WorldWideScience

Sample records for facilitate comparative studies

  1. Barriers and Facilitators for Being Physically Active in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Cross-sectional Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongen, Camilla; Sveaas, Silje Halvorsen; Dagfinrud, Hanne

    2015-06-01

    The aims of the present study were to explore the barriers and facilitators for being physically active and the perceived health benefits of physical activity in a group of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and to compare the findings with those in population controls. A total of 148 patients and 133 controls were included in a cross-sectional study. Barriers, facilitators and perceived health benefits were registered in a structured interview. Patients were significantly more likely to report barriers to being physically active compared with controls (78% versus 58%; p ≤ 0.001). The barriers most frequently reported by patients were pain (48%), stiffness (36%), fatigue (30%) and disability (21%). A similar proportion of patients (62%) and controls (61%) reported that they had the potential to become more physically active (p = 0.12). Time and motivation were the most frequently reported facilitators in both groups. Patients also reported stable disease (15%) and individually adapted physical activity (8%) as facilitators. An equal proportion of patients (96%) and controls (96%) reported that physical activity had a positive effect on their health (p = 0.94). Improved fitness and increased vitality were the most frequently reported health benefits in both groups. Patients also reported greater disease stability (37%) and reduced pain (33%) as benefits. A larger proportion of patients than controls reported barriers to being physically active. In addition to regular barriers, facilitators and health benefits, patients reported that disease-related factors influenced their participation in physical activity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. How Multilevel Societal Learning Processes Facilitate Transformative Change: A Comparative Case Study Analysis on Flood Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pahl-Wostl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable resources management requires a major transformation of existing resource governance and management systems. These have evolved over a long time under an unsustainable management paradigm, e.g., the transformation from the traditionally prevailing technocratic flood protection toward the holistic integrated flood management approach. We analyzed such transformative changes using three case studies in Europe with a long history of severe flooding: the Hungarian Tisza and the German and Dutch Rhine. A framework based on societal learning and on an evolutionary understanding of societal change was applied to identify drivers and barriers for change. Results confirmed the importance of informal learning and actor networks and their connection to formal policy processes. Enhancing a society's capacity to adapt is a long-term process that evolves over decades, and in this case, was punctuated by disastrous flood events that promoted windows of opportunity for change.

  3. Macular Hole Surgery with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling Facilitated by Membrane-Blue® versus Membrane-Blue-Dual®: A Retrospective Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shai, Daniel; Loewenstein, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study aims to compare the outcome of macular hole (MH) surgery with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling facilitated by two different vital dyes. Methods. This was a retrospective chart review. The group designated “group-MB” underwent pars plana vitrectomy with ILM peeling facilitated by Membrane-Blue (MB), whereas in “group-MBD,” the vital dye used was Membrane-Blue-Dual (MBD). Results. Seventy-four eyes comprised the study population: 53 in group-MB and 21 in group-MBD. There was no difference in the rate of macular hole closure in group-MB or group-MBD: 71.2% closed MHs compared to 66.7%, respectively (p = 0.7). Postoperative visual improvement was of a higher magnitude in the MBD group compared to the MB group: −0.34 ± 0.81 logMAR versus 0.01 ± 0.06 logMAR, respectively (p = 0.003). Conclusions. In this study, MBD led to better visual results that may be related to better staining characteristics or lesser toxicity compared to MB. PMID:28050275

  4. Facilitation of motor evoked potentials from magnetic brain stimulation in man: a comparative study of different target muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kischka, U; Fajfr, R; Fellenberg, T; Hess, C W

    1993-10-01

    The influence of tonic muscle contraction and stimulus intensity on compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) elicited by magnetic brain stimulation was studied in the biceps brachii (34 subjects), the abductor digiti minimi (11 subjects), the anterior tibial muscle (12 subjects), and the soleus muscle (5 subjects). The muscles were examined at rest and with various degrees of background contraction of up to 60% of maximum force. Stimulus intensity was set at threshold (TSI) or 20% above threshold (1.2 TSI), and in one series additionally at 50% above threshold (1.5 TSI). The effect of voluntary background contraction on CMAP onset latency was similar in the four muscles tested: the latencies shortened by approximately 3 ms when the muscle changed from the relaxed to the contracted state of the 10% of maximum force. An additional increase in the background contraction up to 60% of maximum force induced only few, if any, additional decreases in latency. The uniformity of the latency shift in distal and proximal muscles conflicts with the idea of recruitment of larger and rapidly conducting motoneurons being the cause, since this hypothesis would imply a more pronounced latency reduction in distal than in proximal muscles. The shorter latency during voluntary contraction is more likely due to an enhanced synaptic efficacy at spinal level. Since the motoneurons are brought into an increased state of activity during contraction, they require less temporal summation to reach firing threshold and thus discharge earlier. The CMAP amplitudes of the different muscles were more distinctly affected by voluntary background contraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Facilitating endoscopic submucosal dissection: the suture-pulley method significantly improves procedure time and minimizes technical difficulty compared with conventional technique: an ex vivo study (with video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Hiroyuki; Kumar, Nitin; Ryou, Marvin; Abidi, Wasif; Ryan, Michele B.; Thompson, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The lack of countertraction in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) results in increased technical demand and procedure time. Although the suture-pulley method for countertraction has been reported, its effectiveness compared with the traditional ESD technique remains unclear. Objective To objectively analyze efficacy of countertraction using the suture-pulley method for ESD. Design Prospective ex vivo animal study. Setting Animal laboratory. Interventions Twenty simulated gastric lesions were created in porcine stomachs by using a standard circular template 30 mm in diameter. In the control arm (n = 10), ESD was performed by using the standard technique. In the suture-pulley arm (N = 10), a circumferential incision was made, and an endoscopic suturing device was used to place the suture pulley. Main Outcome Measurements The primary outcome of this study was total procedure time. Results The median total procedure time with the suture-pulley method was significantly shorter than the traditional ESD technique (median, 25% to 75%, interquartile range [IQR]: 531 seconds [474.3–549.3 seconds] vs 845 seconds [656.3–1547.5 seconds], P < .001). The median time (IQR) for suture-pulley placement was 160.5 seconds (150.0–168.8 seconds). Although there was a significantly longer procedure time for proximal versus middle/lower stomach lesions with traditional ESD (median, 1601 seconds; IQR, 1547.5–1708.8 seconds vs median, 663 seconds; IQR, 627.5–681.8 seconds; P =.01), there was no significant difference in procedure time for lesions of various locations when using the suture-pulley method. Compared with traditional ESD, the suture-pulley method was less demanding in all categories evaluated by the NASA Task Load Index. Limitations Ex vivo study. Conclusions The suture-pulley method facilitates direct visualization of the submucosal layer during ESD and significantly reduces procedure time and technical difficulty. In addition, the benefit of the suture

  6. Facilitating peer learning in study groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2009-01-01

    the preliminary results from the facilitated study groups. After one term (February-May), student satisfaction with both the social and the disciplinary environment had increased. The project shows how academic and social integration can be achieved with minimum faculty member involvement. This is done by relying...... 'Facilitating study environment' at one of DPU's educations in spring 2009. The pilot project consisted of three elements: Facilitated study groups, a student bar with facilitated activities, and academic identity events. Subsequently, we have studied students' experiences with the project. This paper outlines...... on the students' own resources, using peer-learning and facilitating these activities....

  7. Facilitated transport of Mn2+ in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells and excised maize root tips. A comparative 31P n.m.r. study in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, C; Bligny, R; Douce, R; Tu, S I; Pfeffer, P E

    1988-06-01

    Movement of paramagnetic Mn2+ into sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells has been indirectly examined by observing the line broadening exhibited in its 31P n.m.r. spectra. Mn2+ was observed to pass into the vacuole, while exhibiting a very minor accumulation in the cytoplasm. With time, gradual leakage of phosphate from the vacuole to the cytoplasm was observed along with an increase in glucose-6-phosphate. Anoxia did not appear to affect the relative distribution of Mn2+ in the cytoplasm and vacuole. Under hypoxic conditions restriction of almost all movement of Mn2+ across the plasmalemma as well as the tonoplast was observed. In contrast, maize root tips showed entry and complete complexation of nucleotide triphosphate by Mn2+ during hypoxia. The rate of passage of Mn2+ across the tonoplast in both sycamore and maize root cells is approximately the same. However, the rates of facilitated movement across the respective plasma membranes appear to differ. More rapid movement of Mn2+ across the plasmalemma in maize root tip cells allows a gradual build-up of metal ion in the cytoplasm prior to its diffusion across the tonoplast. Sycamore cells undergo a slower uptake of Mn2+ into their cytoplasms (comparable with the rate of diffusion through the tonoplast), so little or no observable accumulation of Mn2+ is observed in this compartment.

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Trade Facilitation in Selected Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Institute for International Trade

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the treatment of trade facilitation in four selected regional trade agreements, AFTA, APEC, SAFRA and PACER, and in one bilateral free trade agreement being the Australia-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (ASFTA), with a view to determining model trade facilitation principles and measures which may be instructive for developing country negotiations and policy makers.

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Trade Facilitation in Selected Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Wille, P.; J. Redden

    2006-01-01

    This study compares the treatment of trade facilitation in four selected regional trade agreements, AFTA, APEC, SAFTA and PACER, and in one bilateral free trade agreement being the Australia-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (ASFTA), with a view to determining model trade facilitation principles and measures which may be instructive for developing country negotiators and policy makers.

  10. Comparing Traditional Journal Writing with Journal Writing Shared over E-mail List Serves as Tools for Facilitating Reflective Thinking: A Study of Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Diane S.; Rupley, William H.; Sparks, Joanne; Holcomb, Angelia

    2007-01-01

    To determine the conditions that would best encourage reflection in journal writing of preservice teachers in field-based reading internships, the degree of reflective content found in self-contained traditional journals was compared to the reflective content found in journal entries shared over e-mail list serves. Participants were 56 preservice…

  11. Comparing Two Forms of Concept Map Critique Activities to Facilitate Knowledge Integration Processes in Evolution Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendimann, Beat A.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept map activities often lack a subsequent revision step that facilitates knowledge integration. This study compares two collaborative critique activities using a Knowledge Integration Map (KIM), a form of concept map. Four classes of high school biology students (n?=?81) using an online inquiry-based learning unit on evolution were assigned…

  12. Role enactment of facilitation in primary care - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Tina Drud; Thorsen, Thorkil; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2017-01-01

    organisations. The complexity of the facilitation field and diversity of potential facilitator roles fosters a need to investigate in detail how facilitation is enacted. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore the enactment of external peer facilitation in general practice in order to create a stronger...

  13. Facilitating classroom based interprofessional learning: a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of their role adequacy as facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Julie A; Machin, Alison I; Crozier, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The provision of inter professional learning (IPL) within undergraduate programmes is now well established within many Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). IPL aims to better equip nurses and other health professionals with effective collaborative working skills and knowledge to improve the quality of patient care. Although there is still ambiguity in relation to the optimum timing and method for delivering IPL, effective facilitation is seen as essential. This paper reports on a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed for their role adequacy as IPL facilitators. Data was collected using semi structured interviews with nine participants who were theoretically sampled from a range of professional backgrounds, with varied experiences of education and involvement in facilitating IPL. Constant comparative analysis was used to generate four data categories: creating and sustaining an IPL group culture through transformational IPL leadership (core category), readiness for IPL facilitation, drawing on past interprofessional learning and working experiences and role modelling an interprofessional approach. The grounded theory generated from this study, although propositional, suggests that role adequacy for IPL facilitation is dependent on facilitator engagement in a process of 'transformational interprofessional learning leadership' to create and sustain a group culture.

  14. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  15. Using Authentic Data to Facilitate Comparative Planetology & Student-led Classroom Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige; Runco, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This session will engage participants in a hands-on activity that uses stunning NASA imagery from space to help participants gain an understanding of how scientists use Earth to gain a better understanding of other planetary bodies in the solar system. Participants will make observations, develop identification criteria, and use evidence to justify inferences made about processes sculpting the surface of different planetary worlds. Participants will also "build" a comparative planetology feature wall that will facilitate a comparative view of major geologic processes and features across the inner solar system. This session will highlight additional comparative planetology activities and demonstrate how the use of authentic data and imagery can help facilitate student-led research in the classroom, helping teachers address the Next Generation Science Standards.

  16. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnaz Kohan; Zeinab Heidari; Mahrokh Keshvari

    2016-01-01

    Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeed...

  17. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  18. Facilitating safe care: a qualitative study of Iranian nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Bondas, Terese; Salsali, Mahvash; Jasper, Melanie; Turunen, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    Aim  The purpose of this study was to explore and describe how nurse leaders facilitate safe care from the perspectives of both nurses and nurse leaders. Background  The health-care system's success in improving patient safety pivots on nursing leadership. However, there is a lack of knowledge in the international literature about how nurse leaders facilitate provision of safe care and reaching the goal of a safe health-care system. Method  A qualitative design using a content analysis approach was applied for data gathering and analysis. In this study, 20 nurses (16 nurses and four head nurses) working in a referral teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran, were recruited through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews and 10 hours of structured observations were conducted to collect data. Results  The data analysis resulted in three main themes: 'providing environmental prerequisites for safe nursing practice', 'uniting and integrating health-care providers', and 'creating an atmosphere of safe care'. Conclusion  The results indicate that to facilitate providing safe care, nurse leaders should improve nurses' working conditions, develop the nurses' practical competencies, assign duties to nurses according to their skills and capabilities, administer appropriate supervision, improve health-care providers' professional relationships and encourage their collaboration, empower nurses and reward their safe practice. Implications for nursing management  Approaching the challenge of patient safety requires the health-care system to combine its efforts and strategies with nursing leadership in its vital role of facilitating safe care and improving patient safety. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comparative waste forms study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings.

  20. FIRE (facilitating implementation of research evidence: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seers Kate

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence underpins best practice, but is not always used in healthcare. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS framework suggests that the nature of evidence, the context in which it is used, and whether those trying to use evidence are helped (or facilitated affect the use of evidence. Urinary incontinence has a major effect on quality of life of older people, has a high prevalence, and is a key priority within European health and social care policy. Improving continence care has the potential to improve the quality of life for older people and reduce the costs associated with providing incontinence aids. Objectives This study aims to advance understanding about the contribution facilitation can make to implementing research findings into practice via: extending current knowledge of facilitation as a process for translating research evidence into practice; evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of two different models of facilitation in promoting the uptake of research evidence on continence management; assessing the impact of contextual factors on the processes and outcomes of implementation; and implementing a pro-active knowledge transfer and dissemination strategy to diffuse study findings to a wide policy and practice community. Setting and sample Four European countries, each with six long-term nursing care sites (total 24 sites for people aged 60 years and over with documented urinary incontinence Methods and design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial with three arms (standard dissemination and two different programmes of facilitation, with embedded process and economic evaluation. The primary outcome is compliance with the continence recommendations. Secondary outcomes include proportion of residents with incontinence, incidence of incontinence-related dermatitis, urinary tract infections, and quality of life. Outcomes are assessed at baseline

  1. Physiotherapy postgraduate studies in South Africa: Facilitators and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Cobbing

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the facilitators and barriers to attaining a postgraduate physiotherapy degree in South Africa.Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional design using an internet-based survey was employed. The population of the study included all qualified physiotherapists who had completed community service and who were on the South African Society of Physiotherapy e-mailing list at the time of the study. Results: In all, 425 valid responses were received. The study participants were predominantly white women with a mean age of 36.9 and the majority were working in private practice. A total of 20.5% of respondents had completed a master’s or doctoral degree in physiotherapy, while a further 13% of respondents were registered for a postgraduate degree in physiotherapy at the time of the study. Study participants who had obtained a postgraduate degree identified the same main barriers (namely cost/lack of financial support, family commitments and lack of time and the same main facilitators (namely gaining of expertise, fulfilment of a personal goal and improvement of patient care as participants who had not obtained a postgraduate degree. Participants who had not obtained a postgraduate degree were significantly more likely (p < 0.05 to report concerns regarding their own ability and a lack of motivation as barriers to further study.Conclusion: South African physiotherapists with and without a postgraduate degree reported common facilitators and barriers to pursuing postgraduate studies. In order to ensure that a greater number and diversity of physiotherapists see postgraduate studies as a worthwhile career option, stakeholders in health and education in both the South African public and private sectors need to be engaged to limit the barriers to postgraduate study and seek novel methods of making postgraduate study a more attractive option from a personal development and career perspective.

  2. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Kohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeeding. Material and Methods This study conducted by content analysis method. Thirty-four semi-structured individual interviews with 20 mothers having breastfeeding experience, 4 key family members, and 10 personnel involved in breastfeeding services were carried out. Data analysis was simultaneously performed with data collection. Results Three main categories of "Health system factors", "Family and personal factors" and "Social and cultural factors" were extracted from the participants' explanations, indicating the dimensions of facilitators for empowering women in breastfeeding. Conclusion Participants regarded the acquisition of breastfeeding skills in hospitals and breastfeeding counseling in health centers as important factors in facilitating their empowerment to early initiation of breastfeeding and its continuity. Further analysis showed "a mother's decision to breastfeed" along with her understanding of "positive attitude and her husband and family's participation in breastfeeding" boosts the breastfeeding ability and the support of the community through "positive cultural belief in breastfeeding" and" public education and information" provides an appropriate ground for the continuity of breastfeeding. In order to improve breastfeeding, a comprehensive planning with regard to women's empowerment in breastfeeding should be considered.

  3. Barriers and facilitators of sports in Dutch Paralympic athletes: An explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, E A; Geertzen, J H B; de Jong, R; Dijkstra, P U; Dekker, R

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight in barriers and facilitators of sports in paralympic athletes. An online questionnaire was distributed through the Netherlands Olympic Committee and National Sports Confederation to determine personal and environmental barriers and facilitators of sports participation. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model and theory of planned behavior were used to respectively categorize the results in environmental and personal factors, and attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. Seventy-six Dutch Paralympic athletes completed the questionnaire (51% response rate). Barriers and facilitators experienced by ambulant and wheelchair athletes were compared. Most frequently mentioned personal barrier was dependency of others (22%), while most frequently mentioned environmental barrier was lack of sports facilities (30%). Wheelchair athletes mentioned more barriers (median = 3, interquartile range: 0.5-6), than ambulant athletes (median = 1.0,interquartile range:0.0-3.0, P = 0.023). One-third of the athletes did not experience any barriers. Most frequently mentioned personal facilitators to initiate sports participation were fun (78%), health (61%), and competition (53%). Most frequently mentioned environmental facilitator was social support (40%). This study indicated that barriers of sport were mostly environmental, while facilitators were usually personal factors. Attitude and subjective norm were considered the most important components for intention to participation in sports. The facilitators outweighed the barriers and kept the athletes being active in sports.

  4. Motor resonance facilitates movement execution: an ERP and kinematic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde eMénoret

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Action observation, simulation and execution share neural mechanisms that allow for a common motor representation. It is known that when these overlapping mechanisms are simultaneously activated by action observation and execution, motor performance is influenced by observation and vice versa. To understand the neural dynamics underlying this influence and to measure how variations in brain activity impact the precise kinematics of motor behaviour, we coupled kinematics and electrophysiological recordings of participants while they performed and observed congruent or non-congruent actions or during action execution alone. We found that movement velocities and the trajectory deviations of the executed actions increased during the observation of congruent actions compared to the observation of non-congruent actions or action execution alone. This facilitation was also discernible in the motor-related potentials of the participants; the motor-related potentials were transiently more negative in the congruent condition around the onset of the executed movement, which occurred 300 ms after the onset of the observed movement. This facilitation seemed to depend not only on spatial congruency but also on the optimal temporal relationship of the observation and execution events.

  5. A Comparative Study of Teaching Comparative Education

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize the comparative education subjects offered in different programs in different foreign universities. As a subject, comparative education has not been firmly institutionalized in education programs in Japanese universities. There was a movement which aimed at making comparative education as one of the mandatory subjects in the teacher training program, however it was not successful. To date, comparative education subject has been offered in various p...

  6. Social Facilitation in Online and Offline Gambling: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Tom; Barrett, Douglas J. K.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    To date, there has been relatively little research on Internet gambling. Furthermore, there have been few studies comparing the behaviour of Internet gamblers versus non-Internet gamblers. Using the game of roulette, this study experimentally examined (a) the differences in gambling behaviour between online and offline gamblers, and (b) the role…

  7. Earthworms facilitate carbon sequestration through unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weixin; Hendrix, Paul F; Dame, Lauren E; Burke, Roger A; Wu, Jianping; Neher, Deborah A; Li, Jianxiong; Shao, Yuanhu; Fu, Shenglei

    2013-01-01

    A recent review concluded that earthworm presence increases CO₂ emissions by 33% but does not affect soil organic carbon stocks. However, the findings are controversial and raise new questions. Here we hypothesize that neither an increase in CO₂ emission nor in stabilized carbon would entirely reflect the earthworms' contribution to net carbon sequestration. We show how two widespread earthworm invaders affect net carbon sequestration through impacts on the balance of carbon mineralization and carbon stabilization. Earthworms accelerate carbon activation and induce unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with carbon mineralization, which generates an earthworm-mediated 'carbon trap'. We introduce the new concept of sequestration quotient to quantify the unequal processes. The patterns of CO₂ emission and net carbon sequestration are predictable by comparing sequestration quotient values between treatments with and without earthworms. This study clarifies an ecological mechanism by which earthworms may regulate the terrestrial carbon sink.

  8. Deficient distracter inhibition and enhanced facilitation for emotional stimuli in depression: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qin; Feng, Zhengzhi; Koster, Ernst H W

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate distracter inhibition ability for emotional faces in depression using a negative affective priming (NAP) task combined with event-related potentials (ERP). The reaction times and the ERP amplitudes were recorded during the task. In a first behavioral experiment, control participants (NC), participants who were currently remitted (RMD), and participants diagnosed with a current major depressive disorder (MDD), performed a modified NAP task. The main finding was that compared with the NC group, MDD participants had enhanced positive priming and less inhibition of sad faces. RMD individuals were characterized by general inhibitory impairments for all emotional faces and a facilitation for sad faces compared with NC individuals. In a second experiment combing the modified NAP task with ERP, the MDD participants had a larger P1 and P3 amplitude for sad faces in the positive priming condition compared with the other groups, and smaller P3 amplitude for sad faces in negative priming condition compared with other faces. Interestingly, RMD participants showed a distinct pattern of results compared with NC and MDD participants. Across the experiments, it can be concluded that MDD participants have deficient distracter inhibition and excessive facilitation for negative stimuli. The RMD participants show a mixed pattern of deficient distracter inhibition and excessive facilitation for both positive and negative stimuli. The results are in line with the idea that impaired distracter inhibition of emotional material is a cognitive risk factor of depression.

  9. Perceived barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity for children with disability: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nora; Synnot, Anneliese

    2016-01-19

    Children with disability engage in less physical activity compared to their typically developing peers. Our aim was to explore the barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity for this group. Ten focus groups, involving 63 participants (23 children with disability, 20 parents of children with disability and 20 sport and recreation staff), were held to explore factors perceived as barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity by children with disability. Data were analysed thematically by two researchers. Four themes were identified: (1) similarities and differences, (2) people make the difference, (3) one size does not fit all, and (4) communication and connections. Key facilitators identified were the need for inclusive pathways that encourage ongoing participation as children grow or as their skills develop, and for better partnerships between key stakeholders from the disability, sport, education and government sectors. Children with disabilities' need for the early attainment of motor and social skills and the integral role of their families in supporting them were considered to influence their participation in physical activity. Children with disability were thought to face additional barriers to participation compared to children with typical development including a lack of instructor skills and unwillingness to be inclusive, negative societal attitudes towards disability, and a lack of local opportunities. The perspectives gathered in this study are relevant to the many stakeholders involved in the design and implementation of effective interventions, strategies and policies to promote participation in physical activity for children with disability. We outline ten strategies for facilitating participation.

  10. ONCOLOGISTS' BARRIERS AND FACILITATORS FOR ONCOTYPE DX USE: QUALITATIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan C; Bryson, Amy; Weinberger, Morris; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Dinan, Michaela A; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2016-01-01

    Oncotype DX (ODX), a tumor gene profiling test, has been incorporated into clinical guidelines to aid in adjuvant chemotherapy decision making for early-stage, hormone receptor positive breast cancer patients. Despite United States (U.S.) guidelines, less than half of eligible women receive testing. Reasons for low usage are unclear: Our objective was to better understand U.S. oncologists' ODX uptake and how they use ODX during adjuvant chemotherapy decision making. We conducted semi-structured, ~30-minute phone interviews with medical and surgical oncologists in one U.S. State using purposive sampling. Oncologists were included if they saw greater than or equal to five breast cancer patients per week. Recruitment ended upon thematic saturation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and double-coded using template analysis. During analysis, themes emerged across three domains. First, organizational factors (i.e., departmental structure, ODX marketing, and medical/insurance guidelines) influenced ease of ODX use. Second, oncologists referenced the influence of interpersonal factors (e.g., normative beliefs and peer use of ODX) over their own practices and recommendations. Third, intrapersonal factors (e.g., oncologist attitudes, perceived barriers, and research gaps) were discussed: although oncologists largely held positive attitudes about ODX, they reported challenges with interpreting intermediate scores for treatment decisions and explaining test results to patients. Finally, oncologists identified several research gaps. As more tumor gene profiling tests are incorporated into cancer care for treatment decision making, it is important to understand their use in clinical practice. This study identified multi-level factors that influence ODX uptake into clinical practice, providing insights into facilitators and modifiable barriers that can be leveraged for improving ODX uptake to aid treatment decision making.

  11. Superior angiogenesis facilitates digit regrowth in MRL/MpJ mice compared to C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Alexander; Piatkowski, Mark; Chen, Miao; Kan, Lijuan; Meng, Qingshu; Fan, Huimin; Osman, Abdel-Hamid K; Liu, Zhongmin; Ledford, Benjamin; He, Jia-Qiang

    2016-05-13

    Previous studies indicated that the fast-healer strain of MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr)/J (MRL) mice demonstrated superior regenerative capabilities for digit wound healing and/or regeneration compared with the non-healer strain of C57BL/6 (C57) mice. These reports, however, mainly focused on morphological observations and analysis of gene expression with little attention on the role of angiogenesis in the amputated digits. By taking advantage of Laser Doppler Imaging and histological analysis, we examined the potential role(s) of angiogenesis in facilitating tissue regrowth/regeneration by comparing two strains of mice (MRL versus C57). The three middle digits on the mouse's right foot (RF) were amputated at the middle level of phalanx 2 (P2) on postnatal day 2 (Day 0), while the left foot (LF) remained intact and served as a control. Laser Doppler images and digital photographs were taken of both feet before, immediately after surgery, and on Day 7, 14, 21, and 28 to evaluate blood flow and overall length of digit regrowth. All measurements from the amputated digits of the RF were divided by those of the control LF to obtain normalized ratios for statistical comparisons between groups. It was found that MRL mice demonstrated an approximately 220% increase in regrowth ratios over that of C57 mice from Day 21-28 (p < 0.01, n = 13), while blood-flow increased by about 25% on Day 21 (p < 0.01, n = 13) compared to that in C57 mice. Histological analysis of both control and amputated limbs indicated an approximately 70% increase in the number of vessels (both arterial and venous) in MRL mice over that of the C57 mice (p < 0.05, n = 3). We conclude that higher blood flow and angiogenesis may play an important role in facilitating the fast regrowth ratios of amputated digits in MRL mice compared to C57 mice.

  12. Birth environment facilitation by midwives assisting in non-hospital births: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Toshiko; Wakita, Mariko; Miyazaki, Kikuko; Nakayama, Takeo

    2014-07-01

    midwifery homes (similar to birth centres) are rich in midwifery wisdom and skills that differ from those in hospital obstetrical departments, and a certain percentage of pregnant women prefer birth in these settings. This study aimed to understand the organisation of the perinatal environment considered important by independent midwives in non-hospital settings and to clarify the processes involved. semi-structured qualitative interview study and constant comparative analysis. 14 independent midwives assisting at births in midwifery homes in Japan, and six independent midwives assisting at home births. Osaka, Kyoto, Nara, and Shiga, Japan. midwives assisting at non-hospital births organised the birth environment based on the following four categories: 'an environment where the mother and family are autonomous'; 'a physical environment that facilitates birth'; 'an environment that facilitates the movement of the mother for birth'; and 'scrupulous safety preparation'. These, along with their sub-categories, are presented in this paper. independent midwives considered it important to create a candid relationship between the midwife and the woman/family from the period of pregnancy to facilitate birth in which the woman and her family were autonomous. They also organised a distinctive environment for non-hospital birth, with preparations to guarantee safety. Experiential knowledge and skills played a major part in creating an environment to facilitate birth, and the effectiveness of this needs to be investigated objectively in future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Forming and activating an internal facilitation group for successful implementation: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Megan B; Gillespie, Chris; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Jones, Ellen A; Park, Angela M; Lukas, Carol VanDeusen; Rose, Adam J

    This study focuses on an implementation facilitation strategy to improve the delivery of anticoagulation care within pharmacy-run clinics across 8 Veterans Health Administration (VA) medical centers. Other studies have explored various models of implementation facilitation, including external facilitation (EF), internal facilitation (IF), and blended facilitation (BF) combining both approaches. This study focuses on the use of an internal facilitation team of anticoagulation coordinators representing 8 VA anticoagulation clinics to enhance the implementation process. This study examines how the team became instrumental in the successful implementation of evidence-based practice change. Semi-structured interviews were conducted annually over 4 years with representatives from each site, the internal facilitators (site champions), at 8 VA hospitals (47 interviews). Additionally, five external facilitators, experts in quality improvement and anticoagulation care who guided the implementation, were interviewed. Analysis drew on a deductive approach based on the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) model and emergent thematic analysis to identify factors related to effectiveness of the internal facilitation team. Key findings are that the following factors enhanced successful uptake of the anticoagulation initiative: 1) Regular participation by the site champion in the internal facilitation team; 2) Champion strongly committed to being an agent of change; and 3) Champion received greater support from their supervisors. The first and second factors are interrelated, as internal facilitators who actively and regularly participated in the internal facilitation team often became truly committed to the improvement project. Both factors relate to the third, as supervisor support not only facilitated changes in practice, but also facilitated regular team attendance and stronger participation. Our study adds to implementation science by

  14. Postcoital Sperm Assessment Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekanos, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    This postcoital sperm assessment study was performed over a 10 month time period (November 2014-August 2015). Fifteen couples enrolled in the study. The study was a non-blinded, non-randomized, single-center comparison study comparing The Stork® OTC (Rinovum Women's Health, Monroeville, PA) to natural intercourse (NI), using the subjects as their own control/baseline. This was an efficacy study designed to compare the number of sperm in the cervical mucus following the use of The Stork OTC conception aid with the number of sperm in the cervical mucus following natural intercourse. Subjects used both The Stork OTC conception system and the natural intercourse method to evaluate concentrations of sperm in the cervical mucus. Post-coital test (PCT) data was collected demonstrating higher concentrations of sperm within the cervical mucus with The Stork OTC conception system versus natural intercourse for 85% of test subjects in this study. Of the 15 couples enrolled in the study, 2 were lost to follow-up. Mean age for male subjects was 31.7 +/ 5.4 years of age and mean age for female subjects was 29.7+/- 5.4. The average sperm score value of the 85% of test subjects with higher sperm concentrations from The Stork OTC was 3.23 times the score value of sperm concentration compared to natural intercourse. The remaining 15% of test subjects showed no change in sperm score value between The Stork OTC and natural intercourse.

  15. A One Health overview, facilitating advances in comparative medicine and translational research

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Table of contents A1 One health advances and successes in comparative medicine and translational research Cheryl Stroud A2 Dendritic cell-targeted gorilla adenoviral vector for cancer vaccination for canine melanoma Igor Dmitriev, Elena Kashentseva, Jeffrey N. Bryan, David T. Curiel A3 Viroimmunotherapy for malignant melanoma in the companion dog model Jeffrey N. Bryan, David Curiel, Igor Dmitriev, Elena Kashentseva, Hans Rindt, Carol Reinero, Carolyn J. Henry A4 Of mice and men (and dogs!): ...

  16. Social facilitation maintenance treatment for adults with obesity: study protocol for a randomised-controlled feasibility study (SFM study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja

    2016-08-31

    The long-term success of non-surgical weight loss treatment in adults with obesity is limited by substantial relapse, and only a few evidence-based weight loss maintenance treatments exist. This clinical trial investigates the feasibility and efficacy of a social facilitation maintenance programme for weight loss maintenance, tailored to meet the needs of obese adults who have undergone a lifestyle weight loss intervention. In a single-centre, open feasibility trial, 72 adults currently or previously obese or overweight who have undergone a lifestyle weight loss intervention are centrally randomised to 4 months of social facilitation maintenance treatment or treatment as a usual control condition. In 16 outpatient group sessions, the social facilitation maintenance treatment, based on a socioecological model and on evidence supporting social facilitation as a key process in maintaining weight loss, focuses on promoting interpersonal relationships to build up a healthy lifestyle for long-term weight loss maintenance. Primary outcome is the amount of weight regain at 6-month follow-up, compared with pre-treatment weight, derived from measured body weight. Secondary outcomes address feasibility, including recruitment, attrition, assessment non-completion, compliance and patients' programme evaluation; and in comparison with pre-weight loss maintenance, social and interpersonal functioning, eating behaviour and physical activity, psychological and physical symptoms, body composition and risk of comorbidity, and quality of life at post-treatment and follow-up assessments. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee at the University of Leipzig (165-13-15072013). The study results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. DRKS00005182. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Social facilitation maintenance treatment for adults with obesity: study protocol for a randomised-controlled feasibility study (SFM study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The long-term success of non-surgical weight loss treatment in adults with obesity is limited by substantial relapse, and only a few evidence-based weight loss maintenance treatments exist. This clinical trial investigates the feasibility and efficacy of a social facilitation maintenance programme for weight loss maintenance, tailored to meet the needs of obese adults who have undergone a lifestyle weight loss intervention. Methods and analysis In a single-centre, open feasibility trial, 72 adults currently or previously obese or overweight who have undergone a lifestyle weight loss intervention are centrally randomised to 4 months of social facilitation maintenance treatment or treatment as a usual control condition. In 16 outpatient group sessions, the social facilitation maintenance treatment, based on a socioecological model and on evidence supporting social facilitation as a key process in maintaining weight loss, focuses on promoting interpersonal relationships to build up a healthy lifestyle for long-term weight loss maintenance. Primary outcome is the amount of weight regain at 6-month follow-up, compared with pre-treatment weight, derived from measured body weight. Secondary outcomes address feasibility, including recruitment, attrition, assessment non-completion, compliance and patients' programme evaluation; and in comparison with pre-weight loss maintenance, social and interpersonal functioning, eating behaviour and physical activity, psychological and physical symptoms, body composition and risk of comorbidity, and quality of life at post-treatment and follow-up assessments. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethical Committee at the University of Leipzig (165-13-15072013). The study results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration number DRKS00005182. PMID:27580827

  18. Investigating the Facilitator's Role during the Lesson Study Process in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Stephanie Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Lesson study, a teaching and learning strategy used in Japan, is a new area of consideration for teacher professional development in the United States. An important component of the lesson study process is the role of the facilitator. The intent of this study was to investigate the role of the facilitator in the lesson study process relative to…

  19. Facilitators of implementing occupation based practice among Iranian occupational therapists: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatzadeh Mahani, Mohammad; Hassani Mehraban, Afsoon; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Occupation-Based Practice (OBP) is a central core of occupational therapy (OT).It refers to using a meaningful occupation based on the client’s interests, needs, health and participation in daily life. This study aimed to explore the facilitators of implementing OBP among Iranian occupational therapists. Methods: Fourteen occupational therapists participated in this study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and the sampling method was purposeful. The interviews were continued until data saturation was reached, and data were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis using constant comparative analysis. Results: Our analysis explored two themes: Factors attributed to context, and factors attributed to therapists. The first theme consisted of three subthemes: Educational programs of OT department, public information about OBP and clinical setting compatible with OBP. The second theme also contained three subthemes including: Positive attitude regarding effectiveness of OBP, emphasis on client- centered and family- centered practice and convincing the clients to utilize OBP. Conclusion: The facilitators of implementing OBP are attributed to factors internal to the therapists as well as to issues in the external environment and context. Understanding these factors will help occupational therapists, OT educational staff, administrators and rehabilitation team members to facilitate the implementation of OBP. PMID:26913270

  20. Creating Sparks: Comparing Search Results Using Discriminatory Search Term Word Co-Occurrence to Facilitate Serendipity in the Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Hugh Cleverley; Simon Burnett

    2015-01-01

    Categories or tags that appear in faceted search interfaces which are representative of an information item, rarely convey unexpected or non-obvious associated concepts buried within search results. No prior research has been identified which assesses the usefulness of discriminative search term word co-occurrence to generate facets to act as catalysts to facilitate insightful and serendipitous encounters during exploratory search. In this study, 53 scientists from two organisations interacte...

  1. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  2. Expert and novice facilitated modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study based on action research in which expert and novice facilitators in facilitated modelling workshops are compared. There is limited empirical research analysing the differences between expert and novice facilitators. Aiming to address this gap we study...

  3. Health Literacy Study Circles[superscript +]. Introduction: Overview, Planning, and Facilitation Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Rima; Soricone, Lisa; Santos, Maricel; Zobel, Emily; Smith, Janet

    2005-01-01

    A Health Literacy Study Circle[superscript +] is a multi-session professional development activity for adult education practitioners, conducted by a facilitator. All the information and materials required to conduct each Health Literacy Study Circle[superscript +] is presented in two parts: this Introduction and the "Facilitator's Guide" for each…

  4. Facilitating Collaborative Work in Tertiary Teaching: A Self-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenikina, Irina

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a self-study undertaken by the author to better understand the educational practices of scaffolding in pre-service teachers' collaborative group work. The method included student interviews, conversations with a critical friend, and the researcher's diary. The self-study allowed for fine-tuning theoretical understanding and…

  5. A Study of Facilitating Cognitive Processes with Authentic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadiev, Rustam; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Yueh-Min; Liu, Tzu-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study designed learning activity to enhance students' cognitive processes. Students could learn in class and then apply and analyze new knowledge to solve daily life problems by taking pictures of learning objects in familiar authentic context, describing them, and sharing their homework with peers. This study carried out an experiment and it…

  6. Facilitating case studies in massage therapy clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskwill, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The integration of evidence into reflective health care practice has been on the rise in recent years and is a phenomenon that has affected all health care professions, including massage therapy. Clinical case studies are a research design that follows one patient or subject, making the studies ideal for use in clinical practice. They are valuable for communicating information from clinical practice to the broader community. Case studies have face validity that may be more valuable to individual practitioners than homogeneous randomized controlled trials, as the practitioner may recognize a complex patient in the case report. At Humber College, Student Massage Therapists (SMTs) create, conduct, and communicate results of a clinical case study prior to graduation. This article describes the process and experience.

  7. Barriers and facilitators of sports in Dutch Paralympic athletes : An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, E. A.; Geertzen, J. H. B.; de Jong, R.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Dekker, R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight in barriers and facilitators of sports in paralympic athletes. An online questionnaire was distributed through the Netherlands Olympic Committee and National Sports Confederation to determine personal and environmental barriers and facilitators of sports

  8. Barriers and facilitators of sports in Dutch Paralympic athletes : An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, E. A.; Geertzen, J. H. B.; de Jong, R.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Dekker, R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight in barriers and facilitators of sports in paralympic athletes. An online questionnaire was distributed through the Netherlands Olympic Committee and National Sports Confederation to determine personal and environmental barriers and facilitators of sports

  9. Using a Blog to Facilitate Extensive Reading: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Magdalene Meow Khee; Lee, Catherine Cheng Kiat

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that extensive reading (ER) has many benefits for language acquisition. The challenge today is making ER appealing to the digital generation. For a possible solution, it is pertinent to look to the social media embraced by today's youths. This study was conducted to explore the use of the blog as a space for sharing peer-selected…

  10. Orthographic Facilitation in Chinese Spoken Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lijuan; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Youyi; Xia, Zhichao; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition have been previously examined in alphabetic languages. However, it is unknown whether orthographic information affects spoken word recognition in Chinese, which has a clean dissociation between orthography (O) and phonology (P). The present study investigated orthographic effects using event…

  11. Multiple Cultures of Doing Geography Facilitate Global Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to explain why geography is a prime discipline for analysing globalisation and a multicultural view of Global Studies. The generic approach of human geography to first select an appropriate methodology is taken as a key approach. Design/methodology/approach: Concepts from aggregate disciplines such as history, economics,…

  12. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P.; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  13. Barriers and facilitators to antenatal care in adolescents: Results of a qualitative study in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Poffald

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Analyze barriers and facilitators of access to prenatal care in pregnant urban adolescents between 15-19 years of age in Santiago, Chile. Materials and methods. Qualitative study based on grounded theory with 17 adolescent mothers. Eleven semi-structured interviews and one focus group were conducted. Results. The denial and concealment of pregnancy is the main barrier to start the prenatal care in the “delayed access group”. This group does not identify facilitators. For maintenance in antenatal care, all participants identified a support figure as a facilitator. Family and social vulnerabilities explain why some adolescents start the prenatal care late. Conclusion. The presence of facilitators is crucial for both, the timely entry and the maintenance in antenatal care because they reduce or nullify the effect of barriers. The health system must become a facilitator to accompany adolescents and promote a bond of trust and respect.

  14. [Barriers and facilitators to antenatal care in adolescents: results of a qualitative study in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poffald, Lucy; Hirmas, Macarena; Aguilera, Ximena; Vega, Jeanette; González, María José; Sanhueza, Gabriel

    2013-12-01

    Analyze barriers and facilitators of access to prenatal care in pregnant urban adolescents between 15-19 years of age in Santiago, Chile. Qualitative study based on grounded theory with 17 adolescent mothers. Eleven semi-structured interviews and one focus group were conducted. . The denial and concealment of pregnancy is the main barrier to start the prenatal care in the "delayed access group". This group does not identify facilitators. For maintenance in antenatal care, all participants identified a support figure as a facilitator. Family and social vulnerabilities explain why some adolescents start the prenatal care late. The presence of facilitators is crucial for both, the timely entry and the maintenance in antenatal care because they reduce or nullify the effect of barriers. The health system must become a facilitator to accompany adolescents and promote a bond of trust and respect.

  15. Biofuel: a comparative case study

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Aamir; Kading, Christopher; Carter, Kasey

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This project analyzes the governments role in the commercialization of biofuel by comparing biofuel commercialization efforts to those of nuclear power and nanotechnology commercialization. The PESTEL framework is applied to nuclear power and nanotechnology to identify key factors relevant to successful commercialization. These success factors are compared to current government biofuel policies to infer the likelihood of successful bio...

  16. Barriers and facilitators to implementing Decision Boxes in primary healthcare teams to facilitate shared decisionmaking: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giguere Anik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision Boxes are summaries of the most important benefits and harms of health interventions provided to clinicians before they meet the patient, to prepare them to help patients make informed and value-based decisions. Our objective is to explore the barriers and facilitators to using Decision Boxes in clinical practice, more precisely factors stemming from (1 the Decision Boxes themselves, (2 the primary healthcare team (PHT, and (3 the primary care practice environment. Methods/design A two-phase mixed methods study will be conducted. Eight Decision Boxes relevant to primary care, and written in both English and in French, will be hosted on a website together with a tutorial to introduce the Decision Box. The Decision Boxes will be delivered as weekly emails over a span of eight weeks to clinicians of PHTs (family physicians, residents and nurses in five primary care clinics located across two Canadian provinces. Using a web-questionnaire, clinicians will rate each Decision Box with the Information Assessment Method (cognitive impacts, relevance, usefulness, expected benefits and with a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behavior to study the determinants of clinicians’ intention to use what they learned from that Decision Box in their patient encounter (attitude, social norm, perceived behavioral control. Web-log data will be used to monitor clinicians’ access to the website. Following the 8-week intervention, we will conduct semi-structured group interviews with clinicians and individual interviews with clinic administrators to explore contextual factors influencing the use of the Decision Boxes. Data collected from questionnaires, focus groups and individual interviews will be combined to identify factors potentially influencing implementation of Decision Boxes in clinical practice by clinicians of PHTs. Conclusions This project will allow tailoring of Decision Boxes and their delivery to overcome the

  17. Comparing biology majors from large lecture classes with TA-facilitated laboratories to those from small lecture classes with faculty-facilitated laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Barbara E; Koster, Karen L; Redinius, Patrick L

    2005-06-01

    The teaching faculty for this course sought to address their own concerns about the quality of student learning in an impersonal large lecture biology class for majors, the difficulties in getting to know each student by name, and difficulties in soliciting answers and reactions from the students during the lecture. Questions addressed by this study were, Do active-learning activities in a small and personal lecture setting enhance student learning more than active-learning activities in large impersonal lectures? and Are students more satisfied with an educational experience in a small and personal lecture setting? Based on faculty perceptions of how they best relate to their students, the prediction was that the students in the experimental group with small lecture classes and increased direct contact with the teaching faculty would learn physiological principles better than the students in the control group in the large impersonal lecture portion of the course. One of the laboratory sections of this large enrollment biology course was randomly selected to be taught with separate small lectures by the teaching faculty. In addition, the teaching faculty participated in the laboratory with these students during their experiments correlated with the lecture material. The students in both groups were compared by pre- and posttests of physiological principles, final course grades, and class satisfaction surveys.

  18. Facilitators and Threats to the Patient Dignity in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Diseases: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Borhani; Abbas Abbaszadeh; Roghayeh Mehdipour Rabori

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patient’s dignity is an important issue which is highlighted in nursing It is an issue that is highly dependent on context and culture. Heart disease is the most common disease in Iran and the world. Identification of facilitator and threatening patient dignity in heart patients is vital. This study aimed to explore facilitator and threatening patient dignity in hospitalized patients with heart disease. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was performed in 2014 in ...

  19. An illustrated heuristic prototype facilitates scientific inventive problem solving: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Dandan; Li, Wenfu; Tang, Chaoying; Yang, Wenjing; Tian, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Meng; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Yijun; Zhang, Qinglin

    2015-07-01

    Many scientific inventions (SI) throughout history were inspired by heuristic prototypes (HPs). For instance, an event or piece of knowledge similar to displaced water from a tub inspired Archimedes' principle. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this insightful problem solving are not very clear. Thus, the present study explored the neural correlates used to solve SI problems facilitated by HPs. Each HP had two versions: a literal description with an illustration (LDI) and a literal description with no illustration (LDNI). Thirty-two participants were divided randomly into these two groups. Blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI contrasts between LDI and LDNI groups were measured. Greater activity in the right middle occipital gyrus (RMOG, BA19), right precentral gyrus (RPCG, BA4), and left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG, BA46) were found within the LDI group as compared to the LDNI group. We discuss these results in terms cognitive functions within these regions related to problem solving and memory retrieval.

  20. Children's Friendship Development: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing friendships is an important developmental goal of early childhood, but little research has addressed ways in which parents support the friendship development of their young children with disabilities. The purpose of this survey study was to explore the support strategies that parents use to facilitate their children's friendships.…

  1. How obstacles and facilitators predict academic performance: the mediating role of study burnout and engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Salanova Soria, Marisa; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Martínez Martínez, Isabel M.; Bresó Esteve, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    Most people would agree with the maxim that “success breeds success.” However, this is not the whole story. The current study investigated the additional impact of psychosocial factors (i.e., performance obstacles and facilitators) as well as psychological well-being (i.e., burnout and engagement) on success (i.e., academic performance). More specifically, our purpose was to show that, instead of directly affecting future performance, obstacles and facilitators exert an indirect effect via we...

  2. Employing external facilitation to implement cognitive behavioral therapy in VA clinics: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blevins Dean

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although for more than a decade healthcare systems have attempted to provide evidence-based mental health treatments, the availability and use of psychotherapies remains low. A significant need exists to identify simple but effective implementation strategies to adopt complex practices within complex systems of care. Emerging evidence suggests that facilitation may be an effective integrative implementation strategy for adoption of complex practices. The current pilot examined the use of external facilitation for adoption of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in 20 Department of Veteran Affairs (VA clinics. Methods The 20 clinics were paired on facility characteristics, and 23 clinicians from these were trained in CBT. A clinic in each pair was randomly selected to receive external facilitation. Quantitative methods were used to examine the extent of CBT implementation in 10 clinics that received external facilitation compared with 10 clinics that did not, and to better understand the relationship between individual providers' characteristics and attitudes and their CBT use. Costs of external facilitation were assessed by tracking the time spent by the facilitator and therapists in activities related to implementing CBT. Qualitative methods were used to explore contextual and other factors thought to influence implementation. Results Examination of change scores showed that facilitated therapists averaged an increase of 19% [95% CI: (2, 36] in self-reported CBT use from baseline, while control therapists averaged a 4% [95% CI: (-14, 21] increase. Therapists in the facilitated condition who were not providing CBT at baseline showed the greatest increase (35% compared to a control therapist who was not providing CBT at baseline (10% or to therapists in either condition who were providing CBT at baseline (average 3%. Increased CBT use was unrelated to prior CBT training. Barriers to CBT implementation were therapists' lack of

  3. Benchmarked Library Websites Comparative Study

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an analysis of services provided by the benchmarked library websites. The exploratory study includes comparison of these websites against a list of criterion and presents a list of services that are most commonly deployed by the selected websites. In addition to that, the investigators proposed a list of services that could be provided via the KAUST library website.

  4. Physical activity in South Asians: an in-depth qualitative study to explore motivations and facilitators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Jepson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People of South Asian backgrounds living in the UK have a five-fold increased risk of diabetes and a two-fold increased risk of heart disease when compared to the general population. Physical activity can reduce the risk of premature death from a range of conditions. The aim of the study was to explore the motivating and facilitating factors likely to increase physical activity for South Asian adults and their families, in order to develop successful interventions and services. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a qualitative study using focus groups and in-depth interviews. Participants were 59 purposively selected Bangladeshi-, Indian- and Pakistani-origin men and women with an additional 10 key informants. The setting was three urban areas of Scotland: Aberdeen, Glasgow and Edinburgh. We undertook a theoretically informed thematic analysis of data. Study participants described engaging in a range of physical activities, particularly football and the gym for men, and walking and swimming for women. The main motivators for taking part in physical activity were external motivators--i.e. undertaking physical activity as a means to an end, which included the opportunities that physical activity provided for social activity and enjoyment. The goals of weight reduction and improving mental and physical health and were also mentioned. Role models were seen as important to inspire and motivate people to undertake activities that they may otherwise lack confidence in. Few people undertook physical activity for its own sake (intrinsic motivation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Attempts at promoting physical activity in people of South Asian origin need to take account of the social context of people's lives and the external motivators that encourage them to engage in physical activity. Undertaking group based physical activity is important and can be facilitated through religious, community, friendship or family networks. Role models may

  5. Facilitating Settlement at the Arbitration Table: Comparing Views on Settlement Practice Among Arbitration Practitioners in East Asia and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Ali

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a cross cultural examination of how international arbitrators in East Asian and Western countries view the goal of settlement in international arbitration. The result of a 115 person survey and 64 follow up interviews shed light on the underlying cultural attitudes and approaches to settlement in international arbitration as practiced in diverse regions. The findings indicate that arbitration practitioner’s perceptions of the frequency of compromise decision in international arbitration demonstrate a high degree of convergence across regions. At the same time, cultural and socio-economic distinctions are reflected in varying arbitrator perceptions regarding the arbitrators’ role in settlement, whether settlement is regarded as a goal in arbitration and the types of efforts made pre-arbitration to settle disputes. In particular, arbitrators working in the East Asian region regard the goal of facilitating voluntary settlement in the context of international arbitration with greater importance and generally make greater efforts pre-arbitration to settle disputes as compared with counterparts in the West.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1934138

  6. From parent to 'peer facilitator': a qualitative study of a peer-led parenting programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, S; Michelson, D; Day, C

    2015-01-01

    Peer-led interventions are increasingly common in community health settings. Although peer-led approaches have proven benefits for service users, relatively little is known about the process and outcomes of participation for peer leaders. This study investigated experiences of parents who had participated as 'peer facilitators' in Empowering Parents, Empowering Communities (EPEC), a peer-led programme designed to improve access to evidence-based parenting support in socially disadvantaged communities. A qualitative cross-sectional design was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 peer facilitators and scrutinized using thematic analysis. Peer facilitators developed their knowledge and skills through personal experience of receiving parenting support, participation in formal training and supervised practice, access to an intervention manual, and peer modelling. Peer facilitators described positive changes in their own families, confidence and social status. Transformative personal gains reinforced peer facilitators' role commitment and contributed to a cohesive 'family' identity among EPEC staff and service users. Peer facilitators' enthusiasm, openness and mutual identification with families were seen as critical to EPEC's effectiveness and sustainability. Peer facilitators also found the training emotionally and intellectually demanding. There were particular difficulties around logistical issues (e.g. finding convenient supervision times), managing psychosocial complexity and child safeguarding. The successful delivery and sustained implementation of peer-led interventions requires careful attention to the personal qualities and support of peer leaders. Based on the findings of this study, support should include training, access to intervention manuals, regular and responsive supervision, and logistical/administrative assistance. Further research is required to elaborate and extend these findings to other peer-led programmes. © 2014 John Wiley

  7. A Qualitative Study of Facilitators and Barriers Related to Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jose M.; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Barclay, Chris; Mattison, Amira; Tan, Sim Yin; Sabnis, Sujay; Brundage, Amber; Marshall, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the majority of school psychologists' time continues to be dedicated to SPED related activities. Despite ongoing calls for school psychologists to expand their roles, why many practitioners do not deliver more comprehensive services is not well understood. This qualitative study investigated facilitators of and…

  8. How obstacles and facilitators predict academic performance: the mediating role of study burnout and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanova, Marisa; Schaufeli, Wilmar; Martinez, Isabel; Breso, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    Most people would agree with the maxim that "success breeds success." However, this is not the whole story. The current study investigated the additional impact of psychosocial factors (i.e., performance obstacles and facilitators) as well as psychological well-being (i.e., burnout and engagement) on success (i.e., academic performance). More specifically, our purpose was to show that, instead of directly affecting future performance, obstacles and facilitators exert an indirect effect via well-being. A total of 527 university students comprised the sample and filled out a questionnaire. We obtained their previous and future academic performance Grade Point Average (GPA) from the university's records. Structural equations modeling showed that the best predictor of future performance was the students' previous performance. As expected, study engagement mediated the relationship between performance obstacles and facilitators on the one hand, and future performance on the other. Contrary to expectations, burnout did not predict future performance, although, it is significantly associated with the presence of obstacles and the absence of facilitators. Our results illustrate that, although "success breeds success" (i.e., the best predictor of future performance is past performance), positive psychological states like study engagement are also important in explaining future performance, at least more so than negative states like study burnout.

  9. Barriers and Facilitators of Breastfeeding for Primiparous Active Duty Military Mothers: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-11

    BARRIERS AND FACILITATORS OF BREASTFEEDING FOR PRIMIPAROUS ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY MOTHERS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY Kristine Markley Bristow APPROVED...BREASTFEEDING FOR PRIMIPAROUS ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY MOTHERS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY” beyond brief excerpts is with the permission of the copyright owner, and...breastfeeding for primiparous active duty military mothers, from their perspective, using a Husserlian phenomenological approach. A semi-structured

  10. School Administrator Perceptions of Cyberbullying Facilitators and Barriers to Preventive Action: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel; Tully, Melissa; Ramirez, Marizen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Schools are often held responsible for preventing or addressing cyberbullying, yet little is known about school administrator perceptions of cyberbullying and the challenges they face in addressing this public health issue. Aims: The goal of this study is to examine school administrators' perceptions of the facilitators of…

  11. Adolescents' Perspectives on the Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João; Marques, Adilson; Sarmento, Hugo; Carreiro da Costa, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This article examined qualitative studies of adolescents' perspectives about the facilitators and barriers of physical activity, published from 2007 to 2014. A systematic review of "Web of Science", "EBSCO", "Psychinfo" and "ERIC" databases was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic…

  12. Barriers and facilitators of sports in children with physical disabilities : a mixed-method study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Eva A.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; de Blecourt, Alida C. E.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Dekker, Rienk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored barriers and facilitators of sports participation of children with physical disabilities from the perspective of the children, their parents and their health professionals. Method: Thirty children and 38 parents completed a questionnaire, and 17 professionals were interv

  13. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to School Social Work Practice: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, Martell; Canifield, James P.; Archuleta, Adrian J.; Crutchfield, Jandel; Chavis, Annie McCullough

    2012-01-01

    Understanding barriers to practice is a growing area within school social work research. Using a convenience sample of 284 school social workers, this study replicates the efforts of a mixed-method investigation designed to identify barriers and facilitators to school social work practice within different geographic locations. Time constraints and…

  14. Adolescents' Perspectives on the Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João; Marques, Adilson; Sarmento, Hugo; Carreiro da Costa, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This article examined qualitative studies of adolescents' perspectives about the facilitators and barriers of physical activity, published from 2007 to 2014. A systematic review of "Web of Science", "EBSCO", "Psychinfo" and "ERIC" databases was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic…

  15. [A prospective study of drug-facilitated sexual assault in Barcelona].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xifró-Collsamata, Alexandre; Pujol-Robinat, Amadeo; Barbería-Marcalain, Eneko; Arroyo-Fernández, Amparo; Bertomeu-Ruiz, Antonia; Montero-Núñez, Francisco; Medallo-Muñiz, Jordi

    2015-05-08

    To determine the frequency and characteristics of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) among the victims of sexual assault in Barcelona. Prospective study of every adult consulting an emergency service because of alleged sexual assault and receiving forensic assessment in the city of Barcelona in 2011. A total of 35 of 114 cases (30.7%) met suspected DFSA criteria. Compared with the other victims, suspected DFSA cases were more likely to experience amnesia, to have been assaulted by night, after a social situation and by a recently acquainted man, to have used alcohol before the assault and to be foreigners. In this group ethanol was detected in blood or urine in 48.4% of analyzed cases; their mean back calculated blood alcohol concentration was 2.29g/l (SD 0.685). Also, at least one central nervous system drug other than ethanol was detected in 60,6%, mainly stimulant drugs of abuse. Suspected DFSA is frequent among victims of alleged sexual assault in Barcelona nowadays. The depressor substance most commonly encountered is alcohol, which contributes to victims' vulnerability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi

    2016-03-10

    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.

  17. Facilitators and Barriers to Implementing Clinical Governance: A Qualitative Study among Senior Managers in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAVAGHI, Hamid; RAFIEI, Sima; HEIDARPOUR, Peigham; MOHSENI, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Health care systems should assign quality improvement as their main mission. Clinical governance (CG) is a key strategy to improve quality of health care services. The Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) has promoted CG as a framework for safeguarding quality and safety in all hospitals since 2009. The purpose of this study was to explore perceived facilitators and barriers to implementing CG by deputies for curative affairs of Iranian medical universities. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using face to face interviews with a purposeful sample of 43 deputies for curative affairs of Iranian Medical Universities and documents review. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data Results Five themes were explored including: knowledge and attitude toward CG, culture, organizational factors, managerial factors and barriers. The main perceived facilitating factors were adequate knowledge and positive attitude toward CG, supporting culture, managers’ commitment, effective communication and well designed incentives. Pe rceived barriers were the reverse of facilitators noted above in addition to insufficient resources, legal challenges, workload and parallel quality programs. Conclusions Successful implementation of CG in Iran will require identifying barriers and challenges existing in the way of CG implementation and try to mitigate them by using appropriate facilitators. PMID:26175981

  18. Facilitators and Barriers to Implementing Clinical Governance: A Qualitative Study among Senior Managers in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ravaghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Health care systems should assign quality improvement as their main mission. Clinical governance (CG is a key strategy to improve quality of health care services. The Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME has promoted CG as a framework for safeguarding quality and safety in all hospitals since 2009. The purpose of this study was to explore perceived facilitators and barriers to implementing CG by deputies for curative affairs of Iranian medical universities.A qualitative study was conducted using face to face interviews with a purposeful sample of 43 deputies for curative affairs of Iranian Medical Universities and documents review. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data.Five themes were explored including: knowledge and attitude toward CG, culture, organizational factors, managerial factors and barriers. The main perceived facilitating factors were adequate knowledge and positive attitude toward CG, supporting culture, managers' commitment, effective communication and well designed incentives. Pe rceived barriers were the reverse of facilitators noted above in addition to insufficient resources, legal challenges, workload and parallel quality programs.Successful implementation of CG in Iran will require identifying barriers and challenges existing in the way of CG implementation and try to mitigate them by using appropriate facilitators.

  19. Contextual Facilitators and Barriers of Community Reintegration among Injured Female Military Veterans: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brent L; Crowe, Brandi M

    2017-08-30

    To understand the facilitators and barriers to community reintegration (CR) among injured female veterans. Phenomenological qualitative design SETTING: Community PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling female veterans with physical and/or psychological injury (N=13). None MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: None RESULTS: Conventional content analysis revealed three types of facilitators, including: (a) strong social supports; (b) impactful programs; and (c) protective personal beliefs. Six types of barriers included: (a) inadequate services; (b) lack of access to services; (c) poor social support; (d) difficulty trusting others; (e) non-supportive personal beliefs; and (f) injury factors. Multiple environmental and personal factors acted as facilitators and barriers to CR. Findings are relatively consistent with previous veteran and civilian community reintegration research that indicates the importance of health-related services, attitudes of others, and social support. However, females in this study reported being impacted by many of these facilitators and barriers because of their gender. This study supports the need to foster social support among injured female veterans throughout the rehabilitation process to promote CR. Long-term social support can be gained by incorporating services such as adjunctive therapies, recreation, and other social programming into the rehabilitation repertoire to help with CR for all veterans, particularly females. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Physics studies in Europe; a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstrup, S; dalle Rose, LFD; Jones, WG; Tugulea, L; van Steenwijk, FJ

    What are the differences and similarities between physics studies at different universities across Europe (here the definition of Europe is broad)? How much does a student have to work to obtain a degree in physics? Questions like those prompted EUPEN (European Physics Education Network) to make a

  1. Understanding the facilitators and barriers of antiretroviral adherence in Peru: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabello Robinson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral scale-up is increasing in resource-constrained settings. To date, few studies have explored the barriers and facilitators of adherence to ART in these settings. Facilitators and barriers of antiretroviral adherence in Peru are not completely understood. Methods At two clinics that serve a large number of HIV-positive individuals in Lima, Peru, 31 in-depth interviews were carried out in 2006 with adult HIV-positive individuals receiving ART. Purposive sampling was used to recruit the participants. Interviews were transcribed and coded using two Spanish-speaking researchers and a content analysis approach to identify themes in the data. Results Among the participants, 28/31 (90% were male, 25/31 (81% were self-identified as mestizo, and 19/31 (61% had an education above high school. The most frequently discussed barriers to adherence included side effects, simply forgetting, inconvenience, dietary requirements, being away from home, and fear of disclosure/stigma. The most frequently discussed facilitators to adherence included having a fixed routine, understanding the need for compliance, seeing positive results, treatment knowledge, and faith in treatment. Conclusions Overall, these findings were similar to the facilitators and challenges experienced by individuals on ART in other resource constrained settings. Further treatment support tools and networks should be developed to decrease the challenges of ART adherence for HIV-positive individuals in Lima, Peru.

  2. ODG: Omics database generator - a tool for generating, querying, and analyzing multi-omics comparative databases to facilitate biological understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhlin, Joseph; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Zhou, Peng; Tiffin, Peter; Young, Nevin D

    2017-08-10

    Rapid generation of omics data in recent years have resulted in vast amounts of disconnected datasets without systemic integration and knowledge building, while individual groups have made customized, annotated datasets available on the web with few ways to link them to in-lab datasets. With so many research groups generating their own data, the ability to relate it to the larger genomic and comparative genomic context is becoming increasingly crucial to make full use of the data. The Omics Database Generator (ODG) allows users to create customized databases that utilize published genomics data integrated with experimental data which can be queried using a flexible graph database. When provided with omics and experimental data, ODG will create a comparative, multi-dimensional graph database. ODG can import definitions and annotations from other sources such as InterProScan, the Gene Ontology, ENZYME, UniPathway, and others. This annotation data can be especially useful for studying new or understudied species for which transcripts have only been predicted, and rapidly give additional layers of annotation to predicted genes. In better studied species, ODG can perform syntenic annotation translations or rapidly identify characteristics of a set of genes or nucleotide locations, such as hits from an association study. ODG provides a web-based user-interface for configuring the data import and for querying the database. Queries can also be run from the command-line and the database can be queried directly through programming language hooks available for most languages. ODG supports most common genomic formats as well as generic, easy to use tab-separated value format for user-provided annotations. ODG is a user-friendly database generation and query tool that adapts to the supplied data to produce a comparative genomic database or multi-layered annotation database. ODG provides rapid comparative genomic annotation and is therefore particularly useful for non-model or

  3. The Influence Studies in Comparative Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏莹

    2010-01-01

    Comparative literature arose in the 19th century,the approach adopted for its influence study has been developed and diversified in different eras,in this article,the influence study in comparative literature through a reading culture is discussed in order to reveal in what aspects the reading culture may cut across the regional border of influence study.

  4. School Administrator Perceptions of Cyberbullying Facilitators and Barriers to Preventive Action: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel; Tully, Melissa; Ramirez, Marizen

    2016-10-17

    Background Schools are often held responsible for preventing or addressing cyberbullying, yet little is known about school administrator perceptions of cyberbullying and the challenges they face in addressing this public health issue. Aims The goal of this study is to examine school administrators' perceptions of the facilitators of cyberbullying and barriers to primary and secondary prevention strategies. Method Public school administrators (N = 36) participated in in-depth interviews about bullying and discussed their experiences with cyberbullying and their perceptions of cyberbullying facilitators and barriers to prevention. Results Three main themes arose from the analysis: (1) cyberbullying as a major challenge; (2) facilitators of cyberbullying and barriers to preventive action, including parents and technology; and (3) prevention efforts, including unclear jurisdiction for action, primary versus secondary prevention efforts, and technology attributes that facilitate school response to bullying. Discussion Although administrators perceive cyberbullying as a major challenge facing their schools, they are often unsure about appropriate primary and secondary prevention efforts. Relationships with parents and police complicate response and prevention as schools attempt to navigate unclear jurisdiction. Additionally, technology presents a challenge to schools because it is seen as an enabler of cyberbullying, a facilitator of prevention, and a necessary part of education efforts. Conclusion Lack of research on prevention strategies, parents' knowledge and attitudes, and confusion about responsibility for addressing cyberbullying are barriers to action. Findings suggest administrators could benefit from additional clarity on which strategies are most effective for primary prevention of cyberbullying, and that prevention strategies should proactively involve parents to promote effective collaboration with schools.

  5. Facilitating mental health research for patients, clinicians and researchers: a mixed-method study

    OpenAIRE

    Robotham, D; Waterman, S; Oduola, S; Papoulias, C; Craig, T.; Wykes, T.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Research registers using Consent for Contact (C4C) can facilitate recruitment into mental health research studies, allowing investigators to contact patients based on clinical records information. We investigated whether such a register was useful for mental health research, seeking the perspectives of patients and research investigators.SETTING AND DESIGN: In 2012, a C4C register was developed in a large secondary mental health provider within the UK; almost 9000 patients have jo...

  6. Facilitation of fiberoptic nasotracheal intubation with magnesium sulfate: A double-blind randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgebaly, Ahmed Said; Eldabaa, Ahmed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: A double-blinded, prospective, and randomized study was designed to determine the efficacy and tolerability of intravenous (IV) magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) to facilitate fiberoptic bronchoscopic (FOB) nasotracheal intubations. Patients and Methods: A total of 120 patients scheduled to undergo elective awake fiberoptic nasotracheal intubation, while they were anesthetized for elective surgery were randomly allocated to one of three groups: The control Group S (n = 40) received 100 ml (50 ml 0.9% saline + 50 ml paracetamol) was infused in 10 min and direct IV 5 ml 0.9% normal saline, Group MD (n = 40): Received midazolam IV in a dose of 0.07 mg/kg in 5 ml 0.9% normal saline and 100 ml 0.9% was infused in 10 min and Group MS (n = 40): IV 45 mg/kg MgSO4 10 min in 100 ml of 0.9% normal saline through 10 min and direct IV 5 ml 0.9% normal saline. Results: Time required for nasotracheal intubation was significantly less in group Groups MD and MS, as compared with the control group, but not significant between the two groups. (Group MD: 9.05 + 1.95 min, Group MS 3.75 + 0.75 min and Group S 16.85 + 1.7 min). However, the number of fiberoptic intubation was significantly more in the MD and MS groups, as compared with the control group. Easy intubation (control group: 0, Group MD: 25 and Group MS: 35), moderate difficulty (control group: 5, Group MD: 12 and Group MS: 4) and difficult (control group: 35, Group MD: 3 and Group MS: 1). Procedure adverse events were significantly lower in Group MS. None of the patients in Group MS had procedure hypoxia, but it occurred in 10 patients of Group MD and 20 patients in Group S. Six patients in Group S and two in Group MD had procedure apnea whereas, none of the patients in the MS group experienced this. After medication and just before intubation heart rate and mean arterial pressure were significantly less in Groups MD and MS, as compared to the control group (Group MD: 77 + 7.7 beat/min, Group MS: 70 + 5.6 beat/min and

  7. Barriers, facilitators and attitudes influencing health promotion activities in general practice: an explorative pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geense Wytske W

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of chronically ill patients increases every year. This is partly due to an unhealthy lifestyle. However, the frequency and quality of (evidence-based health promotion activities conducted by Dutch general practitioners (GPs and practice nurses (PNs are limited. The aim of this pilot study was to explore which lifestyle interventions Dutch GPs and PNs carry out in primary care, which barriers and facilitators can be identified and what main topics are with respect to attitudes towards health promoting activities. These topic areas will be identified for a future, larger scale study. Method This qualitative study consisted of 25 semi-structured interviews with sixteen GPs and nine PNs. ATLAS.ti was used to analyse the transcripts of the interviews. Results All GPs and PNs said they discuss lifestyle with their patients. Next to this, GPs and PNs counsel patients, and/or refer them to other disciplines. Only few said they refer patients to specific lifestyle programs or interventions in their own practice or in the neighbourhood. Several barriers and facilitators were identified. The main topics as barriers are: a lack of patients’ motivation to make lifestyle changes, insufficient reimbursement, a lack of proven effectiveness of interventions and a lack of overview of health promoting programs in their neighbourhood. The most cited facilitators are availability of a PN, collaboration with other disciplines and availability of interventions in their own practice. With respect to attitudes, six different types of GPs were identified reflecting the main topics that relate to attitudes, varying from ‘ignorer’ to ‘nurturer’. The topics relating to PNs attitudes towards health promotion activities, were almost unanimously positive. Conclusion GPs and PNs all say they discuss lifestyle issues with their patients, but the health promotion activities that are organized in their practice vary. Main topics that hinder

  8. Following a natural experiment of guideline adaptation and early implementation: a mixed-methods study of facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogherty Elizabeth J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilitation is emerging as an important strategy in the uptake of evidence. However, it is not entirely clear from a practical perspective how facilitation occurs to help move research evidence into nursing practice. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, also known as the 'Partnership,' is a Pan-Canadian initiative supporting knowledge translation activity for improved care through guideline use. In this case-series study, five self-identified groups volunteered to use a systematic methodology to adapt existing clinical practice guidelines for Canadian use. With 'Partnership' support, local and external facilitators provided assistance for groups to begin the process by adapting the guidelines and planning for implementation. Methods To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the nature of facilitation, we conducted a mixed-methods study. Specifically, we examined the role and skills of individuals actively engaged in facilitation as well as the actual facilitation activities occurring within the 'Partnership.' The study was driven by and builds upon a focused literature review published in 2010 that examined facilitation as a role and process in achieving evidence-based practice in nursing. An audit tool outlining 46 discrete facilitation activities based on results of this review was used to examine the facilitation noted in the documents (emails, meeting minutes, field notes of three nursing-related cases participating in the 'Partnership' case-series study. To further examine the concept, six facilitators were interviewed about their practical experiences. The case-audit data were analyzed through a simple content analysis and triangulated with participant responses from the focus group interview to understand what occurred as these cases undertook guideline adaptation. Results The analysis of the three cases revealed that almost all of the 46 discrete, practical facilitation activities from the literature were

  9. Psychological barriers and facilitators of colorectal cancer screening: a French qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgiane Bridou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the psychological barriers to and facilitators of undergoing the Hemoccult-II® colorectal cancer screening test in France. Sixty-nine French people aged 50 to 74 years were divided into seven qualitative focus groups. Three issues were discussed with participants: knowledge and beliefs about colorectal cancer screening; facilitators of colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®; barriers to colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®. All the discussions were led by two psychologists and were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative data analysis software. Correspondence factor analyses identified three dimensions for each topic. The main psychological facilitators of colorectal cancer screening were: information about colorectal cancer screening, perceived simplicity of using Hemoccult-II®, and perception of risk. Uncertainty about the reliability of Hemoccult-II®, health anxiety, and embarrassment emerged as the main barriers to colorectal cancer screening. Cross-sectional analyses identified the differences between the views expressed by women and men. Women appeared more embarrassed about Hemoccult-II® and men seemed to be more worried about colorectal cancer. This preliminary study suggests that psychological factors play an important role in colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®. This finding may help health organizations to conceive better awareness campaigns to promote colorectal cancer screening in order to reduce the related mortality rate by taking into account psychological determinants.

  10. A computational study of the role of spike broadening in synaptic facilitation of Hermissenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Mark; Cai, Yidao; Baxter, Douglas A; Crow, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning in Hermissenda produces a decrease in voltage-dependent (I(K,A) and I(Ca)) and Ca2+-dependent (I(K,Ca)) currents, and an increase in the action potential (AP) duration in type B-photoreceptors. In addition, synaptic connections between B and A photoreceptors and B photoreceptor and type I interneurons are facilitated. The increase in AP duration, produced by decreasing one or more K+ currents, may account for synaptic facilitation. The present study examined this issue by using a mathematical model of the B-photoreceptor and the neurosimulator SNNAP. In the model, decreasing g(K,A) by 70% increased the duration of the AP in the terminal by 41% and Ca2+ influx by 30%. However, if the decrease in g(K,A) was combined with a decrease in g(Ca), similar to what has been reported experimentally, the Ca2+ influx decreased by 54%. Therefore, the concomitant change in I(Ca) counter-acted the broadening-induced increase in Ca2+ influx in the synaptic terminal. This result suggests that a spike-duration independent process must contribute to the synaptic facilitation observed following Pavlovian conditioning.

  11. Induced Brain Plasticity after a Facilitation Programme for Autobiographical Memory in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Alexandra; Botzung, Anne; Gounot, Daniel; Sellal, François; Blanc, Frédéric; de Seze, Jerome; Manning, Liliann

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study tackles the assessment and treatment of autobiographical memory (AbM) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients. Our aim was to investigate cerebral activation changes, following clinical improvement of AbM due to a cognitive training based on mental visual imagery (MVI). We assessed AbM using the Autobiographical Interview (AI) in eight patients and 15 controls. The latter subjects established normative data. The eight patients showed selective defective performance on the AI. Four patients were trained cognitively and underwent pre- and post-AI and fMRI. The remaining four patients took a second AI, at the same interval, but with no intervention in between. Results showed a significant improvement of AbM performance after the facilitation programme that could not be explained by learning effects since the AI scores remained stable between the two assessments in the second group of patients. As expected, AbM improvement was accompanied by an increased cerebral activity in posterior cerebral regions in post-facilitation fMRI examination. We interpret this activation changes in terms of reflecting the emphasis made on the role of MVI in memory retrieval through the facilitation programme. These preliminary significant clinical and neuroimaging changes suggest the beneficial effects of this technique to alleviate AbM retrieval deficit in MS patients. PMID:23125932

  12. Barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking for young elite athletes: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulliver Amelia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents and young adults experience a high level of mental disorders, yet tend not to seek help. Research indicates that there are many barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for young people in the general community. However there are limited data available for young elite athletes. This study aims to determine what young elite athletes perceive as the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for common mental health problems. Methods Fifteen elite athletes aged 16–23 years each participated in one of three focus group discussions. In addition to written data, verbal responses were audio taped, transcribed and thematically analysed. Results Participants’ written and verbal data suggested that stigma was the most important perceived barrier to seeking help for young elite athletes. Other notable barriers were a lack of mental health literacy, and negative past experiences of help-seeking. Facilitators to help-seeking were encouragement from others, having an established relationship with a provider, pleasant previous interactions with providers, the positive attitudes of others, especially their coach, and access to the internet. Conclusions Intervention strategies for improving help-seeking in young elite athletes should focus on reducing stigma, increasing mental health literacy, and improving relations with potential providers.

  13. Induced Brain Plasticity after a Facilitation Programme for Autobiographical Memory in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ernst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study tackles the assessment and treatment of autobiographical memory (AbM in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS patients. Our aim was to investigate cerebral activation changes, following clinical improvement of AbM due to a cognitive training based on mental visual imagery (MVI. We assessed AbM using the Autobiographical Interview (AI in eight patients and 15 controls. The latter subjects established normative data. The eight patients showed selective defective performance on the AI. Four patients were trained cognitively and underwent pre- and post-AI and fMRI. The remaining four patients took a second AI, at the same interval, but with no intervention in between. Results showed a significant improvement of AbM performance after the facilitation programme that could not be explained by learning effects since the AI scores remained stable between the two assessments in the second group of patients. As expected, AbM improvement was accompanied by an increased cerebral activity in posterior cerebral regions in post-facilitation fMRI examination. We interpret this activation changes in terms of reflecting the emphasis made on the role of MVI in memory retrieval through the facilitation programme. These preliminary significant clinical and neuroimaging changes suggest the beneficial effects of this technique to alleviate AbM retrieval deficit in MS patients.

  14. Facilitating Change in School Health: A Qualitative Study of Schools’ Experiences Using the School Health Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bryn Austin, ScD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAs school-based efforts increase to address the epidemic of childhood obesity, a priority for health professionals and educators will be to identify effective tools appropriate for use in schools to help guide health promotion programs and policies. This article describes the results of a qualitative research study examining school staff and community members’ experiences working with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s School Health Index, a self-assessment and planning tool that addresses nutrition and physical activity.MethodsIn-depth interviews were carried out with faculty, staff, and community collaborators in nine public schools that were using the School Health Index to develop nutrition and physical activity initiatives for students. Interviews were conducted twice: once after a school had completed the School Health Index and once approximately 1 year later. Transcript data from interviews with 34 participants were analyzed using thematic analysis.ResultsFindings indicated that school experiences differed markedly depending on whether they received help from an outside facilitator to work with the School Health Index. Unlike staff in schools working on their own, school staff working with outside facilitators described completing the School Health Index in a collaborative way, creating action plans, and working as a team to implement health promotion initiatives. In addition, the involvement of an outside facilitator supported schools in undertaking more complex tasks with a greater degree of collaboration across the school and local communities in order to achieve goals.ConclusionOutside facilitators may significantly enhance schools’ efforts to work with the School Health Index and influence the organizational strategies they use to implement health promotion initiatives.

  15. Users' perspectives of barriers and facilitators to implementing EHR in Canada: A study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Shaw, Nicola; Sicotte, Claude; Mathieu, Luc; Leduc, Yvan; Duplantie, Julie; Maclean, James; Légaré, France

    2009-01-01

    Background In Canada, federal, provincial, and territorial governments are developing an ambitious project to implement an interoperable electronic health record (EHR). Benefits for patients, healthcare professionals, organizations, and the public in general are expected. However, adoption of an interoperable EHR remains an important issue because many previous EHR projects have failed due to the lack of integration into practices and organizations. Furthermore, perceptions of the EHR vary between end-user groups, adding to the complexity of implementing this technology. Our aim is to produce a comprehensive synthesis of actual knowledge on the barriers and facilitators influencing the adoption of an interoperable EHR among its various users and beneficiaries. Methods First, we will conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature and other published documentation on the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of the EHR. Standardized literature search and data extraction methods will be used. Studies' quality and relevance to inform decisions on EHR implementation will be assessed. For each group of EHR users identified, barriers and facilitators will be categorized and compiled using narrative synthesis and meta-analytical techniques. The principal factors identified for each group of EHR users will then be validated for its applicability to various Canadian contexts through a two-round Delphi study, involving representatives from each end-user groups. Continuous exchanges with decision makers and periodic knowledge transfer activities are planned to facilitate the dissemination and utilization of research results in policies regarding the implementation of EHR in the Canadian healthcare system. Discussion Given the imminence of an interoperable EHR in Canada, knowledge and evidence are urgently needed to prepare this major shift in our healthcare system and to oversee the factors that could affect its adoption and integration by all its

  16. Users' perspectives of barriers and facilitators to implementing EHR in Canada: A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duplantie Julie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, federal, provincial, and territorial governments are developing an ambitious project to implement an interoperable electronic health record (EHR. Benefits for patients, healthcare professionals, organizations, and the public in general are expected. However, adoption of an interoperable EHR remains an important issue because many previous EHR projects have failed due to the lack of integration into practices and organizations. Furthermore, perceptions of the EHR vary between end-user groups, adding to the complexity of implementing this technology. Our aim is to produce a comprehensive synthesis of actual knowledge on the barriers and facilitators influencing the adoption of an interoperable EHR among its various users and beneficiaries. Methods First, we will conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature and other published documentation on the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of the EHR. Standardized literature search and data extraction methods will be used. Studies' quality and relevance to inform decisions on EHR implementation will be assessed. For each group of EHR users identified, barriers and facilitators will be categorized and compiled using narrative synthesis and meta-analytical techniques. The principal factors identified for each group of EHR users will then be validated for its applicability to various Canadian contexts through a two-round Delphi study, involving representatives from each end-user groups. Continuous exchanges with decision makers and periodic knowledge transfer activities are planned to facilitate the dissemination and utilization of research results in policies regarding the implementation of EHR in the Canadian healthcare system. Discussion Given the imminence of an interoperable EHR in Canada, knowledge and evidence are urgently needed to prepare this major shift in our healthcare system and to oversee the factors that could affect its adoption and

  17. A Comparative Study of Whitman and Frost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田寨耕

    2014-01-01

    Walt Whitman and Robert Frost are both famous poets in American literary history. They share a great deal in common. This paper attempts to make a study of the two poets by means of comparing their similarities and differences.

  18. Specialist nurses' perceptions of inviting patients to participate in clinical research studies: a qualitative descriptive study of barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Caroline; Stavropoulou, Charitini

    2016-08-11

    Increasing the number of patients participating in research studies is a current priority in the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom. The role of specialist nurses in inviting patients to participate is important, yet little is known about their experiences of doing so. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of barriers and facilitators held by specialist nurses with experience of inviting adult NHS patients to a wide variety of research studies. A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive study was conducted between March and July 2015. Participants were 12 specialist nurses representing 7 different clinical specialties and 7 different NHS Trusts. We collected data using individual semi-structured interviews, and analysed transcripts using the Framework method to inductively gain a descriptive overview of barriers and facilitators. Barriers and facilitators were complex and interdependent. Perceptions varied among individuals, however barriers and facilitators centred on five main themes: i) assessing patient suitability, ii) teamwork, iii) valuing research, iv) the invitation process and v) understanding the study. Facilitators to inviting patients to participate in research often stemmed from specialist nurses' attitudes, skills and experience. Positive research cultures, effective teamwork and strong relationships between research and clinical teams at the local clinical team level were similarly important. Barriers were reported when specialist nurses felt they were providing patients with insufficient information during the invitation process, and when specialist nurses felt they did not understand studies to their satisfaction. Our study offers several new insights regarding the role of specialist nurses in recruiting patients for research. It shows that strong local research culture and teamwork overcome some wider organisational and workload barriers reported in previous studies. In addition, and in contrast to common practice

  19. CURRICULAR OFFER INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ SATISFACTION: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Oana DUMITRASCU; Constantin Manuel HILA

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the study is the determination of students’ satisfaction regarding curricular activities. The study has been accomplished using the qualitative and quantitative research, using the bibliographic study, various secondary sources and different primary sources. The study is developed with a marketing research and accomplished using the survey method. 699 students from four universities have been questioned. Due to a comparative study the University of Applied Sciences Worms...

  20. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Title: A Comparative Study on Error Analysis Subtitle: - Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production Xiaoli Wu, Chun Zhang Abstract: Making errors is an inevitable and necessary part of learning. The collection, classification and analysis...... the occurrence of errors either in linguistic or pedagogical terms. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical relevance of error analysis approach in CFL by investigating two cases - (1) Belgian (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production....... Finally, pedagogical implication of CFL is discussed and future research is suggested. Keywords: error analysis, comparative sentences, comparative structure ‘‘bǐ - 比’, Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), written production...

  1. Barriers and facilitators associated with colonoscopy completion in individuals with multiple chronic conditions: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Shahnaz Sultan,1–4 Melissa R Partin,1,2 Phalgoon Shah,5 Jennifer LeLaurin,4 Ivette Magaly Freytes,4 Chandylen L Nightingale,6 Susan F Fesperman,4 Barbara A Curbow,7 Rebecca J Beyth3,4,8 1Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System, 2Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, 4Center of Innovation on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, FL, 5Department of Medicine, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI, 6Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC, 7Department of Community and Behavioral Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 8Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, FL, USA Background: A recommendation to undergo a colonoscopy, an invasive procedure that requires commitment and motivation, planning (scheduling and finding a driver and preparation (diet restriction and laxative consumption, may be uniquely challenging for individuals with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs. This qualitative study aimed to describe the barriers and facilitators to colonoscopy experienced by such patients.Materials and methods: Semistructured focus groups were conducted with male Veterans who were scheduled for outpatient colonoscopy and either failed to complete the procedure or completed the examination. Focus group recordings were transcribed and analyzed by an inductive grounded approach using constant comparative analysis.Results: Forty-four individuals aged 51–83 years participated in this study (23 adherent and 21 nonadherent. Participants had an average of 7.4 chronic conditions (range 2–14. The five most common chronic conditions were hypertension (75%, hyperlipidemia (75

  2. GeneLink: a database to facilitate genetic studies of complex traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfsberg Tyra G

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to gene-mapping studies of simple Mendelian disorders, genetic analyses of complex traits are far more challenging, and high quality data management systems are often critical to the success of these projects. To minimize the difficulties inherent in complex trait studies, we have developed GeneLink, a Web-accessible, password-protected Sybase database. Results GeneLink is a powerful tool for complex trait mapping, enabling genotypic data to be easily merged with pedigree and extensive phenotypic data. Specifically designed to facilitate large-scale (multi-center genetic linkage or association studies, GeneLink securely and efficiently handles large amounts of data and provides additional features to facilitate data analysis by existing software packages and quality control. These include the ability to download chromosome-specific data files containing marker data in map order in various formats appropriate for downstream analyses (e.g., GAS and LINKAGE. Furthermore, an unlimited number of phenotypes (either qualitative or quantitative can be stored and analyzed. Finally, GeneLink generates several quality assurance reports, including genotyping success rates of specified DNA samples or success and heterozygosity rates for specified markers. Conclusions GeneLink has already proven an invaluable tool for complex trait mapping studies and is discussed primarily in the context of our large, multi-center study of hereditary prostate cancer (HPC. GeneLink is freely available at http://research.nhgri.nih.gov/genelink.

  3. Facilitators of an Interprofessional Approach to Care in Medical and Mixed Medical/Surgical ICUs: A Multicenter Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, Frances K.; Asch, David A.; Kahn, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe clinicians' perceptions of interprofessional collaboration in the intensive care unit and identify factors associated with interprofessional collaboration. We performed 64 semi-structured interviews in 7 hospitals with ICU nurses, physicians, respiratory therapists, nurse managers, clinical pharmacists and dieticians. ICU clinicians perceived two distinct types of facilitators to interprofessional collaboration in critical care: cultural and structural. In the critical care setting, cultural and structural facilitators worked independently as well as in concert to create effective interprofessional collaboration. Initiatives aimed at creating and facilitating interprofessional collaboration should focus attention on cultural and structural facilitators to improve patient care and team effectiveness. PMID:24995554

  4. Understanding the challenges to facilitating active learning in the resident conferences: a qualitative study of internal medicine faculty and resident perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam P. Sawatsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the Next Accreditation System, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education outlines milestones for medical knowledge and requires regular didactic sessions in residency training. There are many challenges to facilitating active learning in resident conferences, and we need to better understand resident learning preferences and faculty perspectives on facilitating active learning. The goal of this study was to identify challenges to facilitating active learning in resident conferences, both through identifying specific implementation barriers and identifying differences in perspective between faculty and residents on effective teaching and learning strategies. Methods: The investigators invited core residency faculty to participate in focus groups. The investigators used a semistructured guide to facilitate discussion about learning preferences and teaching perspectives in the conference setting and used an ‘editing approach’ within a grounded theory framework to qualitative analysis to code the transcripts and analyze the results. Data were compared to previously collected data from seven resident focus groups. Results: Three focus groups with 20 core faculty were conducted. We identified three domains pertaining to facilitating active learning in resident conferences: barriers to facilitating active learning formats, similarities and differences in faculty and resident learning preferences, and divergence between faculty and resident opinions about effective teaching strategies. Faculty identified several setting, faculty, and resident barriers to facilitating active learning in resident conferences. When compared to residents, faculty expressed similar learning preferences; the main differences were in motivations for conference attendance and type of content. Resident preferences and faculty perspectives differed on the amount of information appropriate for lecture and the role of active participation in

  5. Mathematics education and comparative historical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner RODRIGUES VALENTE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as its aims: to characterize the area of research «history of mathematics education» and to defend the idea that mathematics education has constituted a privileged research theme within the field of comparative historical studies. To achieve these aims, the text includes references to a review of the literature concerning comparative studies, the analysis of two fundamental moments focused on attempts to internationalize the mathematics curriculum, both of which occurred during the 20th century, and, to end, a case study emanating from an international cooperation between researchers in Brazil and Portugal.

  6. Magnetotactic bacteria and microjets: A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Magdanz, Veronika; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Misra, Sarthak

    2013-01-01

    We provide a comparative study between two self-propelled microrobots, i.e., magnetotactic bacteria and microjets. This study includes characterization of their fluidic properties (linear and rotational drag coefficients) based on their morphologies and characterization of their magnetic properties

  7. Facilitators and Threats to the Patient Dignity in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Diseases: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Rabori, Roghayeh Mehdipour

    2016-01-01

    Patient's dignity is an important issue which is highlighted in nursing It is an issue that is highly dependent on context and culture. Heart disease is the most common disease in Iran and the world. Identification of facilitator and threatening patient dignity in heart patients is vital. This study aimed to explore facilitator and threatening patient dignity in hospitalized patients with heart disease. This qualitative content analysis study was performed in 2014 in Kerman, Iran. 20 patients admitted to coronary care units and 5 personnel were selected using purposeful sampling in semi-structured and in depth interviews. Researchers also used documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneously with data collection. Three central themes emerged: a) Care context which includes human environment and physical environment, b) Holistic safe care including meeting the needs of patients both in the hospital and after discharge, c) Creating a sense of security and an effective relationship between patient and nurse, including a respectful relationship and account the family in health team. The results of this study showed that care context is important for patient dignity as well as physical environment and safe holistic care.

  8. Facilitators and Threats to the Patient Dignity in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Diseases: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Borhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patient’s dignity is an important issue which is highlighted in nursing It is an issue that is highly dependent on context and culture. Heart disease is the most common disease in Iran and the world. Identification of facilitator and threatening patient dignity in heart patients is vital. This study aimed to explore facilitator and threatening patient dignity in hospitalized patients with heart disease. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was performed in 2014 in Kerman, Iran. 20 patients admitted to coronary care units and 5 personnel were selected using purposeful sampling in semi-structured and in depth interviews. Researchers also used documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneously with data collection Results: Three central themes emerged: a Care context which includes human environment and physical environment, b Holistic safe care including meeting the needs of patients both in the hospital and after discharge, c Creating a sense of security and an effective relationship between patient and nurse, including a respectful relationship and account the family in health team. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that care context is important for patient dignity as well as physical environment and safe holistic care.

  9. Barriers and facilitators to the use of an immunization application: a qualitative study supplemented with Google Analytics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Kathleen; Atkinson, Katherine M; Westeinde, Jacqueline; Crowcroft, Natasha; Deeks, Shelley L; Wilson, Kumanan

    2017-09-01

    Barriers and facilitators of mobile app adoption are not known. This study examined usage of a new Pan-Canadian immunization app to identify factors that contributed to usage. Women in their third trimester of pregnancy or had given birth in the previous 3 months were recruited from a hospital obstetrical unit. Fifty-five participants were instructed to download the ImmunizeCA app. After at least 6 months, 10 interviews were conducted, transcribed and coded. Themes identified were compared with aggregate ImmunizeCA usage data (n = 74 212 users). Facilitators included features that address logistical challenges, improved convenience and information access. Barriers included absence of system integration. Concerns regarding the privacy and security of personal health information were not an inhibitor as long as best practices are followed. Google Analytics data on usage supported qualitative findings. Future studies should evaluate the quantitative impact of factors we identified on app uptake and usage. Subsequent mobile app studies may benefit from the use of analytic data as they were found to be effective in helping to validate qualitative data derived from interviews with study participants.

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BYG SEARCH ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the retrieval effectiveness of the Bing, Yahoo and Google (BYG Search Engines. The precision and relative recall of each search engine was considered for evaluating the effectiveness of the search engines. General Queries were tested. Results of the study showed that the precision of Google was high as compared to other two search engines and Yahoo has better precision than Bing

  11. Facilitated ion transfer of protonated primary organic amines studied by square wave voltammetry and chronoamperometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba, E; Ortuño, J A; Molina, A; Serna, C; Karimian, F

    2014-05-15

    The transfer of the protonated forms of heptylamine, octylamine, decylamine, procaine and procainamide facilitated by dibenzo-18-crown-6 from water to a solvent polymeric membrane has been investigated by using cyclic square wave voltammetry. The experimental voltammograms obtained are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The values of the standard ion transfer potential, complexation constant and diffusion coefficient in water have been obtained from these experiments, and have been used to draw some conclusions about the lipophilicity of these species and the relative stability of the organic ammonium complexes with dibenzo-18-crown-6. The results have been compared with those provided by linear sweep voltammetry. Calibration graphs were obtained with both techniques. An interesting chronoamperometric method for the determination of the diffusion coefficient of the target ion in the membrane has been developed and applied to all these protonated amines.

  12. Programming PHREEQC calculations with C++ and Python a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Scott R.; Parkhurst, David L.; Muller, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The new IPhreeqc module provides an application programming interface (API) to facilitate coupling of other codes with the U.S. Geological Survey geochemical model PHREEQC. Traditionally, loose coupling of PHREEQC with other applications required methods to create PHREEQC input files, start external PHREEQC processes, and process PHREEQC output files. IPhreeqc eliminates most of this effort by providing direct access to PHREEQC capabilities through a component object model (COM), a library, or a dynamically linked library (DLL). Input and calculations can be specified through internally programmed strings, and all data exchange between an application and the module can occur in computer memory. This study compares simulations programmed in C++ and Python that are tightly coupled with IPhreeqc modules to the traditional simulations that are loosely coupled to PHREEQC. The study compares performance, quantifies effort, and evaluates lines of code and the complexity of the design. The comparisons show that IPhreeqc offers a more powerful and simpler approach for incorporating PHREEQC calculations into transport models and other applications that need to perform PHREEQC calculations. The IPhreeqc module facilitates the design of coupled applications and significantly reduces run times. Even a moderate knowledge of one of the supported programming languages allows more efficient use of PHREEQC than the traditional loosely coupled approach.

  13. Experiences of Iranian Nurses on the Facilitators of Pain Management in Children: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Aziznejadroshan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite decades of research and the availability of effective analgesic approaches, many children continue to experience moderate-to-severe pain after hospitalization. Greater research efforts are needed to identify the factors that facilitate effective pain management. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of Iranian nurses on facilitators of pain management in children. Materials and Methods. This qualitative study collected the data profoundly through unstructured interviews with 19 nurses in Amirkola Children’s Hospital in Babol and Children’s Medical Center in Tehran, during 2013-2014. Purposeful sampling and analysis of the data were conducted using conventional qualitative content analysis. Results. Four themes were extracted through data analysis: mother and child participation in diagnosis and pain relief, the timely presence of medical staff and parents, proper communication, and training and supportive role of nurses. Conclusion. Mother and child participation in the report and diagnosis of pain and nonpharmacological interventions for pain by the mother, the timely presence of medical team at the patient’s bedside, and proper interaction along with the training and supportive role of a nurse enhanced the optimal pain management in hospitalized children.

  14. Primary care physicians' perspectives on facilitating older patients' access to community support services: Qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeg, Jenny; Denton, Margaret; Hutchison, Brian; McAiney, Carrie; Moore, Ainsley; Brazil, Kevin; Tindale, Joseph; Lam, Annie

    2017-01-01

    To understand how family physicians facilitate older patients' access to community support services (CSSs) and to identify similarities and differences across primary health care (PHC) models. Qualitative, multiple-case study design using semistructured interviews. Four models of PHC delivery, specifically 2 family health teams (FHTs), 4 non-FHTs family health organizations, 4 fee-for-service practices, and 2 community health centres in urban Ontario. Purposeful sampling of 23 family physicians in solo and small and large group practices within the 4 models of PHC. A multiple-case study approach was used. Semistructured interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using within- and cross-case analysis. Case study tactics to ensure study rigour included memos and an audit trail, investigator triangulation, and the use of multiple, rather than single, case studies. Three main themes were identified: consulting and communicating with the health care team to create linkages; linking patients and families to CSSs; and relying on out-of-date resources and ineffective search strategies for information on CSSs. All participants worked with their team members; however, those in FHTs and community health centres generally had a broader range of health care providers available to assist them. Physicians relied on home-care case managers to help make linkages to CSSs. Physicians recommended the development of an easily searchable, online database containing available CSSs. This study shows the importance of interprofessional teamwork in primary care settings to facilitate linkages of older patients to CSSs. The study also provides insight into the strategies physicians use to link older persons to CSSs and their recommendations for change. This understanding can be used to develop resources and approaches to better support physicians in making appropriate linkages to CSSs. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  15. Species comparative studies and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Juan-Carlos

    2005-03-01

    The comparative study of infant development and animal cognition brings to cognitive science the promise of insights into the nature and origins of cognitive skills. In this article, I review a recent wave of comparative studies conducted with similar methodologies and similar theoretical frameworks on how two core components of human cognition--object permanence and gaze following--develop in different species. These comparative findings call for an integration of current competing accounts of developmental change. They further suggest that evolution has produced developmental devices capable at the same time of preserving core adaptive components, and opening themselves up to further adaptive change, not only in interaction with the external environment, but also in interaction with other co-developing cognitive systems.

  16. Barriers and facilitators to early mobilisation in Intensive Care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Elizabeth A; Everard, Tori; Holland, Anne E; Tipping, Claire; Bradley, Scott J; Hodgson, Carol L

    2015-11-01

    To determine the barriers and facilitators of early mobilisation in the Intensive Care Unit. It is well established that mobilising critically ill patients has many benefits, however it is not occurring as frequently as expected. The causes and ways to change this are not clearly understood. A qualitative descriptive study involving focus groups with medical, nursing and physiotherapy clinicians, from an Australian quaternary hospital Intensive Care Unit. The major themes related to barriers included the culture of the Intensive Care Unit; communication; and a lack of resources. Major themes associated with facilitating early mobilisation included organisational change; improved communication between medical units; and improved resources. Early mobilisation was considered an important aspect of critically ill patient's care by all clinicians. Several major barriers to mobilisation were identified, which included unit culture, lack of resources, prioritisation and leadership. A dedicated mobility team led by physiotherapists in the ICU setting could be a viable option to address the identified barriers related to mobility. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Barriers to and facilitators of coping with spinal cord injury for Iranian patients: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babamohamadi, Hassan; Negarandeh, Reza; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the perspectives and experiences of Iranian patients regarding barriers and facilitators to their ability to cope with spinal cord injury (SCI). A qualitative design, based on the content analysis approach, was used to collect and analyze the experiences of 18 patients with spinal cord injury in two centers in Tehran, Iran. After using purposeful sampling for selection of the participants, semi-structured interviews were held for data collection. Lack of "knowledge", "financial resources", "employment opportunities", "suitable facilities and accessibility" as well as "societal acceptance and support" emerged as barriers; and having "self-confidence", "religious beliefs", "support networks" and "positive thinking" emerged as facilitators in coping with spinal cord injury. Participants believed that with these hindering factors in place, adapting to their new condition had been difficult, therefore they can only manage to adapt partially to their situation. Additional multidisciplinary endeavors are needed to help this group cope adequately and further research is required to influence policy making and legislation processes efficiently. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. A Qualitative Study of Factors Facilitating Clinical Nurse Engagement in Emergency Department Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Eileen J; Pallin, Daniel J; Mandel, Leslie; Sinnette, Corine; Schuur, Jeremiah D

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the actions of nurse leaders that facilitated clinical nurses' active involvement in emergency department (ED) catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) prevention programs. Hospitals face increasing financial pressures to reduce CAUTI. Urinary catheters, often inserted in the ED, expose patients to CAUTI risk. Nurses are the principal champions of ED CAUTI prevention programs. This was a qualitative analysis from a multisite, comparative case study project. A total of 52 interviews and 9 focus groups were analyzed across 6 enrolled EDs. Using a conventional content analysis, members of the research team coded data and developed site summaries to describe themes that had emerged across transcripts. Subsequently, all codes and site summaries were reviewed to identify the actions of nurse leaders that facilitated clinical nurses' engagement in CAUTI prevention efforts. Nurse leaders were the principal champions of CAUTI prevention programs and successfully engaged clinical nurses in CAUTI prevention efforts by (1) reframing urinary catheters as a source of potential patient harm; (2) empowering clinical nurses to identify and address CAUTI improvement opportunities; (3) fostering a culture of teamwork, which facilitated interdisciplinary communication around urinary catheter appropriateness and alternatives; and (4) holding clinical nurses accountable for CAUTI process and outcome measures. The prevention of CAUTI is an important opportunity for nurse leaders to engage clinical nurses in meaningful improvement efforts. Clinical nurses are best positioned to examine urinary catheter insertion workflow and to suggest improvements in avoiding use and improving placement and maintenance. To engage clinical nurses in CAUTI prevention, nurse leaders should focus on how urinary catheters expose patients to potential harm, involve nurses in designing and implementing practice changes, and provide local data to show the impact of

  19. Comparative study of quantum anharmonic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico)]. E-mail: paolo@ucol.mx; Aranda, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico); De Pace, Arturo [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Lopez, Jorge A. [Physics Department, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2004-09-06

    We perform a study of various anharmonic potentials using a recently developed method. We calculate both the wave functions and the energy eigenvalues for the ground and first excited states of the quartic, sextic and octic potentials with high precision, comparing the results with other techniques available in the literature.

  20. A Comparative Study of Sparse Associative Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripon, Vincent; Heusel, Judith; Löwe, Matthias; Vermet, Franck

    2016-07-01

    We study various models of associative memories with sparse information, i.e. a pattern to be stored is a random string of 0s and 1s with about log N 1s, only. We compare different synaptic weights, architectures and retrieval mechanisms to shed light on the influence of the various parameters on the storage capacity.

  1. A Comparative Study of Probabilistic Roadmap Planners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraerts, R.J.; Overmars, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The probabilistic roadmap approach is one of the leading motion planning techniques. Over the past eight years the technique has been studied by many different researchers. This has led to a large number of variants of the approach, each with its own merits. It is difficult to compare the different

  2. A comparative study of map use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Bødker, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    We present a study comparing the handling of three kinds of maps, each on a physical device: a paper map, a tablet-PC based map, and a cellular phone based one. Six groups of users were asked to locate eight landmarks, looking out a window, and using a particular map. We have begun analyzing video...

  3. An electromyographic study of social facilitation: a test of the "mere presence' hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Antony J.

    1974-01-01

    The present experiment is concerned with providing psychophysiological support for a drive theory of social facilitation and with distinguishing between the mere presence and evaluation apprehension hypothesis. (Author)

  4. Specialist nurses’ perceptions of inviting patients to participate in clinical research studies: a qualitative descriptive study of barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline French

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing the number of patients participating in research studies is a current priority in the National Health Service (NHS in the United Kingdom. The role of specialist nurses in inviting patients to participate is important, yet little is known about their experiences of doing so. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of barriers and facilitators held by specialist nurses with experience of inviting adult NHS patients to a wide variety of research studies. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive study was conducted between March and July 2015. Participants were 12 specialist nurses representing 7 different clinical specialties and 7 different NHS Trusts. We collected data using individual semi-structured interviews, and analysed transcripts using the Framework method to inductively gain a descriptive overview of barriers and facilitators. Results Barriers and facilitators were complex and interdependent. Perceptions varied among individuals, however barriers and facilitators centred on five main themes: i assessing patient suitability, ii teamwork, iii valuing research, iv the invitation process and v understanding the study. Facilitators to inviting patients to participate in research often stemmed from specialist nurses’ attitudes, skills and experience. Positive research cultures, effective teamwork and strong relationships between research and clinical teams at the local clinical team level were similarly important. Barriers were reported when specialist nurses felt they were providing patients with insufficient information during the invitation process, and when specialist nurses felt they did not understand studies to their satisfaction. Conclusion Our study offers several new insights regarding the role of specialist nurses in recruiting patients for research. It shows that strong local research culture and teamwork overcome some wider organisational and workload barriers reported in

  5. Facilitating cooperation in interprofessional education using a study activity model- An action research project’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa

    2016-01-01

    conducted a baseline investigation in 2015, exploring 538 students´ and participating lecturers´ evaluation of the current use of the model in interprofessional courses. This baseline and previous evaluations show that there are continuous challenges, concerning both the collaboration between the course...... lecturers and student satisfaction and participation. Objectives Develop collaborative and didactical knowledge and generate deeper insight into facilitation of interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional collaborative practice (IPC). Investigate the current use of the study activity model...... for students and lecturers due to quality and design of the courses. Biographical information Camusa Hatt (caha@phmetropol.dk) M.A., Associate Professor, Metropolitan University College. Having years of experience developing, implementing and evaluating interprofessional education and knowing challenges...

  6. How outpatient palliative care teleconsultation facilitates empathic patient-professional relationships: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle van Gurp

    Full Text Available The problems and needs of advanced cancer patients and proxies normally increase as the disease progresses. Home-based advanced cancer patients and their proxies benefit from collaborations between primary care physicians and hospital-based palliative care specialists when confronted with complex problems in the last phase of life. Telemedicine might facilitate direct, patient-centered communication between patients and proxies, primary care physicians, and specialist palliative care teams (SPCTs. This study focuses on the impact of teleconsultation technologies on the relationships between home-based palliative care patients and hospital-based palliative care specialists.This work consists of a qualitative study among patients, family members, and caregivers that utilizes long-term direct observations, semi-structured interviews, and open interviews following the observations.The analysis of the empirical data resulted in three key concepts that describe the impact of teleconsultation on the patient-professional relationship in palliative homecare: transcending the institutional walls of home and hospital; transparency of teleconsultation technology; and technologized, intimate patient-professional relationships. Teleconsultation offers (1 condensed encounters between home-based palliative care patients and distant professionals, (2 a unique insight into the patients' daily lives for palliative care specialists, and (3 long-term interaction that results in trustful relationships and experiences of intimacy and relief.Teleconsultation fits the practice of home-based palliative care. Teleconsultation can, if well applied, facilitate computer-mediated but empathic patient-palliative care specialist relationships, which enable professional care attuned to the patient's context as well as patient involvement. This article proposes a teleconsultation implementation guide for optimal use of teleconsultation in daily palliative care practice.

  7. Facilitators and obstacles in pre-hospital medical response to earthquakes: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castrén Maaret

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Earthquakes are renowned as being amongst the most dangerous and destructive types of natural disasters. Iran, a developing country in Asia, is prone to earthquakes and is ranked as one of the most vulnerable countries in the world in this respect. The medical response in disasters is accompanied by managerial, logistic, technical, and medical challenges being also the case in the Bam earthquake in Iran. Our objective was to explore the medical response to the Bam earthquake with specific emphasis on pre-hospital medical management during the first days. Methods The study was performed in 2008; an interview based qualitative study using content analysis. We conducted nineteen interviews with experts and managers responsible for responding to the Bam earthquake, including pre-hospital emergency medical services, the Red Crescent, and Universities of Medical Sciences. The selection of participants was determined by using a purposeful sampling method. Sample size was given by data saturation. Results The pre-hospital medical service was divided into three categories; triage, emergency medical care and transportation, each category in turn was identified into facilitators and obstacles. The obstacles identified were absence of a structured disaster plan, absence of standardized medical teams, and shortage of resources. The army and skilled medical volunteers were identified as facilitators. Conclusions The most compelling, and at the same time amenable obstacle, was the lack of a disaster management plan. It was evident that implementing a comprehensive plan would not only save lives but decrease suffering and enable an effective praxis of the available resources at pre-hospital and hospital levels.

  8. Barriers and facilitators for consumer adherence to the dietary guidelines for Americans: the HEALTH study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A; Jahns, Lisa; Bogle, Margaret L; Chester, Deirdra N; Giovanni, Maria; Klurfeld, David M; Laugero, Kevin; Liu, Yan; Lopez, Sandra; Tucker, Katherine L

    2013-10-01

    The majority of the US population does not meet recommendations for consumption of milk, whole grains, fruit, and vegetables. The goal of our study was to understand barriers and facilitators to adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans for four nutrient-rich food groups in fifth-grade children and unrelated adult caregivers across six sites in a multistate study. A total of 281 unrelated adult caregivers (32% African American, 33% European American, and 35% Hispanic American) and 321 children (33% African American, 33% European American, and 34% Hispanic American) participated in 97 Nominal Group Technique sessions. Nominal Group Technique is a qualitative method of data collection that enables a group to generate and prioritize a large number of issues within a structure that gives everyone an equal voice. The core barriers specific to unrelated adult caregivers were lack of meal preparation skills or recipes (whole grains, fruit, vegetables); difficulty in changing eating habits (whole grains, fruit, vegetables), cost (milk, whole grains, fruit, vegetables), lack of knowledge of recommendation/portion/health benefits (milk, vegetables), and taste (milk, whole grains, vegetables). Specific to children, the core barriers were competing foods (ie, soda, junk foods, sugary foods [whole grains, milk, fruit, vegetables]), health concerns (ie, milk allergy/upset stomach [milk]), taste/flavor/smell (milk, whole grains, fruit, vegetables), forget to eat them (vegetables, fruit), and hard to consume or figure out the recommended amount (milk, fruit). For both unrelated adult caregivers and children, reported facilitators closely coincided with the barriers, highlighting modifiable conditions that could help individuals to meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  9. Facilitating patients with disorders of consciousness to sit without trunk support: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kumiko; Yoshimura, Sadako; Hayashi, Yuko

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to clarify why and how clinical nurses facilitate sitting without trunk support among patients with disorders of consciousness. Recent attention has focused on encouraging patients with disorders of consciousness to sit without trunk support, but no reports describe this intervention among patients with poor awareness and physical disuse. Qualitative research design. We enrolled five clinical nurses with interventional experience in rehabilitating patients with disorders of consciousness to sit without trunk support. Participant observation and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. The data were analysed by text-mining method. Three reasons for nursing in the sitting position were identified: to raise the patient's body to assess the recovery of activities of daily living, to adjust their circadian rhythm and encourage the will to sit, and to make it easier to breathe. Five practices were identified: moving the patient to the prone position to sit in safety and comfort, developing postural stability by improving the flexibility of the lower limbs, improving the flexibility of the hip joints, developing trunk balance and encouraging hand use for stability, and ensuring safety by terminating the sitting practice when symptoms of respiratory failure, heart failure, or excessive tiredness developed. The rationale for nursing patients with disorders of consciousness to sit without trunk support was to establish a foundation for independent living. This was achieved by preparing patient's disused body for activity by improving the flexibility of hip joint in the prone position. This represents a new intervention for patients with disorders of consciousness that could facilitate independent living. This study provides empirical and practical evidence from nurses who perform novel clinical interventions that specifically promote independent living. Further accumulation of quantitative clinical results and physiological verification are

  10. Dual-hemisphere tDCS facilitates greater improvements for healthy subjects' non-dominant hand compared to uni-hemisphere stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerruti Carlo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a non-invasive technique that has been found to modulate the excitability of neurons in the brain. The polarity of the current applied to the scalp determines the effects of tDCS on the underlying tissue: anodal tDCS increases excitability, whereas cathodal tDCS decreases excitability. Research has shown that applying anodal tDCS to the non-dominant motor cortex can improve motor performance for the non-dominant hand, presumably by means of changes in synaptic plasticity between neurons. Our previous studies also suggest that applying cathodal tDCS over the dominant motor cortex can improve performance for the non-dominant hand; this effect may result from modulating inhibitory projections (interhemispheric inhibition between the motor cortices of the two hemispheres. We hypothesized that stimultaneously applying cathodal tDCS over the dominant motor cortex and anodal tDCS over the non-dominant motor cortex would have a greater effect on finger sequence performance for the non-dominant hand, compared to stimulating only the non-dominant motor cortex. Sixteen right-handed participants underwent three stimulation conditions: 1 dual-hemisphere – with anodal tDCS over the non-dominant motor cortex, and cathodal tDCS over the dominant motor cortex, 2 uni-hemisphere – with anodal tDCS over the non-dominant motor cortex, and 3 sham tDCS. Participants performed a finger-sequencing task with the non-dominant hand before and after each stimulation. The dependent variable was the percentage of change in performance, comparing pre- and post-tDCS scores. Results A repeated measures ANOVA yielded a significant effect of tDCS condition (F(2,30 = 4.468, p = .037. Post-hoc analyses revealed that dual-hemisphere stimulation improved performance significantly more than both uni-hemisphere (p = .021 and sham stimulation (p = .041. Conclusion We propose that simultaneously applying cathodal t

  11. A Comparative Study on Author's Unreliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林映凡

    2016-01-01

    Literature appreciation usually follows a"writer-text-reader" process. The author is an inseparable part in literary discussion. Most literary schools have debate on the author's status, which is mainly sorted into two kinds: reliable author or unreliable author. This paper makes a comparative study on the author's status, which is mainly from the perspectives of New Criticism and Deconstruction. Both of them go for unreliability of the author. They share similarities but also bear differences.

  12. Comparative Study on Richard Ⅲ and Macbeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽霞; 闫继苗; 徐婷婷

    2013-01-01

    Shakespeare is one of the most prominent drama writers all over the world. His masterpiece displays vivid, delicate and profound humanity. Richard Ⅲ and Macbeth as the main heroes in his two tragedies of the same theme, share quite a lot of simi⁃larities and differences, yet resulting in sharply different readers’response to their fates. The comparative study on these two char⁃acters is aimed at helping readers better understand the two tragedies.

  13. Predisposing, facilitating and reinforcing factors of healthy and unhealthy food consumption in schoolchildren: a study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daboné, Charles; Delisle, Hélène; Receveur, Olivier

    2013-03-01

    African schoolchildren's dietary habits are likely changing in the realm of the nutrition transition, particularly in urban areas, but data on their diet and on determinants are scanty. In order to design relevant interventions for this priority target group, the study aimed to assess food habits and their determinants in schoolchildren of Ouagadougou. In a cross-sectional survey, fifth-grade schoolchildren filled during school hours a questionnaire to assess consumption frequency of 'healthy' foods (fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, legumes) and 'unhealthy' (superfluous) items (cake, cookies, candies, ice, soda) and underlying factors, using Green's PRECEDE model. The study included 769 schoolchildren, mean age 11.7 ± 1.4 years, from eight public and four private schools. Consumption scores of unhealthy items were significantly higher than healthy foods (p = 0.001). During the week prior to the survey, 25% of children had eaten no fruit, 20% no meat, 20% no legumes, 17% no fish and 17% no vegetables. While less than 4% ate fruits or vegetables every day, 18.3% ate ice pop every day. Children eating cookies, cakes and candy every day were up to seven-fold those eating fruits, vegetables or legumes. Compared to public-school pupils, those from private schools consumed both healthy and unhealthy items more frequently (p = 0.002 and p = 0.007, respectively). Urban schoolchildren had significantly higher unhealthy food scores (p = 0.027) compared to peri-urban schools. Children's healthy and unhealthy food consumption was primarily explained by perceived decisional power and availability [facilitating factors] for both types of foods, and maternal reinforcement for healthy foods and peers' reinforcement for consumption of unhealthy items. Overall, facilitating factors rated higher for unhealthy than healthy foods. The study showed that city schoolchildren's eating behaviours are far from optimal. Nutrition interventions should be tailored to address the underlying

  14. Friendship in Latin American Social Comparative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnaldo Garcia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Friendship has been traditionally investigated in the field of interpersonal relationships using different theoretical frameworks and approaches. This paper discusses the possibility of investigating friendship from a comparative Latin American perspective, based on a wide literature review on the subject. Based on the theoretical proposals of Hinde (1997 for the investigation of interpersonal relationships, the paper considers that friendship involves several levels of complexity and affects and is affected by distinct dimensions of Latin American society. The paper recognizes that comparative studies have placed the importance of friends and friendship in areas such as economy, health, education, and migration, among others. As expected, Latin American comparative studies are more frequent in some disciplines, mainly those based on censuses data, and theoretically related to social-economic and demographic concepts, including social networks and social capital. The possibility of developing a Latin American perspective for the study of friendship requires not only the need of empirical but also theoretical advances, as well as scientific cooperation and innovation. Friendship is seen as relevant for the constitution of the social tissue of Latin American society, being affected and affecting different areas and levels. In the social economic dimension, friends are relevant, specifically in Latin America, to themes such as poverty and social vulnerability. Some future possibilities for investigation are discussed.

  15. What are the Facilitators and Obstacles to Participation in Workplace Team Sport? A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brinkley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Working age adults are failing to meet physical activity recommendations. Inactive behaviours are increasing costs for diminished individual and organisational health. The workplace is a priority setting to promote physical activity, however there is a lack of evidence about why some employees choose to participate in novel workplace activities, such as team sport, whilst others do not. The aim of this study was to explore the complexity of facilitators and obstacles associated with participation in workplace team sport.Twenty-nine semi-structured face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with office workers (58% female (36 ± 7.71 from manufacturing, public services, and educational services. Data was analysed through template analysis.Five sub-level (i.e., intrapersonal, interpersonal, organisational, community and societal influences facilitate participation or create obstacles for participants. Participants were challenged by a lack of competence, self-efficacy, negative sporting ideals and amotivation. Unhealthy competition, an unstable work-life balance and unsupportive colleagues created obstacles to participation. An unsupportive organisation and workplace culture placed demands on workplace champions, funding, facilities and communication. Healthy competitions, high perceptions of competence and self-efficacy, and being motivated autonomously enabled participation. Further, relatedness and social support created a physical activity culture where flexible working was encouraged and team sport was promoted in accessible locations within the organisation. Researchers should consider accounting for complexity of these influences. A participatory approach may tailor interventions to individual organisations and the employees that work within them. Interventions whereby autonomy, competence and relatedness are supported are recommended. This may be achieved by adapting sports and training workplace champions.

  16. Facilitating access to sports for people in poverty? A study on local social sports policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Vandermeerschen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available SAMENVATTING Mensen in armoede toegang bieden tot sport? Een studie naar lokaal sociaal sportbeleid Onderzoek heeft aangetoond dat armoede een impact heeft op de kansen voor sportdeelname. Mensen in armoede participeren minder in sport in vergelijking met mensen die gemakkelijk(er rondkomen. Op Vlaams beleidsniveau werden initiatieven genomen om lokale besturen aan te moedigen tot het promoten en faciliteren van sportdeelname voor mensen in armoede. Het is echter nog onduidelijk in welke mate dit ingang vond op lokaal niveau. In deze studie wordt onderzocht in welke mate lokale sportdiensten momenteel initiatieven nemen om sportdeelname bij mensen in armoede te faciliteren, met welke moeilijkheden sportdiensten worden geconfronteerd om dit doel te bereiken, en in welke mate lokaal sociaal sportbeleid tot stand komt door middel van samenwerkingsverbanden tussen de sportsector enerzijds, en de sociale sector anderzijds. De data zijn afkomstig van het Vlaamse Sportdiensten Panel (2014. De resultaten geven onder meer aan dat de publieke sportsector en de sociale sector nog in grote mate twee “gescheiden” werelden zijn. Het blijkt een uitdaging om de afstand tussen beiden te overbruggen. Aanbevelingen voor verder onderzoek en voor de ontwikkeling van een sociaal sportbeleid worden aangereikt. ABSTRACTFacilitating access to sports for people in poverty? A study on local social sports policy Research has shown that living in poverty affects the opportunities for engaging in practicing sports. People in poverty participate less in sports than people who have no (or fewer difficulties making ends meet. At the Flemish policy level, initiatives have been undertaken to ensure that more local sports authorities promote and facilitate participation in sports for people in poverty. However, it remains unclear how these concerns are being translated at the local level. In this study, we investigate the extent to which local sports authorities are currently

  17. Social facilitation maintenance treatment for adults with obesity: study protocol for a randomised-controlled feasibility study (SFM study)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    .... This clinical trial investigates the feasibility and efficacy of a social facilitation maintenance programme for weight loss maintenance, tailored to meet the needs of obese adults who have undergone...

  18. Comparative study of INPIStron and spark gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.

    1993-01-01

    An inverse pinch plasma switch, INPIStron, was studied in comparison to a conventional spark gap. The INPIStron is under development for high power switching applications. The INPIStron has an inverse pinch dynamics, opposed to Z-pinch dynamics in the spark gap. The electrical, plasma dynamics and radiative properties of the closing plasmas have been studied. Recently the high-voltage pulse transfer capabilities or both the INPIStron and the spark gap were also compared. The INPIStron with a low impedance Z = 9 ohms transfers 87 percent of an input pulse with a halfwidth of 2 mu s. For the same input pulse the spark gap of Z = 100 ohms transfers 68 percent. Fast framing and streak photography, taken with an TRW image converter camera, was used to observe the discharge uniformity and closing plasma speed in both switches. In order to assess the effects of closing plasmas on erosion of electrode material, emission spectra of two switches were studied with a spectrometer-optical multi channel analyzer (OMA) system. The typical emission spectra of the closing plasmas in the INPIStron and the spark gap showed that there were comparatively weak carbon line emission in 658.7 nm and copper (electrode material) line emissions in the INPIStron, indicating low erosion of materials in the INPIStron.

  19. EFQPSK Versus CERN: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Deva K.; Horan, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a comparative study on Enhanced Feher's Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (EFQPSK) and Constrained Envelope Root Nyquist (CERN) techniques. These two techniques have been developed in recent times to provide high spectral and power efficiencies under nonlinear amplifier environment. The purpose of this study is to gain insights into these techniques and to help system planners and designers with an appropriate set of guidelines for using these techniques. The comparative study presented in this report relies on effective simulation models and procedures. Therefore, a significant part of this report is devoted to understanding the mathematical and simulation models of the techniques and their set-up procedures. In particular, mathematical models of EFQPSK and CERN, effects of the sampling rate in discrete time signal representation, and modeling of nonlinear amplifiers and predistorters have been considered in detail. The results of this study show that both EFQPSK and CERN signals provide spectrally efficient communications compared to filtered conventional linear modulation techniques when a nonlinear power amplifier is used. However, there are important differences. The spectral efficiency of CERN signals, with a small amount of input backoff, is significantly better than that of EFQPSK signals if the nonlinear amplifier is an ideal clipper. However, to achieve such spectral efficiencies with a practical nonlinear amplifier, CERN processing requires a predistorter which effectively translates the amplifier's characteristics close to those of an ideal clipper. Thus, the spectral performance of CERN signals strongly depends on the predistorter. EFQPSK signals, on the other hand, do not need such predistorters since their spectra are almost unaffected by the nonlinear amplifier, Ibis report discusses several receiver structures for EFQPSK signals. It is observed that optimal receiver structures can be realized for both coded and uncoded EFQPSK

  20. Comparative study of hydrogenated and lithiated superhalogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Na; Li, Ying; Liu, Jia-Yuan; Wu, Di; Sun, Yan-Bo; Li, Zhi-Ru

    2016-09-01

    The structural features, properties and stability of two kinds of representative superhalogen compounds, namely hydrogenated superhalogens and lithiated superhalogens, are theoretically studied in detail, providing further insight into the behavior of superhalogens. According to topological analysis of the electron localization function, most of superhalogen clusters as a whole combine with Li atom through ionic bond(s). In contrast, the H atom tends to bind with superhalogen by covalent bond although a portion of superhalogens are broken upon hydrogenation. In addition, the electric properties of these superhalogen compounds are also obtained and compared with those of traditional acid and salt molecules.

  1. A tool to facilitate clinical biomarker studies - a tissue dictionary based on the Human Protein Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampf Caroline

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complexity of tissue and the alterations that distinguish normal from cancer remain a challenge for translating results from tumor biological studies into clinical medicine. This has generated an unmet need to exploit the findings from studies based on cell lines and model organisms to develop, validate and clinically apply novel diagnostic, prognostic and treatment predictive markers. As one step to meet this challenge, the Human Protein Atlas project has been set up to produce antibodies towards human protein targets corresponding to all human protein coding genes and to map protein expression in normal human tissues, cancer and cells. Here, we present a dictionary based on microscopy images created as an amendment to the Human Protein Atlas. The aim of the dictionary is to facilitate the interpretation and use of the image-based data available in the Human Protein Atlas, but also to serve as a tool for training and understanding tissue histology, pathology and cell biology. The dictionary contains three main parts, normal tissues, cancer tissues and cells, and is based on high-resolution images at different magnifications of full tissue sections stained with H & E. The cell atlas is centered on immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy images, using different color channels to highlight the organelle structure of a cell. Here, we explain how this dictionary can be used as a tool to aid clinicians and scientists in understanding the use of tissue histology and cancer pathology in diagnostics and biomarker studies.

  2. Women with physical disability and the mammogram: An observational study to identify barriers and facilitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulos, Ann, E-mail: ann.poulos@sydney.edu.a [University of Sydney, Faculty of Health Sciences, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Balandin, Susan [University of Sydney, Faculty of Health Sciences, Discipline of Speech Pathology, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Avdeling for helse- og sosialfag, Hogskolen i Molde, Postboks 2110, 6402 Molde (Norway); Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; McCarthy, Louella [University of Sydney, Faculty of Health Sciences, Discipline of Occupational Therapy, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Dark, Leigha [University of Sydney, Faculty of Health Sciences, Discipline of Speech Pathology, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: To identify barriers and facilitators experienced by women with physical disability having a mammogram. Method: Direct observation of the mammography procedure for women with a range of physical disability at screening facilities of BreastScreen NSW Australia. Results: A volunteer sample of 13 women with varying degrees of physical disability participated in the study. The outcomes suggested that many barriers for women with physical disability can be ameliorated by environmental adaptations and guidelines for both radiographers and women. Some women however cannot be screened successfully, or can be screened only with a level of trauma and/or pain which militates against their continuation within the screening program. This study has identified physical limitations which preclude a successful outcome, those which increase the discomfort/pain of the procedure and aspects of the procedure which can be improved to minimise the experience of discomfort/pain. Conclusion: From the outcomes of the study the development of a decision tool is indicated as a method of providing information for women with physical disability and their doctors as to the likelihood of a successful outcome to participation in mammography screening.

  3. CURRICULAR OFFER INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ SATISFACTION: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana DUMITRASCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is the determination of students’ satisfaction regarding curricular activities. The study has been accomplished using the qualitative and quantitative research, using the bibliographic study, various secondary sources and different primary sources. The study is developed with a marketing research and accomplished using the survey method. 699 students from four universities have been questioned. Due to a comparative study the University of Applied Sciences Worms, University of Applied Sciences Wiesbaden Rüsselsheim, University of Applied Sciences Frankfurt am Main and Nürtingen-Geislingen University have been analysed and their similarities and differences have been identified. The collected data, based on the established sample, is evaluated through univariate and bivariate analysis. In accordance with the evaluated sample, specific gaps from each region are identified regarding the curricular offer of the analysed universities. As a result to the conducted study, recommendations for the University of Applied Sciences Worms regarding the student’s satisfaction concerning the curricular offer are presented.

  4. CURRICULAR OFFER INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ SATISFACTION: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana DUMITRASCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is the determination of students’ satisfaction regarding curricular activities. The study has been accomplished using the qualitative and quantitative research, using the bibliographic study, various secondary sources and different primary sources. The study is developed with a marketing research and accomplished using the survey method. 699 students from four universities have been questioned. Due to a comparative study the University of Applied Sciences Worms, University of Applied Sciences Wiesbaden Rüsselsheim, University of Applied Sciences Frankfurt am Main and Nürtingen-Geislingen University have been analysed and their similarities and differences have been identified. The collected data, based on the established sample, is evaluated through univariate and bivariate analysis. In accordance with the evaluated sample, specific gaps from each region are identified regarding the curricular offer of the analysed universities. As a result to the conducted study, recommendations for the University of Applied Sciences Worms regarding the student’s satisfaction concerning the curricular offer are presented.

  5. Comparative bioequivalence study of meloxicam drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekut Karieva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The governments of many countries strongly support the production and clinical use of generic medicinal products which are “copies” of patented drugs and can be marked at lower cost. At present time bioequivalence testing is regarded as a useful methodology to perform comparisons among different products containing the same active ingredient. This report presents the results of comparative bioequivalence study of three meloxicam formulations: brand-drug “Melbek” with tablets and capsules of meloxicam developed at the Tashkent Pharmaceutical Institute. The results obtained confirm the bioequivalence of the studied drugs, which indicate about scientifically based approach to the selection of excipients and technological process in the development of the above generic drugs.

  6. Semantic Integration of Cervical Cancer Data Repositories to Facilitate Multicenter Association Studies: The ASSIST Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Agorastos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The current work addresses the unification of Electronic Health Records related to cervical cancer into a single medical knowledge source, in the context of the EU-funded ASSIST research project. The project aims to facilitate the research for cervical precancer and cancer through a system that virtually unifies multiple patient record repositories, physically located in different medical centers/hospitals, thus, increasing flexibility by allowing the formation of study groups “on demand” and by recycling patient records in new studies. To this end, ASSIST uses semantic technologies to translate all medical entities (such as patient examination results, history, habits, genetic profile and represent them in a common form, encoded in the ASSIST Cervical Cancer Ontology. The current paper presents the knowledge elicitation approach followed, towards the definition and representation of the disease’s medical concepts and rules that constitute the basis for the ASSIST Cervical Cancer Ontology. The proposed approach constitutes a paradigm for semantic integration of heterogeneous clinical data that may be applicable to other biomedical application domains.

  7. A comparative study of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavarkar, S H; Madhu, C K; Mule, V D

    2008-08-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a global problem and is considered a high-risk group, in spite of conflicting evidence. Our objective was to compare obstetric outcomes of pregnancy in teenagers and older women. This was a retrospective study of case records of pregnancies from August 2000 to July 2001. Girls aged pregnancy outcomes in older women (19-35 years) in the same hospital. The study took place in the Government General Hospital, Sangli, India, a teaching hospital in rural India, with an annual delivery rate of over 3,500. A total of 386 teenage pregnancies were compared with pregnancies in 3,326 older women. Socioeconomic data, age, number of pregnancies, antenatal care and complications, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcomes were considered. The incidence of teenage pregnancy in the study was 10%. A significant proportion of teenage pregnant mothers were in their first pregnancies. The teenage mothers were nearly three times more at risk of developing anaemia (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 2.2-3.7, p Teenage mothers were twice as likely to develop hypertensive problems in pregnancy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5-3.2, p teenage pregnancies are still a common occurrence in rural India in spite of various legislations and government programmes and teenage pregnancy is a risk factor for poor obstetric outcome in rural India. Cultural practices, poor socioeconomic conditions, low literacy rate and lack of awareness of the risks are some of the main contributory factors. Early booking, good care during pregnancy and delivery and proper utilisation of contraceptive services can prevent the incidence and complications in this high-risk group.

  8. Facilitating Structure-Function Studies of CFTR Modulator Sites with Efficiencies in Mutagenesis and Functional Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinski, Steven V; Ahmadi, Saumel; Hung, Maurita; Bear, Christine E

    2015-12-01

    There are nearly 2000 mutations in the CFTR gene associated with cystic fibrosis disease, and to date, the only approved drug, Kalydeco, has been effective in rescuing the functional expression of a small subset of these mutant proteins with defects in channel activation. However, there is currently an urgent need to assess other mutations for possible rescue by Kalydeco, and further, definition of the binding site of such modulators on CFTR would enhance our understanding of the mechanism of action of such therapeutics. Here, we describe a simple and rapid one-step PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis method to generate mutations in the CFTR gene. This method was used to generate CFTR mutants bearing deletions (p.Gln2_Trp846del, p.Ser700_Asp835del, p.Ile1234_Arg1239del) and truncation with polyhistidine tag insertion (p.Glu1172-3Gly-6-His*), which either recapitulate a disease phenotype or render tools for modulator binding site identification, with subsequent evaluation of drug responses using a high-throughput (384-well) membrane potential-sensitive fluorescence assay of CFTR channel activity within a 1 wk time frame. This proof-of-concept study shows that these methods enable rapid and quantitative comparison of multiple CFTR mutants to emerging drugs, facilitating future large-scale efforts to stratify mutants according to their "theratype" or most promising targeted therapy.

  9. Comparative microscopy study of Vibrio cholerae flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnov, Nikolai P.; Baiburin, Vil B.; Zadnova, Svetlana P.; Volkov, Uryi P.

    1999-06-01

    A fine structure of bacteria flagella is an important problem of molecular cell biology. Bacteria flagella are the self-assembled structures that allow to use the flagellum protein in a number of biotechnological applications. However, at present, there is a little information about high resolution scanning probe microscopy study of flagellum structure, in particular, about investigation of Vibrio cholerae flagella. In our lab have been carried out the high resolution comparative investigation of V. cholerae flagella by means of various microscopes: tunneling (STM), scanning force (SFM) and electron transmission. As a scanning probe microscope is used designed in our lab versatile SPM with replaceable measuring heads. Bacteria were grown, fixed and treated according to the conventional techniques. For STM investigations samples were covered with Pt/Ir thin films by rotated vacuum evaporation, in SFM investigations were used uncovered samples. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained bacteria was used as a test procedure.

  10. Comparative studies on ecotoxicology of synthetic detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, H; Misra, V; Viswanathan, P N; Krishna Murti, C R

    1983-12-01

    To predict the comparative toxicological response of synthetic detergents on aquatic ecosystems, the effects of various concentrations of neutralized alkyl benzene sulfonate were studied. The median tolerance limit at 48 hr, 95% confidence limit, slope function, presumable harmless concentration, and rate of survival of different species of aquatic fauna such as water fleas (Daphnia magna), mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens), slug worms (Tubifex rivulorum), snails (Lymnaea vulgaris), tadpoles (Rana cyanophlyctis), and fish fingerlings (Cirrhina mrigala) were followed at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr. Any effect on quality of the water was also tested after the addition of various concentrations of detergents. The results showed that water fleas are more susceptible to detergent toxicity than fish fingerlings, tadpoles, slug worms, snails, and mosquito larvae. Behavioral changes were also observed as an index for detergent toxicity. The relative toxicity of the detergents to various species is discussed in relation to selective ecotoxicological response.

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Al-Refai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks consist of a large number of small, low-powered wireless nodes with limited computation, communication, and sensing abilities, in a battery-powered sensor network, energy and communication bandwidth are a precious resources. Thus, there is a need to adapt the networking process to match the application in order to minimize the resources consumed and extend the life of the network. In this paper, we introduce a comparative study in different routing algorithms that propose vital solutions to the most important issues that should be taken into account when designing wireless network which are reliability, lifetime, communication bandwidth, transmission rand, and finally the limited energy issue, so we will introduce their algorithms and discuss how did they propose to solve such of these challenges and finally we will do some evaluation to each approach.

  12. COSMOS - a study comparing peripheral intravenous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Juan Luis González; Del Palacio, Encarnación Ferenández; Marti, Carmen Benedicto; Corral, Javier Olivares; Portal, Pilar Herrera; Vilela, Ana Arribi

    In many areas of the world, safety peripheral intravenous systems have come into widespread use. The Madrid region was the first in Spain to adopt such an approach. These systems, though initially introduced to protect users from sharps injuries, have now evolved to include patient protection features as well. Patient protection, simply stated, means closing the system to pathogen entry. The authors' purpose was to investigate, in a prospective and randomized study, the clinical performance of a closed safe intravenous system versus an open system (COSMOS - Compact Closed System versus Mounted Open System). COSMOS is designed to provide definitive answers, from a nursing perspective, to many topics related to peripheral venous catheterization, which have important implications in intravenous therapy and which have not been validated scientifically. Furthermore, it forms pioneering research in that it is the first clinical trial on medical devices in a legislated environment carried out entirely by nurses and whose promoter and principal investigator is a nurse. The objectives of COSMOS are to compare the effectiveness (as defined by time of survival without complications) and rates of catheter-related complications, such as phlebitis, pain, extravasation, blockage and catheter-related infections. It also looks at rates of catheter colonization, the ease of handling of both systems and overall costs. This article outlines the authors' approach, both in preparing hospital units for such an evaluation as well as in the choice of parameters and their method of study. Further articles will detail the results and findings of the study.

  13. Teaching Organic Synthesis: A Comparative Case Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosburg, David A.

    2008-01-01

    In this course, students encounter reactions and mechanisms in the context of landmark syntheses of biologically important molecules. Students closely examine pairs of syntheses of related or identical molecules to facilitate their appreciation for synthetic strategy. They then write short, creative papers that critically compare the two synthetic…

  14. Reusing Information Management Services for Recommended Decadal Study Missions to Facilitate Aerosol and Cloud Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Steve; Alcott, Gary; Lynnes, Chris; Leptoukh, Greg; Vollmer, Bruce; Berrick, Steve

    2008-01-01

    NASA Earth Sciences Division (ESD) has made great investments in the development and maintenance of data management systems and information technologies, to maximize the use of NASA generated Earth science data. With information management system infrastructure in place, mature and operational, very small delta costs are required to fully support data archival, processing, and data support services required by the recommended Decadal Study missions. This presentation describes the services and capabilities of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and the reusability for these future missions. The GES DISC has developed a series of modular, reusable data management components currently in use. They include data archive and distribution (Simple, Scalable, Script-based, Science [S4] Product Archive aka S4PA), data processing (S4 Processor for Measurements aka S4PM), data search (Mirador), data browse, visualization, and analysis (Giovanni), and data mining services. Information management system components are based on atmospheric scientist inputs. Large development and maintenance cost savings can be realized through their reuse in future missions.

  15. Intentional burns in Nepal: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Bir Bahadur; Duke, Janine M; Sharma, Narayan Prasad; Thapa, Buland; Dahal, Peeyush; Bariya, Nara Devi; Marston, Wendy; Wallace, Hilary J

    2015-09-01

    Intentional burns injuries are associated with high mortality rates, and for survivors, high levels of physical and psychological morbidity. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of intentional burn admissions to the adult Burns Unit at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, during the period 2002-2013. A secondary data analysis of de-identified data of patients hospitalized at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, with a burn during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2013. Socio-demographic, injury and psychosocial factors of patients with intentional and unintentional burns are described and compared. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine statistical significance. There were a total of 1148 burn admissions of which 329 (29%) were for intentional burn, 293 (26%) were self-inflicted and 36 (3%) were due to assault. Mortality rates for intentional burns were approximately three times those for unintentional burns (60 vs. 22%). When compared to unintentional burns, patients with intentional burns were more likely to be female (79 vs. 48%), married (84 vs. 67%), younger (25 vs. 30 years), have more extensive burns (total body surface area, %: 55 vs. 25) and higher mortality (60 vs. 22%). Intentional burns were more likely to occur at home (95 vs. 67%), be caused by fire (96 vs. 77%), and kerosene was the most common accelerant (91 vs. 31%). A primary psychosocial risk factor was identified in the majority of intentional burn cases, with 60% experiencing adjustment problems/interpersonal conflict and 32% with evidence of a pre-existing psychological condition. A record of alcohol/substance abuse related to the patient or other was associated with a greater proportion of intentional burns when compared with unintentional burns (17 vs. 4%). The majority of intentional burn patients were female. Almost all intentional burns occurred in the home and were caused by fire, with kerosene the most common accelerant used. Underlying

  16. Barriers and facilitators of surgical care in rural Uganda: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanna-Nzewunwa, Obieze C; Ajiko, Mary-Margaret; Kirya, Fred; Epodoi, Joseph; Kabagenyi, Fiona; Batibwe, Emmanuel; Feldhaus, Isabelle; Juillard, Catherine; Dicker, Rochelle

    2016-07-01

    Surgical care delivery is poorly understood in resource-limited settings. To effectively move toward universal health coverage, there is a critical need to understand surgical care delivery in developing countries. This study aims to identify the barriers and facilitators of surgical care delivery at Soroti Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda. In this mixed methods study, we (1) applied the Surgeons OverSeas' Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies tool to assess surgical capacity; (2) retrospectively reviewed inpatient records; (3) conducted four semistructured focus group discussions with 18 purposively sampled providers involved in perioperative care; and (4) observed the perioperative process of care using a time and motion approach. Descriptive statistics were generated from quantitative data. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed. The Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies survey revealed severe deficiencies in workforce (P-score = 14) and infrastructure (I-score = 5). Equipment, supplies, and procedures were generally available. Male and female wards were overbooked 83% and 60% of the time, respectively. Providers identified lack of space, patient overload, and superfluous patients' attendants as barriers to surgical care. Workforce challenges were tackled using teamwork and task sharing. Inadequate equipment and processes were addressed using improvisations. All observed subjects (n = 31) received interventions. The median decision-to-intervention time was 2.5 h (Interquartile Range [IQR], 0.4, 21.4). However, 48% of subjects experienced delays. Median decision-to-intervention delay was 14.8 h (IQR, 0.9, 26.6). Despite severe workforce and physical infrastructural deficiencies at Soroti Regional Referral Hospital, providers are adjusting and innovating to deliver surgical care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The BEST study - a prospective study to compare business class ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a prospective study to compare business class versus economy class air travel as a cause of thrombosis. ... Patients/methods. ... Logistical regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors related to abnormally high D-dimer levels.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL AMORTIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA GURAU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Placed in the international trend, Romanian accounting had experienced various changes, especially as regards of progress on disconnection between accounting and fiscality. In the present, fiscal rules should not have any role in accounting decisions, because accounting rules are applied to produce accounting information that is useful in making decisions and to provide a "true and fair view" upon financial reality of the entity. However, the barrier in the habit of accounting to thinking for fiscal point of view all economic transactions remains insurmountable, yet. Starting from this perspective on disconnection between accounting and fiscality would mean that amortization recorded in the accounting, as a result of management policy, to be different from fiscality amortization, to calculate income tax. Although formally accepted, disconnect between accounting and fiscality continues to meet many difficulties. In this sense, it is usual in practice to use the same method of amortization for accounting purposes and for fiscal purposes to prevent complications of double track amortization and prevent wandering in the rules in this field. Accounting rule is deliberately eluded in favor of the fiscal rules. This is the reason we proposed to make in this paper a comparative study between norms and rules on accounting and fiscal amortization, paper in which we intend to show the benefits of applying accounting and fiscal rules separately.

  19. Comparative study of selected parallel tempering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakis, A.; Papakonstantinou, T.

    2013-07-01

    We review several parallel tempering schemes and examine their main ingredients for accuracy and efficiency. The present study covers two selection methods of temperatures and several choices for the exchange of replicas, including a recent novel all-pair exchange method. We compare the resulting schemes and measure specific heat errors and efficiency using the two-dimensional (2D) Ising model. Our tests suggest that an earlier proposal for using numbers of local moves related to the canonical correlation times is one of the key ingredients for increasing efficiency, and protocols using cluster algorithms are found to be very effective. Some of the protocols are also tested for efficiency and ground state production in 3D spin-glass models where we find that a simple nearest-neighbor approach using a local n-fold-way algorithm is the most effective. Finally, we present evidence that the asymptotic limits of the ground state energy for the isotropic case and for an anisotropic case of the 3D spin-glass model are very close and may even coincide.

  20. Mobile Health Apps to Facilitate Self-Care: A Qualitative Study of User Experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Anderson

    Full Text Available Consumers are living longer, creating more pressure on the health system and increasing their requirement for self-care of chronic conditions. Despite rapidly-increasing numbers of mobile health applications ('apps' for consumers' self-care, there is a paucity of research into consumer engagement with electronic self-monitoring. This paper presents a qualitative exploration of how health consumers use apps for health monitoring, their perceived benefits from use of health apps, and suggestions for improvement of health apps.'Health app' was defined as any commercially-available health or fitness app with capacity for self-monitoring. English-speaking consumers aged 18 years and older using any health app for self-monitoring were recruited for interview from the metropolitan area of Perth, Australia. The semi-structured interview guide comprised questions based on the Technology Acceptance Model, Health Information Technology Acceptance Model, and the Mobile Application Rating Scale, and is the only study to do so. These models also facilitated deductive thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Implicit and explicit responses not aligned to these models were analyzed inductively.Twenty-two consumers (15 female, seven male participated, 13 of whom were aged 26-35 years. Eighteen participants reported on apps used on iPhones. Apps were used to monitor diabetes, asthma, depression, celiac disease, blood pressure, chronic migraine, pain management, menstrual cycle irregularity, and fitness. Most were used approximately weekly for several minutes per session, and prior to meeting initial milestones, with significantly decreased usage thereafter. Deductive and inductive thematic analysis reduced the data to four dominant themes: engagement in use of the app; technical functionality of the app; ease of use and design features; and management of consumers' data.The semi-structured interviews provided insight into usage, benefits and challenges of

  1. Mobile Health Apps to Facilitate Self-Care: A Qualitative Study of User Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin; Burford, Oksana; Emmerton, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Consumers are living longer, creating more pressure on the health system and increasing their requirement for self-care of chronic conditions. Despite rapidly-increasing numbers of mobile health applications ('apps') for consumers' self-care, there is a paucity of research into consumer engagement with electronic self-monitoring. This paper presents a qualitative exploration of how health consumers use apps for health monitoring, their perceived benefits from use of health apps, and suggestions for improvement of health apps. 'Health app' was defined as any commercially-available health or fitness app with capacity for self-monitoring. English-speaking consumers aged 18 years and older using any health app for self-monitoring were recruited for interview from the metropolitan area of Perth, Australia. The semi-structured interview guide comprised questions based on the Technology Acceptance Model, Health Information Technology Acceptance Model, and the Mobile Application Rating Scale, and is the only study to do so. These models also facilitated deductive thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Implicit and explicit responses not aligned to these models were analyzed inductively. Twenty-two consumers (15 female, seven male) participated, 13 of whom were aged 26-35 years. Eighteen participants reported on apps used on iPhones. Apps were used to monitor diabetes, asthma, depression, celiac disease, blood pressure, chronic migraine, pain management, menstrual cycle irregularity, and fitness. Most were used approximately weekly for several minutes per session, and prior to meeting initial milestones, with significantly decreased usage thereafter. Deductive and inductive thematic analysis reduced the data to four dominant themes: engagement in use of the app; technical functionality of the app; ease of use and design features; and management of consumers' data. The semi-structured interviews provided insight into usage, benefits and challenges of health monitoring

  2. Enhancing the Transition to University by Facilitating Social and Study Networks: Results of a One-Day Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Mary; Dalziel, James; Grant, Anthony M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a one-day workshop developed at the University of Sydney (Australia) to facilitate social and study-related peer networks. Qualitative and quantitative analyses found that the workshops enhanced study, self-motivation, and general enjoyment of university life and were helpful in easing the transition of undergraduate students.…

  3. The Impact of Facilitated Communication on the Educational Lives of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Four Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This action qualitative study with a case research design investigated the impact of facilitated communication (FC) on the educational lives of high school students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The effect of FC on nonverbal students and schools' reactions to FC were also examined. The results from the four case studies indicate that FC…

  4. University Faculty Members' Perceptions of the Factors That Facilitate Technology Integration into Their Instruction: An Exploratory Case Study in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkouti, Ibrahim Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative, exploratory case study was designed to elicit faculty members' perceptions of the factors that facilitate technology integration into their instruction. The study was conducted at a midsized higher education institution in Qatar. Davis's (1986) technology acceptance model (TAM) is the conceptual framework that guided this study…

  5. Barriers and facilitators to antiretroviral therapy adherence among patients with HIV in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau: a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dlama; da Silva Te, David; Rodkjær, Lotte Ørneborg;

    2013-01-01

    Adherence is a decisive factor in achieving a successful response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection. No previous studies have been conducted regarding HIV treatment adherence in Guinea-Bissau. In this study we assessed barriers and facilitators to patient ART adherence. Semi......-structured interviews were conducted with 20 adult, HIV infected individuals receiving ART at a HIV treatment centre in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. The grounded theory method was used to gather and analyse data. Results indicated that HIV-related knowledge was a determining factor for optimal adherence. The facilitators...

  6. Emotional Facilitation Effect in the Picture-Word Interference Task: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baolin; Xin, Shuai; Jin, Zhixing; Hu, Yu; Li, Yang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we aimed to verify the emotional facilitation effect in the picture-word interference task using event-related potentials. Twenty-one healthy subjects were asked to categorize the emotional valences of pictures accompanied by emotionally congruent, either centrally or laterally positioned Chinese words. For both the foveal and…

  7. A Pilot Study of Language Facilitation for Bilingual, Language-Handicapped Children: Theoretical and Intervention Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzi, Joseph A.

    1985-01-01

    A within-subject design involving three Spanish speaking and three English speaking preschoolers with language handicaps provided support for the practice of initial language intervention in the native language when bilingualism is a goal and for transference/facilitation theories of second language learning. (CL)

  8. A comparative study of vascular injection fluids in fresh-frozen and embalmed human cadaver forearms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomernik, D.E.; Kruse, R.R.; Reijnen, M.M.; Kozicz, T.; Kooloos, J.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, various vascular injection products have been developed to facilitate anatomical dissections. This study aimed to compare the most commonly used vascular injection products in fresh-frozen and formalin-embalmed cadaver specimens. An overview of the properties, advantages and

  9. [Stereoscopic neuroanatomy: comparative study between anaglyphic and light polarization techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Murilo Sousa; Cruz, André Vieira; Castro, Izara Almeida; Pedrozo, Ari A

    2002-09-01

    The need of didactic material is increasing in medical science nowadays. The lack of anatomical specimens, and the toxicity of conservators, have originated an intense search for alternative ways of demonstrating the human anatomy. As a solution for this difficulty, three-dimensional (3-D) images may be used, facilitating the learning process. This study aims at comparing and describing two techniques of reproduction of bi-dimensional images into three dimensions, which is called stereoscopy. The methods evaluated are filter of colors (anaglyphic) and polarized light. Techniques were analyzed for clearness and 3-D effect. Fourteen images were evaluated by 5 people, with scores ranging from 0 to 4. Total mean scores of polarized light was superior compared to the anaglyphic technique. Both methods use the codification of the image, which means separation and exclusivity with each eye seeing its corresponding image. After several photographic essays and gradual adaptation to a better technique, based on optical physics, photography and neuroanatomical knowledge, we concluded that both techniques are suitable means for production of 3-D images. The best technique, however, considering the final quality of image was polarized light, which did not alter the natural color of the specimen, conserving clearness of images with lower cost.

  10. A Comparative Study of Principals' Administrative Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyung Ae

    1989-01-01

    Compared are the managerial behaviors and beliefs of Korean and American secondary school principals. Generalizations are proposed in the areas of work hours, work pace, communication skills, organizational style, instructional leadership, and other managerial behaviors. (16 references) (SI)

  11. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Then both approaches required be comparing and contrasting. Among these methods .... should include political powers (factors related to the poli- cy test) and .... mental system and predict the component behavior. Using the ...

  12. SKIN STAPLED OR SUTURED: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The choice of wound closure after a surgical procedure has been a surgeon’s dilemma . The concerns have been as to how fast , uneventful , less painful , with minimal complications and comfortable will the patient’s recovery be. A well - known technology is surgical staples which are easier to use , less time consuming and a needle free method o f wound closure. OBJECTIVE: To compare skin staples with non - absorbable skin suture for skin closure in surgical laparotomy procedures for the following character : wound infection , dehiscence , cosmesis and postoperative pain . METHODS: This is a comparative study conducted on 100 patients divided in two groups randomly at Bapuji Hospital for cases undergoing surgical laparotomy procedures. Skin closure was done with 2 - 0 polyamide skin sutures in one group and skin closure was achieved with skin staples in th e other group. The outcome of wound was assessed on 3rd , 5th and 7th postoperative days using ASEPSIS score. Wound cosmesis was assessed on the 7th postoperative day and followed up at 1st month and 3rd month , using modified Hollander cosmesis scale. Postoperative pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale on the 1st , 3rd and 7th postoperative days. RESULTS : The mean wound ASPESIS scores on day 3 for skin staples and sutured group was 0.28 and 0.36 (p=0.7 respectively. The score on day 5 for staples and sutured group was 0.12 and 0.28 (p=0.4 respectively. The results in both the groups were the same , 0.08 on day 7(p=0. Wound cosmesis mean score assessment on day 7 for skin staples suturing group was 5.84 and 5.68 respectively (p=0.3. The mean score for cosmesis assessment at 1 month , and 3 rd month for skin staples and suturing group was 5.92 and 5.68 (p=0.1 and was 6.00 and 5.92 (p=0.36 respectively which was not satistically significant . The visual analogue scale score for postopera tive pain on 1st day , 3 rd and 7 th day for skin staples and suturing group 54

  13. A framework to facilitate self-directed learning, assessment and supervision in midwifery practice: a qualitative study of supervisors' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embo, M; Driessen, E; Valcke, M; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2014-08-01

    Self-directed learning is an educational concept that has received increasing attention. The recent workplace literature, however, reports problems with the facilitation of self-directed learning in clinical practice. We developed the Midwifery Assessment and Feedback Instrument (MAFI) as a framework to facilitate self-directed learning. In the present study, we sought clinical supervisors' perceptions of the usefulness of MAFI. Interviews with fifteen clinical supervisors were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using Atlas-Ti software for qualitative data analysis. Four themes emerged from the analysis. (1) The competency-based educational structure promotes the setting of realistic learning outcomes and a focus on competency development, (2) instructing students to write reflections facilitates student-centred supervision, (3) creating a feedback culture is necessary to achieve continuity in supervision and (4) integrating feedback and assessment might facilitate competency development under the condition that evidence is discussed during assessment meetings. Supervisors stressed the need for direct observation, and instruction how to facilitate a self-directed learning process. The MAFI appears to be a useful framework to promote self-directed learning in clinical practice. The effect can be advanced by creating a feedback and assessment culture where learners and supervisors share the responsibility for developing self-directed learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening among Pakistani and Somali immigrant women in Oslo: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Qureshi, Samera A; Kour, Prabhjot; Kumar, Bernadette; Diaz, Esperanza

    2017-01-01

    Norway has a low incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer, which is mainly due to the high participation rate of women in cervical cancer screening. However, the attendance of cervical cancer screening was reported to be low among immigrant women. For this reason, we conducted a qualitative study to obtain better insight into perceived barriers and challenges to cervical cancer screening among Somali and Pakistani women in the Oslo region. A convenient sample of 35 (18 Pakistani, 17 Somali) women were recruited for the study in collaboration with Somali and Pakistani community partners. Focus group discussions were used to explore barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening, whereas the Ecological Model was used as the framework for the study. The study found three levels of barriers to cervical cancer screening. The individual level included a lack of understanding of the benefits of the screening. The sociocultural level included the stigma attached to the disease and the belief that women who are unmarried are sexually inactive. The system-related level included a lack of trust toward the health care system. Based on the study results, and using a common denominator approach for the immigrant groups included, the study recommends three communication strategies with the potential to improve women's participation in cervical cancer screening: 1) in-person communication and information material at health centers; 2) verbal communication with women through seminars and workshops to educate them about their risk of cancer and the importance of screening and 3) the initiation of better recall through SMS and letters written in native languages. Finally, an intervention study that compares the aforementioned strategies and proves their effectiveness in increasing immigrant women's participation in cervical cancer screening is recommended.

  15. Barriers and Facilitators of Participation in Sports : A Qualitative Study on Dutch Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bragaru, Mihai; van Wilgen, C. P.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Ruijs, Suzette G. J. B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Dekker, Rienk

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Although individuals with lower limb amputation may benefit from participation in sports, less than 40% do so. Aim: To identify the barriers and facilitators that influence participation in sports for individuals with lower limb amputation. Design: Qualitative study. Participants: Twen

  16. A Descriptive Study on the Barriers and Facilitators to Implementation of the NSW (Australia) Healthy School Canteen Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardzejewska, K.; Tadros, R.; Baxter, D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated the barriers and facilitators to, and the extent of the implementation of, the New South Wales (Australia) "Healthy School Canteen Strategy". Design: A purposeful sample was used and data were collected using a mixed method approach. Setting: Two primary and two secondary government schools from a low…

  17. How can clinical practice guidelines be adapted to facilitate shared decision making? A qualitative key-informant study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijden, T.T. van der; Pieterse, A.H.; Koelewijn-van Loon, M.S.; Knaapen, L.; Legare, F.; Boivin, A.; Burgers, J.S.; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Faber, M.J.; Elwyn, G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To explore how clinical practice guidelines can be adapted to facilitate shared decision making. METHODS: This was a qualitative key-informant study with group discussions and semi-structured interviews. First, 75 experts in guideline development or shared decision making participated in

  18. The Teaching of Anthropology: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Jacques

    1984-01-01

    College-level anthropology teaching in various countries, including Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia, is compared. Terminology is examined and historical background is provided. Also discussed are educational crises, the organization of teaching, and teaching methods. (RM)

  19. Catatonic schizophrenia: an international comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, R

    1986-04-01

    Thirty-five hospitalized catatonic schizophrenic patients from Sri Lanka were compared with 22 patients in the U.K. and 13 in Canada. The phenomenology was established using the Present State Examination. Results suggest that ethnicity, chronicity of illness and reception of neuroleptic treatment may influence the lower prevalence of catatonic symptoms among the U.K. and Canadian schizophrenics. Onset of illness appears to be among young adults and mutism, stupor, mannerisms, stereotypes and negativism were the common catatonic symptoms observed.

  20. Comparative Transport Studies of '1212' Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Gapud

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available HgBa2CaCu2O6+δ (Hg -1212 thin films were fabricated by exchanging the T1 cations in TlBa2CaCu2O7-δ (Tl-1212 thin films with Hg cations, causing a 30-K increase in Tc. To determine how this exchange effects such a Tc increase, the irreversibility lines, temperature dependence of critical current density, and temperature dependence of Hall angle ofHg-1212 and TI-1212 thin films were measured and then compared. The results strongly suggest that the Tc shift is caused by a doubling of charge carrier density.

  1. Genetic network models: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Someren, Eugene P.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.

    2001-06-01

    Currently, the need arises for tools capable of unraveling the functionality of genes based on the analysis of microarray measurements. Modeling genetic interactions by means of genetic network models provides a methodology to infer functional relationships between genes. Although a wide variety of different models have been introduced so far, it remains, in general, unclear what the strengths and weaknesses of each of these approaches are and where these models overlap and differ. This paper compares different genetic modeling approaches that attempt to extract the gene regulation matrix from expression data. A taxonomy of continuous genetic network models is proposed and the following important characteristics are suggested and employed to compare the models: inferential power; predictive power; robustness; consistency; stability and computational cost. Where possible, synthetic time series data are employed to investigate some of these properties. The comparison shows that although genetic network modeling might provide valuable information regarding genetic interactions, current models show disappointing results on simple artificial problems. For now, the simplest models are favored because they generalize better, but more complex models will probably prevail once their bias is more thoroughly understood and their variance is better controlled.

  2. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is…

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Karathia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Model organisms are used for research because they provide a framework on which to develop and optimize methods that facilitate and standardize analysis. Such organisms should be representative of the living beings for which they are to serve as proxy. However, in practice, a model organism is often selected ad hoc, and without considering its representativeness, because a systematic and rational method to include this consideration in the selection process is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we propose such a method and apply it in a pilot study of strengths and limitations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. The method relies on the functional classification of proteins into different biological pathways and processes and on full proteome comparisons between the putative model organism and other organisms for which we would like to extrapolate results. Here we compare S. cerevisiae to 704 other organisms from various phyla. For each organism, our results identify the pathways and processes for which S. cerevisiae is predicted to be a good model to extrapolate from. We find that animals in general and Homo sapiens in particular are some of the non-fungal organisms for which S. cerevisiae is likely to be a good model in which to study a significant fraction of common biological processes. We validate our approach by correctly predicting which organisms are phenotypically more distant from S. cerevisiae with respect to several different biological processes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The method we propose could be used to choose appropriate substitute model organisms for the study of biological processes in other species that are harder to study. For example, one could identify appropriate models to study either pathologies in humans or specific biological processes in species with a long development time, such as plants.

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LIGHT SOURCES FOR HOUSEHOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej PAWLAK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes test results that provided the ground to define and evaluate basic photometric, colorimetric and electric parameters of selected, widely available light sources, which are equivalent to a traditional incandescent 60-Watt light bulb. Overall, one halogen light bulb, three compact fluorescent lamps and eleven LED light sources were tested. In general, it was concluded that in most cases (branded products, in particular the measured and calculated parameters differ from the values declared by manufacturers only to a small degree. LED sources prove to be the most beneficial substitute for traditional light bulbs, considering both their operational parameters and their price, which is comparable with the price of compact fluorescent lamps or, in some instances, even lower.

  5. Earthquake Correlations and Networks- A Comparative Study

    CERN Document Server

    G., T R Krishna Mohan P

    2010-01-01

    We quantify the correlation between earthquakes and use the same to distinguish between relevant causally connected earthquakes. Our correlation metric is a variation on the one introduced by Baiesi and Paczuski (2004). A network of earthquakes is constructed, which is time ordered and with links between the more correlated ones. Recurrences to earthquakes are identified employing correlation thresholds to demarcate the most meaningful ones in each cluster. Data pertaining to three different seismic regions, viz. California, Japan and Himalayas, are comparatively analyzed using such a network model. The distribution of recurrence lengths and recurrence times are two of the key features analyzed to draw conclusions about the universal aspects of such a network model. We find that the unimodal feature of recurrence length distribution, which helps to associate typical rupture lengths with different magnitude earthquakes, is robust across the different seismic regions. The out-degree of the networks shows a hub ...

  6. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan E-mail: xfwang@sjtu.edu.cn; Xi Yugeng

    2004-09-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED.

  7. A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... Rwandan Water and Sanitation Corporation ltd (WASAC) water branches: Kimisagara WASAC water ... strategy for better water quality especially along the distribution network.

  8. Supervisors’ Strategies to Facilitate Work Functioning among Employees with Musculoskeletal Complaints: A Focus Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Ask

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To explore what strategies the supervisors found beneficial to prevent or reduce sickness absence among employees with musculoskeletal complaints. Methods. Five focus groups were conducted and 26 supervisors from health and social sector participated. Commonly used strategies to prevent sickness absence and interdisciplinary cooperation in this work were discussed in the focus groups. Systematic text condensation was used to analyse the data. Results. The supervisors described five strategies for sick leave management: (1 promoting well-being and a healthy working environment, (2 providing early support and adjustments, (3 making employees more responsible, (4 using confrontational strategies in relation to employees on long-term sick leave, and (5 cooperation with general practitioners (GPs. Conclusions. Strategies of promoting a healthy working environment and facilitating early return to work were utilised in the follow-up of employees with musculoskeletal complaints. Supportive strategies were found most useful especially in the early phases, while finding a balance between being supportive, on one side, and confronting the employee, on the other, was endeavoured in cases of recurrent or long-term sick leave. Further, the supervisors requested a closer cooperation with the GPs, which they believed would facilitate return to work.

  9. A pilot study of language facilitation for bilingual, language-handicapped children: theoretical and intervention implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzi, J A

    1985-11-01

    Three Spanish-speaking (SS) and 3 English-Speaking (ES) preschool children served as subjects. One SS subject was diagnosed as having mild language delay, 1 as being language disordered, and 1 as having normal language. One ES subject was diagnosed as having mild language delay and 2 as having normal language. A within-subject design wherein Condition A consisted of teaching receptive vocabulary in L1 (native language) followed by L2 (second language) and Condition B consisted of teaching receptive vocabulary in L2 followed by L1 was utilized. The sequence of conditions was ABBA for each subject. Analysis of each subject's trials to criterion for L2 in each condition indicated a strong tendency for recently learned receptive vocabulary in L1 to facilitate the learning of receptive vocabulary in L2. The results are interpreted as support for the practice of initial language intervention in L1 when bilingualism is a goal and for transference/facilitation theories of L2 learning.

  10. Facilitating Ambulatory Electronic Health Record System Implementation: Evidence from a Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Scheck McAlearney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ambulatory care practices have increasing interest in leveraging the capabilities of electronic health record (EHR systems, but little information is available documenting how organizations have successfully implemented these systems. Objective. To characterize elements of successful electronic health record (EHR system implementation and to synthesize the key informants' perspectives about successful implementation practices. Methods. Key informant interviews and focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of individuals from US healthcare organizations identified for their success with ambulatory EHR implementation. Rigorous qualitative data analyses used both deductive and inductive methods. Results. Participants identified personal and system-related barriers, at both the individual and organization levels, including poor computer skills, productivity losses, resistance to change, and EHR system failure. Implementation success was reportedly facilitated by careful planning and consistent communication throughout distinct stages of the implementation process. A significant element of successful implementation was an emphasis on optimization, both during “go-live” and, subsequently, when users had more experience with the system. Conclusion. Successful EHR implementation requires both detailed planning and clear mechanisms to deal with unforeseen or unintended consequences. Focusing on user buy-in early and including plans for optimization can facilitate greater success.

  11. [Facilitators and barriers regarding end of life care at nursing homes: A focus group study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, María Remedios; Moreno-Rodríguez, Marina; Hueso-Montoro, César; Campos-Calderón, Concepción; Varella-Safont, Ana; Montoya-Juárez, Rafael

    2017-05-01

    To identify the facilitators and barriers experienced by professional related to end of life care in nursing homes. Descriptive qualitative research with phenomenological orientation, through content analysis. Nursing Homes at Primary Care District in Granada (Spain). Fifteen clinical professionals with, at least 6 months of experience in nursing homes, without specific background in palliative care. Three focus groups were undertaken with professionals of different disciplines and nursing homes. Interviews were recorded and transcribed literally. An open and axial coding was performed to identify relevant categories. Professionals identified difficulties in the communication with families related to relatives' feelings of guilt, difficulty in understanding the deterioration of their relative, and addressing too late the issue of death. Regarding decision making, professionals recognized that they do not encourage participation of patients. Advance directives are valued as a necessary tool, but they do not contemplate implementing them systematically. Other difficulties that professionals highlighted are lack of coordination with other professionals, related to misunderstanding of patients' needs, as well as lack of training, and lack of material and human resources. Facilitators include relationships with primary care teams. It is necessary to improve communication among nursing homes professionals, families, patients and other health workers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureldin Mohamed Abdelaal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is qualitative method. The first advertisement is analyzed qualitatively in terms of content; there was no focus on a specific theoretical frame work, while the second advertisement analysis is based on Fairclough’s framework, the critical discourse analysis framework.

  13. Annual Journal citation indices: a comparative study

    CERN Document Server

    Khaleque, Abdul; Sen, Parongama

    2016-01-01

    We study the statistics of citations made to the indexed Science journals in the Journal Citation Reports during the period 2004-2013 using different measures. We consider different measures which quantify the impact of the journals. To our surprise, we find that the apparently uncorrelated measures, even when defined in an arbitrary manner, show strong correlations. This is checked over all the years considered. Impact factor being one of these measures, the present work raises the question whether it is actually a nearly perfect index as claimed often. In addition we study the distributions of the different indices which also behave similarly.

  14. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  15. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  16. Annual Journal Citation Indices: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khaleque

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the statistics of citations made to the indexed Science journals in the Journal Citation Reports during the period 2004-2013 using different measures. We consider different measures which quantify the impact of the journals. To our surprise, we find that the apparently uncorrelated measures, even when defined in an arbitrary manner, show strong correlations. This is checked over all the years considered. Impact factor being one of these measures, the present work raises the question whether it is actually a nearly perfect index as claimed often. In addition, we study the distributions of the different indices which also behave similarly.

  17. A Comparative Comment on the Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup; Ley, Thomas; Jensen, Niels Rosendal;

    2012-01-01

    Denne konklusion sammenfatter hovedtrækkene af de gennemførte case studies i WorkAble-projektet. Vigtige pointer er, at unge på tværs af de forskellige case studies har vanskeligt ved at blive hørt og taget alvorligt. I stedet spises de af med "realistisk vejledning" eller dårlige uddannelses- og...... arbejdstilbud. Konklusionen foreslår at give unge mere tid til at træffe de alvorlige valg vedr. deres fremtid ved at indføre et refugium, som i tankegang minder om Eriksons ungdomsmoratorium....

  18. Comparative Anticonvulsant Study of Epoxycarvone Stereoisomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Rodrigues Salgado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stereoisomers of the monoterpene epoxycarvone (EC, namely (+-cis-EC, (−-cis-EC, (+-trans-EC, and (−-trans-EC, were comparatively evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in specific methodologies. In the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced anticonvulsant test, all of the stereoisomers (at 300 mg/kg increased the latency to seizure onset, and afforded 100% protection against the death of the animals. In the maximal electroshock-induced seizures (MES test, prevention of tonic seizures was also verified for all of the isomers tested. However, the isomeric forms (+ and (−-trans-EC showed 25% and 12.5% inhibition of convulsions, respectively. In the pilocarpine-induced seizures test, all stereoisomers demonstrated an anticonvulsant profile, yet the stereoisomers (+ and (−-trans-EC (at 300 mg/kg showed a more pronounced effect. A strychnine-induced anticonvulsant test was performed, and none of the stereoisomers significantly increased the latency to onset of convulsions; the stereoisomers probably do not act in this pathway. However, the stereoisomers (+-cis-EC and (+-trans-EC greatly increased the latency to death of the animals, thus presenting some protection. The four EC stereoisomers show promise for anticonvulsant activity, an effect emphasized in the isomers (+-cis-EC, (+-trans-EC, and (−-trans-EC for certain parameters of the tested methodologies. These results serve as support for further research and development of antiepileptic drugs from monoterpenes.

  19. LES versus DNS: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtilman, L.; Chasnov, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    We have performed Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of forced isotropic turbulence at moderate Reynolds numbers. The subgrid scale model used in the LES is based on an eddy viscosity which adjusts instantaneously the energy spectrum of the LES to that of the DNS. The statistics of the large scales of the DNS (filtered DNS field or fDNS) are compared to that of the LES. We present results for the transfer spectra, the skewness and flatness factors of the velocity components, the PDF's of the angle between the vorticity and the eigenvectors of the rate of strain, and that between the vorticity and the vorticity stretching tensor. The above LES statistics are found to be in good agreement with those measured in the fDNS field. We further observe that in all the numerical measurements, the trend was for the LES field to be more gaussian than the fDNS field. Future research on this point is planned.

  20. Bilingual Language Proficiency : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, Joana

    2011-01-01

    his book investigates the role native language plays in the process of acquiring a second language within a bilingual educational model. The research presented is based on a 2 year longitudinal study of students in a bilingual school. Particular attention is paid to the development of academic

  1. A comparative study on permissiveness toward euthanasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, C.M.C.; Jaspers, E.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores explanations for the approval of euthanasia by assessing differences among individuals and countries, using four main arguments used by opponents and proponents in the public debate over euthanasia. We performed multilevel analysis on data from thirty-three countries, obtained fr

  2. A comparative study on permissiveness toward euthanasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, C.M.C.; Jaspers, E.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores explanations for the approval of euthanasia by assessing differences among individuals and countries, using four main arguments used by opponents and proponents in the public debate over euthanasia. We performed multilevel analysis on data from thirty-three countries, obtained

  3. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  4. Conjunctivitis in the newborn- A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Wadhwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conjunctivitis of the newborn is defined as hyperemia and eye discharge in the neonates and is a common infection occurring in the neonates in the first month of life. In the United States, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis ranges from 1-2%, in India, the prevalence is 0.5-33% and varies in the world from 0.9-21% depending on the socioeconomic status. Aim: To study the organisms causing conjunctivitis of the newborn and to correlate the etiology with the mode of delivery. Design: Single center, prospective, observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 mothers and their newborns, born over a period of one year, were included in the study. Of these 200 newborns were delivered through vaginal route (Group A and 100 (Group B delivered by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. At the time of labour, high vaginal swabs were taken from the mothers. Two conjunctival swabs each from both eyes of the newborn were collected at birth and transported to Microbiology department in a candle jar immediately. Results: Eight babies in Group A, developed conjunctivitis at birth. None of the babies in Group B developed conjunctivitis, this difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.000. The organisms found in the conjunctiva of the newborns in Group A were Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, α hemolytic Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spps. However, the commonest organism leading to conjunctivitis in the newborn in this study was Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. It was observed that the mothers of 5 out of 8 babies (60% developing conjunctivitis gave history of midwife interference and premature rupture of membranes so the presence of risk factors contribute to the occurrence of conjunctivitis in the newborn. Conclusions: It is inferred that the mode of delivery and the presence of risk factors is responsible for conjunctivitis in the newborn.

  5. Agoraphobia and Panic Disorder: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Kart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study we aim to get more information about agoraphobia (AG which is an independent diagnosis in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 and to evaluate overlaps or differences between agoraphobia and panic disorder (PD upon sociodemographic features and comorbidity with considering relation of these two disorders. Material and Method: Sociodemographic Data Form was given and Structural Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I Disorders (SCID-I was applied to 33 patients diagnosed as AG and 34 patients diagnosed as PD with AG (PDA.Results: AG group consisted of 21 females (63.1%, 12 males (36%, totally 33 patients and PDA group consisted of 23 females (67.6%, 11 males (32.4%, totally 34 patients. Mean age of onset was 32.4±10.2 in PDA group and 31.1±12.1 in AG group. According to sociodemographic features, violence in family and smoking rates were significantly higher in PDA group than AG group. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD as a comorbidity was higher in PDA group. Discussion: In this study, we tried to identify the overlaps and differences of PDA and AG. For a better recognition of AG, further studies are needed.

  6. A comparative study of various decalcification techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Study of fibrilar, cellular and sub cellular structures of mineralized tissues is only possible after the removal of the calcium apatite of these tissues by the process of demineralization. Aims: The present study aims to evaluate six commonly used demineralizing agents to identify the best decalcifying agent. Materials and Methods: The present study included six different decalcifying solutions: 10% formal nitric acid, 8% formal nitric acid, 10% formic acid, 8% formic acid, Perenyi′s fluid and Ethylene Di-Amine Tetra Acetic Acid. eight samples of posterior mandible of rat were decalcified in each of the decalcifying solutions and subjected to chemical end-point test. Ehrlich′s Hematoxylin stain was used. Statistical Analysis Used: One way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons and Chi-square test was used for analyzing categorical data. P value of 0.05/less was set for statistical significance. Results: Samples treated with EDTA showed the best overall histological impression and the tissue integrity were well preserved. Formal nitric of both the percentages 10 and 8% gave fairly good cellular detail and were rapid in their action. Conclusion: The final impression led to the proposition that EDTA was indeed the best decalcifying agent available. However, with time constraint, the use of formal nitric acid is advocated.

  7. Comparative study of the 2016 DPRK event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Fekadu; Jonathan, Ezekiel; Graham, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Effective monitoring of any violations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends upon the State Parties' ability to determine the nature of the source of the signals recorded by the IMS stations. Analysis by the IDC of the data gives some of the required information but makes no effort to determine the nature of source as specified by the Treaty. On January 6, 2016 the IMS network of stations recorded unusual seismic event from the DPRK. This was the fourth time that such an event from a man-made event was recorded from this area. Past detections of announced nuclear tests were on 9 October 2006, 25 May 2009, and 12 February 2013. There are a few natural earthquakes that have been recorded in this region. This study presents results of an assessment of waveform data and amplitude spectra obtained from seismic events observed at regional and/or local distance ranges, for both natural and man-made events located in the DPRK. The study reveals that the waveform displays of the four man-made events are practically simple and have nearly the same signature, yet they are significantly different to those of the observed natural earthquakes occurring in the region. The similarities of the waveforms obtained from the man-made events are due to the closeness of the epicentres and hence no difference in path effects for the Stations considered. The computed amplitude spectra of the waveform for the man-made and natural events also show differences in their relative amplitudes between the respective Primary and Secondary seismic phases, indicating that their sources are different. The study clearly shows the importance of studying the signature of the recorded seismic waves to determine the nature of the source of the energy, if it is man-made or natural, particularly for regions where records of natural earthquakes exist. Determination of the nature of source of recorded seismic waves is fundamental to CTBT verification. Thus data observed at regional and

  8. Graphical Browsing of Email Data: A Usability Based Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios Rigas; Saad Alharbi

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: With the rapid growth of the number of email messages and the diverse use of email, people have become overwhelmed by the large volumes of email archives. As a result, email tools that facilitate the browsing of email messages are highly required. This study described an empirical study that aimed to investigate whether the usability of email client can be improved by incorporating graphical visualization techniques to browse email data. Approach: Two email visualization ap...

  9. A comparative study on showerhead cooling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcoz, C.; Ott, P. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratoire de Thermique Appliquee et de Turbomachines (LTT), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Weigand, B. [Institut fuer Thermodynamik der Luft- und Raumfahrt (ITLR), Stuttgart University, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    In modern gas turbines, the turbine airfoil leading edge is currently protected from the hot gas by specific film cooling schemes, so called showerhead cooling. The present paper shows a numerical study of different showerhead cooling geometries. The 3D finite element program ABAQUS as well as a 2D finite element program have been employed to predict the showerhead cooling performance. In the numerical calculations, the different cooling effects and their contribution to the total showerhead cooling performance have been investigated separately. From the numerical calculations a simple method has been derived which enables the prediction of the performance of a 3D showerhead cooling scheme by simple 2D computations. Experimental investigations on showerhead cooling have been presented in a companion paper [C. Falcoz, B. Weigand, P. Ott, Experimental investigations on showerhead cooling on a blunt body. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, in press. r publication]. (author)

  10. Pavement Crack Classifiers: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Siddharth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Non Destructive Testing (NDT is an analysis technique used to inspect metal sheets and components without harming the product. NDT do not cause any change after inspection; this technique saves money and time in product evaluation, research and troubleshooting. In this study the objective is to perform NDT using soft computing techniques. Digital images are taken; Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM extracts features from these images. Extracted features are then fed into the classifiers which classifies them into images with and without cracks. Three major classifiers: Neural networks, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Linear classifiers are taken for the classification purpose. Performances of these classifiers are assessed and the best classifier for the given data is chosen.

  11. Internet patent databases: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja González-Albo Manglano

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The patent is an essential document in the evaluation of technological investigation that has been used as approximation of innovation. The patent databases on the Internet are one principal source of information for this kind of analysis. However they are many databases and they are very different; reason why the election of one of them in the accomplishment of bibliometric analysis is a crucial aspect. In this sense, this survey studies some of main free –Esp@cenet, PatentScope, national databases and commercial –Derwent Innovatios Index, Chemical Abstracts Plus, Thomson Delphion Intellectual Property Network– patent databases. The results show that commercial systems provide value-added –data revision, analysis tools, etc.–; althought the free ones are going to become trustworthy resources thanks to the improvements and options that are introduced in them.

  12. Embedding Arabidopsis Plant Cell Suspensions in Low-Melting Agarose Facilitates Altered Gravity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Khaled Y.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Medina, F. Javier; Herranz, Raúl

    2017-02-01

    Gravity plays a role in modulating plant growth and development and its alteration induces changes in these processes. Microgravity research has recently been extended to the use of in vitro plant cell cultures which are considered as an ideal model system to study cell proliferation and growth. In general, among the ground-based facilities available for microgravity simulation, the 2D pipette clinostat had been previously considered a suitable facility to be used for unicellular biological models although studies using single plant cell cultures raised some concerns. The incompatibility comes from the standard requirement of shaking a suspension culture for assuring its viability and active proliferation status in the control samples. Moreover, a related issue applies to the use of the random positioning machine (RPM) for cell suspension experiments. Here, we demonstrate an alternative culture method based on the immobilization of the culture before the altered gravity treatment occurs, such that it behaves as a solid object. Our immobilization procedure preserved plant cell culture viability without compromising basic cell properties as viability, morphology, cell cycle phases distribution, or chromatin organization, when compared with a standard cell suspension under shaking as a control. This approach should allow the space biology community to improve the quantity and quality of plant cell results in future simulated microgravity experiments or spaceflight opportunities.

  13. Comparative genomics and prediction of conditionally dispensable sequences in legume-infecting Fusarium oxysporum formae speciales facilitates identification of candidate effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Angela H; Sharma, Mamta; Thatcher, Louise F; Azam, Sarwar; Hane, James K; Sperschneider, Jana; Kidd, Brendan N; Anderson, Jonathan P; Ghosh, Raju; Garg, Gagan; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Kistler, H Corby; Shea, Terrance; Young, Sarah; Buck, Sally-Anne G; Kamphuis, Lars G; Saxena, Rachit; Pande, Suresh; Ma, Li-Jun; Varshney, Rajeev K; Singh, Karam B

    2016-03-05

    Soil-borne fungi of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex cause devastating wilt disease on many crops including legumes that supply human dietary protein needs across many parts of the globe. We present and compare draft genome assemblies for three legume-infecting formae speciales (ff. spp.): F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc-38-1) and f. sp. pisi (Fop-37622), significant pathogens of chickpea and pea respectively, the world's second and third most important grain legumes, and lastly f. sp. medicaginis (Fom-5190a) for which we developed a model legume pathosystem utilising Medicago truncatula. Focusing on the identification of pathogenicity gene content, we leveraged the reference genomes of Fusarium pathogens F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (tomato-infecting) and F. solani (pea-infecting) and their well-characterised core and dispensable chromosomes to predict genomic organisation in the newly sequenced legume-infecting isolates. Dispensable chromosomes are not essential for growth and in Fusarium species are known to be enriched in host-specificity and pathogenicity-associated genes. Comparative genomics of the publicly available Fusarium species revealed differential patterns of sequence conservation across F. oxysporum formae speciales, with legume-pathogenic formae speciales not exhibiting greater sequence conservation between them relative to non-legume-infecting formae speciales, possibly indicating the lack of a common ancestral source for legume pathogenicity. Combining predicted dispensable gene content with in planta expression in the model legume-infecting isolate, we identified small conserved regions and candidate effectors, four of which shared greatest similarity to proteins from another legume-infecting ff. spp. We demonstrate that distinction of core and potential dispensable genomic regions of novel F. oxysporum genomes is an effective tool to facilitate effector discovery and the identification of gene content possibly linked to host

  14. Comparative study for thermal-hydraulic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several researchers have worked on the passive approach of heat transfer enhancement in tube heat exchangers. Some of them tried to modify the surface by creating dimple or using wire coil of different cross-section, while some worked on core fluid disturbance by using some insert geometries such as twisted tapes. But the ultimate aim of all was to create some disturbance in the flow in order to obtain enhanced heat transfer. This paper focuses on comparison of some of the most commonly used insert geometries. Insert geometry selected for this comparison is collection of core fluid disturbance, surface modification and combination of both. Different geometries taken in this study include twisted tape, twisted tape with ring, circular band, multiple twisted tape, twisted tape with conical rings, and so on and used air under turbulent flow regime as working fluid. On the basis of comparison made, it is observed that, in case of “single twisted tape insert” the thermal performance factor was maximum and in the event of “twisted tape with circular ring” the overall heat transfer rate is maximum. Future aspect is also proposed, which includes perforation in circular ring, and causes decrease in friction factor value because of less flow blockage.

  15. Neural mechanisms underlying the facilitation of naming in aphasia using a semantic task: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Shiree

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous attempts to investigate the effects of semantic tasks on picture naming in both healthy controls and people with aphasia have typically been confounded by inclusion of the phonological word form of the target item. As a result, it is difficult to isolate any facilitatory effects of a semantically-focused task to either lexical-semantic or phonological processing. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study examined the neurological mechanisms underlying short-term (within minutes and long-term (within days facilitation of naming from a semantic task that did not include the phonological word form, in both participants with aphasia and age-matched controls. Results Behavioral results showed that a semantic task that did not include the phonological word form can successfully facilitate subsequent picture naming in both healthy controls and individuals with aphasia. The whole brain neuroimaging results for control participants identified a repetition enhancement effect in the short-term, with modulation of activity found in regions that have not traditionally been associated with semantic processing, such as the right lingual gyrus (extending to the precuneus and the left inferior occipital gyrus (extending to the fusiform gyrus. In contrast, the participants with aphasia showed significant differences in activation over both the short- and the long-term for facilitated items, predominantly within either left hemisphere regions linked to semantic processing or their right hemisphere homologues. Conclusions For control participants in this study, the short-lived facilitation effects of a prior semantic task that did not include the phonological word form were primarily driven by object priming and episodic memory mechanisms. However, facilitation effects appeared to engage a predominantly semantic network in participants with aphasia over both the short- and the long-term. The findings of the present study

  16. Using case studies and videotaped vignettes to facilitate the development of critical thinking skills in new graduate nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Barbara L

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking skills are an essential component of nursing and crucial to nursing practice. Case studies with videotaped vignettes were used to help facilitate the development of critical thinking skills in new graduate nurses. Results revealed a statistically significant increase (p = .041) on the overall Health Sciences Reasoning Test score. It is essential for educators to be aware of educational strategies that can affect the development of critical thinking skills.

  17. Barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening among Pakistani and Somali immigrant women in Oslo: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gele AA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abdi A Gele,1,2 Samera A Qureshi,1 Prabhjot Kour,1 Bernadette Kumar,1 Esperanza Diaz1,3 1Norwegian Center for Minority Health Research, 2Department of Health, Institute of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo and Akershus University College, Oslo; 3Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway Abstract: Norway has a low incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer, which is mainly due to the high participation rate of women in cervical cancer screening. However, the attendance of cervical cancer screening was reported to be low among immigrant women. For this reason, we conducted a qualitative study to obtain better insight into perceived barriers and challenges to cervical cancer screening among Somali and Pakistani women in the Oslo region. A convenient sample of 35 (18 Pakistani, 17 Somali women were recruited for the study in collaboration with Somali and Pakistani community partners. Focus group discussions were used to explore barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening, whereas the Ecological Model was used as the framework for the study. The study found three levels of barriers to cervical cancer screening. The individual level included a lack of understanding of the benefits of the screening. The sociocultural level included the stigma attached to the disease and the belief that women who are unmarried are sexually inactive. The system-related level included a lack of trust toward the health care system. Based on the study results, and using a common denominator approach for the immigrant groups included, the study recommends three communication strategies with the potential to improve women’s participation in cervical cancer screening: 1 in-person communication and information material at health centers; 2 verbal communication with women through seminars and workshops to educate them about their risk of cancer and the importance of screening and 3 the initiation of better recall

  18. Exploring reforms while learning to teach science: Facilitating exploration of theory-practice relationships in a teacher education study group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jacob G.

    This dissertation inserts a new view into an old problem in teacher education. The study explores the theory-practice gap, the large distance between what preservice science teachers experience in schools, are able to enact, and are told they should hold themselves to in their practice. It does so by narrowing the focus of analysis to a secondary science study group and examining how the facilitator uses sociocultural constructivism to promote discussion. The analysis surfaces key communicative moves made by the facilitator and preservice teachers that yield fruitful discussion of theory-practice relationships. Additionally, the study's use of discourse analysis as a methodology and intertextuality as a conceptual framework opens new directions for applied sociolinguistic research and scholarship in science teacher education. Findings from the study focus on what was discussed and how explorations of theory-practice relationships were facilitated. Preservice teachers in the study group engaged in meaningful conversations about constructivist theory and its application to their students and teaching of science. They discussed many science education topics such as planning science lessons that actively engage students, assessment of content understanding, and management of content-based activities. Discussions of broader science education goals, including implementation of inquiry or development of collaborative communities, were not promoted. Examination of the facilitation illuminates a number of strategies found to be helpful in supporting these explorations. This study shows that facilitation can successfully support preservice teachers to construct understanding of social constructivist assumptions underlying the National Science Education Standards (NSES), as well as a few components of the Standards themselves. The focus on the underlying assumptions suggests that science teacher education should focus on these so that preservice teachers can build a strong

  19. Barriers and facilitators to palliative care of patients with chronic heart failure in Germany: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Köberich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite its high prevalence, similar symptoms and symptom burden, people suffering from chronic heart failure receive less palliative care than patients with malignant diseases. Internationally, numerous barriers to palliative care of patients with chronic heart failure are known, however, there are no credible data regarding barriers and facilitators to palliative care of people suffering from chronic heart failure available for Germany. Design and Methods. Tripartite study. First part of this study evaluates health care providers’ (physicians and nurses perceived barriers and facilitators to palliative care of patients with chronic heart failure using a qualitative approach. At least 18 persons will be interviewed. In the second part, based on the results of part one, a questionnaire about barriers and facilitators to palliative care of patients with chronic heart failure will be designed and applied to at least 150 physicians and nurses. In the last part a classic Delphi method will be used to develop specific measures to improve the palliative care for chronic heart failure patients. Expected Impact for Public Health. The results of this study will help to understand why patients with heart failure are seldom referred to palliative care and will provide solutions to overcome these barriers. Developed solutions will be the first step to improve palliative care in patients with heart failure in Germany. In addition, the results will help health care providers in other countries to take action to improve palliative care situations for heart failure patients.

  20. A qualitative study of social facilitators and barriers to health behavior change among persons with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbrenner, Kelly; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Mueser, Kim; Kinney, Allison; Pratt, Sarah; Bartels, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    This qualitative focus group study was conducted to explore social facilitators and barriers to health behavior change in persons with serious mental illness engaged in a healthy lifestyle intervention. Six focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 30 clients stratified by "high" and "low" achievers in the program based on clinically significant weight loss or significant increase in fitness. Thematic analysis of focus group discussions revealed that emotional, practical, and mutual support from family members and significant others were social facilitators to health behavior change, while unhealthy social environments was a barrier. Participants in the "high" achiever group reported more mutual support for health behavior change than participants in the "low" achiever group. Results highlight the need for researchers and clinicians to consider the potential role of family and significant others as health supporters for persons with mental illness who could encourage healthy behavior in the social environment.

  1. Ways to be different: foraging adaptations that facilitate higher intake rates in a northerly-wintering shorebird compared to a low-latitude conspecific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; van Gils, Jan A.; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    At what phenotypic level do closely related subspecies that live in different environments differ with respect to food detection, ingestion, and processing? This question motivated an experimental study on rock sandpipers (Calidris ptilocnemis). The species' nonbreeding range spans 20 degrees of latitude, the extremes of which are inhabited by two subspecies: Calidris p. ptilocnemis that winters primarily in upper Cook Inlet, Alaska (61°N), and C. p. tschuktschorum that overlaps slightly with C. p. ptilocnemis but whose range extends much farther south (~40°N). In view of the strongly contrasting energetic demands of their distinct nonbreeding distributions, we conducted experiments to assess the behavioural, physiological, and sensory aspects of foraging, and we used the bivalve Macoma balthica for all trials. Ptilocnemis consumed a wider range of prey sizes, had higher maximum rates of energy intake, processed shell waste at higher maximum rates, and handled prey more quickly. Notably, however, the two subspecies did not differ in their abilities to find buried prey. The subspecies were similar in size and had equally sized gizzards, but the more northern ptilocnemis individuals were 10-14% heavier than their same-sex tschuktschorum counterparts. The higher body mass in ptilocnemis likely resulted from hypertrophy of digestive organs (e.g. intestine, liver) related to digestion and nutrient assimilation. Given the previously established equality of the two subspecies' metabolic capacities, we propose that the high-latitude nonbreeding range of ptilocnemis rock sandpipers is primarily facilitated by digestive (i.e. physiological) aspects of their foraging ecology rather than behavioural or sensory aspects.

  2. Barriers, facilitators, and survival strategies for GPs seeking treatment for distress: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Johanna; Buszewicz, Marta; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A; Gerada, Clare; Kessler, David; Leggett, Nick; Manning, Chris; Taylor, Anna Kathryn; Thornton, Gail; Riley, Ruth

    2017-10-01

    GPs are under increasing pressure due to a lack of resources, a diminishing workforce, and rising patient demand. As a result, they may feel stressed, burnt out, anxious, or depressed. To establish what might help or hinder GPs experiencing mental distress as they consider seeking help for their symptoms, and to explore potential survival strategies. The authors recruited 47 GP participants via e-mails to doctors attending a specialist service, adverts to local medical committees (LMCs) nationally and in GP publications, social media, and snowballing. Participants self-identified as either currently living with mental distress, returning to work following treatment, off sick or retired early as a result of mental distress, or without experience of mental distress. Interviews were conducted face to face or over the telephone. Transcripts were uploaded to NVivo 11 and analysed using thematic analysis. Barriers and facilitators were related to work, stigma, and symptoms. Specifically, GPs discussed feeling a need to attend work, the stigma surrounding mental ill health, and issues around time, confidentiality, and privacy. Participants also reported difficulties accessing good-quality treatment. GPs also talked about cutting down or varying work content, or asserting boundaries to protect themselves. Systemic changes, such as further information about specialist services designed to help GPs, are needed to support individual GPs and protect the profession from further damage. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  3. Barriers and facilitators to endocrine therapy adherence among underserved hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer survivors: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kristen J; Pan, Tonya M; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Ung, Danielle; Ustjanauskas, Amy E; Muñoz, Dariana; Laronga, Christine; Roetzheim, Richard G; Goldenstein, Marissa; Carrizosa, Claudia; Nuhaily, Sumayah; Johnson, Kenneth; Norton, Marilyn; Sims, Elizabeth; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the barriers and facilitators to taking anti-hormonal medications among medically and historically underserved breast cancer survivors within the first 5 years post chemotherapy, radiation, and/or surgery. The current study was framed within the National Institutes of Health Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities Model (NIHCPHHD Model). Twenty-five historically or medically underserved breast cancer survivors participated in an in-depth interview, in either English or Spanish. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Interview data were analyzed using content analysis. Anti-hormonal medication adherence was facilitated in several ways, including establishing a routine of medication taking, leaving the medicine in a visible or easily accessible place, taking the medication with other medications, reducing the cost of medicine, using a pillbox, understanding the negative consequences of lack of adherence, and having positive interactions with physicians. Side effects were the most commonly mentioned barrier to medication adherence. Similar to other research, this qualitative study of medically and historically underserved breast cancer survivors in the USA found that side effects are the most frequently endorsed barrier to anti-hormonal medication adherence. Conversely, there were a number of facilitators of correct and consistent anti-hormonal medication use. The management of side effects is critically important to increase adherence to anti-hormonal medications. Health care providers, support providers, and caregivers can encourage breast cancer survivors to better adhere to anti-hormonal medications using a number of approaches that have been successful for other women.

  4. A qualitative study of middle school students' perceptions of factors facilitating the learning of science: Grounded theory and existing theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Barbara S.; Gibson, Charles W.

    The purpose of this study was to explore middle school students' perceptions of what factors facilitated their learning of science. Florida's Educational Reform Act of 1983 funded programs providing the state's precollege students with summer learning opportunities in science. mathematics, and computers. The programs were intended to encourage the development of creative approaches to the teaching of these disciplines. Under this program, between 50 and 60 high-achieving middle school students were in residence on the University of South Florida campus for 12 consecutive days of study in the World of Water (WOW) program. There were two sessions per summer involving a total of 572 participants. Eighi specially trained teachers were in residence with the students. Between 50 and 70 experts from the university, government. business, and industry interacted with the students each year in an innovative science/technology/society (STS) program. An assignment toward the close of the program asked students to reflect on their experiences in residence at the university and write an essay comparing learning in the WOW program to learning in their schools. Those essays were the base for this study. This was a qualitative study using a discursive approach to emergent design to generate grounded theory. Document review, participant observation, and open-ended interviews were used to gather and triangulate data in five phases. Some of the factors that middle school students perceived as helpful to learning science were (a) experiencing the situations about which they were learning; (b) having live presentations by professional experts; (c) doing hands-on activities: (d) being active learners; (e) using inductive reasoning to generate new knowledge; (f) exploring transdisciplinary approaches to problem solving; (g) having adult mentors; (h) interacting with peers and adults; (i) establishing networks; (j) having close personal friends who shared their interest in learning; (k

  5. The role of community conversations in facilitating local HIV competence: case study from rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; Nhamo, Mercy; Scott, Kerry; Madanhire, Claudius; Nyamukapa, Constance; Skovdal, Morten; Gregson, Simon

    2013-04-17

    This paper examines the potential for community conversations to strengthen positive responses to HIV in resource-poor environments. Community conversations are an intervention method through which local people work with a facilitator to collectively identify local strengths and challenges and brainstorm potential strategies for solving local problems. We conducted 18 community conversations (with six groups at three points in time) with a total of 77 participants in rural Zimbabwe (20% HIV positive). Participants were invited to reflect on how they were responding to the challenges of HIV, both as individuals and in community groups, and to think of ways to better support openness about HIV, kindness towards people living with HIV and greater community uptake of HIV prevention and treatment. Community conversations contributed to local HIV competence through (1) enabling participants to brainstorm concrete action plans for responding to HIV, (2) providing a forum to develop a sense of common purpose in relation to implementing these, (3) encouraging and challenging participants to overcome fear, denial and passivity, (4) providing an opportunity for participants to move from seeing themselves as passive recipients of information to active problem solvers, and (5) reducing silence and stigma surrounding HIV. Our discussion cautions that community conversations, while holding great potential to help communities recognize their potential strengths and capacities for responding more effectively to HIV, are not a magic bullet. Poverty, poor harvests and political instability frustrated and limited many participants' efforts to put their plans into action. On the other hand, support from outside the community, in this case the increasing availability of antiretroviral treatment, played a vital role in enabling communities to challenge stigma and envision new, more positive, ways of responding to the epidemic.

  6. Barriers and Facilitators to Safe Food Handling among Consumers: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Waddell, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a substantial health and economic burden on society, and most cases are believed to be due to unsafe food handling practices at home. Several qualitative research studies have been conducted to investigate consumers' perspectives, opinions, and experiences with safe food handling at home, and these studies provide insights into the underlying barriers and facilitators affecting their safe food handling behaviours. We conducted a systematic review of previously published qualitative studies in this area to synthesize the main across-study themes and to develop recommendations for future consumer interventions and research. The review was conducted using the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of abstracts; relevance confirmation of articles; study quality assessment; thematic synthesis of the results; and quality-of-evidence assessment. A total of 39 relevant articles reporting on 37 unique qualitative studies were identified. Twenty-one barriers and 10 facilitators to safe food handling were identified, grouped across six descriptive themes: confidence and perceived risk; knowledge-behaviour gap; habits and heuristics; practical and lifestyle constraints; food preferences; and societal and social influences. Our overall confidence that each barrier and facilitator represents the phenomenon of interest was rated as high (n = 11), moderate (11), and low (9). Overarching analytical themes included: 1) safe food handling behaviours occur as part of a complex interaction of everyday consumer practices and habituation; 2) most consumers are not concerned about food safety and are generally not motivated to change their behaviours based on new knowledge about food safety risks; and 3) consumers are amenable to changing their safe food handling habits through relevant social pressures. Key implications and recommendations for research, policy and practice are discussed.

  7. Facilitation as a teaching strategy : experiences of facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Lekalakala-Mokgele

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in nursing education involve the move from traditional teaching approaches that are teacher-centred to facilitation, a student centred approach. The studentcentred approach is based on a philosophy of teaching and learning that puts the learner on centre-stage. The aim of this study was to identify the challenges of facilitators of learning using facilitation as a teaching method and recommend strategies for their (facilitators development and support. A qualitative, explorative and contextual design was used. Four (4 universities in South Africa which utilize facilitation as a teaching/ learning process were identified and the facilitators were selected to be the sample of the study. The main question posed during in-depth group interviews was: How do you experience facilitation as a teaching/learning method?. Facilitators indicated different experiences and emotions when they first had to facilitate learning. All of them indicated that it was difficult to facilitate at the beginning as they were trained to lecture and that no format for facilitation was available. They experienced frustrations and anxieties as a result. The lack of knowledge of facilitation instilled fear in them. However they indicated that facilitation had many benefits for them and for the students. Amongst the ones mentioned were personal and professional growth. Challenges mentioned were the fear that they waste time and that they do not cover the content. It is therefore important that facilitation be included in the training of nurse educators.

  8. PCR amplification of 16S rDNA from lyophilized cell cultures facilitates studies in molecular systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisotzkey, J. D.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr; Fox, G. E.

    1990-01-01

    The sequence of the major portion of a Bacillus cycloheptanicus strain SCH(T) 16S rRNA gene is reported. This sequence suggests that B. cycloheptanicus is genetically quite distinct from traditional Bacillus strains (e.g., B. subtilis) and may be properly regarded as belonging to a different genus. The sequence was determined from DNA that was produced by direct amplification of ribosomal DNA from a lyophilized cell pellet with straightforward polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures. By obviating the need to revive cell cultures from the lyophile pellet, this approach facilitates rapid 16S rDNA sequencing and thereby advances studies in molecular systematics.

  9. Facilitating Group Analysis of Two Case Studies Utilising Peer Tutoring: Comparison of Tasks and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Lin Siew

    2016-01-01

    Peer-tutoring sessions of two groups of advanced diploma in financial accounting students with mixed proficiency were analysed thoroughly in this study. Numerous studies in peer tutoring have produced favourable results to both tutors and tutees due to the scaffolding process which promotes effective learning. However, there is a lack of studies…

  10. What Do We Compare When We Compare Religions? Philosophical Remarks on the Psychology of Studying Comparative Religion Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The issue of comparison is a vexing one in religious and theological studies, not least for teachers of comparative religion in study abroad settings. We try to make familiar ideas fresh and strange, in settings where students may find it hard not to take "fresh" and "strange" as signs of existential threat. The author explores…

  11. The Comparative Study Of Local Governance: Towards A Global Approach The Comparative Study Of Local Governance: Towards A Global Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Stoker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of local governance has been too focused on the institutional arrangements of the Systems of different nation states rather than the more fundamental issue of the societal functions performed by local government. This article focuses attention on four societal roles that local government systems undertake. They can support political identity, underwrite economic development, facilitate social welfare provision or act as a lifestyle co-ordinator through the practice of community governance. Linking our investigation to the embedded societal roles of local government in different systems opens up the opportunity for a more genuinely global comparative perspective. It also helps us to understand the likely forms of politics associated with different systems of local governance. It also enables us to explore the sustainability of different systems of local governance. It is suggested that a strong system of local government is likely to be one that is able to combine societal roles to a substantial degree. A vulnerable local government system is one trapped with one function that in changing societal and economic circumstances could find itself under threat.El estudio comparado de la gobernanza local se ha focalizado excesivamente en los arreglos institucionales de los sistemas de los diferentes Estados-nación en lugar de centrarse en el tema esencial de las funciones sociales que desempeñan los gobiernos locales. Este artículo centra su atención en cuatro roles sociales que desempeñan los sistemas de gobierno local. Pueden proporcionar identidad política, garantizar el desarrollo económico, facilitar la provisión de servicios sociales o actuar como coordinador de la forma de vida mediante la práctica de la gobernanza comunitaria. La vinculación de la investigación a los roles sociales asumidos por los gobiernos locales en los diferentes sistemas proporciona la posibilidad de adoptar una perspectiva global comparada

  12. Studies Shed Light on Cross-modal Memory Facilitation of Fruit Flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ As a result of their threeyear studies in Drosophilae (fruit flies),CAS scientists reveal that the memory and learning in the insect could be enhanced by stimuli combining olfactory (or smell) and visual signals.

  13. New remote sensing techniques facilitate study of earth's far-flung volcanos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Pieri, David C.

    1990-01-01

    The study of volcanos using remote sensing is discussed. The dynamics of volcanic eruptions and the interactions between volcanos and the atmosphere and ecosphere are examined. Remote sensing equipment can effectively detect mud flows, pyroclastic falls, debris avalanches, lava flows, and hazards to aircraft from eruption plumes. Consideration is given to the use of thermal IR imaging, weather satellites, and polar-orbiting satellites to study such features as lava flow, silica content, and SO2 distribution.

  14. Action-Oriented Study Circles Facilitate Efforts in Nursing Homes to “Go from Feeding to Serving”: Conceptual Perspectives on Knowledge Translation and Workplace Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Westergren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Action-oriented study circles (AOSC have been found to improve nutrition in 24 nursing homes in Sweden. Little, however, is known about the conceptual use of knowledge (changes in staffs’ knowledge and behaviours. Methods. Qualitative and quantitative methods, structured questionnaires for evaluating participants’ (working in nursing homes experiences from study circles (n=592, 71 AOSC and for comparisons between AOSC participants (n=74 and nonparticipants (n=115. Finally, a focus group interview was conducted with AOSC participants (in total n=12. Statistical, conventional, and directed content analyses were used. Results. Participants experienced a statistically significant increase in their knowledge about eating and nutrition, when retrospectively comparing before participating and after, as well as in comparison to non-participants, and they felt that the management was engaged in and took care of ideas regarding food and mealtimes to a significantly greater extent than non-participants. The use of AOSC was successful judging from how staff members had changed their attitudes and behaviours toward feeding residents. Conclusions. AOSC facilitates professional development, better system performance, and, as shown in previous studies, better patient outcome. Based on a collaborative learning perspective, AOSC manages to integrate evidence, context, and facilitation in the efforts to achieve knowledge translation in a learning organisation. This study has implications also for other care settings implementing AOSC.

  15. A Qualitative Study Exploring Facilitators for Improved Health Behaviors and Health Behavior Programs: Mental Health Service Users’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Graham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Mental health service users experience high rates of cardiometabolic disorders and have a 20–25% shorter life expectancy than the general population from such disorders. Clinician-led health behavior programs have shown moderate improvements, for mental health service users, in managing aspects of cardiometabolic disorders. This study sought to potentially enhance health initiatives by exploring (1 facilitators that help mental health service users engage in better health behaviors and (2 the types of health programs mental health service users want to develop. Methods. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups was conducted with 37 mental health service users attending a psychosocial rehabilitation center, in Northern British Columbia, Canada. Results. Four major facilitator themes were identified: (1 factors of empowerment, self-value, and personal growth; (2 the need for social support; (3 pragmatic aspects of motivation and planning; and (4 access. Participants believed that engaging with programs of physical activity, nutrition, creativity, and illness support would motivate them to live more healthily. Conclusions and Implications for Practice. Being able to contribute to health behavior programs, feeling valued and able to experience personal growth are vital factors to engage mental health service users in health programs. Clinicians and health care policy makers need to account for these considerations to improve success of health improvement initiatives for this population.

  16. Barriers, facilitators and preferences for the physical activity of school children. Rationale and methods of a mixed study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Andrés María

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity interventions in schools environment seem to have shown some effectiveness in the control of the current obesity epidemic in children. However the complexity of behaviors and the diversity of influences related to this problem suggest that we urgently need new lines of insight about how to support comprehensive population strategies of intervention. The aim of this study was to know the perceptions of the children from Cuenca, about their environmental barriers, facilitators and preferences for physical activity. Methods/Design We used a mixed-method design by combining two qualitative methods (analysis of individual drawings and focus groups together with the quantitative measurement of physical activity through accelerometers, in a theoretical sample of 121 children aged 9 and 11 years of schools in the province of Cuenca, Spain. Conclusions Mixed-method study is an appropriate strategy to know the perceptions of children about barriers and facilitators for physical activity, using both qualitative methods for a deeply understanding of their points of view, and quantitative methods for triangulate the discourse of participants with empirical data. We consider that this is an innovative approach that could provide knowledges for the development of more effective interventions to prevent childhood overweight.

  17. The facilitators and impediment factors of midwifery student′s empowerment in pregnancy and delivery care: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Janighorban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The organizational environment and its existing context may deeply affect on empowerment of individuals. In educational institutions as well as other organizations, students are going to be powerful when opportunities for growth and achievement of power are provided for them in learning and educational environments. This study has been carried out to explain the facilitators and impediment factors of midwifery student′s empowerment in pregnancy and delivery care. Materials and Methods: The current qualitative study has been conducted with participation of 15 midwifery senior students, 10 midwifery academic teachers, and 2 employed midwives in educational hospitals. The given data were collected through individual and group semi-structured interviews, and there were analyzed using directed content analysis method. Results: Three main categories of opportunity for acquisition of knowledge, opportunity for acquisition of clinical skills and opportunity for acquisition of clinical experiences formed structure of access to opportunity in the course of an explanation of facilitators and impediment factors for midwifery student′s empowerment in pregnancy and delivery care. Conclusion: To prepare and train the skilled midwives for giving care services to mothers during pregnancy and on delivery and after this period, the academic teachers and clinical instructors should pay due attention to providing the needed opportunities to acquire the applied knowledge and proficiency in the required skills for clinical work and the necessary clinical experiences in these individuals during college period.

  18. Facilitating Place-Based Environmental Education through Bird Studies: An Action Research Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Özge Kesapli; Lane, Jennie F.; Ateskan, Armagan

    2017-01-01

    This study involved a workshop designed to support biology teachers in conducting birdwatching activities with their students and to promote place-based environmental education in Turkey. The instruments for collecting data were a workshop questionnaire and interviews. The findings revealed that initial response to the workshop was positive;…

  19. The Army Family Team Building Program: Facilitating a Transformative Learning Process--An Intrinsic Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to understand how the Army Family Team Building program influences self-reliance and self-sufficiency in Army spouses as they integrate into the Army community. The purpose of the Army Family Team Building program is to empower Army spouses with knowledge and skills, which foster well-being and improve quality of life. The…

  20. A Comparison of Two Approaches for Facilitating Identity Exploration Processes in Emerging Adults: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2005-01-01

    This article, using a controlled design, reports the results of an exploratory study to investigate the impact of two types of intervention strategies (cognitively vs. emotionally focused) on two types of identity processes (self-construction and self-discovery) in a culturally diverse sample of 90 emerging adult university students. A…

  1. A study of factors facilitating and inhibiting the willingness of the institutionalized disabled elderly for rehabilitation: a United States-Japanese comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushikubo, M

    1998-01-01

    The high prevalence of 'bedridden elderly' in Japan is at least three times higher than that of any other industrialized country. To decrease likelihood of being bedridden, it is important to cultivate and maintain the willingness of older disabled patients for rehabilitation, and to preserve functioning in activities of daily living (ADL). The purpose of this study was to identify the factors facilitating and inhibiting the willingness of institutionalized disabled older adults for rehabilitation with respect to physical, goal-attainment, psychological and cultural aspects. The convenience sample consisted of 71 disabled older adults (45 in Japan and 26 in the USA). 46 subjects (64.8%) were identified as 'willing for rehabilitation', whereas 25 (35.2%) were 'unwilling for rehabilitation'. The data were gathered using structured interviews to subjects and administering questionnaires to the nurses. The data were compared between the 'willing' and the 'unwilling', and between those from Japan and from the USA by cross-tabular and correlational analyses. The major findings in this study were as follows: (1) Factors found to facilitate willingness of older persons for rehabilitation included: high independence level in ADL, generalized endurance/stamina, lack of pain, mutual goal agreement between old people and care staff, and no presence of regressive behavior. (2) Factors found to inhibit willingness of older persons for rehabilitation included: lower independence in ADL, presence of pain, generalized little stamina, depression, presence of regressive behavior, and dementia, and expectation of another person's help all the time. Healthcare workers need to be aware of patients who are subject to factors inhibiting willingness, and to promote factors facilitating willingness, in order to prevent the elderly with disabilities from becoming bedridden. In addition, the implications of this study are for a multidimensional functional assessment to be part of the

  2. Facilitating User Driven Innovation – A Study of Methods and Tools at Herlev Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fronczek-Munter, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To present the preliminary research results of user driven innovation methods at healthcare facilities and their relevance to research and practice. Background/Approach: The paper is based on a case study conducted at the Gynaecologic Department at Herlev Hospital as part of Healthcare...... methods used in planning of new hospital facilities and the experiences with using them in practice to improve usability of the built environment. The study focuses on the initial stages of the design processes, specially ‘user driven innovation’ – the participatory design process in which users...... Innovation Lab, which is a public-private collaboration project testing the simulation and user-driven innovation between users and companies at Hospitals in the Danish Capital Region. The theories presented are user driven innovation, usability and boundary objects. Results: This article presents different...

  3. Facilitating User Driven Innovation – A Study of Methods and Tools at Herlev Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fronczek-Munter, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To present the preliminary research results of user driven innovation methods at healthcare facilities and their relevance to research and practice. Background/Approach: The paper is based on a case study conducted at the Gynaecologic Department at Herlev Hospital as part of Healthcare...... methods used in planning of new hospital facilities and the experiences with using them in practice to improve usability of the built environment. The study focuses on the initial stages of the design processes, specially ‘user driven innovation’ – the participatory design process in which users...... Innovation Lab, which is a public-private collaboration project testing the simulation and user-driven innovation between users and companies at Hospitals in the Danish Capital Region. The theories presented are user driven innovation, usability and boundary objects. Results: This article presents different...

  4. The genome sequence of Barbarea vulgaris facilitates the study of ecological biochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen L.; Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye; Agerbirk, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The genus Barbarea has emerged as a model for evolution and ecology of plant defense compounds, due to its unusual glucosinolate profile and production of saponins, unique to the Brassicaceae. One species, B. vulgaris, includes two ‘types’, G-type and P-type that differ in trichome density, and t...... deter larvae to the extent that they die. The B. vulgaris genome will promote the study of mechanisms in ecological biochemistry to benefit crop resistance breeding....

  5. Systems biology studies of adult paragonimus lung flukes facilitate the identification of immunodominant parasite antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha N McNulty

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paragonimiasis is a food-borne trematode infection acquired by eating raw or undercooked crustaceans. It is a major public health problem in the far East, but it also occurs in South Asia, Africa, and in the Americas. Paragonimus worms cause chronic lung disease with cough, fever and hemoptysis that can be confused with tuberculosis or other non-parasitic diseases. Treatment is straightforward, but diagnosis is often delayed due to a lack of reliable parasitological or serodiagnostic tests. Hence, the purpose of this study was to use a systems biology approach to identify key parasite proteins that may be useful for development of improved diagnostic tests.The transcriptome of adult Paragonimus kellicotti was sequenced with Illumina technology. Raw reads were pre-processed and assembled into 78,674 unique transcripts derived from 54,622 genetic loci, and 77,123 unique protein translations were predicted. A total of 2,555 predicted proteins (from 1,863 genetic loci were verified by mass spectrometric analysis of total worm homogenate, including 63 proteins lacking homology to previously characterized sequences. Parasite proteins encoded by 321 transcripts (227 genetic loci were reactive with antibodies from infected patients, as demonstrated by immunoaffinity purification and high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Serodiagnostic candidates were prioritized based on several criteria, especially low conservation with proteins in other trematodes. Cysteine proteases, MFP6 proteins and myoglobins were abundant among the immunoreactive proteins, and these warrant further study as diagnostic candidates.The transcriptome, proteome and immunolome of adult P. kellicotti represent a major advance in the study of Paragonimus species. These data provide a powerful foundation for translational research to develop improved diagnostic tests. Similar integrated approaches may be useful for identifying novel targets for drugs and vaccines in the

  6. COMPARATIVE ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS: A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    KONSOLAKI, KALLIOPI

    2015-01-01

    The lucrative world of comparative advertising has been attractive to marketers, who seek economic types of persuasive communication. Nevertheless, research in the actual effectiveness of comparative advertising has been inconclusive, contradicting, and insufficient. The increasing importance of comparative advertising in the current competitive global environment requires immediate findings about how comparative advertising can work effectively. This study is the first study to develop an in...

  7. [Comparative Migration Studies and Comparative Politics.] Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Patrick

    This paper addresses how the experience of the Fulbright Seminar in India has allowed the participant to enrich his teaching in comparative migration studies and comparative politics. The paper describes specifically how each course has changed as a result of the international experience. The report suggests questions for consideration as the…

  8. [Collaborative study on regulatory science for facilitating clinical development of gene therapy products for genetic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Eriko; Igarashi, Yuka; Sato, Yoji

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy products are expected as innovative medicinal products for intractable diseases such as life-threatening genetic diseases and cancer. Recently, clinical developments by pharmaceutical companies are accelerated in Europe and the United States, and the first gene therapy product in advanced countries was approved for marketing authorization by the European Commission in 2012. On the other hand, more than 40 clinical studies for gene therapy have been completed or ongoing in Japan, most of them are conducted as clinical researches by academic institutes, and few clinical trials have been conducted for approval of gene therapy products. In order to promote the development of gene therapy products, revision of the current guideline and/or preparation of concept paper to address the evaluation of the quality and safety of gene therapy products are necessary and desired to clearly show what data should be submitted before First-in-Human clinical trials of novel gene therapy products. We started collaborative study with academia and regulatory agency to promote regulatory science toward clinical development of gene therapy products for genetic diseases based on lentivirus and adeno-associated virus vectors; National Center for Child Health and Development (NCCHD), Nippon Medical School and PMDA have been joined in the task force. At first, we are preparing pre-draft of the revision of the current gene therapy guidelines in this project.

  9. The effect of social facilitation on foraging success in vultures: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew L; Ruxton, Graeme D; Houston, David C

    2008-06-23

    The status of many Gyps vulture populations are of acute conservation concern as several show marked and rapid decline. Vultures rely heavily on cues from conspecifics to locate carcasses via local enhancement. A simulation model is developed to explore the roles vulture and carcass densities play in this system, where information transfer plays a key role in locating food. We find a sigmoid relationship describing the probability of vultures finding food as a function of vulture density in the habitat. This relationship suggests a threshold density below which the foraging efficiency of the vulture population will drop rapidly towards zero. Management strategies should closely study this foraging system in order to maintain effective foraging densities.

  10. The draft genome sequence of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) facilitates study of human respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinxia; Alföldi, Jessica; Gori, Kevin; Eisfeld, Amie J; Tyler, Scott R; Tisoncik-Go, Jennifer; Brawand, David; Law, G Lynn; Skunca, Nives; Hatta, Masato; Gasper, David J; Kelly, Sara M; Chang, Jean; Thomas, Matthew J; Johnson, Jeremy; Berlin, Aaron M; Lara, Marcia; Russell, Pamela; Swofford, Ross; Turner-Maier, Jason; Young, Sarah; Hourlier, Thibaut; Aken, Bronwen; Searle, Steve; Sun, Xingshen; Yi, Yaling; Suresh, M; Tumpey, Terrence M; Siepel, Adam; Wisely, Samantha M; Dessimoz, Christophe; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Birren, Bruce W; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Di Palma, Federica; Engelhardt, John F; Palermo, Robert E; Katze, Michael G

    2014-12-01

    The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is an important animal model for multiple human respiratory diseases. It is considered the 'gold standard' for modeling human influenza virus infection and transmission. Here we describe the 2.41 Gb draft genome assembly of the domestic ferret, constituting 2.28 Gb of sequence plus gaps. We annotated 19,910 protein-coding genes on this assembly using RNA-seq data from 21 ferret tissues. We characterized the ferret host response to two influenza virus infections by RNA-seq analysis of 42 ferret samples from influenza time-course data and showed distinct signatures in ferret trachea and lung tissues specific to 1918 or 2009 human pandemic influenza virus infections. Using microarray data from 16 ferret samples reflecting cystic fibrosis disease progression, we showed that transcriptional changes in the CFTR-knockout ferret lung reflect pathways of early disease that cannot be readily studied in human infants with cystic fibrosis disease.

  11. Facilitated spin models in one dimension: a real-space renormalization group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelam, Stephen; Garrahan, Juan P

    2004-10-01

    We use a real-space renormalization group (RSRG) to study the low-temperature dynamics of kinetically constrained Ising chains (KCICs). We consider the cases of the Fredrickson-Andersen (FA) model, the East model, and the partially asymmetric KCIC. We show that the RSRG allows one to obtain in a unified manner the dynamical properties of these models near their zero-temperature critical points. These properties include the dynamic exponent, the growth of dynamical length scales, and the behavior of the excitation density near criticality. For the partially asymmetric chain, the RG predicts a crossover, on sufficiently large length and time scales, from East-like to FA-like behavior. Our results agree with the known results for KCICs obtained by other methods.

  12. Self-transcendence facilitates meaning-making and flow: Evidence from a pilot experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osin, Evgeny N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We review the psychological theory of flow and focus on the notion of the autotelic personality, arguing that self-transcendence (understood within the existential tradition of Frankl and Längle as the individual’s ability to establish inner relationships with values can be viewed as a personality disposition conducive to flow experience. The study aimed to investigate the effects of situational task meaning and dispositional self-transcendence on productivity and flow experience. We present a pilot quasi-experimental study conducted in a student sample (N = 82 Students were asked to work in small-group settings on a creative task, which consisted in finding solutions to a social problem. Each group was randomly assigned to an instruction presenting the problem as happening either in a distant country (low-meaning or in their home country (high-meaning condition. The outcome variables were measures of flow, perceived meaning of the task, and satisfaction with time spent working. The solutions generated by the students were rated by three experts. The experimental manipulation had a main effect on the quality of the resulting solutions, but not on the subjective experience of the participants. A number of significant interaction effects were found, indicating that the associations of self-transcendence with experiential outcomes tended to be linear under the low-meaning condition, but curvilinear under the high-meaning condition. The findings suggest that self-transcendence is particularly beneficial to flow in situations with unclear meaning, but very high levels of self-transcendence may hinder flow in highly meaningful situations. Overall, the findings suggest that self-transcendence can be considered as a disposition of the autotelic personality.

  13. Barriers and Facilitators of Participation in Sports: A Qualitative Study on Dutch Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragaru, Mihai; van Wilgen, C. P.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Ruijs, Suzette G. J. B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Dekker, Rienk

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although individuals with lower limb amputation may benefit from participation in sports, less than 40% do so. Aim To identify the barriers and facilitators that influence participation in sports for individuals with lower limb amputation. Design Qualitative study. Participants Twenty six individuals with lower limb amputation, all originating from the Dutch provinces of Groningen and Drenthe, of which 13 athletes. Methods Semi-structured interviews were used to gather information. Following thematic analysis, emerging themes were organized in three categories Technical, Social and Personal. Results Sport was perceived as enjoyable activity that would help participants to become and stay healthy, improve the number of social contacts, reduce phantom pain and decrease daily tension. Inadequate facilities, problematic transportation, trivialization from others, poor health and lack of motivation or the lack of a sports partner were barriers commonly mentioned by non-athletes. Remarkably, while all athletes were successful prosthetic users, the majority chose to participate in sports for which prosthesis was neither required nor needed. Conclusions Each individual with lower limb amputation needs to be counselled according to the barriers and facilitators he/she personally experiences. Athletes appeared to be more proactive in searching for a solution and also appeared less discouraged by failing. PMID:23533655

  14. Barriers and facilitators of participation in sports: a qualitative study on Dutch individuals with lower limb amputation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Bragaru

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although individuals with lower limb amputation may benefit from participation in sports, less than 40% do so. AIM: To identify the barriers and facilitators that influence participation in sports for individuals with lower limb amputation. DESIGN: Qualitative study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty six individuals with lower limb amputation, all originating from the Dutch provinces of Groningen and Drenthe, of which 13 athletes. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were used to gather information. Following thematic analysis, emerging themes were organized in three categories Technical, Social and Personal. RESULTS: Sport was perceived as enjoyable activity that would help participants to become and stay healthy, improve the number of social contacts, reduce phantom pain and decrease daily tension. Inadequate facilities, problematic transportation, trivialization from others, poor health and lack of motivation or the lack of a sports partner were barriers commonly mentioned by non-athletes. Remarkably, while all athletes were successful prosthetic users, the majority chose to participate in sports for which prosthesis was neither required nor needed. CONCLUSIONS: Each individual with lower limb amputation needs to be counselled according to the barriers and facilitators he/she personally experiences. Athletes appeared to be more proactive in searching for a solution and also appeared less discouraged by failing.

  15. Acute exercise has a general facilitative effect on cognitive function: A combined ERP temporal dynamics and BDNF study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Alderman, Brandon L; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Chen, Feng-Tzu

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether acute moderate intensity exercise results in a general or selective improvement in cognitive function. In addition, multiple stimulus-locked ERP components and serum BDNF levels were assessed to investigate potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying acute exercise effects on select aspects of cognitive performance. Thirty young adults were recruited and participated in exercise and reading control sessions in a counterbalanced order. Following treatments, the Stroop task was administrated, and N1, N2, P3, and N450 components of the ERP waveform were recorded and analyzed. Additionally, blood samples were withdrawn immediately following exercise or rest conditions prior to administration of the Stroop task. Acute exercise facilitated response times for both Stroop congruent and incongruent task conditions, with a similar magnitude of improvement. Larger P3 and reduced N450 amplitudes as well as decreased N450 latency were observed following exercise, but no effects on N1 and N2 components were found. This dose of exercise also did not influence serum BDNF levels. These findings suggest that moderate intensity acute exercise results in a generalized rather than selective improvement in cognition. The facilitation may be related to an increase in attentional or neural resource allocation and conflict detection processes reflected by longer latency endogenous components (P3, N450), but is not influenced by earlier sensory and monitoring processes revealed by earlier ERP components or by serum levels of BDNF.

  16. Testbeam studies of silicon microstrip sensor architectures modified to facilitate detector module mass production

    CERN Document Server

    Poley, Anne-luise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    For the High Luminosity Upgrade of the LHC, the Inner Detector of the ATLAS detector will be replaced by an all-silicon tracker, consisting of pixel and strip sensor detector modules. Silicon strip sensors are being developed to meet both the tracking requirements in a high particle density environment and constraints imposed by the construction process. Several thousand wire bonds per module, connecting sensor strips and readout channels, need to be produced with high reliability and speed, requiring wire bond pads of sufficient size on each sensor strip. These sensor bond pads change the local sensor architecture and the resulting electric field and thus alter the sensor performance. These sensor regions with bond pads, which account for up to 10 % of a silicon strip sensor, were studied using both an electron beam at DESY and a micro-focused X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source. This contribution presents measurements of the effective strip width in sensor regions where the structure of standard parallel...

  17. The facilitating effect of clinical hypnosis on motor imagery: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Katharina; Bacht, Katrin; Schramm, Stephanie; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2012-05-16

    Hypnosis is increasingly being employed in therapy of neurologically impaired patients. In fact, reports from neuropsychological practice point out that neurological patients with a loss of motor abilities achieve successful rehabilitation by means of motor imagery during hypnosis. This approach was shown to be effective even if the patients' ability to imagine movements was impaired or lost. The underlying mechanisms of "how" and "where" hypnosis affects the brain, however, are largely unknown. To identify the brain areas involved in motor imagery under hypnosis, we conducted an fMRI study in which we required healthy human subjects either to imagine or to execute repetitive finger movements during a hypnotic trance. We observed fMRI-signal increases exclusively related to hypnosis in the left superior frontal cortex, the left anterior cingulate gyrus and left thalamus. While the superior frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate were active related more to movement performance than to imagery, the thalamus was activated only during motor imagery. These areas represent central nodes of the salience network linking primary and higher motor areas. Therefore, our data substantiate the notion that hypnosis enhances motor imagery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Facilitative Project Management: Constructing A Model For Integrated Change Implementation By Utilizing Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Hodgson

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Change management theory is extensive, and organisations constantly adapt to and embrace change. In post-apartheid South Africa we are building a racially integrated business environment and society, and leverage its competitive re-entry into the world business arena. Research to date has found that the majority of change initiatives fail due to resistance caused by poor conceptualisation and planning, and the lack of proper integration of the people and business dimensions of change. The model to implement a successful change program will be designed using a combination of readily available skills and techniques. Its development and testing will take place within the context of three case studies. OpsommingDie teorie van veranderingsbestuur is omvattend. Organisasies moet op konstante wyse daarby aanpas en dit integreer. In Post-Apartheid Suid-Afrika bou ons tans ’n ras geïntegreerde besigheidsomgewing en gemeenskap, en benut dit maksimaal in ons toetrede tot die mededingende wêreld besigheidsarena. Huidige navorsing het bevind dat die meeste veranderingsinitiatiewe faal weens weerstand teen verandering wat deur swak konseptualisering en beplanning, en ’n gebrek aan behoorlike integrering van mense en die besigheidsdimensies van verandering veroorsaak is. Die model om ’n suksesvolle veranderingsprogram te implementeer, sal ontwerp word met geredelik beskikbare vaardighede en tegnieke. Die ontwikkeling en toetsing sal binne die konteks van drie gevallestudies plaasvind.

  19. What supports do health system organizations have in place to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making? a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Decisions regarding health systems are sometimes made without the input of timely and reliable evidence, leading to less than optimal health outcomes. Healthcare organizations can implement tools and infrastructures to support the use of research evidence to inform decision-making. Objectives The purpose of this study was to profile the supports and instruments (i.e., programs, interventions, instruments or tools) that healthcare organizations currently have in place and which ones were perceived to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making. Methods In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with individuals in three different types of positions (i.e., a senior management team member, a library manager, and a ‘knowledge broker’) in three types of healthcare organizations (i.e., regional health authorities, hospitals and primary care practices) in two Canadian provinces (i.e., Ontario and Quebec). The interviews were taped, transcribed, and then analyzed thematically using NVivo 9 qualitative data analysis software. Results A total of 57 interviews were conducted in 25 organizations in Ontario and Quebec. The main findings suggest that, for the healthcare organizations that participated in this study, the following supports facilitate evidence-informed decision-making: facilitating roles that actively promote research use within the organization; establishing ties to researchers and opinion leaders outside the organization; a technical infrastructure that provides access to research evidence, such as databases; and provision and participation in training programs to enhance staff’s capacity building. Conclusions This study identified the need for having a receptive climate, which laid the foundation for the implementation of other tangible initiatives and supported the use of research in decision-making. This study adds to the literature on organizational efforts that can increase the use of research evidence in decision

  20. Tackling fuel poverty through facilitating energy tariff switching: a participatory action research study in vulnerable groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, A; Pedro, L; Badesha, B; Dize, C; Fernow, I; Dias, L

    2013-10-01

    A fifth of UK households live in fuel poverty, with significant health risks. Recent government strategy integrates public health with local government. This study examined barriers to switching energy tariffs and the impact of an energy tariff switching 'intervention' on vulnerable peoples' likelihood to, success in, switching tariffs. Participatory Action Research (PAR), conducted in West London. Community researchers from three voluntary/community organisations (VCOs) collaborated in recruitment, study design, data collection and analysis. VCOs recruited 151 participants from existing service users in three groups: Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities, older people (>75 yrs) and families with young children. Researchers conducted two semi-structured interviews with each participant, a week apart. The first interview asked about demographics, current energy supplier, financial situation, previous experience of tariff-switching and barriers to switching. Researchers then provided the 'intervention' - advice on tariff-switching, printed materials, access to websites. The second interview explored usefulness of the 'intervention', other information used, remaining barriers and information needs. Researchers kept case notes and a reflective log. Data was analysed thematically and collaboratively between the research coordinator and researchers. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS, with descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests. A total of 151 people were interviewed: 47 older people over 75 years, 51 families with young children, 51 BME (two were missing demographics). The majority were not White British or UK-born. Average household weekly income was £230. Around half described 'difficult' financial situations, 94% were receiving state benefits and 62% were in debt. Less than a third had tried to find a better energy deal; knowledge was the main barrier. After the intervention 19 people tried to switch, 13 did. Young families were most likely to

  1. Focused ultrasound facilitated thermo-chemotherapy for targeted retinoblastoma treatment: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shutao; Mahesh, Sankaranarayana P; Liu, Ji; Geist, Craig; Zderic, Vesna

    2012-07-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common type of intraocular tumors in children. Currently, with early detection and improved systemic chemo-adjuvant therapies, treatment paradigm has shifted from survival to globe salvation/vision preservation. The objective of our work has been to explore the possible application of focused ultrasound (FUS) for targeted drug delivery in the posterior pole retinoblastoma. Specifically, theoretical models were implemented to evaluate the feasibility of using FUS to generate localized hyperthermia in retinal tumor areas, for potential triggering the chemotherapeutic agent deployment from heat-sensitive drug carriers. In-vitro experiments were conducted in tissue-mimicking phantoms with embedded excised rabbit eyes to validate the reliability of the modeling results. After confirming the reliability of our model, various FUS transducer parameters were investigated to induce maximal hyperthermia coverage in the tumor, while sparing adjacent eye structures (e.g. the lens). The evaluated FUS parameters included operating frequency, total acoustic power, geometric dimensions, transducer f-number, standoff distance, as well as different pulsing scenarios. Our modeling results suggest that the most suitable ultrasound frequency for this type of treatments was in the range of 2-3.5 MHz depending on the size of retinoblastoma. Appropriate transducer f-number (close to 1) and standoff distance could be selected to minimize the risks of over-heating undesired regions. With the total acoustic power of 0.4 W, 56.3% of the tumor was heated to hyperthermic temperature range (39-44 °C) while the temperature in lens was maintained below 41 °C. In conclusion, FUS-induced hyperthermia for targeted drug delivery may be a viable option in treatments of juxta-foveal or posterior pole retinoblastomas. Future in-vivo studies will allow us to determine the effectiveness and safety of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Toward a quality guide to facilitate the transference of analytical methods from research to testing laboratories: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisetty, Krisnha; Gumede, Njabulo Joyfull; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura; Sagrado, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    At present, there is no single viewpoint that defines QA strategies in analytical chemistry. On the other hand, there are no unique protocols defining a set of analytical tasks and decision criteria to be performed during the method development phase (e.g., by a single research laboratory) in order to facilitate the transference to the testing laboratories intending to adapt, validate, and routinely use this method. This study proposes general criteria, a priori valid for any developed method, recommended as a provisional quality guide containing the minimum internal tasks necessary to publish new analytical method results. As an application, the selection of some basic internal quality tasks and the corresponding accepted criteria are adapted to a concrete case study: indirect differential pulse polarographic determination of nitrate in water samples according to European Commission requisites. Extra tasks to be performed by testing laboratories are also outlined.

  3. Facilitating cultural border crossing in urban secondary science classrooms: A study of inservice teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Anna Karina

    Research acknowledges that if students are to be successful science, they must learn to navigate and cross cultural borders that exist between their own cultures and the subculture of science. This dissertation utilized a mixed methods approach to explore how inservice science teachers working in urban schools construct their ideas of and apply the concepts about the culture of science and cultural border crossing as relevant to the teaching and learning of science. The study used the lenses of cultural capital, social constructivism, and cultural congruency in the design and analysis of each of the three phases of data collection. Phase I identified the perspectives of six inservice science teachers on science culture, cultural border crossing, and which border crossing methods, if any, they used during science teaching. Phase II took a dialectical approach as the teachers read about science culture and cultural border crossing during three informal professional learning community meetings. This phase explored how teachers constructed their understanding of cultural border crossing and how the concept applied to the teaching and learning of science. Phase III evaluated how teachers' perspectives changed from Phase I. In addition, classroom observations were used to determine whether teachers' practices in their science classrooms changed from Phase I to Phase III. All three phases collected data through qualitative (i.e., interviews, classroom observations, and surveys) and quantitative (Likert items) means. The findings indicated that teachers found great value in learning about the culture of science and cultural border crossing as it pertained to their teaching methods. This was not only evidenced by their interviews and surveys, but also in the methods they used in their classrooms. Final conclusions included how the use of student capital resources (prior experiences, understandings and knowledge, ideas an interests, and personal beliefs), if supported by

  4. Barriers and facilitators for institutional delivery among poor Mesoamerican women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Bernardo; Colombara, Danny V; Gagnier, Marielle C; Desai, Sima S; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; McNellan, Claire R; Nelson, Jennifer; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2017-07-01

    Professional skilled care has shown to be one of the most promising strategies to reduce maternal mortality, and in-facility deliveries are a cost-effective way to ensure safe births. Countries in Mesoamerica have emphasized in-facility delivery care by professionally skilled attendants, but access to good-quality delivery care is still lacking for many women. We examined the characteristics of women who had a delivery in a health facility and determinants of the decision to bypass a closer facility and travel to a distant one. We used baseline information from the Salud Mesoamerica Initiative (SMI). Data were collected from a large household and facilities sample in the poorest quintile of the population in Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. The analysis included 1592 deliveries. After controlling for characteristics of women and health facilities, being primiparous (RR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.10, 1.21), being literate (RR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.04, 1.48), having antenatal care (RR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.24, 2.27), being informed of the need for having a C-section (RR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.02, 1.11) and travel time to the closest facility totaling 1-2 h vs under 30 min (RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.77, 0.99) were associated with in-health facility deliveries. In Guatemala, increased availability of medications and equipment at a distant facility was strongly associated with bypassing the closest facility in favor of a distant one for delivery (RR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.08, 4.07). Our study showed a strong correlation between well-equipped facilities and delivery attendance in poor areas of Mesoamerica. Indeed, women were more likely to travel to more distant facilities if the facilities were of higher level, which scored higher on our capacity score. Our findings call for improving the capacity of health facilities, quality of care and addressing cultural and accessibility barriers to increase institutional delivery among the poor population in Mesoamerica. © The Author

  5. Barriers to and facilitators of smoking cessation in pregnancy and following childbirth: literature review and qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauld, Linda; Graham, Hilary; Sinclair, Lesley; Flemming, Kate; Naughton, Felix; Ford, Allison; McKell, Jennifer; McCaughan, Dorothy; Hopewell, Sarah; Angus, Kathryn; Eadie, Douglas; Tappin, David

    2017-06-01

    Although many women stop smoking in pregnancy, others continue, causing harm to maternal and child health. Smoking behaviour is influenced by many factors, including the role of women's significant others (SOs) and support from health-care professionals (HPs). To enhance understanding of the barriers to, and facilitators of, smoking cessation and the feasibility and acceptability of interventions to reach and support pregnant women to stop smoking. Four parts: (1) a description of interventions in the UK for smoking cessation in pregnancy; (2) three systematic reviews (syntheses) of qualitative research of women's, SOs' and HPs' views of smoking in pregnancy using meta-ethnography (interpretative approach for combining findings); (3) semistructured interviews with pregnant women, SOs and HPs, guided by the social-ecological framework (conceptualises behaviour as an outcome of individuals' interactions with environment); and (4) identification of new/improved interventions for future testing. Studies in reviews conducted in high-income countries. Qualitative research was conducted from October 2013 to December 2014 in two mixed urban/rural study sites: area A (Scotland) and area B (England). Thirty-eight studies (1100 pregnant women) in 42 papers, nine studies (150 partners) in 14 papers and eight studies described in nine papers (190 HPs) included in reviews. Forty-one interviews with pregnant women, 32 interviews with pregnant women's SOs and 28 individual/group interviews with 48 HPs were conducted. The perceived barriers to, and facilitators of, smoking cessation in pregnancy and the identification of potential new/modified interventions. Syntheses identified smoking-related perceptions and experiences for pregnant women and SOs that were fluid and context dependent with the capacity to help or hinder smoking cessation. Themes were analysed in accordance with the social-ecological framework levels. From the analysis of the interviews, the themes that were

  6. APTIMA assay on SurePath liquid-based cervical samples compared to endocervical swab samples facilitated by a real time database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader Samer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC cervical samples are increasingly being used to test for pathogens, including: HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC using nucleic acid amplification tests. Several reports have shown the accuracy of such testing on ThinPrep (TP LBC samples. Fewer studies have evaluated SurePath (SP LBC samples, which utilize a different specimen preservative. This study was undertaken to assess the performance of the Aptima Combo 2 Assay (AC2 for CT and GC on SP versus endocervical swab samples in our laboratory. Materials and Methods: The live pathology database of Montefiore Medical Center was searched for patients with AC2 endocervical swab specimens and SP Paps taken the same day. SP samples from CT- and/or GC-positive endocervical swab patients and randomly selected negative patients were studied. In each case, 1.5 ml of the residual SP vial sample, which was in SP preservative and stored at room temperature, was transferred within seven days of collection to APTIMA specimen transfer tubes without any sample or patient identifiers. Blind testing with the AC2 assay was performed on the Tigris DTS System (Gen-probe, San Diego, CA. Finalized SP results were compared with the previously reported endocervical swab results for the entire group and separately for patients 25 years and younger and patients over 25 years. Results: SP specimens from 300 patients were tested. This included 181 swab CT-positive, 12 swab GC-positive, 7 CT and GC positive and 100 randomly selected swab CT and GC negative patients. Using the endocervical swab results as the patient′s infection status, AC2 assay of the SP samples showed: CT sensitivity 89.3%, CT specificity 100.0%; GC sensitivity and specificity 100.0%. CT sensitivity for patients 25 years or younger was 93.1%, versus 80.7% for patients over 25 years, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.02. Conclusions: Our results show that AC2 assay of 1.5 ml SP

  7. Barriers and facilitators of Canadian quality and safety teams: a mixed-methods study exploring the views of health care leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White DE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Deborah E White,1 Jill M Norris,1 Karen Jackson,2 Farah Khandwala3 1Faculty of Nursing, University of Calgary, 2Workforce Research and Evaluation, Alberta Health Services, 3Cancer Care Services, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, AB, Canada Background: Health care organizations are utilizing quality and safety (QS teams as a mechanism to optimize care. However, there is a lack of evidence-informed best practices for creating and sustaining successful QS teams. This study aimed to understand what health care leaders viewed as barriers and facilitators to establishing/implementing and measuring the impact of Canadian acute care QS teams.Methods: Organizational senior leaders (SLs and QS team leaders (TLs participated. A mixed-methods sequential explanatory design included surveys (n=249 and interviews (n=89. Chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare categorical variables for region, organization size, and leader position. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed for constant comparison analysis.Results: Five qualitative themes overlapped with quantitative data: (1 resources, time, and capacity; (2 data availability and information technology; (3 leadership; (4 organizational plan and culture; and (5 team composition and processes. Leaders from larger organizations more often reported that clear objectives and physician champions facilitated QS teams (p<0.01. Fewer Eastern respondents viewed board/senior leadership as a facilitator (p<0.001, and fewer Ontario respondents viewed geography as a barrier to measurement (p<0.001. TLs and SLs differed on several factors, including time to meet with the team, data availability, leadership, and culture.Conclusion: QS teams need strong, committed leaders who align initiatives to strategic directions of the organization, foster a quality culture, and provide tools teams require for their work. There are excellent opportunities to create synergy across the country to address each

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ACCOUNTING STANDARDS IN BRICS AND EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Iren RADU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine recent accounting rules to facilitate international harmonization in BRICS countries and to show how they have developed an accounting system that harmonizes with international standards, while maintaining macroeconomic control. This paper studies the influence of globalization on the development of accounting in BRICS countries, suggesting that the accounting practices of a country in harmony with international standards outlined above face barriers in the literature, such as the economic and accounting system - tradition. In order to answer the research question, the study primarily differences in contexts of international accounting and book-keeping from the BRICS countries subsequently in terms of the conceptual framework, clarifying thus the differences between the accounts of the BRICS and international Accounting and the causes of these differences.

  9. Facilitating leadership team communication

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, Eerika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand and describe how to facilitate competent communication in leadership teamwork. Grounded in the premises of social constructionism and informed by such theoretical frameworks as coordinated management of meaning theory (CMM), dialogic organization development (OD), systemic-constructionist leadership, communication competence, and reflexivity, this study seeks to produce further insights into understanding leadership team communicati...

  10. Representing nursing guideline with unified modeling language to facilitate development of a computer system: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeeyae; Choi, Jeungok E

    2014-01-01

    To provide best recommendations at the point of care, guidelines have been implemented in computer systems. As a prerequisite, guidelines are translated into a computer-interpretable guideline format. Since there are no specific tools to translate nursing guidelines, only a few nursing guidelines are translated and implemented in computer systems. Unified modeling language (UML) is a software writing language and is known to well and accurately represent end-users' perspective, due to the expressive characteristics of the UML. In order to facilitate the development of computer systems for nurses' use, the UML was used to translate a paper-based nursing guideline, and its ease of use and the usefulness were tested through a case study of a genetic counseling guideline. The UML was found to be a useful tool to nurse informaticians and a sufficient tool to model a guideline in a computer program.

  11. Strategies to facilitate implementation and sustainability of large system transformations: a case study of a national program for improving quality of care for elderly people

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nyström, Monica Elisabeth; Strehlenert, Helena; Hansson, Johan; Hasson, Henna

    2014-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of core activities and strategies to facilitate implementation and change of a national program aimed at improving life for the most ill...

  12. Facilitators and barriers to uptake and adherence to lifelong antiretroviral therapy among HIV infected pregnant women in Uganda: a qualitative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esther Buregyeya; Rose Naigino; Aggrey Mukose; Fred Makumbi; Godfrey Esiru; Jim Arinaitwe; Joshua Musinguzi; Rhoda K Wanyenze

    2017-01-01

    ... (PMTCT) in line with the WHO 2012 guidelines. This study explored experiences of HIV infected pregnant and breastfeeding women regarding barriers and facilitators to uptake and adherence to lifelong ART...

  13. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  14. A Comparative Study of the Block Characteristics of Spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparative Study of the Block Characteristics of Spinal Bupivacaine ... and side effects during and immediately after the surgery were assessed and recorded. ... the study period, group D exhibited significantly lower mean blood pressures ...

  15. Patient advocacy: barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikravesh Mansoure

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the two recent decades, advocacy has been a topic of much debate in the nursing profession. Although advocacy has embraced a crucial role for nurses, its extent is often limited in practice. While a variety of studies have been generated all over the world, barriers and facilitators in the patient advocacy have not been completely identified. This article presents the findings of a study exploring the barriers and facilitators influencing the role of advocacy among Iranian nurses. Method This study was conducted by grounded theory method. Participants were 24 Iranian registered nurses working in a large university hospital in Tehran, Iran. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and simultaneously Constant comparative analysis was used according to the Strauss and Corbin method. Results Through data analysis, several main themes emerged to describe the factors that hindered or facilitated patient advocacy. Nurses in this study identified powerlessness, lack of support, law, code of ethics and motivation, limited communication, physicians leading, risk of advocacy, royalty to peers, and insufficient time to interact with patients and families as barriers to advocacy. As for factors that facilitated nurses to act as a patient advocate, it was found that the nature of nurse-patient relationship, recognizing patients' needs, nurses' responsibility, physician as a colleague, and nurses' knowledge and skills could be influential in adopting the advocacy role. Conclusion Participants believed that in this context taking an advocacy role is difficult for nurses due to the barriers mentioned. Therefore, they make decisions and act as a patient's advocate in any situation concerning patient needs and status of barriers and facilitators. In most cases, they can not act at an optimal level; instead they accept only what they can do, which we called 'limited advocacy' in

  16. Factors facilitating and inhibiting value stream mapping processes at hospital units in three Nordic countries - a Nordic multicenter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Jørgen; Birgisdóttir, Birna Dröfn; Dudas, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present observations that may indicate facilitating and inhibiting factors for the VSM process.......The aim of this paper is to present observations that may indicate facilitating and inhibiting factors for the VSM process....

  17. Using a sensitivity study to facilitate the design of a multi-electrode array to measure six cardiac conductivity values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Barbara M

    2013-07-01

    When using the bidomain model to model the electrical activity of the heart, there are potentially six cardiac conductivity values involved: conductivity values in directions along and normal to the cardiac fibres with a sheet, as well as a conductivity value in the normal direction between the sheets, and these occur for both the extracellular and intracellular domains in the model. To date it has been common to assume that the two normal direction conductivity values are the same. However, recent work has demonstrated that six cardiac conductivity values, rather than four, are necessary for accurate modelling, which can then facilitate understanding of cardiovascular disease. To design a method to determine these conductivities, it is also necessary to design a suitable multi-electrode array, which can be used, in conjunction with an inversion technique, to retrieve conductivity values from measurements of potential made on the array. This work uses the results of a study, into the sensitivity of the measuring potentials to variability in the input conductivities, to facilitate the design of an array that could be used to retrieve six cardiac conductivity values, as well as fibre rotation angle. It is found that if an electrode in the array has a much lower value of potential than the other electrodes, then it tends to be much more sensitive to the input conductivities than the other electrodes. It also appears that inclusion of this type of electrode in the set of measuring electrodes is essential for accurately retrieving conductivity values. This technique is used to identify electrodes to be included in the array and using the final design it is demonstrated, using synthetic values of potential, that the six cardiac conductivity values, and the fibre rotation angle, can be retrieved very accurately.

  18. Going straight to the source: A pilot study of bereaved parent-facilitated communication training for pediatric subspecialty fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snaman, Jennifer M; Kaye, Erica C; Cunningham, Melody J; Sykes, April; Levine, Deena R; Mahoney, Daniel; Baker, Justin N

    2017-01-01

    Medical trainees consistently report suboptimal instruction and poor self-confidence in communication skills. Despite this deficit, few established training programs provide comprehensive, pediatric-specific communication education, particularly in the provision of "bad news." To our knowledge, no programs currently use bereaved parent educators to facilitate communication training for pediatric subspecialty trainees. The authors designed and implemented a pilot communication training seminar in which bereaved parent educators and faculty facilitators led small groups in interactive, role-play scenarios. Surveys incorporating a retrospective preprogram assessment item to account for response-shift bias were used to assess short- and long-term changes in trainee comfort with delivering "bad news." Fifteen pediatric fellowship trainees participated in the communication seminar; complete data were available for 12 participants. After accounting for response-shift bias, participants reported significant improvement in overall preparedness, breaking bad news to a patient and family, and including the adolescent or young adult patient in conversations. Additionally, participants reported a significant improvement in their ability to address a patient and family's need for information, emotional suffering at the end of life (EOL), if and when a patient should be included in the conversation, and EOL care decisions. The participant's self-perceived improvement in comfort and preparedness persisted over time. Communication training for pediatric subspecialty trainees using bereaved parent educators is feasible and effective. Both medical trainee and bereaved parent participants benefited from involvement in this pilot study. Further iterations of this training will be modified to assess objective measures of improvement in trainees' communication skills. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Immunization educational game in general practice waiting rooms. A comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Marie-Aude; Gignon, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    The general practitioner’s (GP) waiting room is an ideal place to conduct health education actions. The use of tools in GP waiting rooms would appear to be a useful approach, but the available tools are not very efficient. The objective of this study was to study the efficacy of a game compared with two other health education strategies. A comparative study was conducted in two general practices. 212 patients were divided into three groups using a paper-game or a booklet or nothing in the waiting room, before a discussion about immunization with the practitioner. The capacity of the tool to encourage questions about immunization was estimated by the GP at the end of the consultation by a questionnaire. The use of a tool in the waiting room facilitated the discussion between patients and practitioners (34% vs 12%, pgame induced longer discussions than the booklet (1 minute 32 seconds vs 1 minute 14 seconds, pgame and the booklet had a comparable acceptability. Using a multistep education strategy facilitated discussion between the patient and the practitioner. However, the GP is required to trigger the conversation.

  20. Global Harmonization of Comparator Products for Bioequivalence Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaza, Luther; Gordon, John; Leufkens, Hubert; Stahl, Matthias; García-Arieta, Alfredo

    2017-05-01

    Comparator products should be the products that were shown to be safe and efficacious in pivotal clinical trials to ensure prescribability of generics. The use of a common comparator ensures switchability between generics. The selection of the comparator is a national responsibility and may be different between countries. This paper discusses the current recommendations on selection of comparators, the associated problems, and the possibility of harmonization. Most countries follow the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for selecting comparator products and require the comparator product to be obtained from their national markets to ensure switchability between the local comparator and their generics. These recommendations are only feasible in the few countries where the repetition of the bioequivalence study is economically feasible, but they are impracticable in all other countries. Furthermore, the exclusive use of the local comparator to ensure switchability is ethically and scientifically questionable. The innovator product from well-regulated markets should be the global comparator. This harmonization is feasible as the concept already applies in the WHO prequalification program. It is ineffectual to harmonize only the requirements for performing bioequivalence studies, if such a study has to be repeated for every single country simply because of the different comparator products.

  1. Comparative study of baseline environmental studies in offshore renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huertas-Olivares, C.; Patricio, S.; Neumann, F. [Wave Energy Centre, Lisbon (Portugal); Russell, I. [Wave Dragon (United Kingdom); Sarmento, A. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-07-01

    The environmental impacts of wave energy projects are not yet fully understood. Only a few Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) have been carried out and only for small pilot plants. The assessment of such impacts is a highly complex process, not only because of the medium where these projects are developed but also due to the variety of devices and the different ways in which they interact with the surrounding environment. A further conflict exists with the fact that most EIAs are designed to gain development consent rather than aid environmental protection. This paper presents a comparison of the environmental studies undertaken for several offshore renewable technologies. It concludes by evaluating what environmental factors should be analyzed before the deployment of any wave energy farm, also taking into account the similarities to other marine renewables, mainly offshore wind energy. It aims to establish coherence in this field for future legislation or international standardizations.

  2. Understanding innovators' experiences of barriers and facilitators in implementation and diffusion of healthcare service innovations: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Julie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare service innovations are considered to play a pivotal role in improving organisational efficiency and responding effectively to healthcare needs. Nevertheless, healthcare organisations encounter major difficulties in sustaining and diffusing innovations, especially those which concern the organisation and delivery of healthcare services. The purpose of the present study was to explore how healthcare innovators of process-based initiatives perceived and made sense of factors that either facilitated or obstructed the innovation implementation and diffusion. Methods A qualitative study was designed. Fifteen primary and secondary healthcare organisations in the UK, which had received health service awards for successfully generating and implementing service innovations, were studied. In-depth, semi structured interviews were conducted with the organisational representatives who conceived and led the development process. The data were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Results Four main themes were identified in the analysis of the data: the role of evidence, the function of inter-organisational partnerships, the influence of human-based resources, and the impact of contextual factors. "Hard" evidence operated as a proof of effectiveness, a means of dissemination and a pre-requisite for the initiation of innovation. Inter-organisational partnerships and people-based resources, such as champions, were considered an integral part of the process of developing, establishing and diffusing the innovations. Finally, contextual influences, both intra-organisational and extra-organisational were seen as critical in either impeding or facilitating innovators' efforts. Conclusions A range of factors of different combinations and co-occurrence were pointed out by the innovators as they were reflecting on their experiences of implementing, stabilising and diffusing novel service initiatives. Even though the innovations

  3. Understanding innovators' experiences of barriers and facilitators in implementation and diffusion of healthcare service innovations: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Julie; Vasileiou, Konstantina; Djemil, Fayika; Brooks, Laurence; Young, Terry

    2011-12-16

    Healthcare service innovations are considered to play a pivotal role in improving organisational efficiency and responding effectively to healthcare needs. Nevertheless, healthcare organisations encounter major difficulties in sustaining and diffusing innovations, especially those which concern the organisation and delivery of healthcare services. The purpose of the present study was to explore how healthcare innovators of process-based initiatives perceived and made sense of factors that either facilitated or obstructed the innovation implementation and diffusion. A qualitative study was designed. Fifteen primary and secondary healthcare organisations in the UK, which had received health service awards for successfully generating and implementing service innovations, were studied. In-depth, semi structured interviews were conducted with the organisational representatives who conceived and led the development process. The data were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Four main themes were identified in the analysis of the data: the role of evidence, the function of inter-organisational partnerships, the influence of human-based resources, and the impact of contextual factors. "Hard" evidence operated as a proof of effectiveness, a means of dissemination and a pre-requisite for the initiation of innovation. Inter-organisational partnerships and people-based resources, such as champions, were considered an integral part of the process of developing, establishing and diffusing the innovations. Finally, contextual influences, both intra-organisational and extra-organisational were seen as critical in either impeding or facilitating innovators' efforts. A range of factors of different combinations and co-occurrence were pointed out by the innovators as they were reflecting on their experiences of implementing, stabilising and diffusing novel service initiatives. Even though the innovations studied were of various contents and originated from diverse

  4. From Comparative Education to Comparative Pedagogy: A Physical Education Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Steve; Graham, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades forces of globalization and the rise of and access to information technology have transformed the nature of educational research. Traditional disciplines such as comparative education have not been immune to these transformational impacts. Although one might expect globalization to promote the study of comparative…

  5. Aquatic flower-inspired cell culture platform with simplified medium exchange process for facilitating cell-surface interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyeonjun; Park, Sung Jea; Han, Seon Jin; Lim, Jiwon; Kim, Dong Sung

    2016-02-01

    Establishing fundamentals for regulating cell behavior with engineered physical environments, such as topography and stiffness, requires a large number of cell culture experiments. However, cell culture experiments in cell-surface interaction studies are generally labor-intensive and time-consuming due to many experimental tasks, such as multiple fabrication processes in sample preparation and repetitive medium exchange in cell culture. In this work, a novel aquatic flower-inspired cell culture platform (AFIP) is presented. AFIP aims to facilitate the experiments on the cell-surface interaction studies, especially the medium exchange process. AFIP was devised to capture and dispense cell culture medium based on interactions between an elastic polymer substrate and a liquid medium. Thus, the medium exchange can be performed easily and without the need of other instruments, such as a vacuum suction and pipette. An appropriate design window of AFIP, based on scaling analysis, was identified to provide a criterion for achieving stability in medium exchange as well as various surface characteristics of the petal substrates. The developed AFIP, with physically engineered petal substrates, was also verified to exchange medium reliably and repeatedly. A closed structure capturing the medium was sustained stably during cell culture experiments. NIH3T3 proliferation results also demonstrated that AFIP can be applied to the cell-surface interaction studies as an alternative to the conventional method.

  6. A tool to facilitate clinical biomarker studies--a tissue dictionary based on the Human Protein Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Caroline; Bergman, Julia; Oksvold, Per; Asplund, Anna; Navani, Sanjay; Wiking, Mikaela; Lundberg, Emma; Uhlén, Mathias; Ponten, Fredrik

    2012-09-12

    The complexity of tissue and the alterations that distinguish normal from cancer remain a challenge for translating results from tumor biological studies into clinical medicine. This has generated an unmet need to exploit the findings from studies based on cell lines and model organisms to develop, validate and clinically apply novel diagnostic, prognostic and treatment predictive markers. As one step to meet this challenge, the Human Protein Atlas project has been set up to produce antibodies towards human protein targets corresponding to all human protein coding genes and to map protein expression in normal human tissues, cancer and cells. Here, we present a dictionary based on microscopy images created as an amendment to the Human Protein Atlas. The aim of the dictionary is to facilitate the interpretation and use of the image-based data available in the Human Protein Atlas, but also to serve as a tool for training and understanding tissue histology, pathology and cell biology. The dictionary contains three main parts, normal tissues, cancer tissues and cells, and is based on high-resolution images at different magnifications of full tissue sections stained with H & E. The cell atlas is centered on immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy images, using different color channels to highlight the organelle structure of a cell. Here, we explain how this dictionary can be used as a tool to aid clinicians and scientists in understanding the use of tissue histology and cancer pathology in diagnostics and biomarker studies.

  7. Employing Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA to facilitate formative assessment in the State Secondary School: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effimia Karagianni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on theories of assessment as well as on the pedagogical and administrative advantages Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA has to offer in foreign language learning, the study presented in this paper examines how computers can facilitate the formative assessment of EFL learners and enhance their feeling of responsibility towards monitoring their progress. The subjects of the study were twenty five 14-year-old students attending the third class of a State Gymnasium in Greece. The instruments utilized were questionnaires on motivation and learning styles, three quizzes designed with the software Hot Potatoes, a self–assessment questionnaire and an evaluation questionnaire showing the subjects’ attitudes towards the experience of using computers for assessing purposes. After reviewing formative assessment, CAA and how these two can be combined, the paper focuses on the description of the three class quizzes used in the study. Ιnformation from the questionnaires filled in by students combined with the results of the quizzes, shows how computers can be used to provide continuous ongoing measurement of students’ progress needed for formative assessment. The results are also used to show how students and teachers can benefit from formative CAA and the extent to which such kind of assessment could be applicable in the Greek state school reality.

  8. Developing a service user facilitated, interactive case study--a reflective and evaluative account of a teaching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Lisa J; Padgett, Kath

    2012-02-01

    This article describes the development and ongoing evaluation of a method of service user facilitated case study in health and social care education in a U.K. University. An action research approach (Norton 2009) has been used in which the aim of the work is to improve personal practice with the aim of enhancing the student experience. The paper is written from the perspective of the service user with support from an academic colleague. The paper describes how a narrative monologue, over time is developed into an interactive case study. In draws upon literature from service user involvement, case study and pedagogic action research. The research group are health and social care students both under and post-graduates. Analysis is via a session evaluation form. Thematic analysis draws out key themes. Firstly that first person accounts have a reasonance and interest with students. Secondly that the built in thinking time helps students to develop their reflection and critical thinking skills. Furthermore a theme emerges on how the technique supports students with their future careers. Finally the author reflects on how the approach enables the development of teaching practice and enhanced student learning.

  9. Facilitering som styringsredskab

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Karen Overgaard

    2006-01-01

    #This thesis surveys facilitation as a new tool of steering within the public sector in Denmark. It is explored how facilitation is articulated and practiced among facilitators from the public, private and voluntary sector. Furthermore, the facilitator’s challenges by using facilitation are examined. The thesis is based on the presumption that facilitation is articulated by rationalities, which influence how facilitation is practiced and performed. Also, a facilitator is seen as a performer a...

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SPECTRAL METHODS WITH SEA WAVE DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two spectral methods are used to study sea wave data.Firstly, the estimated results calculated by the sequency spectrum method and frequency spectrum method are compared, and then the differences between the two methods are discussed.Furthermore, compared with frequency spectral analysis, sequency spectral analysis has many advantages: faster calculating speed, convenient use and high distinguishability.

  11. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  12. Fungal biodegradation of anthracene-polluted cork: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jové, Patrícia; Olivella, Maria À; Camarero, Susana; Caixach, Josep; Planas, Carles; Cano, Laura; De Las Heras, Francesc X

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of cork waste in adsorbing aqueous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been previously reported. Biodegradation of contaminated cork using filamentous fungi could be a good alternative for detoxifying cork to facilitate its final processing. For this purpose, the degradation efficiency of anthracene by three ligninolytic white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Irpex lacteus and Pleurotus ostreatus) and three non-ligninolytic fungi which are found in the cork itself (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium simplicissimum and Mucor racemosus) are compared. Anthracene degradation by all fungi was examined in solid-phase cultures after 0, 16, 30 and 61 days. The degradation products of anthracene by P. simplicissimum and I. lacteus were also identified by GC-MS and a metabolic pathway was proposed for P. simplicissimum. Results show that all the fungi tested degraded anthracene. After 61 days of incubation, approximately 86%, 40%, and 38% of the initial concentration of anthracene (i.e., 100 µM) was degraded by P. simplicissimum, P. chrysosporium and I. lacteus, respectively. The rest of the fungi degraded anthracene to a lesser extent (PAH-contaminated cork.

  13. Religious Confession and Symptom Severity: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madiha; Rana, Majeed; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Krause, Christin

    2015-12-01

    Little research has been done on comparing confessions regarding mental health. In the present study, 320 people (78 Buddhists, 77 Catholics, 89 Protestants and 79 Muslims) were compared in terms of their symptom severity. Buddhists and Protestants had lower scores than Catholics and Muslims for obsessive-compulsive behavior and hostility. Muslim group had the highest comparative scores for psychoticism. Buddhists and Protestants had comparatively low scores for paranoid ideation and overall symptom severity, with Catholics and Muslims having high ones. Results reveal that confession should be taken in account in psychological research and diagnosis, since it is explicitly associated with psychological well-being.

  14. Parameter ranking of stock market dynamics: a comparative study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a comparative study of the mathematical models of competition and mutualistic interactions. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Our approach also permits us to gain some useful insights into the ability of the model to reflect what is ...

  15. A prospective, randomized multicenter study comparing APD and CAPD treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Bjorner, J B; Tofte-Jensen, P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goals for maintenance dialysis treatment are to improve patient survival, reduce patient morbidity, and improve patient quality of life. This is the first randomized prospective study comparing automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)...

  16. 424 Comparative Studies on the Larvicidal Action of Novaluron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Comparative Studies on the Larvicidal Action of Novaluron. (Mosquiron. ® .... leguminous seeds and grains against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipens pallens ..... New classification for the composite genus Aedes. (Diptera: ...

  17. A Comparative Kinetic Study of Acidic Hydrolysis of Wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparative Kinetic Study of Acidic Hydrolysis of Wastes Cellulose from Agricultural Derived Biomass. ... fuels and chemicals offers potential economical, environmental and strategic ... Keywords: Agricultural wastes; cellulose; acid hydrolysis; first-order rate kinetics; activation energy, Arrhenius equation ... Article Metrics.

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ALGORITHMS FOR LAND COVER CHANGE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ALGORITHMS FOR LAND COVER CHANGE SHYAM BORIAH*, VARUN MITHAL, ASHISH GARG, VIPIN KUMAR, MICHAEL STEINBACH, CHRIS POTTER, AND STEVE KLOOSTER*...

  19. Comparative studies on the mineralization of furfural urea and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative studies on the mineralization of furfural urea and urea fertilizers in ... conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural urea as a slow release N fertilizer in ... The controlled or slow availability supplies N continuously over an extended ...

  20. Comparative study of the nutritional composition of matured green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study of the nutritional composition of matured green and red fruits of ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... It is still green when matured and turn from yellow to red if left for sometime after reaching maturity.

  1. Teacher Leader Human Relations Skills: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 142 graduate school teachers working in schools throughout southwestern Ohio assessed their human relation skills. A human relations survey was used for the study, and results were compared with colleagues assessing the teachers in the study. The survey was developed using a Likert-type scale, and was based on key elements affecting…

  2. Teacher Leader Human Relations Skills: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 142 graduate school teachers working in schools throughout southwestern Ohio assessed their human relation skills. A human relations survey was used for the study, and results were compared with colleagues assessing the teachers in the study. The survey was developed using a Likert-type scale, and was based on key elements affecting…

  3. A Comparative Study of English and Chinese Taboos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li-xian; PENG Jian-wu

    2016-01-01

    As a very common language phenomenon in English and Chinese culture, taboo exists in almost every aspects of daily life. Taboo is a relatively sensitive topic and it has distinctive national features and profound cultural connotations. The compara-tive study of English and Chinese taboos is an important subject in intercultural communication, which is easy to be overlooked. The short knowledge of taboo is a great barrier in intercultural communication, therefore, making a comparative study of linguis-tic taboos becomes imperative.

  4. An automatic scanning method for high throughput microscopic system to facilitate medical genetic diagnosis: an initial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Zheng; Li, Yuhua; Chen, Wei R.; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Liu, Hong

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report a new automatic scanning scheme for high throughput microscopic systems aiming to facilitate disease diagnosis in genetic laboratories. To minimize the impact of the random vibration and mechanical drifting of the scanning stage in microscopic image acquisition, auto-focusing operations are usually applied repeatedly during the scanning process. Such methods ensure the acquisition of well focused images for clinical diagnosis, but are time consuming. The technique investigated in this preliminary study applies the auto-focusing operations at a limited number of locations on the slide. For the rest of the imaging field, the focusing position is quickly adjusted through linear interpolation. In this initial validation study, blood pathological slides containing both metaphase and interphase cells are scanned. For a selected area of 6.9mm×6.9mm, a number of 2×2, 3×2, 3×3, and 4×4 positions are evenly sampled for auto-focusing operations. Respectively, 25, 29, 40, and 41 clinically meaningful cells are identified for each sampling scheme. For the specific case investigated, the results demonstrate that the 4 position auto-focusing scheme could obtain the adequate number of clinically meaningful cells for the diagnosis. The schemes with more auto-focusing operations provide an option for high reliability diagnosis when clinically necessary. More comprehensive research is planned, and that may lead to optimal design of trade-off for developing the scanning scheme of the high throughput microscopic systems.

  5. Goal conflict, goal facilitation and health professionals’ provision of physical activity advice in primary care: An exploratory prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Presseau, J.; Francis, J.; Campbell, N C; Sniehotta, F. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The theory of planned behaviour has well-evidenced utility in predicting health professional behaviour, but focuses on a single behaviour isolated from the numerous potentially conflicting and facilitating goal-directed behaviours performed alongside. Goal conflict and goal facilitation may influence whether health professionals engage in guideline-recommended behaviours, and may supplement the predictive power of the theory of planned behaviour. We hypothesised that goal facilita...

  6. Goal conflict, goal facilitation, and health professionals' provision of physical activity advice in primary care: An exploratory prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell Neil C; Francis Jill J; Presseau Justin; Sniehotta Falko F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The theory of planned behaviour has well-evidenced utility in predicting health professional behaviour, but focuses on a single behaviour isolated from the numerous potentially conflicting and facilitating goal-directed behaviours performed alongside. Goal conflict and goal facilitation may influence whether health professionals engage in guideline-recommended behaviours, and may supplement the predictive power of the theory of planned behaviour. We hypothesised that goal ...

  7. Sustaining and Improving Study Abroad Experiences Through Comparative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Linda S

    Researchers have related participation in study abroad experiences to many positive outcomes for nursing students; however, educators are faced with the task of not only developing meaningful study abroad opportunities but sustaining and improving them as well. Educators can evaluate repeat study abroad programs by comparing experiences, looking for trends, and conjecturing rationales. To illustrate this process, an example of a study abroad opportunity that has been repeated over 11 years is presented. The first six years have been compared to the most recent five years, revealing three categories of change for evaluation and the resulting course improvements.

  8. Comparative Study of Copyright Trade between China and UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ting

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to promote the development of Chinese copyright trade by comparing copyright trade between China and UK and finding out on which aspects China lags behind UK. With the deepening of Chinese reform and opening up, China has improved its copyright system and accelerated the development of our copyright trade. However, there still is a big gap compared with UK and other developed countries. Based on the comparative study of copyright trade between UK and China, we draw a conclusion so as to promote the development of China's copyright trade. We mainly adopted comparative research method, statistical research method and Empirical research methods in this study. The results show there is a big gap between China and UK on legal system, management of intellectual property right and main information channels etc. China still has a long way to go.

  9. Identifying barriers and facilitators to ambulance service assessment and treatment of acute asthma: a focus group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute asthma is a common reason for patients to seek care from ambulance services. Although better care of acute asthma can prevent avoidable morbidity and deaths, there has been little research into ambulance clinicians’ adherence to national guidelines for asthma assessment and management and how this might be improved. Our research aim was to explore paramedics’ attitudes, perceptions and beliefs about prehospital management of asthma, to identify barriers and facilitators to guideline adherence. Methods We conducted three focus group interviews of paramedics in a regional UK ambulance trust. We used framework analysis supported by NVivo 8 to code and analyse the data. Results Seventeen participants, including paramedics, advanced paramedics or paramedic operational managers at three geographical sites, contributed to the interviews. Analysis led to five themes: (1) guidelines should be made more relevant to ambulance service care; (2) there were barriers to assessment; (3) the approach needed to address conflicts between clinicians’ and patients’ expectations; (4) the complexity of ambulance service processes and equipment needed to be taken into account; (5) and finally there were opportunities for improved prehospital education, information, communication, support and care pathways for asthma. Conclusions This qualitative study provides insight into paramedics’ perceptions of the assessment and management of asthma, including why paramedics may not always follow guidelines for assessment or management of asthma. These findings provide opportunities to strengthen clinical support, patient communication, information transfer between professionals and pathways for prehospital care of patients with asthma. PMID:25086749

  10. Facilitators and Barriers to Effective Smoking Cessation: Counselling Services for Inpatients from Nurse-Counsellors’ Perspectives — A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chuan Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use has reached epidemic levels around the World, resulting in a world-wide increase in tobacco-related deaths and disabilities. Hospitalization presents an opportunity for nurses to encourage inpatients to quit smoking. This qualitative descriptive study was aimed to explore nurse-counsellors’ perspectives of facilitators and barriers in the implementation of effective smoking cessation counselling services for inpatients. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 nurses who were qualified smoking cessation counsellors and who were recruited from eleven health promotion hospitals that were smoke-free and located in the Greater Taipei City Area.  Data were collected from May 2012 to October 2012, and then analysed using content analysis based on the grounded theory approach. From nurse-counsellors’ perspectives, an effective smoking cessation program should be patient-centred and provide a supportive environment. Another finding is that effective smoking cessation counselling involves encouraging patients to modify their lifestyles. Time constraints and inadequate resources are barriers that inhibit the effectiveness of smoking cessation counselling programs in acute-care hospitals. We suggest that hospitals should set up a smoking counselling follow-up program, including funds, facilities, and trained personnel to deliver counselling services by telephone, and build a network with community smoking cessation resources.

  11. In-stent Anchoring Facilitating Side-branch Balloon Delivery for Final Kissing: A Prospective, Single-center Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Xiao, Han; Wang, Yu-Qing; Liu, Huan-Yun; Bao, Pang; Song, Yao-Ming; Azzalini, Lorenzo; Huang, Lan; Zhao, Xiao-Hui

    2016-11-20

    Recrossing the compromised side branch (SB) with a balloon is sometimes technically challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether in-stent anchoring (ISA) is safe and effective to facilitate SB balloon delivery for final kissing. One hundred and fifty-nine consecutive patients were included (166 bifurcation lesions) in this prospective, single-center registry. ISA was used as a bailout method after unsuccessful SB crossing using conventional techniques, including low-profile balloons. Technique success was defined as SB balloon delivery and final kissing. Kissing-balloon delivery was successfully performed with conventional strategies in 149 of 166 lesions (89.8%). In the remaining 17 lesions (10.2%), recrossing of the main vessel stent strut was not successful; therefore, ISA was attempted. The balloon successfully crossed the stent struts, and final kissing was achieved in 15 of 17 lesions (88.2%). Total final kissing was achieved in 164 of 166 lesions (98.8%), with success rates of 100% in the single-stent group and 97.6% in the two-stent group. Two cases without balloon delivery had complex bifurcation lesions with severe calcification. There was no vessel dissection in the anchoring zone. ISA is safe and effective for recrossing stent struts when conventional low-profile balloons have failed. However, large-scale trials are warranted for further evaluation.

  12. A comparative study in ultrasound breast imaging classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Moi Hoon; Edirisinghe, Eran A.; Bez, Helmut E.

    2009-02-01

    American College of Radiology introduces a standard in classification, the breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS), standardize the reporting of ultrasound findings, clarify its interpretation, and facilitate communication between clinicians. The effective use of new technologies to support healthcare initiatives is important and current research is moving towards implementing computer tools in the diagnostics process. Initially a detailed study was carried out to evaluate the performance of two commonly used appearance based classification algorithms, based on the use of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and two dimensional linear discriminant analysis (2D-LDA). The study showed that these two appearance based classification approaches are not capable of handling the classification of ultrasound breast image lesions. Therefore further investigations in the use of a popular feature based classifier - Support Vector Machine (SVM) was conducted. A pre-processing step before feature based classification is feature extraction, which involve shape, texture and edge descriptors for the Region of Interest (ROI). The input dataset to SVM classification is from a fully automated ROI detection. We achieve the success rate of 0.550 in PCA, 0.500 in LDA, and 0.931 in SVM. The best combination of features in SVM classification is to combine the shape, texture and edge descriptors, with sensitivity 0.840 and specificity 0.968. This paper briefly reviews the background to the project and then details the ongoing research. In conclusion, we discuss the contributions, limitations, and future plans of our work.

  13. Comparative study of programmed labor and traditional management of labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin S. Kshirsagar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolongation of labor leads to dehydration, ketoacidosis, infection, fetal asphyxia. Programmed labor aims at reducing the duration of labor, labor pain and incidence of cesarean section with improved maternal and neonatal outcome. Aims and Objectives: 1To evaluate the effect of programmed labor on duration of labor. 2To assess efficacy of analgesics in reducing pain of labor. 3To find out maternal and neonatal complications. 4To study impact of programmed labor on LSCS rates. Methods: Prospective randomized study of primigravida in active labor (after 4 cm cervical dilatation for which 100 women were selected for programmed labor (cases and 100 women were selected for traditional management of labor (controls. Cases were subjected to interventions to improve uterine contractions (ARM, Dinoprostone tablets, and Oxytocin drip, to facilitate cervical dilatation (Inj. Drotaverine, to relieve labor pains (Inj. Pentazocine & Diazepam. All labors were monitored by partogram. Results: Programmed labor reduced duration of first and second stage of labor. There was faster cervical dilatation (1.8 cm/hour against 1.2 cm/hour. Majority of the patients had better pain relief. There was no impact on LSCS rates Conclusions: Programmed labor significantly reduced duration of labor with good pain relief without compromising maternal and fetal/neonatal safety. But it had no impact on LSCS rates. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 209-212

  14. Facilitation skills for nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Cilliers

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the pcrson-centered approach, facilitation in this study was conceptualised as providing opportunities for personal growth in the patient, and operationalised in a skills workshop for 40 nurses from different hospitals in Gauteng. The first objective was to evaluate the workshop and the second to ascertain its effect on the participant’s experienced performance. A combined quantitative and qualitative research design was used. The quantitative measurement (Personal Orientation Inventory, Carkhuff scales indicated that the workshop stimulated self-actualisation in terms of intrapersonal awareness, and the interpersonal skills of respect, realness, concreteness, empathy, as well as in terms of attending and responding behaviour. The qualitative measurement (a semi-structured interview indicated that the participants were able to empower patients to find their own answers to difficult personal questions. The alternative hypothesis was accepted, namely that this workshop in facilitations skills significantly enhanced the intra- and interpersonal characteristics associated with self-actualisation and the facilitation of growth in patients. The findings highlighted the difference between the two roles of instructor and facilitator, and recommendations to this effect were formulated.

  15. A Comparative Study on SOI MOSFETs for Low Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Affendi Rosli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon on Insulator (SOI technology has become one of the most promising technologies in semiconductor fabrication industry for its numerous advantages. This study presents merits and demerits of different SOIs presented in literatures and a comparative study is done based on several design and performance issues for low power applications. From the study it is found that Fully Depleted SOI MOSFET (FDSOI technology is preferred due to its thin size, reduced leakage current and improved power consumption characteristics etc. compared to those of PDSOI and bulk silicon technology.

  16. Comparative Study of Bio-implantable Acoustic Generator Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D.; Roundy, S.

    2013-12-01

    This paper is a comparative study of the design spaces of two bio-implantable acoustically excited generator architectures: the thickness-stretch-mode circular piezoelectric plate and the bending-mode unimorph piezoelectric diaphragm. The generators are part of an acoustic power transfer system for implanted sensors and medical devices such as glucose monitors, metabolic monitors, drug delivery systems, etc. Our studies indicate that at small sizes the diaphragm architecture outperforms the plate architecture. This paper will present the results of simulation studies and initial experiments that explore the characteristics of the two architectures and compare their performance.

  17. Joachim Wach and the Study of Religion: A Comparative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the life and career of Joachim Wach, a proponent of comparative study of religion (CSR). Reports that Wach envisioned "Religionwissenschaft," a unitary science taking a systematic approach to the study of religion using elements of theology, philosophy, and social science. Presents Wach's "basic and eternal" questions on ultimate…

  18. Political Ideology: A Comparative Study of Three Chicano Youth Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard A.

    The study investigated the political ideology of three Chicano youth groups in El Paso, Texas: Mexican American Youth Association (MAYA), Mexican American Political Association (MAPA), and the Alianza. Purpose of the study was to identify and compare the political ideas and attitudes of the three organizations. Questionnaires were administered to…

  19. A Comparative Study of Students' Achievement in Botany and Zoology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, P.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study of student achievement in botany and zoology based on data of 10 studies conducted in 20 countries. Up to age 14, students achieve better in zoology; after age 14, students achieve better in botany. Based on the findings, recommendations are suggested regarding curriculum planning, laboratory work and the need for specific…

  20. Comparative studies in Chelicerata II. Epimerata (Palpigradi and Actinotrichida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1982-01-01

    A comparative study is made of two groups of Chelicerata (Palpigradi and Actinotrichid mites, together constituting the Epimerata, a chelicerate class), and models of the evolution of epimerate characters are prepared. The study is based on the same methods and principles as the first part of the pr

  1. Comparative study of atrial fibrillation and AV conduction in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Tweel, I. van der

    1987-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is one ofthe most common cardiac arrhythmias in humans. It a1so occurs quite frequent1y in dogs and horses. Comparative study of this arrhythmia may contribute to better understanding of the pathophysiologica1 mechanisms involved. In this study, we present a quantitative analysis

  2. A Comparative Study of Learning Organisation Practices of Indian Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sonali; Neelam, Netra; Behl, Abhishek; Acharya, Sabyasachi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we compared the learning organisation practices of Indian Businesses across sectors. Methodology: The study is based on a sample of 406 managers of banking, information technology and information technology enabled services (IT/ITES), manufacturing, hotel & hospitality and hospital and healthcare sectors. Learning…

  3. Political Ideology: A Comparative Study of Three Chicano Youth Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard A.

    The study investigated the political ideology of three Chicano youth groups in El Paso, Texas: Mexican American Youth Association (MAYA), Mexican American Political Association (MAPA), and the Alianza. Purpose of the study was to identify and compare the political ideas and attitudes of the three organizations. Questionnaires were administered to…

  4. Sustainability of Social Programs: A Comparative Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaya, Riki; Spiro, Shimon; Elran-Barak, Roni

    2008-01-01

    The article reports on the findings of a comparative case study of six projects that operated in Israel between 1980 and 2000. The study findings identify characteristics of the programs, the host organizations, and the social and political environment, which differentiated programs that are sustained from those that are not. The findings reaffirm…

  5. An interactive web tool for facilitating shared decision-making in dementia-care networks: a field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke eSpan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAn interactive web tool has been developed for facilitating shared decision-making in dementia-care networks. The DecideGuide provides a chat function for easier communication between network members, a deciding together function for step-by-step decision-making, and an individual opinion function for eight dementia-related life domains. The aim of this study was to gain insight in the user friendliness of the DecideGuide, user acceptance and satisfaction, and participants’ opinion of the DecideGuide for making decisions.Materials and methodsA 5-month field study included four dementia-care networks (19 participants in total. The data derived from structured interviews, observations, and information that participants logged in the DecideGuide. Structured interviews took place at the start, middle, and end of the field study with people with dementia, informal caregivers, and case managers. Results1. The user friendliness of the chat and individual opinion functions was adequate for case managers and most informal caregivers. Older participants, with or without dementia, had some difficulties using a tablet and the DecideGuide. The deciding together function does not yet provide adequate instructions for all. The user interface needs simplification. 2. User acceptance and satisfaction: everybody liked the chat’s easy communication, handling difficult issues for discussion, and the option of individual opinions. 3. The DecideGuide helped participants structure their thoughts. They felt more involved and shared more information about daily issues than before. ConclusionParticipants found the DecideGuide valuable in decision-making. The chat function seems powerful in helping members engage with one another constructively. Such engagement is a prerequisite for making shared decisions. Regardless of participants’ use of the tool, they saw the DecideGuide's added value.

  6. Phred-Phrap package to analyses tools: a pipeline to facilitate population genetics re-sequencing studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Moara

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted re-sequencing is one of the most powerful and widely used strategies for population genetics studies because it allows an unbiased screening for variation that is suitable for a wide variety of organisms. Examples of studies that require re-sequencing data are evolutionary inferences, epidemiological studies designed to capture rare polymorphisms responsible for complex traits and screenings for mutations in families and small populations with high incidences of specific genetic diseases. Despite the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies, Sanger sequencing is still the most popular approach in population genetics studies because of the widespread availability of automatic sequencers based on capillary electrophoresis and because it is still less prone to sequencing errors, which is critical in population genetics studies. Two popular software applications for re-sequencing studies are Phred-Phrap-Consed-Polyphred, which performs base calling, alignment, graphical edition and genotype calling and DNAsp, which performs a set of population genetics analyses. These independent tools are the start and end points of basic analyses. In between the use of these tools, there is a set of basic but error-prone tasks to be performed with re-sequencing data. Results In order to assist with these intermediate tasks, we developed a pipeline that facilitates data handling typical of re-sequencing studies. Our pipeline: (1 consolidates different outputs produced by distinct Phred-Phrap-Consed contigs sharing a reference sequence; (2 checks for genotyping inconsistencies; (3 reformats genotyping data produced by Polyphred into a matrix of genotypes with individuals as rows and segregating sites as columns; (4 prepares input files for haplotype inferences using the popular software PHASE; and (5 handles PHASE output files that contain only polymorphic sites to reconstruct the inferred haplotypes including polymorphic and

  7. Comparative study of experimental signals for multipactor and breakdown.

    CERN Document Server

    Dehler, Micha; Wuensch, Walter; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Gimeno Martinez, Benito; Kovermann, Jan; Boria, Vicente; Raboso, David

    2012-01-01

    Performance limiting high-power rf phenomenon occur in both transmitter systems in satellites and high-gradient accelerating structures in particle accelerators. In satellites the predominant effect is multipactor while in accelerators it is breakdown. Both communities have studied their respective phenomena extensively and developed particular simulation tools and experimental techniques. A series of experiments to directly compare measurements made under multipactor and breakdown conditions has been initiated with the objective to crosscheck and compare the physics, simulation tools and measurement techniques.

  8. Comparative Studies of Programming Languages; Course Lecture Notes

    CERN Document Server

    Paquet, Joey

    2010-01-01

    Lecture notes for the Comparative Studies of Programming Languages course, COMP6411, taught at the Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada. These notes include a compiled book of primarily related articles from the Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, as well as Comparative Programming Languages book and other resources, including our own. The original notes were compiled by Dr. Paquet.

  9. Perceived Barriers to and Facilitators of Physical Activity in Recipients of Solid Organ Transplantation, a Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Zande, Saskia C.; Dekker, Rienk; Verschuuren, Erik A. M.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sufficient physical activity is important for solid organ transplant recipients (heart, lung, liver, kidney). However, recipients do not meet the recommended amount or required type of physical activity. The perceived barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in this population are largely unknown. Methods Semi-structured in depth interviews were conducted with solid organ transplant recipients in order to explore experienced barriers and facilitators. Qualitative methodology with thematic line-by-line analysis was used for analysis, and derived themes were classified into personal and environmental factors. Results The most important indicated barriers were physical limitations, insufficient energy level, fear, and comorbidities. The most frequently mentioned facilitators included motivation, coping, consequences of (in)activity, routine/habit, goals/goal priority, and responsibility for the transplanted organ. Neutral factors acting as a barrier or facilitator were self-efficacy and expertise of personnel. A comparison of barriers and facilitators between transplant recipient groups yielded no overt differences. Conclusion Several personal and environmental factors were indicated that should be considered in intervention development to increase physical activity behavior in solid organ transplant recipients. PMID:27622291

  10. A Randomized Trial Comparing Classical Participatory Design to VandAID, an Interactive CrowdSourcing Platform to Facilitate User-Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufendach, Kevin R; Koch, Sabine; Unertl, Kim M; Lehmann, Christoph U

    2017-04-28

    Early involvement of stakeholders in the design of medical software is particularly important due to the need to incorporate complex knowledge and actions associated with clinical work. Standard user-centered design methods include focus groups and participatory design sessions with individual stakeholders, which generally limit user involvement to a small number of individuals due to the significant time investments from designers and end users. The goal of this project was to reduce the effort for end users to participate in co-design of a software user interface by developing an interactive web-based crowdsourcing platform. In a randomized trial, we compared a new web-based crowdsourcing platform to standard participatory design sessions. We developed an interactive, modular platform that allows responsive remote customization and design feedback on a visual user interface based on user preferences. The responsive canvas is a dynamic HTML template that responds in real time to user preference selections. Upon completion, the design team can view the user's interface creations through an administrator portal and download the structured selections through a REDCap interface. We have created a software platform that allows users to customize a user interface and see the results of that customization in real time, receiving immediate feedback on the impact of their design choices. Neonatal clinicians used the new platform to successfully design and customize a neonatal handoff tool. They received no specific instruction and yet were able to use the software easily and reported high usability. VandAID, a new web-based crowdsourcing platform, can involve multiple users in user-centered design simultaneously and provides means of obtaining design feedback remotely. The software can provide design feedback at any stage in the design process, but it will be of greatest utility for specifying user requirements and evaluating iterative designs with multiple options.

  11. Comparing distance education and conventional education: observations from a comparative study of post-registration nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Duffy

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study presents a comparison of assessment results achieved by distancelearning students and classroom-based students undertaking the same module in a degree course. The purpose of the comparison is to provide some objective measurement of the quality of distance education in relation to conventional classroom-based education. The authors have selected three groups of students, who have all undertaken the same module in the B. Sc Health Studies degree programme offered by the University of Paisley. One group (in Paisley undertook their studies by means of conventional classroom-based education, the second (in Hong Kong by supported distance learning with face-to-face contact in the form of tutorials, and the third (in a geographically dispersed group in the United Kingdom and other countries by supported distance learning with no face-to-face contact. The results obtained by these three groups of students were analysed. Because of the differences in the size of the groups, the Kruskal- Wallis 1- Way Anova test was applied to validate the face value findings. The authors include findings from the literature comparing distance education with conventional education and from cross-cultural studies to present their data in context. Analysis of the assessment results showed that students from all three groups were successful in their studies, but the students studying by distance learning obtained significantly higher end-of-module results than their classroom-based colleagues. This latter finding reflects the conclusion that other investigators have reached In their discussion the authors identify educational, cultural and personal factors that may help to explain their findings. A limitation in the study is that it concerns only one module in the degree programme. The research now moves on to comparing students who have undertaken the whole degree programme by the means described

  12. Developing and user-testing Decision boxes to facilitate shared decision making in primary care - a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseau François

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applying evidence is one of the most challenging steps of evidence-based clinical practice. Healthcare professionals have difficulty interpreting evidence and translating it to patients. Decision boxes are summaries of the most important benefits and harms of diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive health interventions provided to healthcare professionals before they meet the patient. Our hypothesis is that Decision boxes will prepare clinicians to help patients make informed value-based decisions. By acting as primers, the boxes will enhance the application of evidence-based practices and increase shared decision making during the clinical encounter. The objectives of this study are to provide a framework for developing Decision boxes and testing their value to users. Methods/Design We will begin by developing Decision box prototypes for 10 clinical conditions or topics based on a review of the research on risk communication. We will present two prototypes to purposeful samples of 16 family physicians distributed in two focus groups, and 32 patients distributed in four focus groups. We will use the User Experience Model framework to explore users' perceptions of the content and format of each prototype. All discussions will be transcribed, and two researchers will independently perform a hybrid deductive/inductive thematic qualitative analysis of the data. The coding scheme will be developed a priori from the User Experience Model's seven themes (valuable, usable, credible, useful, desirable, accessible and findable, and will include new themes suggested by the data (inductive analysis. Key findings will be triangulated using additional publications on the design of tools to improve risk communication. All 10 Decision boxes will be modified in light of our findings. Discussion This study will produce a robust framework for developing and testing Decision boxes that will serve healthcare professionals and patients alike. It

  13. Promotoras Can Facilitate Use of Recreational Community Resources: The Mi Corazón Mi Comunidad Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcázar, Héctor G; de Heer, Hendrik D; Wise Thomas, Sherrie; Redelfs, Alisha; Rosenthal, E Lee; Burgos, Ximena; Duarte, Maria O

    2016-05-01

    Limited research has documented interventions aimed at promoting use of existing recreational community resources among underserved populations. This study (HEART [Health Education Awareness Research Team] Phase 2) reports findings of an intervention (Mi Corazón Mi Comunidad) where community health workers facilitated use of diet and exercise programming at local recreational facilities among Mexican American border residents. The aim was to evaluate overall attendance rates and to assess which factors predicted higher attendance. The design was a cohort study. From 2009 to 2013, a total of 753 participants were recruited across 5 consecutive cohorts. The intervention consisted of organized physical activity and nutrition programming at parks and recreational facilities and a free YWCA membership. Attendance at all activities was objectively recorded. Regression analyses were used to evaluate whether demographic factors, health status, and health beliefs were associated with attendance. Results Participants included mostly females at high risk for cardiovascular disease (72.4% were overweight/obese and 64% were [pre-]hypertensive). A total of 83.6% of participants attended at least one session. On average, total attendance was 21.6 sessions (range: 19.1-25.2 sessions between the different cohorts), including 16.4 physical activity and 5.2 nutrition sessions. Females (p = .003) and older participants (p < .001) attended more sessions. Participants low in acculturation (vs. high) attended on average seven more sessions (p = .003). Greater self-efficacy (p < .001), perceived benefits (p = .038), and healthy intentions (p = .024) were associated with higher attendance. Conclusions The intervention was successful in promoting use of recreational facilities among border residents at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Findings were similar across five different cohorts. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  14. [Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of computerized decision support systems in Italian hospitals: a grounded theory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberati, Elisa Giulia; Galuppo, Laura; Gorli, Mara; Maraldi, Marco; Ruggiero, Francesca; Capobussi, Matteo; Banzi, Rita; Kwag, Koren; Scaratti, Giuseppe; Nanni, Oriana; Ruggieri, Pietro; Polo Friz, Hernan; Cimminiello, Claudio; Bosio, Marco; Mangia, Massimo; Moja, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    Computerized Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) connect health care professionals with high-quality, evidence-based information at the point-of-care to guide clinical decision-making. Current research shows the potential of CDSSs to improve the efficiency and quality of patient care. The mere provision of the technology, however, does not guarantee its uptake. This qualitative study aims to explore the barriers and facilitators to the use of CDSSs as identified by health providers. The study was performed in three Italian hospitals, each characterized by a different level of familiarity with the CDSS technology. We interviewed frontline physicians, nurses, information technology staff, and members of the hospital board of directors (n=24). A grounded theory approach informed our sampling criteria as well as the data collection and analysis. The adoption of CDSSs by health care professionals can be represented as a process that consists of six "positionings," each corresponding to an individual's use and perceived mastery of the technology. In conditions of low mastery, the CDSS is perceived as an object of threat, an unfamiliar tool that is difficult to control. On the other hand, individuals in conditions of high mastery view the CDSS as a helpful tool that can be locally adapted and integrated with clinicians' competences to fulfil their needs. In the first positionings, the uptake of CDSSs is hindered by representational obstacles. The last positionings, alternatively, featured technical obstacles to CDSS uptake. Our model of CDSS adoption can guide hospital administrators interested in the future integration of CDSSs to evaluate their organizational contexts, identify potential challenges to the implementation of the technology, and develop an effective strategy to address them. Our findings also allow reflections concerning the misalignment between most Italian hospitals and the current innovation trends toward the uptake of computerized decision support

  15. African-American and Caribbean-Born Men's Perceptions of Prostate Cancer Fear and Facilitators for Screening Behavior: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobran, Ewan K; Hall, Jori N; Aiken, William D

    2017-01-16

    This study describes how a concurrent exploratory mixed methodology (CEMM) approach was used to investigate perceptions of prostate cancer (CaP) fear and facilitators of screening behavior in African-American (AA) and Caribbean-born (CB) black men for instrument development. A quantitative paper-based questionnaire was modified, adapted, and administered to participants from the Personal Integrative Model of Prostate Cancer Disparity Survey and the Powe Fatalism Inventory. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted and analyzed using thematic analysis. Of the 31 participants, 17 (55%) were CB black men and 14 (45%) were AA men. CB black men reported significantly higher mean perception of CaP treatment scores compared to AA men (8.23 versus 6.14, p < 0.05). Overall, the focus group and interview data revealed highly interrelated key themes. These themes included perceived barriers to CaP screening (e.g., health-care affordability), misconceptions about CaP (e.g., limited knowledge), and misinformation about CaP (e.g., conflicting CaP screening information from health-care providers). Feeling responsible to make sure family members were taken care of and the role of a significant other were reported as motivation for visiting the doctor. As a result of the CEMM design, a reliable survey instrument was developed to measure CaP fear and facilitators for screening behavior within subpopulations of AA men, which is important because despite their shared genetic ancestry, AA and CB black males may have very different lifestyles.

  16. Goal conflict, goal facilitation, and health professionals' provision of physical activity advice in primary care: An exploratory prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Neil C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The theory of planned behaviour has well-evidenced utility in predicting health professional behaviour, but focuses on a single behaviour isolated from the numerous potentially conflicting and facilitating goal-directed behaviours performed alongside. Goal conflict and goal facilitation may influence whether health professionals engage in guideline-recommended behaviours, and may supplement the predictive power of the theory of planned behaviour. We hypothesised that goal facilitation and goal conflict contribute to predicting primary care health professionals' provision of physical activity advice to patients with hypertension, over and above predictors of behaviour from the theory of planned behaviour. Methods Using a prospective predictive design, at baseline we invited a random sample of 606 primary care health professionals from all primary care practices in NHS Grampian and NHS Tayside (Scotland to complete postal questionnaires. Goal facilitation and goal conflict were measured alongside theory of planned behaviour constructs at baseline. At follow-up six months later, participants self-reported the number of patients, out of those seen in the preceding two weeks, to whom they provided physical activity advice. Results Forty-four primary care physicians and nurses completed measures at both time points (7.3% response rate. Goal facilitation and goal conflict improved the prediction of behaviour, accounting for substantial additional variance (5.8% and 8.4%, respectively in behaviour over and above intention and perceived behavioural control. Conclusions Health professionals' provision of physical activity advice in primary care can be predicted by perceptions about how their conflicting and facilitating goal-directed behaviours help and hinder giving advice, over and above theory of planned behaviour constructs. Incorporating features of multiple goal pursuit into the theory of planned behaviour may help to better

  17. Factors that facilitate or inhibit interest of domestic students in the engineering PhD: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell Smith, Michelle C.

    Given the increasing complexity of technology in our society, the United States has a growing demand for a more highly educated technical workforce. Unfortunately, the proportion of United States citizens earning a PhD in engineering has been declining and there is concern about meeting the economic, national security and quality of life needs of our country. This mixed methods sequential exploratory instrument design study identified factors that facilitate or inhibit interest in engineering PhD programs among domestic engineering undergraduate students in the United States. This study developed a testable theory for how domestic students become interested in engineering PhD programs and a measure of that process, the Exploring Engineering Interest Inventory (EEII). The study was conducted in four phases. The first phase of the study was a qualitative grounded theory exploration of interest in the engineering PhD. Qualitative data were collected from domestic engineering students, engineering faculty and industry professional who had earned a PhD in engineering. The second phase, instrument development, developed the Exploring Engineering Interest Inventory (EEII), a measurement instrument designed with good psychometric properties to test a series of preliminary hypotheses related to the theory generated in the qualitative phase. In the third phase of the study, the EEII was used to collect data from a larger sample of junior and senior engineering majors. The fourth phase integrated the findings from the qualitative and quantitative phases. Four factors were identified as being significant influences of interest in the engineering PhD: Personal characteristics, educational environment, misperceptions of the economic and personal costs, and misperceptions of engineering work. Recommendations include increasing faculty encouragement of students to pursue an engineering PhD and programming to correct the misperceptions of the costs of the engineering PhD and the

  18. A pilot study of omalizumab to facilitate rapid oral desensitization in high-risk peanut-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lynda C; Rachid, Rima; LeBovidge, Jennifer; Blood, Emily; Mittal, Mudita; Umetsu, Dale T

    2013-12-01

    Peanut allergy is a major public health problem that affects 1% of the population and has no effective therapy. To examine the safety and efficacy of oral desensitization in peanut-allergic children in combination with a brief course of anti-IgE mAb (omalizumab [Xolair]). We performed oral peanut desensitization in peanut-allergic children at high risk for developing significant peanut-induced allergic reactions. Omalizumab was administered before and during oral peanut desensitization. We enrolled 13 children (median age, 10 years), with a median peanut-specific IgE level of 229 kU(A)/L and a median total serum IgE level of 621 kU/L, who failed an initial double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge at peanut flour doses of 100 mg or less. After pretreatment with omalizumab, all 13 subjects tolerated the initial 11 desensitization doses given on the first day, including the maximum dose of 500 mg peanut flour (cumulative dose, 992 mg, equivalent to >2 peanuts), requiring minimal or no rescue therapy. Twelve subjects then reached the maximum maintenance dose of 4000 mg peanut flour per day in a median time of 8 weeks, at which point omalizumab was discontinued. All 12 subjects continued on 4000 mg peanut flour per day and subsequently tolerated a challenge with 8000 mg peanut flour (equivalent to about 20 peanuts), or 160 to 400 times the dose tolerated before desensitization. During the study, 6 of the 13 subjects experienced mild or no allergic reactions, 5 subjects had grade 2 reactions, and 2 subjects had grade 3 reactions, all of which responded rapidly to treatment. Among children with high-risk peanut allergy, treatment with omalizumab may facilitate rapid oral desensitization and qualitatively improve the desensitization process. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A pilot study of omalizumab to facilitate rapid oral desensitization in high-risk peanut allergic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lynda C.; Rachid, Rima; LeBovidge, Jennifer; Blood, Emily; Mittal, Mudita; Umetsu, Dale T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is a major public health problem that affects 1% of the population and has no effective therapy. Objective To examine the safety and efficacy of oraldesensitization in peanut allergic children in combination with a brief course of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab, Xolair). Methods We performed oral peanut desensitization in peanut allergic children at high risk for developing significant peanut-induced allergic reactions. Omalizumab was administered prior to and during oral peanut desensitization. Results We enrolled 13 children (median age, 10 years), with a median peanut-specific IgE of 229 kUA/L and a median total serum IgE of 621 kU/L, who failed an initial double-blind placebo controlled food challenge at doses 100 mg peanut flour. After pre-treatment with omalizumab, all subjects tolerated the initial 11 desensitization doses given on the first day, including the maximum dose of 500 mg peanut flour (cumulative dose, 992 mg, equivalent to >2 peanuts), requiring minimal or no rescue therapy. 12 subjects then reached the maximum maintenance dose of 4,000 mg peanut flour/day in a median time of 8 weeks, at which point omalizumab was discontinued. All 12 subjects continued on 4,000 mg peanut flour/day and subsequently tolerated a challenge with 8,000 mg peanut flour (equivalent to about 20 peanuts), or 160 to 400 times the dose tolerated before desensitization. During the study, 6 of the 13 subjects experienced mild or no allergic reactions; 6 subjects had Grade 2, and 2 subjects Grade 3 reactions, all of which responded rapidly to treatment. Conclusions Among children with high-risk peanut allergy, treatment with omalizumab may facilitate rapid oral desensitization, and qualitativelyimprove the desensitization process. PMID:24176117

  20. Singing can facilitate foreign language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases.

  1. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained thoroughly, policies on plagiarism are informed to all university academic members, and there are mechanisms to manage cases related to plagiarism. In contrast, not all Indonesian universities treat plagiarism directly. Some universities depend on religious morality and academic ethics in dealing with plagiarism. Accordingly, this article recommends the explicit treatment of plagiarism in Indonesian universities.

  2. Comparative study on direct burning of oil shale and coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Ahmad; Al Asfar, Jamil

    2017-07-01

    A comparative study of the direct burning processes of oil shale and coal in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) was done in this study using ANSYS Fluent software to solve numerically the governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy and mass diffusion using finite volume method. The model was built based on an existing experimental combustion burner unit. The model was validated by comparing the theoretical results of oil shale with proved experimental results from the combustion unit. It was found that the temperature contours of the combustion process showed that the adiabatic flame temperature was 1080 K for oil shale compared with 2260 K for coal, while the obtained experimental results of temperatures at various locations of burner during the direct burning of oil shale showed that the maximum temperature reached 962 K for oil shale. These results were used in economic and environmental analysis which show that oil shale may be used as alternative fuel for coal in cement industry in Jordan.

  3. Living on Both Sides of the Fence: A Phenomenological Study of Human Resource Development Professionals as Downsizing Survivors and Strategic Human Resource Development Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackoney, Claire Kostopulos

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored how HR professionals who identified themselves as facilitators of strategic HRD (SHRD) perceived the experience of being an organizational agent-downsizing survivor. Criterion and snowball sampling were used to recruit 15 participants for this study. A semi-structured interview guide was used to interview…

  4. Magnetic resonance arthrography in recurrent anterior shoulder instability as compared to arthroscopy: a prospective comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar H

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR arthrographic imaging in the diagnosis of glenoid labral and ligament tears in recurrent shoulder instability. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective, comparative study at a tertiary care centre. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with three or more episodes of anterior shoulder dislocation were enrolled in the study. They were subjected to magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA for delineation of abnormalities. The findings obtained at MRA were compared with those found at arthroscopy and surgical exploration. RESULTS: MRA detected glenoid tears in all 22 patients with 20 (90% patients having antero-inferior tears, 3 (14% patients had superior labral involvement and 2 (10% patients had posterior labral abnormality. On arthroscopy, antero-inferior, superior and posterior labral tear were found in 21 (95%, 5 (22% and 7 (32% patients respectively. MRA showed a sensitivity of 95%, and a specificity of 100% for the detection of the antero-inferior labral tears. The sensitivity of MRA for the detection of superior, middle and inferior glenohumeral ligament tear was 83%, 80% and 86% with a specificity of 100%, 71% and 93% respectively. MRA was 100% sensitive for the detection of rotator cuff injuries and detection of bony lesions like Hill-Sach′s and bony Bankart′s lesion. CONCLUSIONS: MRA is a sensitive and specific modality for evaluation of anterior shoulder instability.

  5. A Review of Different Comparative Studies on Mobile Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to discuss the different comparative studies on mobile operating system. From the last few years with the use of mobile, the mobile technology is also increasing at a fast speed. Now a day's different mobile phone companies are competing in the market each having its own hardware and software. Each company mobile phone has its own interface and they are looking to provide new features to their customers. Each company use different operating system like Apple using iOS, Samsung using Android and Nokia using Symbian. In this study we will give, you review of different comparative studies on mobile operating systems done by different authors.

  6. Rodents for comparative aging studies: from mice to beavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Vera; Bozzella, Michael J; Seluanov, Andrei

    2008-09-01

    After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal is to further extend the already long human lifespan, studying fast aging species may not provide all the answers. Remarkably, in addition to the fast-aging species, the order Rodentia contains multiple long-lived species with lifespans exceeding 20 years (naked mole-rat, beavers, porcupines, and some squirrels). This diversity opens great opportunities for comparative aging studies. Here we discuss the evolution of lifespan in rodents, review the biology of slow-aging rodents, and show an example of how the use of a comparative approach revealed that telomerase activity coevolved with body mass in rodents.

  7. A framework to facilitate self-directed learning, assessment and supervision in midwifery practice: A qualitative study of supervisors' perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embo, M.; Driessen, E.; Valcke, M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-directed learning is an educational concept that has received increasing attention. The recent workplace literature, however, reports problems with the facilitation of self-directed learning in clinical practice. We developed the Midwifery Assessment and Feedback Instrument (MAFI) a

  8. An Interactive Web Tool for Facilitating Shared Decision-Making in Dementia-Care Networks: A Field Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Span, M.; Smits, C.; Jukema, J.; Groen-van de Ven, L.M.; Janssen, R.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.; Eefsting, J.; Hettinga, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An interactive web tool has been developed for facilitating shared decision-making in dementia-care networks. The DecideGuide provides a chat function for easier communication between network members, a deciding together function for step-by-step decision-making, and an individual opinio

  9. Gay Rights and School Policy: A Case Study in Community Factors that Facilitate or Impede Educational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgillivray, Ian K.

    2004-01-01

    This article highlights factors that either facilitated or hampered the work of a local Safe Schools Coalition in advocating adoption and implementation of their school district's policies that include sexual orientation. Non-discrimination policies that include sexual orientation and gender identity are needed to help stop anti-gay peer abuse…

  10. An Interactive Web Tool for Facilitating Shared Decision-Making in Dementia-Care Networks: A Field Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Span, M.; Smits, C.; Jukema, J.; Groen-van de Ven, L.M.; Janssen, R.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.; Eefsting, J.; Hettinga, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An interactive web tool has been developed for facilitating shared decision-making in dementia-care networks. The DecideGuide provides a chat function for easier communication between network members, a deciding together function for step-by-step decision-making, and an individual

  11. Barriers to and facilitators of postpartum follow-up care in women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Wendy L; Ennen, Christopher S; Carrese, Joseph A; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Levine, David M; Nicholson, Wanda K; Clark, Jeanne M

    2011-02-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) but often do not return for follow-up care. We explored barriers to and facilitators of postpartum follow-up care in women with recent GDM. We conducted 22 semistructured interviews, 13 in person and 9 by telephone, that were audiotaped and transcribed. Two investigators independently coded transcripts. We identified categories of themes and subthemes. Atlas.ti qualitative software (Berlin, Germany) was used to assist data analysis and management. Mean age was 31.5 years (standard deviation) [SD] 4.5), 63% were nonwhite, mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.9 kg/m(2) (SD 6.2), and 82% attended a postpartum visit. We identified four general themes that illustrated barriers and six that illustrated facilitators to postpartum follow-up care. Feelings of emotional stress due to adjusting to a new baby and the fear of receiving a diabetes diagnosis at the visit were identified as key barriers; child care availability and desire for a checkup were among the key facilitators to care. Women with recent GDM report multiple barriers and facilitators of postpartum follow-up care. Our results will inform the development of interventions to improve care for these women to reduce subsequent diabetes risk.

  12. A framework to facilitate self-directed learning, assessment and supervision in midwifery practice: A qualitative study of supervisors' perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embo, M.; Driessen, E.; Valcke, M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-directed learning is an educational concept that has received increasing attention. The recent workplace literature, however, reports problems with the facilitation of self-directed learning in clinical practice. We developed the Midwifery Assessment and Feedback Instrument (MAFI) a

  13. Sources for comparative studies of placentation I. Embryological collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2008-01-01

    A rich source of material for comparative studies of the placenta is the collections made by pioneers in the field such as H.W. Mossman, A.A.W. Hubrecht and J.P. Hill. This overview gives a brief description of collections known to be available and information on how each can be accessed. Included...

  14. Comparative studies in Chelicerata IV. Apatellata, Arachnida, Scorpionida, Xiphosura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1986-01-01

    A comparative study is made of four chelicerate classes: Apatellata (Solifugae and Pseudoscorpionida), Arachnida s. str. (both groups of Uropygi, i.e. Holopeltida and Schizomida, Amblypygi and Araneida), Scorpionida and Xiphosura. Methods, principles and terminology, adopted in this paper, correspon

  15. Generation 1.5 Written Error Patterns: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Stephen M.; Miller, Donald

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to contribute to existing research on Generation 1.5 students, the current study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to compare error patterns in a corpus of Generation 1.5, L1, and L2 community college student writing. This error analysis provides one important way to determine if error patterns in Generation 1.5 student…

  16. The Social Sciences and the Comparative Study of Educational Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Joseph, Ed.

    Aiming at the comprehension of schools as social, political, economic, and cultural systems, this book suggests that education does not constitute a separate academic discipline but is dependent upon the social sciences for its elucidation and for its comparative study. The book emphasizes interdisciplinary approaches within four social sciences…

  17. Usability problem reports for comparative studies: consistency and inspectability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Attema, J.; Akar, E.; De Ridder, H.; Van Doorn, A.J.; Erburg, Ç.; Berkman, A.E.; Maguire, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores issues of consistency and inspectability in usability test data analysis processes and reports. Problem reports resulting from usability tests performed by three professional usability labs in three different countries are compared. Each of the labs conducted a usability test on

  18. Pedestrian Path Prediction with Recursive Bayesian Filters: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, N.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of intelligent vehicles, we perform a comparative study on recursive Bayesian filters for pedestrian path prediction at short time horizons (< 2s). We consider Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) based on single dynamical models and Interacting Multiple Models (IMM) combining several such

  19. COMPARATIVE-STUDY OF 3 SEMIAUTOMATED SPECULAR MICROSCOPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LANDESZ, M; SIERTSEMA, JV; VANRIJ, G

    1995-01-01

    We compared two clinical video-assisted specular microscopes (Zeiss, noncontact, and the wide-field Keeler Konan sp 3300, contact) with an autofocus microscope (Konan noncon Robo-ca sp 8000, noncontact) with built-in analyzing software by studying the morphometry of the central corneal endothelium o

  20. A COMPARATIVE STUDY UNDER PROGRESSIVELY FIRST FAILURE CENSORED RAYLEIGH DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyan Prakash

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study presented in this article for two different asymmetric loss functions is based on simulation. Two-parameter Rayleigh model is considered here as the underline model for evaluating the properties of Bayes estimators under progressive first failure censored data. Known and unknown both cases of location parameter are considered here for Bayes estimation of scale parameter.

  1. Scandinavian Approaches to Gender Equality in Academia: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how Denmark, Norway, and Sweden approach issues of gender equality in research differently. Based on a comparative document analysis of gender equality activities in six Scandinavian universities, together with an examination of the legislative and political frameworks surrounding these activities, the article provides new…

  2. Homeless Adolescents' Perceptions of Positive Development: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Brooke Dolenc; Vuchinich, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: While some recent research has addressed homeless youth from a strengths-based approach, comparative studies of homeless and non-homeless youth from a strengths perspective are few; research that includes youth's views on positive youth development are also limited. Objective: Addressing these gaps and using an inductive approach,…

  3. Pedestrian Path Prediction with Recursive Bayesian Filters: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, N.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of intelligent vehicles, we perform a comparative study on recursive Bayesian filters for pedestrian path prediction at short time horizons (< 2s). We consider Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) based on single dynamical models and Interacting Multiple Models (IMM) combining several such b

  4. A comparative study of baseline algorithms of face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehmood, Zahid; Ali, Tauseef; Khattak, Shahid; Khan, Samee U.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a comparative study of two well-known face recognition algorithms. The contribution of this work is to reveal the robustness of each FR algorithm with respect to various factors, such as variation in pose and low resolution of the images used for recognition. This evaluation

  5. A Comparative Study of the Adjustment of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devika R.

    2014-01-01

    Education is the ability to meet one's life. How the child adjusts with varying situations determines the success of life. The child's adjustment is determined by a number of factors like Home, Social, Educational and Financial adjustment. The investigator here aims to make a comparative study on the adjustment of secondary school students. The…

  6. A Comparative Study of Two Acoustic Measures of Hypernasality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Adam P.; Ibrahim, Hasherah M.; Reilly, Sheena; Kilpatrick, Nicky

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare 2 quantitative acoustic measures of nasality in children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and healthy controls using formalized perceptual assessment as a guide. Method: Fifty participants (23 children with CLP and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls) aged between 4 and 12 years produced a variety of…

  7. Ergonomic intervention, workplace exercises and musculoskeletal complaints: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Heydari, Mohammad; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Taheri, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most prevalent occupational disorders in different jobs such as office work. Some interventions such as ergonomic modifications and workplace exercises are introduced as the methods for alleviating these disorders. In this study we compared the effect of ergonomic modifications and workplace exercises on musculoskeletal pain and discomfort in a group of office workers. Methods: In an interventional study on office workers, the effect of two ...

  8. Comparative Advantage: Theory, Empirical Measures And Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri WIDODO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of three main parts i.e. theory, analytical tool and case studies of comparative advantage. Firstly, we review the theory and various empirical measures of comparative advantage. We would argue that for the catching-up economies, like ASEAN countries, the meaning of “leading exported products” could be examined from the two points of view i.e. international competitiveness and country’s trade balance. Secondly, we combine two indexes of comparative advantage, i.e. Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage (RSCA index by Dalum et al. (1998 and Laursen (1998, and Trade Balance Index (TBI by Lafay (1992, which represent well the two points of view, to propose an analytical tool, namely “products mapping”. Thirdly, this analytical tool is applied to analyze exported products (defined as 3-digit SITC Revision 2 of the ASEAN countries. This paper concludes that in the cases of ASEAN countries, the higher the comparative advantage for a specific product, the higher the possibility of the country as a net-exporter becomes. This finding strongly supports the theory of comparative advantage.

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON POVIDONE-IODINE OINTMENT AND GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mangilal*, K. S. K. Rao Patnaik , R. Sivakumar , Y. Sudhakar and S. K. Basu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Povidone-Iodine Ointment was prepared using polyethylene glycol base by fusion method and the gel was prepared using Poloxamer 407 as a gelling agent by cold process. The different characteristics of povidone-iodine ointment and gel were compared from the results obtained for assay and total, available and complex iodine contents. These values were comparable with marketed formulations. The formulations were tested for wound healing and antimicrobial activity. Wound healing studies show that the time taken for complete wound healing was slightly less for prepared povidone-iodine ointment and gel than the marketed preparations. Antimicrobial activity also found to be almost equal for the different formulations.

  10. Comparative Study of Mutual Exclusion Algorithms in Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijnasa Patil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutual Exclusion is an important phenomenon in distributed systems. In this paper, we analyze and compare various mutual exclusion algorithms in distributed systems. In permission based mutual exclusion process waits for permission from other processes to enter into a critical section. In token based mutual exclusion, a special message called token is passed over the system and process holding the token can enter into the critical section. We present a comparative study of quorum based, token ring token asking and multiple token algorithms for mutual exclusion in distributed systems.

  11. A Comparative Study of Two Chinese Versions of Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Mei; CHENG Jing

    2016-01-01

    Animal Farm succeeds in establishing George Orwell’s position as a master in literature with its profound moral and hidden but killing sarcasms. And it has been translated into many languages around the world, arousing heated response. So far, there are seventeen versions in China. However, the academic studies focus on the significance of its literary value and political aspects, paying little attention to the systemic study of its translations. The thesis chooses the versions of Rong Rude and Fu Wei-ci and compares them from lexical, syntactical and discourse aspects. Through the comparative study, the author finds out that the two translators apply different translation strategies. Rong tends to adopt foreignization strategy, while Fu is inclined to ap-ply domestication strategy.

  12. Establishing oral health promoting behaviours in children - parents' views on barriers, facilitators and professional support: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijster, Denise; de Jong-Lenters, Maddelon; Verrips, Erik; van Loveren, Cor

    2015-12-10

    The prevention of childhood dental caries relies on adherence to key behaviours, including twice daily tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste and reducing the consumption of sugary foods and drinks. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore parents' perceptions of barriers and facilitators that influence these oral health behaviours in children. A further objective was to explore parents' views on limitations and opportunities for professional support to promote children's oral health. Six focus group interviews were conducted, including a total of 39 parents of 7-year old children, who were recruited from paediatric dental centres in The Netherlands. Interviews were held with Dutch parents of low and high socioeconomic status and parents from Turkish and Moroccan origin. Focus group interviews were conducted on the basis of a pre-tested semi-structured interview guide and topic list. Content analysis was employed to analyse the data. Analysis of interview transcripts identified many influences on children's oral health behaviours, operating at child, family and community levels. Perceived influences on children's tooth brushing behaviour were primarily located within the direct family environment, including parental knowledge, perceived importance and parental confidence in tooth brushing, locus of control, role modelling, parental monitoring and supervision, parenting strategies and tooth brushing routines and habituation. The consumption of sugary foods and drinks was influenced by both the direct family environment and factors external to the family, including the school, the social environment, commercials and television, supermarkets and affordability of foods. Parents raised several suggestions for professional oral health support, which included the provision of clear and consistent oral health information using a positive approach, dietary regulations at school and a multidisciplinary approach among dental professionals, child health centres and

  13. Comparative study of three methods of esophageal anastomosis in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Abd Al-Maseeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to compare three methods of esophageal anastomosis. Twenty four healthy adult dogs were used in this study. The animals were divided into three groups; each one consisted of 8 animals. In group 1; two layers were used to perform the esophageal anastomosis. The first layer represented simple interrupted suture to close the mucosa with knot inside the lumen, and the second layer represented horizontal mattress interrupted suture to close the other layers of esophagus. While in group 2; one layer of cross interrupted mattress suture was used to close all layers of esophageal wall, and in group 3; one layer of Schmieden's suture was used to close all layers of esophageal wall. The results of clinical, radiological and histopathological studies after 15 and 30 days of surgical operation revealed that most of the animals showed different degrees of difficulty concerning the moderate dysphagia and regurgitation. The radiological study showed significant difference of stenosis. The best results were recorded in the second group where the mean degree of stenosis was 7.69%, however the mean degree of stenosis was 42.80% in the first group, while the mean degree of stenosis in the third groups was 37.81%, through 30 days. The histopathological study of group 2 showed rapid healing of the site of anastomosis, lack of granulation tissue and consequently the less degree of stricture and other complications as compared with groups 1 and 3. The Schmieden's suture was characterized by its standard short time as compared with group 1 and 2, although accompanied by some complications. In conclusion this study revealed that the cross mattress suture used in the second group characterized by faster healing and minimal amount of fibrous tissue formation manifested by decrease in moderate degree of stenosis as compared with the two other suture patterns used in the first and third groups.

  14. First step to facilitate long-term and multi-centre studies of shear wave elastography in solid breast lesions using a computer-assisted algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerl, Katrin; Cochran, Sandy; Evans, Andrew

    2017-05-06

    Shear wave elastography (SWE) visualises the elasticity of tissue. As malignant tissue is generally stiffer than benign tissue, SWE is helpful to diagnose solid breast lesions. Until now, quantitative measurements of elasticity parameters have been possible only, while the images were still saved on the ultrasound imaging device. This work aims to overcome this issue and introduces an algorithm allowing fast offline evaluation of SWE images. The algorithm was applied to a commercial phantom comprising three lesions of various elasticities and 207 in vivo solid breast lesions. All images were saved in DICOM, JPG and QDE (quantitative data export; for research only) format and evaluated according to our clinical routine using a computer-aided diagnosis algorithm. The results were compared to the manual evaluation (experienced radiologist and trained engineer) regarding their numerical discrepancies and their diagnostic performance using ROC and ICC analysis. ICCs of the elasticity parameters in all formats were nearly perfect (0.861-0.990). AUC for all formats was nearly identical for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (0.863-0.888). The diagnostic performance of SD using DICOM or JPG estimations was lower than the manual or QDE estimation (AUC 0.673 vs. 0.844). The algorithm introduced in this study is suitable for the estimation of the elasticity parameters offline from the ultrasound system to include images taken at different times and sites. This facilitates the performance of long-term and multi-centre studies.

  15. A Comparative Study on Temporal Mobile Access Pattern Mining Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Fahmy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile users behavior patterns is one of the most critical issues that need to be explored in mobile agent systems. Recently the algorithms of discovering frequent mobile user’s behavior patterns have been studied extensively. Existing mining methods have proposed frequent mobile user's behavior patterns statistically based on requested services and location information. Therefore, other studies considered that the mobile user's dynamic behavior patterns are usually associated with temporal access patterns. In this paper, temporal mobile access pattern methods are studied and compared in terms of complexity and accuracy. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods will be summarized as well

  16. It pays to compare: an experimental study on computational estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Jon R; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2009-04-01

    Comparing and contrasting examples is a core cognitive process that supports learning in children and adults across a variety of topics. In this experimental study, we evaluated the benefits of supporting comparison in a classroom context for children learning about computational estimation. Fifth- and sixth-grade students (N=157) learned about estimation either by comparing alternative solution strategies or by reflecting on the strategies one at a time. At posttest and retention test, students who compared were more flexible problem solvers on a variety of measures. Comparison also supported greater conceptual knowledge, but only for students who already knew some estimation strategies. These findings indicate that comparison is an effective learning and instructional practice in a domain with multiple acceptable answers.

  17. A comparative study of flurbiprofen and piroxicam in osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra N

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available In this single-blind, multiple-dose study the efficacy and tolerability of flurbiprofen was compared with that of piroxicam in 60 adult patients suffering from osteoarthritis of the knee. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either flurbiprofen 100 mg twice daily or piroxicam 20 mg once daily for a period of four weeks. Clinical assessments w.r.t. pain, tenderness, stiffness, swelling and general activity of patient were carried out prior to initiation of trial therapy and thereafter at weekly intervals for four weeks. The findings were graded. Though significant improvements as compared to baseline data occurred in both the treatment groups, flurbiprofen was found to be superior to piroxicam in improving pain on movement and at rest (p < 0.05. The incidence of side effects was less in the group receiving flurbiprofen (6% compared to 47% observed with piroxicam.

  18. Early outcome of high energy Laser (Excimer) facilitated coronary angioplasty ON hARD and complex calcified and balloOn-resistant coronary lesions: LEONARDO Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosini, Vittorio; Sorropago, Giovanni; Laurenzano, Eugenio [Montevergine Clinic, Mercogliano (Italy); Golino, Luca, E-mail: lucagolino.jazz@alice.it [Montevergine Clinic, Mercogliano (Italy); Moriggia-Pelascini Hospital, Gravedona, Como (Italy); Casafina, Alfredo; Schiano, Vittorio [Montevergine Clinic, Mercogliano (Italy); Gabrielli, Gabriele [University Hospital Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona (Italy); Ettori, Federica; Chizzola, Giuliano [Spedali Civili University Hospital, Brescia (Italy); Bernardi, Guglielmo; Spedicato, Leonardo [University Hospital S. Maria Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Armigliato, Pietro [Istituto Italiano Ricerche Mediche, Verona (Italy); Spampanato, Carmine [Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine (TIGEM), Naples (Italy); Furegato, Martina [Istituto Italiano Ricerche Mediche, Verona (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Aim: An innovative xenon–chlorine (excimer) pulsed laser catheter (ELCA X80) has been recently used for the treatment of complex coronary lesions, as calcified stenosis, chronic total occlusions and non-compliant plaques. Such complex lesions are difficult to adequately treat with balloon angioplasty and/or intracoronary stenting. The aim of this study was to examine the acute outcome of this approach on a cohort of patients with coronary lesions. Methods and Results: Eighty patients with 100 lesions were enrolled through four centers, and excimer laser coronary angioplasty was performed on 96 lesions (96%). Safety and effectiveness data were compared between patients treated with standard laser therapy and those treated with increased laser therapy. Laser success was obtained in 90 lesions (93.7%), procedural success was reached in 88 lesions (91.7%), and clinical success in was obtained in 87 lesions (90.6%). There was no perforation, major side branch occlusion, spasm, no-reflow phenomenon, dissection nor acute vessel closure. Increased laser parameters were used successfully for 49 resistant lesions without complications. Conclusions: This study suggests that laser-facilitated coronary angioplasty is a simple, safe and effective device for the management of complex coronary lesions. Furthermore, higher laser energy levels delivered by this catheter improved the device performance without increasing complications. - Highlights: • We planned this multicenter study to examine the acute outcome of an innovative xenon–chlorine (excimer) pulsed laser catheter (ELCA X80) for treatment of complex coronary lesions. • We enrolled 80 patients with 100 lesions and performed excimer laser coronary angioplasty in 96 lesions (96%). • Laser success was obtained in 90 lesions (93.7%), procedural success was reached in 88 lesions (91.7%), and clinical success was obtained in 87 lesions (90.6%). • Increased laser parameters were used successfully for 49 resistant

  19. Recognition of Faces in Unconstrained Environments: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ruiz-del-Solar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to carry out a comparative study of face recognition methods that are suitable to work in unconstrained environments. The analyzed methods are selected by considering their performance in former comparative studies, in addition to be real-time, to require just one image per person, and to be fully online. In the study two local-matching methods, histograms of LBP features and Gabor Jet descriptors, one holistic method, generalized PCA, and two image-matching methods, SIFT-based and ERCF-based, are analyzed. The methods are compared using the FERET, LFW, UCHFaceHRI, and FRGC databases, which allows evaluating them in real-world conditions that include variations in scale, pose, lighting, focus, resolution, facial expression, accessories, makeup, occlusions, background and photographic quality. Main conclusions of this study are: there is a large dependence of the methods on the amount of face and background information that is included in the face's images, and the performance of all methods decreases largely with outdoor-illumination. The analyzed methods are robust to inaccurate alignment, face occlusions, and variations in expressions, to a large degree. LBP-based methods are an excellent election if we need real-time operation as well as high recognition rates.

  20. A simulation study comparing aberration detection algorithms for syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painter Ian

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The usefulness of syndromic surveillance for early outbreak detection depends in part on effective statistical aberration detection. However, few published studies have compared different detection algorithms on identical data. In the largest simulation study conducted to date, we compared the performance of six aberration detection algorithms on simulated outbreaks superimposed on authentic syndromic surveillance data. Methods We compared three control-chart-based statistics, two exponential weighted moving averages, and a generalized linear model. We simulated 310 unique outbreak signals, and added these to actual daily counts of four syndromes monitored by Public Health – Seattle and King County's syndromic surveillance system. We compared the sensitivity of the six algorithms at detecting these simulated outbreaks at a fixed alert rate of 0.01. Results Stratified by baseline or by outbreak distribution, duration, or size, the generalized linear model was more sensitive than the other algorithms and detected 54% (95% CI = 52%–56% of the simulated epidemics when run at an alert rate of 0.01. However, all of the algorithms had poor sensitivity, particularly for outbreaks that did not begin with a surge of cases. Conclusion When tested on county-level data aggregated across age groups, these algorithms often did not perform well in detecting signals other than large, rapid increases in case counts relative to baseline levels.

  1. Using Enabling Technologies to Facilitate the Comparison of Satellite Observations with the Model Forecasts for Hurricane Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Knosp, B.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Niamsuwan, N.; Johnson, M. P.; Shen, T. P. J.; Tanelli, S.; Turk, J.; Vu, Q. A.

    2014-12-01

    Due to their complexity and volume, the satellite data are underutilized in today's hurricane research and operations. To better utilize these data, we developed the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) - an Interactive Data Portal providing fusion between Near-Real-Time satellite observations and model forecasts to facilitate model evaluation and improvement. We have collected satellite observations and model forecasts in the Atlantic Basin and the East Pacific for the hurricane seasons since 2010 and supported the NASA Airborne Campaigns for Hurricane Study such as the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) in 2010 and the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) from 2012 to 2014. To enable the direct inter-comparisons of the satellite observations and the model forecasts, the TCIS was integrated with the NASA Earth Observing System Simulator Suite (NEOS3) to produce synthetic observations (e.g. simulated passive microwave brightness temperatures) from a number of operational hurricane forecast models (HWRF and GFS). An automated process was developed to trigger NEOS3 simulations via web services given the location and time of satellite observations, monitor the progress of the NEOS3 simulations, display the synthetic observation and ingest them into the TCIS database when they are done. In addition, three analysis tools, the joint PDF analysis of the brightness temperatures, ARCHER for finding the storm-center and the storm organization and the Wave Number Analysis tool for storm asymmetry and morphology analysis were integrated into TCIS to provide statistical and structural analysis on both observed and synthetic data. Interactive tools were built in the TCIS visualization system to allow the spatial and temporal selections of the datasets, the invocation of the tools with user specified parameters, and the display and the delivery of the results. In this presentation, we will describe the key enabling technologies behind the design of

  2. Low-Level Laser Therapy Facilitates Superficial Wound Healing in Humans: A Triple-Blind, Sham-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoda, Todd A.; Seegmiller, Jeff G.; David Baxter, G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been promoted for its beneficial effects on tissue healing and pain relief. However, according to the results of in vivo studies, the effectiveness of this modality varies. Our purpose was to assess the putative effects of LLLT on healing using an experimental wound model. Design and Setting: We used a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled design with 2 within-subjects factors (wound and time) and 1 between-subjects factor (group). Data were collected in the laboratory setting. Subjects: Twenty-two healthy subjects (age = 21 ± 1 years, height = 175.6 ± 9.8 cm, mass = 76.2 ± 14.2 kg). Measurements: Two standardized 1.27-cm2 abrasions were induced on the anterior forearm. After wound cleaning, standardized digital photos were recorded. Each subject then received LLLT (8 J/cm2; treatment time = 2 minutes, 5 seconds; pulse rate = 700 Hz) to 1 of the 2 randomly chosen wounds from either a laser or a sham 46-diode cluster head. Subjects reported back to the laboratory on days 2 to 10 to be photographed and receive LLLT and on day 20 to be photographed. Data were analyzed for wound contraction (area), color changes (chromatic red), and luminance. Results: A group × wound × time interaction was detected for area measurements. At days 6, 8, and 10, follow-up testing revealed that the laser group had smaller wounds than the sham group for both the treated and the untreated wounds (P < .05). No group × wound × time differences were detected for chromatic red or luminance. Conclusions: The LLLT resulted in enhanced healing as measured by wound contraction. The untreated wounds in subjects treated with LLLT contracted more than the wounds in the sham group, so LLLT may produce an indirect healing effect on surrounding tissues. These data indicate that LLLT is an effective modality to facilitate wound contraction of partial-thickness wounds. PMID:15496990

  3. Facilitated patient experience feedback can improve nursing care: a pilot study for a phase III cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Control and Feedback Plus = 8.28 ± 7.2 (p = 0.02)). Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence that facilitated patient feedback can improve patients’ experiences such that a full trial is justified. These findings suggest that merely informing nurses of patient survey results in writing does not stimulate improvements, even if results are disaggregated by ward, but the addition of ward meetings had an important and significant impact. PMID:23826970

  4. Comparative study of infrared wavefront sensing solutions for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantet, C.; Fusco, T.; Guerineau, N.; Derelle, S.; Robert, C.

    2016-07-01

    The development of new low-noise infrared detectors, such as RAPID (CEA LETI/Sofradir) or SAPHIRA (Selex), has given the possibility to consider infrared wavefront sensing at low ux. We propose here a comparative study of near infrared (J and H bands) wavefront sensing concepts for mid and high orders estimation on a 8m- class telescope, relying on three existing wavefront sensors: the Shack-Hartmann sensor, the pyramid sensor and the quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometer. We consider several conceptual designs using the RAPID camera, making a trade-off between background flux, optical thickness and compatibility with a compact cryostat integration. We then study their sensitivity to noise in order to compare them in different practical scenarios. The pyramid provides the best performance, with a gain up to 0.5 magnitude, and has an advantageous setup.

  5. A Comparative Study of Removal Noise from Remote Sensing Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Khamitkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to undertake the study of three types of noise such as Salt and Pepper (SPN, Random variation Impulse Noise (RVIN, Speckle (SPKN. Different noise densities have been removed between 10% to 60% by using five types of filters as Mean Filter (MF, Adaptive Wiener Filter (AWF, Gaussian Filter (GF, Standard Median Filter (SMF and Adaptive Median Filter (AMF. The same is applied to the Saturn remote sensing image and they are compared with one another. The comparative study is conducted with the help of Mean Square Errors (MSE and Peak-Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR. So as to choose the base method for removal of noise from remote sensing image.

  6. A Comparative Study of Removal Noise from Remote Sensing Image

    CERN Document Server

    Al-amri, Salem Saleh; Khamitkar, S D

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to undertake the study of three types of noise such as Salt and Pepper (SPN), Random variation Impulse Noise (RVIN), Speckle (SPKN). Different noise densities have been removed between 10% to 60% by using five types of filters as Mean Filter (MF), Adaptive Wiener Filter (AWF), Gaussian Filter (GF), Standard Median Filter (SMF) and Adaptive Median Filter (AMF). The same is applied to the Saturn remote sensing image and they are compared with one another. The comparative study is conducted with the help of Mean Square Errors (MSE) and Peak-Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). So as to choose the base method for removal of noise from remote sensing image.

  7. Comparative study of Danish prefab houses made of wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wraber, Ida Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The use of wood in Danish prefab building projects is increasing, but there is not a strong architectural tradition in Denmark for constructing timber housing. This paper therefore contains a comparative study of various manners of incorporating architectural features in prefab houses made of wood....... In the study four Danish prefab housing concepts based on wood con¬struc¬tion is compared and discussed, in order to investigate and exemplify how it is possible to work with architectural quality in prefab timber housing and maximise the use of the material, the prefab production and the architectural values....... It was concluded that especially two aspects are of great importance for the concrete handling of the architectural quality of prefab houses made of wood; 1) flexibility in relation to user and site, and 2) the interaction between form, logics and material. It is suggested that keeping these two aspects in mind...

  8. Comparative study of variational chaos indicators and ODEs' numerical integrators

    CERN Document Server

    Darriba, Luciano A; Cincotta, Pablo M; Giordano, Claudia M

    2012-01-01

    The reader can find in the literature a lot of different techniques to study the dynamics of a given system and also, many suitable numerical integrators to compute them. Notwithstanding the recent work of Maffione et al. (2011a) for mappings, a detailed comparison among the widespread indicators of chaos in a general system is still lacking. Such a comparison could lead to select the most efficient algorithms given a certain dynamical problem. Furthermore, in order to choose the appropriate numerical integrators to compute them, more comparative studies among numerical integrators are also needed. This work deals with both problems. We first extend the work of Maffione et al. (2011) for mappings to the 2D H\\'enon & Heiles (1964) potential, and compare several variational indicators of chaos: the Lyapunov Indicator (LI); the Mean Exponential Growth Factor of Nearby Orbits (MEGNO); the Smaller Alignment Index (SALI) and its generalized version, the Generalized Alignment Index (GALI); the Fast Lyapunov Indi...

  9. Comparative study of approaches to estimate pipe break frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K.; Pulkkinen, U.; Talja, H.; Saarenheimo, A.; Karjalainen-Roikonen, P. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland)

    2002-12-01

    The report describes the comparative study of two approaches to estimate pipe leak and rupture frequencies for piping. One method is based on a probabilistic fracture mechanistic (PFM) model while the other one is based on statistical estimation of rupture frequencies from a large database. In order to be able to compare the approaches and their results, the rupture frequencies of some selected welds have been estimated using both of these methods. This paper highlights the differences both in methods, input data, need and use of plant specific information and need of expert judgement. The study focuses on one specific degradation mechanism, namely the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). This is the major degradation mechanism in old stainless steel piping in BWR environment, and its growth is influenced by material properties, stresses and water chemistry. (au)

  10. [Fatal child abuse in Japan and Germany. Comparative retrospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuji, M; Ohshima, T; Kondo, T; Godoy, M R; Oehmichen, M

    1998-01-01

    In this study a record for comparative international epidemiological studies on autopsy cases of child abuse is introduced. The form was proved in a retrospective comparative survey of cases of fatal child abuse at the Department of Legal Medicine in Kanazawa (Japan) and Institute of Legal Medicine of Lübeck (Germany). A total of 33 cases were included. The following data were evaluated: age and gender of victims and assailants, relationship between victims and assailants, causes and methods of abuse, chief autopsy findings, and causes of death. The results were leading into two directions between Kanazawa and Lübeck: (1) In the years of 1981-1996 in Kanazawa 23 cases of fatal child abuse were autopsied while during the same period in Lübeck only 10 cases were registered. (2) While sexual abuse was not registered in Kanazawa, it was recorded twice in Lübeck.

  11. The integration and evaluation of a social-media facilitated journal club to enhance the student learning experience of evidence-based practice: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Caleb; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Gholizadeh, Leila; Ferguson, Leila E; Hickman, Louise D

    2017-01-01

    Nurses are required to interpret and apply knowledge so communities will receive care based on best available evidence, as opposed to care that is simply based on tradition or authority. Fostering nursing students' critical appraisal skills will assist in their capacity to engage with, interpret and use best evidence. Journal clubs are frequently used approach to engage learners with research and develop critical appraisal skills. Given new flipped and blended approaches to teaching and learning there is need to rejuvenate how research is utilised and integrated within journal clubs to maximise engagement and translation of evidence. This paper provides a case study of a single site Australian university experience of transitioning a traditional physical journal club, to a social media-facilitated club within a postgraduate health subject to stimulate and facilitate engagement with the chosen manuscripts. This case study is based on our own experiences, supported by literature and includes qualitative comments obtained via student feedback surveys during November 2015. Case study. Social media-facilitated journal clubs offer an efficient way to continue developing critical appraisal skills in nursing students. The integration of a social media-facilitated journal clubs increased student attention, engagement with presented activities and overall student satisfaction within this evidence-based practice subject. Future rigorously-designed, large-scale studies are required to evaluate the impact of online journal clubs on the uptake of evidence-based practice, including those resulting in improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Study of How Classroom Dialogue Facilitates the Development of Geometric Spatial Concepts Related to Understanding the Cause of Moon Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, Sonya Ellouise; Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that student understanding is either confirmed or reformed when given opportunities to share what they know. This study was conducted to answer the research question: Will classroom dialogue facilitate students' understanding of lunar concepts related to geometric spatial visualisation? Ninety-two middle school students engaged…

  13. Techniques for preparing of guide planes: in vitro comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Uemura, Eduardo Shigueyuki; Assistant Professor of the Dental Materials and Prosthesis Department of the São José dos Campos School of Dentistry of the São Paulo State University.; Silva, João Maurício; Faculdade de Odontologia de São José dos Campos - UNESP; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Assistant Professor of the Dental Materials and Prosthesis Department of the São José dos Campos School of Dentistry of the São Paulo State University.; Yamamoto, Eron Toshio Colauto; Clinical Professor of the Dental Materials and Prosthesis Department of the School of Dentistry of the 9th of July University.

    2014-01-01

    The correct parallelism of guiding planes when constructing a Removable Partial Denture not only defines the axis of insertion and removal of the prosthesis, but also limits the possible axes of movement during functioning. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to compare some techniques and the use of an intra-oral device for those preparations. Dummies were performed in a direct manner, simulating the absence of teeth 15, 45, 12 and 42. The four preparation techniques chosen were: Group 1...

  14. EXTERNAL DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY VERSUS ENDOSCOPIC ENDONASAL DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Phani Kumar; Biplab; Umakanta; Sandip; Ciranjit

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dacryocystitis is the inflammation of the lacrimal sac due to nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Chronic dacryocystitis is a constant threat to cornea and orbital soft tissue & always dictates surgery for correction of symptomatology. The gold standard procedure of choice for the treatment of epiphora is Dacryocystorhinostomy. This study proposes to evaluate and compare the surgical outcome of external DCR and endoscopic endonasal DCR. METHODS: A Retrospective, com...

  15. A comparative study of face processing using scrambled faces

    OpenAIRE

    Taubert, Jessica; Aagten-Murphy, David; Parr, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    It is a widespread assumption that all primate species process faces in the same way because the species are closely related and they engage in similar social interactions. However, this approach ignores potentially interesting and informative differences that may exist between species. This paper describes a comparative study of holistic face processing. Twelve subjects (six chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and six rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate whole faces (faces wit...

  16. Comparative study of various PKINIT methods used in Advanced Kerberos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital S. Thorat,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional authentication method is password, but it cannot resist dictionary and playback attack. Thus, applications, which send an unencrypted password over the network, are extremely vulnerable. Kerberos can be used as a solution to these network security problems. The Kerberos protocol with public key cryptography may help client to prove its identity to a server (and vice-versa across an insecurenetwork connection. This paper shows comparative study of various PKINIT methods used in Kerberos with their results.

  17. Comparative Study of EMC Greenplum and Oracle Exadata

    OpenAIRE

    Rajput, Ektaa; Yadav, Harshita; Singh, Ayushi

    2013-01-01

    Our paper deals with the comparative study of two databases namely EMC Greenplum and Oracle Database .Greenplum is a massively parallel processing database server that is designed to support the next generation of data warehousing and large-scale analytics processing. Oracle is the first database designed for enterprise grid computing, the most flexible and cost effective way to manage information and applications.Our paper focuses on the efficiency, complexity and capacity of both the databa...

  18. Musculoskeletal symptoms in an adolescent athlete population: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Legault, Élise P; Descarreaux, Martin; Cantin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain, symptoms or injuries are prevalent in the adolescent athlete population as well as in the general adolescent population, and often have significant consequences on their future musculoskeletal health. However, differences between these two populations in regards to their musculoskeletal health are not known and have not yet been explored. Therefore, the main objectives of this study are to 1) compare the 6-month prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and their...

  19. A Comparative Study of Chinese and American Ways of Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2009-01-01

    From a cross-cultural pragmatic perspective,this paper nakes a comparative study on American and Chinese ways of address,and finds that due to different cultural values,languages differ in the actual realization of address strategies and modifications,which leads to varied interactional styles,and thus holds that there exist distinctive cultural differences in the interactional styles of verbal behaviors,which challenges the universality of pragmatic rules among different languages and cultures.

  20. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TRACHEOBRONCHIAL PATTERN USING LUMINAL PLASTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venketesh G Kamath

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tracheobronchial pattern of human lungs is well known. An attempt was made to compare the pattern with that of sheep lung using luminal plastination of sheep lung. Several similarities were observed between the two patterns, due to which, the sheep lung serves as an ideal experimental model to study the effect of treatment in several human airway diseases. Objective: The first objective was to compare the two tracheobronchial patterns. Moreover the study also provided an opportunity to the authors to attempt a luminal plastination. The final objective is to highlight the various advantages of advances in luminal plastination in current medical education and research. Materials and methods: Silicon sealant was injected into the tracheobroncheal tree of sheep after thoroughly cleaning the lungs with saline. After the sealant solidified the surrounding lung tissue was destroyed by boiling. Thus a luminal cast was prepared. Result: The result was a splendid luminal cast of the sheep lung showing its tracheobronchial pattern. Conclusion: It was observed that the tracheobronchial division pattern showed significant similarities and a single variation. Therefore the sheep lung is an ideal experimental model and luminal plastination can be applied to comparative anatomical study to identify more such models.

  1. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  2. The Executive Branch: The Government (2 - Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Carausan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Fundamental Laws of the European Union member states establish the institutional system and also the Government’s organisation. In the present article, after we already studied the organisation of the Chief of State institution, we will analyse the other vector of the executive power: the Government. Each state understands to organise public administration system differently, according to their administrative culture and to their constitutional rules. The second part of the study based on the comparative method and on the analysis of the Constitutional rules will emphasize the unity and also the diversity of the government organisation in the European Union systems.

  3. Comparative Statistical Study of Some SAP UI Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdie, Adela; Osaci, Mihaela; Dan Lemle, Ludovic

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a comparative study on some web UI (User Interface) technologies that involve the creation of web applications on the platform SAP Net Weaver AS 7.01 of the integrated SAP (System Application Products) system. The attention will be directed mainly to the ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programing) development environment and to the Web Dynpro (WD) technologies, Floor Plan Manager (FPM) and Web Client UI. Through this study, we make an assesment regarding the decision of choosing a technology for the realisation of a project which consists of a web application.

  4. Comparative study of radiosensitivity of hemopoietic tissues of Meriones unguiculatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samokhvalova, N.S.; Bulyakova, N.V.; Azarova, V.S.; Popova, M.F.; Domareva, O.P. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehvolyutsionnoj Morfologii i Ehkologii Zhivotnykh)

    1983-01-01

    Quantitative study on dynamics of radiation damage and recovery of radiation induced injuries is conducted. Bone marrow, spleen and thymus of Mongolian sandwort have been investigated. It is shown that fractionation of radiation dose as compared with single irradiation of total dose reduces the period of intense devastation of hemopoietic tissues of Mongolian sandwort thus accelerating the period of post-radiation recovery. Study on dynamics of interphase cell killing and aplasia of tissues has disclosed an essential role of protective-restoring processes in determining the value of radiation damage of the hemopoietic system of Mongolian sandwort.

  5. Acute exercise facilitates brain function and cognition in children who need it most: an ERP study of individual differences in inhibitory control capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Raine, Lauren B; Moore, R Davis; Saliba, Brian J; Pontifex, Matthew B; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on aspects of cognitive control in two groups of children categorized by higher- and lower-task performance. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were collected in 40 preadolescent children during a modified flanker task following 20 min of treadmill walking and seated rest on separate occasions. Participants were bifurcated into two groups based on task performance following the resting session. Findings revealed that following exercise, higher-performers maintained accuracy and exhibited no change in P3 amplitude compared to seated rest. Lower-performers demonstrated a differential effect, such that accuracy measures improved, and P3 amplitude increased following exercise. Lastly, both groups displayed smaller N2 amplitude and shorter P3 latency following exercise, suggesting an overall facilitation in response conflict and the speed of stimulus classification. The current findings replicate prior research reporting the beneficial influence of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in children. However, children with lower inhibitory control capacity may benefit the most from single bouts of exercise. These data are among the first to demonstrate the differential effect of physical activity on individuals who vary in inhibitory control, and further support the role of aerobic exercise for brain health during development.

  6. Acute exercise facilitates brain function and cognition in children who need it most: An ERP study of individual differences in inhibitory control capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Drollette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on aspects of cognitive control in two groups of children categorized by higher- and lower-task performance. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs were collected in 40 preadolescent children during a modified flanker task following 20 min of treadmill walking and seated rest on separate occasions. Participants were bifurcated into two groups based on task performance following the resting session. Findings revealed that following exercise, higher-performers maintained accuracy and exhibited no change in P3 amplitude compared to seated rest. Lower-performers demonstrated a differential effect, such that accuracy measures improved, and P3 amplitude increased following exercise. Lastly, both groups displayed smaller N2 amplitude and shorter P3 latency following exercise, suggesting an overall facilitation in response conflict and the speed of stimulus classification. The current findings replicate prior research reporting the beneficial influence of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in children. However, children with lower inhibitory control capacity may benefit the most from single bouts of exercise. These data are among the first to demonstrate the differential effect of physical activity on individuals who vary in inhibitory control, and further support the role of aerobic exercise for brain health during development.

  7. Ultrasonic and mechanical wind sensors : 6 month comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattison, A. [LufftUSA, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Many wind power developers are looking to reduce the high cost of mechanical sensors by replacing them with ultrasonic sensors. This PowerPoint presentation presented the results of a study conducted to evaluate and compare ultrasonic and mechanical wind sensors. The aim of the study was to determine is ultrasonic sensor data is reliable and accurate. Participants in the study included 2 sensor manufacturers and a third party engineering firm. Wind resource assessments, turbine pitch and yaw, and power curve tests were conducted on meteorological towers. Ground-based SODAR and LIDAR measurements were conducted for micrositing and resource assessment. An International Electrochemical Council (IEC) compliant methodology was used to test the sensors at various locations throughout the United States. The benefits of each sensor technology were considered, and a cost comparison was conducted. Results of the study showed that ultrasonic sensors are suitable for permanent tower installations and where resistance to ice and turbulence is required. tabs., figs.

  8. Comparative Simulation Study on Synchronous Generators Sudden Short Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Lupşa-Tătaru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although of a great extent in time, the research works directed at studying transients in synchronous generators have not yet provided fully sufficient comparative studies in respect to sudden short circuits of the machine. The present paper puts forward novel and comprehensive process models for dynamic simulation of short circuit faults of initially unloaded synchronous generators, using the generalized d-q-0 mathematical model as starting point in derivation. Distinct from the time-domain analysis, the technique proposed here allows an effective comparative overview by employing a specialized procedure to perform repeated time-domain simulations accompanied by peak values recording for the various circumstances. The time consuming matrix numerical inversion at each step of integration, usually performed when selecting currents as state variables, is eliminated by advancing the process models in a convenient split matrix form that allows the symbolic processing. Also, the computational efficiency is being increased by introducing a set of auxiliary variables common to different state equations. The models derivation is carried out without altering the structural equations of the generalized d-q-0 mathematical model of synchronous generators whilst the simulation results are both compared and discussed in detail.

  9. A comparative clinical study on the Carisolv caries removal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaboura, Afrodite; Masouras, Costas; Staikou, Olga; Vougiouklakis, George

    2003-04-01

    Carisolv is a relatively new chemomechanical method for caries removal. The aim of this clinical study was to compare Carisolv with the conventional drilling technique. Forty-five volunteers, ages 18 to 55 years, each with two contralateral primary coronal mesio-occlusal or disto-occlusal carious lesions, similar in extent, participated in the study. Two calibrated operators treated all lesions. One operator treated both lesions in one visit (one lesion with Carisolv and the other with conventional drilling). Following the filling procedure, the opinion of each patient regarding each caries removal method was recorded. The need for drilling in addition to the Carisolv application, the time required for caries removal, the need for anesthesia, and the gingival reaction to the Carisolv gel were recorded by each operator for each case. The patients found Carisolv treatment more pleasant (82%) and preferable (88%) to drilling. Of the patients treated with drilling, 40% required anesthesia compared to the 8% treated with Carisolv. Additional drilling for complete caries removal was needed in 10% of Carisolv-treated lesions. Carisolv induced no gingival reaction. Significantly longer times were required for caries removal with Carisolv (12.2 +/- 4.1 minutes) compared to drilling (6.8 +/- 2.8 minutes). The Carisolv technique was: (a) accepted by the majority of patients, (b) efficient for caries removal, (c) considered a time-consuming technique for the dentists, and (d) considered less dependent on local anesthesia.

  10. Comparing protein VEGF inhibitors: In vitro biological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lanlan; Liang, Xiao Huan [Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Ferrara, Napoleone, E-mail: nf@gene.com [Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} VEGF is a mediator of angiogenesis. {yields} VEGF inhibitors have clinical applications in cancer and eye disorders. {yields} Five protein VEGF inhibitors were compared for their ability to inhibit. {yields} VEGF-induced activities in cultured endothelial cells. -- Abstract: VEGF inhibitors are widely used as a therapy for tumors and intravascular neovascular disorders, but limited and conflicting data regarding their relative biological potencies are available. The purpose of the study is to compare different protein VEGF inhibitors for their ability to inhibit VEGF-stimulated activities. We tested ranibizumab, the full-length variant of ranibizumab (Mab Y0317), bevacizumab, the VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG in bioassays measuring VEGF-stimulated proliferation of bovine retinal microvascular endothelial cells or chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The inhibitors were also compared for their ability to inhibit MAP kinase activation in HUVECs following VEGF addition. Ranibizumab, VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG had very similar potencies in the bioassays tested. Bevacizumab was over 10-fold less potent than these molecules. Mab Y0317 was over 30-fold more potent than bevacizumab. The findings reported in this manuscript describe important intrinsic characteristics of several VEGF inhibitors that may be useful to design and interpret preclinical or clinical studies.

  11. Comparative study of codes for the seismic design of structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. C. Santos

    Full Text Available A general evaluation of some points of the South American seismic codes is presented herein, comparing them among themselves and with the American Standard ASCE/SEI 7/10 and with the European Standard Eurocode 8. The study is focused in design criteria for buildings. The Western border of South America is one of the most seismically active regions of the World. It corresponds to the confluence of the South American and Nazca plates. This region corresponds roughly to the vicinity of the Andes Mountains. This seismicity diminishes in the direction of the comparatively seismically quieter Eastern South American areas. The South American countries located in its Western Border possess standards for seismic design since some decades ago, being the Brazilian Standard for seismic design only recently published. This study is focused in some critical topics: definition of the recurrence periods for establishing the seismic input; definition of the seismic zonation and design ground motion values; definition of the shape of the design response spectra; consideration of soil amplification, soil liquefaction and soil-structure interaction; classification of the structures in different importance levels; definition of the seismic force-resisting systems and respective response modification coefficients; consideration of structural irregularities and definition of the allowable procedures for the seismic analyses. A simple building structure is analyzed considering the criteria of the several standards and obtained results are compared.

  12. Comparative Study of Static Task Scheduling Algorithms for Heterogeneous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miss. Kalpana A. Manudhane

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available On the distributed or parallel heterogeneous computing systems, an application is usually decomposed into several interdependent sets of co-operating subtasks and assigned to a set of available processors for execution. Task scheduling is in general NP-compete problem. Static task scheduling algorithms are categorized as Heuristic based and Guided random search based scheduling algorithms. Heuristic algorithms guaranteed to find near optimal solution in less than polynomial time. Heuristic based list scheduling algorithms are Heterogeneous Earliest Finish Time (HEFT and Critical-Path-On- -Processor (CPOP. Whereas, Guided random search based scheduling algorithms have shown robust performance on verity of schedulingproblems. Typical examples are Multiple Priority Queueing Genetic Algorithm (MPQGA, Tabu Search(TS, Ant Colony System (ACS. This paper gives comparative study of all these static task scheduling algorithms and compares them on the basis of average makespan, schedule length ratio (SLR and speedup and running time of algorithm.

  13. A comparative study of three methods for robot kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspragathos, N A; Dimitros, J K

    1998-01-01

    Three methods for the formulation of the kinematic equations of robots with rigid links are presented in this paper. The first and most common method in the robotics community is based on 4x4 homogeneous matrix transformation, the second one is based on Lie algebra, and the third one on screw theory expressed via dual quaternions algebra. These three methods are compared in this paper for their use in the kinematic analysis of robot arms. The basic theory and the transformation operators, upon which every method is based, are referenced. Three analytic algorithms are presented for the solution of the direct kinematic problem corresponding to each method, and the geometric significance of the transformation operators and parameters is explained. Finally, a comparative study on the computation and storage requirements for the three methods is worked out.

  14. Comparative study of convective heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryam, Hina; Ramzan, Naveed; Umer, Asim; Awan, Gul Hameed; Hassan, Ali

    2017-02-01

    The present research is about to draw a comparison between heat transfer characteristics of gold/deionized water (DIW) and silver/DIW based nanofluid under same heat flux for laminar flow. Experiments are performed on both nanofluid by using different concentrations (0.015, 0.045, 0.0667%) of nano-particles (NPs) in DIW as a base fluid. The experimental study concludes that an appreciable intensification in heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of both nanofluid has been attained as compare to base fluid. However, gold/DIW based nanofluid exhibit better convective heat transfer intensification compared with silver/DIW based nanofluid but Shah correlation cannot predict as much augmentation as in experimental work for both nanofluid. It is also noticed that the anomalous enhancement in Nusselt number and HTC is not only due to the accession in thermal properties but also by the formation of thinner thermal boundary layer at the entrance of the tube due to NPs.

  15. Comparative Study of Various Techniques on Outlier Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K, Varma Mamta and Rajesh Nigam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diverse patterns from web data, commonly referred to as web outliers or exceptional cases or noise; exist in many real-world databases. Detection of such outliers is important for numerous applications, such as detecting criminal activities in E-commerce. Outliers are data objects with different characteristics compared to other data objects. Formal definition of outliers is given by D.Hawkins. as “An Outlier is an observation that deviates so much from other observations so that it arouses suspicion that it is generated by a different mechanism”. Detection of such outliers (outlier mining is important for numerous applications, such as detecting criminal activities in E-commerce, video surveillance, weather prediction, intrusion detection and pharmaceutical research. This paper has focus on comparative study of various techniques on Outlier Detection.

  16. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THYROID GLAND IN SOME MAMMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Doley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Goitre or swelling of thyroid gland is very common in North-East region and is encountered frequently in clinical practice. Goitre is a compensatory hypertrophy of thyroid gland and it has been recognised for centuries even back to the times of Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC (LE McDonald. The thyroid is the largest endocrine gland present in all mammals. In some disease conditions, an individual has to undergo a complete thyroidectomy and live on thyroid supplements for life. Is there a possibility of xenograft and xenotransplant? With this view a comparative study of the thyroid gland was under taken in the Dept. of Anatomy, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati. The main purpose of the study was to see if thyroid gland of human was in any way similar to thyroid gland of other mammals. Xenograft and Xenotransplantation are the latest research studies going on these days. By these techniques, tissues and organs of one species can be transplanted or grafted into another species. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study of thyroid gland was conducted in Dept. of Anatomy, Gauhati Medical College. The various species included for studies were of human, pig and goat. They were divided into three groups I, II, and III. The specimen of human was collected from morgue of Gauhati Medical College. The specimen of pig and goat were collected from College of Veterinary Sciences, Gauhati. In all animals, the size, shape, length, breadth, thickness was recorded. RESULT The length, breadth, thickness of thyroid gland in group I, II and III were taken with the help of Vernier callipers. Weight was measured with the help of electronic weighing machine. The results were statistically analysed. DISCUSSION The findings of this study were compared with the findings of work done by other authors previously. CONCLUSION In this study, it was observed that biometrical values were different in all the mammals but morphological characters were almost similar

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NALBUPHINE VS. PENTAZOCINE FOR POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Ganpatrao Tirpude

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To provide postoperative pain relief is a prime duty of health care providers. Failure to relieve pain is morally and ethically unacceptable. Post-operative pain may results in adverse effects such as: a Physiological Changes: Reduced pulmonary functions, e.g. vital capacity, tidal volume, functional residual capacity; sympathetic stimulation; reduced the physical activity of patients; thereby increasing the risk of venous thrombosis. b Psychological disturbances: Anger, Resentment, Depression, Adversarial Relationship with Doctors, Insomnia. Aim of this study was 1. To investigate whether “Postoperative analgesia with Nalbuphine is longer than Pentazocine”. 2. To investigate whether “Side effects/complications are less with Nalbuphine as compared to Pentazocine”. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a prospective randomized double blind observational study. Eighty patients of hydrocoele & inguinal hernia were operated under spinal anaesthesia of age group 20-70 years, ASA grade I & II & patients with controlled co-morbid conditions. In postoperative period, Group N- Inj. Nalbuphine (0.3 mg/kg IM or Group P- Inj. Pentazocine (0.5 mg/kg IM was administered to provide postoperative pain relief & to know the duration of pain relief & its side effects. RESULTS On statistical analysis, demographic data i.e. age, sex had no influence on outcome of study. Mean VAS score in group N was highly significant (p-value in Inj. Pentazocine group. 2. Side Effects - Incidence of sedation was more in Nalbuphine group as compared to Pentazocine group. Nausea & Vomiting were more so in Pentazocine group as compared to Nalbuphine group. Limitation of the present study was that sample size was very small.

  18. Assessing analytical comparability of biosimilars: GCSF as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nupur, Neh; Singh, Sumit Kumar; Narula, Gunjan; Rathore, Anurag S

    2016-10-01

    The biosimilar industry is witnessing an unprecedented growth with the newer therapeutics increasing in complexity over time. A key step towards development of a biosimilar is to establish analytical comparability with the innovator product, which would otherwise affect the safety/efficacy profile of the product. Choosing appropriate analytical tools that can fulfil this objective by qualitatively and/or quantitatively assessing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the product is highly critical for establishing equivalence. These CQAs cover the primary and higher order structures of the product, product related variants and impurities, as well as process related impurities, and host cell related impurities. In the present work, we use such an analytical platform for assessing comparability of five approved Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (GCSF) biosimilars (Emgrast, Lupifil, Colstim, Neukine and Grafeel) to the innovator product, Neupogen(®). The comparability studies involve assessing structural homogeneity, identity, secondary structure, and product related modifications. Physicochemical analytical tools include peptide mapping with mass determination, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, reverse phase chromatography (RPC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) have been used in this exercise. Bioactivity assessment include comparison of relative potency through in vitro cell proliferation assays. The results from extensive analytical examination offer robust evidence of structural and biological similarity of the products under consideration with the pertinent innovator product. For the most part, the biosimilar drugs were found to be comparable to the innovator drug anomaly that was identified was that three of the biosimilars had a typical variant which was reported as an oxidized species in the literature. But, upon further investigation using RPC-FLD and ESI-MS we found that this is likely a conformational variant of the biotherapeutic been

  19. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Jonathan [Sentech, Inc.; Khowailed, Gannate [Sentech, Inc.; Blackburn, Julia [Sentech, Inc.; Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary

  20. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Jonathan [Sentech, Inc.; Khowailed, Gannate [Sentech, Inc.; Blackburn, Julia [Sentech, Inc.; Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary

  1. How work-self conflict/facilitation influences exhaustion and task performance: A three-wave study on the role of personal resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Sanz-Vergel, Ana Isabel; Petrou, Paraskevas; van den Heuvel, Machteld

    2016-10-01

    Although work and family are undoubtedly important life domains, individuals are also active in other life roles which are also important to them (like pursuing personal interests). Building on identity theory and the resource perspective on work-home interface, we examined whether there is an indirect effect of work-self conflict/facilitation on exhaustion and task performance over time through personal resources (i.e., self-efficacy and optimism). The sample was composed of 368 Dutch police officers. Results of the 3-wave longitudinal study confirmed that work-self conflict was related to lower levels of self-efficacy, whereas work-self facilitation was related to improved optimism over time. In turn, self-efficacy was related to higher task performance, whereas optimism was related to diminished levels of exhaustion over time. Further analysis supported the negative, indirect effect of work-self facilitation on exhaustion through optimism over time, and only a few reversed causal effects emerged. The study contributes to the literature on interrole management by showing the role of personal resources in the process of conflict or facilitation over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Feature Based Correspondence: A Comparative Study on Image Matching Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munim Tanvir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Image matching and recognition are the crux of computer vision and have a major part to play in everyday lives. From industrial robots to surveillance cameras, from autonomous vehicles to medical imaging and from missile guidance to space exploration vehicles computer vision and hence image matching is embedded in our lives. This communication presents a comparative study on the prevalent matching algorithms, addressing their restrictions and providing a criterion to define the level of efficiency likely to be expected from an algorithm. The study includes the feature detection and matching techniques used by these prevalent algorithms to allow a deeper insight. The chief aim of the study is to deliver a source of comprehensive reference for the researchers involved in image matching, regardless of specific applications.

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE LIPID-LOWERING EFFECT OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niteesh Shanbag

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dyslipidaemia is a widely established risk factor for coronary artery disease. As Asians differ in pattern of various lipid abnormalities than non-Asians, this study was undertaken to compare efficacy of commonly administrated drugs, atorvastatin and fenofibrate. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was carried out in 100 diagnosed cases of hypertriglyceridaemia divided into two groups, A and B. The mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean and t value were calculated following 12 weeks of therapy of atorvastatin 10 mg in group A and micronized fenofibrate in group B. RESULTS Our study showed that fenofibrate is more efficacious in reducing the levels of triglycerides and rising level of HDL cholesterol, while atorvastatin is more efficacious in reducing LDL cholesterol. CONCLUSION Micronized fenofibrate has more efficiency in reducing triglycerides and raising HDL. Atorvastatin is more efficacious in reducing LDL levels.

  4. PLURALISM AND THE STUDY OF RELIGION: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. SAMIAN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Malaysian government outline of Vision 2020, the importance of the study of religion as an integral component of general education is explicitly stated. This paper examines the present state of comparative religious studies in Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning. Several philosophical issues are highlighted including the local concept and objective of religious studies, suitability of courses offered, and its relevance to the national development, i.e., industrialization of the country. An attempt is made to suggest how the religious course in a plural society like Malaysia, in the future, can be used to achieve Vision 2020 by integrating science and religion based on the position that science is a problem-solving activity.

  5. Discourse Formation in Comparative Education. 4th, Revised Edition. Comparative Studies Series. Volume 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriewer, Jurgen, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    New theories and theory-based methodological approaches have found their way into Comparative Education--just as into Comparative Social Science more generally--in increasing number in the recent past. The essays of this volume express and critically discuss quite a range of these positions such as, inter alia, the theory of self-organizing social…

  6. A comparative study of ICU patient diaries vs. hospital charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Doris

    2010-10-01

    Intensive care survivors often suffer from memory disorders, and some go on to develop anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress. Since the 1980s nurses have written diaries for intensive care patients to help them understand their illness and come to terms with their experiences after discharge. The central question we posed in this study was: Why do nurses write diaries in addition to conventional charting in the medical record? To answer this question, we compared intensive care diaries and hospital charts using textual analysis and narrative theory. The aims of our study were to compare patient diaries and hospital charts to explore (a) what each documentation instrument has to offer patients in their quest to make sense of their illness, and (b) why it is worthwhile for nurses to sustain the practice of writing diaries. The study findings show that the diary is coherent, personal, and supportive, whereas the hospital chart is fragmented, impersonal, and technical. The diary tells a comprehensive story that might help the patient to construct or reconstruct his or her own illness narrative.

  7. A Comparative Study of Actuator Configurations for Satellite Attitude Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Kristiansen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a controllability study of different actuator configurations consisting of magnetic torquers, reaction wheels and a gravity boom is presented. The theoretical analysis is performed with use of controllability gramians, and simulation results with the different configurations are presented and compared regarding settling time and power consumption to substantiate the theoretical analysis. A reference model is also introduced to show how the power consumption can he lowered to the same magnitude as when magnetic torquers are used, without degrading the satellite response significantly.

  8. Goal oriented requirements engineering in data warehouses: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Cravero Leal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Data warehouses provide historical information about the organization that needs to be analyzed by the decision makers; therefore, it is essential to develop them in the context of a strategic business plan. In recent years, a number of engineering approaches for goal-oriented requirements have been proposed, which can obtain the information requirements of a data warehouse using traditional techniques and the objectives of the modeling. This paper provides an overview and a comparative study of the treatment of the requirements in the existing approaches to serve as a starting point for further research.

  9. Multiple comparative studies of Green Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lihui; Mathiyazhagan, K.; Govindan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    for their products. Such organizations in developing countries like India and China are under pressure to adopt green concepts in supply chain operations to compete in the market and satisfy their customers' increasing needs. This paper offers a comparative study of pressures that impact the adoption of Green Supply...... friendly operation strategies to lower their overall carbon footprint. Currently, there is increased awareness among customers even in developing countries about eco friendly manufacturing solutions. Multi-national firms have identified economies of developed nations as a potential market...

  10. Comparative study of SEA experiences between EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    making, such as: How inclusive will the system be in relation to environmental, economic and social indicators? And how can the appropriate aggregation level for indicators be found? This paper makes a comparative study of the experiences of using indicators in SEA in two European countries and China...... SEA legislation and guidelines, this paper evaluates the different requirements related to indicator use within SEA in different national contexts. Furthermore, technical questions of how to design and use indicators in SEA are investigated. Finally, it is explored, from a political perspective, how...

  11. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves...... into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for secreted...

  12. Comparative study on Anthelmintic property of Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Devi. S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For the present study Acacia catechu, Euphorbia heterophylla, Corallocarpus epigaeus and Caesalpinia bonducella plant parts were chosen to evaluate the comparative analysis on anthelmintic activity. Different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, 100mg/ml of methanolic extracts of these plant parts were used. The evaluation parameters involved the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. Piperazine citrate was used as standard drug at 10 mg/ml concentration and saline as control. The results obtained showed that Corallocarpus epigaeus showed the highest anthelmintic activity with death time of 9 minutes at 100 mg/ml concentration.

  13. Comparative study of Palito inspection and MFL Inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Anne A. de; Miranda, Ivan Vicente Janvrot; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimaraes, Frederico S.; Magalhaes, Joao Alfredo P. [Minds at Work, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sabino, Joao Marcos [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/UN-RN/CE), Natal, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios Rio Grande do Norte e Ceara

    2009-07-01

    A 16 inches oil pipeline was surveyed with MFL and Palito pig in 2007. The MFL inspection was performed by Pipeway Engenharia while Palito inspection was performed by PETROBRAS. A comparison between the results of these two ILI inspections has been made to validate Palito Pig and to assess main characteristics and differences between the two techniques. The purpose of this paper is to detail the methodology applied to perform the comparison and to present a comparative study of results registered in the MFL and Palito inspections by Pipeway Engenharia, PETROBRAS/CENPES and CPTI/PUC-Rio. (author)

  14. Mining Frequent Itemsets from Online Data Streams: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HebaTallah Mohamed Nabil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Online mining of data streams poses many new challenges more than mining static databases. In addition to the one-scan nature, the unbounded memory requirement, the high data arrival rate of data streams and the combinatorial explosion of itemsets exacerbate the mining task. The high complexity of the frequent itemsets mining problem hinders the application of the stream mining techniques. In this review, we present a comparative study among almost all, as we are acquainted, the algorithms for mining frequent itemsets from online data streams. All those techniques immolate with the accuracy of the results due to the relatively limited storage, leading, at all times, to approximated results.

  15. Thalamus segmentation from MP2RAGE: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Næss-Schmidt, Erhard; Blicher, Jakob

    , increasing the number of training images in the library of SNIPE improves segmentation accuracy (Figure 4). Even though the DSI seems to plateau around a library size of 10-11 images, increasing the library may improve the accuracy even further. Conclusions: Widely used atlas based segmentation methods...... the Freesurfer pipeline, which is a high failure rate compared to studies running Freesurfer on conventional MPRAGE images [7]. All evaluated methods under-segments the thalamus, which may be desirable from a clinical point of view, if segmentation masks are used for characterizing the structure using e...

  16. A comparative study of two computer-aided measurement methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gronau, Franziska

    2010-01-01

    Growth and developmental disorders of the elbow joint are frequent causes of lameness of the thoracic limb of the dog. Golden Retriever is one of the mainly affected breeds. Two different computer-aided methods of measurement will be compared in this study. The aim is to find out whether one of these measurement methods is more suitable to distinguish affected from unaffected joints and to recognize a possible predisposition for elbow dysplasia (ED). X-Rays of the elbow joints in the medio-la...

  17. Comparative Study of Various SDLC Models on Different Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of a software development project greatly depends upon which process model is used. This paper emphasizes on the need of using appropriate model as per the application to be developed. In this paper we have done the comparative study of the following software models namely Waterfall, Prototype, RAD (Rapid Application Development Incremental, Spiral, Build and Fix and V-shaped. Our aim is to create reliable and cost effective software and these models provide us a way to develop them. The main objective of this research is to represent different models of software development and make a comparison between them to show the features of each model.

  18. A Comparative Study on Decision Making Methods with Interval Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM models are used to solve a number of decision making problems universally. Most of these methods require the use of integers as input data. However, there are problems which have indeterminate values or data intervals which need to be analysed. In order to solve problems with interval data, many methods have been reported. Through this study an attempt has been made to compare and analyse the popular decision making tools for interval data problems. Namely, I-TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution, DI-TOPSIS, cross entropy, and interval VIKOR (VlseKriterijumska Optimiza-cija I Kompromisno Resenje have been compared and a novel algorithm has been proposed. The new algorithm makes use of basic TOPSIS technique to overcome the limitations of known methods. To compare the effectiveness of the various methods, an example problem has been used where selection of best material family for the capacitor application has to be made. It was observed that the proposed algorithm is able to overcome the known limitations of the previous techniques. Thus, it can be easily and efficiently applied to various decision making problems with interval data.

  19. A Comparative Study Of Psychiatric Morbidity In Dermatological Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Neelu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychiatric morbidity in five chronic and disfiguring diseases, namely psoriasis, chronic urticaria, leprosy, vitiligo and lichen simplex chronicus (LSC was assessed and compared using the standardized Hindi (Vernacular languages version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-H. Thirty new untreated patients of each of the above skin diseases between the age group of 18-60 years were included in the study. The overall prevalence of the psychiatric morbidity was found to be 39%, depression and anxiety were present in 13% and 10.66% of the patients and suicidal ideations and somatisation in 16% and 13% of the patients respectively. Prevalence of interpersonal conflict and suicidal attempt were 10% and 2.6% respectively. On comparative analysis of psychiatric morbidity, significant difference was observed between vitiligo and other disorders (p=0.0028, i.e., chronic urticaria (p=0.0242 and psoriasis and other disorders (p=0.0028, however no significant difference could be elicited between psoriasis and leprosy or leprosy and vitiligo. Comparative analysis of anxiety revealed statistically significant difference between the patients of LSC and vitiligo (p=0.02 or vitiligo and chronic urticaria (p=0.04 but no significant difference was observed for vitiligo and leprosy of psoriasis and leprosy. The prevalence of somatic complaints showed significant difference between the patients of LSC and Leprosy.

  20. Innovation Policies: A comparative study Between Brazil and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Dias Coelho Jones

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a comparison between the main actions promoted to encourage innovation by France, as well as the current stage of research and development initiatives (R&D, in relation to Brazil. Is a qualitative study that the procedures for its development ranks as literature and documents. The data collection technique was documentary and had as a data source primary and secondary documents, coming from public archives and statistical sources. For the survey of brazilian data for the development of this study, it was used as informational basis the fifth edition of the Innovation Research (PINTEC 2011. The data from France raised through the use of OECD year Report 2014 " Reviews of Innovation Policy France in 2014."  For the presentation of the study results comparative charts and tables were used. As the present study results can be highlighted, among others: France is a country with a long scientific tradition and technique, and plays a significant role in the world in this area. On the other hand, Brazil has one of the lowest proportions of R&D and export of high technology to GDP. The completion of this study brought an important diagnosis: there is a wide and interesting research topic that is still little explored by Brazilian researchers.

  1. Learning facilitating leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2016-01-01

    in teaching facilitation and the literature. These types of skills are most effectively acquired by combining conceptual lectures, classroom exercises and the facilitation of groups in a real-life context. The paper also reflects certain ‘shadow sides’ related to facilitation observed by the students...

  2. STATIC VERSUS PNF STRETCHING IN HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY-A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Naga Prahalada Karnati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stretching used as a technique for injury prevention in the clinical settings, the study aimed to determine the early findings of hamstring tightness with both groups in the population, now a days the sedentary activities like prolonged sitting might cause hamstring tightness and change in path kinematics of gait intern lead to postural defects and back pain, understanding of the stretching helps clinician to make decisions for rehabilitation. Methods: Across-sectional study, counterbalanced with repeated-measures , one group with static stretch – (double hamstring stretch and hurdlers stretch for 3 times,30seconds subsequently in another group PNF contract relax(agonist contraction technique for 10 seconds position and 10 seconds stretch repeated for 3 times. Results: The results from data and statistical analysis by using t-test, SPSS obtained by using goniometer are tabulated in terms of mean, standard deviation and p-value in both groups. In experimental group flexion with PNF showed improvement 9.27±1.91(right side, 9.53±2.42(left side and static stretching showed 7.8±2.91(right side, 7.47±1.96(left side this proves that PNF has consistent improvement than static stretching. Conclusions: Static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching both have produced greater improvement but compared with PNF contract relax(agonist stretching showed significant change in hamstring flexibility compared with control group . The effect sizes, however corresponding to these stretching-induced changes were small, which suggests the need for practitioners to consider a risk-to-benefit ratio when incorporating static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching.

  3. Teaching English in introduction classes. A case study of challenges and facilitating factors for teachers who teach English in introduction classes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to get more knowledge about how teachers teach English in introduction classes, and to gain more insight into the challenges and facilitating factors teachers meet in this particular teaching situation. The research project was designed as a particularistic observational case study. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect data in an introduction class in a lower secondary school. The methodology used in this thesis allowed me to collect, interp...

  4. Comparative Experimental Study of Wound Healing in Mice: Pelnac versus Integra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosgrau, Ana Carolina Câmara; Jeremias, Talita da Silva; Leonardi, Dilmar Francisco; Pereima, Maurício José; Di Giunta, Gabriella; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Strategies for skin regeneration have been developed to provide effective treatment for cutaneous wounds and disease. Dermal substitutes have been used to cover the lesion to facilitate cell colonization, thereby promoting dermal regeneration. However, very little is known about Pelnac matrix especially at histological level. Therefore, the present work carried out an experimental in vivo comparative analysis between Pelnac and Integra, the most used dermal templates, in a mouse model of full-thickness skin wounds. Histological sections performed at the 3rd, 6th and 9th days after surgery were analyzed with regard to inflammatory response and vascularization. Both templates were completely incorporated in all animals at the end of the analyzed period. Pelnac-treated animals displayed reduced granulation tissue during the first 6 days of treatment compared to the animals treated with Integra at the same time period. The number of inflammatory cells (neutrophils) was similar in both groups during the period, significantly reducing at the end of inflammatory phase (9th day of treatment) consistent with the progression of healing process. In addition, the density of blood vessels was also statistically similar in both matrices. Therefore, the two dermal templates displayed comparable biological behavior in tissue repair. It is noteworthy that this is the first experimental study comparing Pelnac and Integra dermal templates with focus on full-thickness skin wounds. PMID:25798623

  5. EXTERNAL DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY VERSUS ENDOSCOPIC ENDONASAL DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dacryocystitis is the inflammation of the lacrimal sac due to nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Chronic dacryocystitis is a constant threat to cornea and orbital soft tissue & always dictates surgery for correction of symptomatology. The gold standard procedure of choice for the treatment of epiphora is Dacryocystorhinostomy. This study proposes to evaluate and compare the surgical outcome of external DCR and endoscopic endonasal DCR. METHODS: A Retrospective, comparative, randomized interventional study was conducted from January 2012 to December 2013. 40 diagnosed cases of chronic dacryocystitis were randomized into two groups. Group A included 20 patients who underwent external Dacryocystorhinostomy and group B included the rest of the 20 patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy. RESULTS: In group A patients, 9 cases had bleeding during surgery, tearing of the anterior nasal flap was seen in 5 cases and punctal laceration in 4 cases. In group B patients 3 cases had bleeding, 5 cases had Trauma to the middle turbinate while accidental entry into anterior ethmoidal cells was in 4 cases. In 8 cases there was difficulty in making a bone window. In group A patients, duration of surgery is comparatively more than in group B. In post-operative period group A patients, had epistaxis, rhinostomy site closure, hypertrophied external scar and medial canthi damage as its complication while group B epistaxis, nasal Synechea, intra nasal granulation at the ostium are major complication. After a period of 3months by syringing the lacrimal sac of the patients in group A patients, 18 patients had a patent sac (success rate is 90%. In group B patients, 16 patients had a patent sac (success rate being 80%. CONCLUSION: DCR either by external or endonasal route can be considered for treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The external route has an easy and short learning curve with reduced cost of equipment. Whereas

  6. Radioactivity of natural and artificial building materials - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zs; Völgyesi, P; Nagy, H É; Szabó, Cs; Kis, Z; Csorba, O

    2013-04-01

    Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated (226)Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of (40)K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point

  7. A comparability study of 5 commercial KRAS tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyuris Tibor

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activating mutations in the KRAS gene occur frequently in human tumors, including colorectal carcinomas; most mutations occur in codons 12 and 13. Mutations in KRAS have been associated with poor response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies. Therefore, an accurate and readily available analysis of KRAS mutational status is needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate concordance between KRAS assays performed by 6 different laboratories. Methods Forty formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tumor samples were obtained. Sample sections were submitted for KRAS mutation analysis to 5 independent commercial laboratories (Agencourt, Gentris, Genzyme, HistoGeneX, and Invitek and to the Amgen DNA Sequencing Laboratory for direct polymerase chain reaction sequencing. The assay used by Invitek is no longer commercially available and has been replaced by an alternative technique. Results from the commercial services were compared with those from Amgen direct sequencing by κ statistics. Results KRAS mutations were observed in codon 12 and/or 13 in 20 of 40 (50% samples in Amgen direct sequencing assays. Results from HistoGeneX (κ = 0.95, Genzyme (κ = 0.94, and Agencourt (κ = 0.94 were in almost perfect agreement with these results, and the results from Gentris were in substantial agreement with the results from Amgen (κ = 0.75. The Invitek allele-specific assay demonstrated slight agreement (κ = 0.13. Conclusions This study provides data on the comparability of KRAS mutational analyses. The results suggest that most (but not all commercial services provide analysis that is accurate and comparable with direct sequencing.

  8. Comparative activity of carbapenem testing (the COMPACT study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leblebicioglu Hakan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence indicates that Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, the most common of which are Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter baumannii, are frequent causes of hospital-acquired infections. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro activity of doripenem and comparator carbapenem antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical isolates collected from COMParative Activity of Carbapenem Testing (COMPACT study centres in Turkey. Methods Ten centres in Turkey were invited to submit Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and other Gram-negative isolates from intensive care unit (ICU/non-ICU patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections, bloodstream infections, or nosocomial pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia, between May and October 2008. Susceptibility was determined by each centre using E-test. A central laboratory performed species confirmation as well as limited susceptibility and quality-control testing. Results Five hundred and ninety six isolates were collected. MIC90 values for doripenem, meropenem, and imipenem, respectively, were 32, ≥ 64, and ≥ 64 mg/L against Pseudomonas spp.; 0.12, 0.12, and 0.5 mg/L against Enterobacteriaceae; and ≥ 64 mg/L for each against other Gram-negative isolates. In determining the susceptibility of hospital isolates of selected Gram-negative pathogens to doripenem, imipenem, and meropenem, we found that against all pathogens combined, the MIC90 for ICU compared with non-ICU isolates was higher. Conclusions Doripenem showed similar or slightly better activity than meropenem and better activity than imipenem against the Gram-negative pathogens collected in Turkey.

  9. A comparative study of ketanserin and metoprolol in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, J A; Tooley, M; Sibbald, B; Gould, S E

    1986-04-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of ketanserin was compared with metoprolol in a double-blind parallel group study. After a 4-week placebo run-in on no treatment patients with a diastolic blood pressure (BP) of 95 mmHg or more received ketanserin 40 mg (n = 16) or metoprolol 100 mg (n = 17) twice daily. Blood pressure was measured in duplicate using a Hawksley random zero sphygmomanometer. Both blood pressure and heart rate were recorded after 5 min supine and 1 min standing. Patients visited after 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial BPs, both supine and standing, were significantly reduced from week 2 by both treatments (P less than 0.05, Student's t-test). The mean (+/- s.e.m.) changes in supine BP at 3 months compared with baseline were -15.7 (3.6) mmHg systolic and -13.9 (2.7) mmHg diastolic in the ketanserin group and -26.6 (7.9) mmHg systolic and -15.2 (2.7) mmHg diastolic in the metoprolol group. There was a tendency for the fall in systolic BP to be greater in the metoprolol group, but this did not reach statistical significance except for the standing systolic BP at 1 month. Metoprolol caused a significant fall in heart rate compared with baseline values throughout the study, and the metoprolol group was significantly different from the ketanserin group at 2 months for the supine heart rate and at all time points for standing heart rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. A Comparative Study on Automotive Brake Testing Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, Bhau Kashinath; Patil, Satyajit Ramchandra; Sawant, Suresh Maruti

    2016-06-01

    Performance testing of automotive brakes involves determination of stopping time, distance and deceleration level. Braking performance of an automobile is required to be ensured for various surfaces like dry, wet, concrete, bitumen etc. as well as for prolonged applications. Various brake testing standards are used worldwide to assure vehicle and pedestrian safety. This article presents methodologies used for automotive service brake testing for two wheelers. The main contribution of this work lies in comparative study of three main brake testing standards; viz. Indian Standards, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and European Economic Commission Standards. This study shall help the policy makers to choose the best criteria out of these three while formulating newer edition of testing standards.

  11. A Comparative Study of Antarctic Arctic and Himalayan Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Pathak

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available Arctic, Antarctic and inaccessible lofty regions of Himalayas,which are geographically diverse areas and have been a constant source of inspiration, envisages a challenging field of study 'by early adventurers and scientists of the world. Characteristics of ice obtained at Arctic and Antarctic do not possess similar properties. Even thesalient properties of snow and ice of western and central Himalayas vary due to its differing free water content. A study has been carriedout based on recent Antarctic Expedition by Indian scientists and the data gathered along litha-tectonic regions of Himalayas and their characteristics have been compared, wkich brings out stratigraphic and metamorphic characteristics of the ice and snow. In the present paper,an analysis of the ice and snow properties of Arctic, Antarctic and Himalayan regions has been presented.

  12. A Comparative Study of Group Key Management in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Bashary,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a self organized network, with no fixed infrastructure, limited resources and limited physical security. Security in such an environment is an essential requirement. Key management is a salient element in MANET security. It is responsible for key generation, storage, distribution, updating, revocation, deleting, and archiving. Key management protocols are classified into symmetric, asymmetric, group, and hybrid. Group key management is a point of interest for researchers with the growing usage of mobile devices and the rising of multicast communication. This paper surveys different approaches in group key management schemes. A comparative study is demonstrated in terms of reliability, computational complexity, storage cost, communication overheads, pre-requirements, security levels, robustness, vulnerabilities, scalability, energy and mobility. Finally, the study concludes the pros and cons of each protocol.

  13. [Comparative study of two techniques of ciclosporine monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, Rim; El Jebari, Hanène; Gaïes, Emna; Charfi, Ons; Jebabli, Nadia; Thouraya, Riahi; Ben Messaouda, Mhamed; Lakhal, Mohamed; Klouz, Anis; Salouage, Issam; Trabelsi, Sameh

    2015-01-01

    Ciclosporine (CsA) is an immunosuppressant drug used in bone marrow transplantation in order to extend allograft survival. Despite its efficiency, CsA can expose to therapeutic failure or to toxicity because of underdosing or overdosage. So, many techniques of monitoring CsA in blood were used, the referance one is the chromatographic technique then, the automated techniques: fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and chimiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). In this study, we aimed to compare the results of CsA concentrations measured by the two automised techniques. Statistical studies showed that the two techniques were repeatable and reproductible. Results obtained by FPIA were slightly higher than those obtained by CMIA but without a significative difference. In conclusion, FPIA technique could be used to measure CsA blood concentration in replacement of CMIA in case of technical problems.

  14. The Comparative Study of Color Metaphors in English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡琦

    2014-01-01

    With the development of human civilization, the significance of the color terms gradually emerges in our daily life and the unique charm which the color terms express and display, makes us regard them with special esteem. Color terms not only have the literal meanings, describing the things in nature, they also have the extended or metaphorical meanings, expressing dif erent and complex human emotions as well as the characteristic of the changing matters. This paper tries to give a comparative study of some basic color metaphors in English and Chinese as I discover that though color metaphors used in different languages have something in common they also have the difference, which deserves our further study.

  15. Internal Structure Quality Control of Solid Pharmaceuticals. A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Silvia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was a comparative investigation by spectral and thermal analysis in order to asses a number of characteristics of different varieties ofrawmaterials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen. The different dissolution behavior of two ursodeoxycholic acid pharmaceutical product by crystallinity pattern was investigated. Methods: Raw materials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen were used. IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis were applied. Results: The results show no crystallinitydifferences for different batches of the tested drugs. No solid solid transition was proved during sample preparation for transmission IR analysis. Conclusions: A combination of two more affordabletests by IR spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry lead to the same results as X-Ray diffraction analysis for crystallinity similarity assessment of the studied substances. The dissolution differences of test drugs were not related to the polymorphism of the raw materials.

  16. Thalamus segmentation from MP2RAGE: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Næss-Schmidt, Erhard; Blicher, Jakob

    methods may not work well with this new sequence. In this study we tested three different automatic methods for the important task of segmenting the thalamus from human brain MP2RAGE images. Methods: Twelve healthy control subjects (age range 19 – 38 years, two females) were scanned with a whole brain MP2.......g. diffusion or perfusion parameters obtained from other MRI sequences. For volumetric studies parameters of SNIPE can be adjusted to balance the over- and under-segmentation ratios......., such as Freesurfer and ANIMAL, do not work well with the new MP2RAGE sequence without modifications. Non-local patch based segmentation methods are better suited for the task, which is demonstrated by the improved accuracy of SNIPE compared to Freesurfer and ANIMAL. In addition, 25% of test images failed...

  17. Clinicopharmacological comparative study of rizatriptan versus conventional therapy in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwah, Anjali; Tomar, Akhilesh

    2014-01-01

    Migraine is a common neurological problem, which accounts for large morbidity and disability. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and triptans are mainly used to terminate the attack of moderate to severe migraine. This study compared the safety, efficacy and pharmaco-economics of rizatriptan (5HT(IB/ID) agonist) versus conventional therapy (paracetamol 500 mg + metoclopramide 10 mg + flunarizine 10 mg + alprazolam 0.5 mg). In this study, drug combinations used in conventional therapy was indigenously designed by the neurologist. Rizatriptan was found more efficacious than conventional therapy in terminating an attack of migraine and its' associated symptoms but looking into the contra-indications, side-effects and cost of the former there has been limitation in its prescription as well as the use.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Majeed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The aim and objective of this study is to compare the pulmonary function variables with the help of spirometer among beedi smokers, cigarette smokers and subjects who smoked both beedi and cigarette. BACKGROUND Smoking is a major public health problem and a major cause of many preventable diseases and premature deaths all over the world. Pulmonary function variables will differ based on the type of smoking i.e. Beedi smokers, cigarette smokers, subjects who smoked both beedi and cigarette. METHODS Cross sectional study done on 90 male smokers attending the Pulmonary Outpatient Department of Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital. Spirometry was done to assess the pulmonary function. CONCLUSION Pulmonary function values showed significant reduction in beedi smokers than people who smoke both beedi and cigarette, followed by subjects who smoked cigarette alone.

  19. A Comparative Study on Automotive Brake Testing Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, Bhau Kashinath; Patil, Satyajit Ramchandra; Sawant, Suresh Maruti

    2017-08-01

    Performance testing of automotive brakes involves determination of stopping time, distance and deceleration level. Braking performance of an automobile is required to be ensured for various surfaces like dry, wet, concrete, bitumen etc. as well as for prolonged applications. Various brake testing standards are used worldwide to assure vehicle and pedestrian safety. This article presents methodologies used for automotive service brake testing for two wheelers. The main contribution of this work lies in comparative study of three main brake testing standards; viz. Indian Standards, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and European Economic Commission Standards. This study shall help the policy makers to choose the best criteria out of these three while formulating newer edition of testing standards.

  20. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  1. Comparative visualization for parameter studies of dataset series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Muddassir; Heinzl, Christoph; Eduard Gröller, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes comparison and visualization techniques to carry out parameter studies for the special application area of dimensional measurement using 3D X-ray computed tomography (3DCT). A dataset series is generated by scanning a specimen multiple times by varying parameters of an industrial 3DCT device. A high-resolution series is explored using our planar-reformatting-based visualization system. We present a novel multi-image view and an edge explorer for comparing and visualizing gray values and edges of several datasets simultaneously. Visualization results and quantitative data are displayed side by side. Our technique is scalable and generic. It can be effective in various application areas like parameter studies of imaging modalities and dataset artifact detection. For fast data retrieval and convenient usability, we use bricking of the datasets and efficient data structures. We evaluate the applicability of the proposed techniques in collaboration with our company partners.

  2. A comparative study of Raman enhancement in capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Fatemeh; Irizar, Juan; Hulbert, Laila; Helmy, Amr S.

    2011-06-01

    This work reports on the comparative studies of Raman enhancement in liquid core waveguides (LCWs). The theoretical considerations that describe Raman enhancement in LCWs is adapted to analyze and compare the performance of hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HCPCFs) to conventional Teflon capillary tubes. The optical losses in both platforms are measured and used to predict their performance for different lengths. The results show that for an optimal waveguide length, two orders of magnitude enhancement in the Raman signal can be achieved for aqueous solutions using HCPCFs. This length, however, cannot be achieved using normal capillary effects. By integrating the interface of the fluidic pump and the HCPCF into a microfluidic chip, we are able to control fluid transport and fill longer lengths of HCPCFs regardless of the viscosity of the sample. The long-term stability and reproducibility of Raman spectra attained through this platform are demonstrated for naphthalenethiol, which is a well-studied organic compound. Using the HCPCF platform, the detection limit of normal Raman scattering in the range of micro-molars has been achieved. In addition to the higher signal-to-noise ratio of the Raman signal from the HCPCF-platform, more Raman modes of naphthalenethiol are revealed using this platform.

  3. A comparative phylogenetic study of genetics and folk music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamjav, Horolma; Juhász, Zoltán; Zalán, Andrea; Németh, Endre; Damdin, Bayarlkhagva

    2012-04-01

    Computer-aided comparison of folk music from different nations is one of the newest research areas. We were intrigued to have identified some important similarities between phylogenetic studies and modern folk music. First of all, both of them use similar concepts and representation tools such as multidimensional scaling for modelling relationship between populations. This gave us the idea to investigate whether these connections are merely accidental or if they mirror population migrations from the past. We raised the question; does the complex structure of musical connections display a clear picture and can this system be interpreted by the genetic analysis? This study is the first to systematically investigate the incidental genetic background of the folk music context between different populations. Paternal (42 populations) and maternal lineages (56 populations) were compared based on Fst genetic distances of the Y chromosomal and mtDNA haplogroup frequencies. To test this hypothesis, the corresponding musical cultures were also compared using an automatic overlap analysis of parallel melody styles for 31 Eurasian nations. We found that close musical relations of populations indicate close genetic distances (folk music; maternal lineages have a more important role in folk music traditions than paternal lineages. Furthermore, the combination of these disciplines establishing a new interdisciplinary research field of "music-genetics" can be an efficient tool to get a more comprehensive picture on the complex behaviour of populations in prehistoric time.

  4. Cutaneous chemical burns in children - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Joseph; Bechar, Janak; Bella, Husam; Moiemen, Naiem

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to chemicals is an unusual causation of cutaneous burns in children. The aim of this study is to look at childhood chemical burns and compare this to adult chemical burns from the same population. A total of 2054 patients were referred to the pediatric burns unit during the study period. This included 24 cutaneous chemical burns, equating to an incidence of 1.1%. Over half of the injuries occurred in the domestic setting. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) affected was 1.9%. When compared to a cohort of adult patients from the same population with cutaneous chemical burns, the TBSA affected was identical (1.9%) but distribution favored the buttock and perineum in children, rather than the distal lower limb in adults. Children presented earlier, had lower rates of surgical intervention and had a shorter length of stay in hospital (p Chemical burns in children are rare, but are becoming more common in our region. It is important to be aware of the characteristic distribution, etiology and need to identify children at risk of child protection issues.

  5. A comparative study of satellite and ground-based phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, S; Stöckli, R; Appenzeller, C; Vidale, P L

    2007-05-01

    Long time series of ground-based plant phenology, as well as more than two decades of satellite-derived phenological metrics, are currently available to assess the impacts of climate variability and trends on terrestrial vegetation. Traditional plant phenology provides very accurate information on individual plant species, but with limited spatial coverage. Satellite phenology allows monitoring of terrestrial vegetation on a global scale and provides an integrative view at the landscape level. Linking the strengths of both methodologies has high potential value for climate impact studies. We compared a multispecies index from ground-observed spring phases with two types (maximum slope and threshold approach) of satellite-derived start-of-season (SOS) metrics. We focus on Switzerland from 1982 to 2001 and show that temporal and spatial variability of the multispecies index correspond well with the satellite-derived metrics. All phenological metrics correlate with temperature anomalies as expected. The slope approach proved to deviate strongly from the temporal development of the ground observations as well as from the threshold-defined SOS satellite measure. The slope spring indicator is considered to indicate a different stage in vegetation development and is therefore less suited as a SOS parameter for comparative studies in relation to ground-observed phenology. Satellite-derived metrics are, however, very susceptible to snow cover, and it is suggested that this snow cover should be better accounted for by the use of newer satellite sensors.

  6. Comparative planning study for proton radiotherapy of benign brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, L.; Nicolini, G.; Fogliata, A. [Medical Physics, Oncology Inst. of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Clivio, A.; Vanetti, E. [Medical Physics, Oncology Inst. of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Medical Physics Specialization School, Univ. of Milan (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: a comparative study of different systems for proton-based radiotherapy was conducted. Material and methods: the Paul Scherrer Institute method for spot scanning was compared with the systems for passive scattering from the helax-TMS and the varian eclipse. Twelve cases of ''benign'' brain tumors were considered (meningiomas, neurinomas, and hypophyseal adenomas). Organs at risk included chiasm, brainstem, eyes and optic nerves as well as the not otherwise specified healthy brain tissue in view of long-term toxicity. Results: the results showed that high target coverage was achievable (V{sub 90} > 98% for all systems). Plans designed with the spot-scanning technique presented the minimum involvement of healthy tissue (e.g., the lowest maximum significant dose to healthy brain [25.6 Gy] or the lowest conformity index [CI{sub 95} = 1.3], between 38% and 46% lower than for the other techniques). Conclusion: in this study, no definitive indication of superiority of any technique can be drawn but spot scanning can better conform dose distributions and minimize the irradiation of healthy volumes at medium to low dose levels, a factor of interest when long life expectancy is considered. (orig.)

  7. Femoral anteversion measured by ultrasound and CT: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aamodt, A. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Trondheim Univ. Hospital (Norway); Terjesen, T. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Trondheim Univ. Hospital (Norway); Eine, J. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Trondheim Univ. Hospital (Norway); Kvistad, K.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Trondheim Univ. Hospital (Norway)

    1995-02-01

    Both computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography have been used successfully to estimate the femoral anteversion (AV) angle. In this study, AV angles in 20 human adult femurs were determined by ultrasonography and CT and the measurements compared. On CT the real AV angle was measured as the angle between the head-neck centreline and the posterior condylar plane. In addition, the angle between the anterior head-trochanter (HT) tangent and the posterior condylar plane was determined. The latter angle was also measured by ultrasonography using the tilted transducer technique. The mean interobserver variation in the ultrasound measurements was 1.9 . We found ultrasonography to correlate very well with CT, both when comparing with the HT angle (r=0.95) and with the AV angle (r=0.93). The HT angle was on average 4 greater than the AV angle. In this study the accuracy of ultrasonography was {+-}5 and the method is recommended for screening in patients with rotational disorders of the femur. (orig.)

  8. CAECUM AND APPENDIX IN RUMINANTS AND MAN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekanth

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The change in the trends of living and dietary habits prompted the inquisitiveness in finding out if there are obvious changes in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. Ruminants are entirely dependent on the environment for their food and take a long time to feed themselves with foliage which is first taken in and then digested. The changing ecological balance and dwindling reserves in the past few years and changing climatic conditions could probably have an effect on the digestive tract. It has been observed that the cow, sheep and goat have started feeding on debris from the environment. Man has also started changing dietary habits according to convenience and has become aware of organic foods and vegetarian diets. Therefore an attempt was made to see if there are notable changes that can be recorded in the digestive tract. The study here attempted to compare the caecum of man with that of ruminants. The caecum was found to be the largest in the cow in proportion to the weight of the animal. The caecum was almost of the same dimensions in goat and sheep compared with that of man. The appendix was noted only in man. The study attempts to describe the importance of appendix in man and a large caecum in ruminants.

  9. [Generations of Italian nurses compared: an exploratory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanin, Simone; Gregori, Dario; Poletti, Piera

    2015-01-01

    The influence that generations have on complex nursing work environment have not been investigated yet in Italy. The majority of studies realized on this topic up to now has a small sample size and is monocentric. None Italian study has directly investigated nursing multigenerational workforce. The study aimed to investigate the existence of generational differences in Italian nurses professional within the italian context and describe their characteristics. A 33 items questionnaire devised for the purpose was administred to a sample of 317 nurses of two major Italian North-East hospital. Five dimensions were analyzed: professional space, professional role, professional culture, orientation to care, relationships among generations. Data showed statistically significant differences among nurses generations in 9 items. The dimensions with the greatest number of significant items were found to be relationship among generations (6 items), followed by orientation to care, professional space and professional role (1 item each). Results highlighted the existence of generational differences and give some information on perceptions and relationships between italian nurses generations. Being the first exploratory study on Italian nurses, it is currently impossible to compare these results with those of previous studies. Further investigation is needed to make more comparisons with international literature.

  10. Comparative Study of Algorithms for Automated Generalization of Linear Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimjon, S.; Gupta, P. K.; Sukhmani, R. S. G. S.

    2014-11-01

    Automated generalization, rooted from conventional cartography, has become an increasing concern in both geographic information system (GIS) and mapping fields. All geographic phenomenon and the processes are bound to the scale, as it is impossible for human being to observe the Earth and the processes in it without decreasing its scale. To get optimal results, cartographers and map-making agencies develop set of rules and constraints, however these rules are under consideration and topic for many researches up until recent days. Reducing map generating time and giving objectivity is possible by developing automated map generalization algorithms (McMaster and Shea, 1988). Modification of the scale traditionally is a manual process, which requires knowledge of the expert cartographer, and it depends on the experience of the user, which makes the process very subjective as every user may generate different map with same requirements. However, automating generalization based on the cartographic rules and constrains can give consistent result. Also, developing automated system for map generation is the demand of this rapid changing world. The research that we have conveyed considers only generalization of the roads, as it is one of the indispensable parts of a map. Dehradun city, Uttarakhand state of India was selected as a study area. The study carried out comparative study of the generalization software sets, operations and algorithms available currently, also considers advantages and drawbacks of the existing software used worldwide. Research concludes with the development of road network generalization tool and with the final generalized road map of the study area, which explores the use of open source python programming language and attempts to compare different road network generalization algorithms. Thus, the paper discusses the alternative solutions for automated generalization of linear objects using GIS-technologies. Research made on automated of road network

  11. Multi-Objective Optimization for Energy Performance Improvement of Residential Buildings: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangji Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous conflicting criteria exist in building design optimization, such as energy consumption, greenhouse gas emission and indoor thermal performance. Different simulation-based optimization strategies and various optimization algorithms have been developed. A few of them are analyzed and compared in solving building design problems. This paper presents an efficient optimization framework to facilitate optimization designs with the aid of commercial simulation software and MATLAB. The performances of three optimization strategies, including the proposed approach, GenOpt method and artificial neural network (ANN method, are investigated using a case study of a simple building energy model. Results show that the proposed optimization framework has competitive performances compared with the GenOpt method. Further, in another practical case, four popular multi-objective algorithms, e.g., the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II, multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO, the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA and multi-objective differential evolution (MODE, are realized using the propose optimization framework and compared with three criteria. Results indicate that MODE achieves close-to-optimal solutions with the best diversity and execution time. An uncompetitive result is achieved by the MOPSO in this case study.

  12. Social Science Teachers on Citizenship Education: A Comparative Study of Two Post-Communist Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Jeliazkova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the results of a comparative study of high school social science teachers in two post-communist European countries: Bulgaria and Croatia. In both countries, citizenship education was implemented as a part of the EU accession efforts. I discuss the ways teachers deal with the everyday dilemmas of teaching in a field which is by definition controversial and loaded with diverse political meanings. The study involved teachers in the two countries using Q-methodology, a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. Five distinct ways of dealing with these questions, five types of views were found in Bulgaria: Pragmatic Conservatives, Deliberative Liberals, Local Social Guardians, Personal Growth Facilitators, and Global Future Debaters. In Croatia, the types of views were: Patriotic Conservatives, Liberal Democracy Mentors, Reflective Humanists, and Personal Growth Coaches. The differences and similarities between the teachers’ views in both countries are compared. The study highlights the crucial role of teachers, of their beliefs and experiences in shaping national and European citizenship education policies. The implications of the study findings for citizenship education policy, curriculum development, and teacher training are briefly discussed.

  13. A pilot study comparing two physiotherapy techniques in patietnts with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Milne

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The flutter is a simple hand held device designed to facilitate the mobilisation of excess bronchial secretions by means of oscillating positive pressure. Traditionally patients at the Johannesburg Hospital Cystic Fibrosis clinic used the active cycle of breathing technique as a means of facilitating secretion mobilisation and clearance. When the flutter became available in South Africa in 1999 many cystic fibrosis patients wanted to change to this technique. Minimal research has been conducted comparing these two techniques. The aim of this pilot study was therefore to determine which technique is more effective in the mobilisation of  secretions in cystic fibrosis patients. The pilot study was conducted on seven cystic fibrosis patients (mean age 28 years, range 16-42 years admitted to the Johannesburg Hospital for antibiotic therapy. The study lasted four days and consisted of two treatment days  separated by a washout day on which no physiotherapy was performed. Patients randomised into Group A performed the flutter technique on day two and the active cycle of breathing technique on day four. Group B performed the active cycle of breathing technique on day two and the flutter on day four. The techniques were performed twice a day for  15 minutes. The measurements taken were daily 24-hour sputum samples and daily lung function tests. A questionnaire to determine patient preference to a technique concluded the study.  The results showed no statistical difference between the two techniques with regard to sputum weight or lung function (p<0.05. The questionnaire indicated that on a whole, patients had no preference for a technique.

  14. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COLD KNIFE ADENOTONSILLECTOMY AND COBLATION ADENOTONSILLECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Col . S. K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To compare intra and postoperative recovery after Cold dissection adenotonsillectomy ( P rocedure 1 and Coblation assisted adenotonsillectomy ( P rocedure 2 and to determine whether there is a significant difference betwe en the two methods i n terms of benefit to the patients. METHODS: A single blind comparative study of 60 pediatric patients aged 5 to 16 years undergoing adenotonsillectomy was conducted. The study assessed the results of two procedures in terms of duration, intra and post - operative bleeding, resumption to normal activi ty and quality of life assessment. The parameters were statistically compared between the two groups. RESULTS: 60 patients who underwent surgery (30 for cold dissection and 30 for coblation adenoton sillectomy were found to have comparable demographic dat a with a mean age of 9.33 and 9.37 in procedure 1 & 2 respectively. The distribution of symptoms and grades of adenoid and tonsil hypertrophy was found statistically insignificant. The duration of the surgical procedure was significantly higher in the cobl ation group with a mean of 29.18 minutes in comparison to the other procedure with a mean of 22.8 minutes. The blood loss was around 20 ml for coblation versus 35 ml for cold steel method which was significant. T he mean pain scores at 6 hrs post - surgery wer e low in coblation group, similar results were seen at 12hrs and again at 2 days there was low pain score. There was not much difference after 1 month in both the groups. Coblation procedure had a quicker return to normal diet with a mean duration of 2.67 d ays which was significant than th e cold dissection method (mean - 4.16 days. The quality of life scores were found similar in both the groups at the end of 6 months. CONCLUSION: The reduction of intraoperative blood loss in Coblation tonsillectomy was obvio us and reduction of the postoperative pain and early return to normal diet were statistically significant. But the duration

  15. Institutions and national development in Latin America: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Alejandro; Smith, Lori D

    We review the theoretical and empirical literatures on the role of institutions on national development as a prelude to present a more rigorous and measurable definition of the concept and a methodology to study this relationship at the national and subnational levels. The existing research literature features conflicting definitions of the concept of "institutions" and empirical tests based mostly on reputational indices, with countries as units of analysis. The present study's methodology is based on a set of five strategic organizations studied comparatively in five Latin American countries. These include key federal agencies, public administrative organizations, and stock exchanges. Systematic analysis of results show a pattern of differences between economically-oriented institutions and those entrusted with providing basic services to the general population. Consistent differences in institutional quality also emerge across countries, despite similar levels of economic development. Using the algebraic methods developed by Ragin, we test six hypotheses about factors determining the developmental character of particular institutions. Implications of results for theory and for methodological practices of future studies in this field are discussed.

  16. Translation Evaluation: A Comparative Study of an Oblique Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    / Esmail Zare Behtash

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Translation is of an absolute necessity in today’s world. Robinson (1997 states that the study of translation is an integral part of intercultural relations and of conveying scientific and technological knowledge. He further mentions that “translators need to be able to process linguistic materials quickly and efficiently; but they also need to be able to recognize problem areas and to slow down to solve them in complex analytical ways” (p. 2. This study is an attempt to explore and evaluate an oblique translation of a text from English into Persian to find the most frequent translation strategy. To reach the goal of the study, the researchers selected one hundred and ten sentences of an original English text which had been translated freely at random and compared them with their Persian counterparts. The findings of the study indicated that Persian translator used equivalent strategy with the highest percentage (45% in the translated corpus. After that, modulation, and transposition had the highest percentages respectively.

  17. A comparative study of road traffic accidents in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J F

    1978-11-01

    The problem of road traffic accidents in developing countries is now becoming a cause for concern. This is more so as preventive measures have not kept pace with economic progress and development. This paper reviews the present situation in West Malaysia, one of the better developed countries of the East, during the period 1970 to 1975. A comparative study has been made between the United States and Malaysia. To enable the urgency of the problem in developing countries to be appreciated the increases in the country's population and in the number of vehicles in use and their relation to the lesser increase in road mileage over the period of study have been discussed. The study has considered every aspect of the causative factors leading to traffic accidents, such as the effects of weather, seasonal variation, and road and lighting conditions. The common human errors leading to accidents have been discussed. Other factors, such as the ethnic distribution in Malaysia, and their relation to road accidents have shown the effect of the social structure on the problems. The data evaluated in this study make it clear that preventive measures are very necessary in underdeveloped as well as in developed countries.

  18. A new approach to exfoliative cytology: A comparative cytomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaila, M; Shetty, P; Pai, P

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of oral premalignancy and malignancy using simple screening aids play a promising role in curbing the disease. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate and the secondary aim of this study is to compare the cytomorphometry and cellular atypia in keratinocytes obtained from oral rinse and conventional exfoliative cytology in normal oral mucosa and clinically diagnosed oral leukoplakia. The study comprised of 55 clinically diagnosed cases of leukoplakia and 55 age and sex matched normal controls. Smears were prepared using oral rinse technique followed by the conventional exfoliative cytology. Papanicoloau stained smears were evaluated for atypia and subjected to image analysis. Based on the presence of atypia they were further divided into three groups (Group 1-cases with atypia, Group 2-without atypia and Group 3-normal controls) and analyzed. Statistical analysis used one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey Honestly Significant Difference test for intergroup analysis and unpaired students t-test to compare the two methods. Smears prepared with both methods demonstrated atypia in 18 cases. The cellular diameter and cellular area (CA) were progressively increased from Group 1 through Groups 2 and 3 in both the smears. Nuclear diameter and nuclear area and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio progressively decreased from Group 1 through Groups 2 and 3. Both the methods showed no significant differences among the cellular parameters except in normal controls. Cytomorphometric analysis of keratinocytes obtained with oral rinse method and wooden spatula can serve as a useful screening aid to detect oral leukoplakia. Oral rinse method being more convenient results in smears of better quality.

  19. A new approach to exfoliative cytology: A comparative cytomorphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shaila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Early detection of oral premalignancy and malignancy using simple screening aids play a promising role in curbing the disease. Aim: The primary aim of this study is to evaluate and the secondary aim of this study is to compare the cytomorphometry and cellular atypia in keratinocytes obtained from oral rinse and conventional exfoliative cytology in normal oral mucosa and clinically diagnosed oral leukoplakia. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 55 clinically diagnosed cases of leukoplakia and 55 age and sex matched normal controls. Smears were prepared using oral rinse technique followed by the conventional exfoliative cytology. Papanicoloau stained smears were evaluated for atypia and subjected to image analysis. Based on the presence of atypia they were further divided into three groups (Group 1-cases with atypia, Group 2-without atypia and Group 3-normal controls and analyzed. Statistical analysis used one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey Honestly Significant Difference test for intergroup analysis and unpaired students t-test to compare the two methods. Results: Smears prepared with both methods demonstrated atypia in 18 cases. The cellular diameter and cellular area (CA were progressively increased from Group 1 through Groups 2 and 3 in both the smears. Nuclear diameter and nuclear area and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio progressively decreased from Group 1 through Groups 2 and 3. Both the methods showed no significant differences among the cellular parameters except in normal controls. Conclusion: Cytomorphometric analysis of keratinocytes obtained with oral rinse method and wooden spatula can serve as a useful screening aid to detect oral leukoplakia. Oral rinse method being more convenient results in smears of better quality.

  20. Comparative micromorphological study of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mubo A. Sonibare; Adedapo A. Adeniran

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the leaf epidermis of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. (D. bulbifera) in order to document useful diagnostic features that may be employed for correct crude drug identification and to clear any taxonomic uncertainties in the micropropagated medicinal plant. Methods:Growth responses of micropropagated D. bulbifera were observed on Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine (1.0 mg/L)+α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) using nodal segments as explants. Leaves of the wild and micropropagated plants were studied microscopically. Results: More than 80%shoot regeneration and formation of 10%-30%whitish-brown callus were observed within 3 weeks. The highest root proliferation was obtained from Murashige Skoog medium of 6-benzylamino purine (0.05 mg/L) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.01 mg/L) with mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm and elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm. Leaf epidermal features that revealed similarities between the wild and micropropagated plants included amphistomatic condition, presence of mucilage, glandular unicellular trichome with multicellular head, polygonal cells with smooth walls, stomata type and shape. Slight variations included thick cuticular wall with closed stomata in wild plant compared to thin walled opened stomata in the in vitro plant. Opening of stomata accounted for larger average stomata sizes of (7.68±0.38) µm and (6.14±0.46) µm on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively of the micropropagated plant compared to the wild. Conclusions: The diagnostic features obtained in the study could serve as a basis for proper identification for quality control for standardization of the medicinal plant.

  1. Texture analysis of multiple sclerosis: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Tong, Longzheng; Wang, Lei; Li, Ning

    2008-10-01

    The difficulty of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to support early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) stems from the subtle pathological changes in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, texture analysis was performed on MR images of MS patients and normal controls and a combined set of texture features were explored in order to better discriminate tissues between MS lesions, normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and normal white matter (NWM). Features were extracted from gradient matrix, run-length (RL) matrix, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), autoregressive (AR) model and wavelet analysis, and were selected based on greatest difference between different tissue types. The results of the combined set of texture features were compared with our previous results of GLCM-based features alone. The results of this study demonstrated that (1) with the combined set of texture features, classification was perfect (100%) between MS lesions and NAWM (or NWM), less successful (88.89%) among the three tissue types and worst (58.33%) between NAWM and NWM; (2) compared with GLCM-based features, the combined set of texture features were better at discriminating MS lesions and NWM, equally good at discriminating MS lesions and NAWM and at all three tissue types, but less effective in classification between NAWM and NWM. This study suggested that texture analysis with the combined set of texture features may be equally good or more advantageous than the commonly used GLCM-based features alone in discriminating MS lesions and NWM/NAWM and in supporting early diagnosis of MS.

  2. Epidural analgesia during labor vs no analgesia: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Farid Mousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidural analgesia is claimed to result in prolonged labor. Previous studies have assessed epidural analgesia vs systemic opioids rather than to parturients receiving no analgesia. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of epidural analgesia on labor duration compared with parturients devoid of analgesia. Methods: One hundred sixty nulliparous women in spontaneous labor at full term with a singleton vertex presentation were assigned to the study. Parturients who request epidural analgesia were allocated in the epidural group, whereas those not enthusiastic to labor analgesia were allocated in the control group. Epidural analgesia was provided with 20 mL bolus 0.5% epidural lidocaine plus fentanyl and maintained at 10 mL for 1 h. Duration of the first and second stages of labor, number of parturients receiving oxytocin, maximal oxytocin dose required for each parturient, numbers of instrumental vaginal, vacuum-assisted, and cesarean deliveries and neonatal Apgar score were recorded. Results: There was no statistical difference in the duration of the active-first and the second stages of labor, instrumental delivery, vacuum-assisted or cesarean delivery rates, the number of newborns with 1-min and 5-min Apgar scores less than 7 between both groups and number of parturients receiving oxytocin, however, the maximal oxytocin dose was significantly higher in the epidural group. Conclusion: Epidural analgesia by lidocaine (0.5% and fentanyl does not prolong labor compared with parturients without analgesia; however, significant oxytocin augmentation is required during the epidural analgesia to keep up the aforementioned average labor duration.

  3. Antiamoebic chemoprophylaxis using quinfamide in children: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nicolas; Diaz, Rosalinda; Alarcon, Alfonso; Barreda, Roberto

    2002-04-20

    This study sought to examine whether the administration of quinfamide at 3- or 6-month intervals diminished the frequency of Entamoeba histolytica cysts in stool samples compared to controls. The prospective, longitudinal, randomized, single-blind study examined children from six primary schools in Celaya and Neutla, Guanajuato. Of the 1,524 students in these schools, we selected participants for the study as follows: Children were included in the study if their parents agreed in writing to the study and if the children demonstrated evidence of E. histolytica cysts after a parasitoscopic analysis by concentration (PSC) in three samples over consecutive days using Faust"s method. Those included in the study received a single 4.3-g/kg dose of quinfamide, and we performed PSC on days 5, 6, and 7 following dose administration to examine whether quinfamide had affected the presence of the cysts. The study participants who tested negative for cysts were divided into three groups: Group 1 had 102 patients who underwent quinfamide treatment and three CPS analyses after the 12 months of the study; Group 2 had 98 subjects who underwent the quinfamide treatment and three CPS analyses at months 3, 6, 9, and 12 after their entrance into the study; and Group 3 had 102 patients, who underwent the quinfamide treatment and series of three CPS analyses at months 6 and 12 of the study. All participants received the dose of quinfamide after providing stool samples and after a clinical gastrointestinal history was obtained. Further clinical gastrointestinal data were collected 5 days after the quintamide dose was administered. We used EpiInfo 6.0 for statistical analysis, calculating c2 and p values for the clinical data and the CPS data after the 12 months concluded. Of the initial samples of 1,524 subjects, 308 (20.2%) had Entamoebic cysts. Of these, six were further eliminated because they did not meet the inclusion requirements. At the conclusion of the study, Group 1 presented

  4. Antiamoebic Chemoprophylaxis Using Quinfamide in Children: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Padilla

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to examine whether the administration of quinfamide at 3- or 6-month intervals diminished the frequency of Entamoeba histolytica cysts in stool samples compared to controls. The prospective, longitudinal, randomized, single-blind study examined children from six primary schools in Celaya and Neutla, Guanajuato. Of the 1,524 students in these schools, we selected participants for the study as follows: Children were included in the study if their parents agreed in writing to the study and if the children demonstrated evidence of E. histolytica cysts after a parasitoscopic analysis by concentration (PSC in three samples over consecutive days using Faust’s method. Those included in the study received a single 4.3-g/kg dose of quinfamide, and we performed PSC on days 5, 6, and 7 following dose administration to examine whether quinfamide had affected the presence of the cysts. The study participants who tested negative for cysts were divided into three groups: Group 1 had 102 patients who underwent quinfamide treatment and three CPS analyses after the 12 months of the study; Group 2 had 98 subjects who underwent the quinfamide treatment and three CPS analyses at months 3, 6, 9, and 12 after their entrance into the study; and Group 3 had 102 patients, who underwent the quinfamide treatment and series of three CPS analyses at months 6 and 12 of the study. All participants received the dose of quinfamide after providing stool samples and after a clinical gastrointestinal history was obtained. Further clinical gastrointestinal data were collected 5 days after the quintamide dose was administered. We used EpiInfo 6.0 for statistical analysis, calculating X2 and p values for the clinical data and the CPS data after the 12 months concluded. Of the initial samples of 1,524 subjects, 308 (20.2% had Entamoebic cysts. Of these, six were further eliminated because they did not meet the inclusion requirements. At the conclusion of the study

  5. Comparative study on diagonal equivalent methods of masonry infill panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, Aniendhita Rizki; Iranata, Data

    2017-06-01

    ratio of height to width of 1 to 1.5. Load used in the experiment was based on Uniform Building Code (UBC) 1991. Every method compared was calculated first to get equivalent diagonal strut width. The second step was modelling method using structure analysis software as a frame with a diagonal in a linear mode. The linear mode was chosen based on structure analysis commonly used by structure designers. The frame was loaded and for every model, its load and deformation values were identified. The values of load - deformation of every method were compared to those of experimental test specimen by Mehrabi and open frame. From comparative study performed, Holmes' and Bazan-Meli's equations gave results the closest to the experimental test specimen by Mehrabi. Other equations that gave close values within the limit (by comparing it to the open frame) are Saneinejad-Hobbs, Stafford-Smith, Bazan-Meli, Liauw Kwan, Paulay and Priestley, FEMA 356, Durani Luo, Hendry, Papia and Chen-Iranata.

  6. Standardized Total Average Toxicity Score: A Scale- and Grade-Independent Measure of Late Radiotherapy Toxicity to Facilitate Pooling of Data From Different Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Gillian C., E-mail: gillbarnett@doctors.org.uk [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M.L. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Coles, Charlotte E. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pharoah, Paul D.P. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Elliott, Rebecca M. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tanteles, George A. [Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Symonds, R. Paul [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Jennifer S. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dunning, Alison M. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Burnet, Neil G. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bentzen, Soren M. [University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The search for clinical and biologic biomarkers associated with late radiotherapy toxicity is hindered by the use of multiple and different endpoints from a variety of scoring systems, hampering comparisons across studies and pooling of data. We propose a novel metric, the Standardized Total Average Toxicity (STAT) score, to try to overcome these difficulties. Methods and Materials: STAT scores were derived for 1010 patients from the Cambridge breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy trial and 493 women from University Hospitals of Leicester. The sensitivity of the STAT score to detect differences between patient groups, stratified by factors known to influence late toxicity, was compared with that of individual endpoints. Analysis of residuals was used to quantify the effect of these covariates. Results: In the Cambridge cohort, STAT scores detected differences (p < 0.00005) between patients attributable to breast volume, surgical specimen weight, dosimetry, acute toxicity, radiation boost to tumor bed, postoperative infection, and smoking (p < 0.0002), with no loss of sensitivity over individual toxicity endpoints. Diabetes (p = 0.017), poor postoperative surgical cosmesis (p = 0.0036), use of chemotherapy (p = 0.0054), and increasing age (p = 0.041) were also associated with increased STAT score. When the Cambridge and Leicester datasets were combined, STAT was associated with smoking status (p < 0.00005), diabetes (p = 0.041), chemotherapy (p = 0.0008), and radiotherapy boost (p = 0.0001). STAT was independent of the toxicity scale used and was able to deal with missing data. There were correlations between residuals of the STAT score obtained using different toxicity scales (r > 0.86, p < 0.00005 for both datasets). Conclusions: The STAT score may be used to facilitate the analysis of overall late radiation toxicity, from multiple trials or centers, in studies of possible genetic and nongenetic determinants of radiotherapy toxicity.

  7. Facilitating Value Co-Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veith, Anne; Assaf, Albert; Josiassen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    ) introduced a new dominant logic in the marketing literature, the Service-Dominant Logic (S-D Logic), in which service, interactions, and enhanced experiences help create value, and this potential for value is what attracts consumers. Therefore organizations must be customer-centric in order to facilitate...... unique, positive experiences. As the name indicates, both organizations and consumers (should) obtain value when co-creating, which is why both parties are willing to increase their degree of involvement, e.g. spending more resources, sharing tacit knowledge, etc., because a high degree of involvement....... Through an exploratory qualitative study, 9 facilitators for B2C value co-creation were uncovered. The study was set in the creative industries. The 9 facilitators are a combination of the main facilitators found in the literature review and the ones found through the empirical research. The 9...

  8. Contrasting tropical estuarine ecosystem functioning and stability: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Maria Ching

    2015-03-01

    A comparative study of the Sine-saloum (Senegal) and Gambia (The Gambia) estuaries was performed based on trophic model outputs that describe the system structure and functioning. These trophic models were constructed such as to differentiate main energetic flows in the systems and express how climate change may have impacted ecosystem resilience to change. Estuarine fish assemblages are highly resilient despite exposure to vast hydrodynamic variations and stress. Coupled with strong anthropogenic-driven stresses such as fisheries and climate change, ecosystems may undergo severe regime shifts that may weaken their resilience and stability. Taxonomically related and morphologically similar species do not necessarily play similar ecological roles in these two ecosystems. Biomass and production in the Sine-saloum are concentrated at trophic levels (TLs) 2 and 3, while for the Gambia, both are concentrated at TL3. Higher TL biomasses in Gambia compared to Sine-Saloum may be explained by the latter ecosystem being characterized by inverse hypersalinity. Higher TL of production in Sine-Saloum is due to higher exploitations compared to Gambia where fishing activities are still less developed. High production and consumption rates of some groups in both ecosystems indicate high system productivity. Elevated productivity may be due to higher abundance of juvenile fishes in most groups that utilize the latter as refuge and/or nursery zones. Both ecosystems are phytoplankton-driven. Differences in group trophic and ecological roles are mainly due to adaptive responses of these species to seasonal and long-term climate and anthropogenic stressors. System indicators suggest different levels of ecosystem resilience and stability as a function of biodiversity. Relevance of other observations on ecosystem functioning and indicators in relation to perturbation is discussed.

  9. DEXMEDETOMIDINE AND FENTANYL FOR ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwanath R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe cardiovascular response in the form of tachycardia and hypertension occur during induction of general anaesthesia and endotracheal intubation. This can cause deleterious effects in hypertensive and other cardiovascular disease patients. Alpha-2 (α-2 agonists are increasingly used as adjuncts in anaesthesia. Nowadays, dexmedetomidine, α-2 adrenoreceptor agonist, is gaining popularity for its sympatholytic, sedative, anaesthetic sparing and haemodynamic stabilizing properties without significant respiratory depression. The stable hemodynamic and decreased oxygen consumption due to enhanced sympathoadrenal stability make dexmedetomidine very useful pharmacologic agent. The present study was undertaken to compare the effectiveness of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl in attenuating the response to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation during general anaesthesia. We enrolled 100 patients in age range 18-50 years of ASA I-II, and of either sex undergoing elective operation of short duration. Patients were randomly selected and allocated into two Groups. Group D: Received dexmedetomidine 1μg/kg intravenous (IV bolus and Group F: received fentanyl 1μg/kg IV bolus 10min before induction. All patients were induced with thiopentone sodium and vecuronium. Patients in both the Groups were continuously monitored for heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (MAP and data recorded. After induction and intubation HR, SBP, DBP and MAP were significantly lower in Group D than Group F (P<0.004, P=0.00, P<0.04, P<0.006 respectively. The need for thiopentone was decreased by 9% in the dexmedetomidine Group as compared to the fentanyl Group. Post-operative sedation and pain scores were comparably less in Group D than Group F. We conclude, Preoperative infusion of 1μg/kg of both dexmedetomidine and fentanyl are effective in attenuating the sympathetic responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation however, dexmedetomidine blunts this

  10. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  11. Heuristic Synthesis of Reversible Logic – A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Shin Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic circuits have been historically motivated by theoretical research in low-power, and recently attracted interest as components of the quantum algorithm, optical computing and nanotechnology. However due to the intrinsic property of reversible logic, traditional irreversible logic design and synthesis methods cannot be carried out. Thus a new set of algorithms are developed correctly to synthesize reversible logic circuit. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review with comparative study on heuristic based reversible logic synthesis. It reviews a range of heuristic based reversible logic synthesis techniques reported by researchers (BDD-based, cycle-based, search-based, non-search-based, rule-based, transformation-based, and ESOP-based. All techniques are described in detail and summarized in a table based on their features, limitation, library used and their consideration metric. Benchmark comparison of gate count and quantum cost are analysed for each synthesis technique. Comparing the synthesis algorithm outputs over the years, it can be observed that different approach has been used for the synthesis of reversible circuit. However, the improvements are not significant. Quantum cost and gate count has improved over the years, but arguments and debates are still on certain issues such as the issue of garbage outputs that remain the same. This paper provides the information of all heuristic based synthesis of reversible logic method proposed over the years. All techniques are explained in detail and thus informative for new reversible logic researchers and bridging the knowledge gap in this area.

  12. Comparative Study of Volatile Compounds from Genus Ocimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Vani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are distinct varieties of basil types in the genus Ocimum which makes them very special. Genus Ocimum is widespread over Asia, Africa and Central & Southern America. All basils are member of the Lamiaceae family. The colors of the leaves vary from bright green to purple-green and sometimes almost black. Fresh basil leaves have a strong and characteristic aroma, not comparable to any other spice, although there is a hint of clove traceable. Ocimum Sanctum, also addressed as Ocimum Tenuiflorum is a sacred plant in the Hindu culture and known as Tulasi in Tamil or Holy Basil in English. Meanwhile Ocimum Basilicum, known as Common or Sweet Basil has very dark green leaves. The genus Ocimum is cultivated for its remarkable essential oil which exhibits many usages such as in medicinal application, herbs, culinary, perfume for herbal toiletries, aromatherapy treatment and as flavoring agent. Due to varying essential oil profiles even within the same species, plants may often be classified as a different species as a result of different scents. In the present study, volatile constituents of Ocimum Sanctum and Ocimum Basilicum were extracted using various solvents and their chemical constituents were identified and quantified by using GC-MS in optimized conditions. The profiles of extract from both species were compared in an effort to investigate effects of seasonal variation on their chemical compositions. The predominant species in Ocimum Sanctum and Ocimum Basilicum was found to be methyl eugenol and methyl chavicol, respectively, during different months of analysis.

  13. A comparative kinetic study of SNCR process using ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, M. Tayyeb; Ahmed, Z.; Ibrahim, M. Asim; Irfan, N.

    2008-07-01

    The paper presents comparative kinetic modelling of nitrogen oxides (NOx) removal from flue gases by selective non-catalytic reduction process using ammonia as reducing agent. The computer code SENKIN is used in this study with the three published chemical kinetic mechanisms; Zanoelo, Kilpinen and Skreiberg. Kinetic modeling was performed for an isothermal plug flow reactor at atmospheric pressure so as to compare it with the experimental results. A 500 ppm NOx background in the flue gas is considered and kept constant throughout the investigation. The ammonia performance was modeled in the range of 750 to 1250{sup o}C using the molar ratios NH{sub 3}/NOx from 0.25 to 3.0 and residence times up to 1.5 seconds. The modeling using all the mechanisms exhibits and confirms a temperature window of NOx reduction with ammonia. It was observed that 80% of NOx reduction efficiency could be achieved if the flue gas is given 300 msec to react with ammonia, while it is passing through a section within a temperature range of 910 to 1060{sup o}C (Kilpinen mechanism) or within a temperature range of 925 to 1030{sup o}C (Zanoelo mechanism) or within a temperature range of 890 to 1090{sup o}C (Skreiberg mechanism). 20 refs., 6 figs.

  14. A comparative study of the Poetry of Hafez and Emerson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    فتوحی رود معجنی فتوحی رود معجنی

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Persian poetry on American literature is one of the discussions that have been reviewed to a lesser degree by those, who have done research in the field of comparative literature. The subject of the current article is to examine the influence of Hafez of Shiraz on the romantic poet and the transcendentalist philosopher, Ralph Waldo Emerson. The given research first gives a short introduction on his life and framework of thought, then introduces Emerson’s literary style, and provides information on his acquaintance with Hafez through German median texts. The second part examines Hafez’s personality in the eyes of the American poet-philosopher, and evaluates the quality of Emerson’s translations of the works of Hafez. In the final part, through a comparative study of Emerson’s and Hafez’s poetry, intellectual and stylistic similarities of the two poets, and the extent of Hafez’s influence on Emerson are examined. Hafez’s influence on Emerson is not only evident in his contents and imagination forms, but also in his intellectual framework. These similarities are illustrated through citation of articles, as well as the poetry of Emerson and their comparison with Hafez’s poetry. Key words: Hafez of Shiraz, Emerson, American Literature, influence of Eastern Literature on the West.

  15. Erythrophagocytosis in Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamás-Lara, Daniel; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; González-Robles, Arturo; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Durán-Díaz, Ángel; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human intestinal and liver amebiasis. The extraordinary phagocytic activity of E. histolytica trophozoites has been accepted as one of the virulence mechanisms responsible for their invasive capacity. The recognition of the noninvasive Entamoeba dispar as a different species has raised the question as to whether the lack of pathogenic potential of this ameba correlates with a limited phagocytic capacity. We have therefore compared the process of erythrophagocytosis in both species by means of light and video microscopy, hemoglobin measurement, and the estimation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we confirmed that E. dispar has lower erythrophagocytic capacity. We also observed by video microscopy a new event of erythrocyte opsonization-like in both species, being more characteristic in E. histolytica. Moreover, E. dispar showed a lower capacity to produce ROS compared with the invasive species and also showed a large population of amoebae that did not engulf any erythrocyte over time. Our results demonstrate that E. histolytica has a higher phagocytic capacity than E. dispar, including a higher rate of production of ROS in the course of ingesting red blood cells.

  16. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE PROFITABILITY OF TOURISTIC PENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana TINDECHE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion that rural tourism has witnessed in the late XIXth century was determined by the existence of two reasons: on the one side the revival and development of the rural area, and the other side the alternative tourism form compared to traditional, classic or table tourism. It is known that regardless of the external environment in which tourist accommodation units operate, an important role belongs to the quality of the services offered and the satisfaction level of the customers. This study aimed to comparatively analyze the economic efficiency of the Confort Pension located in a rural area and the Danacris Pension from the urban area. The reason for choosing these two units was that the types of tourism they represent are significant areas of operation, namely leisure tourism ("Confort " Pension from Suceava area and business tourism ("Danacris" Pension fromBucharest. Based on the existing methodology in the specialized literature, specific indicators were calculated in order to highlight economic efficiency. Based on the analysis of the main financial standing indicators and the evolution of income and expenditure one may conclude that both companies were profitable.

  17. Kinematics Comparative Study of Two Overconstrained Parallel Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison study of kinematics characteristics of two overconstrained 2-RPU&SPR parallel manipulators (PMs is introduced in this paper. The two 2-RPU&SPR PMs have the same kinematics properties in terms of one translational degree of freedom (DOF and two rotational DOFs kinematics outputs. But there are some differences between the two PMs as far as joints distribution is concerned, leading to the differences in respect of workspace and dexterity of the two PMs. Firstly, based on screw theory, the structural characteristics and DOFs of the two PMs are analyzed. Secondly, the inverse and forward displacements problems for the two PMs are formulated by analytic formulae. Some numerical examples are simulated by software. Thirdly, based on algorithm for the direct displacement solution, the workspace characteristics of the two PMs are analyzed and compared. Then, the Jacobian matrices of the mechanisms are formulated. Based on the Jacobian matrices, the dexterities of the two PMs are established and compared. Finally, according to the comparisons of the properties between the two PMs, some useful conclusions are provided.

  18. Erythrophagocytosis in Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Talamás-Lara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human intestinal and liver amebiasis. The extraordinary phagocytic activity of E. histolytica trophozoites has been accepted as one of the virulence mechanisms responsible for their invasive capacity. The recognition of the noninvasive Entamoeba dispar as a different species has raised the question as to whether the lack of pathogenic potential of this ameba correlates with a limited phagocytic capacity. We have therefore compared the process of erythrophagocytosis in both species by means of light and video microscopy, hemoglobin measurement, and the estimation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In the present study, we confirmed that E. dispar has lower erythrophagocytic capacity. We also observed by video microscopy a new event of erythrocyte opsonization-like in both species, being more characteristic in E. histolytica. Moreover, E. dispar showed a lower capacity to produce ROS compared with the invasive species and also showed a large population of amoebae that did not engulf any erythrocyte over time. Our results demonstrate that E. histolytica has a higher phagocytic capacity than E. dispar, including a higher rate of production of ROS in the course of ingesting red blood cells.

  19. A Comparative Study of Default Reasoning and Epistemic Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李未

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study between the theories of default reasoning and open logic is given.Some concepts of open logic,such as new premises,rejections by facts,reconstructions ,epistemic processes,and its limit are introduced to describe th evolution of hypotheses.An improved version of the limit theorem is given and proved.A model-theoretic interpretation of the closed normal defaults is given using the above concepts and the corresponding completeness is proved.Any extension of a closed normal default theory is proved to be the linit of a δ-partial increasing epistemic process of that theory,and vice versa.It is proved that there exist two distinct extensions of a closed normal default theory iff there is an δ-non-monotonic epistemic process of that theory.The completeness of Reiter's proof is also given and proved,in terms of the epistemic processes.Finally,the work is compared with Gaerdenfors's theory of knowledge in flux.

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO DYEING METHODS USING REACTIVE DYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HINOJOSA Belén

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Environment preservation is a common worry not only for people but for companies as well. Industry is more and more concern about the necessity of developing new and more respectful processes. Dye is one of the most important processes in the textile industry but it is also considered as no too safe regarding environment issues. This process uses large amounts of water and generates big volumes of wastewater. Following this issue, new regulations and laws emerge to control the waste generated. This leads to the companies and increased costs in terms of wastewater treatments and high water consumption. In this research we compare two systems on garment finishing application, the conventional bath process and the new Ecofinish system that is able to save water and product. To compare these processes, we carried out a reactive dyeing using both systems in order to determine the quality differences in the final product. For this purpose, the samples have been tested to washing and rubbing fastness, according to UNE EN ISO 105 C10 and UNE- EN ISO 105 X12 standards, respectively. This study confirms that this system achieves water savings and reduces the wastewater produced, getting a good dyeing. This process can be considered as an alternative to the conventional one.