs from the intestine, is sufficient to prime S. mansoni-specific Th2 responses. Surprisingly, transferred IRF-4-deficient DCs also effectively...... prime S. mansoni-specific Th2 responses. Egg antigens do not induce the expression of IRF-4-related genes. Instead, IRF-4f/f CD11c-cre mice have fewer CD11b+ migrating DCs and fewer DCs carrying parasite antigens to the lymph nodes. Furthermore, CD11b+ CD103+ DCs induce Th2 responses in the small...

  15. Impact of Intestinal Microbiota on Intestinal Luminal Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Kibe, Ryoko; Ooga, Takushi; Aiba, Yuji; Kurihara, Shin; Sawaki, Emiko; Koga, Yasuhiro; Benno, Yoshimi

    2012-01-01

    Low–molecular-weight metabolites produced by intestinal microbiota play a direct role in health and disease. In this study, we analyzed the colonic luminal metabolome using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry with time-of-flight (CE-TOFMS) —a novel technique for analyzing and differentially displaying metabolic profiles— in order to clarify the metabolite profiles in the intestinal lumen. CE-TOFMS identified 179 metabolites from the colonic luminal metabolome and 48 metabolites were present in significantly higher concentrations and/or incidence in the germ-free (GF) mice than in the Ex-GF mice (p metabolome and a comprehensive understanding of intestinal luminal metabolome is critical for clarifying host-intestinal bacterial interactions. PMID:22724057

  16. The Neogene rise of the tropical Andes facilitated diversification of wax palms (Ceroxylon: Arecaceae) through geographical colonization and climatic niche separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanín, María José; Kissling, W. Daniel; Bacon, Christine D.

    2016-01-01

    The tropical Andes are a biodiversity hotspot, partly due to their rich and complex floristic composition. A fundamental question regarding this outstanding biodiversity is what role the Andean orogeny has played in species diversification. Ceroxylon is a genus of endemic Andean palms that stands...... gradients. Ancestral areas were reconstructed under a model allowing for founder-event speciation and climatic niches were inferred from climatic variables at present-day occurrences of all species. Niche evolution in a phylogenetic framework was evaluated by testing differences between the climatic niches...... of clades. Our analyses identified four main clades, with a general pattern of diversification through geographical colonization from south to north after the Pliocene uplift of the northern Andes. Adaptation to low temperatures was conserved at the generic level, with climatic niche differentiation among...

  17. Role of dietary fibers on health of the gastro-intestinal system and related types of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fibers are classified into water soluble or insoluble, and most plant foods include in their composition variable amounts of a mixture of soluble and insoluble fibers. This soluble or insoluble nature of fiber is related to its physiological effects. Insoluble fibers are characterized by high porosity, low density and the ability to increase fecal bulk, and act by facilitating intestinal transit, thus reducing the exposure to carcinogens in the colon and therefore acting as protectors...

  18. Apramycin treatment affects selection and spread of a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain able to colonize the human gut in the intestinal microbiota of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Zachariasen, Camilla; Hansen, Monica Hegstad

    2016-01-01

    . E. coli 912 was shown to spread to non-inoculated pigs in both groups. The selective effect did not persist beyond 3 days post-treatment, and the strain was not detected from this time point in pen 2. We demonstrated that E. coli 912 was able to spread between pigs in the same pen irrespective....../gentamicin, sulphonamide, tetracycline, hygromycin B, β-lactams and streptomycin [aac(3)-IV, sul2, tet(X), aph(4), bla TEM-1 and strA/B], with all but tet(X) located on the same conjugative plasmid. Nineteen pigs were randomly allocated into two inoculation groups, one treated with apramycin (pen 2) and one non......-treated (pen 3), along with a non-inoculated control group (pen 1). Two pigs of pen 2 and 3 were inoculated intragastrically with a rifampicin resistant variant of the strain. Apramycin treatment in pen 2 was initiated immediately after inoculation. Strain colonization was assessed in the feces from all pigs...

  19. Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein Enables Intestinal Epithelial Restitution Despite Lipopolysaccharide Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Juli M.; Schanbacher, Brandon L.; Huang, Hong; Xue, Jianjing; Bauer, John A.; Giannone, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    development of intestinal injury when given during our rodent model of NEC. Abnormal bacterial colonization and activation of innate immunity by LPS are likely involved in the pathogenesis of NEC. The attentuation of wound healing was reversed when LBP was added to LPS but only in the higher concentrations. At these same concentrations of LBP, TLR4 was decreased to that of control. These results indicate that LBP may be a novel therapeutic strategy to facilitate wound healing after the acute phase of NEC and other forms of intestinal injury. PMID:22002480

  20. Congenital segmental dilatation of the colon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital segmental dilatation of the colon is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in neonates. We report a case of congenital segmental dilatation of the colon and highlight the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of this entity. Proper surgical treatment was initiated on the basis of preoperative radiological ...

  1. Intravenous administration of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells enhances the recruitment of CD11b{sup +} myeloid cells to the lungs and facilitates B16-F10 melanoma colonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Lucas E.B., E-mail: lucasebsouza@usp.br [Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Hemotherapy Center of Ribeirão Preto, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Almeida, Danilo C., E-mail: gudaalmeida@gmail.com [Department of Medicine – Nephrology, Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yaochite, Juliana N.U., E-mail: ueda.juliana@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Basic and Applied Immunology Program, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Covas, Dimas T., E-mail: dimas@fmrp.usp.br [Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Hemotherapy Center of Ribeirão Preto, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Fontes, Aparecida M., E-mail: aparecidamfontes@usp.br [Department of Genetics, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-15

    The discovery that the regenerative properties of bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) could collaterally favor neoplastic progression has led to a great interest in the function of these cells in tumors. However, the effect of BM-MSCs on colonization, a rate-limiting step of the metastatic cascade, is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of BM-MSCs on metastatic outgrowth of B16-F10 melanoma cells. In in vitro experiments, direct co-culture assays demonstrated that BM-MSCs stimulated the proliferation of B16-F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner. For in vivo experiments, luciferase-expressing B16-F10 cells were injected through tail vein and mice were subsequently treated with four systemic injections of BM-MSCs. In vivo bioluminescent imaging during 16 days demonstrated that BM-MSCs enhanced the colonization of lungs by B16-F10 cells, which correlated with a 2-fold increase in the number of metastatic foci. Flow cytometry analysis of lungs demonstrated that although mice harboring B16-F10 metastases displayed more endothelial cells, CD4 T and CD8 T lymphocytes in the lungs in comparison to metastases-free mice, BM-MSCs did not alter the number of these cells. Interestingly, BM-MSCs inoculation resulted in a 2-fold increase in the number of CD11b{sup +} myeloid cells in the lungs of melanoma-bearing animals, a cell population previously described to organize “premetastatic niches” in experimental models. These findings indicate that BM-MSCs provide support to B16-F10 cells to overcome the constraints that limit metastatic outgrowth and that these effects might involve the interplay between BM-MSCs, CD11b{sup +} myeloid cells and tumor cells. - Highlights: • BM-MSCs enhanced B16-F10 proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. • BM-MSCs facilitated lung colonization by B16-F10 melanoma cells. • BM-MSCs administration did not alter the number of endothelial cells and T lymphocytes in the lungs. • BM-MSCs enhanced

  2. Natural products to improve quality of life targeting for colon drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjo

    2012-03-01

    The colon is largely being investigated as a site for administration of protein and peptides, which are degraded by digestive enzymes in the upper GIT. Also for local diseases of the colon such as inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and ameobiasis, drug administration to the site of action can not only reduce the dose to be administered, but also decrease the side effects. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) such as Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation. Intestinal bacteria initiate the activation of intestinal inflammatory processes, which are mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine. Increased chemokine expression has also been observed in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Future trials of specific agents capable of inhibiting chemokine synthesis and secretion or blocking chemokine-chemokine receptor interaction will be important to study in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Many important bioactive compounds have been discovered from natural sources using bioactivity directed fractionation and isolation (BDFl) Continuing discovery has also been facilitated by the recent development of new bioassay methods. These bioactive compounds are mostly plant secondary metabolites, and many naturally occurring pure compounds have become medicines, dietary supplements, and other useful commercial products. The present review includes various approaches investigated for colon drug delivery and their site specificity. To achieve successful colonic delivery, a drug needs to be protected from absorption and the environment of the upper gastrointestinal tract and then be abruptly released into the proximal colon, which is considered the optimum site for colon targeted delivery of drugs.

  3. Enabling the intestinal absorption of highly polar antiviral agents: ion-pair facilitated membrane permeation of zanamivir heptyl ester and guanidino oseltamivir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan M; Dahan, Arik; Gupta, Deepak; Varghese, Sheeba; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-08-02

    Antiviral drugs often suffer from poor intestinal permeability, preventing their delivery via the oral route. The goal of this work was to enhance the intestinal absorption of the low-permeability antiviral agents zanamivir heptyl ester (ZHE) and guanidino oseltamivir (GO) utilizing an ion-pairing approach, as a critical step toward making them oral drugs. The counterion 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNAP) was utilized to enhance the lipophilicity and permeability of the highly polar drugs. HNAP substantially increased the log P of the drugs by up to 3.7 log units. Binding constants (K(11(aq))) of 388 M(-1) for ZHE-HNAP and 2.91 M(-1) for GO-HNAP were obtained by applying a quasi-equilibrium transport model to double-reciprocal plots of apparent octanol-buffer distribution coefficients versus HNAP concentration. HNAP enhanced the apparent permeability (P(app)) of both compounds across Caco-2 cell monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner, as substantial P(app) (0.8-3.0 x 10(-6) cm/s) was observed in the presence of 6-24 mM HNAP, whereas no detectable transport was observed without counterion. Consistent with a quasi-equilibrium transport model, a linear relationship with slope near 1 was obtained from a log-log plot of Caco-2 P(app) versus HNAP concentration, supporting the ion-pair mechanism behind the permeability enhancement. In the rat jejunal perfusion assay, the addition of HNAP failed to increase the effective permeability (P(eff)) of GO. However, the rat jejunal permeability of ZHE was significantly enhanced by the addition of HNAP in a concentration-dependent manner, from essentially zero without HNAP to 4.0 x 10(-5) cm/s with 10 mM HNAP, matching the P(eff) of the high-permeability standard metoprolol. The success of ZHE-HNAP was explained by its >100-fold stronger K(11(aq)) versus GO-HNAP, making ZHE-HNAP less prone to dissociation and ion-exchange with competing endogenous anions and able to remain intact during membrane permeation. Overall, this

  4. Volvulus of the Small Bowel and Colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Muneera R.

    2017-01-01

    Volvulus of the intestines may involve either the small bowel or colon. In the pediatric population, small bowel volvulus is more common, while in the adult population, colonic volvulus is more often seen. The two most common types of colonic volvulus include sigmoid and cecal volvulus. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is imperative, otherwise bowel ischemia may ensue. Treatment often involves emergent surgical exploration and bowel resection. PMID:28144211

  5. [Myosin B ATPase activity of the intestinal smooth muscle in intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, H

    1983-06-01

    Intestinal smooth myosin B was prepared from muscle layers around the lesion in dogs with experimental colonic stenosis and in patients with congenital intestinal obstruction. Mg2+-ATPase activity of the myosin B was compared between the proximal dilated segment and distal segment to obstruction. Experimental colonic stenosis: In early period after surgery, proximal colons showed higher activity of myosin B ATPase than distal colons, decreasing to less than distal colon as time passed. Congenital intestinal obstruction: In three cases, whose atresia might have occurred at earlier period of gestation, proximal bowels showed less activity of myosin B ATPase than distal bowels. However, in two cases, whose atresia might have occurred at later period of gestation, and two cases with intestinal stenosis, proximal bowels indicated higher activity of myosin B ATPase than distal bowels. These data suggested that the contractibility of the proximal intestine was depending on the duration of obstruction, and it was depressed in the former patients and was accelerated in the latter patients. These results suggested that the extensive resection of dilated proximal bowel in the congenital atresia is not always necessary to obtain good postoperative intestinal dynamics at the operation of the atresial lesions which may be induced at later period of gestation. They also suggested that surgery for intestinal obstruction should be performed before the depression of intestinal contractibility to get good bowel function.

  6. Hyperoxaluria, Hypocitraturia, Hypomagnesiuria, and Lack of Intestinal Colonization by Oxalobacter formigenes in a Cervical Spinal Cord Injury Patient with Suprapubic Cystostomy, Short Bowel, and Nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although urolithiasis is common in spinal cord injury patients, it is presumed that the predisposing factors for urinary stones in spinal cord injury patients are immobilization-induced hypercalciuria in the initial period after spinal injury and, in later stages, urine infection by urease-producing micro-organisms, e.g., Proteus sp., which cause struvite stones. We describe a patient who sustained C-7 complete tetraplegia in a road traffic accident in 1970, when he was 16 years old. Left ureterolithotomy was performed in 1971 followed by left nephrectomy in 1972. Probably due to adhesions, this patient developed volvulus of the intestine in 1974. As he had complete tetraplegia, he did not feel pain in the abdomen and there was a delay in the diagnosis of volvulus, which led to ischemia of a large segment of the small bowel. All but 1 ft of jejunum and 1 ft of ileum were resected leaving the large bowel intact. In 1998, suprapubic cystostomy was performed. In 2004, this patient developed calculus in the solitary right kidney. Complete stone clearance was achieved by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Stone analysis: calcium oxalate 60% and calcium phosphate 40%. Metabolic evaluation revealed hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, and hypomagnesiuria. Since this patient had hyperoxaluria, the stool was tested for Oxalobacter formigenes, a specific oxalate-degrading, anerobic bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans; absence of this bacterium appears to be a risk factor for development of hyperoxaluria and, subsequently, calcium oxalate kidney stone disease. DNA from the stool was extracted using the QIAamp DNA stool Mini Kit (Qiagen, Chatsworth, CA. The genomic DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers for oxc gene (developed by Sidhu and associates. The stool sample tested negative for O. formigenes. The patient was prescribed potassium citrate mixture; he was advised to avoid oxalate-rich food, maintain

  7. Amebiasis intestinal Intestinal amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIO CÉSAR GÓMEZ

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica es el patógeno intestinal más frecuente en nuestro medio -después de Giardia lamblia-, una de las principales causas de diarrea en menores de cinco años y la cuarta causa de muerte en el mundo debida a infección por protozoarios. Posee mecanismos patogénicos complejos que le permiten invadir la mucosa intestinal y causar colitis amebiana. El examen microscópico es el método más usado para su identificación pero la existencia de dos especies morfológicamente iguales, una patógena ( E. histolytica y una no patógena ( Entamoeba dispar, ha llevado al desarrollo de otros métodos de diagnóstico. El acceso al agua potable y los servicios sanitarios adecuados, un tratamiento médico oportuno y el desarrollo de una vacuna, son los ejes para disminuir la incidencia y mortalidad de esta entidad.Entamoeba histolytica is the most frequent intestinal pathogen seen in our country, after Giardia lamblia, being one of the main causes of diarrhea in children younger than five years of age, and the fourth leading cause of death due to infection for protozoa in the world. It possesses complex pathogenic mechanisms that allow it to invade the intestinal mucosa, causing amoebic colitis. Microscopy is the most used method for its identification, but the existence of two species morphologically identical, the pathogen one ( E. histolytica, and the non pathogen one ( E. dispar, have taken to the development of other methods of diagnosis. The access to drinkable water and appropriate sanitary services, an opportune medical treatment, and the development of a vaccine are the axes to diminish the incidence and mortality of this entity.

  8. Deficiency of the intestinal growth factor, glucagon-like peptide 2, in the colon of SCID mice with inflammatory bowel disease induced by transplantation of CD4+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Hartmann, B; Bregenholt, S

    2000-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is produced in endocrine L-cells of the intestinal mucosa. Recently, GLP-2 was found to stimulate intestinal mucosal growth. Our objective was to study the content of GLP-2 in the large intestine in a murine model of T-cell-induced inflammatory bowel disease....

  9. Milk products and intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, R; Bovee-Oudenhoven, IMJ; Sesink, ALA; Kleibeuker, JH

    Milk products may improve intestinal health by means of the cytoprotective effects of their high calcium phosphate (CaPi) content. We hypothesized that this cytoprotection may increase host defenses against bacterial infections as well as decrease colon cancer risk. This paper summarizes our studies

  10. Loss of TET1 facilitates DLD1 colon cancer cell migration via H3K27me3-mediated down-regulation of E-cadherin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Zhang, Hong-Sheng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Zhong-Guo; Du, Guang-Yuan; Li, Hu; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Huang, Ying-Hui

    2018-02-01

    Epigenetic modifications such as histone modifications and cytosine hydroxymethylation are linked to tumorigenesis. Loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) by ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) down-regulation facilitates tumor initiation and development. However, the mechanisms by which loss of TET1 knockdown promotes malignancy development remains unclear. Here, we report that TET1 knockdown induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increased cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion in DLD1 cells. Loss of TET1 increased EZH2 expression and reduced UTX-1 expression, thus increasing histone H3K27 tri-methylation causing repression of the target gene E-cadherin. Ectopic expression of the H3K27 demethylase UTX-1 or EZH2 depletion both impeded EZH2 binding caused a loss of H3K27 methylation at epithelial gene E-cadherin promoter, thereby suppressing EMT and tumor invasion in shTET1 cells. Conversely, UTX-1 depletion and ectopic expression of EZH2 enhanced EMT and tumor metastasis in DLD1 cells. These findings provide insight into the regulation of TET1 and E-cadherin and identify EZH2 as a critical mediator of E-cadherin repression and tumor progression. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview of Crohn Disease Additional Content Medical News Intestinal Lymphangiectasia (Idiopathic Hypoproteinemia) By Atenodoro R. Ruiz, Jr., MD, ... Overview of Malabsorption Bacterial Overgrowth Syndrome Celiac Disease Intestinal ... Intolerance Short Bowel Syndrome Tropical Sprue Whipple ...

  12. The influence of androgens, anti-androgens, and castration on cell proliferation in the jejunal and colonic crypt epithelia, and in dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinoma of rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1982-01-01

    Androgenic hormones have previously been shown to promote cell proliferation in the small intestine of rat and androgen receptors have been demonstrated in carcinomata of the large intestine of rat. In this study the influence of testosterone and of castration on epithelial cell proliferation in the small intestine, the large intestine and in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic tumours is compared. Cell proliferation in the small intestine and in colonic tumours was accelerated by testosterone treatment, and cell proliferation in colonic tumours, but not in the small intestine, was retarded following castration. Cell proliferation in colonic tumours was also inhibited by the anti-androgenic drug, Flutamide. Testosterone and castration each failed to influence cell proliferation in the colonic crypt epithelium of both normal and carcinogen-treated animals.

  13. Colonic diseases: The value of US examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollerweger, Alois

    2007-01-01

    The colon is affected by a number of diseases, mainly inflammatory, ischemic, and neoplastic conditions. Depending upon clinical indications endoscopy, US, CT, or other radiological methods are used for evaluation. The fact that US is frequently used as the initial imaging method in patients with non-specific clinical symptoms allows for greater influence in further diagnostic evaluation and with treatment, provided the investigator is familiar with the features of different intestinal diseases. This article will describe the anatomical characteristics of the colon, the US technique for examination of the colon, and the typical US features of the more common diagnoses of the colon

  14. Colon interposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolauri, J.; Tampere Univ. Central Hospital; Paakkala, T.; Arajaervi, P.; Markkula, H.

    1987-01-01

    Colon interposition was carried out in 12 patients with oesophageal carcinoma and on 38 patients with benign oesophageal disease an average of 71 months before the radiographic examination. Various ischaemic changes including 'jejunization', loss of haustration and stricture formation were observed in 15 cases. In 12 patients one or several diverticula were seen in the colon graft. Reflux was observed in 17 cases in supine position. Double contrast technique in the examination of interposed colon is recommended. (orig.)

  15. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. ► Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. ► Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers – this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre-treatment with anti-MMP1 antibody. This study contributes to understanding

  16. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jraufman@medicine.umaryland.edu [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre

  17. Generation of an inducible colon-specific Cre enzyme mouse line for colon cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Kretzschmar, Kai; Begthel, Harry; van den Born, Maaike; Korving, Jeroen; Morsink, Folkert; Farin, Henner; van Es, Johan H; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Clevers, Hans

    2016-10-18

    Current mouse models for colorectal cancer often differ significantly from human colon cancer, being largely restricted to the small intestine. Here, we aim to develop a colon-specific inducible mouse model that can faithfully recapitulate human colon cancer initiation and progression. Carbonic anhydrase I (Car1) is a gene expressed uniquely in colonic epithelial cells. We generated a colon-specific inducible Car1 CreER knock-in (KI) mouse with broad Cre activity in epithelial cells of the proximal colon and cecum. Deletion of the tumor suppressor gene Apc using the Car1 CreER KI caused tumor formation in the cecum but did not yield adenomas in the proximal colon. Mutation of both Apc and Kras yielded microadenomas in both the cecum and the proximal colon, which progressed to macroadenomas with significant morbidity. Aggressive carcinomas with some invasion into lymph nodes developed upon combined induction of oncogenic mutations of Apc, Kras, p53, and Smad4 Importantly, no adenomas were observed in the small intestine. Additionally, we observed tumors from differentiated Car1-expressing cells with Apc/Kras mutations, suggesting that a top-down model of intestinal tumorigenesis can occur with multiple mutations. Our results establish the Car1 CreER KI as a valuable mouse model to study colon-specific tumorigenesis and metastasis as well as cancer-cell-of-origin questions.

  18. Rana catesbeiana, pólvora e modulação supramolecular cicatrização intestinal e prognóstico no câncer de cólon: uma mesma origem biológica para o insucesso? Rana catesbeiana, Gunpowder and Supramolecular Modulation Intestinal Healing and Prognosis in Colon Cancer: The Same Biological Origin of the Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Delabio-Ferraz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A cicatrização e remodelação do cólon resultam das modificações do colágeno na matriz extracelular. Algumas condições desequilibram sua renovação, enfraquecendo a resistência mecânica a cicatriz, como resultado da atividade elevada das metaloproteinases locais, e levando a um alto risco de deiscência. As metaloproteinases da matriz extracelular (matrix metalloproteinases, MMPs constituem uma família de endopeptidases zinco-dependentes - metzincinas. São reconhecidos atualmente, em humanos, cerca de 24 genes responsáveis por cada uma delas. A colagenase (MMP-1 foi identificada por Gross e Lapière (1962 na cauda do girino da rã-touro americana. No câncer as MMPs tem ocupado um lugar especial. Evidências de que a célula neoplásica é capaz de interferir na modulação desta enzima - um co-fator associado à invasividade local e disseminação metastática. As MMP-2 e -7 são observadas com frequência no câncer de cólon, a MMP-12 parece exercer um efeito protetor (melhor prognóstico e, ao contrário, a MMP-3 o torna pior. A associação entre alta atividade de MMPs, o pior prognóstico do câncer e o maior risco de deiscência de anastomose intestinal já vem sendo considerada, sugerindo uma trilogia consistente. A terapia farmacológica (inibidores MMPs tem sido investigada, também para o controle do câncer. O artigo discute as informações mais relevantes e atualizadas sobre o assunto.Colon healing and remodeling depends on the collagen changes in extracellular matrix. Some conditions, disrupt its turnover, causing strength weakening of the scar, as a result of high activity of local matrix metalloproteinases, causing a high risk of dehiscence. The extracellular matrix metalloproteinases are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, or metzincines, and have been currently recognized in humans about 24 genes responsible for each one. The first MMP, colagenase (MMP-1, was described by Gross and Lapière (1962, while

  19. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von, E-mail: evonrose@medicine.umaryland.edu; Raufman, Jean-Pierre [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 22 S. Greene Street, N3W62, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Maryland Health Care System, 10 North Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  20. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer

  1. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Raufman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  2. Colonic angiodysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, C.; Legmann, P.; Garnier, T.; Levesque, M.

    1984-01-01

    The main clinical, endoscopic and radiographic findings in thirty documented cases of colonic angiodysplasia or vacular ectasia are described. We emphasise the association with colonic diverticulosis and cardiovascular pathology, describe the histological changes, summarize the present physiopathological hypothesis, and consider the various therapeutic approaches. (orig.)

  3. Colonic locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodou, D.

    2006-01-01

    The most effective screening method for colonic cancer is colonoscopy. However, colonoscopy cannot be easily embraced by the population because of the related pain intensity. Robotic devices that pull themselves forward through the colon are a possible alternative. The main challenge for such

  4. Intestinal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, André; Anderson, David E

    2016-11-01

    A wide variety of disorders affecting the intestinal tract in cattle may require surgery. Among those disorders the more common are: intestinal volvulus, jejunal hemorrhage syndrome and more recently the duodenal sigmoid flexure volvulus. Although general principles of intestinal surgery can be applied, cattle has anatomical and behavior particularities that must be known before invading the abdomen. This article focuses on surgical techniques used to optimize outcomes and discusses specific disorders of small intestine. Diagnoses and surgical techniques presented can be applied in field conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Probiotic Mixture Golden Bifido Prevents Neonatal Escherichia coli K1 Translocation via Enhancing Intestinal Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli (E. coli K1 sepsis and meningitis is a severe infection characterized by high mortality in neonates. Successful colonization and translocation across the intestinal mucosa have been regarded as the critical steps for E. coli K1 sepsis and meningitis. We recently reported that the probiotic mixture, Golden Bifido (containing live Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus thermophilus, LBS has a preventive role against neonatal E. coli K1 bacteremia and meningitis. However, the interaction between the neonatal gut barrier, probiotics and E. coli K1 is still not elucidated. The present study aims to investigate how LBS exerts its protective effects on neonatal gut barrier during E. coli K1 infection. The beneficial effects of LBS were explored in vitro and in vivo using human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and rat model of neonatal E. coli K1 infection, respectively. Our results showed that stimulation with E. coli K1 was able to cause intestinal barrier dysfunction, which were reflected by E. coli K1-induced intestinal damage and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, reduction of mucin, immunoglobulin A (IgA and tight junction proteins expression, as well as increase in intestinal permeability, all these changes facilitate E. coli K1 intestinal translocation. However, these changes were alleviated when HT-29 cells were treated with LBS before E. coli K1 infection. Furthermore, we found that LBS-treated neonatal rats (without E. coli K1 infection have showed higher production of mucin, ZO-1, IgA, Ki67 in intestinal mucosa as well as lower intestinal permeability than that of non-treated rats, indicating that LBS could accelerate the development of neonatal intestinal defense. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancement of the neonatal intestinal defense to fight against E. coli K1 translocation could be the potential mechanism to elucidate how LBS confers a protective effect against neonatal E

  6. Intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Pintar

    2011-02-01

    Conclusion: Intestine transplantation is reserved for patients with irreversible intestinal failure due to short gut syndrome requiring total paranteral nutrition with no possibility of discontinuation and loss of venous access for patient maintenance. In these patients complications of underlying disease and long-term total parenteral nutrition are present.

  7. Radiodiagnosis of early radiation intestinal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodina, G.I.; Abdulkhakova, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray examination of the colon in 102 patients and of the small intestine in 62 was performed during combined radiation therapy of cervical cancer and at different time after its discontinuation. Early radiation functional and morphological changes in the ileum and colon were detected. Radiation changes in the ileac mucosa were noted in 52% of the patients, changes of various degree in the rectal, sigmoid and cecal mucosa were noted in 41.2%. Moderate radiation changes in the ascending, descending and horizontal parts of the colon were noted in 10.7%. Early radiation intestinal injuries in the form of erosions and ulcers were revealed in 5.8% of the patients. In most of the patients radiation intestinal changes were without noticeable clinical manifestations. All these patients could be defined as a group at risk of developing late radiation changes

  8. Colon neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura F, K.

    1991-01-01

    The main aspects of colon neoplasms are described, including several factors that predispose the disease, the occurrence, the main biomedical radiography and the evaluation after the surgery. (C.G.C.)

  9. Descending colon endometriosis misdiagnosis as diverticulitis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Min Jeong; Ha, Hong Il; Lee, Kwan Seop; Min, Soo Kee [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue outside the uterus. It is a common disease in menstruating females and intestinal involvement is not uncommon. Intestinal endometriosis most commonly involves the sigmoid colon, rectum, ileum, appendix, and cecum. However, the descending colon is a rare site of intestinal endometriosis. Although computed tomography (CT) findings of bowel endometriosis have been presented in several articles, there has been no report describing the CT findings of descending colon endometriosis above the pelvic cavity. Here, we report a rare case of descending colon endometriosis located in the retroperitoneal space, in which the initial impression was acute colonic diverticulitis with a small abscess on preoperative multidetector CT.

  10. Descending colon endometriosis misdiagnosis as diverticulitis: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Min Jeong; Ha, Hong Il; Lee, Kwan Seop; Min, Soo Kee

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue outside the uterus. It is a common disease in menstruating females and intestinal involvement is not uncommon. Intestinal endometriosis most commonly involves the sigmoid colon, rectum, ileum, appendix, and cecum. However, the descending colon is a rare site of intestinal endometriosis. Although computed tomography (CT) findings of bowel endometriosis have been presented in several articles, there has been no report describing the CT findings of descending colon endometriosis above the pelvic cavity. Here, we report a rare case of descending colon endometriosis located in the retroperitoneal space, in which the initial impression was acute colonic diverticulitis with a small abscess on preoperative multidetector CT

  11. Possible association of mucous blanket integrity with postirradiation colonization resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.I.; Brook, I.; Costerton, J.W.; MacVittie, T.; Myhal, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation-induced infections can be associated with changes in colonization potential of the intestine. Since the mucous blanket, which overlays the epithelium, is a major mucosal structure and is heavily colonized by microorganisms, we examined the status of the mucus after radiation and evaluated susceptibility to intestinal challenge with bacteria. A downward shift (2.5 X 10(8) cells/g to 5.3 X 10(5)) of total facultatively anaerobic bacteria of the ileum of C3HeB/FeJ mice was detected by 3 days post exposure to 10 Gy 60Co. Numbers of flora returned to normal by 11 days after radiation. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show that the loss of bacteria could be associated with major disruptions of the continuity of the mucous blanket. The pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhered to mouse mucous films used in in vitro assays. When irradiated mice were challenged orally with 1 X 10(5) P. aeruginosa on days 1, 2, or 3 after irradiation, a progressive increase in susceptibility was seen, but no animals died before Day 4 postirradiation. Sensitivity to subcutaneous (sc) challenge with Pseudomonas also increased by Day 3 and was probably due largely to the profound neutropenia observed. Immunoglobulin G (Gamimmune), which protected burned mice infected with Pseudomonas, was ineffectual in treatment of 7 or 10 Gy irradiated mice challenged either orally or sc with the organism. The ileal mucosal barrier was compromised after radiation in ways which could facilitate epithelial colonization, an event which combined with other immunological and physiological decrements in this model can compromise the effectiveness of therapeutic modalities

  12. Gut microbiota utilize immunoglobulin A for mucosal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, G P; Ladinsky, M S; Yu, K B; Sanders, J G; Yoo, B B; Chou, W-C; Conner, M E; Earl, A M; Knight, R; Bjorkman, P J; Mazmanian, S K

    2018-05-18

    The immune system responds vigorously to microbial infection while permitting lifelong colonization by the microbiome. Mechanisms that facilitate the establishment and stability of the gut microbiota remain poorly described. We found that a regulatory system in the prominent human commensal Bacteroides fragilis modulates its surface architecture to invite binding of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in mice. Specific immune recognition facilitated bacterial adherence to cultured intestinal epithelial cells and intimate association with the gut mucosal surface in vivo. The IgA response was required for B. fragilis (and other commensal species) to occupy a defined mucosal niche that mediates stable colonization of the gut through exclusion of exogenous competitors. Therefore, in addition to its role in pathogen clearance, we propose that IgA responses can be co-opted by the microbiome to engender robust host-microbial symbiosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract Is Modulated by Wall Teichoic Acid, Capsule, and Surface Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Misawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the nose, throat, skin, and gastrointestinal (GI tract of humans. GI carriage of S. aureus is difficult to eradicate and has been shown to facilitate the transmission of the bacterium among individuals. Although staphylococcal colonization of the GI tract is asymptomatic, it increases the likelihood of infection, particularly skin and soft tissue infections caused by USA300 isolates. We established a mouse model of persistent S. aureus GI colonization and characterized the impact of selected surface antigens on colonization. In competition experiments, an acapsular mutant colonized better than the parental strain Newman, whereas mutants defective in sortase A and clumping factor A showed impaired ability to colonize the GI tract. Mutants lacking protein A, clumping factor B, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine, or SdrCDE showed no defect in colonization. An S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA mutant (ΔtagO failed to colonize the mouse nose or GI tract, and the tagO and clfA mutants showed reduced adherence in vitro to intestinal epithelial cells. The tagO mutant was recovered in lower numbers than the wild type strain in the murine stomach and duodenum 1 h after inoculation. This reduced fitness correlated with the in vitro susceptibility of the tagO mutant to bile salts, proteases, and a gut-associated defensin. Newman ΔtagO showed enhanced susceptibility to autolysis, and an autolysin (atl tagO double mutant abrogated this phenotype. However, the atl tagO mutant did not survive better in the mouse GI tract than the tagO mutant. Our results indicate that the failure of the tagO mutant to colonize the GI tract correlates with its poor adherence and susceptibility to bactericidal factors within the mouse gut, but not to enhanced activity of its major autolysin.

  14. Intestinal leiomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most often found when a person has an upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy or colonoscopy for another reason. Rarely, these tumors can cause bleeding, blockage or rupture of the intestines If this ...

  15. Vibrio cholerae Colonization of Soft-Shelled Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiazheng; Yan, Meiying; Gao, He; Lu, Xin; Kan, Biao

    2017-07-15

    Vibrio cholerae is an important human pathogen and environmental microflora species that can both propagate in the human intestine and proliferate in zooplankton and aquatic organisms. Cholera is transmitted through food and water. In recent years, outbreaks caused by V. cholerae -contaminated soft-shelled turtles, contaminated mainly with toxigenic serogroup O139, have been frequently reported, posing a new foodborne disease public health problem. In this study, the colonization by toxigenic V. cholerae on the body surfaces and intestines of soft-shelled turtles was explored. Preferred colonization sites on the turtle body surfaces, mainly the carapace and calipash of the dorsal side, were observed for the O139 and O1 strains. Intestinal colonization was also found. The colonization factors of V. cholerae played different roles in the colonization of the soft-shelled turtle's body surface and intestine. Mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) of V. cholerae was necessary for body surface colonization, but no roles were found for toxin-coregulated pili (TCP) or N -acetylglucosamine-binding protein A (GBPA). Both TCP and GBPA play important roles for colonization in the intestine, whereas the deletion of MSHA revealed only a minor colonization-promoting role for this factor. Our study demonstrated that V. cholerae can colonize the surfaces and the intestines of soft-shelled turtles and indicated that the soft-shelled turtles played a role in the transmission of cholera. In addition, this study showed that the soft-shelled turtle has potential value as an animal model in studies of the colonization and environmental adaption mechanisms of V. cholerae in aquatic organisms. IMPORTANCE Cholera is transmitted through water and food. Soft-shelled turtles contaminated with Vibrio cholerae (commonly the serogroup O139 strains) have caused many foodborne infections and outbreaks in recent years, and they have become a foodborne disease problem. Except for epidemiological

  16. A child with colo-colonic intussusception due to a large colonic polyp: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colo-colonic intussusception (CI due to a colonic polyp is a rarely reported cause of intestinal obstruction in school-aged children. Hydrostatic reduction (HR and endoscopic polypectomy are minimally invasive and technically feasible for treating CI. We report a case of CI and review the literature, focusing on the diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Circadian regulation of epithelial functions in the intestine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pácha, Jiří; Sumová, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 208, č. 1 (2013), s. 11-24 ISSN 1748-1708 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0969; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0668 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : circadian rhythms * intestine * colon * proliferation * digestion * intestinal transport Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.251, year: 2013

  18. Microenvironmental regulation of stem cells in intestinal homeostasis and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Jan Paul; Vermeulen, Louis

    2011-01-01

    The identification of intestinal stem cells as well as their malignant counterparts, colon cancer stem cells, has undergone rapid development in recent years. Under physiological conditions, intestinal homeostasis is a carefully balanced and efficient interplay between stem cells, their progeny and

  19. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  20. Effects of synbiotics on intestinal mucosal barrier in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xue

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Probiotics can improve the concentration of colonic probiotics, while synbiotics can improve probiotics concentration and mucosa thickness in colon, decrease L/M ratio and bacterial translocation. Synbiotics shows more protective effects on intestinal mucosal barrier in rats after cecectomy and gastrostomy and the intervention of specific antibiotics.

  1. Endocrine regulation of ion transport in the avian lower intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laverty, Gary; Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring; Árnason, Sighvatur S.

    2006-01-01

    The lower intestine (colon and coprodeum) of the domestic fowl maintains a very active, transporting epithelium, with a microvillus brush border, columnar epithelial cells, and a variety of transport systems. The colon of normal or high salt-acclimated hens expresses sodium-linked glucose and amino...

  2. Impact of broad-spectrum antimicrobial treatment on the ecology of intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jen-Jia; Wang, Jann-Tay; Cheng, Aristine; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Sheng, Wang-Huei

    2017-06-28

    Suppression of intestinal flora by broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents facilitated risk of colonization or infection with resistant pathogen. We aimed to investigate the changes in bowel carriage of target resistant microorganisms (TRO) among patients treated with three different classes of Pseudomonas-sparing broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents (ertapenem, moxifloxacin and flomoxef) with anaerobic coverage. Risk factors for developing colonization of TRO were also analyzed. We prospectively enrolled the adult hospitalized patients (>20 years old) who were indicated for at least 7-day course with either of ertapenem, moxifloxacin or flomoxef. Rectal swabs were performed for the patients who received at least 1-day course of study antibiotics during the treatment duration. The TROs included Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter baumannii. MacConkey agars with study antibiotics were used to isolate the TROs and evaluate the antimicrobial resistance. The mean age of our study population was 61.6 years, and 58.8% were males. The rates of rectal colonization for Pseudomonas aeruginosa was similar among the study medications (ertapenem 13.2%, flomoxef 20%, moxifloxacin 14.3%, p = 0.809). Compared with ertapenem, flomoxef (odds ratio [OR], 4.30; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.28-14.48, p = 0.019) and moxifloxacin (OR, 6.95; 95% CI, 1.36-35.52, p = 0.019) had higher risk for colonization of ertapenem-resistant Escherichiacoli colonization. The patients who received treatment of ertapenem may have a lower risk of rectal colonization for ertapenem resistant Escherichia coli than those who received flomoxef or moxifloxacin. The rate of Pseudomonas colonization did not differ between the three study Pseudomonas-sparing agents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Echoendoscopic characterization of the human colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. Castro-Poças

    Full Text Available Purpose: To characterize colon and rectum walls, pericolic and perirectal spaces, using endoscopic ultrasonography miniprobes. Methods: Sixty individuals (50% males, aged 18-80, were included. Using 12 and 20 MHz endoscopic ultrasonography miniprobes, all different colon segments (ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid and rectum were evaluated according to the number and thickness of the different layers in intestinal wall, to the presence and (largest diameter of vessels in the submucosa and of peri-intestinal nodes. Results: The 20 MHz miniprobe identified a higher number of layers than the 12 MHz miniprobe, with medians of 7 and 5 respectively (p < 0.001. The rectal wall (p = 0.001, its muscularis propria (p < 0.001 and mucosa (p = 0.01 were significantly thicker than the different segments of the colon, which had no significant differences between them. Patients aged 41-60 presented thicker colonic wall and muscularis propria in descending (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004 and rectum (p=0.01 and p=0.01. Submucosal vessels were identified in 30% of individuals in descending and rectum, and in 12% in ascending. Adenopathies were observed in 9% of the colon segments and 5% in rectum. Conclusions: A higher frequency enabled the identification of a higher number of layers. Rectal wall is thicker than the one from all the segments of the colon and there are no differences between these, namely in the ascending colon. Moreover, peri-intestinal adenopathies were rarely identified but present in asymptomatic individuals. All together, these results describe for the first time features which are relevant during staging and therapeutic management of colonic lesions.

  4. 结肠癌合并肠梗阻患者急诊术后切口感染的病原学与危险因素分析%Etiology and risk factors for incision infections in patients with colon cancer complicated with intestinal obstruction after emergency surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项海; 项秉该; 林振亮; 赵章程; 温江涛

    2017-01-01

    目的 结肠癌合并肠梗阻急诊术后切口感染率较高,严重影响患者术后康复,本文旨在分析结肠癌合并肠梗阻患者急诊术后切口感染的病原学和危险因素,为临床防治结肠癌合并肠梗阻急诊术后感染提供参考.方法 回顾性收集2011年1月-2016年6月医院收治的结肠癌合并肠梗阻的患者189例,所有患者均行急诊结肠癌切除术,观察切口感染率,分析患者的病原学和临床特征,并分析切口感染的危险因素.结果 35例患者发生切口感染,共培养出48株细菌,其中革兰阴性菌占62.50%,革兰阳性菌占37.50%;合并糖尿病的患者切口感染率显著增高(44.44%vs14.20%,P=0.000),手术时间≥150min的患者切口感染率显著增高(24.07%vs 11.11%,P=0.013),术前白细胞≥109/L的患者切口感染率显著增高(26.56%v s14.40%,P=0.042);C-反应蛋白≥10mg/L的患者切口感染率显著增加(22.88%vs11.27%,P=0.047);白蛋白<30g/L的患者切口感染率显著增加(29.09%vs14.18%,P=0.017);多因素logistic回归分析显示糖尿病、术前白细胞≥109/L、C-反应蛋白≥10mg/L和白蛋白<30g/L是结肠癌合并肠梗阻患者术后切口感染的危险因素.结论 结肠癌合并肠梗阻患者急诊术后以革兰阴性菌常见,糖尿病、白细胞增高、C-反应蛋白增高和白蛋白降低是结肠癌合并肠梗阻患者急诊术后切口感染的危险因素.%OBJECTIVE The incidence rate of incision infections is high in the patients with colon cancer complicated with intestinal obstruction after emergency surgery ,which may seriously affect the postoperative rehabilitation . To observe the etiology of the incision infections in the patients with colon cancer complicated with intestinal ob-struction after emergency surgery and analyze the risk factors so as to provide guidance for clinical prevention and treatment of the incision infection after emergency surgery .METHODS A total of 189 patients with colon cancer

  5. Mucin dynamics in intestinal bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara K Lindén

    Full Text Available Bacterial gastroenteritis causes morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Murine Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for gastroenteritis caused by the human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. Mucin glycoproteins are the main component of the first barrier that bacteria encounter in the intestinal tract.Using Immunohistochemistry, we investigated intestinal expression of mucins (Alcian blue/PAS, Muc1, Muc2, Muc4, Muc5AC, Muc13 and Muc3/17 in healthy and C. rodentium infected mice. The majority of the C. rodentium infected mice developed systemic infection and colitis in the mid and distal colon by day 12. C. rodentium bound to the major secreted mucin, Muc2, in vitro, and high numbers of bacteria were found in secreted MUC2 in infected animals in vivo, indicating that mucins may limit bacterial access to the epithelial surface. In the small intestine, caecum and proximal colon, the mucin expression was similar in infected and non-infected animals. In the distal colonic epithelium, all secreted and cell surface mucins decreased with the exception of the Muc1 cell surface mucin which increased after infection (p<0.05. Similarly, during human infection Salmonella St Paul, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile induced MUC1 in the colon.Major changes in both the cell-surface and secreted mucins occur in response to intestinal infection.

  6. Intestinal colonisation, microbiota and future probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salminen, S.; Benno, Y.; Vos, de W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The human intestine is colonized by a large number of microorganisms, collectively termed microbiota, which support a variety of physiological functions. As the major part of the microbiota has not yet been cultured, molecular methods are required to determine microbial composition and the impact of

  7. Diagnosis of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Myriam Consuelo; Quiroz, Damian Arnoldo; Pinilla, Analida Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    during the XXth and the beginning of the XXIst century in updating the diagnosis of amoebiasis and accepting the hypothesis of the complex Entamoeba histolytic / Entamoeba dispar proposed by Brumpt in 1925. In Colombia, given the progress made in the diagnostic techniques, as well as the determination of Gal/GalNAc lectine in the feces, the prevalence of E. histolytic between 0.6%-1.4%. However, for the diagnosis of intestinal amoebiasis direct test without being able to define the species. On the other hand, the most important clinical picture of extra-intestinal amoebiasis is liver abscess; to make that diagnosis the clinical history the context is analyzed, including the clinical history, epidemiological aspects, imaging studies and IgG antibodies against histolytic. The histopathology of the colon lesions continues to be valid for the differential diagnosis with other etiologies. The advent of the new molecular biology tests, will be a helpful diagnosis tool in this pathology.

  8. The thickness of the intestinal mucous layer in the colon of rats fed various sources of non-digestible carbohydrates is positively correlated with the pool of SCFA but negatively correlated with the proportion of butyric acid in digesta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette S; Theil, Peter K; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2009-01-01

    The present experiment aimed to study the influence of six sources of non-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) on the mucous layer in the colon of rats. The NDC sources used were as follows: cellulose (C); pectin (P); inulin; resistant starch (RS); barley hulls. The diets contained 108-140g NDC/kg DM...

  9. Advancing nutritional therapy: A novel polymeric formulation attenuates intestinal inflammation in a murine colitis model and suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine production in ex-vivo cultured inflamed colonic biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhagamhmad, Moftah H; Lemberg, Daniel A; Day, Andrew S; Tan, Li-Zsa; Ooi, Chee Y; Krishnan, Usha; Gupta, Nitin; Munday, John S; Leach, Steven T

    2017-04-01

    Nutritional therapy is a viable therapeutic option for the treatment of Crohn disease (CD). Therefore improving nutritional therapy would greatly benefit CD patients. The aim of this study was to define the anti-inflammatory properties of a novel nutritional polymeric formula (PF) in comparison to a currently available standard PF. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was utilized to induce colitis in C57BL/6 mice with mice randomized to receive either standard PF or novel PF in addition to control groups. Changes in body weight were recorded and colonic damage was assessed histologically and biochemically. Additional experiments were also included where the cytokine response of colonic biopsies from pediatric CD patients was measured following exposure to standard PF or novel PF. DSS induced significant body weight loss, morphological changes in the colon, increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and up-regulated colonic mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, as well as associated histological changes. Other than histological damage, these inflammatory changes were reversed by both novel and standard PF. However, the novel PF, but not standard PF, completely suppressed TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 levels from cultured biopsies. Newly developed nutritional formula reproducibly ameliorated DSS-induced colitis in a murine model, although this response was not measurably different to standard PF. However, the novel PF was significantly superior in suppressing inflammatory cytokine release from cultured colonic biopsies. Collectively, these findings support a possible role for novel PF in advancing nutritional therapy for CD patients. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Update on small intestinal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesori, Valentina; Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Lattanzi, Wanda; Gasbarrini, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-08-07

    Among somatic stem cells, those residing in the intestine represent a fascinating and poorly explored research field. Particularly, somatic stem cells reside in the small intestine at the level of the crypt base, in a constant balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Aim of the present review is to delve into the mechanisms that regulate the delicate equilibrium through which intestinal stem cells orchestrate intestinal architecture. To this aim, special focus will be addressed to identify the integrating signals from the surrounding niche, supporting a model whereby distinct cell populations facilitate homeostatic vs injury-induced regeneration.

  11. Bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keating, Niamh

    2009-10-01

    In addition to their roles in facilitating lipid digestion and absorption, bile acids are recognized as important regulators of intestinal function. Exposure to bile acids can dramatically influence intestinal transport and barrier properties; in recent years, they have also become appreciated as important factors in regulating cell growth and survival. Indeed, few cells reside within the intestinal mucosa that are not altered to some degree by exposure to bile acids. The past decade saw great advances in the knowledge of how bile acids exert their actions at the cellular and molecular levels. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

  12. Melanosis coli in patients with colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Biernacka-Wawrzonek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction: Melanosis coli is a benign lesion affecting the mucosa of the large intestine. There is a relationship between the presence of melanosis and anthraquinone laxative use. Melanosis coli is also observed in patients with colon cancer, but there is doubt whether these two conditions are related. Aim : To analyze the correlation between melanosis and colon cancer. Material and methods: We analyzed retrospectively 436 patients undergoing colon cancer surgery. There were 246 women and 190 men. Patients were divided into three age groups: under 50 years, between 51 and 65 years, and over 66 years. We analyzed sections of the cancer and intestinal mucosa from the tumor’s proximal (2–5 cm and distal (8–10 cm zone. Results : Melanosis coli was present in 52 patients, which represents 11.9% of patients with colon cancer. More often it was present in women. The most common location of melanosis and colon cancer was the terminal part of the large intestine. In patients below 50 years of age in both sexes melanosis coli did not occur. In men, melanosis was more common in the age group over 66 years. Intensity of pigmentation was higher in the tumor’s distal zone. Conclusions : The incidence of melanosis coli increases with age, similar to that of colon cancer. Melanosis was not present inside tumors, in almost half of the cases it was not present in the proximal zone, and the degree of pigmentation increased in distal zone. The cause-effect relationship between melanosis coli and colon cancer remains uncertain.

  13. Chemotherapy Treatment in Pediatric Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia Receiving Antimicrobial Prophylaxis Leads to a Relative Increase of Colonization with Potentially Pathogenic Bacteria in the Gut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Michel J.; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Dun, Catharina A. J.; Meessen, Nico E. L.; Kamps, Willem A.; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Normally, humans are protected against infections by their anaerobic intestinal microorganisms providing colonization resistance. In immunocompromised patients, the endogenous intestinal gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens often cause infectious complications. Therefore, we

  14. Role of neutral ceramidase in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Barros, Mónica; Coant, Nicolas; Kawamori, Toshihiko; Wada, Masayuki; Snider, Ashley J; Truman, Jean-Philip; Wu, Bill X; Furuya, Hideki; Clarke, Christopher J; Bialkowska, Agnieszka B; Ghaleb, Amr; Yang, Vincent W; Obeid, Lina M; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2016-12-01

    Alterations in sphingolipid metabolism, especially ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate, have been linked to colon cancer, suggesting that enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism may emerge as novel regulators and targets in colon cancer. Neutral ceramidase (nCDase), a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism that hydrolyzes ceramide into sphingosine, is highly expressed in the intestine; however, its role in colon cancer has not been defined. Here we show that molecular and pharmacological inhibition of nCDase in colon cancer cells increases ceramide, and this is accompanied by decreased cell survival and increased apoptosis and autophagy, with minimal effects on noncancerous cells. Inhibition of nCDase resulted in loss of β-catenin and inhibition of ERK, components of pathways relevant for colon cancer development. Furthermore, inhibition of nCDase in a xenograft model delayed tumor growth and increased ceramide while decreasing proliferation. It is noteworthy that mice lacking nCDase treated with azoxymethane were protected from tumor formation. Taken together, these studies show that nCDase is pivotal for regulating initiation and development of colon cancer, and these data suggest that this enzyme is a suitable and novel target for colon cancer therapy.-García-Barros, M., Coant, N., Kawamori, T., Wada, M., Snider, A. J., Truman, J.-P., Wu, B. X., Furuya, H., Clarke, C. J., Bialkowska, A. B., Ghaleb, A., Yang, V. W., Obeid, L. M., Hannun, Y. A. Role of neutral ceramidase in colon cancer. © FASEB.

  15. Submucosal chromoendoscopy: a technique that highlights epithelia and differentiates histological components, and renders colon polypectomy easier and safer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Dolz-Abadía

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Submucosal chromoendoscopy involves the injection of a solution containing a vital stain, usually indigo carmine, into the intestinal wall submucosal layer. This allows to: Better delimit and characterize the various epithelia present (colonic mucosa, adenoma, hyperplastic polyp, serrated polyp, small bowel mucosa; expose and delimit lesion implantation areas; cooperate in the lifting of resectable lesions; ensure section across the submucosal plane; identify intestinal wall structures; render complex polypectomy feasible; and facilitate the identification of perforations. The present paper offers information on the endoscopic technique for submucosal injection, solution preparation and concentration, and on the potential benefits it may provide for polypectomy or endocopic mucosal resection whether en block or piecemeal. This endoscopic technique simultaneously combines a diagnostic and a therapeutic aspect, since lesion lifting in association with better delimited contours may improve not only accuracy but also endoscopic resection safety and feasibility.

  16. THE EFFECT OF CEFTRIAXONE ON THE ANAEROBIC BACTERIAL-FLORA AND THE BACTERIAL ENZYMATIC-ACTIVITY IN THE INTESTINAL-TRACT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELLING, GW; MEIJERSEVERS, GJ; HELMUS, G; VANSANTEN, E; TONK, RHJ; DEVRIESHOSPERS, HG; VANDERWAAIJ, D

    1991-01-01

    The normal flora of the intestinal tract, mainly consisting of anaerobic bacteria, protects the host against colonization by pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial treatment with ceftriaxone may influence the colonic microflora and as a consequence, the protective effect. Ten healthy volunteers

  17. ORAL COLON TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW ON CURRENT AND NOVEL PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Asija Rajesh; Chaudhari Bharat; Asija Sangeeta

    2012-01-01

    Small intestine is mostly the site for drug absorption but in some cases the drug needs to be targeted to colon due to some factors like local colonic disease, degradation related conditions, delayed release of drugs, systemic delivery of protein and peptide drugs etc. Colon targeted drug delivery is important and relatively new concept for the absorption of drugs because it offers almost neutral pH and long residence time, thereby increasing the drug absorption. Colon has proved to be a site...

  18. Laparoscopic excision of an ascending colon duplication cyst in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather R. Nolan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonic intestinal duplications are infrequent and rarely present past early childhood. We present the case of a large, ascending colon duplication in a 17-year-old boy resected using minimally invasive techniques. This appears to be the first reported case of a laparoscopic en-bloc ascending colon duplication resection in an adolescent. The diagnosis and management of colonic duplications are discussed.

  19. Intestinal Microbiota Influences Non-intestinal Related Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opazo, Maria C.; Ortega-Rocha, Elizabeth M.; Coronado-Arrázola, Irenice; Bonifaz, Laura C.; Boudin, Helene; Neunlist, Michel; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.; Riedel, Claudia A.

    2018-01-01

    The human body is colonized by millions of microorganisms named microbiota that interact with our tissues in a cooperative and non-pathogenic manner. These microorganisms are present in the skin, gut, nasal, oral cavities, and genital tract. In fact, it has been described that the microbiota contributes to balancing the immune system to maintain host homeostasis. The gut is a vital organ where microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system and contributes to preserve the wellbeing of the individual. Several articles have emphasized the connection between intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's disease with dysbiosis or an imbalance in the microbiota composition in the gut. However, little is known about the role of the microbiota in autoimmune pathologies affecting other tissues than the intestine. This article focuses on what is known about the role that gut microbiota can play in the pathogenesis of non-intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Grave's diseases, multiple sclerosis, type-1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, we discuss as to how metabolites derived from bacteria could be used as potential therapies for non-intestinal autoimmune diseases. PMID:29593681

  20. Intestinal Microbiota Influences Non-intestinal Related Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Opazo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The human body is colonized by millions of microorganisms named microbiota that interact with our tissues in a cooperative and non-pathogenic manner. These microorganisms are present in the skin, gut, nasal, oral cavities, and genital tract. In fact, it has been described that the microbiota contributes to balancing the immune system to maintain host homeostasis. The gut is a vital organ where microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system and contributes to preserve the wellbeing of the individual. Several articles have emphasized the connection between intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's disease with dysbiosis or an imbalance in the microbiota composition in the gut. However, little is known about the role of the microbiota in autoimmune pathologies affecting other tissues than the intestine. This article focuses on what is known about the role that gut microbiota can play in the pathogenesis of non-intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Grave's diseases, multiple sclerosis, type-1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, we discuss as to how metabolites derived from bacteria could be used as potential therapies for non-intestinal autoimmune diseases.

  1. Intestinal Volvulus in Idiopathic Steatorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, H. A.; Kinnear, D. G.; Cameron, D. G.

    1963-01-01

    Volvulus of the intestine has recently been observed in three patients with idiopathic steatorrhea in relapse. Two patients gave a history of intermittent abdominal pain, distension and obstipation. Radiographic studies during these attacks revealed obstruction at the level of the sigmoid colon. Reduction under proctoscopic control was achieved in one instance, spontaneous resolution occurring in the other. The third patient presented as a surgical emergency and underwent operative reduction of a small intestinal volvulus. Persistence of diarrhea and weight loss postoperatively led to further investigation and a diagnosis of idiopathic steatorrhea. In all cases, treatment resulted in clinical remission with a coincident disappearance of obstructive intestinal symptoms. The pathogenesis of volvulus in sprue is poorly understood. Atonicity and dilatation of the bowel and stretching of the mesentery likely represent important factors. The symptoms of recurrent abdominal pain and distension in idiopathic steatorrhea necessitate an increased awareness of intestinal volvulus as a complication of this disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Figs. 4 and 5Fig. 6 PMID:13998948

  2. INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, G. H.; Stone, H. B.; Bernheim, B. M.

    1913-01-01

    Closed duodenal loops may be made in dogs by ligatures placed just below the pancreatic duct and just beyond the duodenojejunal junction, together with a posterior gastro-enterostomy. These closed duodenal loop dogs die with symptoms like those of patients suffering from volvulus or high intestinal obstruction. This duodenal loop may simulate closely a volvulus in which there has been no vascular disturbance. Dogs with closed duodenal loops which have been washed out carefully survive a little longer on the average than animals with unwashed loops. The duration of life in the first instance is one to three days, with an average of about forty-eight hours. The dogs usually lose considerable fluid by vomiting and diarrhea. A weak pulse, low blood pressure and temperature are usually conspicuous in the last stages. Autopsy shows more or less splanchnic congestion which may be most marked in the mucosa of the upper small intestine. The peritoneum is usually clear and the closed loop may be distended with thin fluid, or collapsed, and contain only a small amount of pasty brown material. The mucosa of the loop may show ulceration and even perforation, but in the majority of cases it is intact and exhibits only a moderate congestion. Simple intestinal obstruction added to a closed duodenal loop does not modify the result in any manner, but it may hasten the fatal outcome. The liver plays no essential role as a protective agent against this poison, for a dog with an Eck fistula may live three days with a closed loop. A normal dog reacts to intraportal injection and to intravenous injection of the toxic substance in an identical manner. Drainage of this loop under certain conditions may not interfere with the general health over a period of weeks or months. Excision of the part of the duodenum included in this loop causes no disturbance. The material from the closed duodenal loops contains no bile, pancreatic juice, gastric juice, or split products from the food. It can be

  3. Innovative methods to study human intestinal drug metabolism in vitro : Precision-cut slices compared with Ussing chamber preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhof, Esther G.; Ungell, Anna-Lena B.; Sjoberg, Asa K.; de Jager, Marina H.; Hilgendorf, Constanze; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Predictive in vitro methods to investigate drug metabolism in the human intestine using intact tissue are of high importance. Therefore, we studied the metabolic activity of human small intestinal and colon slices and compared it with the metabolic activity of the same human intestinal segments

  4. [Multiple colonic anastomoses in the surgical treatment of short bowel syndrome. A new technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Ogazón, Felipe; Becerril-Martínez, Guillermo; Hernández-Saldaña, Víctor; Zavala-Aznar, Marí Luisa; Bojalil-Durán, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Some surgical pathologies eventually require intestinal resection. This may lead to an extended procedure such as leaving 30 cm of proximal jejunum and left and sigmoid colon. One of the most important consequences of this type of resection is "intestinal failure" or short bowel syndrome. This complex syndrome leads to different metabolic and water and acid/base imbalances, as well as nutritional and immunological challenges along with the problem accompanying an abdomen subjected to many surgical procedures and high mortality. Many surgical techniques have been developed to improve quality of life of patients. We designed a non-transplant surgical approach and performed the procedure on two patients with postoperative short bowel syndrome with work can be performed by a large number of surgeons. The procedure has a low morbimortality rate and offers the opportunity for better control of metabolic and acid/base balance, intestinal transit and proper nutrition. We consider that this technique offers a new alternative for the complex management required by patients with short bowel syndrome and facilitates their long-term nutritional control.

  5. Intestinal excretion of metals by rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    The excretion of 65 Zn, sup(115m)Cd, 203 Hg, 207 Bi, 210 Pb, 60 Co, 64 Cu, 85 Sr and 86 Rb in the perfused sections of the intestinal tract in vivo was investigated by the pendular perfusion method. After intravenous administration the excretion of metals was investigated in the jejunum, in the colon and in some experiments also in the ileum. The fluid net movement in the jejunum and colon was measured in dependency on the energy spectrum of the applied metal isotope by means of 14 C or 3 H-polyethylene glycol 2000. (orig./MG) [de

  6. [A case of transverse colon cancer mimicking urachal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Taku; Inoue, Ryo; Kondo, Junya; Nagashima, Yukiko; Okada, Toshimasa; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Sakata, Koichiro; Yamaguchi, Shiro; Setoguchi, Mihoko

    2013-11-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal distension. Computed tomography revealed an abscess in the anterior abdominal wall and invasion of the large intestine. Biopsy of the large intestine revealed adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the antigen expression profile of the tumor was positive for cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 903 (34βE12), and cytokeratin 20. We diagnosed the tumor as urachal cancer and performed surgery. Examination of the resected specimen showed that the tumor was located in the transverse colon. Finally, the patient was diagnosed as having transverse colon cancer with urachal abscess.

  7. Accumulative effect of food residues on intestinal gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mego, M; Accarino, A; Malagelada, J-R; Guarner, F; Azpiroz, F

    2015-11-01

    As mean transit time in the colon is longer than the interval between meals, several consecutive meal loads accumulate, and contribute to colonic biomass. Our aim was to determine the summation effect of fermentable food residues on intestinal gas production. In eight healthy subjects, the volume of endogenous intestinal gas produced in the intestine over a 4-h period was measured by means of a wash-out technique, using an exogenous gas infusion into the jejunum (24 mL/min) and collection of the effluent via a rectal Foley catheter. The exogenous gas infused was labeled (5% SF6 ) to calculate the proportion of endogenous intestinal gas evacuated. In each subject, four experiments were performed ≥1 week apart combining a 1-day high- or low-flatulogenic diet with a test meal or fast. Basal conditions: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production during fasting over the 4-h study period was 609 ± 63 mL. Effect of diet: during fasting, intestinal gas production on the high-flatulogenic diet was 370 ± 146 mL greater than on the low-flatulogenic diet (p = 0.040). Effect of test meal: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production after the test meal was 681 ± 114 mL greater than during fasting (p = 0.001); a similar effect was observed on the high-flatulogenic diet (599 ± 174 mL more intestinal gas production after the test meal than during fasting; p = 0.021). Our data demonstrate temporal summation effects of food residues on intestinal gas production. Hence, intestinal gas production depends on pre-existing and on recent colonic loads of fermentable foodstuffs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Development and Characterization of a Human and Mouse Intestinal Epithelial Cell Monolayer Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kozuka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We describe the development and characterization of a mouse and human epithelial cell monolayer platform of the small and large intestines, with a broad range of potential applications including the discovery and development of minimally systemic drug candidates. Culture conditions for each intestinal segment were optimized by correlating monolayer global gene expression with the corresponding tissue segment. The monolayers polarized, formed tight junctions, and contained a diversity of intestinal epithelial cell lineages. Ion transport phenotypes of monolayers from the proximal and distal colon and small intestine matched the known and unique physiology of these intestinal segments. The cultures secreted serotonin, GLP-1, and FGF19 and upregulated the epithelial sodium channel in response to known biologically active agents, suggesting intact secretory and absorptive functions. A screen of over 2,000 pharmacologically active compounds for inhibition of potassium ion transport in the mouse distal colon cultures led to the identification of a tool compound. : Siegel and colleagues describe their development of a human and mouse intestinal epithelial cell monolayer platform that maintains the cellular, molecular, and functional characteristics of tissue for each intestinal segment. They demonstrate the platform's application to drug discovery by screening a library of over 2,000 compounds to identify an inhibitor of potassium ion transport in the mouse distal colon. Keywords: intestinal epithelium, organoids, monolayer, colon, small intestine, phenotype screening assays, enteroid, colonoid

  9. Bioengineered Systems and Designer Matrices That Recapitulate the Intestinal Stem Cell Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between intestinal stem cells (ISCs and the surrounding niche environment is complex and dynamic. Key factors localized at the base of the crypt are necessary to promote ISC self-renewal and proliferation, to ultimately provide a constant stream of differentiated cells to maintain the epithelial barrier. These factors diminish as epithelial cells divide, migrate away from the crypt base, differentiate into the postmitotic lineages, and end their life span in approximately 7 days when they are sloughed into the intestinal lumen. To facilitate the rapid and complex physiology of ISC-driven epithelial renewal, in vivo gradients of growth factors, extracellular matrix, bacterial products, gases, and stiffness are formed along the crypt-villus axis. New bioengineered tools and platforms are available to recapitulate various gradients and support the stereotypical cellular responses associated with these gradients. Many of these technologies have been paired with primary small intestinal and colonic epithelial cells to re-create select aspects of normal physiology or disease states. These biomimetic platforms are becoming increasingly sophisticated with the rapid discovery of new niche factors and gradients. These advancements are contributing to the development of high-fidelity tissue constructs for basic science applications, drug screening, and personalized medicine applications. Here, we discuss the direct and indirect evidence for many of the important gradients found in vivo and their successful application to date in bioengineered in vitro models, including organ-on-chip and microfluidic culture devices.

  10. Selective sparing of goblet cells and paneth cells in the intestine of methotrexate-treated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Verburg (Melissa); I.B. Renes (Ingrid); H.P. Meijer; J.A. Taminiau; H.A. Büller (Hans); A.W.C. Einerhand (Sandra); J. Dekker (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractProliferation, differentiation, and cell death were studied in small intestinal and colonic epithelia of rats after treatment with methotrexate. Days 1-2 after treatment were characterized by decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and decreased numbers and depths

  11. Intestinal Ileus as a Possible Cause of Hypobicarbonatemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Serrano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible occurrence of metabolic acidosis in patients with intestinal ileus is not well recognized. We describe a patient with acute alcohol-induced pancreatitis and a large transverse colon ileus in which plasma bicarbonate dropped rapidly in the absence of an increase in the plasma anion gap. The urinary anion gap and ammonium excretion were consistent with an appropriate renal response to metabolic acidosis and against the possibility of respiratory alkalosis. The cause of the falling plasma bicarbonate was ascribed to intestinal bicarbonate sequestration owing to the enhancement of chloride-bicarbonate exchange in a dilated paralyzed colon.

  12. The colon. Clinical radiology and endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbusch, G.; Reeders, J.W.A.J.

    1993-01-01

    This comprehensive reference work presents in-depth information on the diagnostic radiology and endoscopy of the colon. After a brief review of the history of colon examinations, two chapters explain the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of the large intestine as well as the methods and techniques applied for radiological examination of the colon. The pathology and characteristical findings and the diagnostic evaluation of the various types of disease are the main subject, with the chapters discussing inflammations and tumors consuming by far most of the space, but there is also valuable information on vascular lesions, traumata, latrogenous or post-surgery lesions, among others, and on the characteristical findings in children. Numerous tables, radiographs and endoscopic images together with drawings illustrate and accompany the textbook information. (orig.). 492 figs., 95 tabs [de

  13. Effect of polydextrose on intestinal microbes and immune functions in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Francesca; Mäkivuokko, Harri; Siljander-Rasi, Hilkka; Putaala, Heli; Tiihonen, Kirsti; Stowell, Julian; Tuohy, Kieran; Gibson, Glenn; Rautonen, Nina

    2007-07-01

    Dietary fibre has been proposed to decrease risk for colon cancer by altering the composition of intestinal microbes or their activity. In the present study, the changes in intestinal microbiota and its activity, and immunological characteristics, such as cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression in mucosa, in pigs fed with a high-energy-density diet, with and without supplementation of a soluble fibre (polydextrose; PDX) (30 g/d) were assessed in different intestinal compartments. PDX was gradually fermented throughout the intestine, and was still present in the distal colon. Irrespective of the diet throughout the intestine, of the four microbial groups determined by fluorescent in situ hybridisation, lactobacilli were found to be dominating, followed by clostridia and Bacteroides. Bifidobacteria represented a minority of the total intestinal microbiota. The numbers of bacteria increased approximately ten-fold from the distal small intestine to the distal colon. Concomitantly, also concentrations of SCFA and biogenic amines increased in the large intestine. In contrast, concentrations of luminal IgA decreased distally but the expression of mucosal COX-2 had a tendency to increase in the mucosa towards the distal colon. Addition of PDX to the diet significantly changed the fermentation endproducts, especially in the distal colon, whereas effects on bacterial composition were rather minor. There was a reduction in concentrations of SCFA and tryptamine, and an increase in concentrations of spermidine in the colon upon PDX supplementation. Furthermore, PDX tended to decrease the expression of mucosal COX-2, therefore possibly reducing the risk of developing colon cancer-promoting conditions in the distal intestine.

  14. Biotin absorption by distal rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.B.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1987-01-01

    We used the in vivo intestinal loop approach, with short (10-min) and long (3-h) incubations, to examine biotin absorption in proximal jejunum, distal ileum, cecum and proximal colon. In short-term studies, luminal biotin disappearance from rat ileum was about half that observed in the jejunum, whereas absorption by proximal colon was about 12% of that in the jejunum. In 3-h closed-loop studies, the absorption of 1.0 microM biotin varied regionally. Biotin absorption was nearly complete in the small intestine after 3 h; however, only about 15% of the dose had been absorbed in the cecum and 27% in the proximal colon after 3 h. Independent of site of administration, the major fraction of absorbed biotin was recovered in the liver; measurable amounts of radioactive biotin were also present in kidney and plasma. The results support the potential nutritional significance for the rat of biotin synthesized by bacteria in the distal intestine, by demonstrating directly an absorptive capability of mammalian large bowel for this vitamin

  15. Colonic lymphoid follicles associated with colonic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, S.N.; Teplick, S.K.; Ross, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated 62 patients over 40 years old in whom lymphoid follicles were demonstrated on double-contrast enema examinations. Eighteen patients (29%) had no current radiographic evidence of, or history of, colonic neoplasms. Forty-four patients (71%) had an associated neoplasm. Fourteen patients had associated colonic carcinoma, and ten patients had a history of a previously resected colon cancer. One patient had previously undergone resection for ''polyps.'' Twenty-two patients had an associated ''polyp.'' There were no clinical or radiographic features that could reliably distinguish the neoplastic from the nonneoplastic groups. However, lymphoid follicles in the left colon or diffusely involving the colon were more likely to be associated with a colonic neoplasm. Lymphoid follicles were almost always identified near a malignant lesion

  16. Specific modulation of mucosal immune response, tolerance and proliferation in mice colonized with A. muciniphila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derrien, M.M.N.; Baarlen, van Peter; Hooiveld, Guido; Norin, Elisabeth; Muller, Michael; Vos, de Willem

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial cells of the mammalian intestine are covered with a mucus layer that prevents direct contact with intestinal microbes but also constitutes a substrate for mucus-degrading bacteria. To study the effect of mucus degradation on the host response, germ-free mice were colonized with

  17. Glycoprotein A33 deficiency: a new mouse model of impaired intestinal epithelial barrier function and inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. Williams

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cells of the intestinal epithelium provide a selectively permeable barrier between the external environment and internal tissues. The integrity of this barrier is maintained by tight junctions, specialised cell-cell contacts that permit the absorption of water and nutrients while excluding microbes, toxins and dietary antigens. Impairment of intestinal barrier function contributes to multiple gastrointestinal disorders, including food hypersensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and colitis-associated cancer (CAC. Glycoprotein A33 (GPA33 is an intestinal epithelium-specific cell surface marker and member of the CTX group of transmembrane proteins. Roles in cell-cell adhesion have been demonstrated for multiple CTX family members, suggesting a similar function for GPA33 within the gastrointestinal tract. To test a potential requirement for GPA33 in intestinal barrier function, we generated Gpa33−/− mice and subjected them to experimental regimens designed to produce food hypersensitivity, colitis and CAC. Gpa33−/− mice exhibited impaired intestinal barrier function. This was shown by elevated steady-state immunosurveillance in the colonic mucosa and leakiness to oral TRITC-labelled dextran after short-term exposure to dextran sodium sulphate (DSS to injure the intestinal epithelium. Gpa33−/− mice also exhibited rapid onset and reduced resolution of DSS-induced colitis, and a striking increase in the number of colitis-associated tumours produced by treatment with the colon-specific mutagen azoxymethane (AOM followed by two cycles of DSS. In contrast, Gpa33−/− mice treated with AOM alone showed no increase in sporadic tumour formation, indicating that their increased tumour susceptibility is dependent on inflammatory stimuli. Finally, Gpa33−/− mice displayed hypersensitivity to food allergens, a common co-morbidity in humans with IBD. We propose that Gpa33−/− mice provide a valuable model to study the mechanisms

  18. Scintigraphic colonic transit study in children with chronic constipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Tsunehiro; Uemura, Sadashige; Nakaoka, Tatsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshikiyo; Tanimoto, Terutaka; Sone, Teruki

    2008-01-01

    Chronic constipation can be caused either by slow colonic transit or by functional fecal retention. The treatment strategy for chronic constipation should be based on its etiology. Scintigraphic colonic transit study (SCTS) is useful for dividing the cause of the constipation into slow colonic transit and functional fecal retention. SCTS is also useful for judging the therapeutic effect and postoperative intestinal motility of Hirschsprung's disease, anorectal molformation, and others. As SCTS is a safe, simple, and painless examination, it is one of the most important examinations in evaluating chronic constipation. (author)

  19. Sigmoid colon cancer in an incarcerated left inguinal hernia

    OpenAIRE

    González González, Daniel Alfredo; Tarigo, Nicolás

    2017-01-01

    Resumen: El cáncer de colon como contenido de una hernia inguinal es una situación infrecuente. Pocos casos se han reportado en la literatura. Habitualmente ocurre en hernias inguinales izquierdas y es el colon sigmoides su contenido. La palpación de una tumoración en una hernia que previamente no existía y la aparición de sintomatología intestinal orientan el diagnóstico. El colon por enema constituye el examen paraclínico por excelencia para su confirmación. El tratamiento quirúrgico se imp...

  20. Ileocolonic transfer of solid chyme in small intestinal neuropathies and myopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greydanus, M.P.; Camilleri, M.; Colemont, L.J.; Phillips, S.F.; Brown, M.L.; Thomforde, G.M. (Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The aims of this study were to assess gastric emptying, small bowel transit and colonic filling in patients with motility disorders, with particular attention to the patterns of colonic filling. Gastrointestinal transit was assessed using a previously validated radiolabeled mixed meal. Fourteen patients with clinical and manometric features of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction classified as intestinal neuropathy and 6 as intestinal myopathy, were studied. The results were compared with those from 10 healthy controls studied similarly. Gastric emptying and small bowel transit of solids were significantly slower in both groups of patients than in healthy controls (P less than 0.05). In health, the ileocolonic transit of solid chyme was characterized by intermittent bolus transfers. The mean size of boluses transferred to the colon (expressed as a percentage of ingested radiolabel) was significantly less (P less than 0.05) in patients with intestinal myopathy (10% +/- 4% (SEM)) than in healthy controls (25% +/- 4%) or in patients with intestinal neuropathy (25% +/- 4%). The intervals between bolus transfer of solids (plateaus in the colonic filling curve) were longer (P less than 0.05) in myopathies (212 +/- 89 minutes) than in health (45 +/- 7 minutes) or neuropathies (53 +/- 11 minutes). Thus, gastric emptying and small bowel transit were delayed in small bowel neuropathies and myopathies. Bolus filling of the colon was less frequent and less effective in patients with myopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction, whereas bolus transfer was preserved in patients with neuropathic intestinal pseudoobstruction.

  1. Transcriptome changes during intestinal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadjali, Mehrdad; Seidelin, Jakob B; Olsen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change in the transc......The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change...... cells by performing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on RNA extracted from laser dissected intestinal crypt and villi. In a screen of eight transcripts one - SART3 - was identified as a marker for human colonic crypts....

  2. HDAC1 and HDAC2 restrain the intestinal inflammatory response by regulating intestinal epithelial cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomie Turgeon

    Full Text Available Acetylation and deacetylation of histones and other proteins depends on histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs activities, leading to either positive or negative gene expression. HDAC inhibitors have uncovered a role for HDACs in proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation. However, little is known of the roles of specific HDACs in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC. We investigated the consequences of ablating both HDAC1 and HDAC2 in murine IECs. Floxed Hdac1 and Hdac2 homozygous mice were crossed with villin-Cre mice. Mice deficient in both IEC HDAC1 and HDAC2 weighed less and survived more than a year. Colon and small intestinal sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, or with Alcian blue and Periodic Acid Schiff for goblet cell identification. Tissue sections from mice injected with BrdU for 2 h, 14 h and 48 h were stained with anti-BrdU. To determine intestinal permeability, 4-kDa FITC-labeled dextran was given by gavage for 3 h. Microarray analysis was performed on total colon RNAs. Inflammatory and IEC-specific gene expression was assessed by Western blot or semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qPCR with respectively total colon protein and total colon RNAs. HDAC1 and HDAC2-deficient mice displayed: 1 increased migration and proliferation, with elevated cyclin D1 expression and phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein, a downstream mTOR target; 2 tissue architecture defects with cell differentiation alterations, correlating with reduction of secretory Paneth and goblet cells in jejunum and goblet cells in colon, increased expression of enterocytic markers such as sucrase-isomaltase in the colon, increased expression of cleaved Notch1 and augmented intestinal permeability; 3 loss of tissue homeostasis, as evidenced by modifications of claudin 3 expression, caspase-3 cleavage and Stat3 phosphorylation; 4 chronic inflammation, as determined by inflammatory molecular expression signatures and altered inflammatory gene expression

  3. Colonic fermentation may play a role in lactose intolerance in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T; Priebe, MG; Harmsen, HJM; Stellaard, F; Sun, XH; Welling, GW; Vonk, RJ

    The results of our previous study suggested that in addition to the small intestinal lactase activity and transit time, colonic processing of lactose may play a role in lactose intolerance. We investigated whether colonic fermentation of lactose is correlated with lactose intolerance. After 28

  4. Influence of trichlorfon and fractionated irradiation on hydroproteolytic activity of pancreas and intestinal tissues of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocmierska-Grodzka, D [Akademia Medyczna, Bialystok (Poland). Zaklad Farmakologii

    1976-03-01

    Investigations were carried out of the hydroproteolytic activity of pancreas, small intestine and colon of rats after fractionated irradiation (5x150 R). Marked postirradiation enhancement of lipase activity was found in pancreas and duodenal part of intestine as well as an increase of B-glucuronidase and acid phosphatase activity in nearly all parts of the intestinal tissues. Fractionated irradiation resulted in an increase of pancreatic catheptic (proteolytic) activity, causing simultaneous decrease of proteolytic activity in intestine and colon. Preventive administation of Trichlorfon ten days before irradiation (10 mg or 30 mg/kg) evoked modification of hydroproteolytic activity in intestinal tissues of healthy and irradiated rats. 30mg/kg Trichlorfon exerted antilipolytic and anticatheptic effects in pancreas and intestinal tissues of irradiated rats.

  5. Apple-peel atresia presenting as foetal intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Yadavrao Kshirsagar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple-peel atresia or Type 3 jejuno-ileal atresia (JIA is an uncommon cause of foetal intestinal obstruction. Bowel obstruction in the foetus is diagnosed on the prenatal ultrasonography only in 50% cases. We report a case in which foetal intestinal obstruction was diagnosed on prenatal ultrasonography. The child showed signs of intestinal obstruction on day one after birth, for which an exploratory laparotomy was performed. Type 3 JIA was found for which resection of atretic segments with jejuno-ascending colon anastomosis was preformed.

  6. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Schaapveld, Michael; Kramers, Jolanda; Mooij, Sofie; Neefjes-Borst, E. Andra; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Neefjes, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Background Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans. Methods and findings We performed a nationwide registry-b...

  7. The first thousand days – intestinal microbiology of early life: establishing a symbiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, H.; Oozeer, R.; Knipping, K.; Belzer, C.; Knol, J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the intestinal microbiota in the first years of life is a dynamic process significantly influenced by early-life nutrition. Pioneer bacteria colonizing the infant intestinal tract and the gradual diversification to a stable climax ecosystem plays a crucial role in establishing

  8. Applications of ribosomal in situ hybridization for the study of bacterial cells in the mouse intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Poulsen, Lars Kongsbak; Molin, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Localization of E. coli and S. typhimurium in the large and small intestine of streptomycin-treated mice was visualized by in situ hybridization with specific rRNA target probes and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Growth rates of E. coli BJ4 colonizing the large intestine of streptomycin-treated mic...

  9. [Adult intestinal malrotation associated with intestinal volvulus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando-Almudí, Ernesto; Cerdán-Pascual, Rafael; Vallejo-Bernad, Cristina; Martín-Cuartero, Joaquín; Sánchez-Rubio, María; Casamayor-Franco, Carmen

    Intestinal malrotation is a congenital anomaly of the intestinal rotation and fixation, and usually occurs in the neonatal age. Description of a clinical case associated with acute occlusive symptoms. A case of intestinal malrotation is presented in a previously asymptomatic woman of 46 years old with an intestinal obstruction, with radiology and surgical findings showing an absence of intestinal rotation. Intestinal malrotation in adults is often asymptomatic, and is diagnosed as a casual finding during a radiological examination performed for other reasons. Infrequently, it can be diagnosed in adults, associated with an acute abdomen. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Activin and TGFβ use diverging mitogenic signaling in advanced colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Jessica; Ozden, Ozkan; Akagi, Naomi; Carroll, Timothy; Principe, Daniel R.; Staudacher, Jonas J.; Spehlmann, Martina E.; Eckmann, Lars; Grippo, Paul J.; Jung, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding cell signaling pathways that contribute to metastatic colon cancer is critical to risk stratification in the era of personalized therapeutics. Here, we dissect the unique involvement of mitogenic pathways in a TGFβ or activin-induced metastatic phenotype of colon cancer. Method Mitogenic signaling/growth factor receptor status and p21 localization were correlated in primary colon cancers and intestinal tumors from either AOM/DSS treated ACVR2A (activin receptor 2) −/−...

  11. Intestinal Ostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambe, Peter C; Kurz, Nadja Rebecca; Nitschke, Claudia; Odeh, Siad F; Möslein, Gabriela; Zirngibl, Hubert

    2018-03-16

    About 100 000 ostomy carriers are estimated to live in Germany today. The creation of an ostomy represents a major life event that can be associated with impaired quality of life. Optimal ostomy creation and proper ostomy care are crucially important determinants of the success of treatment and of the patients' quality of life. This article is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed, GoogleScholar, and Scopus, and on the authors' experience. Intestinal stomata can be created using either the small or the large bowel. More than 75% of all stomata are placed as part of the treatment of colorectal cancer. The incidence of stoma-related complications is reported to be 10-70%. Skin irritation, erosion, and ulceration are the most common early complications, with a combined incidence of 25-34%, while stoma prolapse is the most common late complication, with an incidence of 8-75%. Most early complications can be managed conservatively, while most late complications require surgical revision. In 19% of cases, an ostomy that was initially planned to be temporary becomes permanent. Inappropriate stoma location and inadequate ostomy care are the most common causes of early complications. Both surgical and patient-related factors influence late complications. Every step from the planning of a stoma to its postoperative care should be discussed with the patient in detail. Preoperative marking is essential for an optimal stoma site. Optimal patient management with the involvement of an ostomy nurse increases ostomy acceptance, reduces ostomy-related complications, and improves the quality of life of ostomy carriers.

  12. Intestinal tract diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    Roentgenoanatomy and physiology of the small intestine are described. Indications for radiological examinations and their possibilities in the diagnosis of the small intestine diseases are considered.Congenital anomalies and failures in the small intestine development, clinical indications and diagnosis methods for the detection of different aetiology enteritis are described. Characteristics of primary malabsorption due to congenital or acquired inferiority of the small intestine, is provided. Radiological picture of intestinal allergies is described. Clinical, morphological, radiological pictures of Crohn's disease are considered in detail. Special attention is paid to the frequency of primary and secondary tuberculosis of intestinal tract. The description of clinical indications and frequency of benign and malignant tumours of the small intestine, methods for their diagnosis are given. Radiological pictures of parasitogenic and rare diseases of the small intestine are presented. Changes in the small intestine as a result of its reaction to pathological processes, developing in other organs and systems of the organism, are described

  13. The role of colonic microbiota in lactose intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, Y; Priebe, M. G.; Vonk, R. J.; Huang, CY; Antoine, JM; He, T; Harmsen, HJM; Welling, GW

    In a previous study we observed a clear difference in lactose intolerance symptoms after a 25-g lactose load in two groups of persons with lactase nonpersistence and similar small intestinal lactase activity. From this observation we hypothesized a colon resistance factor. To identify this factor,

  14. Anaerobic respiration of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shari A; Gibson, Terri; Maltby, Rosalie C; Chowdhury, Fatema Z; Stewart, Valley; Cohen, Paul S; Conway, Tyrrell

    2011-10-01

    The intestine is inhabited by a large microbial community consisting primarily of anaerobes and, to a lesser extent, facultative anaerobes, such as Escherichia coli, which we have shown requires aerobic respiration to compete successfully in the mouse intestine (S. A. Jones et al., Infect. Immun. 75:4891-4899, 2007). If facultative anaerobes efficiently lower oxygen availability in the intestine, then their sustained growth must also depend on anaerobic metabolism. In support of this idea, mutants lacking nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase have extreme colonization defects. Here, we further explore the role of anaerobic respiration in colonization using the streptomycin-treated mouse model. We found that respiratory electron flow is primarily via the naphthoquinones, which pass electrons to cytochrome bd oxidase and the anaerobic terminal reductases. We found that E. coli uses nitrate and fumarate in the intestine, but not nitrite, dimethyl sulfoxide, or trimethylamine N-oxide. Competitive colonizations revealed that cytochrome bd oxidase is more advantageous than nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase. Strains lacking nitrate reductase outcompeted fumarate reductase mutants once the nitrate concentration in cecal mucus reached submillimolar levels, indicating that fumarate is the more important anaerobic electron acceptor in the intestine because nitrate is limiting. Since nitrate is highest in the absence of E. coli, we conclude that E. coli is the only bacterium in the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine that respires nitrate. Lastly, we demonstrated that a mutant lacking the NarXL regulator (activator of the NarG system), but not a mutant lacking the NarP-NarQ regulator, has a colonization defect, consistent with the advantage provided by NarG. The emerging picture is one in which gene regulation is tuned to balance expression of the terminal reductases that E. coli uses to maximize its competitiveness and achieve the highest possible population in

  15. Influence of maternal breast milk ingestion on acquisition of the intestinal microbiome in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Katherine E; Samuel, Buck S; Houghteling, Pearl; Shan, Guru; Ausubel, Frederick M; Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Walker, W Allan

    2016-12-30

    protective effect against gut immaturity in the preterm infant. These findings suggest not only a microbial mechanism underpinning the body of evidence showing that breast milk promotes intestinal health in the preterm infant but also a dynamic interplay of host and dietary factors that facilitate the colonization of and enrichment for specific microbes during establishment of the preterm infant microbiota.

  16. Urokinase and the intestinal mucosa: evidence for a role in epithelial cell turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, P; Birchall, I; Rosella, O; Albert, V; Finch, C; Barkla, D; Young, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—The functions of urokinase in intestinal epithelia are unknown. 
Aims—To determine the relation of urokinase expressed by intestinal epithelial cells to their position in the crypt-villus/surface axis and of mucosal urokinase activity to epithelial proliferative kinetics in the distal colon. 
Methods—Urokinase expression was examined immunohistochemically in human intestinal mucosa. Urokinase activity was measured colorimetrically in epithelial cells isolated sequ...

  17. Antegrade Colonic Lavage in Acute Colonic Obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Michael E.; Johnson, Colin D.

    1986-01-01

    Conventional management of acute left sided colonic obstruction employs some form of proximal colostomy. Intraoperative antegrade colonic irrigation relieves proximal faecal loading and may permit safer primary resection and anastomosis. The results of a pilot study are presented, and are shown to be favourable.

  18. Paneth cells, antimicrobial peptides and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, Charles L; Salzman, Nita H

    2011-05-01

    Building and maintaining a homeostatic relationship between a host and its colonizing microbiota entails ongoing complex interactions between the host and the microorganisms. The mucosal immune system, including epithelial cells, plays an essential part in negotiating this equilibrium. Paneth cells (specialized cells in the epithelium of the small intestine) are an important source of antimicrobial peptides in the intestine. These cells have become the focus of investigations that explore the mechanisms of host-microorganism homeostasis in the small intestine and its collapse in the processes of infection and chronic inflammation. In this Review, we provide an overview of the intestinal microbiota and describe the cell biology of Paneth cells, emphasizing the composition of their secretions and the roles of these cells in intestinal host defence and homeostasis. We also highlight the implications of Paneth cell dysfunction in susceptibility to chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

  19. Torsion and volvulus of the transverse and descending colon in a German shepherd dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfacree, Z J; Beck, A L; Lee, K C L; Lipscomb, V J

    2006-08-01

    A German shepherd dog was presented two months after surgery for correction of acute gastric dilatation volvulus. The dog had been diagnosed with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Radiographs revealed marked gaseous distension of one loop of intestine with a generalised increase in intestinal gas content. A 360 degrees anticlockwise rotation of the descending and transverse colon, around the longitudinal axis of the mesocolon, was diagnosed at exploratory coeliotomy. The transverse and descending colon appeared uniformly necrotic and an end-to-end colo-colic resection and anastomosis was performed. The dog initially made satisfactory postoperative progress but was euthanased on the third postoperative day after it developed an intestinal intussusception.

  20. Ursodeoxycholic acid attenuates colonic epithelial secretory function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Orlaith B; Mroz, Magdalena S; Ward, Joseph B J; Colliva, Carolina; Scharl, Michael; Pellicciari, Roberto; Gilmer, John F; Fallon, Padraic G; Hofmann, Alan F; Roda, Aldo; Murray, Frank E; Keely, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Dihydroxy bile acids, such as chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), are well known to promote colonic fluid and electrolyte secretion, thereby causing diarrhoea associated with bile acid malabsorption. However, CDCA is rapidly metabolised by colonic bacteria to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), the effects of which on epithelial transport are poorly characterised. Here, we investigated the role of UDCA in the regulation of colonic epithelial secretion. Cl− secretion was measured across voltage-clamped monolayers of T84 cells and muscle-stripped sections of mouse or human colon. Cell surface biotinylation was used to assess abundance/surface expression of transport proteins. Acute (15 min) treatment of T84 cells with bilateral UDCA attenuated Cl− secretory responses to the Ca2+ and cAMP-dependent secretagogues carbachol (CCh) and forskolin (FSK) to 14.0 ± 3.8 and 40.2 ± 7.4% of controls, respectively (n= 18, P acid (LCA). Accordingly, LCA (50–200 μm) enhanced agonist-induced secretory responses in vitro and a metabolically stable UDCA analogue, 6α-methyl-UDCA, exerted anti-secretory actions in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, UDCA exerts direct anti-secretory actions on colonic epithelial cells and metabolically stable derivatives of the bile acid may offer a new approach for treating intestinal diseases associated with diarrhoea. PMID:23507881

  1. Clostridium difficile – From Colonization to Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffler, Holger; Breitrück, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the most frequent cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The incidence of C. difficile infection (CDI) has been rising worldwide with subsequent increases in morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Asymptomatic colonization with C. difficile is common and a high prevalence has been found in specific cohorts, e.g., hospitalized patients, adults in nursing homes and in infants. However, the risk of infection with C. difficile differs significantly between these cohorts. While CDI is a clear indication for therapy, colonization with C. difficile is not believed to be a direct precursor for CDI and therefore does not require treatment. Antibiotic therapy causes alterations of the intestinal microbial composition, enabling C. difficile colonization and consecutive toxin production leading to disruption of the colonic epithelial cells. Clinical symptoms of CDI range from mild diarrhea to potentially life-threatening conditions like pseudomembranous colitis or toxic megacolon. While antibiotics are still the treatment of choice for CDI, new therapies have emerged in recent years such as antibodies against C. difficile toxin B and fecal microbial transfer (FMT). This specific therapy for CDI underscores the role of the indigenous bacterial composition in the prevention of the disease in healthy individuals and its role in the pathogenesis after alteration by antibiotic treatment. In addition to the pathogenesis of CDI, this review focuses on the colonization of C. difficile in the human gut and factors promoting CDI. PMID:29692762

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Three Sheep Intestinal Regions reveals Key Pathways and Hub Regulatory Genes of Large Intestinal Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tianle; Wang, Guizhi; Ji, Zhibin; Liu, Zhaohua; Hou, Lei; Wang, Jin; Wang, Jianmin

    2017-07-13

    The large intestine, also known as the hindgut, is an important part of the animal digestive system. Recent studies on digestive system development in ruminants have focused on the rumen and the small intestine, but the molecular mechanisms underlying sheep large intestine metabolism remain poorly understood. To identify genes related to intestinal metabolism and to reveal molecular regulation mechanisms, we sequenced and compared the transcriptomes of mucosal epithelial tissues among the cecum, proximal colon and duodenum. A total of 4,221 transcripts from 3,254 genes were identified as differentially expressed transcripts. Between the large intestine and duodenum, differentially expressed transcripts were found to be significantly enriched in 6 metabolism-related pathways, among which PPAR signaling was identified as a key pathway. Three genes, CPT1A, LPL and PCK1, were identified as higher expression hub genes in the large intestine. Between the cecum and colon, differentially expressed transcripts were significantly enriched in 5 lipid metabolism related pathways, and CEPT1 and MBOAT1 were identified as hub genes. This study provides important information regarding the molecular mechanisms of intestinal metabolism in sheep and may provide a basis for further study.

  3. Genomic instability and radiation risk in molecular pathways to colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Christian Kaiser

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is caused by multiple genomic alterations which lead to genomic instability (GI. GI appears in molecular pathways of microsatellite instability (MSI and chromosomal instability (CIN with clinically observed case shares of about 15-20% and 80-85%. Radiation enhances the colon cancer risk by inducing GI, but little is known about different outcomes for MSI and CIN. Computer-based modelling can facilitate the understanding of the phenomena named above. Comprehensive biological models, which combine the two main molecular pathways to colon cancer, are fitted to incidence data of Japanese a-bomb survivors. The preferred model is selected according to statistical criteria and biological plausibility. Imprints of cell-based processes in the succession from adenoma to carcinoma are identified by the model from age dependences and secular trends of the incidence data. Model parameters show remarkable compliance with mutation rates and growth rates for adenoma, which has been reported over the last fifteen years. Model results suggest that CIN begins during fission of intestinal crypts. Chromosomal aberrations are generated at a markedly elevated rate which favors the accelerated growth of premalignant adenoma. Possibly driven by a trend of Westernization in the Japanese diet, incidence rates for the CIN pathway increased notably in subsequent birth cohorts, whereas rates pertaining to MSI remained constant. An imbalance between number of CIN and MSI cases began to emerge in the 1980s, whereas in previous decades the number of cases was almost equal. The CIN pathway exhibits a strong radio-sensitivity, probably more intensive in men. Among young birth cohorts of both sexes the excess absolute radiation risk related to CIN is larger by an order of magnitude compared to the MSI-related risk. Observance of pathway-specific risks improves the determination of the probability of causation for radiation-induced colon cancer in individual patients

  4. The Mouse Intestinal Bacterial Collection (miBC) provides host-specific insight into cultured diversity and functional potential of the gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Pukall, Rüdiger; Abt, Birte

    2016-01-01

    of intestinal microbiomes and their interactions with diet and host. It is thus important to study in detail the diversity and functions of gut microbiota members, including those colonizing the mouse intestine. To address these issues, we aimed at establishing the Mouse Intestinal Bacterial Collection (mi...

  5. Contribution of the 7β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Ruminococcus gnavus N53 to ursodeoxycholic acid formation in the human colon[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja-Young; Arai, Hisashi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Fukiya, Satoru; Wada, Masaru; Yokota, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Bile acid composition in the colon is determined by bile acid flow in the intestines, the population of bile acid-converting bacteria, and the properties of the responsible bacterial enzymes. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is regarded as a chemopreventive beneficial bile acid due to its low hydrophobicity. However, it is a minor constituent of human bile acids. Here, we characterized an UDCA-producing bacterium, N53, isolated from human feces. 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified this isolate as Ruminococcus gnavus, a novel UDCA-producer. The forward reaction that produces UDCA from 7-oxo-lithocholic acid was observed to have a growth-dependent conversion rate of 90–100% after culture in GAM broth containing 1 mM 7-oxo-lithocholic acid, while the reverse reaction was undetectable. The gene encoding 7β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7β-HSDH), which facilitates the UDCA-producing reaction, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Characterization of the purified 7β-HSDH revealed that the kcat/Km value was about 55-fold higher for the forward reaction than for the reverse reaction, indicating that the enzyme favors the UDCA-producing reaction. As R. gnavus is a common, core bacterium of the human gut microbiota, these results suggest that this bacterium plays a pivotal role in UDCA formation in the colon. PMID:23729502

  6. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    to specific logics of temporalisation and spatial expansion of a diverse set of social processes in relation to, for example, the economy, politics, science and the mass media. On this background, the paper will more concretely develop a conceptual framework for classifying different contextual orders...... that the essential functional and normative purpose of regulatory governance is to facilitate, stabilise and justify the transfer of condensed social components (such as economic capital and products, political decisions, legal judgements, religious beliefs and scientific knowledge) from one social contexts...

  7. (neutrophil) Activity, Chronic Gastritis, Gastric Atrophy And Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidental (early gastric) cancer was found in 3%, dysplasia in 2% and reactive gastropathy in 7% of the cases. A statistically significant relationship was found between Helicobacter pylori colonization intensity and the degrees of neutrophil activity, chronic inflammation and intestinal metaplasia. Conclusion: We concluded ...

  8. The friendly bacteria within us Commensal bacteria of the intestine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Balance of bacterial species in the gut · Immunosensory detection of intestinal bacteria · Pathogenic bacteria release interleukin-8 from HT-29 cells · Lactobacillus GG prevents the IL-8 release in response to pathogens · Effect of probiotic bacteria on chemokine response of epithelia to pathogens · PCR array studies in colon ...

  9. Chronic intestinal bleeding caused by congenital arteriovenous malformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haringsma, J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1988-01-01

    A case of vascular malformation over the entire length of the colon and small intestine in a 41-year-old male with an almost life-long history of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is presented. The patient's history, in connection with the findings at colonoscopy and surgery, was highly suggestive of

  10. Long-term monitoring of the human intestinal microbiota composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Tims, S.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Vos, de W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The microbiota that colonizes the human intestinal tract is complex and its structure is specific for each of us. In this study we expand the knowledge about the stability of the subject-specific microbiota and show that this ecosystem is stable in short-term intervals (¿10 years). The faecal

  11. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis

  12. Tissue response after radiation exposure. Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Kensuke; Tomita, Masanori; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal syndrome followed by 'gut death' is due to intestinal disorders. This syndrome is induced by high-dose (>10 Gy) of ionizing radiation. Recovery from the gastrointestinal syndrome would depend on the number of survived clonogens and regeneration capability of crypts. These tissue alterations can be observed by high-dose radiation, however, cellular dynamics in crypts can be affected by low-dose radiation. For example, Potten et al. found that low-dose radiation induce apoptosis of intestinal stem cells, which produce all differentiated function cells. Recently, intestinal stem cells are characterized by molecular markers such as Lgr5. Since intestinal adenomas can be induced by deletion of Apc gene in Lgr5 + stem cells, it is widely recognized that Lgr5 + stem cells are the cell-of-origin of cancer. Duodenal Lgr5 + stem cells are known as radioresistant cells, however, we found that ionizing radiation significantly induces the turnover of colonic Lgr5 + stem cells. Combined with the knowledge of other radioresistant markers, stem-cell dynamics in tissue after irradiation are becoming clear. The present review introduces the history of gastrointestinal syndrome and intestinal stem cells, and discusses those future perspectives. (author)

  13. Tissue quantification of neutral and acid mucins in the mucosa of the colon with and without fecal stream in rats Quantificação tecidual de mucinas neutras e ácidas na mucosa do cólon com e sem trânsito intestinal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Nonose

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To quantify the intensity of the expression of neutral and acids mucins in mucosa of the colon with and without fecal stream and to correlate this with the duration of fecal transit diversion. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to fecal transit deviation in the left colon by a proximal colostomy and a distal mucous fistula. The animals were divided into three experimental groups, according to whether sacrificing would be performed six, 12 or 18 weeks after surgery. The expression of neutral and acid mucins was evaluated using the histochemical techniques of Periodic Acid Schiff and Alcian Blue, respectively. The tissue mucins expression was quantified by computer-assisted image analysis software (NIS-Elements in the segments with and without fecal stream. Student's paired t test was used to compare the quantities of mucins in colon with or without fecal stream and variance between the experimental groups by ANOVA and Newman-Keuls post-test, establishing level of signification of 5% (pOBJETIVO: Quantificar a intensidade de expressão de mucinas neutras e ácidas na mucosa cólica provida e desprovida de trânsito intestinal relacionando-a ao tempo de exclusão fecal. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos à derivação do trânsito no cólon esquerdo por colostomia proximal e fístula mucosa distal. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos experimentais segundo o sacrifício ter sido realizado seis, 12 e 18 semanas após a cirurgia. A avaliação da expressão de mucinas neutras e ácidas na mucosa cólica foi realizada com as técnicas histoquímicas do Periódico Ácido de Schiff e Azul de Alcian, respectivamente. A quantificação da expressão tecidual das mucinas foi com auxílio de programa de análise de imagem assistida por computador (NIS-Elements nos segmentos providos e desprovidos de trânsito fecal. Utilizou-se o teste t de Student pareado na comparação da expressão de mucinas nos segmentos

  14. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying in bed for long periods of time (bedridden). Taking drugs that slow intestinal movements. These include ... be tried: Colonoscopy may be used to remove air from the large intestine. Fluids can be given ...

  15. Cftr Modulates Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling and Stem Cell Proliferation in Murine Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlee M. Strubberg

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: CF intestine shows increased ISC proliferation and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Loss of Cftr increases pHi in ISCs, which stabilizes the plasma membrane association of the Wnt transducer Dvl, likely facilitating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Absence of Cftr-dependent suppression of ISC proliferation in the CF intestine may contribute to increased risk for intestinal tumors.

  16. Immunization with intestinal microbiota-derived Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli reduces bacteria-specific recolonization of the intestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfias-López, Julio Adrián; Castro-Escarpuli, Graciela; Cárdenas, Pedro E; Moreno-Altamirano, María Maximina Bertha; Padierna-Olivos, Juan; Sánchez-García, F Javier

    2018-04-01

    A wide array of microorganisms colonizes distinctive anatomical regions of animals, being the intestine the one that harbors the most abundant and complex microbiota. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that it is composed mainly of bacteria, and that Bacterioidetes and Firmicutes are the most represented phyla (>90% of the total eubacteria) in mice and humans. Intestinal microbiota plays an important role in host physiology, contributing to digestion, epithelial cells metabolism, stimulation of intestinal immune responses, and protection against intestinal pathogens. Changes in its composition may affect intestinal homeostasis, a condition known as dysbiosis, which may lead to non-specific inflammation and disease. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect that a bacteria-specific systemic immune response would have on the intestinal re-colonization by that particular bacterium. Bacteria were isolated and identified from the feces of Balb/c mice, bacterial cell-free extracts were used to immunize the same mice from which bacteria came from. Concurrently with immunization, mice were subjected to a previously described antibiotic-based protocol to eliminate most of their intestinal bacteria. Serum IgG and feces IgA, specific for the immunizing bacteria were determined. After antibiotic treatment was suspended, specific bacteria were orally administered, in an attempt to specifically re-colonize the intestine. Results showed that parenteral immunization with gut-derived bacteria elicited the production of both anti-bacterial IgG and IgA, and that immunization reduces bacteria specific recolonization of the gut. These findings support the idea that the systemic immune response may, at least in part, determine the bacterial composition of the gut. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Electromanometry of the rectosigmoid in colonic diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viebig, R G; Pontes, J F; Michelsohn, N H

    1994-01-01

    In order to better understand the rectosigmoid motor activity in diverticular disease of the colon, we studied 186 patients, grouped according to their intestinal habit, the presence of diverticular disease and previous crisis of sigmoid diverticulitis. The intestinal habit was classified as: normal habit, irritable colon syndrome, diarrhea and constipation. The group of diverticulosis was classified by their intestinal habit and by diverticula localization (localized or generalized). The presence of systemic diseases or drug ingestion that could modify intestinal motility, were considered criteria for exclusion. The manometric study was preceded by food stimulus, with 650 kcal meal, by mechanic intestinal cleansing, with 500 ml of saline solution enema and by one hour resting period. A manometric catheter, was introduced by rectosigmoidoscopy, with open ended orifices situated at the sigmoid and upper rectum, respectively. The catheter was perfused by a capillary infusion system and the bowel pressures were registered for 30 minutes, in a thermal paper physiograph. We analyzed the % of activity, mean amplitude and motility index, by non parametric tests. No significant difference was observed between sexes. Difference or close to it were found for the groups with constipation, with or without diverticulosis, and for the latter in its subdivisions (localized, generalized and sigmoid diverticulitis). The rectal motor activity was similar in all groups. There was no difference for diverticulosis and its subdivision, when we take into account the several kinds of intestinal habits and the diverticula localization. The motility index averages showed low values for the sigmoid diverticulitis fact that suggests some dysfunction of this segment (hypocontractility). The key factor differentiating the groups was the presence of constipation and no influence was noted regarding the localization of diverticula or previous inflammatory process on intraluminal pressures. The

  18. Management of Colonic Volvulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingold, Daniel; Murrell, Zuri

    2012-01-01

    Colonic volvulus is a common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide. It can affect all parts of the colon, but most commonly occurs in the sigmoid and cecal areas. This disease has been described for centuries, and was studied by Hippocrates himself. Currently, colonic volvulus is the third most common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide, and is responsible for ∼15% of large bowel obstructions in the United States. This article will discuss the history of colonic volvulus, and the predisposing factors that lead to this disease. Moreover, the epidemiology and diagnosis of each type of colonic volvulus, along with the various treatment options will be reviewed. PMID:24294126

  19. Determination of Intestine Inflammation Markers in Diagnostic Search in Children with Intestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Pavlenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prevalence of bowel diseases in children is the second, trailing only the diseases of gastroduodenal zone and growing in recent years. Actual one is the problem of differential diagnosis of functional and inflammatory intestinal diseases using non-invasive methods on the prehospital stage and as a screening. Objective. Comparative analysis of fecal markers of the bowel inflammation (lactoferrine and calprotectine with endoscopy and morphology of intestinal mucosa in children. Matherials and methods. 49 children aged 6–18 years were examined. All patients underwent endoscopic and morphological study of the intestine, coprotest, determination of fecal markers of bowel inflammation (lactoferrin and calprotectine. Results. It is shown that in young children, the intestinal mucosa mainly hadn’t endoscopic changes, coprotest and morphological examination didn’t reveal the signs of inflammation, fecal intestinal inflammation markers were negative (p < 0.05. In the group of older children, moderate or marked catarrhal changes were found endoscopically, coprotest results were typical of inflammation in the intestines, it was morphologically proved the presence of chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon with signs of atrophy, the results of lactoferrin and calprotectine determination were positive (p < 0.05. Conclusion. The findings suggest that the evaluation of calprotectine and lactoferrin can be used in pediatric patients because of its non-invasiveness as diagnostic screening for the selection of patients for the further endoscopic examination and diagnostic search.

  20. Facilitating participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, Bo

    2018-01-01

    the resulting need for a redefinition of library competence. In doing this, I primarily address the first two questions from Chapter 1 and how they relate to the public’s informal, leisure-time activities in a networked society. In particular, I focus on the skills of reflexive self-perception and informed...... opinion formation. Further, I point out the significance which these informal leisure-time activities have for public library staff’s cultural dissemination skills. In this way, I take on the question of the skills required for facilitating the learning of a participatory public (cf. Chapter 1......), exemplifying with the competence required of library staff. My discussion will proceed by way of a literature review. In the next section, I shall explain how and what sources were chosen and section three and four present the theoretical framework and how the applied theories are related. In the fifth section...

  1. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2018-01-01

    Departing from the paradox that globalisation has implied an increase, rather than a decrease, in contextual diversity, this paper re-assesses the function, normative purpose and location of Regulatory Governance Frameworks in world society. Drawing on insights from sociology of law and world...... society studies, the argument advanced is that Regulatory Governance Frameworks are oriented towards facilitating transfers of condensed social components, such as economic capital and products, legal acts, political decisions and scientific knowledge, from one legally-constituted normative order, i.......e. contextual setting, to another. Against this background, it is suggested that Regulatory Governance Frameworks can be understood as schemes which act as ‘rites of passage’ aimed at providing legal stabilisation to social processes characterised by liminality, i.e ambiguity, hybridity and in-betweenness....

  2. MicroRNA-449a deficiency promotes colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Masanori; Nakajima, Kohei; Ishikawa, Daichi; Nishida, Jun; Ishifune, Chieko; Tsukumo, Shin-Ichi; Shimada, Mitsuo; Nagahiro, Shinji; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Yasutomo, Koji

    2017-09-06

    MicroRNAs have broad roles in tumorigenesis and cell differentiation through regulation of target genes. Notch signaling also controls cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms through which Notch mediates microRNA expression are still unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify microRNAs regulated by Notch signaling. Our analysis found that microRNA-449a (miR-449a) was indirectly regulated by Notch signaling. Although miR-449a-deficient mice did not show any Notch-dependent defects in immune cell development, treatment of miR-449a-deficient mice with azoxymethane (AOM) or dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) increased the numbers and sizes of colon tumors. These effects were associated with an increase in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation following AOM/DSS treatment. In patients with colon cancer, miR-449a expression was inversely correlated with disease-free survival and histological scores and was positively correlated with the expression of MLH1 for which loss-of function mutations have been shown to be involved in colon cancer. Colon tissues of miR-449a-deficient mice showed reduced Mlh1 expression compared with those of wild-type mice. Thus, these data suggested that miR-449a acted as a key regulator of colon tumorigenesis by controlling the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells. Additionally, activation of miR-449a may represent an effective therapeutic strategy and prognostic marker in colon cancer.

  3. Surgical treatment of colorectal cancer complicated with acute intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Schaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The main reason for urgent complications of colon cancer is an acute intestinal obstruction (AIO. This is complex pathological condition in 90 % of cases caused by colorectal cancer (CRC.Objective – to evaluate radicality of the performed operations in complicated colorectal cancer in general surgical hospitals. Dependence of the severity of intestinal obstruction by tumor localization, its morphological characteristics, determine dependence of the type of the surgical operation performed on the severity of intestinal obstruction.Materials and methods. We have studied the data on 667 patients with colorectal cancer complicated by acute intestinal obstruction. These patients were treated in the period from 2001 to 2013 in general surgical hospital in the territory of Smolensk and Smolensk region. For the processing of the obtained results we have used software Statistica 6.1. Differences were considered statistically at p ≤ 0.05.Results. All the patients were divided into 3 groups by the expression of intestinal obstruction. Group 1 (n = 279 consisted of patients with the presence of decompensated intestinal obstruction (DIO, group 2 (n = 313 consisted of patients with subcompensated intestinal obstruction (SIO, group 3 (n = 75 included patients with compensated intestinal obstruction (CIO. In case of tumor localization in right halfof the colon we most commonly observed clinical picture of acute development of decompensated intestinal obstruction (p = 0.041. Subcompensated intestinal obstruction prevailed in case of tumor localization in left half of the colon and rectal localization. In general surgical hospitals it is not always possible to speak about radicality of surgical treatment, as in a large number of cases (62.5 % the number of examined lymph nodes was less than 4. When DIO patients are admitted in the clinic, the percentage of singlestage operations is equal to 7.5 % (n = 21. In case of DIO and SIO there was a high

  4. Temporal and spatial interplay of microbiota and intestinal mucosa drive establishment of immune homeostasis in conventionalized mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidy, El S.; Baarlen, van P.; Derrien, M.; Lindenbergh-Kortleve, D.J.; Hooiveld, G.J.; Levenez, F.; Dore, J.; Dekker, J.; Samsom, J.N.; Nieuwenhuis, E.E.S.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2012-01-01

    During colonization of germfree mice with the total fecal microbial community of their conventionally born and raised siblings (conventionalization), the intestinal mucosal immune system initiates and maintains a balanced immune response. However, the genetic regulation of these balanced,

  5. Protein synthesis and intestinal flora in piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namioka, Shigeo

    1980-01-01

    Utilization of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) by the flora in piglet colon was studied by administration of 15 N-urea and 15 N-ammonium salt to aseptic piglets and to SPF piglets which had been acclimatized to a clean environment after settling of intestinal flora. Administration of 15 N-urea did not result in 15 N uptake by any tissue-constituting protein at any site of the aseptic piglets, almost all 15 N being excreted into the urine. In contrast, the tissue and skeletal muscle of the SPF piglets showed incorporated 15 N from urea. Urea was converted, by urease of the intestinal flora, into NH 3 , which was absorbed from the mucosa of the intestinal tract to reach the liver where it was synthesized into glutamic acid, followed by conversion into various amino acids. 15 N-ammonium administration produced a significant amount of 15 N even in the tissue protein of the aseptic piglets. After NPN administration, the liver protein-constituting amino acid fraction showed 15 N-labeling of almost all essential, as well as non-essential amino acids. Culture of colonic flora with 15 N-urea revealed 15 N-labeling of all amino acids that constituted bacterial cells, indicating the presence of urea recycling mediated by bacterial urease in single rumen animals.(Chiba, N.)

  6. Histochemical and radioautographic studies of normal human fetal colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lev, R.; Orlic, D.; New York Medical Coll., N.Y.

    1974-01-01

    Twenty fetal and infant colons ranging from 10 weeks in utero to 20 months postpartum, and 12 adult human colons were examined using histochemical techniques in conjunction with in vitro radioautography using Na 2 35 SO 4 as a sulfomucin precursor. Only the sulfated components of mucus in fetal goblet cells was found to differ significantly from adult colonic mucins. In the fetus sulfomucin staining was much weaker than in the adult, and was more intense in the left colon which is the reverse of the adult pattern. Sulfomucin was concentrated in the crypts throughout the fetal colon whereas in the adult right colon it predominated in the surface cells. As in the adult, saponification liberated carboxyl groups, possibly belonging to sialic acid, and vicinal hydroxyl groups from fetal mucins suggesting that this procedure hydrolyses an ester linkage between these 2 reactive groups. During the middle trimester of fetal life the colon possesses villi whose constituent cells display alkaline phosphatase in their surface coat. These and other morphological and histochemical similarities to fetal small intestine suggest that the fetal colon may have a limited capacity to absorb materials contained within swallowed amniotic fluid during this period. (orig.) [de

  7. Factoring the intestinal microbiome into the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Albert J

    2016-11-14

    The intestinal microbiome is a reservoir of microbial antigens and activated immune cells. The aims of this review were to describe the role of the intestinal microbiome in generating innate and adaptive immune responses, indicate how these responses contribute to the development of systemic immune-mediated diseases, and encourage investigations that improve the understanding and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microflora (dysbiosis) can disrupt intestinal and systemic immune tolerances for commensal bacteria. Toll-like receptors within the intestine can recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns and shape subsets of T helper lymphocytes that may cross-react with host antigens (molecular mimicry). Activated gut-derived lymphocytes can migrate to lymph nodes, and gut-derived microbial antigens can translocate to extra-intestinal sites. Inflammasomes can form within hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells, and they can drive the pro-inflammatory, immune-mediated, and fibrotic responses. Diet, designer probiotics, vitamin supplements, re-colonization methods, antibiotics, drugs that decrease intestinal permeability, and molecular interventions that block signaling pathways may emerge as adjunctive regimens that complement conventional immunosuppressive management. In conclusion, investigations of the intestinal microbiome are warranted in autoimmune hepatitis and promise to clarify pathogenic mechanisms and suggest alternative management strategies.

  8. Endometriosis presenting as carcinoma colon in a perimenopausal woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuja Muthyala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a common benign disease of reproductive age women, and can involve the intestinal tract. Inconsistent clinical presentation, similar features on radiological imaging and colonoscopy with other inflammatory and malignant lesions of the bowel makes the preoperative diagnosis of bowel endometriosis difficult. We present a case of a 42-year-old perimenopausal female clinically presented, investigated and managed in the lines of carcinoma of sigmoid colon. She underwent terminal ileac resection with end to end anastomoses, Hartmann′s procedure and total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoophorectomy. The histopathological report revealed endometriosis of small intestine, large intestine, mesentery, right ovary and adenomyoma of uterus. Thus, bowel endometriosis should also be considered as differential diagnosis in reproductive age women with gastrointestinal symptoms or intestinal mass of uncertain diagnosis.

  9. The Role of Colonic Bacteria in the Metabolism of the Natural Isoflavone Daidzin to Equol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rafii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous plants, especially soybeans. They have a structural similarity to natural estrogens, which enables them to bind to estrogen receptors and elicit biological activities similar to natural estrogens. They have been suggested to be beneficial for the prevention and therapy of hormone-dependent diseases. After soy products are consumed, the bacteria of the intestinal microflora metabolize isoflavones to metabolites with altered absorption, bioavailability, and estrogenic characteristics. Variations in the effect of soy products have been correlated with the isoflavone metabolites found in plasma and urine samples of the individuals consuming soy products. The beneficial effects of the soy isoflavone daidzin, the glycoside of daidzein, have been reported in individuals producing equol, a reduction product of daidzein produced by specific colonic bacteria in individuals called equol producers. These individuals comprise 30% and 60% of populations consuming Western and soy-rich Asian diets, respectively. Since the higher percentage of equol producers in populations consuming soy-rich diets is correlated with a lower incidence of hormone-dependent diseases, considerable efforts have been made to detect the specific colonic bacteria involved in the metabolism of daidzein to the more estrogenic compound, equol, which should facilitate the investigation of the metabolic activities related to this compound.

  10. Multifaceted Interpretation of Colon Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Kenji; Hirata, Akihiro; Hara, Akira; Tomita, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-05

    Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, despite recent advances in clinical oncology. Accumulating evidence sheds light on the existence of cancer stem cells and their role in conferring therapeutic resistance. Cancer stem cells are a minor fraction of cancer cells, which enable tumor heterogeneity and initiate tumor formation. In addition, these cells are resistant to various cytotoxic factors. Therefore, elimination of cancer stem cells is difficult but essential to cure the malignant foci completely. Herein, we review the recent evidence for intestinal stem cells and colon cancer stem cells, methods to detect the tumor-initiating cells, and clinical significance of cancer stem cell markers. We also describe the emerging problems of cancer stem cell theory, including bidirectional conversion and intertumoral heterogeneity of stem cell phenotype.

  11. Influência da irrigação de soluções nutricionais no colo excluso de trânsito intestinal: estudo experimental em ratos Influence of irrigation of nutritional solutions in the colon excluded of fecal stream: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Guilherme Giazzi Nassri

    2008-09-01

    treatment of the colic mucosa inflammation. METHOD: There were used thirty Wistar males rats, with initial weight varying between 350 and 500 grammas, submitted to the derivation of the fecal stream through proximal colostomy and distal mucous fistula. The animals were divided in three groups with 10 animals according to the irrigation of the excluded colic segment had been carried out with: SF Group: 0.9 % physiologic solution; GH Group: hypertonic glucose solution of 50 % and AG Group: solution of short-chain fatty acids. In all the animals, the irrigation of the excluded colon was carried each four days and the animals were sacrificed ever in 21st post-operative day. The removed fragments of the intestinal segments were colored by the techniques of hematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichromium. The histological variables studied were: thickness of the mucous layer, vascular congestion; inflammatory infiltrate and the level of tissue collagen. The considered results were subjected to statistical study considering signification level of 5 % (p <0.05. RESULTS: The obtained results showed that in the group where the excluded colon was irrigated with solution of short-chain fatty acids there was less vascular congestion, less inflammatory infiltrated and less collagen deposition when compared to another experimental groups. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicate that in the group receiving the short-chain fatty acid solution there was a decrease in the inflammatory infiltrate and the vascular congestion, as well as a reduction in the deposition of collagen tissue. The irrigation of segments without fecal stream with short-chain fatty acids it improves the inflammatory process found in the diversion colitis.

  12. CT in colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Takashi; Kubo, Kozo; Ogawa, Hajime; Sato, Yukihiko; Tomita, Masayoshi; Hanawa, Makoto; Matsuzawa, Tohru; Nishioka, Ken

    1990-01-01

    CT pictures from 59 lesions of advanced colon cancer including rectal cancer were reviewed to evaluate a role of CT in preoperative staging diagnosis. CT findings were recorded following general rules for clinical and pathological studies on cancer of colon rectum and anus, proposed by Japanese society for cancer of colon and rectum. Tumors were detected in 90% of advanced colon cancers. Sensitivity in local extension (S factor) was 58.0%. Sensitivity in lymphonode involvement (N factor) was 50.0%. Sensitivity in final staging diagnosis, dividing colon cancer into two groups below st II and above st III, was 63.3%. Further study should be necessitated to provide useful information for preoperative staging diagnosis of colon cancer. (author)

  13. Enteric Neural Cells From Hirschsprung Disease Patients Form Ganglia in Autologous Aneuronal ColonSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N. Rollo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Hirschsprung disease (HSCR is caused by failure of cells derived from the neural crest (NC to colonize the distal bowel in early embryogenesis, resulting in absence of the enteric nervous system (ENS and failure of intestinal transit postnatally. Treatment is by distal bowel resection, but neural cell replacement may be an alternative. We tested whether aneuronal (aganglionic colon tissue from patients may be colonized by autologous ENS-derived cells. Methods: Cells were obtained and cryopreserved from 31 HSCR patients from the proximal resection margin of colon, and ENS cells were isolated using flow cytometry for the NC marker p75 (nine patients. Aneuronal colon tissue was obtained from the distal resection margin (23 patients. ENS cells were assessed for NC markers immunohistologically and by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and mitosis was detected by ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine labeling. The ability of human HSCR postnatal ENS-derived cells to colonize the embryonic intestine was demonstrated by organ coculture with avian embryo gut, and the ability of human postnatal HSCR aneuronal colon muscle to support ENS formation was tested by organ coculture with embryonic mouse ENS cells. Finally, the ability of HSCR patient ENS cells to colonize autologous aneuronal colon muscle tissue was assessed. Results: ENS-derived p75-sorted cells from patients expressed multiple NC progenitor and differentiation markers and proliferated in culture under conditions simulating Wnt signaling. In organ culture, patient ENS cells migrated appropriately in aneural quail embryo gut, and mouse embryo ENS cells rapidly spread, differentiated, and extended axons in patient aneuronal colon muscle tissue. Postnatal ENS cells derived from HSCR patients colonized autologous aneuronal colon tissue in cocultures, proliferating and differentiating as neurons and glia. Conclusions: NC-lineage cells can be obtained from HSCR

  14. Acute transverse colon volvulus with secondary gastric isquemia. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Hernández, Ángela; Pous-Serrano, Salvador; Lucas-Mera, Elí; Carvajal-Amaya, Nicolás

    2016-03-01

    Acute colonic volvulus accounts for 10% of all intestinal obstructions being the transverse colon volvulus an exceptional localization (2-4%). Late diagnosis is made as there are no pathognomonic clinical or radiological findings for this pathology. We present the case of an 81 year-old male with acute transverse colon volvulus that involved the gastric antrum causing irreversible ischemia. Subtotal gastrectomy, subtotal colectomy and reconstruction with Y en Roux gastrojejunostomy and ileosigmoid anastomosis was performed given the good overall status of the patient. Decompressive colonoscopy is not advised given the high probability of ischemic lesions in these cases; surgical exploration is mandatory in these circumstances. Surgical detortion with or without colopexia carries important recurrence rates. Treatment of choice includes colectomy with or without primary anastomosis. There are no reports on gastric ischemic necrosis in the setting of a transverse colon volvulus making this case unusual and unique.

  15. Long-term expansion of epithelial organoids from human colon, adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and Barrett's epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toshiro; Stange, Daniel E; Ferrante, Marc; Vries, Robert G J; Van Es, Johan H; Van den Brink, Stieneke; Van Houdt, Winan J; Pronk, Apollo; Van Gorp, Joost; Siersema, Peter D; Clevers, Hans

    2011-11-01

    We previously established long-term culture conditions under which single crypts or stem cells derived from mouse small intestine expand over long periods. The expanding crypts undergo multiple crypt fission events, simultaneously generating villus-like epithelial domains that contain all differentiated types of cells. We have adapted the culture conditions to grow similar epithelial organoids from mouse colon and human small intestine and colon. Based on the mouse small intestinal culture system, we optimized the mouse and human colon culture systems. Addition of Wnt3A to the combination of growth factors applied to mouse colon crypts allowed them to expand indefinitely. Addition of nicotinamide, along with a small molecule inhibitor of Alk and an inhibitor of p38, were required for long-term culture of human small intestine and colon tissues. The culture system also allowed growth of mouse Apc-deficient adenomas, human colorectal cancer cells, and human metaplastic epithelia from regions of Barrett's esophagus. We developed a technology that can be used to study infected, inflammatory, or neoplastic tissues from the human gastrointestinal tract. These tools might have applications in regenerative biology through ex vivo expansion of the intestinal epithelia. Studies of these cultures indicate that there is no inherent restriction in the replicative potential of adult stem cells (or a Hayflick limit) ex vivo. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intestinal permeability to [51Cr]EDTA in children with Crohn's disease and celiac disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turck, D.; Ythier, H.; Maquet, E.; Deveaux, M.; Marchandise, X.; Farriaux, J.P.; Fontaine, G.

    1987-01-01

    [ 51 Cr]EDTA was used as a probe molecule to assess intestinal permeability in 7 healthy control adults, 11 control children, 17 children with Crohn's disease, and 6 children with untreated celiac disease. After subjects fasted overnight, 75 kBq/kg (= 2 microCi/kg) 51 Cr-labeled EDTA was given by mouth; 24-h urinary excretion of [ 51 Cr]EDTA was measured and expressed as a percentage of the total oral dose. Mean and SD were as follows: control adults 1.47 +/- 0.62, control children 1.59 +/- 0.55, and patients with Crohn's disease or celiac disease 5.35 +/- 1.94. The difference between control children and patients was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). These results show that intestinal permeability to [ 51 Cr]EDTA is increased among children with active or inactive Crohn's disease affecting small bowel only or small bowel and colon, and with untreated celiac disease. The [ 51 Cr]EDTA permeability test could facilitate the decision to perform more extensive investigations in children suspected of small bowel disease who have atypical or poor clinical and biological symptomatology

  17. An Act of Colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    When Gideon Welles, U.S. Secretary of the Navy, sat down to write his diary entry on September 26, 1862, his thoughts turned once more to colonization. President Lincoln was an ardent proponent of colonization, “the government-promoted settlement of black Americans in Africa or some other location....... Croix. Thus, when the Lincoln administration seriously considered colonization plans in 1862, Danish Charge d’Affaires Waldemar Raasløff offered free transport for freedmen to the Caribbean island, where there was a “distinct lack of laborers.” As a small first step towards colonization, Denmark...

  18. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  19. Colon preneoplasia after carcinogen exposure is enhanced and colonic serotonergic system is suppressed by food deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannen, Vinicius; Fernandes, Cleverson R; Stopper, Helga; Zanette, Dalila L; Ferreira, Frederico R; Frajacomo, Fernando T; Carvalho, Milene C; Brandão, Marcus L; Elias Junior, Jorge; Jordão Junior, Alceu Afonso; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Garcia, Sérgio B

    2013-10-04

    Calorie restriction regimens usually promote health and extend life-span in mammals. This is partially related to their preventive effects against malignancies. However, certain types of nutritional restriction failed to induce beneficial effects. The American Institute of Nutrition defines calorie restriction as diets which have only 40% fewer calories, but provide normal amounts of necessary food components such as protein, vitamins and minerals; whereas, food restriction means 40% less of all dietary ingredients plus 40% less calories. Our study aimed to test the hypothesis that the latter type of food deprivation (40% less food than consumed by standard fed rats) might increase cancer risk instead of reducing it, as is generally assumed for all dietary restrictive regimens. Since the endogenous modulation of the colon serotonergic system has been observed to play a role during the early steps of carcinogenesis we also investigated whether the serotoninergic system could be involved in the food intake modulation of cancer risk. For this, rats were exposed to a carcinogen and subjected to food deprivation for 56 days. Triglyceride levels and visceral adipose tissue were reduced while hepatic and colonic lipid peroxidation was increased. This dietary restriction also decreased serotonin levels in colon, and gene expression of its intestinal transporter and receptors. Finally, the numbers of preneoplastic lesions in the colon tissue of carcinogen-exposed rats were increased. Our data suggest that food deprivation enhances formation of early tumorigenic lesions by suppressing serotonergic activity in colon tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Relevance of the Colon to Zinc Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Lavaniya Gopalsamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, zinc deficiency is widespread, despite decades of research highlighting its negative effects on health, and in particular upon child health in low-income countries. Apart from inadequate dietary intake of bioavailable zinc, other significant contributors to zinc deficiency include the excessive intestinal loss of endogenously secreted zinc and impairment in small intestinal absorptive function. Such changes are likely to occur in children suffering from environmental (or tropical enteropathy (EE—an almost universal condition among inhabitants of developing countries characterized by morphologic and functional changes in the small intestine. Changes to the proximal gut in environmental enteropathy will likely influence the nature and amount of zinc delivered into the large intestine. Consequently, we reviewed the current literature to determine if colonic absorption of endogenous or exogenous (dietary zinc could contribute to overall zinc nutriture. Whilst we found evidence that significant zinc absorption occurs in the rodent colon, and is favoured when microbially-fermentable carbohydrates (specifically resistant starch are consumed, it is unclear whether this process occur in humans and/or to what degree. Constraints in study design in the few available studies may well have masked a possible colonic contribution to zinc nutrition. Furthermore these few available human studies have failed to include the actual target population that would benefit, namely infants affected by EE where zinc delivery to the colon may be increased and who are also at risk of zinc deficiency. In conducting this review we have not been able to confirm a colonic contribution to zinc absorption in humans. However, given the observations in rodents and that feeding resistant starch to children is feasible, definitive studies utilising the dual stable isotope method in children with EE should be undertaken.

  1. Epithelial and Mesenchymal Cells in the Bovine Colonic Mucosa Differ in Their Responsiveness to Escherichia coli Shiga Toxin 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cells in the depth of the crypts in the bovine colon express CD77 molecules that potentially act as receptors for Shiga toxins (Stx). The implication of this finding for the intestinal colonization 25 of cattle with human pathogenic Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) remains undefined. We used f...

  2. A clinico-radiological reappraisal of intestinal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, R.K.; Sarin, S.K.; Bose, S.L.; Berry, M.; Tandon, B.N.

    1986-01-01

    Intestinal tuberculosis is still common in developing countries. In 186 patients with intestinal tuberculosis, clinical features, radiological findings and complications were carefully recorded and compared with those from earlier studies with a view to study any possible changes after the liberal use of antitubercular drugs. Sixty two percent of the patients in the present series had had prior exposure to antitubercular drugs. The incidence of systemic symptoms like fever and anorexia, alternating diarrhoea and constipation, peritoneal and lymph node involvements and associated pulmonary lesions were less frequently observed. On the other hand, an indolent and complicated course with intestinal obstruction (47 %) and lower gastrointestinal bleeding (5.5 %) and frequent colonic involvement (19 %) often necessitating surgical intervention appeared to have become more frequent than reported in earlier series. Awareness of these changes in the clinical profile of intestinal tuberculosis should be helpful in the diagnosis and management of the condition. (author)

  3. Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in an English bulldog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, E; Leisewitz, A L; Van der Lugt, J J

    2001-05-01

    A case of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in an English bulldog is described. The dog was presented with chronic weight loss and vomiting. An intestinal obstruction was suspected based on clinical and radiological findings. A diagnosis of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction was made on the basis of full thickness intestinal biopsies. The dog was refractory to any antiemetic therapy. Necropsy revealed marked atrophy and fibrosis of the tunica muscularis, together with a mononuclear cell infiltrate extending from the duodenum to the colon. This case was presented with clinical findings consistent with visceral myopathy in humans--namely, atony and dilatation of the whole gut--but the histological findings resembled sclerosis limited to the gastrointestinal tract.

  4. Successful treatment of small intestinal volvulus in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, Sebastian C; Andreoni, Angelo A; Dennler, Matthias; Venzin, Claudio M

    2010-11-01

    Mesenteric volvulus describes a torsion of the small intestine around the mesenteric root, which can be partial or complete. In dogs, it is an uncommon condition, with German shepherd dogs showing a predisposition. Chronic mesenteric volvulus has also been described. In cats, previous reports have documented two cases of small intestinal volvulus, both diagnosed at necropsy, and a further case of volvulus of the colon in a patient that died after surgery. This report describes two cats with mesenteric volvulus that were successfully treated. To the authors' knowledge, no reports of antemortem diagnosis or treatment of small intestinal volvulus in cats have previously been published. On the basis of the cases presented, it appears that the diagnosis of intestinal volvulus may be more difficult in cats than in dogs, but that the prognosis may not be as poor. Therefore, it is suggested that owners be encouraged to pursue surgery. Copyright © 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stem cell self-renewal in intestinal crypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, Benjamin D.; Clevers, Hans

    2011-01-01

    As a rapidly cycling tissue capable of fast repair and regeneration, the intestinal epithelium has emerged as a favored model system to explore the principles of adult stem cell biology. However, until recently, the identity and characteristics of the stem cell population in both the small intestine and colon has remained the subject of debate. Recent studies based on targeted lineage tracing strategies, combined with the development of an organotypic culture system, have identified the crypt base columnar cell as the intestinal stem cell, and have unveiled the strategy by which the balance between proliferation and differentiation is maintained. These results show that intestinal stem cells operate in a dynamic environment in which frequent and stochastic stem cell loss is compensated by the proliferation of neighboring stem cells. We review the basis of these experimental findings and the insights they offer into the mechanisms of homeostatic stem cell regulation.

  6. Segmentation algorithm of colon based on multi-slice CT colonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yizhong; Ahamed, Mohammed Shabbir; Takahashi, Eiji; Suzuki, Hidenobu; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Suzuki, Masahiro; Iinuma, Gen; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2012-02-01

    CT colonography is a radiology test that looks at people's large intestines(colon). CT colonography can screen many options of colon cancer. This test is used to detect polyps or cancers of the colon. CT colonography is safe and reliable. It can be used if people are too sick to undergo other forms of colon cancer screening. In our research, we proposed a method for automatic segmentation of the colon from abdominal computed Tomography (CT) images. Our multistage detection method extracted colon and spited colon into different parts according to the colon anatomy information. We found that among the five segmented parts of the colon, sigmoid (20%) and rectum (50%) are more sensitive toward polyps and masses than the other three parts. Our research focused on detecting the colon by the individual diagnosis of sigmoid and rectum. We think it would make the rapid and easy diagnosis of colon in its earlier stage and help doctors for analysis of correct position of each part and detect the colon rectal cancer much easier.

  7. Modulation of Mucosal Immune Response, Tolerance and Proliferation in Mice Colonized by the Mucin-Degrader Akkermansia muciniphila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel eDerrien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells of the mammalian intestine are covered with a mucus layer that prevents direct contact with intestinal microbes but also constitutes a substrate for mucus-degrading bacteria. To study the effect of mucus degradation on the host-response, germ-free mice were colonized with Akkermansia muciniphila. This anaerobic bacterium belonging to the Verrucomicrobia is specialized in the degradation of mucin, the glycoprotein present in mucus, and found in high numbers in the intestinal tract of human and other mammalian species. Efficient colonization of A. muciniphila was observed with highest numbers in the cecum, where most mucin is produced. In contrast, following colonization by Lactobacillus plantarum, a facultative anaerobe belonging to the Firmicutes that ferments carbohydrates, similar cell-numbers were found at all intestinal sites. Whereas A. muciniphila was located closely associated with the intestinal cells, L. plantarum was exclusively found in the lumen. The global transcriptional host response was determined in intestinal biopsies and revealed a consistent, site-specific and unique modulation of about 750 genes in mice colonized by A. muciniphila and over 1500 genes after colonization by L. plantarum. Pathway reconstructions showed that colonization by A. muciniphila altered mucosal gene expression profiles towards increased expression of genes involved in immune responses and cell fate determination, while colonization by L. plantarum led to up-regulation of lipid metabolism. These indicate that the colonizers induce host responses that are specific per intestinal location. In conclusion, we propose that A. muciniphila modulates pathways involved in establishing homeostasis for basal metabolism and immune tolerance towards commensal microbiota.

  8. Endometriotic stricture of the sigmoid colon presenting with intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-01

    Feb 1, 2014 ... with dyspareunia, the above symptoms form the 'classic triad' of the disease.[3] ... Rarely, endometriosis affects the urinary system, lungs, skin, .... such as inflammatory bowel disease, ischaemic colitis or even cancer. [3,5,7 ...

  9. Cinnamate of inulin as a vehicle for delivery of colonic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Molina, Dorotea; Chazarra, Soledad; How, Chee Wun; Pruidze, Nikolov; Navarro-Perán, Enma; García-Cánovas, Francisco; García-Ruiz, Pedro Antonio; Rojas-Melgarejo, Francisco; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno

    2015-02-01

    Colon diseases are difficult to treat because oral administrated drugs are absorbed at the stomach and intestine levels and they do not reach colon; in addition, intravenous administrated drugs are eliminated from the body before reaching colon. Inulin is a naturally occurring polysaccharide found in many plants. It consists of β 2-1 linked D-fructose molecules having a glucosyl unit at the reducing end. Various inulin and dextran hydrogels have been developed that serve as potential carrier for introduction of drugs into the colon. Because inulin is not absorbed in the stomach or in the small intestine, and inulin is degraded by colonic bacteria, drugs encapsulated in inulin-coated vesicles could be specifically liberated in the colon. Therefore, the use of inulin-coated vesicles could represent an advance for the treatment of colon diseases. Here, we study the use of a cinnamoylated derivative of chicory inulin as a vehicle for the controlled delivery of colonic drugs. The encapsulation of methotrexate in inulin vesicles and its release and activity was studied in colon cancer cells in cultures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of Dietary Galacto-Oligosaccharide (GOS) on Chicken’s Gut Microbiota, Mucosal Gene Expression, and Salmonella Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca-Ayme Hughes; Rebecca-Ayme Hughes; Riawana A. Ali; Mary A. Mendoza; Hosni M. Hassan; Matthew D. Koci

    2017-01-01

    Preventing Salmonella colonization in young birds is key to reducing contamination of poultry products for human consumption (eggs and meat). While several Salmonella vaccines have been developed that are capable of yielding high systemic antibodies, it is not clear how effective these approaches are at controlling or preventing Salmonella colonization of the intestinal tract. Effective alternative control strategies are needed to help supplement the bird’s ability to prevent Salmonella colon...

  11. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Hasan M.; Al-Arayedh, Ghadeer G.; Mohamed, Afaf M.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by dilatation of intestinal lymphatics. It can be classified as primary or secondary according to the underlying etiology. The clinical presentations of IL are pitting edema, chylous ascites, pleural effusion, acute appendicitis, diarrhea, lymphocytopenia, malabsorption, and intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is made by intestinal endoscopy and biopsies. Dietary modification is the mainstay in the management of IL with a variable response. Here we report 2 patients with IL in Bahrain who showed positive response to dietary modification. PMID:26837404

  12. Intestinal parasites and tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results.

  13. Colon and rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldombide, L.; Cordoba, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study is about the diagnosis, therapy and monitoring of colon cancer. The techniques used are the endoscopy with biopsy in the pre and post operative colon surgery, abdominal ultrasound, chest X-ray studies of hemogram as well as liver and renal function

  14. Colon of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, C.G.; Rosengren, J.-E.; Fork, F.-T.

    1979-01-01

    The anatomy and radiologic appearance of the colon in rats are described on the basis of 300 animals treated with carcinogenic agents and 40 normal rats. The macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the mucosa varies in the different parts of the colon. Lymphoid plaques are normal structures. The results justify a new anatomic nomenclature. (Auth.)

  15. Abnormalities of small bowel and colon in systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Cinotti, A.; Cavallari, L.; Orzincolo, C.; Dovigo, L.; Trotta, F.; Menegale, G.

    1990-01-01

    A series of 21 subjects (2 males and 19 females) affected with systemic sclerosis, was examined by small bowel (oral and intubation methods) and colon enema. The underlying process responsible for abnormalities in the small bowel and colon in systemic sclerosis is a variable and pacthy destruction of the muscularis propria, that produces the structural and functional changes detected on X-ray: Pathologic condition is the same affecting the esophagus. The scout film of the abdomen often reveals colonic distension and fecal impaction, so that it may be quite difficult to prepare adequately the patients for a barium enema. Peristalsis may be virtually absent in short segments, and transit time may be several time longer than that in normal patients. For these reasons, intestinal pseudo-obstruction may appear in systemic sclerosis. The observed radiographic changes are: 1) in the small bowel: a) dilatation of the gut, especially in its proximal portions (duodenum and jejunum), in which the valvulae conniventes are straightened, normal or thinned; b) presence of diverticula, 2-4 cm in diameter, with hemispherical shape without the neck-like opening into the bowel lumen; 2) in the colon, the characteristic finding is an increase in size of individual haustra, forming sacculations or pseudo-diverticula, usually on the antemesenteric border of the transverse colon, better demonstrated on post-evacuation film. Moreover, loss of colonic haustration is also observed associated to colonic elongation and dilatation

  16. Colonization of fish skin is vital for Vibrio anguillarum to cause disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Barbara; Chen, Chang; Milton, Debra L

    2010-02-01

    Vibrio anguillarum causes a fatal haemorrhagic septicaemia in marine fish. During initial stages of infection, host surfaces are colonized; however, few virulence factors required for colonization of the host are identified. In this study, in vivo bioluminescent imaging was used to analyse directly the colonization of the whole rainbow trout animal by V. anguillarum. The wild type rapidly colonized both the skin and the intestines by 24 h; however, the bacterial numbers on the skin were significantly higher than in the intestines indicating that skin colonization may be important for disease to occur. Mutants defective for the anguibactin iron uptake system, exopolysaccharide transport, or Hfq, an RNA chaperone, were attenuated for virulence, did not colonize the skin, and penetrated skin mucus less efficiently than the wild type. These mutants, however, did colonize the intestines and were as resistant to 2% bile salts as is the wild type. Moreover, exopolysaccharide mutants were significantly more sensitive to lysozyme and antimicrobial peptides, while the Hfq and anguibactin mutants were sensitive to lysozyme compared with the wild type. Vibrio anguillarum encodes several mechanisms to protect against antimicrobial components of skin mucus enabling an amazingly abundant growth on the skin enhancing its disease opportunities. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Colonic duplications: Clinical presentation and radiologic features of five cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blickman, J.G.; Rieu, P.H.M.; Buonomo, C.; Hoogeveen, Y.L.; Boetes, C.

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis of colonic duplication can pose a potential problem even for those familiar with gastro-intestinal tract duplications in general but unaware of the condition due to its rarity and its apparently bimodal clinical presentation. In this report of five cases of surgically proven pediatric colonic duplication, we illustrate how the condition manifests clinically and describe the imaging features in an attempt to illustrate this bimodal presentation of the condition. The possible etiology, associated congenital anomalies and modes of clinical presentation are reviewed based on literature review as well as on our own experience

  18. Symptomatic endometriosis of the colon - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leutloff, U.C.; Roeren, T.; Feldmann, K.; Sillem, M.; Rabe, T.; Kauffmann, G.

    1996-01-01

    The intestinal endometriosis in need of treatment is a rare case in the surgical department. Preoperative diagnosis is very difficult and in any case must be based on histologic findings; endoscopy-guided biopsy very frequently yields negative results. Dual-contrast scanning of the colon still is a major examination method, but the findings make it difficult to rule out malignomas. Cyclic, recurrent abdominal complaints reported in the case history strongly indicate the possibility of endometriosis. Typing can be done in general only after surgery. The article reports the clinical and diagnostic parameters of a symptomatic endometriosis of the colon. (orig.) [de

  19. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host's metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acids, and modulate inflammatory bioactive substances can lead to a better understanding of the beneficial role of dietary fiber. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the mechanisms via which dietary fiber protects against colon cancer.

  20. [Clinical management of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction in patients: a systematic review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Aros, S; Camilleri, M

    2003-12-01

    Intestinal pseudoobstruction is a clinical syndrome characterized by impairment of intestinal propulsion, which may resemble intestinal obstruction, in the absence of a mechanical cause. It usually affects the colon but the small intestine may also be involved, and may present in acute, subacute or chronic forms. We have performed a systematic review of the acute form of pseudoobstruction, also referred to as Ogilvie's syndrome. We discuss proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, manifestations and management of this clinical condition in post-surgery and critically ill patients. The hallmark of the syndrome is massive intestinal distension, which is detected on clinical inspection and plain abdominal radiography. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Therefore, treatment has focussed on preventing intestinal perforation, which is associated with a 21% mortality rate.

  1. How many segments are necessary to characterize delayed colonic transit time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, Michel; Devroede, Ghislain; Bon, Cyriaque; Raynaud, Jean-Jacques; Bejou, Bakhtiar; Benamouzig, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Measuring colonic transit time with radiopaque markers is simple, inexpensive, and very useful in constipated patients. Yet, the algorithm used to identify colonic segments is subjective, rather than founded on prior experimentation. The aim of the present study is to describe a rational way to determine the colonic partition in the measurement of colonic transit time. Colonic transit time was measured in seven segments: ascending colon, hepatic flexure, right and left transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, and rectosigmoid in 852 patients with functional bowel and anorectal disorders. An unsupervised algorithm for modeling Gaussian mixtures served to estimate the number of subgroups from this oversegmented colonic transit time. After that, we performed a k-means clustering that separated the observations into homogenous groups of patients according to their oversegmented colonic transit time. The Gaussian mixture followed by the k-means clustering defined 4 populations of patients: "normal and fast transit" (n = 548) and three groups of patients with delayed colonic transit time "right delay" (n = 82) in which transit is delayed in the right part of the colon, "left delay" (n = 87) with transit delayed in the left part of colon and "outlet constipation" (n = 135) for patients with transit delayed in the terminal intestine. Only 3.7 % of patients were "erroneously" classified in the 4 groups recognized by clustering. This unsupervised analysis of segmental colonic transit time shows that the classical division of the colon and the rectum into three segments is sufficient to characterize delayed segmental colonic transit time.

  2. Intestinal barrier: A gentlemen's agreement between microbiota and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricilli, Andrea Moro; Castoldi, Angela; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2014-02-15

    Our body is colonized by more than a hundred trillion commensals, represented by viruses, bacteria and fungi. This complex interaction has shown that the microbiome system contributes to the host's adaptation to its environment, providing genes and functionality that give flexibility of diet and modulate the immune system in order not to reject these symbionts. In the intestine, specifically, the microbiota helps developing organ structures, participates of the metabolism of nutrients and induces immunity. Certain components of the microbiota have been shown to trigger inflammatory responses, whereas others, anti-inflammatory responses. The diversity and the composition of the microbiota, thus, play a key role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and explain partially the link between intestinal microbiota changes and gut-related disorders in humans. Tight junction proteins are key molecules for determination of the paracellular permeability. In the context of intestinal inflammatory diseases, the intestinal barrier is compromised, and decreased expression and differential distribution of tight junction proteins is observed. It is still unclear what is the nature of the luminal or mucosal factors that affect the tight junction proteins function, but the modulation of the immune cells found in the intestinal lamina propria is hypothesized as having a role in this modulation. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the interaction of the gut microbiota with the immune system in the development and maintenance of the intestinal barrier.

  3. Antibody response to Giardia muris trophozoites in mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, M F

    1986-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia muris colonizes the mouse small intestinal lumen. This parasite is cleared immunologically from the intestine of normal mice. In contrast, T-lymphocyte-deficient (nude) mice have an impaired immunological response to G. muris and become chronically infected. In the present study, trophozoites were harvested from the intestinal lumen of immunocompetent BALB/c mice and nude mice and examined for surface-bound mouse immunoglobulins by immunofluorescence microscopy. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG, but not IgM, were detected on trophozoites obtained from BALB/c mice, from day 10 of the infection onwards. Trophozoites from nude mice showed very little evidence of surface-bound mouse immunoglobulin at any time during the 5-week period immediately following infection of these animals with G. muris cysts. Intestinal G. muris infection was cleared by the BALB/c mice but not by the nude animals. The data suggest that parasite-specific IgA and IgG bind to G. muris trophozoites in the intestinal lumen of immunocompetent BALB/c mice. Intestinal antibodies that bind to trophozoite surfaces are likely to play an important part in the clearance of G. muris infection by immunocompetent mice. The inability of nude mice to clear this infection at a normal rate is likely to be due to impairment of Giardia-specific intestinal antibody production.

  4. Deciphering the porcine intestinal microRNA transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more than 700 microRNAs (miRNAs are known in human, a comparably low number has been identified in swine. Because of the close phylogenetic distance to humans, pigs serve as a suitable model for studying e.g. intestinal development or disease. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are key regulators of intestinal development and their aberrant expression leads to intestinal malignancy. Results Here, we present the identification of hundreds of apparently novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine. MiRNAs were first identified by means of deep sequencing followed by miRNA precursor prediction using the miRDeep algorithm as well as searching for conserved miRNAs. Second, the porcine miRNAome along the entire intestine (duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum, ileum, ascending and transverse colon was unraveled using customized miRNA microarrays based on the identified sequences as well as known porcine and human ones. In total, the expression of 332 intestinal miRNAs was discovered, of which 201 represented assumed novel porcine miRNAs. The identified hairpin forming precursors were in part organized in genomic clusters, and most of the precursors were located on chromosomes 3 and 1, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of the expression data revealed subsets of miRNAs that are specific to distinct parts of the intestine pointing to their impact on cellular signaling networks. Conclusions In this study, we have applied a straight forward approach to decipher the porcine intestinal miRNAome for the first time in mammals using a piglet model. The high number of identified novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine points out their crucial role in intestinal function as shown by pathway analysis. On the other hand, the reported miRNAs may share orthologs in other mammals such as human still to be discovered.

  5. CT colonography for preoperative examination of the proximal colon using a transanal drainage tube for acute malignant colonic obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Kazuaki; Hirano, Yuji; Oono, Keisuke; Sasaki, Kazunori; Someya, Tetsufumi; Harada, Keisuke; Ezoe, Eiri; Furuhata, Tomohisa; Hirata, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of CT colonography for preoperative examination of the proximal colon using a transanal drainage tube in patients with acute colon obstruction caused by colorectal cancer. Ten patients who received initial treatment for acute malignant colon obstruction at our hospital between June 2004 and December 2008 were studied. In these patients, elective surgery was possible after transanal drainage tube insertion, and the colon on the oral side from the cancer lesion was examined using a drainage tube. Air was injected through the tube into the oral side of the colon, and CT colonography was assessed for the presence or absence of lesions on the oral side. The images of the oral side of the colon were good enough to allow adequate interpretation in 9 of the 10 patients. In the first patient, the visualization of the area near the lesion was somewhat fair, although the right side colon was well visualized. There were no complications associated with this examination. The present preoperative examination using a transanal drainage tube was useful for determining the extent of intestinal resection when patients were not candidates for colonoscopy or barium enema examination. (author)

  6. [Bacterial Translocation from Intestine: Microbiological, Immunological and Pathophysiological Aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoprigora, G I; Kafarskaya, L I; Bainov, N A; Shkoporov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial translocation (BT) is both pathology and physiology phenomenon. In healthy newborns it accompanies the process of establishing the autochthonous intestinal microbiota and the host microbiome. In immunodeficiency it can be an aethio-pathogenetic link and a manifestation of infection or septic complications. The host colonization resistance to exogenous microbic colonizers is provided by gastrointestinal microbiota in concert with complex constitutional and adaptive defense mechanisms. BT may be result of barrier dysfunction and self-purification mechanisms involving the host myeloid cell phagocytic system and opsonins. Dynamic cell humoral response to microbial molecular patterns that occurs on the mucous membranes initiates receptorsignalingpathways and cascade ofreactions. Their vector and results are largely determined by cross-reactivity between microbiome and the host genome. Enterocyte barriers interacting with microbiota play leading role in providing adaptive, homeostatic and stress host reactivity. Microcirculatory ischemic tissue alterations and inflammatory reactions increase the intestinal barrier permeability and BT These processes a well as mechanisms for apoptotic cells and bacteria clearance are justified to be of prospective research interest. The inflammatory and related diseases caused by alteration and dysfunction of the intestinal barrier are reasonably considered as diseases of single origin. Maternal microbiota affects theformation of the innate immune system and the microbiota of the newborn, including intestinal commensal translocation during lactation. Deeper understanding of intestinal barrier mechanisms needs complex microbiological, immunological, pathophysiological, etc. investigations using adequate biomodels, including gnotobiotic animals.

  7. Dyslipidaemia--hepatic and intestinal cross-talk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tomkin, Gerald H

    2010-06-01

    Cholesterol metabolism is tightly regulated with the majority of de novo cholesterol synthesis occurring in the liver and intestine. 3 Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, a major enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, is raised in both liver and intestine in diabetic animals. Niemann PickC1-like1 protein regulates cholesterol absorption in the intestine and facilitates cholesterol transport through the liver. There is evidence to suggest that the effect of inhibition of Niemann PickC1-like1 lowers cholesterol through its effect not only in the intestine but also in the liver. ATP binding cassette proteins G5\\/G8 regulate cholesterol re-excretion in the intestine and in the liver, cholesterol excretion into the bile. Diabetes is associated with reduced ATP binding cassette protein G5\\/G8 expression in both the liver and intestine in animal models. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is central to the formation of the chylomicron in the intestine and VLDL in the liver. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA is increased in diabetes in both the intestine and liver. Cross-talk between the intestine and liver is poorly documented in humans due to the difficulty in obtaining liver biopsies but animal studies are fairly consistent in showing relationships that explain in part mechanisms involved in cholesterol homeostasis.

  8. Intestinal immunity in hypopituitary dwarf mice: effects of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Darcy, Justin; Cai, Chuan; Jin, Junfei; Bartke, Andrzej; Cao, Deliang

    2018-03-02

    Hypopituitary dwarf mice demonstrate advantages of longevity, but little is known of their colon development and intestinal immunity. Herein we found that Ames dwarf mice have shorter colon and colonic crypts, but larger ratio of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) over body weight than age-matched wild type (WT) mice. In the colonic lamina propria (cLP) of juvenile Ames mice, more inflammatory neutrophils (Ā: 0.15% vs. 0.03% in WT mice) and monocytes (Ā: 7.97% vs. 5.15%) infiltrated, and antigen presenting cells CD11c+ dendritic cells (Ā: 1.39% vs. 0.87%), CD11b+ macrophages (Ā: 3.22% vs. 0.81%) and gamma delta T (γδ T) cells (Ā: 5.56% vs. 1.35%) were increased. In adult Ames dwarf mice, adaptive immune cells, such as IL-17 producing CD4+ T helper (Th17) cells (Ā: 8.3% vs. 4.7%) were augmented. In the MLNs of Ames dwarf mice, the antigen presenting and adaptive immune cells also altered when compared to WT mice, such as a decrease of T-regulatory (Treg) cells in juvenile Ames mice (Ā: 7.7% vs.10.5%), but an increase of Th17 cells (Ā: 0.627% vs.0.093%). Taken together, these data suggest that somatotropic signaling deficiency influences colon development and intestinal immunity.

  9. Gross anatomy of the intestine and its mesentery in the nutria (Myocastor coypus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, W; Lima, M; Bielli, A

    2008-11-01

    The intestines and mesentery of the nutria (Myocastor coypus) have not been fully described. In the present study 30 adult nutrias were studied using gross dissection. The small intestine was divided into the duodenum, jejunum and ileum as usual. The duodenum started at the pylorus with a cranial portion, which dilated forming a duodenal ampulla. The ileum was located within the concavity of the caecum and attached to the coiled caecum by means of the iliocaecal fold. The ascending colon had two ansae, one proximal and one distal. The proximal ansa was fixed to the caecum by the caecocolic fold. The base of the caecum and a short proximal part of the ascending colon belonging to the proximal ansa were attached to the mesoduodenum descendens. The distal ansa of the ascending colon had a proximal part which was sacculated and a distal part which was smooth. The two parts of the distal ansa of the ascending colon were parallel and joined by a flexure of variable localisation. The smooth part of the distal ansa of the ascending colon was attached to the initial portion of the descending colon by a peritoneal fold. The short transverse colon was directly attached to the mesoduodenum and greater omentum. In conclusion, we have described the anatomy of the intestines of the nutria and its mesentery in detail, and provided a nomenclature list adapted to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria.

  10. Effect of peristalsis in balance of intestinal microbial ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbagheri, Seyed Amir; Fu, Henry C.

    2017-11-01

    A balance of microbiota density in gastrointestinal tracts is necessary for health of the host. Although peristaltic flow made by intestinal muscles is constantly evacuating the lumen, bacterial density stay balanced. Some of bacteria colonize in the secreted mucus where there is no flow, but the rest resist the peristaltic flow in lumen and maintain their population. Using a coupled two-dimensional model of flow induced by large amplitude peristaltic waves, bacterial motility, reproduction, and diffusion, we address how bacterial growth and motility combined with peristaltic flow affect the balance of the intestinal microbial ecosystem.

  11. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, N; Ganesh, R; Sankar, Janani; Sathiyasekaran, Malathi

    2009-10-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disease of intestinal lymphatics presenting with hypoproteinemia, bilateral lower limb edema, ascites, and protein losing enteropathy. We report a series of 4 children from Chennai, India presenting with anasarca, recurrent diarrhea, hypoproteinemia and confirmatory features of PIL on endoscopy and histopathology.

  12. [Interaction of effective ingredients from traditional Chinese medicines with intestinal microbiota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Xian-Peng; Lin, Zhang; Xie, Hai-Sheng; Yang, Niao; Liu, Xin-Ru; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2016-05-01

    A large number and wide varieties of microorganisms colonize in the human gastrointestinal tract. They construct an intestinal microecological system in the intestinal environment. The intestinal symbiotic flora regulates a series of life actions, including digestion and absorption of nutrient, immune response, biological antagonism, and is closely associated with the occurrence and development of many diseases. Therefore, it is greatly essential for the host's health status to maintain the equilibrium of intestinal microecological environment. After effective compositions of traditional Chinese medicines are metabolized or biotransformed by human intestinal bacteria, their metabolites can be absorbed more easily, and can even decrease or increase toxicity and then exhibit significant different biological effects. Meanwhile, traditional Chinese medicines can also regulate the composition of the intestinal flora and protect the function of intestinal mucosal barrier to restore the homeostasis of intestinal microecology. The relevant literatures in recent 15 years about the interactive relationship between traditional Chinese medicines and gut microbiota have been collected in this review, in order to study the classification of gut microflora, the relationship between intestinal dysbacteriosis and diseases, the important roles of gut microflora in intestinal bacterial metabolism in effective ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines and bioactivities, as well as the modulation effects of Chinese medicine on intestinal dysbacteriosis. In addition, it also makes a future prospect for the research strategies to study the mechanism of action of traditional Chinese medicines based on multi-omics techniques. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Virtual CT-colonoscopy resources in large intestine neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalyk Yu.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to state possibility of virtual colonoscopy and to determine the localization and nature of neoplasms in the large intestine. Materials and methods: 38 patients have been examined by the method of virtual colonoscopy. The preceding stage of diagnosis by total fibrocolonoscopy has not been a success. Results: Virtual colonoscopy has been performed in 94.7% of patients. The same tumors have been identified in the proximal colon, direct examination of which has not been possible. Conclusion: Virtual colonoscopy is the method of choice for topical diagnosis of tumors of the colon

  14. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Dušan Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disease which leads to protein losing enteropathy. Tortous, dilated lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall and mesenterium are typical features of the disease. Clinical manifestations include malabsorption, diarrhea, steatorrhea, edema and effusions. Specific diet and medication are required for disease control. Case report. A 19-year old male patient was hospitalized due to diarrhea, abdominal swelling, weariness and fatigue. Physical examination revealed growth impairment, ascites, and lymphedema of the right hand and forearm. Laboratory assessment indicated iron deficiency anaemia, lymphopenia, malabsorption, inflammatory syndrome, and urinary infection. Enteroscopy and video capsule endoscopy demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels in the small intestine. The diagnosis was confirmed by intestinal biopsy. The patient was put on high-protein diet containing medium-chain fatty acids, somatotropin and suportive therapy. Conclusion. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease, usually diagnosed in childhood. Early recognition of the disease and adequate treatment can prevent development of various complications.

  15. [Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Dugan D j; Spuran, Milan; Alempijević, Tamara; Krstić, Miodrag; Djuranović, Srdjan; Kovacević, Nada; Damnjanović, Svetozar; Micev, Marjan

    2011-03-01

    Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disease which leads to protein losing enteropathy. Tortuous, dilated lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall and mesenterium are typical features of the disease. Clinical manifestations include malabsorption, diarrhea, steatorrhea, edema and effusions. Specific diet and medication are required for disease control. A 19-year old male patient was hospitalized due to diarrhea, abdominal swelling, weariness and fatigue. Physical examination revealed growth impairment, ascites, and lymphedema of the right hand and forearm. Laboratory assessment indicated iron deficiency anaemia, lymphopenia, malabsorption, inflammatory syndrome, and urinary infection. Enteroscopy and video capsule endoscopy demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels in the small intestine. The diagnosis was confirmed by intestinal biopsy. The patient was put on high-protein diet containing medium-chain fatty acids, somatotropin and supportive therapy. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease, usually diagnosed in childhood. Early recognition of the disease and adequate treatment can prevent development of various complications.

  16. Prostaglandin E2 produced by Entamoeba histolytica binds to EP4 receptors and stimulates interleukin-8 production in human colonic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Indranil; Chadee, Kris

    2008-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis in the colon occurs in a stepwise fashion. It begins with colonization of the mucin layer, which is followed by stimulation of a proinflammatory response that causes nonspecific tissue damage that may facilitate parasite invasion of the underlying colonic mucosa. Unfortunately, the parasite and/or host factors that stimulate a proinflammatory response in the gut are poorly understood. In this study, we found that live E. histolytica or secretory or proteins (SP) and soluble ameba components (SAP) can markedly increase interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA expression and protein production in colonic epithelial cells. The IL-8-stimulating molecule produced by live amebae was identified as prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) as trophozoites treated with cyclooxygenase inhibitors inhibited the biosynthesis of PGE(2) and eliminated IL-8 production induced by live parasites or ameba components. Moreover, using specific prostaglandin EP2 and EP4 receptor agonists and antagonists, we found that PGE(2) binds exclusively through EP4 receptors in colonic epithelial cells to stimulate IL-8 production. Silencing of EP4 receptors with EP4 small interfering RNA completely eliminated SP- and SAP-induced IL-8 production. These studies identified bioactive PGE(2) as a one of the major virulence factors produced by E. histolytica that can stimulate the potent neutrophil chemokine and activator IL-8, which can trigger an acute host inflammatory response. Thus, the induction of IL-8 production in response to E. histolytica-derived PGE(2) may be a mechanism that explains the initiation and amplification of acute inflammation associated with intestinal amebiasis.

  17. The effect of microbial colonization on the host proteome varies by gastrointestinal location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, Joshua S; Alsentzer, Emily; Jaffe, Mia; Sprockett, Daniel; Masutani, Evan; Ikwa, Elvis; Fragiadakis, Gabriela K; Clifford, David; Huang, Bevan Emma; Sonnenburg, Justin L; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Elias, Joshua E

    2016-05-01

    Endogenous intestinal microbiota have wide-ranging and largely uncharacterized effects on host physiology. Here, we used reverse-phase liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry to define the mouse intestinal proteome in the stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum and proximal colon under three colonization states: germ-free (GF), monocolonized with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and conventionally raised (CR). Our analysis revealed distinct proteomic abundance profiles along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Unsupervised clustering showed that host protein abundance primarily depended on GI location rather than colonization state and specific proteins and functions that defined these locations were identified by random forest classifications. K-means clustering of protein abundance across locations revealed substantial differences in host protein production between CR mice relative to GF and monocolonized mice. Finally, comparison with fecal proteomic data sets suggested that the identities of stool proteins are not biased to any region of the GI tract, but are substantially impacted by the microbiota in the distal colon.

  18. Ultrasonographic findings of intestinal intussusception in seven cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsikas, M N; Papazoglou, L G; Papaioannou, N G; Savvas, I; Kazakos, G M; Dessiris, A K

    2003-12-01

    The medical records of seven cats with intestinal intussusception that were diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and exploratory laparotomy were reviewed. In transverse ultrasonographic sections the intussusception appeared as a target-like mass consisting of one, two or more hyperechoic and hypoechoic concentric rings surrounding a C-shaped, circular or non-specific shaped hyperechoic centre. Part of the intestine representing the inner intussusceptum, located close to the hyperechoic centre and surrounded by concentric rings, was also detected. In longitudinal sections the intussusception appeared as multiple hyperechoic and hypoechoic parallel lines in four cases and as an ovoid mass in three cases. In one case the ovoid mass had a 'kidney' configuration. Additional ultrasonographic findings associated with intestinal intussusception included an intestinal neoplasm in one cat. The results of the present study demonstrate that the ultrasonographic findings of intestinal intussusception in cats bear some similarities to those described in dogs and humans, are relatively consistent, and facilitate a specific diagnosis.

  19. Injuries to the colon from blast effect of penetrating extra-peritoneal thoraco-abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om P; Oswanski, Michael F; White, Patrick W

    2004-03-01

    Although rare, blast injury to the intestine can result from penetrating thoraco-abdominal extra-peritoneal gunshot (and shotgun) wounds despite the absence of injury to the diaphragm or to the peritoneum. Injuries of the spleen, small intestine and the mesentery by this mechanism have been previously reported in the world literature. This paper reports the first two cases of non-penetrating ballistic trauma to the colon.

  20. Colonic perforation in the first few hours of life associated with rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Timothy; Emil, Sherif

    2005-08-01

    Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCP), a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by a disorder of peroxisome metabolism, has been shown to affect multiple organ systems. A neonate presenting with a colonic perforation in the first few hours of life was subsequently diagnosed with RCP. A literature search revealed no previous reports of intestinal perforation associated with RCP. Intestinal perforation should be added to the list of medical complications associated with RCP.

  1. The evaluation of interstitial Cajal cells distribution in non-tumoral colon disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becheanu, G; Manuc, M; Dumbravă, Mona; Herlea, V; Hortopan, Monica; Costache, Mariana

    2008-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemakers that generate electric waves recorded from the gut and are important for intestinal motility. The aim of the study was to evaluate the distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal in colon specimens from patients with idiopathic chronic pseudo-obstruction and other non-tumoral colon disorders as compared with samples from normal colon. The distribution pattern of ICC in the normal and pathological human colon was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using antibodies for CD117, CD34, and S-100. In two cases with intestinal chronic idiopathic pseudo-obstruction we found a diffuse or focal reducing number of Cajal cells, the loss of immunoreactivity for CD117 being correlated with loss of immunoreactivity for CD34 marker. Our study revealed that the number of interstitial cells of Cajal also decrease in colonic diverticular disease and Crohn disease (p<0.05), whereas the number of enteric neurones appears to be normal. These findings might explain some of the large bowel motor abnormalities known to occur in these disorders. Interstitial Cajal cells may play an important role in pathogenesis and staining for CD117 on transmural intestinal surgical biopsies could allow a more extensive diagnosis in evaluation of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

  2. The Down regulated in Adenoma (dra) gene encodes an intestine-specific membrane sulfate transport protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, D G; Wang, W; Moseley, R H; Traber, P G

    1995-05-19

    A gene has been described, Down Regulated in Adenoma (dra), which is expressed in normal colon but is absent in the majority of colon adenomas and adenocarcinomas. However, the function of this protein is unknown. Because of sequence similarity to a recently cloned membrane sulfate transporter in rat liver, the transport function of Dra was examined. We established that dra encodes for a Na(+)-independent transporter for both sulfate and oxalate using microinjected Xenopus oocytes as an assay system. Sulfate transport was sensitive to the anion exchange inhibitor DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2' disulfonic acid stilbene). Using an RNase protection assay, we found that dra mRNA expression is limited to the small intestine and colon in mouse, therefore identifying Dra as an intestine-specific sulfate transporter. dra also had a unique pattern of expression during intestinal development. Northern blot analysis revealed a low level of expression in colon at birth with a marked increase in the first 2 postnatal weeks. In contrast, there was a lower, constant level of expression in small intestine in the postnatal period. Caco-2 cells, a colon carcinoma cell line that differentiates over time in culture, demonstrated a marked induction of dra mRNA as cells progressed from the preconfluent (undifferentiated) to the postconfluent (differentiated) state. These results show that Dra is an intestine-specific Na(+)-independent sulfate transporter that has differential expression during colonic development. This functional characterization provides the foundation for investigation of the role of Dra in intestinal sulfate transport and in the malignant phenotype.

  3. Shigella infection of intestinal epithelium and circumvention of the host innate defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Michinaga; Mimuro, Hitomi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2009-01-01

    Shigella, Gram-negative bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli, are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery. Although Shigella have neither adherence factors nor flagella required for attaching or accessing the intestinal epithelium, Shigella are capable of colonizing the intestinal epithelium by exploiting epithelial-cell functions and circumventing the host innate immune response. During Shigella infection, they deliver many numbers of effectors through the type III secretion system into the surrounding space and directly into the host-cell cytoplasm. The effectors play pivotal roles from the onset of bacterial infection through to the establishment of the colonization of the intestinal epithelium, such as bacterial invasion, intracellular survival, subversion of the host immune defense response, and maintenance of the infectious foothold. These examples suggest that Shigella have evolved highly sophisticated infectious and intracellular strategies to establish replicative niches in the intestinal epithelium.

  4. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Takayuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Matsuki, Takahiro [Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan); Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Inada, Kenichi [First Department of Pathology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan); Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Akimoto, Shigeru [Department of Microbiology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro [Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ichinose, Masao, E-mail: ichinose@wakayama-med.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan)

    2009-04-17

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  5. Human intervention study to investigate the intestinal accessibility and bioavailability of anthocyanins from bilberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Dolores; Jung, Kathrin; Winter, Manuel; Rogoll, Dorothee; Melcher, Ralph; Richling, Elke

    2017-09-15

    We investigated the importance of the large intestine on the bioavailability of anthocyanins from bilberries in humans with/without a colon. Low bioavailability of anthocyanins in plasma and urine was observed in the frame of this study. Anthocyanins reached the circulation mainly as glucuronides. Analysis of ileal effluents (at end of small intestine) demonstrated that 30% of ingested anthocyanins were stable during 8h passage through the upper intestine. Only 20% degradants were formed and mostly intact anthocyanins were absorbed from the small intestine. Higher amounts of degradants than anthocyanins reached the circulation after bilberry extract consumption in both groups of subjects. Comparison of the bioavailability of anthocyanins in healthy subjects versus ileostomists revealed substantially higher amounts of anthocyanins and degradants in the plasma/urine of subjects with an intact gut. The results suggested that the colon is a significant site for absorption of bioactive components such as anthocyanins and their degradation products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Takayuki; Matsuki, Takahiro; Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Inada, Kenichi; Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki; Akimoto, Shigeru; Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2009-01-01

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  7. Secondary effects induced by the colon carcinogen azoxymethane in BDIX rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobaek-Larsen, Morten; Fenger, Claus; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Jelmera

    2004-01-01

    resulted in colon carcinomas with a high frequency (75-100%) and with a high reproducibility. However, some serious side effects are associated with this carcinogen treatment. In addition to the colorectal tumours, we found small intestinal tumours, hepatic lesions and a high frequency of mesenchymal renal...... the secondary effects of the induction of colon cancer by AOM, it is advisable to use male rats only and a maximum latency period of 32 weeks....

  8. The streptomycin-treated mouse intestine selects Escherichia coli envZ missense mutants that interact with dense and diverse intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatham-Jensen, Mary P; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Adediran, Jimmy; Mokszycki, Matthew E; Banner, Megan E; Caughron, Joyce E; Krogfelt, Karen A; Conway, Tyrrell; Cohen, Paul S

    2012-05-01

    Previously, we reported that the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine selected nonmotile Escherichia coli MG1655 flhDC deletion mutants of E. coli MG1655 with improved colonizing ability that grow 15% faster in vitro in mouse cecal mucus and 15 to 30% faster on sugars present in mucus (M. P. Leatham et al., Infect. Immun. 73:8039-8049, 2005). Here, we report that the 10 to 20% remaining motile E. coli MG1655 are envZ missense mutants that are also better colonizers of the mouse intestine than E. coli MG1655. One of the flhDC mutants, E. coli MG1655 ΔflhD, and one of the envZ missense mutants, E. coli MG1655 mot-1, were studied further. E. coli MG1655 mot-1 is more resistant to bile salts and colicin V than E. coli MG1655 ΔflhD and grows ca. 15% slower in vitro in mouse cecal mucus and on several sugars present in mucus compared to E. coli MG1655 ΔflhD but grows 30% faster on galactose. Moreover, E. coli MG1655 mot-1 and E. coli MG1655 ΔflhD appear to colonize equally well in one intestinal niche, but E. coli MG1655 mot-1 appears to use galactose to colonize a second, smaller intestinal niche either not colonized or colonized poorly by E. coli MG1655 ΔflhD. Evidence is also presented that E. coli MG1655 is a minority member of mixed bacterial biofilms in the mucus layer of the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine. We offer a hypothesis, which we call the "Restaurant" hypothesis, that explains how nutrient acquisition in different biofilms comprised of different anaerobes can account for our results.

  9. The Inside Story of Shigella Invasion of Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayol, Nathalie; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy

    2013-01-01

    As opposed to other invasive pathogens that reside into host cells in a parasitic mode, Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, invades the colonic mucosa but does not penetrate further to survive into deeper tissues. Instead, Shigella invades, replicates, and disseminates within the colonic mucosa. Bacterial invasion and spreading in intestinal epithelium lead to the elicitation of inflammatory responses responsible for the tissue destruction and shedding in the environment for further infection of other hosts. In this article, we highlight specific features of the Shigella arsenal of virulence determinants injected by a type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) that point to the targeting of intestinal epithelial cells as a discrete route of invasion during the initial event of the infectious process. PMID:24086068

  10. Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve induces IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Gyu Jeon

    Full Text Available Specific intestinal microbiota has been shown to induce Foxp3(+ regulatory T cell development. However, it remains unclear how development of another regulatory T cell subset, Tr1 cells, is regulated in the intestine. Here, we analyzed the role of two probiotic strains of intestinal bacteria, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve in T cell development in the intestine. B. breve, but not L. casei, induced development of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells that express cMaf, IL-21, and Ahr in the large intestine. Intestinal CD103(+ dendritic cells (DCs mediated B. breve-induced development of IL-10-producing T cells. CD103(+ DCs from Il10(-/-, Tlr2(-/-, and Myd88(-/- mice showed defective B. breve-induced Tr1 cell development. B. breve-treated CD103(+ DCs failed to induce IL-10 production from co-cultured Il27ra(-/- T cells. B. breve treatment of Tlr2(-/- mice did not increase IL-10-producing T cells in the colonic lamina propria. Thus, B. breve activates intestinal CD103(+ DCs to produce IL-10 and IL-27 via the TLR2/MyD88 pathway thereby inducing IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the large intestine. Oral B. breve administration ameliorated colitis in immunocompromised mice given naïve CD4(+ T cells from wild-type mice, but not Il10(-/- mice. These findings demonstrate that B. breve prevents intestinal inflammation through the induction of intestinal IL-10-producing Tr1 cells.

  11. Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve induces IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seong Gyu; Kayama, Hisako; Ueda, Yoshiyasu; Takahashi, Takuya; Asahara, Takashi; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Tsuji, Noriko M; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Ma, Ji Su; Kusu, Takashi; Okumura, Ryu; Hara, Hiromitsu; Yoshida, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nomoto, Koji; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Specific intestinal microbiota has been shown to induce Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell development. However, it remains unclear how development of another regulatory T cell subset, Tr1 cells, is regulated in the intestine. Here, we analyzed the role of two probiotic strains of intestinal bacteria, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve in T cell development in the intestine. B. breve, but not L. casei, induced development of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells that express cMaf, IL-21, and Ahr in the large intestine. Intestinal CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) mediated B. breve-induced development of IL-10-producing T cells. CD103(+) DCs from Il10(-/-), Tlr2(-/-), and Myd88(-/-) mice showed defective B. breve-induced Tr1 cell development. B. breve-treated CD103(+) DCs failed to induce IL-10 production from co-cultured Il27ra(-/-) T cells. B. breve treatment of Tlr2(-/-) mice did not increase IL-10-producing T cells in the colonic lamina propria. Thus, B. breve activates intestinal CD103(+) DCs to produce IL-10 and IL-27 via the TLR2/MyD88 pathway thereby inducing IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the large intestine. Oral B. breve administration ameliorated colitis in immunocompromised mice given naïve CD4(+) T cells from wild-type mice, but not Il10(-/-) mice. These findings demonstrate that B. breve prevents intestinal inflammation through the induction of intestinal IL-10-producing Tr1 cells.

  12. A deconvolution technique for processing small intestinal transit data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinch, K. [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Glostrup Hospital, University Hospital of Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsson, H.B.W. [Danish Research Center of Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre Hospital, University Hospital of Copenhagen (Denmark); Madsen, J.L. [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital, University Hospital of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The deconvolution technique can be used to compute small intestinal impulse response curves from scintigraphic data. Previously suggested approaches, however, are sensitive to noise from the data. We investigated whether deconvolution based on a new simple iterative convolving technique can be recommended. Eight healthy volunteers ingested a meal that contained indium-111 diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid labelled water and technetium-99m stannous colloid labelled omelette. Imaging was performed at 30-min intervals until all radioactivity was located in the colon. A Fermi function=(1+e{sup -{alpha}{beta}})/(1+e{sup (t-{alpha}){beta}}) was chosen to characterize the small intestinal impulse response function. By changing only two parameters, {alpha} and {beta}, it is possible to obtain configurations from nearly a square function to nearly a monoexponential function. Small intestinal input function was obtained from the gastric emptying curve and convolved with the Fermi function. The sum of least squares was used to find {alpha} and {beta} yielding the best fit of the convolved curve to the oberved small intestinal time-activity curve. Finally, a small intestinal mean transit time was calculated from the Fermi function referred to. In all cases, we found an excellent fit of the convolved curve to the observed small intestinal time-activity curve, that is the Fermi function reflected the small intestinal impulse response curve. Small intestinal mean transit time of liquid marker (median 2.02 h) was significantly shorter than that of solid marker (median 2.99 h; P<0.02). The iterative convolving technique seems to be an attractive alternative to ordinary approaches for the processing of small intestinal transit data. (orig.) With 2 figs., 13 refs.

  13. [EFFICIENCY OF SEROTONIN ADIPINATE IN INTESTINAL DYSFUNCTION IN PATIENTS AFTER COLORECTAL OPERATIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakanov, A V; Musaeva, T S

    2015-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of case histories of acute colonic obstruction due to colon cancer A total of 291 patients were divided on two groups: 1--a control group (patients presenting risk of developing intestinal dysfunction with 'basic' therapy, n = 123); 2--the comparison group (n = 57) represented patients who were taken to optimize the post-operative period with the inclusion in the scheme of the basic treatment of serotonin adipinate. The use of serotonin adipinatein treatment of intestinal dysfunction allows fully restore bowel motility to 3rd day.

  14. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects vitamin E acetate metabolism and intestinal bile acid signature in monocolonized mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    (NCFM) on the intestinal metabolome (jejunum, caecum, and colon) in mice by comparing NCFM mono-colonized (MC) mice with GF mice using liquid chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). The study adds to existing evidence that NCFM in vivo affects the bile acid signature of mice...... by deconjugation and dehydroxylation of bile acids. Furthermore, we confirmed that carbohydrate metabolism is affected by NCFM in the mouse intestine. Especially, the digestion of larger carbohydrates (penta- and tetrasaccharides) was increased in MC mice. Interestingly, we also found vitamin E (α...

  15. Host-dependent zonulin secretion causes the impairment of the small intestine barrier function after bacterial exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Asmar, Ramzi; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Bamford, Penelope; Berti, Irene; Not, Tarcisio; Coppa, Giovanni V; Catassi, Carlo; Fasano, Alessio; El Asmar, Rahzi

    2002-11-01

    Enteric infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both food intolerance and autoimmune diseases secondary to the impairment of the intestinal barrier. On the basis of our recent discovery of zonulin, a modulator of small-intestinal tight junctions, we asked whether microorganisms might induce zonulin secretion and increased small-intestinal permeability. Both ex vivo mammalian small intestines and intestinal cell monolayers were exposed to either pathogenic or nonpathogenic enterobacteria. Zonulin production and changes in paracellular permeability were monitored in Ussing chambers and micro-snapwells. Zonula occludens 1 protein redistribution after bacteria colonization was evaluated on cell monolayers. Small intestines exposed to enteric bacteria secreted zonulin. This secretion was independent of either the species of the small intestines or the virulence of the microorganisms tested, occurred only on the luminal aspect of the bacteria-exposed small-intestinal mucosa, and was followed by a decrease in small-intestinal tissue resistance (transepithelial electrical resistance). The transepithelial electrical resistance decrement was secondary to the zonulin-induced tight junction disassembly, as also shown by the disengagement of the protein zonula occludens 1 protein from the tight junctional complex. This zonulin-driven opening of the paracellular pathway may represent a defensive mechanism, which flushes out microorganisms and contributes to the host response against bacterial colonization of the small intestine.

  16. Hypoxia inhibits colonic ion transport via activation of AMP kinase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucosal hypoxia is a common endpoint for many pathological processes including ischemic colitis, colonic obstruction and anastomotic failure. Previous studies suggest that hypoxia modulates colonic mucosal function through inhibition of chloride secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation are poorly understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic energy regulator found in a wide variety of cells and has been linked to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mediated chloride secretion in several different tissues. We hypothesized that AMPK mediates many of the acute effects of hypoxia on human and rat colonic electrolyte transport. METHODS: The fluorescent chloride indicator dye N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide was used to measure changes in intracellular chloride concentrations in isolated single rat colonic crypts. Ussing chamber experiments in human colonic mucosa were conducted to evaluate net epithelial ion transport. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that acute hypoxia inhibits electrogenic chloride secretion via AMPK mediated inhibition of CFTR. Pre-treatment of tissues with the AMPK inhibitor 6-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl)]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyyrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine (compound C) in part reversed the effects of acute hypoxia on chloride secretion. CONCLUSION: We therefore suggest that AMPK is a key component of the adaptive cellular response to mucosal hypoxia in the colon. Furthermore, AMPK may represent a potential therapeutic target in diseased states or in prevention of ischemic intestinal injury.

  17. Colon electrical stimulation: potential use for treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Hanaa S; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent health problems in the United States. Current therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity are unsatisfactory. We hypothesized the use of colon electrical stimulation (CES) to treat obesity by inhibiting upper gastrointestinal motility. In this preliminary study, we aimed at studying the effects of CES on gastric emptying of solid, intestinal motility, and food intake in dogs. Six dogs, equipped with serosal colon electrodes and a jejunal cannula, were randomly assigned to receive sham-CES or CES during the assessment of: (i) gastric emptying of solids, (ii) postprandial intestinal motility, (iii) autonomic functions, and (iv) food intake. We found that (i) CES delayed gastric emptying of solids by 77%. Guanethidine partially blocked the inhibitory effect of CES on solid gastric emptying; (ii) CES significantly reduced intestinal contractility and the effect lasted throughout the recovery period; (iii) CES decreased vagal activity in both fasting and fed states, increased the sympathovagal balance and marginally increased sympathetic activity in the fasting state; (iv) CES resulted in a reduction of 61% in food intake. CES reduces food intake in healthy dogs and the anorexigenic effect may be attributed to its inhibitory effects on gastric emptying and intestinal motility, mediated via the autonomic mechanisms. Further studies are warranted to investigate the therapeutic potential of CES for obesity.

  18. The Multibiome: The Intestinal Ecosystem's Influence on Immune Homeostasis, Health, and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Filyk, Heather A; Osborne, Lisa C

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian evolution has occurred in the presence of mutualistic, commensal, and pathogenic micro- and macro-organisms for millennia. The presence of these organisms during mammalian evolution has allowed for intimate crosstalk between these colonizing species and the host immune system. In this review, we introduce the concept of the ‘multibiome’ to holistically refer to the biodiverse collection of bacteria, viruses, fungi and multicellular helminthic worms colonizing the mammalian intestine...

  19. A Role for the RNA Chaperone Hfq in Controlling Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli Colonization and Virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karina T; Nielsen, Gorm; Bjerrum, Janni Vester

    2011-01-01

    strain LF82 forms a persistent infection in C. elegans, thereby reducing the host lifespan significantly. This host killing phenotype was associated with massive bacterial colonization of the nematode intestine and damage to the intestinal epithelial surface. C. elegans killing was independent of known...... to and subsequent invasion of the intestinal epithelium coupled with its ability to survive phagocytosis by macrophages once it has crossed the intestinal barrier. To gain further insight into AIEC pathogenesis we employed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an in vivo infection model. We demonstrate that AIEC...

  20. Congenital cytomegalovirus related intestinal malrotation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomba, Claudia; Giuffrè, Mario; La Placa, Simona; Cascio, Antonio; Trizzino, Marcello; De Grazia, Simona; Corsello, Giovanni

    2016-12-07

    Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of congenital infection in the developed countries. Gastrointestinal involvement has been extensively described in both adult and paediatric immunocompromised patients but it is infrequent in congenital or perinatal CMV infection. We report on a case of coexistent congenital Cytomegalovirus infection with intestinal malrotation and positive intestinal Cytomegalovirus biopsy. At birth the neonate showed clinical and radiological evidence of intestinal obstruction. Meconium passed only after evacuative nursing procedures; stooling pattern was irregular; gastric residuals were bile-stained. Laparatomy revealed a complete intestinal malrotation and contextually gastrointestinal biopsy samples of the appendix confirmed the diagnosis of CMV gastrointestinal disease. Intravenous ganciclovir was initiated for 2 weeks, followed by oral valgancyclovir for 6 month. CMV-induced proinflammatory process may be responsible of the interruption of the normal development of the gut or could in turn lead to a disruption in the normal development of the gut potentiating the mechanism causing malrotation. We suggest the hypothesis that an inflammatory process induced by CMV congenital infection may be responsible, in the early gestation, of the intestinal end-organ disease, as the intestinal malrotation. CMV infection should always be excluded in full-term infants presenting with colonic stricture or malrotation.

  1. Anaerobic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota of Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, Silvia T; Santos, Florenza E; Brandt, Katia Galeão; Martinez, Marina B; Taddei, Carla R

    2017-03-01

    Changes in the neonatal gut environment allow for the colonization of the mucin layer and lumen by anaerobic bacteria. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Lactococcus colonization through the first year of life in a group of 12 Brazilian infants and to correlate these data with the levels of Escherichia coli. The presence of anaerobic members of the adult intestinal microbiota, including Eubacterium limosum and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, was also evaluated. Fecal samples were collected during the first year of life, and 16S rRNA from anaerobic and facultative bacteria was detected by real-time PCR. Bifidobacterium was present at the highest levels at all of the studied time points, followed by E. coli and Lactobacillus. E. limosum was rarely detected, and F. prausnitzii was detected only in the samples from the latest time points. These results are consistent with reports throughout the world on the community structure of the intestinal microbiota in infants fed a milk diet. Our findings also provide evidence for the influence of the environment on intestinal colonization due to the high abundance of E. coli. The presence of important anaerobic genera was observed in Brazilian infants living at a low socioeconomic level, a result that has already been well established for infants living in developed countries.

  2. c-Kit mutation reduce intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and migration, but not influence intestinal permeability stimulated by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hong; Wang, Feng Yun; Kang, Qian; Tang, Xu Dong

    2018-06-20

    The proto-oncogene c-kit, as a marker of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in the gastrointestinal tract, plays an important role in the ICCs. Although limited evidences showed c-kit is present in the colonic epithelium but its roles remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the expression, location and function of c-kit in the intestinal epithelium. Immunofluorescence, western blotting, and RT-PCR were performed to detect the expression and location of c-kit in the intestinal mucosa of WT mice. We investigated intestinal epithelial proliferation and migration in vivo by performing 5-Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and Ki-67 staining in WT and Wads m/m mice. An Ussing chamber with fluorescein-isothiocyanate dextran 4000 was used to detect the transepithelial electric resistance (TER), short circuit current (ISC) and permeability across ex vivo colon segments under control and endotoxaemia conditions. We demonstrated that c-kit was located and expressed in the gut crypt compartment in WT mice, which was demonstrated in the c-kit mutant mice (Wads m/m ). In addition, both the number of proliferating cells and the percentage of the distance migrated were lower in the Wads m/m mice than those in the WT mice. Moreover, the intestinal permeability, TER and tight junction were unaltered in the Wads m/m mice under endotoxic conditions compared with those in both the control condition and the WT mice. Altogether, these observations imply that the expression of c-kit in the colonic epithelium is involved in the proliferation and permeability of the colonic epithelium. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Colonic complications following human bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino Martínez Hernández-Magro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human bone marrow transplantation (BMT becomes an accepted treatment of leukemia, aplastic anemia, immunodeficiency syndromes, and hematologic malignancies. Colorectal surgeons must know how to determine and manage the main colonic complications. Objective: To review the clinical features, clinical and pathological staging of graft vs host disease (GVHD, and treatment of patients suffering with colonic complications of human bone marrow transplantation. Patients and methods: We have reviewed the records of all patients that received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant and were evaluated at our Colon and Rectal Surgery department due to gastrointestinal symptoms, between January 2007 and January 2012. The study was carried out in patients who developed colonic complications, all of them with clinical, histopathological or laboratory diagnosis. Results: The study group was constituted by 77 patients, 43 male and 34 female patients. We identified colonic complications in 30 patients (38.9%; five patients developed intestinal toxicity due to pretransplant chemotherapy (6.4%; graft vs. host disease was present in 16 patients (20%; 13 patients (16.8% developed acute colonic GVHD, and 3 (3.8% chronic GVHD. Infection was identified in 9 patients (11.6%. Conclusions: The three principal colonic complications are the chemotherapy toxicity, GVHD, and superinfection; the onset of symptoms could help to suspect the type of complication (0–20 day chemotherapy toxicity, 20 and more GVHD, and infection could appear in any time of transplantation. Resumo: Experiência: O transplante de medula óssea humana (MOH passou a ser um tratamento adotado para leucemia, anemia aplástica, síndromes de imunodeficiência e neoplasias hematológicas. Cirurgiões colorretais devem saber como determinar e tratar as principais complicações do cólon. Objetivo: Revisar as características clínicas, estadiamentos clínico e patológico da doença do enxerto

  4. Intestinal failure in childhood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insulin influences intestinal structure and absorptive function.36 The favourable effect of .... lipid emulsions, micronutrients provison and cyclic infusion.3 The guidelines on PN .... Classification, epidemiology and aetiology. Best Pract Res Clin ...

  5. Carotenoids and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, M L; Benson, J; Curtin, K; Ma, K N; Schaeffer, D; Potter, J D

    2000-02-01

    Carotenoids have numerous biological properties that may underpin a role for them as chemopreventive agents. However, except for beta-carotene, little is known about how dietary carotenoids are associated with common cancers, including colon cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between dietary alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin and the risk of colon cancer. Data were collected from 1993 case subjects with first primary incident adenocarcinoma of the colon and from 2410 population-based control subjects. Dietary data were collected from a detailed diet-history questionnaire and nutrient values for dietary carotenoids were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture-Nutrition Coordinating Center carotenoid database (1998 updated version). Lutein was inversely associated with colon cancer in both men and women [odds ratio (OR) for upper quintile of intake relative to lowest quintile of intake: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.04; P = 0.04 for linear trend]. The greatest inverse association was observed among subjects in whom colon cancer was diagnosed when they were young (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.92; P = 0.02 for linear trend) and among those with tumors located in the proximal segment of the colon (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.91; P lettuce, tomatoes, oranges and orange juice, carrots, celery, and greens. These data suggest that incorporating these foods into the diet may help reduce the risk of developing colon cancer.

  6. Flavanol-Enriched Cocoa Powder Alters the Intestinal Microbiota, Tissue and Fluid Metabolite Profiles, and Intestinal Gene Expression in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Saebyeol; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Lakshman, Sukla; Molokin, Aleksey; Harnly, James M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Urban, Joseph F; Davis, Cindy D; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of cocoa-derived polyphenols has been associated with several health benefits; however, their effects on the intestinal microbiome and related features of host intestinal health are not adequately understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of eating flavanol-enriched cocoa powder on the composition of the gut microbiota, tissue metabolite profiles, and intestinal immune status. Male pigs (5 mo old, 28 kg mean body weight) were supplemented with 0, 2.5, 10, or 20 g flavanol-enriched cocoa powder/d for 27 d. Metabolites in serum, urine, the proximal colon contents, liver, and adipose tissue; bacterial abundance in the intestinal contents and feces; and intestinal tissue gene expression of inflammatory markers and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were then determined. O-methyl-epicatechin-glucuronide conjugates dose-dependently increased (Pcocoa powder. The concentration of 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid isomers in urine decreased as the dose of cocoa powder fed to pigs increased (75-85%,Pcocoa powder/d, respectively. Moreover, consumption of cocoa powder reducedTLR9gene expression in ileal Peyer's patches (67-80%,Pcocoa powder/d compared with pigs not supplemented with cocoa powder. This study demonstrates that consumption of cocoa powder by pigs can contribute to gut health by enhancing the abundance ofLactobacillusandBifidobacteriumspecies and modulating markers of localized intestinal immunity. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Intestinal permeability to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA in children with Crohn's disease and celiac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turck, D.; Ythier, H.; Maquet, E.; Deveaux, M.; Marchandise, X.; Farriaux, J.P.; Fontaine, G.

    1987-07-01

    (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was used as a probe molecule to assess intestinal permeability in 7 healthy control adults, 11 control children, 17 children with Crohn's disease, and 6 children with untreated celiac disease. After subjects fasted overnight, 75 kBq/kg (= 2 microCi/kg) /sup 51/Cr-labeled EDTA was given by mouth; 24-h urinary excretion of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was measured and expressed as a percentage of the total oral dose. Mean and SD were as follows: control adults 1.47 +/- 0.62, control children 1.59 +/- 0.55, and patients with Crohn's disease or celiac disease 5.35 +/- 1.94. The difference between control children and patients was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). These results show that intestinal permeability to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA is increased among children with active or inactive Crohn's disease affecting small bowel only or small bowel and colon, and with untreated celiac disease. The (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA permeability test could facilitate the decision to perform more extensive investigations in children suspected of small bowel disease who have atypical or poor clinical and biological symptomatology.

  8. Intestinal Permeability: The Basics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Bjarnason

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review some of the more fundamental principles underlying the noninvasive assessment of intestinal permeability in humans, the choice of test markers and their analyses, and the practical aspects of test dose composition and how these can be changed to allow the specific assessment of regional permeability changes and other intestinal functions. The implications of increased intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of human disease is discussed in relation to findings in patients with Crohn’s disease. A common feature of increased intestinal permeability is the development of a low grade enteropathy, and while quantitatively similar changes may be found in Crohn’s disease these seem to predict relapse of disease. Moreover, factors associated with relapse of Crohn’s disease have in common an action to increase intestinal permeability. While increased intestinal permeability does not seem to be important in the etiology of Crohn’s disease it may be a central mechanism in the clinical relapse of disease.

  9. Intestinal bacteria and the regulation of immune cell homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David A; Artis, David

    2010-01-01

    The human intestine is colonized by an estimated 100 trillion bacteria. Some of these bacteria are essential for normal physiology, whereas others have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory diseases including IBD and asthma. This review examines the influence of signals from intestinal bacteria on the homeostasis of the mammalian immune system in the context of health and disease. We review the bacterial composition of the mammalian intestine, known bacterial-derived immunoregulatory molecules, and the mammalian innate immune receptors that recognize them. We discuss the influence of bacterial-derived signals on immune cell function and the mechanisms by which these signals modulate the development and progression of inflammatory disease. We conclude with an examination of successes and future challenges in using bacterial communities or their products in the prevention or treatment of human disease.

  10. Neural influences on human intestinal epithelium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Dagmar; Michel, Klaus; Zeller, Florian; Demir, Ihsan E; Ceyhan, Güralp O; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Schemann, Michael

    2016-01-15

    We present the first systematic and, up to now, most comprehensive evaluation of the basic features of epithelial functions, such as basal and nerve-evoked secretion, as well as tissue resistance, in over 2200 surgical specimens of human small and large intestine. We found no evidence for impaired nerve-evoked epithelial secretion or tissue resistance with age or disease pathologies (stomach, pancreas or colon cancer, polyps, diverticulitis, stoma reversal). This indicates the validity of future studies on epithelial secretion or resistance that are based on data from a variety of surgical specimens. ACh mainly mediated nerve-evoked and basal secretion in the small intestine, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide and nitric oxide were the primary pro-secretory transmitters in the large intestine. The results of the present study revealed novel insights into regional differences in nerve-mediated secretion in the human intestine and comprise the basis by which to more specifically target impaired epithelial functions in the diseased gut. Knowledge on basic features of epithelial functions in the human intestine is scarce. We used Ussing chamber techniques to record basal tissue resistance (R-basal) and short circuit currents (ISC; secretion) under basal conditions (ISC-basal) and after electrical field stimulation (ISC-EFS) of nerves in 2221 resectates from 435 patients. ISC-EFS was TTX-sensitive and of comparable magnitude in the small and large intestine. ISC-EFS or R-basal were not influenced by the patients' age, sex or disease pathologies (cancer, polyps, diverticulitis). Ion substitution, bumetanide or adenylate cyclase inhibition studies suggested that ISC-EFS depended on epithelial cAMP-driven chloride and bicarbonate secretion but not on amiloride-sensitive sodium absorption. Although atropine-sensitive cholinergic components prevailed for ISC-EFS of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, PG97-269-sensitive [vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor 1

  11. Transport characteristics and morphology of the colon and coprodeum in two wild birds of different habitats, the rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) and the common murre (Uria aalge)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Árnason, Sighvatur S; Elbrønd (Bibs), Vibeke Sødring; Laverty, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Dietary salt intake in domestic fowl affects epithelial transport and morphology of the lower intestine (colon and coprodeum). This study investigated lower intestinal morphology and transport activity in two wild bird species with natural diets containing either low or high salt. Tissues from rock...

  12. Transepithelial Transport of PAMAM Dendrimers Across Isolated Human Intestinal Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Dallin; Enda, Michael; Bond, Tanner; Moghaddam, Seyyed Pouya Hadipour; Conarton, Josh; Scaife, Courtney; Volckmann, Eric; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2015-11-02

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown transepithelial transport across intestinal epithelial barrier in rats and across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Caco-2 models innately lack mucous barriers, and rat isolated intestinal tissue has been shown to overestimate human permeability. This study is the first report of transport of PAMAM dendrimers across isolated human intestinal epithelium. It was observed that FITC labeled G4-NH2 and G3.5-COOH PAMAM dendrimers at 1 mM concentration do not have a statistically higher permeability compared to free FITC controls in isolated human jejunum and colonic tissues. Mannitol permeability was increased at 10 mM concentrations of G3.5-COOH and G4-NH2 dendrimers. Significant histological changes in human colonic and jejunal tissues were observed at G3.5-COOH and G4-NH2 concentrations of 10 mM implying that dose limiting toxicity may occur at similar concentrations in vivo. The permeability through human isolated intestinal tissue in this study was compared to previous rat and Caco-2 permeability data. This study implicates that PAMAM dendrimer oral drug delivery may be feasible, but it may be limited to highly potent drugs.

  13. Immunological changes in the intestines and skin after senna administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamate, Yurika; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Yokoyama, Satoshi; Ooi, Kazuya

    2015-06-01

    It has been reported that chronic sennoside use is associated with the development of melanosis coli, colonic adenoma, and/or carcinomas. In this study, we investigated the immunological changes in the colon and skin after the administration of senna. In this study, we investigated the colon and epidermis of C57/BL6j mice after a single administration of 10 mg/kg of senna [Cassia angustifolia (Caesalpiniaceae); 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after administration] and after repeated once per week administrations (on days 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 of administration). The LD50 and ED50 of senna used in this experiment were 165 mg/kg and 13 g/kg, respectively. We demonstrated that the DOPA-positive cells in the colon increased at 12 h after single administration and were further increased from at 5-28 d after repeated administration. We also studied the physiological changes of the small intestine using the charcoal meal test. We found that there was a tendency for peristalsis to be inhibited after repeated senna administration. In the epidermis, we investigated the number of Langerhans cells, because they are important immune cells of the skin. The number of these cells decreased, especially after repeated administration. The present findings suggested that it is necessary to pay attention to not only the intestine but also the skin, during long-term senna treatment.

  14. Resistant Starch Induces Catabolic but Suppresses Immune and Cell Division Pathways and Changes the Microbiome in Proximal Colon of Male Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, D.; Souza Da Silva, C.; Zhang, J.; Koopmans, S.J.; Bosch, G.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Kemp, B.; Smidt, H.; Müller, M.R.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of resistant starch (RS) has been associated with various intestinal health benefits, but knowledge on its effects on global gene expression in the colon is limited. The main objective of the current study was to identify genes affected by RS in the proximal colon to infer which biologic

  15. Resistant starch induces catabolic but suppresses immune and cell division pathways and changes the microbiome in proximal colon of male pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, Danielle; Muller, Michael; Hooiveld, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of resistant starch (RS) has been associated with various intestinal health benefits, but knowledge on its effects on global gene expression in the colon is limited. The main objective of the current study was to identify genes affected by RS in the proximal colon to infer which biologic

  16. Comparison of the effects of an ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor on the intestinal epithelium and on intestinal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1986-12-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of polyamines, it has a short half-life, and its synthesis is under hormonal control. Recently, insight into the role of ODC and thus into the physiology of polyamines has been gained by the use of an inhibitor of ODC, difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). In the present report cell proliferation was measured by a stathmokinetic method in the crypt epithelium of the jejunum and colon of normal rats and in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic tumors. Growth of human colon tumor xenografts in immunosuppressed mice and mouse colon tumor isografts was also assessed. Cell proliferation in primary colonic tumors was substantially suppressed by a single dose of DFMO at 100 mg/kg whereas the normal crypt epithelium of the small and large intestine required two doses at 400 mg/kg to produce a similar magnitude of inhibition of cell proliferation. DFMO was also found to suppress cell proliferation in, and the growth of, the transplantable colon cancers. Because of the apparent selectivity of the antimitotic activity of DFMO towards tumors, ODC inhibitors may prove to be useful anticancer drugs.

  17. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael

    2011-02-15

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and "secondary" changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple's disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn's disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial

  18. E. coli O124 K72 alters the intestinal barrier and the tight junctions proteins of guinea pig intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Yanyan; Gamallat, Yaser; Ma, Shenhao; Chiwala, Gift; Meyiah, Abdo; Xin, Yi

    2017-10-01

    Our research group previously isolated and identified a strain of pathogenic Escherichia coli from clinical samples called E. coli O124 K72. The present study was aimed at determining the potential effects of E. coli O124 K72 on intestinal barrier functions and structural proteins integrity in guinea pig. Guinea pigs were grouped into three groups; control (CG); E. coli O124 K72 (E. coli); and probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG). Initially, we create intestinal dysbiosis by giving all animals Levofloxacin for 10days, but the control group (CG) received the same volume of saline. Then, the animals received either E. coli O124 K72 (E. coli) or Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) according to their assigned group. E. coli O124 K72 treatment significantly affected colon morphology and distorted intestinal barrier function by up-regulating Claudin2 and down-regulating Occludin. In addition, E. coli upregulated the mRNA expression of MUC1, MUC2, MUC13 and MUC15. Furthermore, suspected tumor was found in the E. coli treated animals. Our results suggested that E. coli O124 K72 strain has adverse effects on intestinal barrier functions and is capable of altering integrity of structural proteins in guinea pig model while at same time it may have a role in colon carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Hansen, Marie B.

    2016-01-01

    ), and was demonstrated to inhibit the binding of the four pig relevant bacteria to a pig intestinal cell line (IPEC-J2). Finally it was demonstrated in an in vivo weaning piglet model for intestinal colonization with an E. coli F4+ challenge strain that ppIgG given in the feed significantly reduced shedding...

  20. CT findings of colonic diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shigeru; Ohba, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    Although colonic diverticulitis has no indication for operation, but in some mistaken cases were operated with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We evaluated the CT findings of colonic diverticulitis about 19 cases and of asymptomatic colonic diverticula about 15 cases retrospectively. Diagnosis was confirmed of barium enema and operation. CT are complementary methods of examination that can delineated the range of thickening of the colon and the extension of inflammatory changes around the colon. We also believe that CT findings of colonic diverticulitis are useful for differentiating from a diagnosis of appendicitis. (author)

  1. Smart nanocomposite hydrogels based on azo crosslinked graphene oxide for oral colon-specific drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lin; Shi, Yuyang; Jiang, Guixiang; Liu, Wei; Han, Huili; Feng, Qianhua; Ren, Junxiao; Yuan, Yujie; Wang, Yongchao; Shi, Jinjin; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2016-08-01

    A safe and efficient nanocomposite hydrogel for colon cancer drug delivery was synthesized using pH-sensitive and biocompatible graphene oxide (GO) containing azoaromatic crosslinks as well as poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) (GO-N=N-GO/PVA composite hydrogels). Curcumin (CUR), an anti-cancer drug, was encapsulated successfully into the hydrogel through a freezing and thawing process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were performed to confirm the formation and morphological properties of the nanocomposite hydrogel. The hydrogels exhibited good swelling properties in a pH-sensitive manner. Drug release studies under conditions mimicking stomach to colon transit have shown that the drug was protected from being released completely into the physiological environment of the stomach and small intestine. In vivo imaging analysis, pharmacokinetics and a distribution of the gastrointestinal tract experiment were systematically studied and evaluated as colon-specific drug delivery systems. All the results demonstrated that GO-N=N-GO/PVA composite hydrogels could protect CUR well while passing through the stomach and small intestine to the proximal colon, and enhance the colon-targeting ability and residence time in the colon site. Therefore, CUR loaded GO-N=N-GO/PVA composite hydrogels might potentially provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of colon cancer with high efficiency and low toxicity.

  2. Establishment and development of the intestinal microbiota of preterm infants in a Lebanese tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Tarek; Ayoub Moubareck, Carole; Melki, Imad; Rousseau, Clotilde; Mangin, Irène; Butel, Marie-José; Karam Sarkis, Dolla

    2017-02-01

    The establishment and development of the intestinal microbiota is known to be associated with profound short- and long-term effects on the health of full-term infants (FTI), but studies are just starting for preterm infants (PTI). The data also mostly come from western countries and little information is available for the Middle East. Here, we determined the composition and dynamics of the intestinal microbiota during the first month of life for PTI (n = 66) and FTI (n = 17) in Lebanon. Fecal samples were collected weekly and analyzed by quantitative PCR (q-PCR) and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE). We observed differences in the establishment and composition of the intestinal microbiota between the two groups. q-PCR showed that PTI were more highly colonized by Staphylococcus than FTI in the first three weeks of life; whereas FTI were more highly colonized by Clostridium clusters I and XI. At one month of life, PTI were mainly colonized by facultative anaerobes and a few strict anaerobes, such as Clostridium cluster I and Bifidobacterium. The type of feeding and antibiotic treatments significantly affected intestinal colonization. TTGE revealed low species diversity in both groups and high inter-individual variability in PTI. Our findings show that PTI had altered intestinal colonization with a higher occurrence of potential pathogens (Enterobacter, Clostridium sp) than FTI. This suggests the need for intervention strategies for PTI to modulate their intestinal microbiota and promote their health. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Expressions of tight junction proteins Occludin and Claudin-1 are under the circadian control in the mouse large intestine: implications in intestinal permeability and susceptibility to colitis.

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    Oh-oka Kyoko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: The circadian clock drives daily rhythms in behavior and physiology. A recent study suggests that intestinal permeability is also under control of the circadian clock. However, the precise mechanisms remain largely unknown. Because intestinal permeability depends on tight junction (TJ that regulates the epithelial paracellular pathway, this study investigated whether the circadian clock regulates the expression levels of TJ proteins in the intestine. METHODS: The expression levels of TJ proteins in the large intestinal epithelium and colonic permeability were analyzed every 4, 6, or 12 hours between wild-type mice and mice with a mutation of a key clock gene Period2 (Per2; mPer2(m/m. In addition, the susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis was compared between wild-type mice and mPer2(m/m mice. RESULTS: The mRNA and protein expression levels of Occludin and Claudin-1 exhibited daily variations in the colonic epithelium in wild-type mice, whereas they were constitutively high in mPer2(m/m mice. Colonic permeability in wild-type mice exhibited daily variations, which was inversely associated with the expression levels of Occludin and Claudin-1 proteins, whereas it was constitutively low in mPer2(m/m mice. mPer2(m/m mice were more resistant to the colonic injury induced by DSS than wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS: Occludin and Claudin-1 expressions in the large intestine are under the circadian control, which is associated with temporal regulation of colonic permeability and also susceptibility to colitis.

  4. Complicated colonic intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin James

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript deals with the case of a 53-year-old woman who developed large bowel obstruction. Per-rectal examination revealed a pedunculated lesion in the rectum; rigid sigmoidoscopy revealed a prolapsing pedunculated mass with a necrotic surface. The patient recovered well following anterior resection. Histology confirmed a pedunculated sub mucosal lipoma as the lead point for intussusception. Colonic intussusception is a rare cause of adult large bowel obstruction, and the preoperative clinical diagnosis of this condition can be difficult. Resection of the involved segment of the colon is the most appropriate choice of treatment in most such cases.

  5. Conjugation of metronidazole with dextran: a potential pharmaceutical strategy to control colonic distribution of the anti-amebic drug susceptible to metabolism by colonic microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooseong; Yang, Yejin; Kim, Dohoon; Jeong, Seongkeun; Yoo, Jin-Wook; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Jung, Yunjin

    2017-01-01

    Metronidazole (MTDZ), the drug of choice for the treatment of protozoal infections such as luminal amebiasis, is highly susceptible to colonic metabolism, which may hinder its conversion from a colon-specific prodrug to an effective anti-amebic agent targeting the entire large intestine. Thus, in an attempt to control the colonic distribution of the drug, a polymeric colon-specific prodrug, MTDZ conjugated to dextran via a succinate linker (Dex-SA-MTDZ), was designed. Upon treatment with dextranase for 8 h, the degree of Dex-SA-MTDZ depolymerization (%) with a degree of substitution (mg of MTDZ bound in 100 mg of Dex-SA-MTDZ) of 7, 17, and 30 was 72, 38, and 8, respectively, while that of dextran was 85. Depolymerization of Dex-SA-MTDZ was found to be necessary for the release of MTDZ, because dextranase pretreatment ensures that de-esterification occurs between MTDZ and the dextran backbone. In parallel, Dex-SA-MTDZ with a degree of substitution of 17 was found not to release MTDZ upon incubation with the contents of the small intestine and stomach of rats, but it released MTDZ when incubated with rat cecal contents (including microbial dextranases). Moreover, Dex-SA-MTDZ exhibited prolonged release of MTDZ, which contrasts with drug release by small molecular colon-specific prodrugs, MTDZ sulfate and N -nicotinoyl-2-{2-(2-methyl-5-nitroimidazol-1-yl)ethyloxy}-d,l-glycine. These prodrugs were eliminated very rapidly, and no MTDZ was detected in the cecal contents. Consistent with these in vitro results, we found that oral gavage of Dex-SA-MTDZ delivered MTDZ (as MTDZ conjugated to [depolymerized] dextran) to the distal colon. However, upon oral gavage of the small molecular prodrugs, no prodrugs were detected in the distal colon. Collectively, these data suggest that dextran conjugation is a potential pharmaceutical strategy to control the colonic distribution of drugs susceptible to colonic microbial metabolism.

  6. Dysmenorrhoea is associated with hypersensitivity in the sigmoid colon and rectum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkert, Willem; Dimcevski, Georg; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    if dysmenorrhoea is associated with hypersensitivity in the referred somatic skin area or in the large bowel, i.e., viscero-visceral hyperalgesia. We measured skin sensitivity in the referred area of the sigmoid colon as well as stimulus-response relationships in the sigmoid colon and rectum. The latter were...... measured using mechanical (balloon) distension applied via a Barostat in 11 dysmenorrhoea patients without gastro-intestinal complaints and 10 healthy and age matched women, again without gastrointestinal complaints. We found no skin hypersensitivity in the colonic referred area. In contrast, significantly...... lower distension volumes were seen at each threshold in dysmenorrhoea patients, particularly in the sigmoid colon. The mean reduction in colonic distension volume thresholds for dysmenorrhoea patients vs. controls was 57% at the detection threshold and 39% at the pain threshold. There were...

  7. Retrograde contrast radiography of the distal portions of the intestinal tract in foals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, A.T.; Yarbrough, T.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for retrograde contrast radiography of the distal portions of the intestinal tract of foals was developed and then performed in 25 foals (1 to 30 days old) with colic. Retrograde contrast radiography was shown to be sensitive (100%) and specific (100%) for evaluating obstruction of the small colon or transverse colon. It was slightly less sensitive (86%) and specific (83%) for evaluation of the entire large colon, particularly in older foals. Retrograde contrast radiography provided increased diagnostic capability, compared with that for noncontrast radiography. Retrograde contrast radiography can provide valuable information when evaluating foals with colic and should be part of the diagnostic evaluation

  8. MTG16 contributes to colonic epithelial integrity in experimental colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher S; Bradley, Amber M; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Singh, Kshipra; Piazuelo, Maria B; Chen, Xi; McDonough, Elizabeth M; Schwartz, David A; Brown, Caroline T; Allaman, Margaret M; Coburn, Lori A; Horst, Sara N; Beaulieu, Dawn B; Choksi, Yash A; Washington, Mary Kay; Williams, Amanda D; Fisher, Melissa A; Zinkel, Sandra S; Peek, Richard M; Wilson, Keith T; Hiebert, Scott W

    2013-01-01

    Objective The myeloid translocation genes (MTGs) are transcriptional corepressors with both Mtg8−/− and Mtgr1−/− mice showing developmental and/or differentiation defects in the intestine. We sought to determine the role of MTG16 in intestinal integrity. Methods Baseline and stress induced colonic phenotypes were examined in Mtg16−/− mice. To unmask phenotypes, we treated Mtg16−/− mice with dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) or infected them with Citrobacter rodentium and the colons were examined for ulceration and for changes in proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation. Results Mtg16−/− mice have altered immune subsets, suggesting priming towards Th1 responses. Mtg16−/− mice developed increased weight loss, diarrhoea, mortality and histological colitis and there were increased innate (Gr1+, F4/80+, CD11c+ and MHCII+; CD11c+) and Th1 adaptive (CD4) immune cells in Mtg16−/− colons after DSS treatment. Additionally, there was increased apoptosis and a compensatory increased proliferation in Mtg16−/− colons. Compared with wild-type mice, Mtg16−/− mice exhibited increased colonic CD4;IFN-γ cells in vehicle-treated and DSS-treated mice. Adoptive transfer of wildtype marrow into Mtg16−/− recipients did not rescue the Mtg16−/− injury phenotype. Isolated colonic epithelial cells from DSS-treated Mtg16−/− mice exhibited increased KC (Cxcl1) mRNA expression when compared with wild-type mice. Mtg16−/− mice infected with C rodentium had more severe colitis and greater bacterial colonisation. Last, MTG16 mRNA levels were reduced in human ulcerative colitis versus normal colon tissues. Conclusions These observations indicate that MTG16 is critical for colonocyte survival and regeneration in response to intestinal injury and provide evidence that this transcriptional corepressor regulates inflammatory recruitment in response to injury. PMID:22833394

  9. Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in the Intestinal Metaplasia of Stomach and Barrett's Esophagus.

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    Bo Gun Jang

    Full Text Available Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM is a highly prevalent preneoplastic lesion; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating its development remain unclear. We have previously shown that a population of cells expressing the intestinal stem cell (ISC marker LGR5 increases remarkably in IM. In this study, we further investigated the molecular characteristics of these LGR5+ cells in IM by examining the expression profile of several ISC markers. Notably, we found that ISC markers-including OLFM4 and EPHB2-are positively associated with the CDX2 expression in non-tumorous gastric tissues. This finding was confirmed in stomach lesions with or without metaplasia, which demonstrated that OLFM4 and EPHB2 expression gradually increased with metaplastic progression. Moreover, RNA in situ hybridization revealed that LGR5+ cells coexpress several ISC markers and remained confined to the base of metaplastic glands, reminiscent to that of normal intestinal crypts, whereas those in normal antral glands expressed none of these markers. Furthermore, a large number of ISC marker-expressing cells were diffusely distributed in gastric adenomas, suggesting that these markers may facilitate gastric tumorigenesis. In addition, Barrett's esophagus (BE-which is histologically similar to intestinal metaplasia-exhibited a similar distribution of ISC markers, indicating the presence of a stem cell population with intestinal differentiation potential. In conclusion, we identified that LGR5+ cells in gastric IM and BE coexpress ISC markers, and exhibit the same expression profile as those found in normal intestinal crypts. Taken together, these results implicate an intestinal-like stem cell population in the pathogenesis of IM, and provide an important basis for understanding the development and maintenance of this disease.

  10. Human mini-guts: new insights into intestinal physiology and host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Julie G; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; Estes, Mary K; Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The development of indefinitely propagating human 'mini-guts' has led to a rapid advance in gastrointestinal research related to transport physiology, developmental biology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology. These mini-guts, also called enteroids or colonoids, are derived from LGR5 + intestinal stem cells isolated from the small intestine or colon. Addition of WNT3A and other growth factors promotes stemness and results in viable, physiologically functional human intestinal or colonic cultures that develop a crypt-villus axis and can be differentiated into all intestinal epithelial cell types. The success of research using human enteroids has highlighted the limitations of using animals or in vitro, cancer-derived cell lines to model transport physiology and pathophysiology. For example, curative or preventive therapies for acute enteric infections have been limited, mostly due to the lack of a physiological human intestinal model. However, the human enteroid model enables specific functional studies of secretion and absorption in each intestinal segment as well as observations of the earliest molecular events that occur during enteric infections. This Review describes studies characterizing these human mini-guts as a physiological model to investigate intestinal transport and host-pathogen interactions.

  11. Cdx function is required for maintenance of intestinal identity in the adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryniuk, Alexa; Grainger, Stephanie; Savory, Joanne G A; Lohnes, David

    2012-03-15

    The homeodomain transcription factors Cdx1 and Cdx2 are expressed in the intestinal epithelium from early development, with expression persisting throughout the life of the animal. While our understanding of the function of Cdx members in intestinal development has advanced significantly, their roles in the adult intestine is relatively poorly understood. In the present study, we found that ablation of Cdx2 in the adult small intestine severely impacted villus morphology, proliferation and intestinal gene expression patterns, resulting in the demise of the animal. Long-term loss of Cdx2 in a chimeric model resulted in loss of all differentiated intestinal cell types and partial conversion of the mucosa to a gastric-like epithelium. Concomitant loss of Cdx1 did not exacerbate any of these phenotypes. Loss of Cdx2 in the colon was associated with a shift to a cecum-like epithelial morphology and gain of cecum-associated genes which was more pronounced with subsequent loss of Cdx1. These findings suggest that Cdx2 is essential for differentiation of the small intestinal epithelium, and that both Cdx1 and Cdx2 contribute to homeostasis of the colon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Scarminio, Viviane [UNESP; Fruet, Andrea C. [UNESP; Witaicenis, Aline [UNESP; Rall, Vera L. M. [UNESP; Di Stasi, Luiz C. [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, c...

  13. PROMOTION OF TRIHALOMETHANE-INDUCED COLON, ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI (ACF) BY A HIGH FAT DIET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract:Bromodichloromethane (BOCM) and tribromomethane (TBM) enhanced neoplasia in the large intestine of rats when given by corn oil gavage; BOCM in the drinking water to male rats did not induce colon tumors, but did increase liver tumors. However, TBM and a mixture o...

  14. The Best Choice of Treatment for Acute Colonic Diverticulitis with Purulent Peritonitis Is Uncertain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hupfeld, Line; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2014-01-01

    Severe stages of acute, colonic diverticulitis can progress into intestinal perforations with peritonitis. In such cases, urgent treatment is needed, and Hartmann's procedure is the standard treatment for cases with fecal peritonitis. Peritoneal lavage may be an alternative to resection for acute...... diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis, but ongoing randomized trials are awaited to clarify this....

  15. Phlegmonous enteritis in a patient with congestive heart failure and colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkung, Sook; Yoo, Yoon Sik; Hwang, Im Kyung; Kim, Bong Soo; Bae, Sang Hoon; Choi, Young Hee [Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    Phlegmonous enteritis is a rare infective inflammatory disease of the intestine, predominantly involving the submucosal layer. It is difficult to diagnose and often fatal. Its association with alcoholism and various liver diseases, although rarely reported, is well documented. We report a case of phlegmonous enteritis in a male patient with congestive heart failure and colon cancer, and describe the ultrasonographic and CT findings.

  16. Incidental Finding of Isolated Colonic Neurofibroma

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    Haritha Chelimilla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis is a genetic disorder manifested by characteristic cutaneous lesions called neurofibromas. There are two distinct neurocutaneous syndromes named neurofibromatosis type 1 (also called von Recklinghausen disease or NF1 and neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2. NF1 is by far the most common presentation and is caused by an autosomal dominant mutation in the NF1 gene mapped to chromosome 17q11.2. The literature shows that gastrointestinal involvement is noted in systemic neurofibromatosis in up to 25% of patients, but isolated intestinal neurofibromatosis is a very rare manifestation. We herein present the case of a 70-year-old woman who was diagnosed with an isolated colonic neurofibroma without any systemic signs of neurofibromatosis; only a few case reports of this condition have been published to date.

  17. Colonic perforation with peritonitis in amoebiasis: a tropical disease with high mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Bhupendra Kumar; Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Anjay; Mishra, Kiran; Mohanty, Debajyoti; Agrawal, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Invasive colonic amoebiasis presents primarily with dysentery; colonic perforation occurs rarely. Cases of amoebic colonic perforations have been reported sporadically over the past 20 years. A retrospective study was done in the surgical unit of a tertiary care hospital in North India. The case records of those patients were reviewed who underwent exploratory laparotomy from January 2011 to September 2012 and were diagnosed with amoebic colonic perforation on histopathological examination. Details concerning the clinical presentation, investigations, intraoperative findings, operative procedures, and postoperative outcomes were retrieved. Amongst, a total of 186 emergency exploratory laparotomies carried out during the study, 15 patients of amoebic colonic perforation were identified. The median age of the patients was 42 years (IQR 32.0-58.0) and the male to female ratio was 13:2. Previous history of colitis was present in only 1 patient. The preoperative diagnosis was perforation peritonitis in 12 patients; and intussusception, intestinal obstruction and ruptured liver abscess in 1 patient each. Ten patients had single perforation while 5 had multiple colonic perforations. All the patients except one had perforations in the right colon. Bowel resection was performed depending upon the site and extent of the colon involved-right hemicolectomy (8), limited ileocolic resection (6) and sigmoidectomy (1). Bowel continuity could be restored only in 2 of the 15 patients and a stoma was constructed in the remaining 13 patients. The overall mortality rate was found to be 40% (6/15). Amoebic colonic perforation is associated with unusually high mortality.

  18. Volvulus of the ascending colon in a non-rotated midgut: Plain film and MDCT findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Luigi; Calabrese, Milena; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Masone, Stefania; Vecchio, Walter Del; Persico, Giovanni; Salvatore, Marco

    2012-10-28

    Colonic volvulus is a relatively uncommon cause of large bowel obstruction usually involving mobile, intra-peritoneal, colonic segments. Congenital or acquired anatomic variation may be associated with an increased risk of colonic volvulus which can occasionally involve retro-peritoneal segments. We report a case of 54-year-old female who presented to our Institution to perform a plain abdominal film series for acute onset of cramping abdominal pain. Both the upright and supine films showed signs of acute colonic obstruction which was thought to be due to an internal hernia of the transverse colon into the lesser sac. The patient was therefore submitted to a multi-detector contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). CT findings were initially thought to be consistent with the presumed diagnosis of internal hernia but further evaluation and coronal reformatting clearly depicted the presence of a colonic volvulus possibly resulting from a retro-gastric colon. At surgery, a volvulus of the ascending colon was found and a right hemi-colectomy had to be performed. However, a non rotated midgut with a right-sided duodeno-jejunal flexure and a left sided colon was also found at laparotomy and overlooked in the pre-operative CT. Retrospective evaluation of CT images was therefore performed and a number of CT signs of intestinal malrotation could be identified.

  19. Molecular characterization of some new E. coli strains theoretically responsible for both intestinal and extraintestinal infections

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    Ghaleb Adwan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Strains of E. coli are divided into 3 major groups; commensal strains, diarrheagenic (intestinal E. coli pathotypes and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli are unlike diarrheagenic pathotypes, they have not ability to cause intestinal disease in human, but they have normal ability for long-term colonization in the gut. This study aimed to spotlight on that intestinal and extraintestinal infections are not restricted to intestinal pathotypes and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, respectively. A total of 102 uropathogenic E. coli isolates were collected during 2012 and 2015. A multiplex PCR was used to detect phylogenetic groups, virulence factors for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and intestinal E. coli pathotypes genes. Results of this research showed that 12 (11.8% uropathogenic E. coli isolates had genes that are theoretically responsible for intestinal diseases, were 10 of these isolates belonged to phylogentic group D and 2 isolates to phylogentic group A. We conclude from these results, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of E. coli that theoretically can cause both intestinal and extraintestinal infections simultaneously. The presence of these strains has a great impact on public health. More studies are necessary before definitive conclusions if these strains are a different clone that theoretically have ability to cause both intestinal and extraintestinal infections and belonged to phylogenetic groups other than A and D. Products of diarrheagenic genes in UPEC strains need further studies to detect their effects in intestinal infections

  20. Communication between B-Cells and Microbiota for the Maintenance of Intestinal Homeostasis

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    Yuying Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The human intestine is populated with an extremely dense and diverse bacterial community. Commensal bacteria act as an important antigenic stimulus producing the maturation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT. The production of immunoglobulin (Ig A by B-cells in the GALT is one of the immune responses following intestinal colonization of bacteria. The switch of B-cells from IgM to IgA-producing cells in the Peyer’s patches and neighboring lamina propria proceeds by T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent mechanisms. Several grams of secretory IgA (SIgA are released into the intestine each day. SIgA serves as a first-line of defense in protecting the intestinal epithelium from enteric toxins and pathogenic microorganisms. SIgA has a capacity to directly quench bacterial virulence factors, influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota, and promote the transportation of antigens across the intestinal epithelium to GALT and down-regulate proinflammatory responses associated with the uptake of highly pathogenic bacteria and potentially allergenic antigens. This review summarizes the reciprocal interactions between intestinal B cells and bacteria, specifically, the formation of IgA in the gut, the role of intestinal IgA in the regulation of bacterial communities and the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, and the effects of probiotics on IgA levels in the gastrointestinal tract.

  1. The Homeodomain Transcription Factor Cdx1 Does Not Behave as an Oncogene in Normal Mouse Intestine

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    Mary Ann S. Crissey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caudal-related homeobox genes Cdx1 and Cdx2 are intestine-specific transcription factors that regulate differentiation of intestinal cell types. Previously, we have shown Cdx1 to be antiproliferative and to promote cell differentiation. However, other studies have suggested that Cdx1 may be an oncogene. To test for oncogenic behavior, we used the murine villin promoter to ectopically express Cdx1 in the small intestinal villi and colonic surface epithelium. No changes in intestinal architecture, cell differentiation, or lineage selection were observed with expression of the transgene. Classic oncogenes enhance proliferation and induce tumors when ectopically expressed. However, the Cdx1 transgene neither altered intestinal proliferation nor induced spontaneous intestinal tumors. In a murine model for colitis-associated cancer, the Cdx1 transgene decreased, rather than increased, the number of adenomas that developed. In the polyps, the expression of the endogenous and the transgenic Cdx1 proteins was largely absent, whereas endogenous Villin expression was retained. This suggests that transgene silencing was specific and not due to a general Villin inactivation. In conclusion, neither the ectopic expression of Cdx1 was associated with changes in intestinal cell proliferation or differentiation nor was there increased intestinal cancer susceptibility. Our results therefore suggest that Cdx1 is not an oncogene in normal intestinal epithelium.

  2. Colonization, mouse-style

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    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  3. NoxO1 Controls Proliferation of Colon Epithelial Cells

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    Franziska Moll

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AimReactive oxygen species (ROS produced by enzymes of the NADPH oxidase family serve as second messengers for cellular signaling. Processes such as differentiation and proliferation are regulated by NADPH oxidases. In the intestine, due to the exceedingly fast and constant renewal of the epithelium both processes have to be highly controlled and balanced. Nox1 is the major NADPH oxidase expressed in the gut, and its function is regulated by cytosolic subunits such as NoxO1. We hypothesize that the NoxO1-controlled activity of Nox1 contributes to a proper epithelial homeostasis and renewal in the gut.ResultsNoxO1 is highly expressed in the colon. Knockout of NoxO1 reduces the production of superoxide in colon crypts and is not subsidized by an elevated expression of its homolog p47phox. Knockout of NoxO1 increases the proliferative capacity and prevents apoptosis of colon epithelial cells. In mouse models of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis and azoxymethane/DSS induced colon cancer, NoxO1 has a protective role and may influence the population of natural killer cells.ConclusionNoxO1 affects colon epithelium homeostasis and prevents inflammation.

  4. Adult zebrafish intestine resection: a novel model of short bowel syndrome, adaptation, and intestinal stem cell regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, K A; Holoyda, K A; Grant, C N; Levin, D E; Torres, E R; Maxwell, A; Pollack, H A; Moats, R A; Frey, M R; Darehzereshki, A; Al Alam, D; Lien, C; Grikscheit, T C

    2015-08-01

    Loss of significant intestinal length from congenital anomaly or disease may lead to short bowel syndrome (SBS); intestinal failure may be partially offset by a gain in epithelial surface area, termed adaptation. Current in vivo models of SBS are costly and technically challenging. Operative times and survival rates have slowed extension to transgenic models. We created a new reproducible in vivo model of SBS in zebrafish, a tractable vertebrate model, to facilitate investigation of the mechanisms of intestinal adaptation. Proximal intestinal diversion at segment 1 (S1, equivalent to jejunum) was performed in adult male zebrafish. SBS fish emptied distal intestinal contents via stoma as in the human disease. After 2 wk, S1 was dilated compared with controls and villus ridges had increased complexity, contributing to greater villus epithelial perimeter. The number of intervillus pockets, the intestinal stem cell zone of the zebrafish increased and contained a higher number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells after 2 wk of SBS. Egf receptor and a subset of its ligands, also drivers of adaptation, were upregulated in SBS fish. Igf has been reported as a driver of intestinal adaptation in other animal models, and SBS fish exposed to a pharmacological inhibitor of the Igf receptor failed to demonstrate signs of intestinal adaptation, such as increased inner epithelial perimeter and BrdU incorporation. We describe a technically feasible model of human SBS in the zebrafish, a faster and less expensive tool to investigate intestinal stem cell plasticity as well as the mechanisms that drive intestinal adaptation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection.

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    Lapo Mughini-Gras

    Full Text Available Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans.We performed a nationwide registry-based study to assess colon cancer risk after diagnosed Salmonella infection. National infectious disease surveillance records (1999-2015 for Dutch residents aged ≥20 years when diagnosed with salmonellosis (n = 14,264 were linked to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Salmonella-infected patients were laboratory-confirmed under medical consultation after 1-2 weeks of illness. These datasets also contained information on Salmonella serovar and type of infection. Colon cancer risk (overall and per colon subsite among patients with a diagnosed Salmonella infection was compared with expected colon cancer risk in the general population. Data from the nationwide registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA and Statistics Netherlands (CBS allowed assessing potential effects of age, gender, latency, socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, and tumor features. We found that compared to the general population, colon cancer risk was significantly increased (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.54; 95%CI 1.09-2.10 among patients with Salmonella infection diagnosed <60 years of age. Such increased risk concerned specifically the ascending/transverse colon (SIR 2.12; 95%CI 1.38-3.09 after S. Enteritidis infection (SIR 2.97; 95%CI 1.73-4.76. Salmonellosis occurred more frequently among colon cancer patients with pre-infectious IBD, a known risk factor for colon cancer. Colon tumors of patients with a history of Salmonella infection were mostly of low grade

  6. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Sofie; Neefjes-Borst, E. Andra; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Neefjes, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Background Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans. Methods and findings We performed a nationwide registry-based study to assess colon cancer risk after diagnosed Salmonella infection. National infectious disease surveillance records (1999–2015) for Dutch residents aged ≥20 years when diagnosed with salmonellosis (n = 14,264) were linked to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Salmonella-infected patients were laboratory-confirmed under medical consultation after 1–2 weeks of illness. These datasets also contained information on Salmonella serovar and type of infection. Colon cancer risk (overall and per colon subsite) among patients with a diagnosed Salmonella infection was compared with expected colon cancer risk in the general population. Data from the nationwide registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA) and Statistics Netherlands (CBS) allowed assessing potential effects of age, gender, latency, socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and tumor features. We found that compared to the general population, colon cancer risk was significantly increased (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.54; 95%CI 1.09–2.10) among patients with Salmonella infection diagnosed transverse colon (SIR 2.12; 95%CI 1.38–3.09) after S. Enteritidis infection (SIR 2.97; 95%CI 1.73–4.76). Salmonellosis occurred more frequently among colon cancer patients with pre-infectious IBD, a known risk factor for colon cancer. Colon tumors of patients with a history of Salmonella infection were mostly of low grade. Conclusions Patients diagnosed with severe

  7. Small intestine diverticuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Risov, A.

    1991-01-01

    The routine method of contrast matter passage applied to 850 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases proved inefficient to detect any small-intestinal diverticuli. The following modiffications of the method have been tested in order to improve the diagnostic possibilities of the X-ray: study at short intervals, assisted passage, enteroclysm, pharmacodynamic impact, retrograde filling of the ileum by irrigoscopy. Twelve diverticuli of the small-intestinal loops were identified: 5 Meckel's diverticuli, 2 solitary of which one of the therminal ileum, 2 double diverticuli and 1 multiple diverticulosis of the jejunum. The results show that the short interval X-ray examination of the small intestines is the method of choice for identifying local changes in them. The solitary diverticuli are not casuistic scarcity, its occurrence is about 0.5% at purposeful X-ray investigation. The assisted passage method is proposed as a method of choice for detection of the Meckel's diverticulum. 5 figs., 3 tabs. 18 refs

  8. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome.

  9. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  10. MicroRNAs at the epicenter of intestinal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcheva, Antoaneta

    2017-03-01

    Maintaining intestinal homeostasis is a key prerequisite for a healthy gut. Recent evidence points out that microRNAs (miRNAs) act at the epicenter of the signaling networks regulating this process. The fine balance in the interaction between gut microbiota, intestinal epithelial cells, and the host immune system is achieved by constant transmission of signals and their precise regulation. Gut microbes extensively communicate with the host immune system and modulate host gene expression. On the other hand, sensing of gut microbiota by the immune cells provides appropriate tolerant responses that facilitate the symbiotic relationships. While the role of many regulatory proteins, receptors and their signaling pathways in the regulation of the intestinal homeostasis is well documented, the involvement of non-coding RNA molecules in this process has just emerged. This review discusses the most recent knowledge about the contribution of miRNAs in the regulation of the intestinal homeostasis. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Schwannoma of the Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Nonose

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are neoplasms originating from Schwann cells, which are the cells forming nerve sheaths. These neoplasms generally involve peripheral nerves. They rarely affect the gastrointestinal tract and primary colon involvement is extremely rare. The objective of the present paper was to present a case of primary schwannoma of the sigmoid colon, unassociated with von Recklinghausen disease, that was histopathologically confirmed by means of an immunohistochemical panel. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who had had rectal bleeding when evacuating, with pain and tenesmus, for 4 months. She underwent colonoscopy, which identified a raised submucous lesion of 2.8 cm in diameter, located in the sigmoid colon, 30 cm from the anal margin. During examination, loop polypectomy with lesion excision was performed. Histopathological evaluation showed that this was a tumor of stromal origin. Its resection margins were compromised by neoplasia, and colon resection by means of videolaparoscopy was indicated. Conventional histopathological examination using the hematoxylin-eosin technique suggested that the neoplasm was of mesenchymal origin. An immunohistochemical panel was run for etiological confirmation, using anti-CD34 antibodies, desmin, cytokeratins (AE1/AE3, cKit, chromogranin and S-100 protein. The panel showed intense immunoexpression of S-100 protein. Investigation of the proliferative activity rate using Ki-67 antibodies showed that there was a low rate of mitotic activity, thus confirming the diagnosis of primary benign schwannoma of the colon. The patient’s postoperative evolution was uneventful and she remains in good health, without signs of tumor recurrence, 15 months after surgical excision.

  12. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  13. Distribution and characterisation of CCK containing enteroendocrine cells of the mouse small and large intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakhry, Josiane; Wang, Joyce; Martins, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    but positive cells were rare in the rectum. Immunoreactive EEC were as common in the caecum and proximal colon as they were in the duodenum and jejunum. CCK gene transcripts were found in the mucosa throughout the intestine but mRNA for gastrin, a hormone that can bind some anti-CCK antibodies, was only found...

  14. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium exploits inflammation to modify swine intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna eDrumo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an important zoonotic gastrointestinal pathogen responsible for foodborne disease worldwide. It is a successful enteric pathogen because it has developed virulence strategies allowing it to survive in a highly inflamed intestinal environment exploiting inflammation to overcome colonization resistance provided by intestinal microbiota. In this study, we used piglets featuring an intact microbiota, which naturally develop gastroenteritis, as model for salmonellosis. We compared the effects on the intestinal microbiota induced by a wild type and an attenuated S. Typhimurium in order to evaluate whether the modifications are correlated with the virulence of the strain. This study showed that Salmonella alters microbiota in a virulence-dependent manner. We found that the wild type S. Typhimurium induced inflammation and a reduction of specific protecting microbiota species (SCFA-producing bacteria normally involved in providing a barrier against pathogens. Both these effects could contribute to impair colonization resistance, increasing the host susceptibility to wild type S. Typhimurium colonization. In contrast, the attenuated S. Typhimurium, which is characterized by a reduced ability to colonize the intestine, and by a very mild inflammatory response, was unable to successfully sustain competition with the microbiota.

  15. Glutathione S-transferase genotype and p53 mutations in adenocarcinoma of the small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lisbeth Nørum; Kaerlev, L; Stubbe Teglbjaerg, P

    2003-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the small intestine (ASI) is a rare disease of unknown aetiology. The glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) enzyme catalyses the detoxification of compounds involved in carcinogenesis of adenocarcinoma of the stomach, colon and lung, including constituents of tobacco smoke. We in...

  16. Subacute stress and chronic stress interact to decrease intestinal barrier function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffer, Adriana; Vanuytsel, Tim; Vanormelingen, Christophe; Vanheel, Hanne; Salim Rasoel, Shadea; Tóth, Joran; Tack, Jan; Fornari, Fernando; Farré, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress increases intestinal permeability, potentially leading to low-grade inflammation and symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders. We assessed the effect of subacute, chronic and combined stress on intestinal barrier function and mast cell density. Male Wistar rats were allocated to four experimental groups (n = 8/group): 1/sham; 2/subacute stress (isolation and limited movement for 24 h); 3/chronic crowding stress for 14 days and 4/combined subacute and chronic stress. Jejunum and colon were collected to measure: transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER; a measure of epithelial barrier function); gene expression of tight junction molecules; mast cell density. Plasma corticosterone concentration was increased in all three stress conditions versus sham, with highest concentrations in the combined stress condition. TEER in the jejunum was decreased in all stress conditions, but was significantly lower in the combined stress condition than in the other groups. TEER in the jejunum correlated negatively with corticosterone concentration. Increased expression of claudin 1, 5 and 8, occludin and zonula occludens 1 mRNAs was detected after subacute stress in the jejunum. In contrast, colonic TEER was decreased only after combined stress, and the expression of tight junction molecules was unaltered. Increased mast cell density was observed in the chronic and combined stress condition in the colon only. In conclusion, our data show that chronic stress sensitizes the gastrointestinal tract to the effects of subacute stress on intestinal barrier function; different underlying cellular and molecular alterations are indicated in the small intestine versus the colon.

  17. Analyzing the functionality of the human intestinal microbiota by stable isotope probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovatcheva, P.P.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: gut bacteria, dietary carbohydrates, digestion, RNA-SIP, TIM-2, HITChip, human trial

    The human gastro-intestinal (GI) tract comprises a series of complex and dynamic organs ranging from the stomach to the distal colon, which harbor immense microbial assemblages, with

  18. Radiologic evaluation of intestinal obstruction in the neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Dong Woo; Lee, Eun Suk; Kwon, Sun Young [Eul Ji General Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Young [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hye Jeong [Eul Ji General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiologic findings of the intestinal obstruction in the neonate according to the causes and to determine the findings useful for the differential diagnosis. The materials consisted of 29 neonates with surgically proven gastrointestinal tract obstruction. We analyzed simple abdominal radiography and barium study comparing with the operative findings. The causes of intestinal obstruction were gastric atresia in 1 case, duodenal atresia in 3 cases, small bowel atresia in 11 cases (jejunal; 3 cases, ileal; 8 cases), colonic atresia in 2 cases, Hirschsprung's disease in 9 cases, ano-rectal anomaly in 6 cases, midgut volvulus in 2 cases, and Meckel's diverticulum in 1 case. Vomiting was noted in the all cases. The abdominal distension was not noted in the cases of gastric atresia, duodenal atresia, and proximal jejunal atresia. The meconium passage was noted in 2 cases of ileal atresia and 3 cases of Hirschsprung's disease. On barium study, site of obstruction was predicted accurately in gastric atresia, duodenal atresia, proximal jejunal atresia, and colonic atresia but it was not possible in distal jejunal atresia and ileal atresia. The microcolon was noted in 2 cases of jejunal atresia, 4 cases of ileal atresia, and 2 cases of colonic atresia. Out of 9 Hirschsprung's disease transition zones were seen on rectum or rectosigmoid junction in 7 cases and barium study was normal in 2 cases. In the diagnosis of neonatal intestinal obstruction, the basic radiologic studies such as simple abdominal radiography and gastrointestinal contrast study was useful for the differential diagnosis of the proximal bowel loop atresia colonic atresia, and midgut volvulus.

  19. Radiologic evaluation of intestinal obstruction in the neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Dong Woo; Lee, Eun Suk; Kwon, Sun Young; Lee, Sang Young; Kang, Hye Jeong

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiologic findings of the intestinal obstruction in the neonate according to the causes and to determine the findings useful for the differential diagnosis. The materials consisted of 29 neonates with surgically proven gastrointestinal tract obstruction. We analyzed simple abdominal radiography and barium study comparing with the operative findings. The causes of intestinal obstruction were gastric atresia in 1 case, duodenal atresia in 3 cases, small bowel atresia in 11 cases (jejunal; 3 cases, ileal; 8 cases), colonic atresia in 2 cases, Hirschsprung's disease in 9 cases, ano-rectal anomaly in 6 cases, midgut volvulus in 2 cases, and Meckel's diverticulum in 1 case. Vomiting was noted in the all cases. The abdominal distension was not noted in the cases of gastric atresia, duodenal atresia, and proximal jejunal atresia. The meconium passage was noted in 2 cases of ileal atresia and 3 cases of Hirschsprung's disease. On barium study, site of obstruction was predicted accurately in gastric atresia, duodenal atresia, proximal jejunal atresia, and colonic atresia but it was not possible in distal jejunal atresia and ileal atresia. The microcolon was noted in 2 cases of jejunal atresia, 4 cases of ileal atresia, and 2 cases of colonic atresia. Out of 9 Hirschsprung's disease transition zones were seen on rectum or rectosigmoid junction in 7 cases and barium study was normal in 2 cases. In the diagnosis of neonatal intestinal obstruction, the basic radiologic studies such as simple abdominal radiography and gastrointestinal contrast study was useful for the differential diagnosis of the proximal bowel loop atresia colonic atresia, and midgut volvulus

  20. Absorption of wheat starch in patients resected for left-sided colonic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, I; Rumessen, J J; Nielsen, S A

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial fermentation of carbohydrate in the colon, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)--and especially butyrate--has been shown possibly to impede cell proliferation and regulate cell differentiation of colonocytes. In patients with diverticular disease or benign polyps in the colon...... a hyperabsorption of potato starch in the small intestine has been found. We have investigated the absorption of wheat starch in 15 patients radically resected for cancer in the descending or sigmoid colon, and the results were compared with those of 15 healthy controls. The starch malabsorption was quantified...... also similar in patients and controls. The results do not support the theory that hyperabsorption of starch is characteristic of patients with malignant disease in the large intestine....

  1. Effects of liquid versus solid diet on colonic transit in humans. Evaluation by standard colonic transit scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, P.N.; Richter, J.E.; Chilton, H.M.; Kerr, R.M.; Cowan, R.C.; Gelfand, D.W.; Ott, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of liquid versus solid diet on human colonic transit were investigated, and transit following cecal instillation of tracer was compared with transit following instillation in the proximal jejunum. In a randomized cross-over, single-blind fashion, 6 normal volunteers ingesting either normal solid foods or a liquid diet were studied using colonic transit scintigraphy. 111In-DTPA was instilled either into the cecum via a long intestinal tube or into the proximal jejunum via a feeding tube. Compared with the liquid diet, the solid diet slowed transit in the cecum and ascending colon (p less than 0.025) and delayed progression of the geometric center (p less than 0.05) during the first 4 h of the study. Transit from 18 to 48 h was similar on the 2 diets. On the solid diet, transit was similar whether 111In-DTPA was instilled into the proximal jejunum or into the cecum. Transit from the terminal ileum to the cecum was assessed in an additional 5 volunteers following jejunal instillation of 99mTc-DTPA. Cecal filling was rapid (T1/2 = 0.49 h) and complete in all subjects before the onset of cecal emptying. These results suggest that colonic transit is slower on a solid than a liquid diet and that jejunal instillation of radiopharmaceuticals should be suitable for colonic transit studies in most subjects

  2. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  3. Activation of AMPK inhibits cholera toxin stimulated chloride secretion in human and murine intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailín C Rogers

    Full Text Available Increased intestinal chloride secretion through chloride channels, such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, is one of the major molecular mechanisms underlying enterotoxigenic diarrhea. It has been demonstrated in the past that the intracellular energy sensing kinase, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, can inhibit CFTR opening. We hypothesized that pharmacological activation of AMPK can abrogate the increased chloride flux through CFTR occurring during cholera toxin (CTX mediated diarrhea. Chloride efflux was measured in isolated rat colonic crypts using real-time fluorescence imaging. AICAR and metformin were used to activate AMPK in the presence of the secretagogues CTX or forskolin (FSK. In order to substantiate our findings on the whole tissue level, short-circuit current (SCC was monitored in human and murine colonic mucosa using Ussing chambers. Furthermore, fluid accumulation was measured in excised intestinal loops. CTX and forskolin (FSK significantly increased chloride efflux in isolated colonic crypts. The increase in chloride efflux could be offset by using the AMPK activators AICAR and metformin. In human and mouse mucosal sheets, CTX and FSK increased SCC. AICAR and metformin inhibited the secretagogue induced rise in SCC, thereby confirming the findings made in isolated crypts. Moreover, AICAR decreased CTX stimulated fluid accumulation in excised intestinal segments. The present study suggests that pharmacological activation of AMPK effectively reduces CTX mediated increases in intestinal chloride secretion, which is a key factor for intestinal water accumulation. AMPK activators may therefore represent a supplemental treatment strategy for acute diarrheal illness.

  4. Synchronous colon and renal cancer - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luczynska, E.; Pawlik, T.; Aniol, J.; Chwalibog, A.

    2008-01-01

    Primary cancer may occur synchronously in two different organs. We present an example of pathologically proven, coexistent renal and colony double malignant tumors. A 59 year old man, was admitted to the Institute of Oncology due to left renal lesion, discovered during a routine abdominal ultrasound examination. The CT exam was performed before surgery. The CT scans reveled a second abnormality, presenting irregular shaped and thickened to 20 mm intestinal wall within a patient's large bowel. As a next diagnostic step a CT-colonoscopy was undertaken, which confirmed the presence of an exophytic sigmoid lesion, eccentrically affecting the colonic wall and protruding into the lumen moderately narrowing it, placed about 50 cm from the external rectal sphincter. Patient underwent simultaneous radical left nephrectomy and sigmoidectomy. Both tumors were confirmed in pathologic evaluation, reveling renal clear cell carcinoma (Fuhrman G II) and colonic adenocarcinoma (Astler-Coller B2). Preoperative careful imaging studies reveled neoplastic tumors in two different organs, allowing for radical resection at the same surgical procedure. (author)

  5. Intestinal Obstruction due to Complete Transmural Migration of a Retained Surgical Sponge into the Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old woman with a history of gynecological surgery for cervical cancer 18 years previously was referred to our hospital for colicky abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Intestinal obstruction was diagnosed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT which showed dilation of the small intestine and suggested obstruction in the terminal ileum. In addition, CT showed a thick-walled cavitary lesion communicating with the proximal jejunum. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed abnormal uptake at the same location as the cavitary lesion revealed by CT. The patient underwent laparotomy for the ileus and resection of the cavitary lesion. At laparotomy, we found a retained surgical sponge in the ileum 60 cm from the ileocecal valve. The cavitary tumor had two fistulae communicating with the proximal jejunum. The tumor was resected en bloc together with the transverse colon, part of the jejunum and the duodenum. Microscopic examination revealed fibrous encapsulation and foreign body giant cell reaction. Since a retained surgical sponge without radiopaque markers is extremely difficult to diagnose, retained surgical sponge should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intestinal obstruction in patients who have undergone previous abdominal surgery.

  6. FEATURES OF INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA IN CHILDREN WITH A SYNDROME OF EXCESSIVE BACTERIAL GROWTH IN THE SMALL INTESTINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Lityaeva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the features of the parietal microbiota of the intestine in children with a verified syndrome of excessive bacterial growth in the small intestine. Clinical and laboratory examination of 25 children at risk of intrauterine infection at the age of 8 months — 4 years with a verified syndrome of excess bacterial growth in the small intestine was performed based on the results of the hydrogen breath test. Investigation of the species and quantitative composition of the parietal intestinal microbiota was carried out with the help of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method with determination of the concentration of microbial markers by drop of blood (laboratory of bifidobacteria of the Federal Budgetary Institute of Science Moscow Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology name after G.N. Gabrichevsky. It was revealed that all of them recorded a high concentration of microbial markers of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria of the colon and viruses of the Herpes family due to a deficit of representatives of priority genera (Propionibacterium Freunderherii 5-fold, Eubacterium spp. 4.8-fold, Bifidobacterium spp. 4-fold, Lactobacillus spp. 1.5-fold with an excess of endotoxin (by 1.5—2-fold and a decrease in plasmalogen (by 2-fold. These data testify to the inflammatory process of the small intestinal mucosa, which aggravates the disturbances in its functioning and confirm the informative nature of the gas chromatography and spectrometry method.

  7. Extraperitoneal exteriorization for treatment of colonic injuries:a report of 24 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-yang ZHANG

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effectiveness and safety of extraperitoneal exteriorization after repair or anastomosis of colonic injuries.Methods The clinical data of 24 cases of colonic injuries from Jan.2001 to Nov.2010 were retrospectively analyzed,including 13 males and 11 females,age from 12 to 77 with a mean of 37.4 years.The causes of colon injury were blunt trauma in 17 cases,penetrating injury in 5 cases,and iatrogenic in 2 cases.Of them 15 were admitted to our hospital directly after the injury,and the rest were transferred from other hospitals after emergency surgical management.Data on colonic injury score,incision infection,intra-abdominal abscess,colonic fistula,pulmonary infection and death rate were recorded.Results The injured region was respectively cecum,ascending colon,decending colon and sigmoid colon.Abbreviated injury scale(AIS of colonic injuries ranged form 2 to 4(with a mean of 2.57.Multiple injuries in abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity were found in 12 patients.The time from injury to definitive operation ranged from 3 to 26(mean,9.8 hours.Twenty-three patient recovered and 1 patient died of hemorrhagic shock.Complications occurred in 5 cases(20.8%,including incision infection in 3 cases,colonic fistula in 1 case and low small intestine obstruction in 1 case.Conclusion Extra-peritoneal exteriorization of colon following repair of rapture or anastomosis is an effective and safe method in treating colonic injuries,especially in patients with delayed operation,and one-stage operation rate can be increased by this procedure.

  8. Salmonella infection inhibits intestinal biotin transport: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Jellbauer, Stefan; Kapadia, Rubina; Raffatellu, Manuela; Said, Hamid M

    2015-07-15

    Infection with the nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of food-borne disease that leads to acute gastroenteritis/diarrhea. Severe/prolonged cases of Salmonella infection could also impact host nutritional status, but little is known about its effect on intestinal absorption of vitamins, including biotin. We examined the effect of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection on intestinal biotin uptake using in vivo (streptomycin-pretreated mice) and in vitro [mouse (YAMC) and human (NCM460) colonic epithelial cells, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells] models. The results showed that infecting mice with wild-type S. typhimurium, but not with its nonpathogenic isogenic invA spiB mutant, leads to a significant inhibition in jejunal/colonic biotin uptake and in level of expression of the biotin transporter, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. In contrast, infecting YAMC, NCM460, and Caco-2 cells with S. typhimurium did not affect biotin uptake. These findings suggest that the effect of S. typhimurium infection is indirect and is likely mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, the levels of which were markedly induced in the intestine of S. typhimurium-infected mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, exposure of NCM460 cells to the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ led to a significant inhibition of biotin uptake, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter expression, and activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. The latter effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium infection inhibits intestinal biotin uptake, and that the inhibition is mediated via the action of proinflammatory cytokines.

  9. Pathogenicity of porcine intestinal spirochetes in gnotobiotic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, N A; Lysons, R J; Trott, D J; Hampson, D J; Jones, P W; Morgan, J H

    1994-06-01

    Twelve intestinal spirochete strains of porcine origin were characterized on the basis of their phenotypic properties, by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and by pathogenicity testing in gnotobiotic pigs. The spirochetes used included two strains of Serpulina hyodysenteriae (B204 and P18A), two strains of Serpulina innocens (B256 and 4/71), one strain from the proposed new genus and species "Anguillina coli" (P43/6/78), and seven non-S. hyodysenteriae strains recently isolated from United Kingdom pig herds with a history of nonspecific diarrhea and typhlocolitis. By multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, five of these were identified as S. innocens, one was identified as an unspecified Serpulina sp., and one was identified as "A. coli." S. hyodysenteriae B204 and P18A, "A. coli" P43/6/78 and 2/7, and three (22/7, P280/1, and 14/5) of the five S. innocens field isolates induced mucoid feces and typhlocolitis in gnotobiotic pigs. None of the other spirochetes produced clinical signs or large intestinal pathology in this model. The "A. coli" strains induced a more watery diarrhea, with lesions present more proximally in the large intestine, than did the other pathogenic spirochetes. S. innocens 22/7 was also tested for pathogenicity in hysterotomy-derived pigs that had previously been artificially colonized with a spirochete-free intestinal flora and shown to be susceptible to swine dysentery. Despite effective colonization, strain 22/7 did not produce any disease, nor was there any exacerbation of large intestinal pathology or clinical signs when pigs with an experimentally induced existing colitis caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were superinfected with strain 22/7. Certain non-S. hyodysenteriae spirochetes are therefore capable of inducing disease in gnotobiotic pigs, but their role as primary or opportunistic pathogens in conventional pigs remains equivocal.

  10. Intestinal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal X-ray of patients 1, 3 and 4 demonstrated dilated small bowel loops with fluid levels in keeping with intestinal ... myxoid/vascular pattern characterised by a variable admixture of capillary-calibre blood vessels, .... in the present study had a past history of abdominal trauma or surgery. Ancillary histopathological ...

  11. Intestinal health in carnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge on the influence of gastro-intestinal (GI) microbiota on the health status of humans and animals is rapidly expanding. A balanced microbiome may provide multiple benefits to the host, like triggering and stimulation of the immune system, acting as a barrier against possible pathogenic

  12. Intestinal Complications of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... localized pocket of pus caused by infection from bacteria. More common in Crohn’s than in colitis, an abscess may form in the intestinal wall—sometimes causing it to bulge out. Visible abscesses, such as those around the anus, look like boils and treatment often involves lancing. Symptoms of ...

  13. Intestinal volvulus in cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeman, L; St Leger, J A; Blyde, D J; Jauniaux, T P; Lair, S; Lovewell, G; Raverty, S; Seibel, H; Siebert, U; Staggs, S L; Martelli, P; Keesler, R I

    2013-07-01

    Intestinal volvulus was recognized as the cause of death in 18 cetaceans, including 8 species of toothed whales (suborder Odontoceti). Cases originated from 11 institutions from around the world and included both captive (n = 9) and free-ranging (n = 9) animals. When the clinical history was available (n = 9), animals consistently demonstrated acute dullness 1 to 5 days prior to death. In 3 of these animals (33%), there was a history of chronic gastrointestinal illness. The pathological findings were similar to those described in other animal species and humans, and consisted of intestinal volvulus and a well-demarcated segment of distended, congested, and edematous intestine with gas and bloody fluid contents. Associated lesions included congested and edematous mesentery and mesenteric lymph nodes, and often serofibrinous or hemorrhagic abdominal effusion. The volvulus involved the cranial part of the intestines in 85% (11 of 13). Potential predisposing causes were recognized in most cases (13 of 18, 72%) but were variable. Further studies investigating predisposing factors are necessary to help prevent occurrence and enhance early clinical diagnosis and management of the condition.

  14. Small intestinal motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, André J. P. M.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the past year, many studies were published in which new and relevant information on small intestinal motility in humans and laboratory animals was obtained. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the reported findings are heterogeneous, some themes appear to be particularly interesting and

  15. [Delayed perforation of the cecum and sigmoid colon after blunt abdominal trauma in a patient with multiple injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, E; Arroyo, A; Ronda, J M; Muñoz, J L; Alonso, C; Martínez-Peñuelas, F; Martí-Viaño, J L

    2007-01-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma can damage the intestinal vasculature and may occasionally lead to delayed intestinal perforation, associated with a combined rate of morbidity and mortality of 25%. The diagnosis of such complications is hindered by sedation in critical patients, however, and morbimortality in this population is therefore higher. We report the case of a man with multiple injuries admitted to the intensive care unit, where delayed perforations of the sigmoid colon and cecum were diagnosed. The management of blunt abdominal trauma is reviewed and the possible causes, diagnostic approaches, and treatment options for colon injuries are discussed.

  16. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and mast cells in the regulation of mucosal barrier function in the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, Conny; Söderholm, Johan D

    2009-05-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is an important neuro-endocrine mediator of the stress response. Local effects of CRH in the intestinal mucosa have become evident in recent years. We showed that CRH activates CRH receptor subtypes R1 and R2 on subepithelial mast cells, thereby inducing increased transcellular uptake of protein antigens in human colonic biopsies in Ussing chambers. Ongoing studies also implicate local cholinergic signaling in regulation of macromolecular permeability in the human colon. Since increased uptake of antigenic molecules is associated with mucosal inflammation, our findings may have implications for understanding stress-related intestinal disorders.

  17. [Volvulus of the cecum: a rare cause of intestinal occlusion: about two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazine, Khalid; Elbouhaddouti, Hicham; Toughrai, Imane; Mouaqit, Ouadie; Benjelloun, Elbachir; Ousadden, Abdelmalek; Taleb, Khalid Ait

    2017-01-01

    The cecum is the second part of the colon that is most commonly affected by the volvulus after sigmoid colon and before left corner and the transverse colon. This condition occurs in patients with abnormally mobile cecum. Volvulus is characterized by torsion or tilt. Clinically, it appears as bowel obstruction due to acute strangulation. Abdominal x-ray without treatment and abdominal CT scan are the radiological procedures of choice in the diagnosis of volvulus of the cecum. Treatment is based on emergency surgical excision of the cecum and of the terminal ileum. We report two cases of patients with volvulus of the cecum admitted to the emergency department with acute intestinal obstruction. In both patients, the diagnosis was confirmed by abdomino-pelvic CT scan and the treatment was based on ileocolic resection with immediate restoration of the intestinal continuity. The postoperative course was uneventful.

  18. Cecal perforation with an ascending colon cancer caused by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Miyatani

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Hiroyuki Miyatani1, Yukio Yoshida1, Hirokazu Kiyozaki21Department of Gastroenterology, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan; 2Department of Surgery, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, JapanAbstract: Colonic perforation caused by upper gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy is extremely rare. A 69-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal fullness. Colonoscopy could be performed only up to the hepatic flexure due to an elongated colon and residual stools. Because her symptoms improved, upper GI endoscopy was performed 11 days later. The patient developed severe abdominal pain two hours after the examination. Abdominal X-ray and computed tomography showed massive free air. Immediate laparotomy was performed for the intestinal perforation. After removal of stool, a perforation site was detected in the cecum with an invasive ascending colon cancer. Therefore, a right hemicolectomy, ileostomy, and transverse colostomy were performed. Although she developed postoperative septicemia, the patient was discharged 38 days after admission. Seven months postoperatively, the patient died of lung, liver, and brain metastases. Even in cases with a lesion that is not completely obstructed, it is important to note that air insufflations during upper GI endoscopy can perforate the intestinal wall in patients with advanced colon cancer.Keywords: colonic perforation, colon cancer, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, fecal peritonitis

  19. Guargum and Eudragit ® coated curcumin liquid solid tablets for colon specific drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Kumar, Vrinda; Rijo, John; M, Sabitha

    2018-04-15

    Colorectal cancer, also known as bowel cancer, is the uncontrolled cell growth in the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine), or in the appendix. The colon specific drug delivery would alleviate the systemic side effects and would assure the safe therapy for colonic disorders with minimum dose and duration of therapy. The liquisolid technique refers to solubilisation of drug in a non-volatile solvent combined with inclusion of appropriate carrier and coating agent required for tableting. Colon specific degradation of natural polymer, guar gum and pH dependant degradative (pH-7) property of eudragit L100 restricts the delivery of curcumin in gastric and intestinal pH. Formulated curcumin liquisolid powder was evaluated for the micrometric properties, solubility and by differential thermal analysis, X ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Curcumin loaded liquisolid tablet showed more anticancer activity against HCT-15 compared with free curcumin. Bioavailability study of the coated and uncoated liquisolid tablets were performed using Newzealand white rabbits. The present study concludes that liquisolid technique is a promising alternative for improving oral bioavailability and dissolution rate of water insoluble drug and coating liquisolid tablet with colon sensitive polymers showed site specific release of drug in the colon. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Intrauterine intestinal volvulus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrych, Elzbieta; Chojnacka, Hanna; Wegrzynowski, Jerzy; Rajewska, Justyna

    2009-07-01

    Intrauterine intestinal volvulus is an extremely rare case of acute congenital intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is usually possible in the third trimester of a pregnancy. Fetal midgut volvulus is most likely to be recognized by observing a typical clockwise whirlpool sign during color Doppler investigation. Multiple dilated intestinal loops with fluid levels are usually visible during the antenatal ultrasound as well. Physical and radiographic findings in the newborn indicate intestinal obstruction and an emergency surgery is required. The authors describe intrauterine volvulus in 3 female newborns in which surgical treatment was individualized. The decision about primary or delayed anastomosis after resection of the gangrenous part of the small bowel was made at the time of the surgery and depended on the general condition of the newborn, as well as presence or absence of meconium peritonitis. Double loop jejunostomy was performed in case of two newborns, followed by a delayed end-to-end anastomosis. In case of the third newborn, good blood supply of the small intestine after untwisting and 0.25% lignocaine injections into mesentery led to the assumption that the torsion was not complete and ischemia was reversible. In the two cases of incomplete rotation the cecum was sutured to the left abdominal wall to prevent further twisting. The postoperative course was uneventful and oral alimentation caused no problems. Physical development of all these children has been normal (current age: 1-2 years) and the parents have not observed any disorders or problems regarding passage of food through the alimentary canal. Prompt antenatal diagnosis of this surgical emergency and adequate choice of intervention may greatly reduce mortality due to intrauterine volvulus.

  1. The Role of Curcumin in Modulating Colonic Microbiota During Colitis and Colon Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Rita-Marie T.; Larmonier, Claire B.; Shehab, Kareem W.; Midura-Kiela, Monica; Ramalingam, Rajalakshmy; Harrison, Christy A.; Besselsen, David G.; Chase, John H.; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Jobin, Christian; Ghishan, Fayez K.; Kiela, Pawel R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intestinal microbiota influences the progression of colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). With diet being a key determinant of the gut microbial ecology, dietary interventions are an attractive avenue for the prevention of CAC. Curcumin is the most active constituent of the ground rhizome of the Curcuma Longa plant, which has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-proliferative properties. Methods Il10−/− mice on 129/SvEv background were used as a model of CAC. Starting at 10 weeks of age, WT or Il10−/− mice received six weekly i.p. injections of azoxymethane (AOM) or saline, and were started on either a control or curcumin-supplemented diet. Stools were collected every 4 weeks for microbial community analysis. Mice were sacrificed at 30 weeks of age. Results Curcumin-supplemented diet increased survival, decreased colon weight/length ratio, and at 0.5%, entirely eliminated tumor burden. Although colonic histology indicated improvement with curcumin, no effects of mucosal immune responses have been observed in PBS/Il10−/− mice, and limited effects were seen in AOM/Il10−/− mice. In WT and in Il10−/− mice, curcumin increased bacterial richness, prevented age-related decrease in alpha diversity, increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillales, and decreased Coriobacterales order. Taxonomic profile of AOM/Il10−/− mice receiving curcumin was more similar to those of wild-type mice than those fed control diet. Conclusions In AOM/Il10−/− model, curcumin reduced or eliminated colonic tumor burden with limited effects on mucosal immune responses. The beneficial effect of curcumin on tumorigenesis was associated with the maintenance of a more diverse colonic microbial ecology. PMID:26218141

  2. Early colonizing Escherichia coli elicits remodeling of rat colonic epithelium shifting toward a new homeostatic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Julie; Reygner, Julie; Mayeur, Camille; Ducroc, Robert; Bouet, Stephan; Bridonneau, Chantal; Cavin, Jean-Baptiste; Thomas, Muriel; Langella, Philippe; Cherbuy, Claire

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of early colonizing bacteria on the colonic epithelium. We isolated dominant bacteria, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus intestinalis, Clostridium innocuum and a novel Fusobacterium spp., from the intestinal contents of conventional suckling rats and transferred them in different combinations into germfree (GF) adult rats. Animals were investigated after various times up to 21 days. Proliferative cell markers (Ki67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, phospho-histone H3, cyclin A) were higher in rats monocolonized with E. coli than in GF at all time points, but not in rats monocolonized with E. faecalis. The mucin content of goblet cells declined shortly after E. coli administration whereas the mucus layer doubled in thickness. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed that E. coli resides in this mucus layer. The epithelial mucin content progressively returned to baseline, following an increase in KLF4 and in the cell cycle arrest-related proteins p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1). Markers of colonic differentiated cells involved in electrolyte (carbonic anhydrase II and slc26A3) and water (aquaglyceroporin3 (aqp3)) transport, and secretory responses to carbachol were modulated after E. coli inoculation suggesting that ion transport dynamics were also affected. The colonic responses to simplified microbiotas differed substantially according to whether or not E. coli was combined with the other four bacteria. Thus, proliferation markers increased substantially when E. coli was in the mix, but very much less when it was absent. This work demonstrates that a pioneer strain of E. coli elicits sequential epithelial remodeling affecting the structure, mucus layer and ionic movements and suggests this can result in a microbiota-compliant state.

  3. Kaiso overexpression promotes intestinal inflammation and potentiates intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Christina C; Longo, Joseph; Mavor, Meaghan; Milosavljevic, Snezana B; Chaudhary, Roopali; Gilbreath, Ebony; Yates, Clayton; Daniel, Juliet M

    2015-09-01

    Constitutive Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a key contributor to colorectal cancer (CRC). Although inactivation of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is recognized as an early event in CRC development, it is the accumulation of multiple subsequent oncogenic insults facilitates malignant transformation. One potential contributor to colorectal carcinogenesis is the POZ-ZF transcription factor Kaiso, whose depletion extends lifespan and delays polyp onset in the widely used Apc(Min/+) mouse model of intestinal cancer. These findings suggested that Kaiso potentiates intestinal tumorigenesis, but this was paradoxical as Kaiso was previously implicated as a negative regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. To resolve Kaiso's role in intestinal tumorigenesis and canonical Wnt signaling, we generated a transgenic mouse model (Kaiso(Tg/+)) expressing an intestinal-specific myc-tagged Kaiso transgene. We then mated Kaiso(Tg/+) and Apc(Min/+) mice to generate Kaiso(Tg/+):Apc(Min/+) mice for further characterization. Kaiso(Tg/+):Apc(Min/+) mice exhibited reduced lifespan and increased polyp multiplicity compared to Apc(Min/+) mice. Consistent with this murine phenotype, we found increased Kaiso expression in human CRC tissue, supporting a role for Kaiso in human CRC. Interestingly, Wnt target gene expression was increased in Kaiso(Tg/+):Apc(Min/+) mice, suggesting that Kaiso's function as a negative regulator of canonical Wnt signaling, as seen in Xenopus, is not maintained in this context. Notably, Kaiso(Tg/+):Apc(Min/+) mice exhibited increased inflammation and activation of NFκB signaling compared to their Apc(Min/+) counterparts. This phenotype was consistent with our previous report that Kaiso(Tg/+) mice exhibit chronic intestinal inflammation. Together our findings highlight a role for Kaiso in promoting Wnt signaling, inflammation and tumorigenesis in the mammalian intestine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hip or knee injury, such as a hip fracture illness, such as a serious infection Acute colonic ... symptoms, such as problems with nerves in the limbs and changes in the ... the test. Lower GI series . A health care provider may order ...

  5. (Na+ + K+)-ATPase and plasma membrane polarity of intestinal epithelial cells: Presence of a brush border antigen in the distal large intestine that is immunologically related to beta subunit

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    Marxer, A.; Stieger, B.; Quaroni, A.; Kashgarian, M.; Hauri, H.P. (Univ. of Basel (Switzerland))

    1989-09-01

    The previously produced monoclonal antibody IEC 1/48 against cultured rat intestinal crypt cells was extensively characterized and found to be directed against the beta subunit of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase as assessed by immunological and enzymatic criteria. Under nondenaturing conditions the antibody precipitated the alpha-beta enzyme complex (98,000 and 48,000 Mr). This probe, together with the monoclonal antibody C 62.4 against the alpha subunit was used to localize (Na+ + K+)-ATPase in epithelial cells along the rat intestinal tract by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. Both antibodies exclusively labeled the basolateral membrane of small intestine and proximal colon epithelial cells. However, in the distal colon, IEC 1/48, but not C 62.4, also labeled the brush border membrane. The cross-reacting beta-subunit-like antigen on the apical cell pole was tightly associated with isolated brush borders but was apparently devoid of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity. Subcellular fractionation of colonocytes in conjunction with limited proteolysis and surface radioiodination of intestinal segments suggested that the cross-reacting antigen in the brush border may be very similar to the beta subunit. The results support the notion that in the small intestine and proximal colon the enzyme subunits are exclusively targeted to the basolateral membrane while in the distal colon nonassembled beta subunit or a beta-subunit-like protein is also transported to the apical cell pole.

  6. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Intestinal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, Alessandra; Arancibia-Cárcamo, Carolina V.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine that encompasses Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis. The cause of IBD is unknown, but the evidence suggests that an aberrant immune response toward the commensal bacterial flora is responsible for disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Results from animal models of colitis and human studies indicate a role for innate lymphoid cells (ILC) in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation in IBD. ILC are a population of lymphocytes that are enriched at mucosal sites, where they play a protective role against pathogens including extracellular bacteria, helminthes, and viruses. ILC lack an antigen-specific receptor, but can respond to environmental stress signals contributing to the rapid orchestration of an early immune response. Several subsets of ILC reflecting functional characteristics of T helper subsets have been described. ILC1 express the transcription factor T-bet and are characterized by secretion of IFNγ, ILC2 are GATA3+ and secrete IL5 and IL13 and ILC3 depend on expression of RORγt and secrete IL17 and IL22. However, ILC retain a degree of plasticity depending on exposure to cytokines and environmental factors. IL23 responsive ILC have been implicated in the pathogenesis of colitis in several innate murine models through the production of IL17, IFNγ, and GM-CSF. We have previously identified IL23 responsive ILC in the human intestine and found that they accumulate in the inflamed colon and small bowel of patients with CD. Other studies have confirmed accumulation of ILC in CD with increased frequencies of IFNγ-secreting ILC1 in both the intestinal lamina propria and the epithelium. Moreover, IL23 driven IL22 producing ILC have been shown to drive bacteria-induced colitis-associated cancer in mice. Interestingly, our data show increased ILC accumulation in patients with IBD and primary sclerosing cholangitis, who carry an increased risk of

  7. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Geremia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine that encompasses Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis. The cause of IBD is unknown, but the evidence suggests that an aberrant immune response toward the commensal bacterial flora is responsible for disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Results from animal models of colitis and human studies indicate a role for innate lymphoid cells (ILC in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation in IBD. ILC are a population of lymphocytes that are enriched at mucosal sites, where they play a protective role against pathogens including extracellular bacteria, helminthes, and viruses. ILC lack an antigen-specific receptor, but can respond to environmental stress signals contributing to the rapid orchestration of an early immune response. Several subsets of ILC reflecting functional characteristics of T helper subsets have been described. ILC1 express the transcription factor T-bet and are characterized by secretion of IFNγ, ILC2 are GATA3+ and secrete IL5 and IL13 and ILC3 depend on expression of RORγt and secrete IL17 and IL22. However, ILC retain a degree of plasticity depending on exposure to cytokines and environmental factors. IL23 responsive ILC have been implicated in the pathogenesis of colitis in several innate murine models through the production of IL17, IFNγ, and GM-CSF. We have previously identified IL23 responsive ILC in the human intestine and found that they accumulate in the inflamed colon and small bowel of patients with CD. Other studies have confirmed accumulation of ILC in CD with increased frequencies of IFNγ-secreting ILC1 in both the intestinal lamina propria and the epithelium. Moreover, IL23 driven IL22 producing ILC have been shown to drive bacteria-induced colitis-associated cancer in mice. Interestingly, our data show increased ILC accumulation in patients with IBD and primary sclerosing cholangitis, who carry an

  8. Neonatal Intestinal Obstruction-Four Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rathore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To study the aetiology and frequency, sex incidence, age of presentation, management and outcome of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Material and Methods: This prospective study of 316 neonates with intestinal obstruction was conducted over a period of 4 years from November 2009 to October 2013 at single institute. These cases were managed by various surgical procedures. Their epidemiology, day of presentation, associated anomalies and outcomes were studied. Results: A total of 316 neonates (277 males and 39 females were operated for intestinal obstruction. 268(84.81% neonates presented in the 1st week of life. Imperforate anus occurred in 206 (65.19%.Small bowel atresia accounted for23 (7.27% cases while duodenal atresia was seen in19 (6.01% patients. Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis and Malrotation each occurred in 14 (4.43% patients; Hirschsprung’s disease in 18(5.69%, Necrotising Enterocolitis in 12(3.79%, Meconium disease of newborn in 9(2.85% while colonic atresia was seen in one (0.3% patient. Colostomy was performed in 145(45.88%, Pouchostomy in 15(4.74% and Cutback anoplasty in 56(17.72% patients. Ramsted’s Pyloromyotomy in 13(4.11%% neonates, Laparoscopic Pyloromyotomy in 1(0.3%,Kimura’s Duodenoduodenostomy in 19(6.01% ,End to Back anastomosis in 24(7.59% , End to End anastomosis in 7(2.21% , Multiple anastomosis in 2(0.6% , Enterotomy with irrigation in 7(2.21% , Ladd’s procedure in 14(4.43% , ,Single stage transanal pull through in 8(2.53% , Ileostomy in 2(0.6% , Single stage Abdominoperineal pull through in 2(0.6%, Levelling colostomy in 6(1.89% ,Peritoneal drain insertion under Local anaesthesia in 5(1.58% . Overall mortality was 13.60%. Conclusion: Intestinal Obstruction is the most common surgical emergency in neonatal period. Early and accurate diagnosis is paramount for proper patient management. The etiology, mode of presentation, morbidity and outcome of surgery of intestinal obstruction in

  9. Intestinal ion transport in rats with spontaneous arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübcke, R; Barbezat, G O

    1988-08-01

    1. Ion balance, intestinal ion transport in vivo with luminal Ringer, and direct voltage clamping in vivo with luminal Ringer and sodium-free choline-Ringer were studied in young (40 days old) and adult (120 days old) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched normotensive controls (Wistar-Kyoto rats, WKY). 2. Faecal sodium output was significantly higher in SHR compared with WKY in both young (+67%) and adult (+43%) rats. 3. Small-intestinal sodium absorption was equal in young SHR and WKY, but significantly greater net sodium absorption was found in the ileum of adult SHR. In contrast, net sodium absorption was reduced from the colon of both young and adult SHR. 4. In adult SHR, the colonic transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and the transepithelial potential difference (PD) were significantly higher, whereas the transepithelial membrane resistance (Rm) was significantly lower than in WKY. There was an identical drop in Isc in both strains when luminal sodium was replaced by choline. These data cannot be explained by increased electrogenic cation (sodium) absorption in the SHR, but would favour chloride secretion. 5. It is suggested that in SHR membrane electrolyte transport abnormalities may also be present in the epithelial cells of the small and large intestine, as have been demonstrated already in blood cells by several investigators. The SHR may become an interesting experimental animal model for the study of generalized ion transport disorders.

  10. SAM pointed domain ETS factor (SPDEF) regulates terminal differentiation and maturation of intestinal goblet cells

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    Noah, Taeko K.; Kazanjian, Avedis [Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Whitsett, Jeffrey [Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Neonatology and Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Shroyer, Noah F., E-mail: noah.shroyer@cchmc.org [Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Background and Aims: SPDEF (also termed PDEF or PSE) is an ETS family transcription factor that regulates gene expression in the prostate and goblet cell hyperplasia in the lung. Spdef has been reported to be expressed in the intestine. In this paper, we identify an important role for Spdef in regulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis and differentiation. Methods: SPDEF expression was inhibited in colon cancer cells to determine its ability to control goblet cell gene activation. The effects of transgenic expression of Spdef on intestinal differentiation and homeostasis were determined. Results: In LS174T colon cancer cells treated with Notch/{gamma}-secretase inhibitor to activate goblet cell gene expression, shRNAs that inhibited SPDEF also repressed expression of goblet cell genes AGR2, MUC2, RETLNB, and SPINK4. Transgenic expression of Spdef caused the expansion of intestinal goblet cells and corresponding reduction in Paneth, enteroendocrine, and absorptive enterocytes. Spdef inhibited proliferation of intestinal crypt cells without induction of apoptosis. Prolonged expression of the Spdef transgene caused a progressive reduction in the number of crypts that expressed Spdef, consistent with its inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Conclusions: Spdef was sufficient to inhibit proliferation of intestinal progenitors and induce differentiation into goblet cells; SPDEF was required for activation of goblet cell associated genes in vitro. These data support a model in which Spdef promotes terminal differentiation into goblet cells of a common goblet/Paneth progenitor.

  11. Anomalous course of the sigmoid colon and the mesosigmoid encountered during colectomy. A case report of a redundant loop of sigmoid colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zarokosta

    Full Text Available Introduction Sigmoid colon constitutes a part of the large intestine that presents several congenital anatomic variations. In particular, the presence of a redundant loop of sigmoid colon is of tremendous importance for surgeons, obstetricians and radiologists, since it is closely related to multiple pathological conditions and functional implications of the neighboring anatomical structures. Presentation of case: An unusual anatomic variation in position and length of the sigmoid colon and its mesocolon was unexpectedly detected during right hemicolectomy to a 67-year-old Caucasian male patient due to colon cancer. The operation was uneventful. A meticulous review of the literature was conducted as well. Discussion: A redundant loop of sigmoid colon may go unnoticed or it might lead to urinary, digestive and vascular complications. Its presence is associated with acute and chronic pathological conditions, sigmoid volvulus and serious confusions in radiological diagnosis and instrumentation. Conclusion: Surgeons’ thorough knowledge concerning this rare anatomic variation is fundamental and crucial in order to establish a correct diagnosis and assert the appropriate management when performing operations including pelvis and abdomen. Keywords: Dolichocolon, Redundant sigmoid colon, Case report, Sigmoid volvulus, Dolichosigmoid colon

  12. 65Zn kinetics as a biomarker of DMH induced colon carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadha, Vijayta Dani

    2012-01-01

    Dietary factors are considered crucial for the prevention of initiating events in the multistep progression of colon carcinoma. There is substantial evidence that zinc may play a pivotal role in host defense against several malignancies, including colon cancer. The present study was conducted to evaluate the kinetics of zinc utilization following experimental colon carcinogenesis in rat model. The rats were segregated into two groups viz., untreated control and DMH treated. Colon carcinogenesis was established through weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30mg/Kg body weight) for 16 weeks. Whole body 65 Zn kinetics followed two compartment kinetics, with Tb1 representing the initial fast component of the biological half-life and Tb2, the slower component. The present study revealed a significant depression in the Tb1 and Tb2 components of 65 Zn in DMH treated rats. Further, DMH treatment caused a significant increase in the percent uptake values of 65 Zn in the colon, small intestine, kidney and blood, whereas a significant decrease was observed in the liver. Subcellular distribution revealed a significant increase in 65 Zn uptake in the mitochondrial and microsomal fractions following 16 weeks of DMH supplementation. The present study demonstrated a slow mobilization of zinc during promotion of experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis and provides a physiological basis for the role of zinc in colon tumorigenesis, a paradigm which may have clinical implications in the management of colon cancer. (author)

  13. Oral administration of a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit promotes mucosal healing in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, K J; Royal, J M; Kouokam, J C; Haribabu, B; Jala, V R; Yaddanapudi, K; Hamorsky, K T; Dryden, G W; Matoba, N

    2017-07-01

    Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) is a component of a licensed oral cholera vaccine. However, CTB has pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects whose impacts on the gut are not fully understood. Here, we found that oral administration in mice of a plant-made recombinant CTB (CTBp) significantly increased several immune cell populations in the colon lamina propria. Global gene expression analysis revealed that CTBp had more pronounced impacts on the colon than the small intestine, with significant activation of TGFβ-mediated pathways in the colon epithelium. The clinical relevance of CTBp-induced impacts on colonic mucosa was examined. In a human colon epithelial model using Caco2 cells, CTBp, but not the non-GM1-binding mutant G33D-CTBp, induced TGFβ-mediated wound healing. In a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) acute colitis mouse model, oral administration of CTBp protected against colon mucosal damage as manifested by mitigated body weight loss, decreased histopathological scores, and blunted escalation of inflammatory cytokine levels while inducing wound healing-related genes. Furthermore, biweekly oral administration of CTBp significantly reduced disease severity and tumorigenesis in the azoxymethane/DSS model of ulcerative colitis and colon cancer. Altogether, these results demonstrate CTBp's ability to enhance mucosal healing in the colon, highlighting its potential application in ulcerative colitis therapy besides cholera vaccination.

  14. Epsin is required for Dishevelled stability and Wnt signalling activation in colon cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Baojun; Tessneer, Kandice L; McManus, John; Liu, Xiaolei; Hahn, Scott; Pasula, Satish; Wu, Hao; Song, Hoogeun; Chen, Yiyuan; Cai, Xiaofeng; Dong, Yunzhou; Brophy, Megan L; Rahman, Ruby; Ma, Jian-Xing; Xia, Lijun; Chen, Hong

    2015-03-16

    Uncontrolled canonical Wnt signalling supports colon epithelial tumour expansion and malignant transformation. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms involved is crucial for elucidating the pathogenesis of and will provide new therapeutic targets for colon cancer. Epsins are ubiquitin-binding adaptor proteins upregulated in several human cancers; however, the involvement of epsins in colon cancer is unknown. Here we show that loss of intestinal epithelial epsins protects against colon cancer by significantly reducing the stability of the crucial Wnt signalling effector, dishevelled (Dvl2), and impairing Wnt signalling. Consistently, epsins and Dvl2 are correspondingly upregulated in colon cancer. Mechanistically, epsin binds Dvl2 via its epsin N-terminal homology domain and ubiquitin-interacting motifs and prohibits Dvl2 polyubiquitination and degradation. Our findings reveal an unconventional role for epsins in stabilizing Dvl2 and potentiating Wnt signalling in colon cancer cells to ensure robust colon cancer progression. The pro-carcinogenic role of Epsins suggests that they are potential therapeutic targets to combat colon cancer.

  15. Partial spontaneous anal expulsion of the right colon lipoma: An exceptional diagnostic circumstance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmi Hamila

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lipomas are most common benign tumors of the colon. They are asymptomatic and fortuitously discovered on a morphological examination. Rarely, they cause complications such as acute intussusception. In this article, we reported an exceptional discovery mode of right colon lipoma. Case presentation: A 54-year-old woman has consulted for acute abdominal pain relieved by the anus emission of a fat ball that she brought back with her. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed the remaining part of a lipoma developed in her right colon. Laparoscopic right colonic resection was performed. Discussion: Colic lipomas are usually asymptomatic and surgical indication in these cases is debated, but it is indicated whenever complications occur such as acute intestinal intussusception. In this case, discovery mode was not considered as a complication because lipoma evacuation could have been complete. Radiological explorations and colonoscopy could evaluate the lesional state. When surgery is decided, intersecting therapeutic strategy of a short colonic resection guided by a colonization during colonoscopy should be considered. Conclusion: The spontaneous expulsion of a colonic lipoma is very rare. Our observation showed that this expulsion may be partial. +The changes that the lipoma undergoes can evoke a malignant cause. a supplement to take care of this eventuality is necessary. Keywords: Colonic lipoma, Spontaneous expulsion, Colectomy

  16. Outcomes of colon resection in patients with metastatic colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Hanna, Mark H; Hwang, Grace; Mills, Steven; Pigazzi, Alessio; Stamos, Michael J; Carmichael, Joseph C

    2016-08-01

    Patients with advanced colorectal cancer have a high incidence of postoperative complications. We sought to identify outcomes of patients who underwent resection for colon cancer by cancer stage. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to evaluate all patients who underwent colon resection with a diagnosis of colon cancer from 2012 to 2014. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate patient outcomes by cancer stage. A total of 7,786 colon cancer patients who underwent colon resection were identified. Of these, 10.8% had metastasis at the time of operation. Patients with metastatic disease had significantly increased risks of perioperative morbidity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.44, P = .01) and mortality (AOR: 3.72, P = .01). Patients with metastatic disease were significantly younger (AOR: .99, P colon cancer have metastatic disease. Postoperative morbidity and mortality are significantly higher than in patients with localized disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Intestinal permeability of forskolin by in situ single pass perfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Jun; Jiang, Dong-bo; Tian, Lu-Lu; Yin, Jia-Jun; Huang, Jian-Ming; Weng, Wei-Yu

    2012-05-01

    The intestinal permeability of forskolin was investigated using a single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) technique in rats. SPIP was performed in different intestinal segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon) with three concentrations of forskolin (11.90, 29.75, and 59.90 µg/mL). The investigations of adsorption and stability were performed to ensure that the disappearance of forskolin from the perfusate was due to intestinal absorption. The results of the SPIP study indicated that forskolin could be absorbed in all segments of the intestine. The effective permeability (P (eff)) of forskolin was in the range of drugs with high intestinal permeability. The P (eff) was highest in the duodenum as compared to other intestinal segments. The decreases of P (eff) in the duodenum and ileum at the highest forskolin concentration suggested a saturable transport process. The addition of verapamil, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, significantly enhanced the permeability of forskolin across the rat jejunum. The absorbed fraction of dissolved forskolin after oral administration in humans was estimated to be 100 % calculated from rat P (eff). In conclusion, dissolved forskolin can be absorbed readily in the intestine. The low aqueous solubility of forskolin might be a crucial factor for its poor oral bioavailability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. How Facilitation May Interfere with Ecological Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Liancourt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the vast literature linking competitive interactions and speciation, attempts to understand the role of facilitation for evolutionary diversification remain scarce. Yet, community ecologists now recognize the importance of positive interactions within plant communities. Here, we examine how facilitation may interfere with the mechanisms of ecological speciation. We argue that facilitation is likely to (1 maintain gene flow among incipient species by enabling cooccurrence of adapted and maladapted forms in marginal habitats and (2 increase fitness of introgressed forms and limit reinforcement in secondary contact zones. Alternatively, we present how facilitation may favour colonization of marginal habitats and thus enhance local adaptation and ecological speciation. Therefore, facilitation may impede or pave the way for ecological speciation. Using a simple spatially and genetically explicit modelling framework, we illustrate and propose some first testable ideas about how, when, and where facilitation may act as a cohesive force for ecological speciation. These hypotheses and the modelling framework proposed should stimulate further empirical and theoretical research examining the role of both competitive and positive interactions in the formation of incipient species.

  19. Evaluation value of intestinal flora detection for intestinal mucosal inflammation and immune response in patients with ulcerative colitis

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    Yan Zou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the evaluation value of intestinal flora detection for intestinal mucosal inflammatory response and immune response in patients with ulcerative colitis. Methods: The patients who were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis in Zigong Fifth People’s Hospital between March 2015 and February 2017 were selected as the UC group, and those who were diagnosed with colonic polyps were selected as the control group. Fresh excreta were collected to detect the number of intestinal flora, and the diseased intestinal mucosa tissue was collected to detect the expression of inflammatory response molecules and immune cell transcription factors. Results: enterococcus contents in intestinal tract and TLR4, NF-kB, TNF-α, HMGB-1, T-bet and RORC mRNA expression levels in intestinal mucosa of UC group were significantly higher than those of control group while bifidobacteria contents in intestinal tract and SOCS2, SOCS3, Foxp3 and GATA-3 mRNA expression levels were significantly lower than those of control group; TLR4, NF-kB, TNF-α, HMGB-1, T-bet and RORC mRNA expression levels in intestinal mucosa of UC patients with grade II and grade III flora disturbance were significantly higher than those of UC patients with normal flora and grade I flora disturbance while SOCS2, SOCS3, Foxp3 and GATA-3 mRNA expression levels were significantly lower than those of UC patients with normal flora and grade I flora disturbance; TLR4, NF-kB, TNF-α, HMGB-1, T-bet and RORC mRNA expression levels in intestinal mucosa of UC patients with grade III flora disturbance were significantly higher than those of UC patients with grade II flora disturbance while SOCS2, SOCS3, Foxp3 and GATA-3 mRNA expression levels were significantly lower than those of UC patients with grade II flora disturbance. Conclusion: The intestinal flora disturbance in patients with ulcerative colitis can result in inflammatory response activation and immune response disorder.

  20. Changes in the composition of intestinal fungi and their role in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xinyun; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Xi; Wu, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Li, Xia; Li, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yulan

    2015-05-27

    Intestinal fungi are increasingly believed to greatly influence gut health. However, the effects of fungi on intestinal inflammation and on gut bacterial constitution are not clear. Here, based on pyrosequencing method, we reveal that fungal compositions vary in different intestinal segments (ileum, cecum, and colon), prefer different colonization locations (mucosa and feces), and are remarkably changed during intestinal inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis mouse models compare to normal controls: Penicillium, Wickerhamomyces, Alternaria, and Candida are increased while Cryptococcus, Phialemonium, Wallemia and an unidentified Saccharomycetales genus are decreased in the guts of DSS-colitis mice. Fungi-depleted mice exhibited aggravated acute DSS-colitis associated with gain of Hallella, Barnesiella, Bacteroides, Alistipes, and Lactobacillus and loss of butyrate-producing Clostridium XIVa, and Anaerostipes compare with normal control. In contrast, bacteria-depleted mice show attenuated acute DSS-colitis. Mice with severely chronic recurrent DSS-colitis show increased plasma (1,3)-β-D-glucan level and fungal translocation into the colonic mucosa, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. This work demonstrate the different roles of fungi in acute and chronic recurrent colitis: They are important counterbalance to bacteria in maintaining intestinal micro-ecological homeostasis and health