WorldWideScience

Sample records for facile synthetic method

  1. A Facile Synthetic Method for Biphenyltetracarboxylic Dianhydrides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue E WU; Chang Lu GAO; Meng Xian DING; Suo Bo ZHANG; Lian Xun GAO

    2004-01-01

    We report a facile and high-yielding procedure for preparing biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydrides (BPDAs). This method relies on a nickel-catalyzed electroreductive coupling reaction of dimethyl 3-chorophthalate (3-DMCP) and/or dimethyl 4-chorophthalate (4-DMCP) with subsequent hydrolysis of tetra-ester and dehydration of tetra-acid.

  2. A facile and efficient synthetic method for 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Feng Wu; Mei Jia Yang; Yang Wang; Guo Wei Gao; Jian Men

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach to the synthesis of 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride has been described. The target compound was synthesized by Pd/Cu catalyzed Sonogashira coupling reaction between phenylacetylene and 4-bromophthalic acid which was for the first time employed as start material, followed by dehydration of 4-phenylethynylphthalic acid. Compared with traditional synthetic routes, this method provides several advantages such as readily available raw materials, convenient manipulation and high yield. The products were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and elemental analysis, respectively.

  3. Facile Synthetic Method and Crystal Structure of 2, 3, 3', 4'-Biphenyltetracarboxylic Dianhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Shi-xu; GAO Guo-wei; YANG Mei-jia; CHEN Hua; WU Di-feng; MEN Jian

    2012-01-01

    A facile method for the synthesis of 2,3,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride(a-BPDA)was reported,which comprises the steps of the dehalogenative coupling of dimethyl 4-chlorophthalate(4-DMCP)and dimethyl3-chlorophthalate(3-DMCP)catalyzed by low-cost(Ph3P)2NiCl2,the hydrolysis of tetra-ester and the dehydration of tetra-acid.In contrast to the conventional methods,this method has the advantage of low cost,convenient manipulation,available condition,high purity and good overall yield.Moreover,the single crystal structure of a-BPDA was analyzed by X-ray diffraction method.The X-ray data suggest that a-BPDA is a rigid,non-coplanar and non-linear structure.It contains three crystallographically independent molecules,in which the dihedral angles of the two linked phenyl rings are 44.75(4)°,46.37(3)° and 42.32(3)°,respectively.The title molecule is governed by a stronger intermolecular interaction in contrast to van der Waals interaction because of the special positions of anhydride groups.

  4. Method for assessment of stormwater treatment facilitiesSynthetic road runoff addition including micro-pollutants and tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2017-01-01

    representative of runoff from roads is suggested, as well as relevant concentration ranges. The method was used for adding contaminants to three different STFs including a curbstone extension with filter soil, a dual porosity filter, and six different permeable pavements. Evaluation of the method showed......% in the dual porosity filter, stressing the importance of including a conservative tracer for correction of contaminant retention values. The method is considered useful in future treatment performance testing of STFs. The observed performance of the STFs is presented in coming papers....

  5. Structural changes and biological responsiveness of an injectable and mouldable monetite bone graft generated by a facile synthetic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cama, G; Gharibi, B; Knowles, J C; Romeed, S; DiSilvio, L; Deb, S

    2014-12-06

    Brushite (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate) and monetite (dicalcium phosphate anhydrous) are of considerable interest in bone augmentation owing to their metastable nature in physiological fluids. The anhydrous form of brushite, namely monetite, has a finer microstructure with higher surface area, strength and bioresorbability, which does not transform to the poorly resorbable hydroxyapatite, thus making it a viable alternative for use as a scaffold for engineering of bone tissue. We recently reported the formation of monetite cements by a simple processing route without the need of hydrothermal treatment by using a high concentration of sodium chloride in the reaction mix of β-tricalcium phosphate and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate. In this paper, we report the biological responsiveness of monetite formed by this method. The in vitro behaviour of monetite after interaction and ageing both in an acellular and cellular environment showed that the crystalline phase of monetite was retained over three weeks as evidenced from X-ray diffraction measurements. The crystal size and morphology also remained unaltered after ageing in different media. Human osteoblast cells seeded on monetite showed the ability of the cells to proliferate and express genes associated with osteoblast maturation and mineralization. Furthermore, the results showed that monetite could stimulate osteoblasts to undergo osteogenesis and accelerate osteoblast maturation earlier than cells cultured on hydroxyapatite scaffolds of similar porosity. Osteoblasts cultured on monetite cement also showed higher expression of osteocalcin, which is an indicator of the maturation stages of osteoblastogenesis and is associated with matrix mineralization and bone forming activity of osteoblasts. Thus, this new method of fabricating porous monetite can be safely used for generating three-dimensional bone graft constructs.

  6. Synthetic Self-Healing Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Mollie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-06-02

    Given enough time, pressure, temperature fluctuation, and stress any material will fail. Currently, synthesized materials make up a large part of our everyday lives, and are used in a number of important applications such as; space travel, under water devices, precise instrumentation, transportation, and infrastructure. Structural failure of these material scan lead to expensive and dangerous consequences. In an attempt to prolong the life spans of specific materials and reduce efforts put into repairing them, biologically inspired, self-healing systems have been extensively investigated. The current review explores recent advances in three methods of synthesized self-healing: capsule based, vascular, and intrinsic. Ideally, self-healing materials require no human intervention to promote healing, are capable of surviving all the steps of polymer processing, and heal the same location repeatedly. Only the vascular method holds up to all of these idealities.

  7. A Convenient Synthetic Method of Metal Dendritic Porphyrins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Bin CUI; Jie ZHOU; Lei CHEN; Xiao Bin DENG; Chun GUO

    2006-01-01

    A convenient synthetic method of metal dendritic porphyrins through the convergent synthetic strategy is described. The porphyrin core were linked with the synthetic fragments by forming ether or ester bonds to give five target compounds were prepared.

  8. An Improved Synthetic Method of Saquinavir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An improved synthetic method of saquinavir, an HIV protease inhibitor, is described. In comparison with the methods in the reported works, the improved procedures had several advantages, such as less expensive agents, shorter reaction time, and a smaller amount of the solvent needed. To measure the optical purities of the products, the intermediates were determined by means of chiral HPLC. Some of the intermediates can also be used for the preparation of new protease inhibitors.

  9. Evaluation methods for hospital facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fronczek-Munter, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Initial position & background: There are various methods and tools for evaluating facilities. The focus is usually on the technical building performance, function/usability or form/beauty. Examples are: Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) and Usability Appraisal. Nevertheless, evaluations of buildings...... according to focus areas and proposes which evaluation methods to use in different building phases of healthcare facilities. Hospital evaluations with experts and users are also considered; their subjective view on space, function, technology, usability and aesthetics. Results & solutions: This paper...... of creating buildings with enhanced usability. Additionally various evaluation methods used in hospital cases in Denmark and Norway are presented. Involvement of users is proposed, not just in defining requirements but also in co-creation/design and evaluation of solutions. The theories and preliminary...

  10. New Synthetic Methods for Hypericum Natural Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Insik [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Organic chemistry has served as a solid foundation for interdisciplinary research areas, such as molecular biology and medicinal chemistry. An understanding of the biological activities and structural elucidations of natural products can lead to the development of clinically valuable therapeutic options. The advancements of modern synthetic methodologies allow for more elaborate and concise natural product syntheses. The theme of this study centers on the synthesis of natural products with particularly challenging structures and interesting biological activities. The synthetic expertise developed here will be applicable to analog syntheses and to other research problems.

  11. 18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the Natural Gas Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.212 Synthetic and liquefied... liquefied natural gas and that are not “related jurisdictional natural gas facilities” as defined in § 153.2... natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section 157.212 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  12. A Facile Synthetic Route to L-Phosphinothricin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Song XU; Han Bing TENG; Guo Fu QIU; Shu Cai LIANG; Xian Ming HU

    2006-01-01

    A convenient and effective method for synthesis of L-phosphinothricin was described.The highlight was involved in a simple access to the key intermediate L-2-amino-4-chlorobutyric acid derivative from the inexpensive L-methionine.

  13. Aircraft Combat Survivability Estimation and Synthetic Tradeoff Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-lin; LI Shou-an; LI Wei-ji; LI Dong-xia; FENG Feng

    2005-01-01

    A new concept is proposed that susceptibility, vulnerability, reliability, maintainability and supportability should be essential factors of aircraft combat survivability. A weight coefficient method and a synthetic method are proposed to estimate aircraft combat survivability based on the essential factors. Considering that it takes cost to enhance aircraft combat survivability, a synthetic tradeoff model between aircraft combat survivability and life cycle cost is built. The aircraft combat survivability estimation methods and synthetic tradeoff with a life cycle cost model will be helpful for aircraft combat survivability design and enhancement.

  14. Advanced methods in synthetic aperture radar imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    For over 50 years our world has been mapped and measured with synthetic aperture radar (SAR). A SAR system operates by transmitting a series of wideband radio-frequency pulses towards the ground and recording the resulting backscattered electromagnetic waves as the system travels along some one-dimensional trajectory. By coherently processing the recorded backscatter over this extended aperture, one can form a high-resolution 2D intensity map of the ground reflectivity, which we call a SAR image. The trajectory, or synthetic aperture, is achieved by mounting the radar on an aircraft, spacecraft, or even on the roof of a car traveling down the road, and allows for a diverse set of applications and measurement techniques for remote sensing applications. It is quite remarkable that the sub-centimeter positioning precision and sub-nanosecond timing precision required to make this work properly can in fact be achieved under such real-world, often turbulent, vibrationally intensive conditions. Although the basic principles behind SAR imaging and interferometry have been known for decades, in recent years an explosion of data exploitation techniques enabled by ever-faster computational horsepower have enabled some remarkable advances. Although SAR images are often viewed as simple intensity maps of ground reflectivity, SAR is also an exquisitely sensitive coherent imaging modality with a wealth of information buried within the phase information in the image. Some of the examples featured in this presentation will include: (1) Interferometric SAR, where by comparing the difference in phase between two SAR images one can measure subtle changes in ground topography at the wavelength scale. (2) Change detection, in which carefully geolocated images formed from two different passes are compared. (3) Multi-pass 3D SAR tomography, where multiple trajectories can be used to form 3D images. (4) Moving Target Indication (MTI), in which Doppler effects allow one to detect and

  15. Facile synthetic route towards nanostructured Fe–TiO2(B), used as negative electrode for Li-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Grosjean, Remi; Fehse, Marcus; Pigeot-Remy, Stéphanie; Stievano, Lorenzo; Monconduit, Laure; Cassaignon, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We present here a novel simple method for the synthesis of highly pure TiO2(B). The fast microwave-assisted synthetic route allows facile scale-up of the process. Aiming at an application of the titania polymorph as negative electrode for Li-ion batteries, we have prepared a Fe-containing TiO2(B) and tested the electrochemical performances of both pure and Fe-containing materials. Fe insertion in TiO2(B) allows enhancing capacity and rate capability.

  16. Apparatus and method for velocity estimation in synthetic aperture imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus for flow estimation using synthetic aperture imaging. The method uses a Synthetic Transmit Aperture, but unlike previous approaches a new frame is created after every pulse emission. In receive mode parallel beam forming is implemented. The beam formed RF data......). The update signals are used in the velocity estimation processor (8) to correlate the individual measurements to obtain the displacement between high-resolution images and thereby determine the velocity....

  17. Novel synthetic methods to produce functionalized conducting polymers. 1. Polyanilines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, C.; Salavagione, H.J.; Acevedo, D.F.; Garay, F.; Planes, G.A.; Miras, M.C. [Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Dpto. de Quimica; Grumelli, D.E. [INQUIMAE, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica; Morales, G.M. [University of Chicago (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    Recent results, part of an ongoing research programme aimed to develop synthetic methods which could be used to functionalise conducting polymers, are described. Among those methods are the copolymerization of aniline with substituted anilines and post-modification reactions of polyaniline, such as: electrophilic substitution, nucleophilic addition and coupling with diazonium salts. Some of those methods could be chemically or electrochemically controlled allowing a quantitative tailoring of the modification. The effect of the added functionalities on the electrochemical properties of the polymers is investigated using spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. The extension of the synthetic methods to combinatorial modification of conductive polymers is also discussed. (author)

  18. A new method of aperture synthetizing in digital holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qing-Sheng; Lü Xiao-Xu; Yu Qing-Ting; Liu Gan-Yong

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method of aperture synthetizing in digital holography based on the principle of holography. In the new method aperture synthetizing is achieved by reconstructing each sub-hologram respectively, firstly,moving each reconstructed wave field referred to the benchmark reconstructed wave field according to the relationship between spacial motion and frequency shift, and finally splicing them by using superposition. Two different recording ways, using plane wave to record and using spherical wave to record, are analyzed, and their moving formula is deduced,too. Simulation and experiment are done. The results show that in comparison with the traditional method of aperture synthetizing in digital holography, the new method can decrease calculation and save reconstructed time obviously which has better applicability.

  19. New Precision Guidance Method Based on Bistatic Synthetic Apterture Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chun; ZENG Tao

    2008-01-01

    A new method is presented to improve guidance precision.This method is based on histatic synthetic aperture radar.The illuminator works in side looking mode,providing the synthetic aperture and the receiver is disposed on the seeker which operates in the forward looking mode.The receiving antenna is composed of four sub-antennas and so four synthetic aperture radar(SAR)images are to be generated.Target is positioned in SAR images by image matching.The bearing and elevation of image element of target are measured by the principle of monopulse angular measurement.Theory of the proposed method is derived and simulation on bearing measurement is done.Simulation shows that the method is valid and if SNR of target's image is above 30 dB.the angular measuring difference is witbin the confines of 0.04 degree.

  20. New Synthetic Method for Industrial Manufacture of Glutaric Dialdehyde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianli; Wang Luyao; Bai Yinjuan; Li Zheng; Shi Zhen

    2006-01-01

    A new synthetic method for the manufacture of glutaric dialdehyde is investigated.Glutaric dialdehyde was prepared by the addition-hydrolysis reaction of benzimidazolium salt with saturated dihalide as the di-Grignard reagent.The yield of glutaric dialdehyde by this method can reach 73%.Both infrared spectra and melting point of the compound were consistent with those reported earlier.

  1. Indoor experimental facility for airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) configurations - rail-SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirose, Getachew; Phelan, Brian R.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Ranney, Kenneth I.; Koenig, Francois; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2014-05-01

    The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is developing an indoor experimental facility to evaluate and assess airborne synthetic-aperture-radar-(SAR)-based detection capabilities. The rail-SAR is located in a multi-use facility that also provides a base for research and development in the area of autonomous robotic navigation. Radar explosive hazard detection is one key sensordevelopment area to be investigated at this indoor facility. In particular, the mostly wooden, multi-story building houses a two (2) story housing structure and an open area built over a large sandbox. The housing structure includes reconfigurable indoor walls which enable the realization of multiple See-Through-The-Wall (STTW) scenarios. The open sandbox, on the other hand, allows for surface and buried explosive hazard scenarios. The indoor facility is not rated for true explosive hazard materials so all targets will need to be inert and contain surrogate explosive fills. In this paper we discuss the current system status and describe data collection exercises conducted using canonical targets and frequencies that may be of interest to designers of ultra-wideband (UWB) airborne, ground penetrating SAR systems. A bi-static antenna configuration will be used to investigate the effects of varying airborne SAR parameters such as depression angle, bandwidth, and integration angle, for various target types and deployment scenarios. Canonical targets data were used to evaluate overall facility capabilities and limitations. These data is analyzed and summarized for future evaluations. Finally, processing techniques for dealing with RF multi-path and RFI due to operating inside the indoor facility are described in detail. Discussion of this facility and its capabilities and limitations will provide the explosive hazard community with a great airborne platform asset for sensor to target assessment.

  2. New Synthetic Method of trans, trans-Styrylstilbene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Ke-Hu; LI,Hong-Xia; WANG,Jin-Xian

    2004-01-01

    @@ Styrylstilbenes and their derivatives are a kind of organic luminescent materials. A variety of synthetic methods have been reported, and their physical properties have been studied. [1,2] A series of para-substituted styrylstilbenes were synthesized by Wittig or Arbusor-Horner reaction as a key step forming C=C bonds.

  3. New synthetic method and properties of ammonium dinitramide (ADN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, H.; Onda, T.; Shi Ino, K.; Kiname, S.I. [Technical Center, Hosoya Kako, Osawa (Japan); Miyazaki, S.; Suzuki, S. [Research et Development Center, Nissan Motor Co, Saitama (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) is one of the energetic materials, its hazard, however, has never been presented yet. In this paper, new synthetic method of ADN and its properties are contained. It has been found out that ADN has little hazard and is a safe energetic compound. (authors) 4 refs.

  4. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods for synthetic biology biobricks' visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaoyun; Wang, Haipeng; Ding, Huitong; An, Ning; Alterovitz, Gil

    2017-01-19

    Visualizing data by dimensionality reduction is an important strategy in Bioinformatics, which could help to discover hidden data properties and detect data quality issues, e.g. data noise, inappropriately labeled data, etc. As crowdsourcing-based synthetic biology databases face similar data quality issues, we propose to visualize biobricks to tackle them. However, existing dimensionality reduction methods could not be directly applied on biobricks datasets. Hereby, we use normalized edit distance to enhance dimensionality reduction methods, including Isomap and Laplacian Eigenmaps. By extracting biobricks from synthetic biology database Registry of Standard Biological Parts, six combinations of various types of biobricks are tested. The visualization graphs illustrate discriminated biobricks and inappropriately labeled biobricks. Clustering algorithm K-means is adopted to quantify the reduction results. The average clustering accuracy for Isomap and Laplacian Eigenmaps are 0.857 and 0.844, respectively. Besides, Laplacian Eigenmaps is 5 times faster than Isomap, and its visualization graph is more concentrated to discriminate biobricks. By combining normalized edit distance with Isomap and Laplacian Eigenmaps, synthetic biology biobircks are successfully visualized in two dimensional space. Various types of biobricks could be discriminated and inappropriately labeled biobricks could be determined, which could help to assess crowdsourcing-based synthetic biology databases' quality, and make biobricks selection.

  5. Payment methods for outpatient care facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Beibei; He, Li; Meng, Qingyue; Jia, Liying

    2017-01-01

    Background Outpatient care facilities provide a variety of basic healthcare services to individuals who do not require hospitalisation or institutionalisation, and are usually the patient's first contact. The provision of outpatient care contributes to immediate and large gains in health status, and a large portion of total health expenditure goes to outpatient healthcare services. Payment method is one of the most important incentive methods applied by purchasers to guide the performance of outpatient care providers. Objectives To assess the impact of different payment methods on the performance of outpatient care facilities and to analyse the differences in impact of payment methods in different settings. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), 2016, Issue 3, part of the Cochrane Library (searched 8 March 2016); MEDLINE, OvidSP (searched 8 March 2016); Embase, OvidSP (searched 24 April 2014); PubMed (NCBI) (searched 8 March 2016); Dissertations and Theses Database, ProQuest (searched 8 March 2016); Conference Proceedings Citation Index (ISI Web of Science) (searched 8 March 2016); IDEAS (searched 8 March 2016); EconLit, ProQuest (searched 8 March 2016); POPLINE, K4Health (searched 8 March 2016); China National Knowledge Infrastructure (searched 8 March 2016); Chinese Medicine Premier (searched 8 March 2016); OpenGrey (searched 8 March 2016); ClinicalTrials.gov, US National Institutes of Health (NIH) (searched 8 March 2016); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (searched 8 March 2016); and the website of the World Bank (searched 8 March 2016). In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via ISI Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. We also contacted authors of the main included studies regarding any further published or unpublished work. Selection criteria Randomised

  6. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  7. Payment methods for outpatient care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Beibei; He, Li; Meng, Qingyue; Jia, Liying

    2017-03-03

    Outpatient care facilities provide a variety of basic healthcare services to individuals who do not require hospitalisation or institutionalisation, and are usually the patient's first contact. The provision of outpatient care contributes to immediate and large gains in health status, and a large portion of total health expenditure goes to outpatient healthcare services. Payment method is one of the most important incentive methods applied by purchasers to guide the performance of outpatient care providers. To assess the impact of different payment methods on the performance of outpatient care facilities and to analyse the differences in impact of payment methods in different settings. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), 2016, Issue 3, part of the Cochrane Library (searched 8 March 2016); MEDLINE, OvidSP (searched 8 March 2016); Embase, OvidSP (searched 24 April 2014); PubMed (NCBI) (searched 8 March 2016); Dissertations and Theses Database, ProQuest (searched 8 March 2016); Conference Proceedings Citation Index (ISI Web of Science) (searched 8 March 2016); IDEAS (searched 8 March 2016); EconLit, ProQuest (searched 8 March 2016); POPLINE, K4Health (searched 8 March 2016); China National Knowledge Infrastructure (searched 8 March 2016); Chinese Medicine Premier (searched 8 March 2016); OpenGrey (searched 8 March 2016); ClinicalTrials.gov, US National Institutes of Health (NIH) (searched 8 March 2016); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (searched 8 March 2016); and the website of the World Bank (searched 8 March 2016).In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via ISI Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. We also contacted authors of the main included studies regarding any further published or unpublished work. Randomised trials, non-randomised trials, controlled before

  8. A facile microwave synthetic route for ferrite nanoparticles with direct impact in magnetic particle hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makridis, A; Chatzitheodorou, I; Topouridou, K; Yavropoulou, M P; Angelakeris, M; Dendrinou-Samara, C

    2016-06-01

    The application of ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in medicine finds its rapidly developing emphasis on heating mediators for magnetic hyperthermia, the ever-promising "fourth leg" of cancer treatment. Usage of MNPs depends largely on the preparation processes to select optimal conditions and effective routes to finely tailor MNPs. Microwave heating, instead of conventional heating offers nanocrystals at significantly enhanced rate and yield. In this work, a facile mass-production microwave hydrothermal synthetic approach was used to synthesize stable ferromagnetic manganese and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with sizes smaller than 14 nm from metal acetylacetonates in the presence of octadecylamine. Prolonging the reaction time from 15 to 60 min, led to ferrites with improved crystallinity while the sizes are slight increased. The high crystallinity magnetic nanoparticles showed exceptional magnetic heating parameters. In vitro application was performed using the human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 incubated with manganese ferrite nanoparticles. Hyperthermia applied in a two cycle process, while AC magnetic field remained on until the upper limit of 45 °C was achieved. The comparative results of the AC hyperthermia efficiency of ferrite nanoparticles in combination with the in vitro study coincide with the magnetic features and their tunability may be further exploited for AC magnetic hyperthermia driven applications.

  9. Novel fringe scanning/Fourier transform method of synthetic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, T.M.; Albano, R.K.

    1993-08-01

    We have developed a one-dimensional theory and a computer model for synthetically imaging scenes using a novel fringe scanning/Fourier transform technique. Our method probes a scene using two interfering beams of slightly different frequency. These beams form a moving fringe pattern which scans the scene and resonates with any spatial frequency components having the same spatial frequency as the scanning fringe pattern. A simple, non-imaging detector above the scene observes any scattered radiation from the scene falling onto it. If a resonance occurs between the scanning fringe pattern and the scene, then the scattered radiation will be modulated at the difference frequency between the two probing beams. By changing the spatial period of the fringe pattern and then measuring the amplitude and phase of the modulated radiation that is scattered from the scene, the Fourier amplitudes and phases of the different spatial frequency components making up the scene can be measured. A synthetic image of the scene being probed can be generated from this Fourier amplitude and phase data by taking the inverse Fourier transform of this information. This technique could be used to image objects using light, ultrasonic, or other electromagnetic or acoustic waves.

  10. Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Classification by a Hybrid Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamran Ullah Khan; YANG Jian

    2007-01-01

    Different methods proposed so far for accurate classification of land cover types in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image are data specific and no general method is available. A novel hybrid framework for this classification was developed in this work. A set of effective features derived from the coherence matrix of polarimetric SARdata was proposed.Constituents of the feature set are wavelet,texture,and nonlinear features.The proposed feature set has a strong discrimination power. A neural network was used as the classification engine in a unique way. By exploiting the speed of the conjugate gradient method and the convergence rate of the Levenberg-Marquardt method (near the optimal point), an overall speed up of the classification procedure was achieved. Principal component analysis(PCA)was used to shrink the dimension of the feature vector without sacrificing much of the classification accuracy. The proposed approach is compared with the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE)based on the complex Wishart distribution and the results show the superiority of the proposed method,with the average classification accuracy by the proposed method(95.4%)higher than that of the MLE(93.77%). Use of PCA to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector helps reduce the memory requirements and computational cost, thereby enhancing the speed of the process.

  11. Synthetic-Eddy Method for Urban Atmospheric Flow Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, D.; Gorman, G. J.; Gomes, J. L. M. A.; Pain, C. C.; Apsimon, H.

    2010-08-01

    The computational fluid dynamics code Fluidity, with anisotropic mesh adaptivity, is used as a multi-scale obstacle-accommodating meteorological model. A novel method for generating realistic inlet boundary conditions based on the view of turbulence as a superposition of synthetic eddies is adopted. It is able to reproduce prescribed first-order and second-order one-point statistics and turbulence length scales. The aim is to simulate an urban boundary layer. The model is validated against two standard benchmark tests: a plane channel flow numerical simulation and a flow past a cube physical simulation. The performed large-eddy simulations are in good agreement with both reference models giving confidence that the model can be used to successfully simulate urban atmospheric flows.

  12. Generation of synthetic flood hydrographs by hydrological donors (SHYDONHY method)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    For the design of hydraulic infrastructures like dams, a design hydrograph is required in most of the cases. Some of its features (e.g. peak value, duration, volume) corresponding to a given return period are computed thanks to a wide range of methods: historical records, mono or multivariate statistical analysis, stochastic simulation, etc. Then various methods have been proposed to construct design hydrographs having such characteristics, ranging from traditional unit-hydrograph to statistical methods (Yue et al., 2002). A new method to build design hydrographs (or more generally synthetic hydrographs) is introduced here, named SHYDONHY, French acronym for "Synthèse d'HYdrogrammes par DONneurs HYdrologiques". It is based on an extensive database of 100 000 flood hydrographs recorded at hourly time-step on 1300 gauging stations in France and Switzerland, covering a wide range of catchment size and climatology. For each station, an average of two hydrographs per year of record has been selected by a peak-over-threshold (POT) method with independence criteria (Lang et al., 1999). This sampling ensures that only hydrographs of intense floods are gathered in the dataset. For a given catchment, where few or no hydrograph is available at the outlet, a sub-set of 10 "donor stations" is selected within the complete dataset, considering several criteria: proximity, size, mean annual values and regimes for both total runoff and POT-selected floods. This sub-set of stations (and their corresponding flood hydrographs) will allow to: • Estimate a characteristic duration of flood hydrographs (e.g. duration for which the discharge is above 50% of the peak value). • For a given duration (e.g. one day), estimate the average peak-to- volume ratio of floods. • For a given duration and peak-to-volume ratio, generation of a synthetic reference hydrograph by combining appropriate hydrographs of the sub-set. • For a given daily discharge sequence, being observed or generated

  13. Synthetic cannabinoids pharmacokinetics and detection methods in biological matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneto, Marisol S; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Hartman, Rebecca L; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-05-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SC), originally developed as research tools, are now highly abused novel psychoactive substances. We present a comprehensive systematic review covering in vivo and in vitro animal and human pharmacokinetics and analytical methods for identifying SC and their metabolites in biological matrices. Of two main phases of SC research, the first investigated therapeutic applications, and the second abuse-related issues. Administration studies showed high lipophilicity and distribution into brain and fat tissue. Metabolite profiling studies, mostly with human liver microsomes and human hepatocytes, structurally elucidated metabolites and identified suitable SC markers. In general, SC underwent hydroxylation at various molecular sites, defluorination of fluorinated analogs and phase II metabolites were almost exclusively glucuronides. Analytical methods are critical for documenting intake, with different strategies applied to adequately address the continuous emergence of new compounds. Immunoassays have different cross-reactivities for different SC classes, but cannot keep pace with changing analyte targets. Gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry assays - first for a few, then numerous analytes - are available but constrained by reference standard availability, and must be continuously updated and revalidated. In blood and oral fluid, parent compounds are frequently present, albeit in low concentrations; for urinary detection, metabolites must be identified and interpretation is complex due to shared metabolic pathways. A new approach is non-targeted HRMS screening that is more flexible and permits retrospective data analysis. We suggest that streamlined assessment of new SC's pharmacokinetics and advanced HRMS screening provide a promising strategy to maintain relevant assays.

  14. Routine Ocean Monitoring With Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery Obtained From the Alaska Satellite Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichel, W. G.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Li, X.; Friedman, K.; Monaldo, F.; Thompson, D.; Wackerman, C.; Scott, C.; Jackson, C.; Beal, R.; McGuire, J.; Nicoll, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) has been processing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for research and for near-real-time applications demonstrations since shortly after the launch of the European Space Agency's ERS-1 satellite in 1991. The long coastline of Alaska, the vast extent of ocean adjacent to Alaska, a scarcity of in-situ observations, and the persistence of cloud cover all contribute to the need for all-weather ocean observations in the Alaska region. Extensive experience with SAR product processing algorithms and SAR data analysis techniques, and a growing sophistication on the part of SAR data and product users have amply demonstrated the value of SAR instruments in providing this all-weather ocean observation capability. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has been conducting a near-real-time applications demonstration of SAR ocean and hydrologic products in Alaska since September 1999. This Alaska SAR Demonstration (AKDEMO) has shown the value of SAR-derived, high-resolution (sub kilometer) ocean surface winds to coastal weather forecasting and the understanding of coastal wind phenomena such as gap winds, barrier jets, vortex streets, and lee waves. Vessel positions and ice information derived from SAR imagery have been used for management of fisheries, protection of the fishing fleet, enforcement of fisheries regulations, and protection of endangered marine mammals. Other ocean measurements, with potentially valuable applications, include measurement of wave state (significant wave height, dominant wave direction and wavelength, and wave spectra), mapping of oil spills, and detection of shallow-water bathymetric features. In addition to the AKDEMO, ASF-processed SAR imagery is being used: (1) in the Gulf of Mexico for hurricane wind studies, and post-hurricane oil-spill and oil-platform analyses (the latter employing ship-detection algorithms for detection of changes in oil-platform locations); (2) in the North Pacific

  15. Synthetic methods in phase equilibria: A new apparatus and error analysis of the method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, José; von Solms, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    A new apparatus for the study of high-pressure phase equilibria using a synthetic method is described. The apparatus was especially developed for the study of solubilities of gases in condensed phases, at temperatures ranging from 243 K to 353 K and pressures up to 20 MPa. The quality of the equi...

  16. Glutarimides: Biological activity, general synthetic methods and physicochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutarimides, 2,6-dioxopiperidines are compounds that rarely occur in natural sources, but so far isolated ones exert widespread pharmacological activities, which makes them valuable as potential pharmacotherapeutics. Glutarimides act as androgen receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytics, antibacterials, and tumor suppressing agents. Some synthetic glutarimide derivatives are already in use as immunosuppressive and sedative (e.g., thalidomide or anxiolytics (buspirone drugs. The wide applicability of this class of compounds, justify the interest of scientists to explore new pathways for its syntheses. General methods for synthesis of six-membered imide ring, are presented in this paper. These methods include: a reaction of dicarboxylic acids with ammonia or primary amine, b reactions of cyclization: amido-acids, diamides, dinitriles, nitrilo-acids, amido-nitriles, amido-esters, amidoacyl-chlorides or diacyl-chlorides, c adition of carbon-monoxide on a,b-unsaturated amides, d oxidation reactions, e Michael adition of active methylen compounds on methacrylamide or conjugated amides. Some of the described methods are used for closing glutarimide ring in syntheses of farmacological active compounds sesbanimide and aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI. Analyses of the geometry, as well as, the spectroscopic analyses (NMR and FT-IR of some glutarimides are presented because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. To elucidate structures of glutarimides, geometrical parameters of newly synthesized tert-pentyl-1-benzyl-4-methyl-glutarimide-3-carboxylate (PBMG are analyzed and compared with the experimental data from X-ray analysis for glutarimide. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface which is plotted over the optimized geometry to elucidate the reactivity of PBMG molecule is analyzed. The electronic properties of glutarimide derivatives are explained on the example of thalidomide. The Frontier Molecular Orbital

  17. Synthetic Methods, Chemistry, and the Anticonvulsant Activity of Thiadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of heterocyclic compounds has been an interesting field of study for a long time. Heterocyclic nucleus 1,3,4-thiadiazole constitutes an important class of compounds for new drug development. The synthesis of novel thiadiazole derivatives and investigation of their chemical and biological behavior have gained more importance in recent decades. The search for antiepileptic compounds with more selective activity and lower toxicity continues to be an active area of intensive investigation in medicinal chemistry. During the recent years, there has been intense investigation of different classes of thiadiazole compounds, many of which possess extensive pharmacological activities, namely, antimicrobial activity, anticonvulsant, antifungal antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antituberculosis activities, and so forth. The resistance towards available drugs is rapidly becoming a major worldwide problem. The need to design new compounds to deal with this resistance has become one of the most important areas of research today. Thiadiazole is a versatile moiety that exhibits a wide variety of biological activities. Thiadiazole moiety acts as “hydrogen binding domain” and “two-electron donor system.” It also acts as a constrained pharmacophore. On the basis of the reported literature, we study here thiadiazole compounds and their synthetic methods chemistry and anticonvulsant activity.

  18. Synthetic Environments as visualization method for product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Frank; Broek, van den Egon L.; Schouten, Theo E.; Damgrave, Roy G.J.; Ridder, de Huib; Rogowitz, Bernice E.; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we explored the use of low fidelity Synthetic Environments (SE; i.e., a combination of simulation techniques) for product design. We explored the usefulness of low fidelity SE to make design problems explicit. In particular, we were interested in the influence of interactivity on user

  19. Synthetic environments as visualization method for product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, F.; Van den Broek, E.L.; Schouten, T.E.; Damgrave, R.G.J.; De Ridder, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we explored the use of low fidelity Synthetic Environments (SE; i.e., a combination of simulation techniques) for product design. We explored the usefulness of low fidelity SE to make design problems explicit. In particular, we were interested in the influence of interactivity on user

  20. An integrated lean-methods approach to hospital facilities redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, John

    2012-01-01

    Lean production methods for eliminating waste and improving processes in manufacturing are now being applied in healthcare. As the author shows, the methods are appropriate for redesigning hospital facilities. When used in an integrated manner and employing teams of mostly clinicians, the methods produce facility designs that are custom-fit to patient needs and caregiver work processes, and reduce operational costs. The author reviews lean methods and an approach for integrating them in the redesign of hospital facilities. A case example of the redesign of an emergency department shows the feasibility and benefits of the approach.

  1. Facilities and methods for radioactive ion beam production

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenfeld, Y; Van Duppen, P

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive ion beam facilities are transforming nuclear science by making beams of exotic nuclei with various properties available for experiments. New infrastructures and development of existing installations enlarges the scientific scope continuously. An overview of the main production, separation and beam handling methods with focus on recent developments is done, as well as a survey of existing and forthcoming facilities world-wide.

  2. Compared to What? The Effectiveness of Synthetic Control Methods for Causal Inference in Educational Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Clay Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic control methods are an innovative matching technique first introduced within the economics and political science literature that have begun to find application in educational research as well. Synthetic controls create an aggregate-level, time-series comparison for a single treated unit of interest for causal inference with observational…

  3. Synthetic cathinone pharmacokinetics, analytical methods, and toxicological findings from human performance and postmortem cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Kayla N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic cathinones are commonly abused novel psychoactive substances (NPS). We present a comprehensive systematic review addressing in vitro and in vivo synthetic cathinone pharmacokinetics, analytical methods for detection and quantification in biological matrices, and toxicological findings from human performance and postmortem toxicology cases. Few preclinical administration studies examined synthetic cathinone pharmacokinetic profiles (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion), and only one investigated metabolite pharmacokinetics. Synthetic cathinone metabolic profiling studies, primarily with human liver microsomes, elucidated metabolite structures and identified suitable biomarkers to extend detection windows beyond those provided by parent compounds. Generally, cathinone derivatives underwent ketone reduction, carbonylation of the pyrrolidine ring, and oxidative reactions, with phase II metabolites also detected. Reliable analytical methods are necessary for cathinone identification in biological matrices to document intake and link adverse events to specific compounds and concentrations. NPS analytical methods are constrained in their ability to detect new emerging synthetic cathinones due to limited commercially available reference standards and continuous development of new analogs. Immunoassay screening methods are especially affected, but also gas-chromatography and liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry confirmation methods. Non-targeted high-resolution-mass spectrometry screening methods are advantageous, as they allow for retrospective data analysis and easier addition of new synthetic cathinones to existing methods. Lack of controlled administration studies in humans complicate interpretation of synthetic cathinones in biological matrices, as dosing information is typically unknown. Furthermore, antemortem and postmortem concentrations often overlap and the presence of other psychoactive substances are typically found in combination

  4. Facile Preparation Method for Inclusion Complexes between Amylose and Polytetrahydrofurans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachmawati, Rachmawati; Woortman, Albert J. J.; Loos, Katja

    Several methods were used to investigate the possibility of preparing inclusion complexes between amylose and polytetrahydrofurans (PTHF) via direct mixing. Potato amylose (M-v similar to 200 kg/mol) and synthetic amylose (M-n 42 kg/mol) were complexed with PTHF having different molecular weights

  5. Commissioning of a 3,500 ton/year synthetic gasoline facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Using technologies developed by CAS researchers, a demo facility of coal-to-oil conversion with an annual capacity up to 3,500 tons was successfully commissioned on 11 December, 2007 at the Yunnan Jiehua Chem Group (JH Group) in Southwest China's Yunnan Province, producing qualified Ron 93 petrol.

  6. Study on a green synthetic method of TRPPMCI (M = Fe, Mn, Co)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing FAN; Yuanbin SHE; Aixin WANG

    2009-01-01

    A green synthetic method using mixted solvents of di-methyl formamide (DMF) and acids instead of single DMF to synthesize metalloporphyrins (TRPPMCI) from TRPPH2 and MC12 metallization was proposed in this paper. A series of TRPPMCI (M = Fe, Mn, Co) were synthesized through this innovative synthetic method, and these complexes were characterized with various spectroscopic techniques, including IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results showed that the metallization time was markedly reduced from about 10h to 0.5 h in contrast with the conventional synthetic methods.

  7. Libraries of Synthetic TALE-Activated Promoters: Methods and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, T; Tissier, A

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of proteins with programmable DNA-binding specificities triggered a whole array of applications in synthetic biology, including genome editing, regulation of transcription, and epigenetic modifications. Among those, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) due to their natural function as transcription regulators, are especially well-suited for the development of orthogonal systems for the control of gene expression. We describe here the construction and testing of libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters which are under the control of a single TALE with a given DNA-binding specificity. These libraries consist of a fixed DNA-binding element for the TALE, a TATA box, and variable sequences of 19 bases upstream and 43 bases downstream of the DNA-binding element. These libraries were cloned using a Golden Gate cloning strategy making them usable as standard parts in a modular cloning system. The broad range of promoter activities detected and the versatility of these promoter libraries make them valuable tools for applications in the fine-tuning of expression in metabolic engineering projects or in the design and implementation of regulatory circuits.

  8. A Method to Design Synthetic Cell-Cycle Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Ke-Ke

    2009-01-01

    The interactions among proteins, DNA and RNA in an organism form elaborate cell-cycle networks which govern cell growth and proliferation. Understanding the common structure of ce11-cycle networks will be of great benefit to science research. Here, inspired by the importance of the cell-cycle regulatory network of yeast which has been studied intensively, we focus on small networks with 11 nodes, equivalent to that of the cell-cycle regulatory network used by Li et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101(2004)4781] Using a Boolean model, we study the correlation between structure and function, and a possible common structure. It is found that cascade-like networks with a great number of interactions between nodes are stable. Based on these findings, we are able to construct synthetic networks that have the same functions as the cell-cycle regulatory network.

  9. Final Report: Detection and Characterization of Underground Facilities by Stochastic Inversion and Modeling of Data from the New Generation of Synthetic Aperture Satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxall, W; Cunningham, C; Mellors, R; Templeton, D; Dyer, K; White, J

    2012-02-27

    ability to detect evidence for an underground facility using InSAR depends on the displacement sensitivity and spatial resolution of the interferogram, as well as on the size and depth of the facility and the time since its completion. The methodology development described in this report focuses on the exploitation of synthetic aperture radar data that are available commercially from a number of satellite missions. Development of the method involves three components: (1) Evaluation of the capability of InSAR to detect and characterize underground facilities ; (2) inversion of InSAR data to infer the location, depth, shape and volume of a subsurface facility; and (3) evaluation and selection of suitable geomechanical forward models to use in the inversion. We adapted LLNL's general-purpose Bayesian Markov Chain-Monte Carlo procedure, the 'Stochastic Engine' (SE), to carry out inversions to characterize subsurface void geometries. The SE performs forward simulations for a large number of trial source models to identify the set of models that are consistent with the observations and prior constraints. The inverse solution produced by this kind of stochastic method is a posterior probability density function (pdf) over alternative models, which forms an appropriate input to risk-based decision analyses to evaluate subsequent response strategies. One major advantage of a stochastic inversion approach is its ability to deal with complex, non-linear forward models employing empirical, analytical or numerical methods. However, while a geomechanical model must incorporate adequate physics to enable sufficiently accurate prediction of surface displacements, it must also be computationally fast enough to render the large number of forward realizations needed in stochastic inversion feasible. This latter requirement prompted us first to investigate computationally efficient empirical relations and closed-form analytical solutions. However, our evaluation revealed

  10. Environmentally based siting assessment for synthetic-liquid-fuels facilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    A detailed assessment of the major environmental constraints to siting a synthetic fuels industry and the results of that assessment are used to determine on a regional basis the potential for development of such an industry with minimal environmental conflicts. Secondly, the ability to mitigate some of the constraining impacts through alternative institutional arrangements, especially in areas that are judged to have a low development potential is also assessed. Limitations of the study are delineated, but specifically, the study is limited geographically to well-defined boundaries that include the prime coal and oil shale resource areas. The critical factors used in developing the framework are air quality, water availability, socioeconomic capacity, ecological sensitivity, environmental health, and the management of Federally owned lands. (MCW)

  11. A New and Efficient Synthetic Method and Antibacterial Activities of Oxazolidinone Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De Sheng YU; Liang HUANG; Hui LIANG; Ping GONG

    2005-01-01

    A series of novel oxazolidinone analogues were prepared by a new and efficient synthetic method and their antibacterial activities were determined. These compounds were characterized by LC-MS and 1H NMR.

  12. System and method for forming synthetic protein crystals to determine the conformational structure by crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, George D.; Glass, Robert; Rupp, Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    A method for forming synthetic crystals of proteins in a carrier fluid by use of the dipole moments of protein macromolecules that self-align in the Helmholtz layer adjacent to an electrode. The voltage gradients of such layers easily exceed 10.sup.6 V/m. The synthetic protein crystals are subjected to x-ray crystallography to determine the conformational structure of the protein involved.

  13. Synthetic polymers and methods of making and using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, Michael D.; Grate, Jay W.; Mo, Kai-For

    2016-06-14

    Monomer embodiments that can be used to make polymers, such as homopolymers, heteropolymers, and that can be used in particular embodiments to make sequence-defined polymers are described. Also described are methods of making polymers using such monomer embodiments. Methods of using the polymers also are described.

  14. Synthetic polymers and methods of making and using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Mo, Kai-For; Daily, Michael D.

    2017-02-07

    Monomer embodiments that can be used to make polymers, such as homopolymers, heteropolymers, and that can be used in particular embodiments to make sequence-defined polymers are described. Also described are methods of making polymers using such monomer embodiments. Methods of using the polymers also are described.

  15. Fifteen Years of Synthetic Aperture Radar Calibration Using Trihedral Reflectors at the Alaska Satellite Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, W.; Atwood, D.; Lawlor, O. S.; Utley, P.; Slater, C.

    2006-12-01

    For the past 15 years, the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) has provided calibration support for singly polarized SAR datasets in C-band (ERS-1, ERS-2, and RADARSAT-1 and L-Band (JERS-1. Passive point targets like trihedral corner reflectors offer a reliable and well established means to perform radiometric, geometric, and impulse response measurements for SAR calibration. Routine support of an array of corner reflectors in interior Alaska has permitted ASF an opportunity to monitor satellite health, calibrate SAR processors, and experiment with new reflector designs. Corner reflectors offer the advantages of low maintenance and low cost compared to active devices such as transponders. In order to maintain radar cross section, as the microwave wavelength get longer, so too does the size of the reflector. Increased size means decreased portability, exacerbating the difficulty of providing calibration support in remote locations. In response, ASF is developing low cost, light weight corner reflectors that can be deployed with minimal effort and no maintenance. These efforts will help to extend our present calibration efforts to more remote locations. But more importantly, these designs are expected to play an important role in Permanent Scatterer InSAR (PS-InSAR) methodology. The use of corner reflector arrays in support PS-InSAR may provide new means for monitoring terrain displacements in regions of heavy vegetation. This paper presents some long term measurements from ASF's array of corner reflectors, outlines improvements performed on trihedral corner reflectors, and describes current efforts at ASF to support the next generation of SAR missions and techniques.

  16. The Scottish Structural Proteomics Facility: targets, methods and outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oke, Muse; Carter, Lester G; Johnson, Kenneth A;

    2010-01-01

    The Scottish Structural Proteomics Facility was funded to develop a laboratory scale approach to high throughput structure determination. The effort was successful in that over 40 structures were determined. These structures and the methods harnessed to obtain them are reported here. This report ...

  17. A facile and efficient method for hydroxylation of azabenzanthrone compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Xian Ning; Xiang Weng; Shi Liang Huang; Li Jun Gu; Zhi Shu Huang; Lian Quan Gu

    2011-01-01

    A novel and facile method of introducing 4-hydroxyl group into the aromatic ring of azabenzanthrone compounds was carded out by reacting azabenzanthrone compounds with hydrazine hydrate or hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide in diethylene glycol(DEG) solvent.The mechanism of reaction may involve an amino intermediate and follow a hydroxyl substitution process.

  18. A Synthetic Approach to the Transfer Matrix Method in Classical and Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, O.; Perez, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a synthetic approach to the transfer matrix method in classical and quantum physics. This method is an efficient tool to deal with complicated physical systems of practical importance in geometrical light or charged particle optics, classical electronics, mechanics, electromagnetics and quantum physics. Teaching…

  19. A Synthetic Approach to the Transfer Matrix Method in Classical and Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, O.; Perez, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a synthetic approach to the transfer matrix method in classical and quantum physics. This method is an efficient tool to deal with complicated physical systems of practical importance in geometrical light or charged particle optics, classical electronics, mechanics, electromagnetics and quantum physics. Teaching…

  20. A Facile and Green Synthetic Route for Preparation of Heterostructure Fe3O4@Au Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Liping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles offer many exciting opportunities in biology and biomedicine, such as magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic hyperthermia therapy, biomedical diagnosis. The synthesis of multifunctional magnetic nanocomposites that possess water-solubility, magnetic properties and optical stability by a green method at room temperature in aqueous phase is still an unmet need. Here, we developed a simple and green method for preparing Fe3O4@Au integrated the super-paramagnetic and optical properties by seed-mediated growth at mild condition in aqueous phase. The amphiphilic, non-ionic and nontoxic polymer poly(vinylpyrrolidone (PVP was used as a coupling agent for synthesis of Fe3O4@Au nanocomposites, which avoided the direct connection of Au and Fe3O4, and improved the saturation magnetization values of Fe3O4@Au to 40 emu/g at room temperature. We anticipate that the multifunctional Fe3O4@Au nanocomposites with high magnetic and good optical properties will provide a platform for potential diagnostic and therapeutic biomedical applications.

  1. Application of simple array method in one-way traffic synthetic asessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yu-long; LIU Guang-ping

    2005-01-01

    One-Way Traffic synthetic assessing can not only determine the assessment method, but can also provide an opportunity for further study of road systems. Comparing three Road Traffic Planning methods, which are Value Analysis method, Simple Array method and Step Analysis method, this paper concludes that Simple Array method has one prominent merit, avoiding the complicated relationship of various factors and simplifying the complex problem. Therefore Simple Array method is firstly presented in this paper to be the assessing measure to assess the One-Way Traffic Planning project. Although this assessing method cannot wholly give way to man's will, through consistently testing on qualitative factors and with the decision-making results of a multiprogram, this method is still an effective method. Using an example of Harbin One-Way Traffic planning, with seven assessing indexes including economic benefit index, Simple Array method is applied to synthetically assessing the program. This fully reflects the general function of One-Way Traffic planning program and objectively evaluates the program. It also proves that, as the method of One-Way Traffic synthetic assessing, Simple Array method is rational and practical.

  2. Final Report: Detection and Characterization of Underground Facilities by Stochastic Inversion and Modeling of Data from the New Generation of Synthetic Aperture Satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxall, W; Cunningham, C; Mellors, R; Templeton, D; Dyer, K; White, J

    2012-02-27

    ability to detect evidence for an underground facility using InSAR depends on the displacement sensitivity and spatial resolution of the interferogram, as well as on the size and depth of the facility and the time since its completion. The methodology development described in this report focuses on the exploitation of synthetic aperture radar data that are available commercially from a number of satellite missions. Development of the method involves three components: (1) Evaluation of the capability of InSAR to detect and characterize underground facilities ; (2) inversion of InSAR data to infer the location, depth, shape and volume of a subsurface facility; and (3) evaluation and selection of suitable geomechanical forward models to use in the inversion. We adapted LLNL's general-purpose Bayesian Markov Chain-Monte Carlo procedure, the 'Stochastic Engine' (SE), to carry out inversions to characterize subsurface void geometries. The SE performs forward simulations for a large number of trial source models to identify the set of models that are consistent with the observations and prior constraints. The inverse solution produced by this kind of stochastic method is a posterior probability density function (pdf) over alternative models, which forms an appropriate input to risk-based decision analyses to evaluate subsequent response strategies. One major advantage of a stochastic inversion approach is its ability to deal with complex, non-linear forward models employing empirical, analytical or numerical methods. However, while a geomechanical model must incorporate adequate physics to enable sufficiently accurate prediction of surface displacements, it must also be computationally fast enough to render the large number of forward realizations needed in stochastic inversion feasible. This latter requirement prompted us first to investigate computationally efficient empirical relations and closed-form analytical solutions. However, our evaluation revealed

  3. A New Efficient Synthetic Method for 3-1odothyronamine and Its Potent Hypothermic Efficacy%A New Efficient Synthetic Method for 3-1odothyronamine and Its Potent Hypothermic Efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim, Joong-Gon; Song, Young-Kyu; Jeon, Su-Yeon; Lim, Ye-Ji; Ju, Hyunwo; Choi, Inho; Chung, Chan-Moon

    2011-01-01

    We developed a new efficient synthetic method for a 3-iodothyronamine (TjAM) that has advantages of less synthetic steps and much higher overall yield compared to those in the conventional method. Our animal study showed that TTAM synthesized by the method exerted a potent hypothermic effect in non-hibernator mice.

  4. The opacity of spiral galaxy disks. III. Automating the synthetic field method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, BW; Gonzalez, RA; Allen, RJ; van der Kruit, PC

    2005-01-01

    Dust extinction in spiral disks can be estimated from the counts of background field galaxies, provided the deleterious effects of confusion introduced by structure in the image of the foreground spiral disk can be calibrated. Gonzalez et al. developed a method for this calibration, the Synthetic Fi

  5. Study of method for synthetic precipitation data for ungauged sites using quantitative precipitation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyo-Jun; Oh, Jai-Ho

    2017-08-01

    A method was developed to estimate a synthetic precipitation record for ungauged sites using irregular coarse observations. The proposed synthetic precipitation data were produced with ultrahigh hourly resolution on a regular 1 × 1 km grid. The proposed method was used to analyze selected real-time observational data collected in South Korea from 2010 to the end of 2014. The observed precipitation data were measured using the Automatic Weather System and Automated Synoptic Observing System. The principal objective of the proposed method was to estimate the additional effects of orography on precipitation introduced by ultrahigh- resolution (1 × 1 km) topography provided by a digital elevation model. The Global Forecast System analysis of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction was used for the upper-atmospheric conditions, necessary for estimating the orographic effects. Precipitation data from 48 of the more than 600 observation sites used in the study, which matched the grid points of the synthetic data, were not included in the synthetic data estimation. Instead, these data were used to evaluate the proposed method by direct comparison with the real observations at these sites. A bias score was investigated by comparison of the synthetic precipitation data with the observations. In this comparison, the number of Hit, False, Miss, and Correct results for 2010-2014 was 74738, 25778, 7544, and 367981, respectively. In the Hit cases, the bias score was 1.22 and the correlation coefficient was 0.74. The means of the differences between the synthetic data and the observations were 0.3, -3.9, -14.4, and -34.9 mm h-1 and the root mean square errors (RMSEs) were 2.7, 8.3, 19.3, and 39.6 mm h-1 for the categories of 0.5-10.0, 10.0-30.0, 30.0-50.0, and 50.0-100.0 mm h-1, respectively. In addition, in each range, the 60% difference between the synthetic precipitation data and the observation data was -1.5 to +1.5, -5.0 to +5.0, -17.0 to +17.0, and -33.0 to +33

  6. Experimental facility and void fraction calibration methods for impedance probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fernando L. de; Rocha, Marcelo S., E-mail: floliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: msrocha@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An experimental facility was designed and constructed with aims of to calibrate a capacitance probe for gas-liquid flow void fraction measurements. The facility is composed of a metallic hack with a vertical 2,300 mm high glass tube with 38 mm ID with stagnant water and compressed air bubbling system simulating the gas phase (vapor). At the lower part, a mixing section with a porous media element releases the air bubbles into the water, and the compressed air flow is measured by two calibrated rotameters. At the upper part a stagnant water tank separates the liquid and gas. Two pressure taps are located near the lower and upper sides of the glass tube for pressure difference measurement. The pressure difference is used for low void fraction values (0-15%) calibration methods, as described in the work. Two electrically controlled quick closing valves are installed between the porous media element and the upward separation tank for high void fraction values measurement (15-50%) used to calibrate the capacitance probe. The experimental facility design, construction, capacitance probe calibration methods and results, as well as flow pattern visualization, are presented. Finally, the capacitance probe will be installed on a natural circulation circuit mounted at the Nuclear Engineering Center (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP) for measurement of the instantaneous bulk void. Instantaneous signals generated by the capacitance probe will allow the determination of natural circulation loop global energy balance. (author)

  7. New methods of researching healthcare facility users: the nursing workspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Keddy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is entitled Embodied Professionalism: The relationship between the physicalnature of nursing work and nursing space. The analysis is based in a critical examination of existing approaches, assumptions, and attitudes in the research literature about who, what, and how to study the person-environment relationship in healthcare facilities. New methods of studying how nurses experience their work, their workplace and the objects in their workspace are needed in order to address important issues of this person-environment relationship. Nursing work is re-conceptualized asembodied professionalism which acknowledges the interconnections between the physical labor ofprofessional nursing work, time, and space. This is a qualitative case study of nursing activities on a surgical unit that are invisible, marginalized, and unaccounted for in the research literature. Instead of studying how nurses’ efficiency and productivity could be increased through design interventions, this study examines the physical nature of nursing work and the physical setting from the nurses’ perspective. Instead of viewing the healthcare facility as solely a place for healing, this approach views the healthcare facility as a place for working. A nurse’s goal can simply be the desire to ‘get the workdone.’ A qualitative research methodology and a mixed method approach is used in this study. The methods include structured interviews, location mapping, photo-documentation, architectural inventories, place-centered behavioral mapping, and focused observations. In order to get a better understanding of how nurses experience their workspace, an image-based visual research method, theexperiential collage, was designed. The findings from using these methods reveal the significant rolethat the physical activities of moving, searching, and recovering play in gaining insights into nurses’ socio-spatial experience of the nursing workspace.

  8. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TOLPERISONE HYDROCHLORIDE AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Satish A; Hariyani Kaushik P

    2012-01-01

    The present manuscript describes simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride in bulk and synthetic mixture. The method is based on the simultaneous equations for analysis of both the drugs using methanol as solvent. Diclofenac sodium has absorbance maxima at 281 nm and Tolperisone hydrochloride has absorbance maxima at 255 nm in methanol. The linearity was obtained in...

  9. ZBF-DMTD SYNTHETICAL METHOD FOR SHORT-TERM FREQUENCY STABILITY MEASUREMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包志华; 曹培培

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a zero beat frequency double mixer time difference (ZBF-DMTD) synthetical method for measuring short-term.frequency stability Allen variance σy2(τ) of frequency sourse. The new method has a high measurement preclsion and is easy to realize and spread in engineering. The paper dlscribes the structure and design of the ZBFDMTD automatic measurement system,and gives the contrast measurement results.

  10. Geometrical constraints of the synthetic method of estimating fundamental matrix and its analysing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈沛意; 王伟; 吴成柯

    1999-01-01

    The new geometrical constraints, based on the geometrical analysing of synthetic method, are developed to estimate fundamental matrix (F matrix). Applying the new constraints, the four parameters of fundamental matrix could be estimated firstly, and these four parameters are the coordinates of the two epipoles. The other four parameters of the fundamental matrix could be solved by solving the linear equations with the other new constraint secondly, and these parameters represent the homography between the two pencils of epipolar lines. The synthetic data and the real data are used to test the new method. And the method is of the advantages of obvious geometrical meaning, and high stability of the epipoles of the fundamental matrix.

  11. Entropy method for determination of weight of evaluating indicators in fuzzy synthetic evaluation for water quality assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Zhi-hong; YUN Yi; SUN Jing-nan

    2006-01-01

    Considering the difficulty of fuzzy synthetic evaluation method in calculation of the multiple factors and ignorance of the relationship among evaluating objects, a new weight evaluation process using entropy method was introduced. This improved method for determination of weight of the evaluating indicators was applied in water quality assessment of the Three Gorges reservoir area.The results showed that this method was favorable for fuzzy synthetic evaluation when there were more than one evaluating objects.One calculation was enough for calculating every monitoring point. Compared with the original evaluation method, the method predigested the fuzzy synthetic evaluation process greatly and the evaluation results are more reasonable.

  12. Direct spectrophotometric method for analysis of food supplements containing synthetic polyhydroquinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevsky, A. M.; Konoplev, G. A.; Stepanova, O. S.; Toropov, D. K.; Zagorsky, A. L.

    2016-04-01

    A novel direct spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of Oxiphore® drug substance (synthetic polyhydroquinone complex) in food supplements is developed. Absorption spectra of Oxiphore® water solutions in the ultraviolet region are presented. Samples preparation procedures and mathematical methods of spectra post-analytical procession are discussed. Basic characteristics of the automatic CCD-based UV spectrophotometer and special software implementing the developed method are described. The results of the trials of the developed method and software are analyzed: the error of determination for Oxiphore® concentration in water solutions of the isolated substance and singlecomponent food supplements did not exceed 15% (average error was 7…10%).

  13. A Monte Carlo Synthetic-Acceleration Method for Solving the Thermal Radiation Diffusion Equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Thomas M [ORNL; Mosher, Scott W [ORNL; Slattery, Stuart [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel synthetic-acceleration based Monte Carlo method for solving the equilibrium thermal radiation diusion equation in three dimensions. The algorithm performance is compared against traditional solution techniques using a Marshak benchmark problem and a more complex multiple material problem. Our results show that not only can our Monte Carlo method be an eective solver for sparse matrix systems, but also that it performs competitively with deterministic methods including preconditioned Conjugate Gradient while producing numerically identical results. We also discuss various aspects of preconditioning the method and its general applicability to broader classes of problems.

  14. A Monte Carlo synthetic-acceleration method for solving the thermal radiation diffusion equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Thomas M., E-mail: evanstm@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Mosher, Scott W., E-mail: moshersw@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Slattery, Stuart R., E-mail: sslattery@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53716 (United States); Hamilton, Steven P., E-mail: hamiltonsp@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We present a novel synthetic-acceleration-based Monte Carlo method for solving the equilibrium thermal radiation diffusion equation in three spatial dimensions. The algorithm performance is compared against traditional solution techniques using a Marshak benchmark problem and a more complex multiple material problem. Our results show that our Monte Carlo method is an effective solver for sparse matrix systems. For solutions converged to the same tolerance, it performs competitively with deterministic methods including preconditioned conjugate gradient and GMRES. We also discuss various aspects of preconditioning the method and its general applicability to broader classes of problems.

  15. Self-Adaptive Filon's Integration Method and Its Application toComputing Synthetic Seismograms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-Ming; CHEN Xiao-Fei

    2001-01-01

    Based on the principle of the self-adaptive Simpson integration method, and by incorporating the ‘fifth-order'Filon's integration algorithm [Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 73(1983)913], we have proposed a simple and efficient numerical integration method, i.e., the self-adaptive Filon's integration method (SAFIM), for computing synthetic seismograms at large epicentral distances. With numerical examples, we have demonstrated that the SAFIM is not only accurate but also very efficient. This new integration method is expected to be very useful in seismology,as well as in computing similar oscillatory integrals in other branches of physics.

  16. Method for generating spatial and temporal synthetic hourly rainfall in the Valley of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Resendiz, Alejandro; Arganis-Juarez, Maritza; Dominguez-Mora, Ramon; Echavarria, Bernardo

    2013-10-01

    Hydrological risk analyses require a dense pluviometer network and a long period of records with an adequate time resolution; usually pluviometer networks have short periods of simultaneous records, so it is required to extend the number of records by means of synthetically generated rainfall events. This paper describes the development and implementation of a method based on a daily rainfall disaggregation for generating synthetic rainfall events distributed spatially and temporally. It uses the information recorded in 49 rain-gauge stations in the network of the basin of the Valley of Mexico during the rainy season from 1988 to 2006. Within various methods found in the literature, we consider that this one provides a greater simplicity for a practical implementation. The tests carried out showed that rainfall events generated with this method properly reproduce the statistical parameters of the historical records, including those that are not implicitly incorporated in the model, as is the case of the synthetic hourly rainfall, whose statistical values are virtually identical to the historical ones despite that the proposed method only uses the probability distribution of maximum daily rainfall.

  17. A Systematic Examination of Colour Development in Synthetic Ultramarine According to Historical Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Hamerton; Lauren Tedaldi; Nicholas Eastaugh

    2013-01-01

    A number of historical texts are investigated to ascertain the optimum conditions for the preparation of synthetic ultramarine, using preparative methods that would have been available to alchemists and colour chemists of the nineteenth century. The effect of varying the proportion of sulphur in the starting material on the colour of the final product is investigated. The optimum preparation involves heating a homogenised, pelletised mixture of kaolin (100 parts), sodium carbonate (100 parts)...

  18. Assessment of Effects of Green Construction by Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Synthetic Judgment Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Qi-yu; LI Hui-qiang

    2008-01-01

    The index system, code system, and weights of indexes are established to assess the effects of green construction. The index system consists of index level, factor level and sub-factor level. The analytic hierarchy process is used to determine the weights of indexes, and the consistency test indicate that the weight assignment is reasonable. Using fuzzy synthetic judgment method, the assessment model is built, which includes factor set, weight set and conclusion set. An example is given to demonstrate the assessment procedures.

  19. Comparison of galvanic displacement and electroless methods for deposition of gold nanoparticles on synthetic calcite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chamarthi K Srikanth; P Jeevanandam

    2012-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been deposited on synthetic calcite substrate by galvanic displacement reaction and electroless deposition methods. A comparative study has shown that electroless deposition is superior compared to galvanic displacement reaction for uniform deposition of gold nanoparticles on calcite. Characterization of the samples, prepared by two different deposition methods, was carried out by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) measurements. FE–SEM studies prove that smaller nanoparticles of gold are deposited uniformly on calcite if electroless deposition method was employed and DRS measurements show the characteristic surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles.

  20. A Facile Method for Synthesis of Polygonal Silver Nanopartilces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of nanosized powders and their assembly is of considerable importance to the microelectronics industry because of the pervasive drive to miniaturize components. In this work, silver (Ag) nanoparticls was syntheized. Polygonal silver nanoparticls were synthesized by reacting AgNO3 with hydroquinone, in the presence of poly-(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and an ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluoroborate ([BMIM]·PF6) at ambient temperature. XRD shows that the crystal structure of the nanoparticles is face-centered cubic. TEM measurements display the silver particles with uniform size and narrow particle size distributions. The UV-Vis spectra of the nanoplates distinguish from those of the samples prepared in the absence of PVP and/or ILs. This method is facile and the as-prepared silver nanoparticls are also stable in some solvents, such as ethanol and water.

  1. Facile Method for Preparation of Silica Coated Monodisperse Superparamagnetic Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan-Hung Pham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a facile method for preparation of silica coated monodisperse superparamagnetic microsphere. Herein, monodisperse porous polystyrene-divinylbenzene microbeads were prepared by seeded emulsion polymerization and subsequently sulfonated with acetic acid/H2SO4. The as-prepared sulfonated macroporous beads were magnetized in presence of Fe2+/Fe3+ under alkaline condition and were subjected to silica coating by sol-gel process, providing water compatibility, easily modifiable surface form, and chemical stability. FE-SEM, TEM, FT-IR, and TGA were employed to characterize the silica coated monodisperse magnetic beads (~7.5 μm. The proposed monodisperse magnetic beads can be used as mobile solid phase particles candidate for protein and DNA separation.

  2. Application of various methods for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from synthetic solid matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from synthetic solid matrices with various methods was investigated. PAH removal experiments were conducted in a specifically designed UV apparatus for this study. Polyurethane foams (PUF) cartridges were used to remove PAHs from the incoming air and to capture PAHs from the evaporated gases. Sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) was used as a synthetic solid matrices. The effects of temperature, UV radiation, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethylamine (DEA) dose on the PAH removal were determined. TiO2and DEA were added to the Na2SO4 sample at the rate of 5% and 20% of dry weight of samples. PAHs' removal from the Na2SO4 enhanced with increasing temperature. Sigma12 PAH content in the Na2SO4 reduced up to 95% during UV light application. Moreover, the Sigma12 PAH removal ratio was calculated as 95% with using 5% of TiO2, and increasing of TiO2 dose negatively affected PAH removal. PAH concentration in the samples decreased by 93% and 99% with addition of 5% and 20% DEA, respectively. Especially, 3- and 4-ring PAH compounds evaporated during the PAH removal applications. As expected, evaporation mechanism became more effective at high temperature for light PAH compounds. It was concluded that PAHs can successfully be removed from synthetic solid matrices such as Na2 SO4 with the applications of UV light and UV-photocatalysts.

  3. Facile colorimetric methods for the quantitative determination of tetramisole hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, A. S.; Dessouki, H. A.

    2002-10-01

    A facile, rapid and sensitive methods for the determination of tetramisole hydrochloride in pure and in dosage forms are described. The procedures are based on the formation of coloured products with the chromogenic reagents alizarin blue BB (I), alizarin red S (II), alizarin violet 3R (III) and alizarin yellow G (IV). The coloured products showed absorption maxima at 605, 468, 631 and 388 nm for I-IV, respectively. The colours obtained were stable for 24 h. The colour system obeyed Beer's law in the concentration range 1.0-36, 0.8-32, 1.2-42 and 0.8-30 μg ml -1, respectively. The results obtained showed good recoveries with relative standard deviations of 1.27, 0.96, 1.13 and 1.35%, respectively. The detection and determination limits were found to be 1.0 and 3.8, 1.2 and 4.2, 1.0 and 3.9 and finally 1.4 and 4.8 ng ml -1 for I-IV complexes, respectively. Applications of the method to representative pharmaceutical formulations are represented and the validity assessed by applying the standard addition technique, which is comparable with that obtained using the official method.

  4. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TOLPERISONE HYDROCHLORIDE AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Satish A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present manuscript describes simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride in bulk and synthetic mixture. The method is based on the simultaneous equations for analysis of both the drugs using methanol as solvent. Diclofenac sodium has absorbance maxima at 281 nm and Tolperisone hydrochloride has absorbance maxima at 255 nm in methanol. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 2-20 μg/ml and 2-20 μg/ml for Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride, respectively. The concentrations of the drugs were determined by using simultaneous equations at both the wavelengths. The mean recovery was 100.6 ± 0.41 and 99.64 ± 0.50 for Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride, respectively. The method was successfully applied to laboratory prepared synthetic mixture because no interference from the mixture excipients was found. The suitability of this method for the quantitative determination of Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride was proved by validation. The proposed method was found to be simple and sensitive for the routine quality control application of Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride in combination. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  5. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin O Sills

    Full Text Available Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012. This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and

  6. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Erin O; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on policies

  7. A Synthetic Bandwidth Method for High-Resolution SAR Based on PGA in the Range Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincheng Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic bandwidth technique is an effective method to achieve ultra-high range resolution in an SAR system. There are mainly two challenges in its implementation. The first one is the estimation and compensation of system errors, such as the timing deviation and the amplitude-phase error. Due to precision limitation of the radar instrument, construction of the sub-band signals becomes much more complicated with these errors. The second challenge lies in the combination method, that is how to fit the sub-band signals together into a much wider bandwidth. In this paper, a novel synthetic bandwidth approach is presented. It considers two main errors of the multi-sub-band SAR system and compensates them by a two-order PGA (phase gradient auto-focus-based method, named TRPGA. Furthermore, an improved cut-paste method is proposed to combine the signals in the frequency domain. It exploits the redundancy of errors and requires only a limited amount of data in the azimuth direction for error estimation. Moreover, the up-sampling operation can be avoided in the combination process. Imaging results based on both simulated and real data are presented to validate the proposed approach.

  8. Layered double hydroxides as the next generation inorganic anion exchangers: Synthetic methods versus applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubar, Natalia; Gilmour, Robert; Gerda, Vasyl; Mičušík, Matej; Omastova, Maria; Heister, Katja; Man, Pascal; Fraissard, Jacques; Zaitsev, Vladimir

    2017-07-01

    This work is the first report that critically reviews the properties of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) on the level of speciation in the context of water treatment application and dynamic adsorption conditions, as well as the first report to associate these properties with the synthetic methods used for LDH preparation. Increasingly stronger maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) of various contaminants in drinking water and liquid foodstuffs require regular upgrades of purification technologies, which might also be useful in the extraction of valuable substances for reuse in accordance with modern sustainability strategies. Adsorption is the main separation technology that allows the selective extraction of target substances from multicomponent solutions. Inorganic anion exchangers arrived in the water business relatively recently to achieve the newly approved standards for arsenic levels in drinking water. LDHs (or hydrotalcites, HTs) are theoretically the best anion exchangers due to their potential to host anions in their interlayer space, which increases their anion removal capacity considerably. This potential of the interlayer space to host additional amounts of target aqueous anions makes the LDHs superior to bulk anion exchanger. The other unique advantage of these layered materials is the flexibility of the chemical composition of the metal oxide-based layers and the interlayer anions. However, until now, this group of "classical" anion exchangers has not found its industrial application in adsorption and catalysis at the industrial scale. To accelerate application of LDHs in water treatment on the industrial scale, the authors critically reviewed recent scientific and technological knowledge on the properties and adsorptive removal of LDHs from water on the fundamental science level. This also includes review of the research tools useful to reveal the adsorption mechanism and the material properties beyond the nanoscale. Further, these properties are

  9. Synth: An R Package for Synthetic Control Methods in Comparative Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Abadie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The R package Synth implements synthetic control methods for comparative case studies designed to estimate the causal effects of policy interventions and other events of interest (Abadie and Gardeazabal 2003; Abadie, Diamond, and Hainmueller 2010. These techniques are particularly well-suited to investigate events occurring at an aggregate level (i.e., countries, cities, regions, etc. and affecting a relatively small number of units. Benefits and features of the Synth package are illustrated using data from Abadie and Gardeazabal (2003, which examined the economic impact of the terrorist conflict in the Basque Country.

  10. Multiplexed genome engineering and genotyping methods applications for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Harris H; Church, George M

    2011-01-01

    Engineering at the scale of whole genomes requires fundamentally new molecular biology tools. Recent advances in recombineering using synthetic oligonucleotides enable the rapid generation of mutants at high efficiency and specificity and can be implemented at the genome scale. With these techniques, libraries of mutants can be generated, from which individuals with functionally useful phenotypes can be isolated. Furthermore, populations of cells can be evolved in situ by directed evolution using complex pools of oligonucleotides. Here, we discuss ways to utilize these multiplexed genome engineering methods, with special emphasis on experimental design and implementation.

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF HPTLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PAMABROM AND PARACETAMOL IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajapati Premal P.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, precise, accurate and selective high performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of pamabrom and paracetamol in a synthetic mixture. Chromatographic separation was carried out on Merck TLC aluminium sheets of silica gel 60F254 using Chloroform: Acetonitrile (5.0: 5.0 % v/v as mobile phase followed by densitometric analysis at 277 nm. This system was found to give compact spots for pamabrom (Rf value of 0.34 ± 0.004 and paracetamol (Rf value of 0.56 ± 0.004. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification and specificity in accordance with International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines. The calibration curve was found to be linear between 100 to 350 and 1300 to 4550 ng/spot for pamabrom and paracetamol, respectively with significantly high value of correlation coefficient (r2 > 0.99. The limits of detection and quantitation were found to be 7.65 and 23.17 ng/spot, respectively for pamabrom and 52.63 and 159.48 ng/spot, respectively for paracetamol. The proposed method was found to be accurate, precise, reproducible, specific and sensitive and can be applicable for the simultaneous determination of pamabrom and paracetamol in Synthetic mixture.

  12. DART-MS as a preliminary screening method for "herbal incense": chemical analysis of synthetic cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Ashton D; Musah, Rabi A; Domin, Marek A; Shepard, Jason R E

    2014-03-01

    Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) served as a method for rapid high-throughput screening of six commercially available "Spice" products, detecting various combinations of five synthetic cannabinoids. Direct analysis in real time is an ambient ionization process that, along with high mass accuracy time-of-flight (TOF)-MS to 0.0001 Da, was employed to establish the presence of cannabinoids. Mass spectra were acquired by simply suspending a small portion of sample between the ion source and the mass spectrometer inlet. The ability to test minute amounts of sample is a major advantage when very limited amounts of evidentiary material are available. In addition, reports are widespread regarding the testing backlogs that now exist because of the large influx of designer drugs. This method circumvents time-consuming sample extraction, derivatization, chromatographic, and other sample preparative steps required for analysis by more conventional mass spectrometric methods. Accordingly, the synthetic cannabinoids AM-2201, JWH-122, JWH-203, JWH-210, and RCS-4 were identified in commercially available herbal Spice products, singly and in tandem, at concentrations within the range of 4-141 mg/g of material. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry decreases the time necessary to triage analytical evidence, and therefore, it has the potential to contribute to backlog reduction and more timely criminal prosecution.

  13. Hydrolytic Stability Study of Tetranitroglycoluri (TNGU) Produced via the US Army Research Laboratory’s Synthetic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    US Army Research Laboratory’s Synthetic Method by William M Sherrill, Eric J Bukowski , and Terry L Piatt Approved for public...Laboratory’s Synthetic Method by William M Sherrill, Eric J Bukowski , and Terry L Piatt Weapons and Materials Research Directorate...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) William M Sherrill, Eric J Bukowski , and Terry L Piatt 5d. PROJECT NUMBER AH43 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  14. Investigation of synthetic aperture methods in ultrasound surface imaging using elementary surface types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, W; Pierce, S G; Rowe, P

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic aperture imaging methods have been employed widely in recent research in non-destructive testing (NDT), but uptake has been more limited in medical ultrasound imaging. Typically offering superior focussing power over more traditional phased array methods, these techniques have been employed in NDT applications to locate and characterise small defects within large samples, but have rarely been used to image surfaces. A desire to ultimately employ ultrasonic surface imaging for bone surface geometry measurement prior to surgical intervention motivates this research, and results are presented for initial laboratory trials of a surface reconstruction technique based on global thresholding of ultrasonic 3D point cloud data. In this study, representative geometry artefacts were imaged in the laboratory using two synthetic aperture techniques; the Total Focusing Method (TFM) and the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) employing full and narrow synthetic apertures, respectively. Three high precision metallic samples of known geometries (cuboid, sphere and cylinder) which featured a range of elementary surface primitives were imaged using a 5MHz, 128 element 1D phased array employing both SAFT and TFM approaches. The array was manipulated around the samples using a precision robotic positioning system, allowing for repeatable ultrasound derived 3D surface point clouds to be created. A global thresholding technique was then developed that allowed the extraction of the surface profiles, and these were compared with the known geometry samples to provide a quantitative measure of error of 3D surface reconstruction. The mean errors achieved with optimised SAFT imaging for the cuboidal, spherical and cylindrical samples were 1.3mm, 2.9mm and 2.0mm respectively, while those for TFM imaging were 3.7mm, 3.0mm and 3.1mm, respectively. These results were contrary to expectations given the higher information content associated with the TFM images. However, it was

  15. The co-phasing detection method for sparse optical synthetic aperture systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zheng; Wang Sheng-Qian; Rao Chang-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Co-phasing between different sub-apertures is important for sparse optical synthetic aperture telescope systems to achieve high-resolution imaging.For co-phasing detection in such a system,a new aspect of the system's far-field interferometry is analysed and used to construct a novel method to detect piston errors.An optical setup is built to demonstrate the efficacy of this method.Experimental results show that the relative differences between measurements by this method and the criterion are less than 4%,and their residual detecting errors are about 0.01 λ for different piston errors,which makes the use of co-phasing detection within such a system promising.

  16. Superhydrophobic hBN-Regulated Sponges with Excellent Absorbency Fabricated Using a Green and Facile Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Wang, Yao; Liu, Tengfei; Xu, Gang; Chen, Guangming; Li, Huayi; Liu, Lichun; Zhuo, Qiqi; Zhang, Jiaoxia; Yan, Chao

    2017-03-01

    The world faces severe environmental, human and ecological problems when major oil spills and organic discharges are released into the environment. And so it is imperative to develop tools and high performance innovative materials that can efficiently absorb these organic discharges. Furthermore, green, facile methods to produce these advanced materials are also needed. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel porous supersponge based on melamine coated with hBN. This superhydrophobic sponge (with a contact angle >150°) exhibits excellent absorption performance for oils and organic solvents, including good selectivity, high capacity (up to 175 g·g-1) and extraordinary recyclability (less than 20% decline after 30 cycles of absorption/squeezing). The synthetic procedure required only ultrasonication and immersion of the sponge in aqueous hBN solution, being a green, cost-effective and scalable production methodology. By virtue of the straightforward and cost-effective fabrication method, along with the excellent absorption performance, hBN-decorated sponges have great promise for real world practical application in the field of oil spills and organic leakage cleanup.

  17. Superhydrophobic hBN-Regulated Sponges with Excellent Absorbency Fabricated Using a Green and Facile Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Wang, Yao; Liu, Tengfei; Xu, Gang; Chen, Guangming; Li, Huayi; Liu, Lichun; Zhuo, Qiqi; Zhang, Jiaoxia; Yan, Chao

    2017-01-01

    The world faces severe environmental, human and ecological problems when major oil spills and organic discharges are released into the environment. And so it is imperative to develop tools and high performance innovative materials that can efficiently absorb these organic discharges. Furthermore, green, facile methods to produce these advanced materials are also needed. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel porous supersponge based on melamine coated with hBN. This superhydrophobic sponge (with a contact angle >150°) exhibits excellent absorption performance for oils and organic solvents, including good selectivity, high capacity (up to 175 g·g−1) and extraordinary recyclability (less than 20% decline after 30 cycles of absorption/squeezing). The synthetic procedure required only ultrasonication and immersion of the sponge in aqueous hBN solution, being a green, cost-effective and scalable production methodology. By virtue of the straightforward and cost-effective fabrication method, along with the excellent absorption performance, hBN-decorated sponges have great promise for real world practical application in the field of oil spills and organic leakage cleanup. PMID:28332612

  18. Electrochemical growth of synthetic melanin thin films by constant potential methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyun; Nam, Hye Jin; Ahn, Hyeon Ju [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Materials Science, Institute of Basic Sciences, Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of NanoTechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Chunchun-dong, Gyunggi-do, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Duk-Young, E-mail: dyjung@skku.ed [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Materials Science, Institute of Basic Sciences, Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of NanoTechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Chunchun-dong, Gyunggi-do, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-28

    Polymerized melanin thin films were electrochemically synthesized in a 5,6-dihydroxyindole precursor solution on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using the cyclic voltammetry and constant potential methods. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (THAM) and phosphate buffer solutions were applied to prepare the films that were well deposited to the ITO substrates. The films that were synthesized in the THAM buffer solution exhibited a faster growth rate and better adhesion to the ITO electrodes than the films in the phosphate buffer. The film thickness linearly increased at the growth rate of 0.8 nm/s as the deposition time and number of cycles increased. Two electrochemical conditions produced similar thicknesses as well as physical properties in each buffer solution. However, the constant potential method demonstrated that this provides the synthetic advantages of faster deposition and less consumption of electric charge compared to the cyclic voltammetry route.

  19. Study on the Method of Short-Term Synthetic Earthquake Prediction in the North China Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Jianjun; Zhang Yongxian; Zhang Qingrong; Liu Suying; Chen Jianguo; Huang Wanfa; Mi Xuemei

    2004-01-01

    Based on the extraction and calculation of the short-term seismic precursory information magnitude from the 114 major precursory observations in the North China region, and together with consideration of factors such as geological structure, seismicity, crustal thickness, and in particular, the current geodynamics of the region, the authors studied the time-space evolution characteristics of the short-term earthquake precursory information magnitude and its relationship with earthquakes and proposed the index and method for the short-term synthetic prediction of earthquakes with Ms ≥ 5.0 in the North China region. The inspection through Rvalue shows that the method is effective to a certain extent for earthquake prediction.

  20. A facile synthetic route to diazepinone derivatives via ring closing metathesis and its application for human cytidine deaminase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyoung; Gajulapati, Kondaji; Kim, Chorong; Jung, Hwa Young; Goo, Jail; Lee, Kyeong; Kaur, Navneet; Kang, Hyo Jin; Chung, Sang J; Choi, Yongseok

    2012-12-04

    A variety of diazepinone derivatives were prepared from α-amino acids and amino alcohols by a new synthetic methodology based on ring closing metathesis as a key step. The diazepinones were coupled with ribose derivatives to afford novel diazepinone nucleosides. Among them, (4R)-1-ribosyl-4-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-1,3-diazepin-2(7H)-one (3) showed a potent inhibitory effect (K(i) = 145.97 ± 4.87 nM) against human cytidine deaminase.

  1. A Facile and Green Synthesis of Sulforaphane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Jian DING; Ling ZHOU; Xiao Ping CAO

    2006-01-01

    The compound sulforaphane (SFN, 1) has been synthesized via a facile and green synthetic strategy based on the modification of previous methods. Because of its high bioactivities and rare content in nature, the present work is of great important significance.

  2. Towards multifunctional MOFs--transforming a side reaction into a post-synthetic protection/deprotection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwoliński, K M; Nowak, P; Chmielewski, M J

    2015-06-21

    The contaminant commonly found in the important amino-substituted metal-organic framework UiO-66-NH2 has been shown to arise from partial formylation during the synthesis in DMF. Mild conditions have now been developed for both post-synthetic deformylation and near-complete formylation, offering a new post-synthetic protection-deprotection method for the synthesis of multifunctional MOFs.

  3. Size-controlled fluorescent nanodiamonds: a facile method of fabrication and color-center counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Remi; Floyd, Daniel L; Peng, Wei; Choy, Jennifer T; Loncar, Marko; Bakr, Osman M

    2013-12-07

    We present a facile method for the production of fluorescent diamond nanocrystals (DNCs) of different sizes and efficiently quantify the concentration of emitting defect color centers (DCCs) of each DNC size. We prepared the DNCs by ball-milling commercially available micrometer-sized synthetic (high pressure, high temperature (HPHT)) diamonds and then separated the as-produced DNCs by density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU) into size-controlled fractions. A protocol to enhance the uniformity of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in the diamonds was devised by depositing the DNCs as a dense monolayer on amino-silanized silicon substrates and then subjecting the monolayer to He(+) beam irradiation. Using a standard confocal setup, we analyzed the average number of NV centers per crystal, and obtained a quantitative relationship between the DNC particle size and the NV number per crystal. This relationship was in good agreement with results from previous studies that used more elaborate setups. Our findings suggest that nanocrystal size separation by DGU may be used to control the number of defects per nanocrystal. The efficient approaches described herein to control and quantify DCCs are valuable to researchers as they explore applications for color centers and new strategies to create them.

  4. Size-controlled fluorescent nanodiamonds: a facile method of fabrication and color-center counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Remi; Floyd, Daniel L.; Peng, Wei; Choy, Jennifer T.; Loncar, Marko; Bakr, Osman M.

    2013-11-01

    We present a facile method for the production of fluorescent diamond nanocrystals (DNCs) of different sizes and efficiently quantify the concentration of emitting defect color centers (DCCs) of each DNC size. We prepared the DNCs by ball-milling commercially available micrometer-sized synthetic (high pressure, high temperature (HPHT)) diamonds and then separated the as-produced DNCs by density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU) into size-controlled fractions. A protocol to enhance the uniformity of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in the diamonds was devised by depositing the DNCs as a dense monolayer on amino-silanized silicon substrates and then subjecting the monolayer to He+ beam irradiation. Using a standard confocal setup, we analyzed the average number of NV centers per crystal, and obtained a quantitative relationship between the DNC particle size and the NV number per crystal. This relationship was in good agreement with results from previous studies that used more elaborate setups. Our findings suggest that nanocrystal size separation by DGU may be used to control the number of defects per nanocrystal. The efficient approaches described herein to control and quantify DCCs are valuable to researchers as they explore applications for color centers and new strategies to create them.

  5. Size-controlled fluorescent nanodiamonds: A facile method of fabrication and color-center counting

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Remi

    2013-01-01

    We present a facile method for the production of fluorescent diamond nanocrystals (DNCs) of different sizes and efficiently quantify the concentration of emitting defect color centers (DCCs) of each DNC size. We prepared the DNCs by ball-milling commercially available micrometer-sized synthetic (high pressure, high temperature (HPHT)) diamonds and then separated the as-produced DNCs by density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU) into size-controlled fractions. A protocol to enhance the uniformity of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in the diamonds was devised by depositing the DNCs as a dense monolayer on amino-silanized silicon substrates and then subjecting the monolayer to He+ beam irradiation. Using a standard confocal setup, we analyzed the average number of NV centers per crystal, and obtained a quantitative relationship between the DNC particle size and the NV number per crystal. This relationship was in good agreement with results from previous studies that used more elaborate setups. Our findings suggest that nanocrystal size separation by DGU may be used to control the number of defects per nanocrystal. The efficient approaches described herein to control and quantify DCCs are valuable to researchers as they explore applications for color centers and new strategies to create them. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. A method for temperature estimation in high-temperature geothermal reservoirs by using synthetic fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Giovanni; Orlando, Andrea; Chiarantini, Laura; Borrini, Daniele; Weisenberger, Tobias B.

    2016-04-01

    Super-hot geothermal systems in magmatic areas are a possible target for the future geothermal exploration either for the direct exploitation of fluids or as a potential reservoirs of Enhanced Geothermal Systems. Reservoir temperature measurements are crucial for the assessment of the geothermal resources, however temperature determination in the high-temperature (>380°C) zone of super-hot geothermal systems is difficult or impossible by using either mechanical temperature and pressure gauges (Kuster device) and electronic devices. In the framework of Integrated Methods for Advanced Geothermal Exploration (IMAGE) project, we developed a method to measure high reservoir temperature by the production of synthetic fluid inclusions within an apparatus that will be placed in the high-temperature zone of geothermal wells. First experiments were carried out by placing a gold capsule containing pre-fractured quartz and an aqueous solution (10 wt.% NaCl + 0.4 wt.% NaOH) in an externally heated pressure vessel. Experimental pressure-temperature conditions (i.e. 80-300 bars and 280-400°C) were set close to the liquid/vapour curve of pure H2O or along the H2O critical isochore. The experiments showed that synthetic fluid inclusions form within a relatively short time (even in 48 hours) and that temperatures calculated from homogenization temperatures and isochores of newly formed inclusions are close to experimental temperatures. A second set of laboratory experiments were carried out by using a stainless steel micro-rector in which a gold capsule (containing the pre-fractured quartz and the aqueous solution) was inserted together with an amount of distilled water corresponding to the critical density of water. These experiments were conducted by leaving the new micro-reactor within a furnace at 400°C and were aimed to reproduce the temperature existing in super-hot geothermal wells. Synthetic fluid inclusions formed during the experiments had trapping temperature

  7. Lq regularization-based unobserved baselines' data estimation method for tomographic synthetic aperture radar inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hui; Zhang, Bingchen; Hong, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The elevation image quality of tomographic synthetic aperture radar (TomoSAR) data depends mainly on the elevation aperture size, number of baselines, and baseline distribution. In TomoSAR, due to the restricted number of baselines with irregular distributions, the elevation imaging quality is always unacceptable using the conventional spectral analysis approach. Therefore, for a given limited number of irregular baselines, the completion of data for the unobserved virtual uniform baseline distribution should be addressed to improve the spectral analysis-based TomoSAR reconstruction quality. We propose an Lq(0optimization problem, before calculating the data for virtual baseline distribution based on the acquisitions and the transformation matrix. Finally, the elevation reflectivity function is recovered using the spectral analysis method based on the estimated data. Compared with the reconstructed results only based on the limited irregular acquisitions, the image recovered using the dataset with a virtual uniform baseline distribution can improve the elevation image quality in an efficient manner.

  8. Nonsearching Doppler parameter and velocity estimation method for synthetic aperture radar ground moving target imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongyu; Wu, Junjie; Huang, Yunlin; Yang, Haiguang; Yang, Jianyu

    2016-07-01

    For synthetic aperture radar (SAR), ground moving target (GMT) imaging necessitates the compensation of the additional azimuth modulation contributed by the unknown movement of the GMT. That is to say, it is necessary to estimate the Doppler parameters of the GMT without a priori knowledge of the GMT's motion parameters. This paper presents a Doppler parameter and velocity estimation method to refocus the GMT from its smeared response in SAR image. The main idea of this method is that an azimuth reference function is constructed to do the correlation integral with the azimuth signal of the GMT. And in general, the Doppler parameters of the presumed azimuth reference function are different from those of the GMT's azimuth signal since the velocity parameters of the GMT are unknown. Therefore, the correlation operation referred to here is actually mismatched, and the processing result of is shifted and defocused. The shifted and defocused result is utilized to get the real Doppler parameters and the velocity parameters of the GMT. One advantage of this method is that it is a nonsearching method. Another advantage is that both the Doppler centroid and the Doppler frequency rate of the GMT can be simultaneously estimated according to the relationships between the Doppler parameters and the smeared response of the GMT. In addition, the velocity of the GMT can also be obtained based on the estimated Doppler parameters. Numerical simulations and experimental data processing verify the validity of the method proposed.

  9. Liquid Glass: A Facile Soft Replication Method for Structuring Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Frederik; Plewa, Klaus; Bauer, Werner; Schneider, Norbert; Keller, Nico; Nargang, Tobias; Helmer, Dorothea; Sachsenheimer, Kai; Schäfer, Michael; Worgull, Matthias; Greiner, Christian; Richter, Christiane; Rapp, Bastian E

    2016-06-01

    Liquid glass is a photocurable amorphous silica nanocomposite that can be structured using soft replication molds and turned into glass via thermal debinding and sintering. Simple polymer bonding techniques allow the fabrication of complex microsystems in glass like microfluidic chips. Liquid glass is a step toward prototyping of glass microstructures at low cost without requiring cleanroom facilities or hazardous chemicals.

  10. Linear facility location in three dimensions - Models and solution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schöbel, Anita

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of locating a line or a line segment in three-dimensional space, such that the sum of distances from the facility represented by the line (segment) to a given set of points is minimized. An example is planning the drilling of a mine shaft, with access to ore deposits through...

  11. Linear facility location in three dimensions - Models and solution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schöbel, Anita

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of locating a line or a line segment in three-dimensional space, such that the sum of distances from the facility represented by the line (segment) to a given set of points is minimized. An example is planning the drilling of a mine shaft, with access to ore deposits through...

  12. An efficient Born normal mode method to compute sensitivity kernels and synthetic seismograms in the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdeville, Y.

    2005-11-01

    We present an alternative to the classical mode coupling method scheme often used in global seismology to compute synthetic seismograms in laterally heterogeneous earth model and Frechet derivatives for tomographic inverse problem with the normal modes first-order Born approximation. We start from the first-order Born solution in the frequency domain and we use a numerical scheme for the volume integration, which means that we have to compute the effect of a finite number of scattering points and sum them with the appropriate integration weight. For each scattering point, `source to scattering point' and `scattering point to receivers' expressions are separated before applying a Fourier transform to return to the time domain. Doing so, the perturbed displacement is obtained, for each scattering point, as the convolution of a forward wavefield from the source to the scattering point with a backward wavefield from the scattering integration point to the receiver. For one scattering point and for a given number of time steps, the numerical cost of such a scheme grows as (number of receivers + the number of sources) × (corner frequency)2 to be compared to (number of receivers × the number of sources) × (corner frequency)4 when the classical normal mode coupling algorithm is used. Another interesting point is, when used for Frechet kernel, the computing cost is (almost) independent of the number of parameters used for the inversion. This algorithm is similar to the one obtained when solving the adjoint problem. Validation tests with respect to the spectral element method solution both in the Frechet derivative case and as a synthetic seismogram tool shows a good agreement. In the latter case, we show that non-linearity can be significant even at long periods and when using existing smooth global tomographic models.

  13. Theory and Method of Mineral Resource Prediction Based on Synthetic Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shicheng; Ye Shuisheng; Zhou Dongdai

    2003-01-01

    Metallogenic prognosis of synthetic information uses the geological body and the mineral resource body as a statistical unit to interpret synthetically the information of geology, geophysics, geochemistry and remote sensing from the evolution of geology and puts all the information into one entire system by drawing up digitalized interpretation maps of the synthetic information. On such basis, different grades and types of mineral resource prospecting models and predictive models of synthetic information can be established. Hence, a new integrated prediction system will be formed of metallogenic prognosis (qualitative prediction), mineral resources statistic prediction (determining targets) and mineral resources prediction (determining resources amount).

  14. Synthetic seismograms of ground motion near earthquake fault using simulated Green's function method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhixin; ZHAO Zhao; XU Jiren; Ryuji Kubota

    2006-01-01

    Seismograms near source fault were synthesized using the hybrid empirical Green's function method where he discretely simulated seismic waveforms are used for Green's functions instead of the observed waveforms of small earthquakes. The Green's function seismic waveforms for small earthquake were calculated by solving wave equation using the pseudo-spectral method with the staggered grid real FFT strategy under a detailed 2-D velocity structure in Kobe region. Magnitude and seismic moment of simulated Green's function waveforms were firstly determined by using the relationship between fault length and corner frequency of source spectrum. The simulated Green's function waveforms were employed to synthesize seismograms of strong ground motion near the earthquake fault. The synthetic seismograms of the target earthquake were performed based on the model with multiple source rupture processes. The results suggest that synthesized seismograms coincide well with observed seismic waveforms of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. The simulated Green's function method is very useful for prediction of the strong ground motion in region without observed seismic waveforms.The present technique spreads application field of the empirical Green's function method.

  15. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar image unsupervised classification method based on artificial immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yu; Gang, Wang; Teng, Zhu; Xiaojuan, Li; Qin, Yan

    2014-01-01

    An unsupervised classification method based on the H/α classifier and artificial immune system (AIS) is proposed to overcome the inefficiencies that arise when traditional classification methods deal with polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data having large numbers of overlapping pixels and excess polarimetric information. The method is composed of two steps. First, Cloude-Pottier decomposition is used to obtain the entropy H and the scattering angle α. The classification result based on the H/α plane is used to initialize the AIS algorithm. Second, to obtain accurate results, the AIS clonal selection algorithm is used to perform an iterative calculation. As a self-organizing, self-recognizing, and self-optimizing algorithm, the AIS is able to obtain a global optimal solution and better classification results by making use of both the scattering mechanism of ground features and polarimetric scattering characteristics. The effectiveness and feasibility of this method are demonstrated by experiments using a NASA-JPL PolSAR image and a high-resolution PolSAR image of Lingshui autonomous county in Hainan Province.

  16. A fast level set method for synthetic aperture radar ocean image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Huang, Bo; Li, Hongga

    2009-01-01

    Segmentation of high noise imagery like Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is still one of the most challenging tasks in image processing. While level set, a novel approach based on the analysis of the motion of an interface, can be used to address this challenge, the cell-based iterations may make the process of image segmentation remarkably slow, especially for large-size images. For this reason fast level set algorithms such as narrow band and fast marching have been attempted. Built upon these, this paper presents an improved fast level set method for SAR ocean image segmentation. This competent method is dependent on both the intensity driven speed and curvature flow that result in a stable and smooth boundary. Notably, it is optimized to track moving interfaces for keeping up with the point-wise boundary propagation using a single list and a method of fast up-wind scheme iteration. The list facilitates efficient insertion and deletion of pixels on the propagation front. Meanwhile, the local up-wind scheme is used to update the motion of the curvature front instead of solving partial differential equations. Experiments have been carried out on extraction of surface slick features from ERS-2 SAR images to substantiate the efficacy of the proposed fast level set method.

  17. Characterization methods for an accelerator based fast-neutron facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, C.; Daniels, G. C.

    2012-02-01

    A fast neutron facility provides a number of complexities in both detection and shielding, the latter arising not only due to uncertainty in the behaviour of the scattered radiation (neutron and gamma-rays) from a fast neutron source, but also on shielding requirements that have to take into account internal and external factors, such as dose limitations, space availability for implementing bulky shielding and secondary interactions of the radiation with materials. This has possible influence on experimental measurements with a low signal to noise ratio. This paper reports on some of the investigations performed at a RFQ accelerator facility generating > 1011 neutrons per second with energies up to 14 MeV, which are used to perform fast neutron radiography studies. Areas highlighted are the neutron cross section libraries, where important data needs to be reviewed or updated.

  18. Krylov iterative methods and synthetic acceleration for transport in binary statistical media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichtl, Erin D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Warsa, James S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prinja, Anil K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    In particle transport applications there are numerous physical constructs in which heterogeneities are randomly distributed. The quantity of interest in these problems is the ensemble average of the flux, or the average of the flux over all possible material 'realizations.' The Levermore-Pomraning closure assumes Markovian mixing statistics and allows a closed, coupled system of equations to be written for the ensemble averages of the flux in each material. Generally, binary statistical mixtures are considered in which there are two (homogeneous) materials and corresponding coupled equations. The solution process is iterative, but convergence may be slow as either or both materials approach the diffusion and/or atomic mix limits. A three-part acceleration scheme is devised to expedite convergence, particularly in the atomic mix-diffusion limit where computation is extremely slow. The iteration is first divided into a series of 'inner' material and source iterations to attenuate the diffusion and atomic mix error modes separately. Secondly, atomic mix synthetic acceleration is applied to the inner material iteration and S{sup 2} synthetic acceleration to the inner source iterations to offset the cost of doing several inner iterations per outer iteration. Finally, a Krylov iterative solver is wrapped around each iteration, inner and outer, to further expedite convergence. A spectral analysis is conducted and iteration counts and computing cost for the new two-step scheme are compared against those for a simple one-step iteration, to which a Krylov iterative method can also be applied.

  19. Analysis of Synthetic Cannabinoids in Botanical Material: A Review of Analytical Methods and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, B C; Jansen-Varnum, S A; Logan, B K

    2013-03-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid analogs have gained a great deal of attention from the forensic community within the last four years. The compounds found to be of most interest to forensic practitioners include those of the following series: JWH, CP, HU, AM, WIN, RCS, and most recently, XLR and UR. Structurally the HU compounds are most similar in structure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of marijuana. The novel compounds include cyclohexylphenols, naphthoylindoles, naphthylmethylindoles, naphthylmethylindenes, benzoylindoles, naphthoylpyrroles, phenylacetylindoles, adamantoylindoles, and tetramethylcyclopropylindoles. Many of these compounds are cannabinoid receptor agonists and were originally synthesized for medical research purposes but have recently been appropriated into the illicit drug market. Their psychoactive effects, mimicking those of marijuana, as well as their indeterminate legal status, have made them popular for recreational use. Solutions of the compounds dissolved in organic solvents are sprayed onto botanical material and sold as "herbal incense" products via the Internet, and in smoke shops, convenience stores, and gas stations around the world. Many of the products are labeled "Not for human consumption" in an attempt to circumvent legislation that bans the sale and manufacture of certain compounds and their analogs for human use. The compounds that were first detected following forensic analysis of botanical materials included JWH-018, JWH-073, and CP 47,497 (C7 and C8 homologs). However, in the four years since their appearance the number of compounds has grown, and additional diverse classes of compounds have been detected. Governments worldwide have taken action in an attempt to control those compounds that have become widespread in their regions. This article discusses the history of synthetic cannabinoids and how they have been detected in the illicit drug market. It also discusses the analytical methods and

  20. Investigation of the SiC thin films synthetized by Thermionic Vacuum Arc method (TVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupina, V.; Vladoiu, R.; Lungu, C. P.; Dinca, V.; Contulov, M.; Mandes, A.; Popov, P.; Prodan, G.

    2012-04-01

    Thermionic Vacuum Arc method (TVA) was used for the first time to prepare SiC thin films. This method is very suitable for deposition of high purity thin films with compact structure and extremely smooth in vacuum conditions. The nanocomposites were investigated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analyses provided with HR-TEM and SAED facilities. The structure of the films can be indexed as following three forms: cubic structure of SiC (F4-3m) a = 0.4348 nm, cubic Si (Fd3m) a = 0.54307 nm and graphite (P63/mmc) a = 0.2456 nm; c = 0.6696 nm. The morphology, topography, wettability and wear properties were also performed by SEE system and by Raman Spectroscopy, increasing the interest for emerging applications.

  1. Second Order Low-Pass and High-Pass Filter Designs Using Method of Synthetic Immitance Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Brandstetter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper briefly describes the basics of frequency filter design method using synthetic immittance elements with current conveyors. An introduction of the paper explains the advantages and also disadvantages of using this method. Other chapters briefly introduce a design process of simple second order low-pass and high-pass filter. A theory of current conveyors is discussed too, because they are the basic building blocs of proposed synthetic element and also active frequency filters. Finally, the particular solutions of low-pass and high-pass filters are given and verified by OrCAD PSpice simulations.

  2. Bismuth-ceramic nanocomposites through ball milling and liquid crystal synthetic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, Timothy Michael

    Three methods were developed for the synthesis of bismuth-ceramic nanocomposites, which are of interest due to possible use as thermoelectric materials. In the first synthetic method, high energy ball milling of bismuth metal with either MgO or SiO2 was found to produce nanostructured bismuth dispersed on a ceramic material. The morphology of the resulting bismuth depended on its wetting behavior with respect to the ceramic: the metal wet the MgO, but did not wet on the SiO2. Differential Scanning Calorimetry measurements on these composites revealed unusual thermal stability, with nanostructure retained after multiple cycles of heating and cooling through the metal's melting point. The second synthesis methodology was based on the use of lyotropic liquid crystals. These mixtures of water and amphiphilic molecules self-assemble to form periodic structures with nanometer-scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains. A novel shear mixing methodology was developed for bringing together reactants which were added to the liquid crystals as dissolved salts. The liquid crystals served to mediate synthesis by acting as nanoreactors to confine chemical reactions within the nanoscale domains of the mesophase, and resulted in the production of nanoparticles. By synthesizing lead sulfide (PbS) and bismuth (Bi) particles as proof-of-concept, it was shown that nanoparticle size could be controlled by controlling the dimensionality of the nanoreactors through control of the liquid crystalline phase. Particle size was shown to decrease upon going from three-dimensionally percolating nanoreactors, to two dimensional sheet-like nanoreactors, to one dimensional rod-like nanoreactors. Additionally, particle size could be controlled by varying the precursor salt concentration. Since the nanoparticles did not agglomerate in the liquid crystal immediately after synthesis, bismuth-ceramic nanocomposites could be prepared by synthesizing Bi nanoparticles and mixing in SiO2 particles which

  3. A novel method for the determination of synthetic colors in ice cream samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Meenakshi; Khanna, Subhash K; Das, Mukul

    2004-01-01

    A simple method has been developed for the extraction, separation, and determination of synthetic colors in ice cream samples. The process involves the breakdown of emulsion by neutral detergents (Triton X-100 and Tween 20) followed by extraction with petroleum ether for removal of fat. The aqueous colored solution obtained is treated with 5% acetic acid, and the uptake of color is carried out by a wool-dyeing technique. The color is eluted from the wool with 5% ammonia solution, the solution is evaporated to dryness, and the residue is dissolved in 60% ethanol for paper chromatography using trisodium citrate-ammonia-water (2 + 5 + 95, w/v/v) as the mobile phase. The colored spots from the paper chromatogram are cut and eluted with 60% ethanol, and the absorbance is measured at the respective lambda maximum corresponding to the Rf value of the appropriate standard. The recoveries of 6 colors, including sunset yellow FCF (SSYFCF), tartrazine, carmoisine, ponceau 4R, brilliant blue FCF (BBFCF), and fast green FCF from spiked samples with either detergent were found to be >90%. However, recoveries of erythrosine were 21 and 65% with Triton X-100 and Tween 20, respectively. Indigo carmine could not be recovered at all because of its fugitive property in 5% ammonia solution, which is used to strip the color from the wool. The sensitivity of the method with the use of Tween 20 is 1 ppm (1 microg/g) for the colors in spiked ice cream samples. With this method, we analyzed samples of 20 branded colored ice cream. The results showed the presence of tartrazine (8.4-43.3 ppm), SSYFCF (23.5-117.6 ppm), carmoisine (traces-53.2 ppm), erythrosine (3.5 ppm), and BBFCF (4.1 ppm) in the ice cream samples. Apart from 2 samples of tuttifruity, all of the ice cream samples showed the presence of permitted synthetic colors below the permissible level of 100 ppm established by the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act of India.

  4. Method for Standardizing Sonic-Boom Model Pressure Signatures Measured at Several Wind-Tunnel Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Low-boom model pressure signatures are often measured at two or more wind-tunnel facilities. Preliminary measurements are made at small separation distances in a wind tunnel close at hand, and a second set of pressure signatures is measured at larger separation distances in a wind-tunnel facility with a larger test section. In this report, a method for correcting and standardizing the wind-tunnel-measured pressure signatures obtained in different wind tunnel facilities is presented and discussed.

  5. RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Enalapril Maleate and Chlorthalidone in Synthetic Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VISHWA M. DAVE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, accurate, precise and rapid RP-HPLC method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of Enalapril Maleate and Chlorthalidone in synthetic mixture. The mobile phase used consisting of Phosphate buffer: Acetonitrile: Methanol (65:25:10 v/v/v was used at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection was carried out at 210 nm. The separation was achieved using Hypersil BDS C18 (250 x 4.6mm, 5 μm . Linearity was obtained in the range of 5-15 μg/ml and 12.5-37.5 μg/ml for Enalapril Maleate and Chlorthalidone respectively with R2 value 0f 0.999 for Enalapril Maleate and 0.998 for Chlorthalidone. Retention time for Enalapril Maleate and Chlorthalidone is 7.749 and 4.247 respectively. The recovery studies were found in between 99.83-100.88 for Enalapril Maleate and for Chlorthalidone 99.33-101.11 with relative standard deviation less than 2. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines Q2(R1.

  6. A method for automated snow avalanche debris detection through use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, H.; Eckerstorfer, M.; Malnes, E.; Larsen, Y.; Hindberg, H.

    2016-11-01

    Avalanches are a natural hazard that occur in mountainous regions of Troms County in northern Norway during winter and can cause loss of human life and damage to infrastructure. Knowledge of when and where they occur especially in remote, high mountain areas is often lacking due to difficult access. However, complete, spatiotemporal avalanche activity data sets are important for accurate avalanche forecasting, as well as for deeper understanding of the link between avalanche occurrences and the triggering snowpack and meteorological factors. It is therefore desirable to develop a technique that enables active mapping and monitoring of avalanches over an entire winter. Avalanche debris can be observed remotely over large spatial areas, under all weather and light conditions by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites. The recently launched Sentinel-1A satellite acquires SAR images covering the entire Troms County with frequent updates. By focusing on a case study from New Year 2015 we use Sentinel-1A images to develop an automated avalanche debris detection algorithm that utilizes change detection and unsupervised object classification methods. We compare our results with manually identified avalanche debris and field-based images to quantify the algorithm accuracy. Our results indicate that a correct detection rate of over 60% can be achieved, which is sensitive to several algorithm parameters that may need revising. With further development and refinement of the algorithm, we believe that this method could play an effective role in future operational monitoring of avalanches within Troms and has potential application in avalanche forecasting areas worldwide.

  7. Solvothermal and electrochemical synthetic method of HKUST-1 and its methane storage capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu Lestari, Witri; Adreane, Marisa; Purnawan, Candra; Fansuri, Hamzah; Widiastuti, Nurul; Budi Rahardjo, Sentot

    2016-02-01

    A comparison synthetic strategy of Metal-Organic Frameworks, namely, Hongkong University of Techhnology-1 {HKUST-1[Cu3(BTC)]2} (BTC = 1,3,5-benzene-tri-carboxylate) through solvothermal and electrochemical method in ethanol:water (1:1) has been conducted. The obtained material was analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Surface Area Analysis (SAA). While the voltage in the electrochemical method are varied, ranging from 12 to 15 Volt. The results show that at 15 V the texture of the material has the best degree of crystallinity and comparable with solvothermal product. This indicated from XRD data and supported by the SEM image to view the morphology. The thermal stability of the synthesized compounds is up to 320 °C. The shape of the nitrogen sorption isotherm of the compound corresponds to type I of the IUPAC adsorption isotherm classification for microporous materials with BET surface area of 629.2 and 324.3 m2/g (for solvothermal and electrochemical product respectively) and promising for gas storage application. Herein, the methane storage capacities of these compounds are also tested.

  8. A hybrid sorption - Spectrometric method for determination of synthetic anionic dyes in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Tatyana I; Ramazanova, Gyulselem R; Apyari, Vladimir V

    2017-04-15

    A sorption-spectrometric method for determination of the anionic synthetic dyes based on their sorption on silica sorbent modified with hexadecyl groups (C16) followed by measuring the diffuse reflectance spectra on the surface of the sorbent has been proposed. Adsorption of sulfonated azo dyes Tartrazine (E102), Sunset Yellow FCF (E110), Ponceau 4R (E124) reaches maximum in acidic medium (1M HCl - pH 1). For the quinophthalone type dye Quinoline Yellow (E104), the adsorption is also maximal in an acidic medium (1M HCl - pH 2). The triphenylmethane dye Fast Green FCF (E143) is absorbed in the wider area of pH (1M HCl - pH 6). Increasing concentration of the dyes in a solution led to the increase in absorption band intensity in diffuse reflectance spectra of the adsorbent, which was used for their direct determination. The proposed method was applied to the determination of dyes in beverages and pharmaceuticals.

  9. Classification and methodical features of fitness and wellness facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beliak Yu. I.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : health and fitness use a large arsenal of different sports and physical activity. Development of fitness industry promotes its expansion and requires classification and methodological features that lead to the use of appropriate fitness programs. Material : more than 60 literature and video of 42 prestigious international fitness - conventions lessons were analyzed. Results : the evolution of species fitness and wellness, as well as the character used in those funds. Conclusions : as a means of improving classification attribute fitness appropriate to use their orientation, according to which they are divided into aerobic, strength exercises that promote flexibility and psychomotor coordination. The main methodological features fitness facilities are highlighted: the variety and interchangeability, clear regulation, the ability to transform, to exercise a selective effect on the body, the ability to solve a wide range of tasks, innovation.

  10. Early test facilities and analytic methods for radiation shielding: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingersoll, D T [comp.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ingersoll, J K [comp.; Tec-Com, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-11-01

    This report represents a compilation of eight papers presented at the 1992 American Nuclear Society/European Nuclear Society International Meeting. The meeting is of special significance since it commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of the first controlled nuclear chain reaction. The papers contained in this report were presented in a special session organized by the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division in keeping with the historical theme of the meeting. The paper titles are good indicators of their content and are: (1) The origin of radiation shielding research: The Oak Ridge experience, (2) Shielding research at the hanford site, (3) Aircraft shielding experiments at General Dynamics Fort Worth, 1950-1962, (4) Where have the neutrons gone , a history of the tower shielding facility, (5) History and evolution of buildup factors, (6) Early shielding research at Bettis atomic power laboratory, (7) UK reactor shielding: then and now, (8) A very personal view of the development of radiation shielding theory.

  11. Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Green Method Stabilized to Synthetic Human Stomach Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Atta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (Ag NP have been attracted much attention in recent years in biomedical applications due to their antimicrobial activity, but their drawbacks include toxicity and instability to aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions. Ag NPs have now been successfully prepared by a simple and “green” synthesis method by reducing Ag+ ions in the presence of modified poly(vinyl alcohol thiol (PVA-SH in aqueous acidic solution. In this respect, Ag NPs were stabilized by coating different types of citrate-reduced Ag NPs with different weight ratios (1–3 Wt. % of PVSH derivatives. The as-prepared Ag NPs were characterized using UV-Visible, high resolution transmission electron microscopy/ energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM/EDS, dynamic light scattering (DLS and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD combined with Rietveld analysis. The changes in size, shape, and hydrodynamic diameter of Ag NPs after different duration exposure to synthetic stomach fluid (SSF and1 M HCl were determined using TEM, XRD and UV-Visible analyses. The data indicated that these Ag NPs possessed high stability to SSF for more than 90 days, which was not previously reported in the literature.

  12. Novel synthetic index-based adaptive stochastic resonance method and its application in bearing fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Lu, Siliang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yongbin; Li, Guihua; Zhao, Jiwen

    2017-03-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR), which is characterized by the fact that proper noise can be utilized to enhance weak periodic signals, has been widely applied in weak signal detection. SR is a nonlinear parameterized filter, and the output signal relies on the system parameters for the deterministic input signal. The most commonly used index for parameter tuning in the SR procedure is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, using the SNR index to evaluate the denoising effect of SR quantitatively is insufficient when the target signal frequency cannot be estimated accurately. To address this issue, six different indexes, namely, power spectral kurtosis of the SR output signal, correlation coefficient between the SR output and the original signal, peak SNR, structural similarity, root mean square error, and smoothness, are constructed in this study to measure the SR output quantitatively. These six quantitative indexes are fused into a new synthetic quantitative index (SQI) via a back propagation neural network to guide the adaptive parameter selection of the SR procedure. The index fusion procedure reduces the instability of each index and thus improves the robustness of parameter tuning. In addition, genetic algorithm is utilized to quickly select the optimal SR parameters. The efficiency of bearing fault diagnosis is thus further improved. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed SQI-based adaptive SR method for bearing fault diagnosis are verified through numerical and experiment analyses.

  13. Rapid method for quantification of seven synthetic pigments in colored Chinese steamed buns using UFLC-MS/MS without SPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, He-Gang; Gong, Wen-Jie; Zhao, Yong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic pigments are still used instead of natural pigments in many foods and their residues in food could be an important risk to human health. A simple and rapid analytical method combining the low-cost extraction protocol with ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven synthetic pigments used in colored Chinese steamed buns. For the first time, ethanol/ammonia solution/water (7:2:1, v/v/v) was used as extraction solution for the synthetic pigments in colored Chinese steamed buns. The results showed that the property of the extraction solution used in this method was more effective than critic acid solution, which is used in the polyamide adsorption method. The limits of quantification for the seven synthetic pigments ranged from 0.15 to 0.50 μg/kg. The present method was successfully applied to samples of colored Chinese steamed buns for food-safety risk monitoring in Zhejiang Province, China. The results found sunset yellow pigment in six out of 300 colored Chinese steamed buns (from 0.50 to 32.6 μg/kg).

  14. A rapid quantitative method for the analysis of synthetic cannabinoids by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freijo, Tom D; Harris, Steve E; Kala, Subbarao V

    2014-10-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids represent an emerging drug problem in the USA, as these compounds are constantly being modified and rapidly sold as soon as they become available. Laboratories around the world are constantly improving the analytical methods to detect and identify these newly available designer drugs. This study used a simple approach to detect and quantify a variety of synthetic cannabinoids (14 parent compounds and 15 metabolites including series XLR, AM, JWH, UR, RCS, PB, HU and AB-FUBINACA) using LC-MS-MS. Drug-free urine samples spiked with various synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites were separated on a C18-Hypersil Gold column using an Agilent 1290 ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and detected by an AB Sciex API 4000 tandem mass spectrometer. Studies were carried out to determine limit of detection, limit of quantitation, upper limit of linearity, ion suppression, interference, precision and accuracy to validate the method. Urine samples from patients and known users were hydrolyzed with β-glucuronidase prior to the analysis by LC-MS-MS, and the data are presented. The method described here is rapid, highly sensitive and specific for the identification of a variety of synthetic cannabinoids. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Facile synthetic approach for 5-aryl-9-hydroxypyrano [3,2-f] indole-2(8H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An appropriate method for the synthesis of 5-aryl-9-hydroxypyrano[3,2-f]indole-2(8H-one was described. The targeted compounds were obtained starting from vanillin via nine steps. Interestingly, in the final cyclization step, the intermediate 4-(2-halogeno phenyl-7-methoxy-1H-indole-6-yl propiolate could convert directly into the final product in one step reaction using PtCl4 or Pd(PPh34/trifluoroacetic acid as catalysts. The possible catalytic mechanism for PtCl4 and Pd(PPh34/trifluoroacetic acid was discussed.

  16. A systematic examination of colour development in synthetic ultramarine according to historical methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Hamerton

    Full Text Available A number of historical texts are investigated to ascertain the optimum conditions for the preparation of synthetic ultramarine, using preparative methods that would have been available to alchemists and colour chemists of the nineteenth century. The effect of varying the proportion of sulphur in the starting material on the colour of the final product is investigated. The optimum preparation involves heating a homogenised, pelletised mixture of kaolin (100 parts, sodium carbonate (100 parts, bitumen emulsion (or any 'sticky' carbon source (12 parts and sulphur (60 parts at 750°C for ca. 4 hours. At this stage the ingress of air should be limited. The sample is allowed to cool in the furnace to 500°C, the ingress of air is permitted and additional sulphur (30 parts is introduced before a second calcination step is undertaken at 500°C for two hours. The products obtained from the optimum synthesis have CIE ranges of x  = 0.2945-0.3125, y  = 0.2219-0.2617, Y  = 0.4257-0.4836, L* = 3.8455-4.3682, a*  = 4.2763-7.6943, b* = -7.6772-(-3.3033, L  = 3.8455-4.3682, C = 5.3964-10.8693, h = 315.0636-322.2562. The values are calculated using UV/visible near infrared spectra using Lazurite [1], under D65 illumination, and the 1931 2° observer.

  17. A systematic examination of colour development in synthetic ultramarine according to historical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerton, Ian; Tedaldi, Lauren; Eastaugh, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    A number of historical texts are investigated to ascertain the optimum conditions for the preparation of synthetic ultramarine, using preparative methods that would have been available to alchemists and colour chemists of the nineteenth century. The effect of varying the proportion of sulphur in the starting material on the colour of the final product is investigated. The optimum preparation involves heating a homogenised, pelletised mixture of kaolin (100 parts), sodium carbonate (100 parts), bitumen emulsion (or any 'sticky' carbon source) (12 parts) and sulphur (60 parts) at 750°C for ca. 4 hours. At this stage the ingress of air should be limited. The sample is allowed to cool in the furnace to 500°C, the ingress of air is permitted and additional sulphur (30 parts) is introduced before a second calcination step is undertaken at 500°C for two hours. The products obtained from the optimum synthesis have CIE ranges of x  = 0.2945-0.3125, y  = 0.2219-0.2617, Y  = 0.4257-0.4836, L* = 3.8455-4.3682, a*  = 4.2763-7.6943, b* = -7.6772-(-)3.3033, L  = 3.8455-4.3682, C = 5.3964-10.8693, h = 315.0636-322.2562. The values are calculated using UV/visible near infrared spectra using Lazurite [1], under D65 illumination, and the 1931 2° observer.

  18. Air Dispersion Modeling for the INL Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emission Cap Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondrup, Andrus Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is applying for a synthetic minor, Sitewide, air quality permit to construct (PTC) with a facility emission cap (FEC) component from the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) for Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to limit its potential to emit to less than major facility limits for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) regulated under the Clean Air Act. This document is supplied as an appendix to the application, Idaho National Laboratory Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emissions Cap Component, hereafter referred to as “permit application” (DOE-ID 2015). Air dispersion modeling was performed as part of the permit application process to demonstrate pollutant emissions from the INL will not cause a violation of any ambient air quality standards. This report documents the modeling methodology and results for the air dispersion impact analysis. All CAPs regulated under Section 109 of the Clean Air Act were modeled with the exception of lead (Pb) and ozone, which are not required to be modeled by DEQ. Modeling was not performed for toxic air pollutants (TAPs) as uncontrolled emissions did not exceed screening emission levels for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic TAPs. Modeling for CAPs was performed with the EPA approved AERMOD dispersion modeling system (Version 14134) (EPA 2004a) and five years (2000-2004) of meteorological data. The meteorological data set was produced with the companion AERMET model (Version 14134) (EPA 2004b) using surface data from the Idaho Falls airport, and upper-air data from Boise International Airport supplied by DEQ. Onsite meteorological data from the Grid 3 Mesonet tower located near the center of the INL (north of INTEC) and supplied by the local National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) office was used for surface wind directions and wind speeds. Surface data (i

  19. New Approaches in Modeling Multiphase Flows and Dispersion in Turbulence, Fractal Methods and Synthetic Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolleau, FCGA; Redondo, J-M

    2012-01-01

    This book contains a collection of the main contributions from the first five workshops held by Ercoftac Special Interest Group on Synthetic Turbulence Models (SIG42. It is intended as an illustration of the sig's activities and of the latest developments in the field. This volume investigates the use of Kinematic Simulation (KS) and other synthetic turbulence models for the particular application to environmental flows. This volume offers the best syntheses on the research status in KS, which is widely used in various domains, including Lagrangian aspects in turbulence mixing/stirring, partic

  20. Investigation of Synthetic Jets Efficiency to Control Cavity Flotation with Subsonic External Flow by High-Resolution RANS / ILES Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lyubimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavities often found in airplanes: a niche for the landing gear, various weapons, etc. Reducing fluctuations of pressure and temperature in the cavity is a relevant practical problem. The article presents simulation results of external subsonic flow around the cavity (M = 0.85, T = 300K. . Calculations were performed using the high-resolution RANS/ILES (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes - RANS, Implicit Large Eddy Simulation - ILES method. To control flow the authors propose to use synthetic jets. Synthetic jets are produced by periodic ejection and suction of fluid from a slot induced by the movement of a diaphragm (generator of synthetic jets inside a cavity. They are compact and efficient and do not require a special working body and the ways for its supply. Instead of calculating the flow in the synthetic jet generator was used the modified boundary condition on the wall where the output slots was positioned. Under consideration there were two variants of slots for synthetic jets output: in front of the cavity and inside the cavity on the front wall. The frequency and amplitude values of the synthetic jet specified a mode of each jet. For a jet inside the cavity two modes have been reviewed, namely: 100 Hz and 50m/s, 200Hz and 50m/s. For jet in front of the cavity three modes have been reviewed, specifically: 20Hz and 20m/s, 100Hz and 50m/s, 200Hz and 50m/s. Analysis of calculation results showed that for all modes under examination, the synthetic jets reduced fluctuation of static pressure and temperature on the bottom and back walls of the cavity. The mode with parameters 200Hz, 50 m/s and synthetic jet located in front of the cavity was the most efficient. Furthermore, we compared the results of calculations for two-and three-dimensional cavities, which have the same length and depth. Research has shown that the simplified quasi-two-dimensional calculations cannot be used to evaluate the pressure and temperature fluctuations. This is due to

  1. [The new method for simultaneous determination of natural and synthetic food dyes by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessonov, V V; Perederiaev, O I; Vedishcheva, Iu V; Bogachuk, M N

    2010-01-01

    In the food industry in Russia is currently allowed to use more than 30 different dyes. Existing approaches to monitoring their use in foods are based on spectrophotometry, thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods of research focused on the analysis of a specific class of food dye--natural or synthetic, and can not be used in the analysis of their mixtures. The aim of work was to develop HPLC method for the joint determination of various classes of dyes in complex food additives and food products. As a result of the research suggested a method to allow a simultaneous determination of at least 15 natural and synthetic food dyes.

  2. Experimental optimization of a landmine detection facility using PGNAA method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hashem MIRI-HAKIMABAD; Hamed PANJEH; Alireza VEJDANI-NOGHREIYAN

    2008-01-01

    The optimum moderator geometry increases the performance of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) method considerably. In this work an 241Am-Be source was used in the moderator geometry for detecting buried landmines by PGNAA method. Experiments were done to find the best moderator geometry for the moderated 241 Am-Be source, by replacing the mine with a neutron detector and counting the thermal neutron flux. The flux of thermal neutrons at the place of mine was used as a determining factor to introduce the best moderator geometry.

  3. A Facile Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Iodate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2006-12-06

    Dec 6, 2006 ... thyroid hormones that play an important role in the develop- ment of brain .... of iodate. The proposed method, which is simple and rapid, ... 1 A.G. Gilman, L.S. Goodman, T.W. Rad and F. Murad, The Pharmacologi- cal Basis of ...

  4. Development and design of nanomaterial reagents in conjunction with new methods for their synthetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaramba, Farai Brian

    This Ph.D. deals with the integration of nanotechnology with organometallic/ organic synthetic technologies. The first part of this research sought to develop a library of novel molecular gears programmed to exploit photo-switching and electrostatic repulsion to control the molecular rotation of covalently linked triptypyrazines. Incorporation of these two modes allows for control of triptycene based gear systems using unexplored external methods. The triptypyrazine was an attractive scaffold because of its intrinsic pH and electrochemical activity, thus providing a novel construct for controlling molecular motion. This design finds relevance in the fabrication of nano-electromechanical devices and understanding controlled molecular motion. This Ph.D. also sought to address the need to generate and recycle low cost hydrosilylation catalysts. Metal nanoparticle catalysts can potentially meet this need due to their high surface area and reactivity. Their morphology and surface texture provide avenues for selectivity in reactions. Metal-nanoparticles on a silicon matrix can be formed by reducing metal salts with silicon hydrides. Investigations towards iron-nanoparticle catalyzed hydrosilylation of unsaturated bonds were conducted. Furthermore, this research sought to develop highly functionalized silanes, as guiding scaffolds for generating chiral silicon hydrides. Fabrication of metal-nanoparticle catalysts with the same, could install surface definition on these heterogeneous green catalysts, thus allowing selectivity in their catalysis. A bottom up approach to nanofabrication, started with the generation of a library of highly functionalized alkynyl-silane building blocks using the hydrosilylation reaction. Hydrosilylation of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom unsaturated bonds has proven to be an important reaction in organic syntheses. Additionally, silicon tethers have been utilized in complex organic syntheses as a way to increase reaction rates, and

  5. An Efficient Synthetic Method of 11,12-Dihydroxyl Eudesmanolide Sesquiterpenoid from a-Santonin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A short and efficient procedure for introduction of tertiary hydroxyl to C-11 of eudesmanolide based on the rearrangement-oxidation of the exocylic double bond has been developed, which is synthetically valuable for a series of natural eudesmanolide sesquiterpenoids containing the 11,12-diol.

  6. An Integrated Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multi Criteria Decision Making Method for Facility Location Selection

    OpenAIRE

    BORAN, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    The facility location selection, which is one of the important activities in strategic planning for a wide range of private and public companies, is a multi-criteria decision making problem including both quantitative and qualitative criteria. Traditional methods for facility location selection can not be effectively handled because information can not be represented by precise information under many conditions. This paper proposes the integration of intuitionistic fuzzy preference relation a...

  7. Facile stamp patterning method for superhydrophilic/superhydrophobic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Sungnam, E-mail: blueden@postech.ac.kr; Hwang, Woonbong, E-mail: whwang@postech.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-16

    Patterning techniques are essential to many research fields such as chemistry, biology, medicine, and micro-electromechanical systems. In this letter, we report a simple, fast, and low-cost superhydrophobic patterning method using a superhydrophilic template. The technique is based on the contact stamping of the surface during hydrophobic dip coating. Surface characteristics were measured using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis. The results showed that the hydrophilic template, which was contacted with the stamp, was not affected by the hydrophobic solution. The resolution study was conducted using a stripe shaped stamp. The patterned line was linearly proportional to the width of the stamp line with a constant narrowing effect. A surface with regions of four different types of wetting was fabricated to demonstrate the patterning performance.

  8. A facile method to modify bentonite nanoclay with silane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Sujani B. Y.; Perera, Srimala; Nalin de Silva, K. M.; Tissera, Nadeeka P.

    2017-07-01

    Immobilization of smectite clay onto a desirable surface has received much attention, since its nanospace can be utilized for many applications in material science. Here, we present an efficient method to functionalize surface of bentonite nanoclay (BNC) through the grafting of 3-aminotriethoxysilane (APTES). Infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis confirmed the presence of organic chains and amine groups in modified nanoclay. XRD analysis confirmed grafting of APTES on the surface of bentonite nanoclay without intercalation. The accomplishment of the surface modification was quantitatively proved by TGA analysis. Modified BNC can covalently couple with different material surfaces, allowing its nanospace to be utilized for intercalation of cations, bio-molecules, and polymeric materials, to be used in advanced military aerospace, pharmaceuticals, and many other commercial applications.

  9. A facile method for imparting superoleophobicity to polymer substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guina; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Zhu, Xiaotao; Ge, Bo; Wang, Kun; Xu, Xianghui; Men, Xuehu; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2014-03-01

    A new method was presented to impart polymer substrate with superoleophobic properties. Aluminum/polymer composite was created by a hot-pressing process, and rough surface textures needed to establish superoleophobicity were created by HCl etching and boiling water treatment. After surface fluorination, the surface became super-repellent towards water and several organic liquids, such as hexadecane. The effect of geometrical structure on hydrophobicity and oleophobicity was investigated, and the result showed that the synergistic action of microterraces and nanoflakes played a key role in establishing oleophobicity. A waterfall/jet test demonstrated that the obtained surface can keep its superoleophobicity after a long time exposure to water. Moreover, the obtained surface did not lose the superoleophobicity after placing it under cold condition for 7 days.

  10. Ta2O5 nanowires: a novel synthetic method and their solar energy utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xujie; Ding, Shangjun; Lin, Tianquan; Mou, Xinliang; Hong, Zhanglian; Huang, Fuqiang

    2012-01-14

    Single-crystalline uniform Ta(2)O(5) nanowires are prepared by a novel synthetic route. The formation of the nanowires involves an oriented attachment process caused by the reduction of surface energy. The nanowires are successfully applied to photocatalytic H(2) evolution, contaminant degradation, and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The Ta(2)O(5)-based DSCs reveal a significant photovoltaic response, which has not been reported. As a photocatalyst, the Ta(2)O(5) nanowires possess high H(2) evolution efficiency under Xe lamp irradiation, nearly 27-fold higher than the commercial powders. A better performance of photocatalytic contaminant degradation is also observed. Such improvements are ascribed to better charge transport ability for the single-crystalline wire and a higher potential energy of the conduction band. This new synthetic approach using a water-soluble precursor provides a versatile way to prepare nanostructured metal oxides.

  11. Solubility of 238U radionuclide from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids using "US in vitro" digestion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Sarmani, Sukiman; Majid, Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2015-04-01

    238U radionuclide is a naturally occuring radioactive material that can be found in soil. In this study, the solubility of 238U radionuclide obtained from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids was analysed by "US P in vitro" digestion method. The synthetic gastrointestinal fluids were added to the samples with well-ordered, mixed throughly and incubated according to the human physiology digestive system. The concentration of 238U radionuclide in the solutions extracted from the soil was measured using Induced Coupling Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The concentration of 238U radionuclide from the soil samples in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids showed different values due to different homogenity of soil types and chemical reaction of 238U radionuclide. In general, the solubility of 238U radionuclide in gastric fluid was higher (0.050 - 0.209 ppm) than gastrointestinal fluids (0.024 - 0.050 ppm). It could be concluded that the US P in vitro digestion method is practicle for estimating the solubility of 238U radionuclide from soil materials and could be useful for monitoring and risk assessment purposes applying to environmental, health and contaminated soil samples.

  12. 褪黑素的化学合成方法%Advance on Chemical Synthetic Methods of Melatonin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清彬

    2012-01-01

    Melatonin(MT), whose chemical name is iV-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine,is a kind of indole hormone secreted by Pineal gland(PG). It has extensive physiological activity. According to the structural characteristics of melatonin,this paper summarizes briefly its various synthetic routes and puts forward three kinds of comparatively feasible synthetic methods in accordance with the conditions of our country.%根据褪黑素的结构特点,综述了其不同的化学合成路线,并结合我国国情,提出了比较可行的3种褪黑素合成方法.

  13. Methods of sampling airborne fungi in working environments of waste treatment facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Černá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of a filter based sampling method and a high volume sampling method for sampling airborne culturable fungi present in waste sorting facilities. Material and Methods: Membrane filters method was compared with surface air system method. The selected sampling methods were modified and tested in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities. Results: The total number of colony-forming units (CFU/m3 of airborne fungi was dependent on the type of sampling device, on the time of sampling, which was carried out every hour from the beginning of the work shift, and on the type of cultivation medium (p < 0.001. Detected concentrations of airborne fungi ranged 2×102–1.7×106 CFU/m3 when using the membrane filters (MF method, and 3×102–6.4×104 CFU/m3 when using the surface air system (SAS method. Conclusions: Both methods showed comparable sensitivity to the fluctuations of the concentrations of airborne fungi during the work shifts. The SAS method is adequate for a fast indicative determination of concentration of airborne fungi. The MF method is suitable for thorough assessment of working environment contamination by airborne fungi. Therefore we recommend the MF method for the implementation of a uniform standard methodology of airborne fungi sampling in working environments of waste treatment facilities.

  14. Rapid method for hydrocarbon-type analysis of heavy oils and synthetic fuels by pyrolysis thin layer chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.A.; George, A.E.

    1982-09-01

    This work describes a rapid method for hydrocargon-type analysis applying thin layer chromatography (TLC) to the pentane-soluble fraction *malthenes) of the petroleum and synthetic fuels boiling above 200/sup 0/C. The principal component types encountered in this paper are saturates (SA), aromatics (AR), (mono and di together) polynuclear aromatics (PNA) and polar material (PO). The method uses a Iatroscan TLC pyrolyzer which combines the resolution capabilities of TLC with the possibility of quantification by using a flame-ionization detector (FID). Comparison of the results with those obtained by the API-60 procedure is presented.

  15. Evaluating collective significance of climatic trends: A comparison of methods on synthetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Radan; Dubrovský, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The common approach to determine whether climatic trends are significantly different from zero is to conduct individual (local) tests at each single site (station or gridpoint). Whether the number of sites where the trends are significantly non-zero can or cannot occur by random, is almost never evaluated in trend studies. That is, collective (global) significance of trends is ignored. We compare three approaches to evaluating collective statistical significance of trends at a network of sites, using the following statistics: (i) the number of successful local tests (a successful test means here a test in which the null hypothesis of no trend is rejected); this is a standard way of assessing collective significance in various applications in atmospheric sciences; (ii) the smallest p-value among the local tests (Walker test); and (iii) the counts of positive and negative trends regardless of their magnitudes and local significance. The third approach is a new procedure that we propose; the rationale behind it is that it is reasonable to assume that the prevalence of one sign of trends at individual sites is indicative of a high confidence in the trend not being zero, regardless of the (in)significance of individual local trends. A potentially large amount of information contained in trends that are not locally significant, which are typically deemed irrelevant and neglected, is thus not lost and is retained in the analysis. In this contribution we examine the feasibility of the proposed way of significance testing on synthetic data, produced by a multi-site stochastic generator, and compare it with the two other ways of assessing collective significance, which are well established now. The synthetic dataset, mimicking annual mean temperature on an array of stations (or gridpoints), is constructed assuming a given statistical structure characterized by (i) spatial separation (density of the station network), (ii) local variance, (iii) temporal and spatial

  16. A new method for fluid input into a hybrid synthetic jet actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordík J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new principle of flow rectification for hybrid synthetic jet actuators is introduced in this paper. As is well known, the flow rectification can be best accomplished by means of fluidic diodes. Novelty of the present study are fluidic diodes with two mutually opposed nozzles. Interaction between the periodic jet flows from the nozzles causes a difference between the blowing and suction strokes, resulting in a particularly efficient rectification effect. The distance between the nozzle exits as well as the oscillation frequency were the parameters, which were varied during hot-wire measurements. The combination of those parameters achieving the highest volumetric effciency was identified.

  17. Development of a synthetic cheese medium for fungi using chemometric methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birgitte Vedel; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1997-01-01

    . The medium had the following composition: 100 g of casein, 8.3 g of 90% lactate (90%), 7.9 g of lactose, 7.3 g of CaCl2×2H2O, 2.6 g of MgSO4×7H2O, 26.0 g of NaCl, 20 g of agar, 0.025 g of FeSO4×7H2O, 0,004 g of CuSO4×5H2O, and water to a total weight of 1 kg. The synthetic cheese medium was less suitable...

  18. Methods of sampling airborne fungi in working environments of waste treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černá, Kristýna; Wittlingerová, Zdeňka; Zimová, Magdaléna; Janovský, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of a filter based sampling method and a high volume sampling method for sampling airborne culturable fungi present in waste sorting facilities. Membrane filters method was compared with surface air system method. The selected sampling methods were modified and tested in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities. The total number of colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 of airborne fungi was dependent on the type of sampling device, on the time of sampling, which was carried out every hour from the beginning of the work shift, and on the type of cultivation medium (p method, and 3×102-6.4×104 CFU/m3 when using the surface air system (SAS) method. Both methods showed comparable sensitivity to the fluctuations of the concentrations of airborne fungi during the work shifts. The SAS method is adequate for a fast indicative determination of concentration of airborne fungi. The MF method is suitable for thorough assessment of working environment contamination by airborne fungi. Therefore we recommend the MF method for the implementation of a uniform standard methodology of airborne fungi sampling in working environments of waste treatment facilities. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  19. Methods for open innovation on a genome-design platform associating scientific, commercial, and educational communities in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology requires both engineering efficiency and compliance with safety guidelines and ethics. Focusing on the rational construction of biological systems based on engineering principles, synthetic biology depends on a genome-design platform to explore the combinations of multiple biological components or BIO bricks for quickly producing innovative devices. This chapter explains the differences among various platform models and details a methodology for promoting open innovation within the scope of the statutory exemption of patent laws. The detailed platform adopts a centralized evaluation model (CEM), computer-aided design (CAD) bricks, and a freemium model. It is also important for the platform to support the legal aspects of copyrights as well as patent and safety guidelines because intellectual work including DNA sequences designed rationally by human intelligence is basically copyrightable. An informational platform with high traceability, transparency, auditability, and security is required for copyright proof, safety compliance, and incentive management for open innovation in synthetic biology. GenoCon, which we have organized and explained here, is a competition-styled, open-innovation method involving worldwide participants from scientific, commercial, and educational communities that aims to improve the designs of genomic sequences that confer a desired function on an organism. Using only a Web browser, a participating contributor proposes a design expressed with CAD bricks that generate a relevant DNA sequence, which is then experimentally and intensively evaluated by the GenoCon organizers. The CAD bricks that comprise programs and databases as a Semantic Web are developed, executed, shared, reused, and well stocked on the secure Semantic Web platform called the Scientists' Networking System or SciNetS/SciNeS, based on which a CEM research center for synthetic biology and open innovation should be established. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc

  20. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Cynthia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  1. Absorbance Correction Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Nifedipine and Metoprolol Succinate in Their Synthetic Mixture Using From Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojitra Rajanit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new simple, economical, precise and accurate method are described for the simultaneous determination of Nifedipine (NIF and Metoprolol Succinate (MET in combined tablet dosage form. The proposed method was applied for the determination of Nifedipine and Metoprolol Succinate in synthetic mixture, for determination of sampling wavelength, 10μg/ml of each of NIF and MET were scanned in 200-400 nm range and sampling wavelengths were 313nm for NIF and 275.40nm for MET are selected for development and validation of absorption correction method. For this method linearity observed in the range of 5-25μg/ml for NIF and 25- 125μg/ml for MET, and in their pharmaceutical formulation with mean percentage recoveries 100.68 and 100.33, respectively. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines and can be applied for routine quality control testing.

  2. Preventing introduction and spread of Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry facilities using the HACCP method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, M.F.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Preventing the establishment of ectoparasitic poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) populations is key in ensuring welfare and egg production of laying hens and absence of allergic reactions of workers in poultry facilities. Using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point method, a panel of e

  3. Lidar Based Emissions Measurement at the Whole Facility Scale: Method and Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate emissions from agricultural sources vary from dust created by operations and animal movement to the fine secondary particulates generated from ammonia and other emitted gases. The development of reliable facility emission data using point sampling methods designed to characterize regiona...

  4. A cross-monotonic cost sharing method for the facility location game with service installation costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU DaChuan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the metric uncapacitated facility location game with service installation costs. Our main result is an 11-approximate cross-monotonic cost-sharing method under the assumption that the installation cost depends only on the service type.

  5. A cross-monotonic cost sharing method for the facility location game with service installation costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we consider the metric uncapacitated facility location game with service installation costs. Our main result is an 11-approximate cross-monotonic cost-sharing method under the assumption that the installation cost depends only on the service type.

  6. Application of synthetic peptides in development of a serologic method for laboratory diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward José de Oliveira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The immunoreactivity of seven peptides synthesized from Schistosoma mansoni proteins, was evaluated by dot-blot and ELISA assays using two different sensitization methodologies. The best results were obtained on wells of the Costar 3590 microplates coated with peptides P1, P2, P3, P6, and P7 using conventional methodology. The signals increased considerably (p < 0.0003 on wells sensitized with P1 to P6 using alternative methodology. In contrast, the well coated with peptide P7 presented lower signal when compared with conventional methodology (p = 0.0019. These results, establish the basis for the application of synthetic peptides for laboratory diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni.

  7. Radical-scavenging Activity of Natural Methoxyphenols vs. Synthetic Ones using the Induction Period Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Yokoe

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The radical-scavenging activities of the synthetic antioxidants 2-allyl-4-X-phenol (X=NO2, Cl, Br, OCH3, COCH3, CH3, t-(CH33, C6H5 and 2,4-dimethoxyphenol, and the natural antioxidants eugenol and isoeugenol, were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC by measuring their anti-1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical activity and the induction period for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN and benzoyl peroxide (BPO. 2-Allyl-4-methoxyphenol and 2,4-dimethoxy-phenol scavenged not only oxygen-centered radicals (PhCOO. derived from BPO, but also carbon-centered radicals (R. derived from the AIBN and DPPH radical much more efficiently, in comparison with eugenol and isoeugenol. 2-Allyl-4-methoxyphenol may be useful for its lower prooxidative activity.

  8. Preventing introduction and spread of Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry facilities using the HACCP method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Monique F; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2009-06-01

    Preventing the establishment of ectoparasitic poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) populations is key in ensuring welfare and egg production of laying hens and absence of allergic reactions of workers in poultry facilities. Using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point method, a panel of experts identified hazards and associated risks concerning the introduction and spread of this mite in poultry facilities. Together we provide an overview of possible corrective actions that can be taken to prevent population establishment. Additionally, a checklist of the most critical control points has been devised as management tool for poultry farmers. This list was evaluated by Dutch and British poultry farmers. They found the checklist feasible and useful.

  9. Direct Preparation of 2-Benzothiazolylzinc Bromide and its Applications: A Facile Synthetic Route to the Preparation of 2-Substituted Benzothiazole Derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sooyoul [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyuhyuk; Kim, Seunghoi [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    We have developed a novel approach for the direct preparation of 2-benzothiazolylzinc bromide and its application in organic synthesis. This protocol is a new tool for the convenient synthesis of 2-substituted benzothiazole derivatives. The resulting products obtained from this work can be utilized for further applications in the synthesis of many biologically active compounds. The benzothiazole moiety has been found in a variety of natural products and pharmaceuticals and demonstrates efficient biological activities. Specifically, 2-substituted benzothiazole derivatives have attracted considerable attention in a wide spectrum of chemical applications due to their unique structural properties. Therefore, the diversity of synthetic protocols has been an extensively discussed topic among scientists involved in organic synthesis for the past decades. In general, to build up the 2-substituted benzothiazole complexes, the strategic tools can be categorized as shown in Scheme 1: cross-coupling of benzothiazolylmetallic complexes (method A), coupling reaction of benzothiazole via direct oxidative C-H activation, cross-coupling of organometallic with halobenzothiazole, and ring-construction of N and S-containing compounds with the appropriate substrates.

  10. Development and Validation of First Order Derivative Spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of Nifedipine and Metoprolol Succinate in Synthetic Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojitra Rajanit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present manuscript describe simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical first derivative spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of Nifedipine (NIFand Metoprolol Succinate (METin synthetic mixture. The derivative spectrophotometric method was based on the determination of both the drugs at their respective zero crossing point (ZCP. The first order derivative spectra was obtained in methanol and the determinations were made at 283.80 nm (ZCP of nifedipine for metoprolol succinate and 242.60 nm (ZCP of metoprolol succinate for nifedipine. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of succinate 5-25 μg/ml for nifedipine and 25-125μg/ml for metoprolol. The mean recovery was 99.64 and 99.41 for Nifedipine and Metoprolol succinate, respectively. The method was found to be simple, sensitive, accurate and precise and was applicable for the simultaneous determination of Nifedipine and Metoprolol succinate in synthetic mixture. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  11. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Roscioli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased natural gas production in recent years has spurred intense interest in methane (CH4 emissions associated with its production, gathering, processing, transmission and distribution. Gathering and processing facilities (G&P facilities are unique in that the wide range of gas sources (shale, coal-bed, tight gas, conventional, etc. results in a wide range of gas compositions, which in turn requires an array of technologies to prepare the gas for pipeline transmission and distribution. We present an overview and detailed description of the measurement method and analysis approach used during a 20-week field campaign studying CH4 emissions from the natural gas G&P facilities between October 2013 and April 2014. Dual tracer flux measurements and onsite observations were used to address the magnitude and origins of CH4 emissions from these facilities. The use of a second tracer as an internal standard revealed plume-specific uncertainties in the measured emission rates of 20–47%, depending upon plume classification. Combining downwind methane, ethane (C2H6, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, and tracer gas measurements with onsite tracer gas release allows for quantification of facility emissions, and in some cases a more detailed picture of source locations.

  12. A New Synthetic Method of Rhodium Iodide%三碘化铑的新合成方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华; 匡飞平; 潘再富; 余尧; 侯文明; 沈善问; 高金翠; 杨军; 彭玉玲; 杨善晓

    2012-01-01

    A new method has been introduced to synthesize rhodium iodide, an important homogenous catalyst for earbonylation of methanol, to overcome shortcomings of the present methods. These shortcomings include low yield, poor quality and unacceptability with respect to industrial manufacturing. The new method involves the direct reaction of RhC13 with HI. The yield is up to 98.5% and Cl-ean be minimized to 50 ppm by optimizing synthetic operations, superior to the reported data.%三氯化铑与氢碘酸直接合成碘化铑,在最佳反应条件下,合成的收率达到98.5%,产品晶形均一,氯离子含量小于50 mg/kg。

  13. Generation of Synthetic Transcriptome Data with Defined Statistical Properties for the Development and Testing of New Analysis Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guillaume Brysbaert; Sebastian Noth; Arndt Benecke

    2007-01-01

    We have previously developed a combined signal/variance distribution model that accounts for the particular statistical properties of datasets generated on the Applied Biosystems AB1700 transcriptome system. Here we show that this model can be efficiently used to generate synthetic datasets with statistical properties virtually identical to those of the actual data by aid of the JAVA application ace.map creator 1.0 that we have developed. The fundamentally different structure of AB1700 transcriptome profiles requires re-evaluation, adaptation, or even redevelopment of many of the standard microarray analysis methods in order to avoid misinterpretation of the data on the one hand, and to draw full benefit from their increased specificity and sensitivity on the other hand. Our composite data model and the ace.map creator 1.0 application thereby not only present proof of the correctness of our parameter estimation, but also provide a tool for the generation of synthetic test data that will be useful for further development and testing of analysis methods.

  14. Method and apparatus for reducing range ambiguity in synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kare, Jordin T. (San Ramon, CA)

    1999-10-26

    A modified Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system with reduced sensitivity to range ambiguities, and which uses secondary receiver channels to detect the range ambiguous signals and subtract them from the signal received by the main channel. Both desired and range ambiguous signals are detected by a main receiver and by one or more identical secondary receivers. All receivers are connected to a common antenna with two or more feed systems offset in elevation (e.g., a reflector antenna with multiple feed horns or a phased array with multiple phase shift networks. The secondary receiver output(s) is (are) then subtracted from the main receiver output in such a way as to cancel the ambiguous signals while only slightly attenuating the desired signal and slightly increasing the noise in the main channel, and thus does not significantly affect the desired signal. This subtraction may be done in real time, or the outputs of the receivers may be recorded separately and combined during signal processing.

  15. Method and apparatus for reducing range ambiguity in synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kare, J.T.

    1999-10-26

    A modified Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system is disclosed with reduced sensitivity to range ambiguities, and which uses secondary receiver channels to detect the range ambiguous signals and subtract them from the signal received by the main channel. Both desired and range ambiguous signals are detected by a main receiver and by one or more identical secondary receivers. All receivers are connected to a common antenna with two or more feed systems offset in elevation e.g., a reflector antenna with multiple feed horns or a phased array with multiple phase shift networks. The secondary receiver output(s) is (are) then subtracted from the main receiver output in such a way as to cancel the ambiguous signals while only slightly attenuating the desired signal and slightly increasing the noise in the main channel, and thus does not significantly affect the desired signal. This subtraction may be done in real time, or the outputs of the receivers may be recorded separately and combined during signal processing.

  16. Computer Aided Tolerancing Based on Analysis and Synthetizes of Tolerances Method

    CERN Document Server

    Hassani, Abdessalem; Benamara, Abdelmajid; Samper, Serge

    2011-01-01

    The tolerancing step has a great importance in the design process. It characterises the relationship between the different sectors of the product life cycle: Design, Manufacturing and Control. We can distinguish several methods to assist the tolerancing process in the design. Based on arithmetic and statistical method, this paper presents a new approach of analysis and verification of tolerances. The chosen approach is based on the Worst Case Method as an arithmetic method and Monte Carlo method as a statistical method. In this paper, we compare these methods and we present our main approach, which is validated using an example of 1 D tolerancing.

  17. Synthetic free-oscillation spectra: an appraisal of various mode-coupling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsin-Ying; Tromp, Jeroen

    2015-11-01

    Normal-mode spectra may be used to investigate large-scale elastic and anelastic heterogeneity throughout the entire Earth. The relevant theory was developed a few decades ago, however-mainly due to computational limitations-several approximations are commonly employed, and thus far the full merits of the complete theory have not been taken advantage of. In this study, we present an exact algebraic form of the theory for an aspherical, anelastic and rotating Earth model in which either complex or real spherical harmonic bases are used. Physical dispersion is incorporated into the quadratic eigenvalue problem by expanding the logarithmic frequency term to second-order. Proper (re)normalization of modes in a 3-D Earth model is fully considered. Using a database of 41 earthquakes and more than 10 000 spectra containing 116 modes with frequencies less than 3 mHz, we carry out numerical experiments to quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of commonly used approximate mode synthetics. We confirm the importance of wideband coupling, that is, fully coupling all modes below a certain frequency. Neither narrowband coupling, in which nearby modes are grouped into isolated clusters, nor self-coupling, that is, incorporating coupling between singlets within the same multiplet, are sufficiently accurate approximations. Furthermore, we find that (1) effects of physical dispersion can be safely approximated based on either a fiducial frequency approximation or a quadratic approximation of the logarithmic dispersion associated with the absorption-band model; (2) neglecting the proper renormalization of the modes of a rotating, anelastic Earth model introduces only minor errors; (3) ignoring the frequency dependence of the Coriolis and kinematic matrices in a wideband coupling scheme can lead to ˜6 per cent errors in mode spectra at the lowest frequencies; notable differences also occur between narrowband coupling and quasi-degenerate perturbation theory, which linearizes the

  18. Adaptive method of speckle reduction based on curvelet transform and thresholding neural network in synthetic aperture radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Fatemeh; Zoej, Mohammad Javad Valadan

    2015-01-01

    Because of the effect of speckles in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, its reduction has been considered by many researchers to obtain reliable information. This paper proposes a method based on the curvelet transform to reduce speckles in SAR images. This study is based on the thresholding neural network (TNN) technique, which has been previously used in wavelet transformation. In addition, an adaptive learning TNN with remarkable time saving was introduced. Comparing the obtained results from the method with conventional speckle filters such as Lee, Kuan, Frost, and Gamma filters, curvelet-based, nonadaptive despeckling, wavelet-based TNN despeckling, and curvelet-based particle swarm optimization show better achievement of the proposed algorithm. For instance, noise mean value, noise standard deviation, mean square difference, equivalent number of looks, and β (an edge-preserving criterion) improved 2%, 9%, 21%, 35%, and 9%, respectively.

  19. General in vitro method to analyze the interactions of synthetic polymers with human antibody repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soshee, Anandakumar; Zürcher, Stefan; Spencer, Nicholas D; Halperin, Avraham; Nizak, Clément

    2014-01-13

    Recent reports on the hitherto underestimated antigenicity of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), which is widely used for pharmaceutical applications, highlight the need for efficient testing of polymer antigenicity and for a better understanding of its molecular origins. With this goal in mind, we have used the phage-display technique to screen large, recombinant antibody repertoires of human origin in vitro for antibodies that bind poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). PVP is a neutral synthetic polymer of industrial and clinical interest that is also a well-known model antigen in animal studies, thus allowing the comparison of in vitro and in vivo responses. We have identified 44 distinct antibodies that bind specifically to PVP. Competitive binding assays show that the PVP-antibody binding constant is proportional to the polymerization degree of PVP and that specific binding is detected down to the vinylpyrrolidone (VP) monomer level. Statistical analysis of anti-PVP antibody sequences identifies an amino-acid motif that is shared by many phage-display-selected anti-PVP antibodies that are similar to a previously described natural anti-PVP antibody. This suggests a role for this motif in specific antibody/PVP interactions. Interestingly, sequence analysis also suggests that only a single antibody chain containing this shared motif is responsible for antibody binding to PVP, as confirmed upon systematic deletion of either antibody chain for 90% of selected anti-PVP antibodies. Overall, a large number of antibodies in the human repertoires we have screened bind specifically to PVP through a small number of shared amino acid motifs, and preliminary comparison points to significant correlations between the sequences of phage-display-selected anti-PVP antibodies and their natural counterparts isolated from immunized mice in previous studies. This study pioneers the use of antibody phage-display to explore the antigenicity of biotechnologically relevant polymers. It also paves the

  20. Synthetic Study of 2.5-D ATEM Based on Finite Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiang, Jianke; Zhou, Junjie; Cai, Hongzhu

    2013-01-01

    Based on the regular triangular dissection for finite element method, we implemented the forward modeling of 2.5-D airborne transient electromagnetic method. The 3-D EM field was firstly transformed into Laplace domain and after that we will apply Fourier transform to reduce the dimension from 3-...... study shows that our numerical solution fits well with the analytical solution for homogeneous and layered earth model. The study also demonstrated the effectiveness of our numerical method....

  1. Investigation of a method for generating synthetic CT models from MRI scans of the head and neck for radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shu-Hui; Cao, Yue; Huang, Ke; Feng, Mary; Balter, James M.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images often provide superior anatomic and functional information over computed tomography (CT) images, but generally are not used alone without CT images for radiotherapy treatment planning and image guidance. This study aims to investigate the potential of probabilistic classification of voxels from multiple MRI contrasts to generate synthetic CT (‘MRCT’) images. The method consists of (1) acquiring multiple MRI volumes: T1-weighted, T2-weighted, two echoes from a ultra-short echo time (UTE) sequence, and calculated fat and water image volumes using a Dixon method, (2) classifying tissues using fuzzy c-means clustering with a spatial constraint, (3) assigning attenuation properties with weights based on the probability of individual tissue classes being present in each voxel, and (4) generating a MRCT image volume from the sum of attenuation properties in each voxel. The capability of each MRI contrast to differentiate tissues of interest was investigated based on a retrospective analysis of ten patients. For one prospective patient, the correlation of skull intensities between CT and MR was investigated, the discriminatory power of MRI in separating air from bone was evaluated, and the generated MRCT image volume was qualitatively evaluated. Our analyses showed that one MRI volume was not sufficient to separate all tissue types, and T2-weighted images was more sensitive to bone density variation compared to other MRI image types. The short echo UTE image showed significant improvement in contrasting air versus bone, but could not completely separate air from bone without false labeling. Generated MRCT and CT images showed similar contrast between bone and soft/solid tissues. These results demonstrate the potential of the presented method to generate synthetic CT images to support the workflow of radiation oncology treatment planning and image guidance.

  2. In situ growth of carbon nanotubes on Ni/MgO: a facile preparation of efficient catalysts for the production of synthetic natural gas from syngas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, M T; Lin, J D; Zhang, H B; Liao, D W

    2015-11-07

    Ni/MgO-CNTs catalysts are prepared by in situ chemical vapor deposition growth of CNTs on Ni/MgO. These catalysts exhibit an improved performance for the production of synthetic natural gas from syngas, which is attributed to the formation of highly catalytic active interfaces among Ni, CNTs and MgO.

  3. The Mistreatment of Women during Childbirth in Health Facilities Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Meghan A.; Vogel, Joshua P.; Hunter, Erin C.; Lutsiv, Olha; Makh, Suprita K.; Souza, João Paulo; Aguiar, Carolina; Saraiva Coneglian, Fernando; Diniz, Alex Luíz Araújo; Tunçalp, Özge; Javadi, Dena; Oladapo, Olufemi T.; Khosla, Rajat; Hindin, Michelle J.; Gülmezoglu, A. Metin

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite growing recognition of neglectful, abusive, and disrespectful treatment of women during childbirth in health facilities, there is no consensus at a global level on how these occurrences are defined and measured. This mixed-methods systematic review aims to synthesize qualitative and quantitative evidence on the mistreatment of women during childbirth in health facilities to inform the development of an evidence-based typology of the phenomenon. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase databases and grey literature using a predetermined search strategy to identify qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods studies on the mistreatment of women during childbirth across all geographical and income-level settings. We used a thematic synthesis approach to synthesize the qualitative evidence and assessed the confidence in the qualitative review findings using the CERQual approach. In total, 65 studies were included from 34 countries. Qualitative findings were organized under seven domains: (1) physical abuse, (2) sexual abuse, (3) verbal abuse, (4) stigma and discrimination, (5) failure to meet professional standards of care, (6) poor rapport between women and providers, and (7) health system conditions and constraints. Due to high heterogeneity of the quantitative data, we were unable to conduct a meta-analysis; instead, we present descriptions of study characteristics, outcome measures, and results. Additional themes identified in the quantitative studies are integrated into the typology. Conclusions This systematic review presents a comprehensive, evidence-based typology of the mistreatment of women during childbirth in health facilities, and demonstrates that mistreatment can occur at the level of interaction between the woman and provider, as well as through systemic failures at the health facility and health system levels. We propose this typology be adopted to describe the phenomenon and be used to develop measurement tools

  4. Method for providing a polarization filter for processing synthetic aperture radar image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Pascale C. (Inventor); vanZyl, Jakob J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A polarization filter can maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of a polarimetric SAR and help discriminate between targets or enhance image features, e.g., enhance contract between different types of target. The method disclosed is based on the Stokes matrix/Stokes vector representation, so the targets of interest can be extended targets, and the method can also be applied to the case of bistatic polarimetric radars.

  5. Synthetic Methods for the Preparation of a Functional Analogue of Ru360, a Potent Inhibitor of Mitochondrial Calcium Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Sarah R; Pino, Nicholas W; Arduino, Daniela M; Perocchi, Fabiana; MacMillan, Samantha N; Wilson, Justin J

    2017-03-20

    The mixed-valent oxo-bridged ruthenium complex [(HCO2)(NH3)4Ru(μ-O)Ru(NH3)4(O2CH)](3+), known as Ru360, is a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial calcium uptake. Although this compound is useful for studying the role of mitochondrial calcium in biological processes, its widespread availability is limited because of challenges in purification and characterization. Here, we describe our investigations of three different synthetic methods for the preparation of a functional analogue of this valuable compound. We demonstrate that this analogue, isolated from our procedures, exhibits potent mitochondrial calcium uptake inhibitory properties in permeabilized HeLa cells and in isolated mitochondria.

  6. A study on synthetic method and material characteristics of magnesium ammine chloride as ammonia transport materials for solid SCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jong Kook; Yoon, Cheon Seog [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Suk [Engine Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Among various ammonium salts and metal ammine chlorides used as solid materials for the sources of ammonia with solid SCR for lean NOx reduction, magnesium ammine chloride was taken up for study in this paper because of its ease of handling and safety. Lab-scale synthetic method of magnesium ammine chloride were studied for different durations, temperatures, and pressures with proper ammonia gas charged, as a respect of ammonia gas adsorption rate(%). To understand material characteristics for lab-made magnesium ammine chloride, DA, IC, FT-IR, XRD and SDT analyses were performed using the published data available in literature. From the analytical results, the water content in the lab-made magnesium ammine chloride can be determined. A new test procedure for water removal was proposed, by which the adsorption rate of lab-made sample was found to be approximately 100%.

  7. The analysis and selection of methods and facilities for cutting of naturally-deficit materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetov, I. D.; Zakirova, A. R.; Sadykov, Z. B.

    2016-06-01

    The comparison of perspective methods is done in the article, such as laser, plasma and combined electro-diamond methods of hard processed materials cutting. There are the review and analysis of naturally-deficit materials cutting facilities. A new electrode-tool for the combined cutting of naturally-deficit materials is suggested. This electrode-tool eliminates electrical contact between the cutting electrode-tool and side surfaces of the channel of cutting workpiece cut, which allows to obtain coplanar channels of cut.

  8. Facile method for fabrication of surfactant-free concentrated CeO2 sols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Alexander B.; Teplonogova, Maria A.; Ivanova, Olga S.; Shekunova, Taisiya O.; Ivonin, Ivan V.; Baranchikov, Alexander Ye; Ivanov, Vladimir K.

    2017-05-01

    We report a facile method for fabrication of highly concentrated electrostatically stabilized colloidal solutions containing ultra-small cerium (IV) oxide crystallites having a narrow size distribution (3-5 nm according to x-ray diffraction, and 10-30 nm according to dynamic light scattering). The proposed method comprises hydrothermal treatment of ceric ammonium nitrate aqueous solutions having concentrations over 0.2 M, in the temperature range of 80-100 °C, and the formation of nanoceria sediments, which can be easily peptized in both protic (water, isopropanol) and aprotic (DMF) media, forming stable and transparent CeO2 sols.

  9. Method for detecting binding efficiencies of synthetic oligonucleotides: Targeting bacteria and insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expanding applications of gene-based targeting biotechnology in functional genomics and the treatment of plants, animals, and microbes has synergized the need for new methods to measure binding efficiencies of these products to their genetic targets. The adaptation and innovative use of Cell–Penetra...

  10. The Opacity of Spiral Galaxy Disks III : Automating the "Synthetic Field Method"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, B. W.; González, R. A.; Allen, R. J.; Kruit, P. C. van der

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: The dust extinction in spiral disks can be estimated from the counts of background field galaxies, provided the deleterious effects of confusion introduced by structure in the image of the foreground spiral disk can be calibrated. Gonzalez et al. (1998) developed a method for this calibrat

  11. A Rapid Synthetic Method for the Preparation of Two Tris-Cobalt(III) Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Donald C.; Rillema, D. Paul

    1989-01-01

    Reports a method of preparation for tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) and tris(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(III) that will shorten the preparation time by approximately 3 hours. Notes the time for synthesis and isolation of compound one was 1 hour (yield 38 percent) while compound two took 50 minutes (yield 71%). (MVL)

  12. A rapid, cost-effective method of assembly and purification of synthetic DNA probes >100 bp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Jensen

    Full Text Available Here we introduce a rapid, cost-effective method of generating molecular DNA probes in just under 15 minutes without the need for expensive, time-consuming gel-extraction steps. As an example, we enzymatically concatenated six variable strands (50 bp with a common strand sequence (51 bp in a single pool using Fast-Link DNA ligase to produce 101 bp targets (10 min. Unincorporated species were then filtered out by passing the crude reaction through a size-exclusion column (12 could be achieved with further optimization. Moreover, for large-scale assays, we envision this method to be fully automated with the use of robotics such as the Biomek FX; here, potentially thousands of samples could be pooled, ligated and purified in either a 96, 384 or 1536-well platform in just minutes.

  13. Experimental study of multiple paths by a bistatic method of synthetic aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medynski, D.; Fritz, J.; Dorey, J.

    1981-05-01

    A method for characterizing the spatial distribution of ground clutter around an omnidirectional antenna is described. The bistatic method is derived from that implemented in side looking radar. Absolute aircraft movement and movement in relation to a point on its trajectory are ensured by inertial systems and trajectography radar. Coherence of the transmitter and receiver is achieved by use of two atomic clocks. Signal processing consists of the following operations: (1) search for pulses corresponding to a scatterer M having a given position; (2) generating a replica corresponding to the theoretical phase evolution of these pulses; and (3) product and integration. This series of operations is repeated for all the possible positions of the point M. Tests over three types of terrain show good distinction between ground echoes with a low backscattering coefficient and those with a high reflectivity coefficient.

  14. DNA Libraries for the Construction of Phage Libraries: Statistical and Structural Requirements and Synthetic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lindner

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Peptide-based molecular probes identified by bacteriophage (phage display technology expand the peptide repertoire for in vivo diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Numerous peptides that bind cancer-associated antigens have been discovered by panning phage libraries. However, until now only few of the peptides selected by phage display have entered clinical applications. The success of phage derived peptides essentially depends on the quality of the library screened. This review summarizes the methods to achieve highly homogenous libraries that cover a maximal sequence space. Biochemical and chemical strategies for the synthesis of DNA libraries and the techniques for their integration into the viral genome are discussed in detail. A focus is set on the methods that enable the exclusion of disturbing sequences. In addition, the parameters that define the variability, the minimal numbers of copies per library and the use of alternating panning cycles to avoid the loss of selected hits are evaluated.

  15. DNA libraries for the construction of phage libraries: statistical and structural requirements and synthetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Thomas; Kolmar, Harald; Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter

    2011-02-15

    Peptide-based molecular probes identified by bacteriophage (phage) display technology expand the peptide repertoire for in vivo diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Numerous peptides that bind cancer-associated antigens have been discovered by panning phage libraries. However, until now only few of the peptides selected by phage display have entered clinical applications. The success of phage derived peptides essentially depends on the quality of the library screened. This review summarizes the methods to achieve highly homogenous libraries that cover a maximal sequence space. Biochemical and chemical strategies for the synthesis of DNA libraries and the techniques for their integration into the viral genome are discussed in detail. A focus is set on the methods that enable the exclusion of disturbing sequences. In addition, the parameters that define the variability, the minimal numbers of copies per library and the use of alternating panning cycles to avoid the loss of selected hits are evaluated.

  16. Synthetic strategies and parameters involved in the synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides according to the phosphoramidite method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, S L; Caruthers, M H

    2001-05-01

    The phosphoramidite approach has had a major impact on the synthesis of oligonucleotides. This unit describes parameters that affect the performance of this method for preparing oligodeoxyribonucleotides, as well as a number of compatible strategies. Milestones that led to the discovery of the approach are chronologically reported. Alternate strategies are also described to underscore the versatility by which these synthons can be obtained. Mechanisms of deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidite activation, factors affecting condensation, and deprotection strategies are discussed.

  17. Structural changes and biological responsiveness of an injectable and mouldable monetite bone graft generated by a facile synthetic method

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Brushite (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate) and monetite (dicalcium phosphate anhydrous) are of considerable interest in bone augmentation owing to their metastable nature in physiological fluids. The anhydrous form of brushite, namely monetite, has a finer microstructure with higher surface area, strength and bioresorbability, which does not transform to the poorly resorbable hydroxyapatite, thus making it a viable alternative for use as a scaffold for engineering of bone tissue. We recently re...

  18. Digestive ripening: a synthetic method par excellence for core-shell, alloy, and composite nanostructured materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srilakshmi P Bhaskar; Balaji R Jagirdar

    2012-11-01

    The solvated metal atom dispersion (SMAD) method has been used for the synthesis of colloids of metal nanoparticles. It is a top-down approach involving condensation of metal atoms in low temperature solvent matrices in a SMADreactor maintained at 77 K.Warming of the matrix results in a slurry ofmetal atoms that interact with one another to form particles that grow in size. The organic solvent solvates the particles and acts as a weak capping agent to halt/slow down the growth process to a certain extent. This as-prepared colloid consists of metal nanoparticles that are quite polydisperse. In a process termed as digestive ripening, addition of a capping agent to the as-prepared colloid which is polydisperse renders it highly monodisperse either under ambient or thermal conditions. In this, as yet not well-understood process, smaller particles grow and the larger ones diminish in size until the system attains uniformity in size and a dynamic equilibrium is established. Using the SMAD method in combination with digestive ripening process, highly monodisperse metal, core-shell, alloy, and composite nanoparticles have been synthesized. This article is a review of our contributions together with some literature reports on this methodology to realize various nanostructured materials.

  19. Virtual and super - virtual refraction method: Application to synthetic data and 2012 of Karangsambung survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian; Adisatrio, Philipus Ronnie

    2013-09-01

    Seismic refraction survey is one of geophysical method useful for imaging earth interior, definitely for imaging near surface. One of the common problems in seismic refraction survey is weak amplitude due to attenuations at far offset. This phenomenon will make it difficult to pick first refraction arrival, hence make it challenging to produce the near surface image. Seismic interferometry is a new technique to manipulate seismic trace for obtaining Green's function from a pair of receiver. One of its uses is for improving first refraction arrival quality at far offset. This research shows that we could estimate physical properties such as seismic velocity and thickness from virtual refraction processing. Also, virtual refraction could enhance the far offset signal amplitude since there is stacking procedure involved in it. Our results show super - virtual refraction processing produces seismic image which has higher signal-to-noise ratio than its raw seismic image. In the end, the numbers of reliable first arrival picks are also increased.

  20. Testing of the Defense Waste Processing Facility Cold Chemical Dissolution Method in Sludge Batch 9 Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Young, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brown, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-10

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tests the applicability of the digestion methods used by the DWPF Laboratory for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt samples and SRAT Product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a method referred to as the DWPF Cold Chemical or Cold Chem Method (CC), (see DWPF Procedure SW4- 15.201). Testing indicates that the CC method produced mixed results. The CC method did not result in complete dissolution of either the SRAT Receipt or SRAT Product with some fine, dark solids remaining. However, elemental analyses did not reveal extreme biases for the major elements in the sludge when compared with analyses obtained following dissolution by hot aqua regia (AR) or sodium peroxide fusion (PF) methods. The CC elemental analyses agreed with the AR and PF methods well enough that it should be adequate for routine process control analyses in the DWPF after much more extensive side-by-side tests of the CC method and the PF method are performed on the first 10 SRAT cycles of the Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) campaign. The DWPF Laboratory should continue with their plans for further tests of the CC method during these 10 SRAT cycles.

  1. Virtual and super - virtual refraction method: Application to synthetic data and 2012 of Karangsambung survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Adisatrio, Philipus Ronnie [Geophysical Engineering Department, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2013-09-09

    Seismic refraction survey is one of geophysical method useful for imaging earth interior, definitely for imaging near surface. One of the common problems in seismic refraction survey is weak amplitude due to attenuations at far offset. This phenomenon will make it difficult to pick first refraction arrival, hence make it challenging to produce the near surface image. Seismic interferometry is a new technique to manipulate seismic trace for obtaining Green's function from a pair of receiver. One of its uses is for improving first refraction arrival quality at far offset. This research shows that we could estimate physical properties such as seismic velocity and thickness from virtual refraction processing. Also, virtual refraction could enhance the far offset signal amplitude since there is stacking procedure involved in it. Our results show super - virtual refraction processing produces seismic image which has higher signal-to-noise ratio than its raw seismic image. In the end, the numbers of reliable first arrival picks are also increased.

  2. An improved method for lifting and transporting anesthetized pigs within an animal facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher-Petersen, Camilla; Hammelev, Karsten Pharao; Flescher, Jens Erik

    2014-01-01

    Transporting anesthetized pigs in a laboratory setting often requires strenuous manual lifting, posing a hazard to the safety of animal care personnel and to the welfare of the pigs. The authors developed an improved approach to lifting and transporting anesthetized pigs weighing up to 350 kg using...... mechanical lifts. Different equipment was used to accommodate pigs of different sizes as well as the building designs of three animal facilities. Using the lifts, anesthetized pigs are carried on sheets to maintain their comfort while being transported. The approach refines previous methods for handling...

  3. Facile method to enhance the adhesion of TiO₂ nanotube arrays to Ti substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongliang; Zhu, Xufei; Xu, Zhen; Zhong, Xiaomin; Gui, Qunfang; Song, Ye; Zhang, Shaoyu; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Li, Dongdong

    2014-06-11

    The weak adhesion of anodic TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) to the underlying Ti substrate compromises many promising applications. In this work, a compact oxide layer between TNTAs and Ti substrate is introduced by employing an additional anodization in a fluoride-free electrolyte. The additional anodization results in an about 200 nm thick compact layer near the nanotube bottoms. Scratch test demonstrates that the critical load of TNTAs with the compact oxide layer is a more than threefold increase in comparison with those without the compact layer. Moreover, this facile method can also improve the photoactivity and supercapacitor performances of TNTAs markedly.

  4. A facile method for reversibly linking a recombinant protein to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Russell P; Erben, Christoph M; Malo, Jonathan; Ho, Wei M; McKee, Mireya L; Kapanidis, Achillefs N; Turberfield, Andrew J

    2009-06-15

    We present a facile method for linking recombinant proteins to DNA. It is based on the nickel-mediated interaction between a hexahistidine tag (His(6)-tag) and DNA functionalized with three nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) groups. The resulting DNA-protein linkage is site-specific. It can be broken quickly and controllably by the addition of a chelating agent that binds nickel. We have used this new linker to bind proteins to a variety of DNA motifs commonly used in the fabrication of nanostructures by DNA self-assembly.

  5. A facile method for the preparation of Eu{sup 2+}-doped nanocrystalline BaFCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianglei; Liu, Zhiqiang [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, The University of New South Wales, UNSW Canberra (ADFA), Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A. [School of Physics and Electron Microscope Unit, Mark Wainwright Analytical Centre, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Riesen, Hans, E-mail: h.riesen@adfa.edu.au [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, The University of New South Wales, UNSW Canberra (ADFA), Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile co-precipitation method for the preparation of Eu{sup 2+}-doped BaFCl. • Reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} by zinc granular under nitrogen flow. • Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of the as-prepared BaFCl:Eu{sup 2+}. • Temperature dependent photoluminescence properties of Eu{sup 2+} ions in BaFCl. - Abstract: A facile method for the preparation of Eu{sup 2+}-doped BaFCl is reported. The method is based on the co-precipitation of aqueous solutions of BaCl{sub 2} and NH{sub 4}F to yield BaFCl. The doping by europium in the 2+ oxidation state is realized by the reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} employing granular zinc in the BaCl{sub 2} solution under nitrogen. Powder X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy have been used to confirm the BaFCl phase and photoluminescence, in the temperature range of 2.5–290 K, and room-temperature cathodoluminescence spectra have been measured to characterize the Eu{sup 2+} ions in the sample.

  6. Liquid Chromatographic Methods for the Determination of Vildagliptin in the Presence of its Synthetic Intermediate and the Simultaneous Determination of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride and Metformin Hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    El-Bagary, Ramzia I.; Elkady, Ehab F.; Ayoub, Bassam M.

    2011-01-01

    Two reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) methods are described for the determination of two binary mixtures of hypoglycemic agents. In the first method, vildagliptin (VDG) was determined in the presence of 3-amino-1-adamantanol (AAD), a synthetic intermediate and impurity of VDG. In the second method, pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGZ) and metformin hydrochloride (MET) were simultaneously determined in their binary mixture. Chromatographic separation in the two methods was achieved on ...

  7. Various shaped-ZnO nanocrystals via low temperature synthetic methods: Surfactant and pH dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyeon Jin; Lee, Seulki; Choi, Hyun Chul; Choi, Myong Yong

    2013-07-01

    ZnO nanocrystals, rod-, carnation-, and flower-like structures, have been synthesized in a high yield through low-temperature synthetic methods. Well-aligned ZnO nanorods having hexagonal wurtzite structure were grown on the ZnO thin films assembled by a spin-coating method. The morphologies of ZnO seed films are affected by pHs of sol-gel solutions, resulting smaller sizes and homogeneous roughness at higher pHs and higher number of spin-coating times. The carnation-like structures, average size of about 2-3 μm, were assembled by tens of uniform ZnO nanosheet petals of ˜50 nm in thickness when a different volume ratio of the precursory solution was used. ZnO nanocrystals on the facets of the compact ZnO nanorods have grown to linear nanorods having an average diameter of ˜500 nm and length of ˜2 μm. Furthermore, a noticeable difference in the growth of ZnO nanocrystals in the presence of various surfactants, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinylsulphonic acid, and polyethyleneimine, has been observed and discussed.

  8. A systematic method for identifying vital areas at complex nuclear facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin; Hockert, John

    2005-05-01

    Identifying the areas to be protected is an important part of the development of measures for physical protection against sabotage at complex nuclear facilities. In June 1999, the International Atomic Energy Agency published INFCIRC/225/Rev.4, 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities.' This guidance recommends that 'Safety specialists, in close cooperation with physical protection specialists, should evaluate the consequences of malevolent acts, considered in the context of the State's design basis threat, to identify nuclear material, or the minimum complement of equipment, systems or devices to be protected against sabotage.' This report presents a structured, transparent approach for identifying the areas that contain this minimum complement of equipment, systems, and devices to be protected against sabotage that is applicable to complex nuclear facilities. The method builds upon safety analyses to develop sabotage fault trees that reflect sabotage scenarios that could cause unacceptable radiological consequences. The sabotage actions represented in the fault trees are linked to the areas from which they can be accomplished. The fault tree is then transformed (by negation) into its dual, the protection location tree, which reflects the sabotage actions that must be prevented in order to prevent unacceptable radiological consequences. The minimum path sets of this fault tree dual yield, through the area linkage, sets of areas, each of which contains nuclear material, or a minimum complement of equipment, systems or devices that, if protected, will prevent sabotage. This method also provides guidance for the selection of the minimum path set that permits optimization of the trade-offs among physical protection effectiveness, safety impact, cost and operational impact.

  9. Analysis of Unit Process Cost for an Engineering-Scale Pyroprocess Facility Using a Process Costing Method in Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sungki Kim; Wonil Ko; Sungsig Bang

    2015-01-01

    ...) metal ingots in a high-temperature molten salt phase. This paper provides the unit process cost of a pyroprocess facility that can process up to 10 tons of pyroprocessing product per year by utilizing the process costing method...

  10. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  11. Histidine-containing peptide catalysts developed by a facile library screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagawa, Kengo; Sakai, Nobutaka; Kudo, Kazuaki

    2015-02-02

    Although peptide catalysts have a high potential for the use as organocatalysts, the optimization of peptide sequences is laborious and time-consuming. To address this issue, a facile screening method for finding efficient aminocatalysts from a peptide library has been developed. In the screening for the Michael addition of a malonate to an enal, a dye-labeled product is immobilized on resin-bound peptides through reductive amination to visualize active catalysts. This procedure allows for the monitoring of the reactivity of entire peptides without modifying the resin beads beforehand. Peptides containing histidine at an appropriate position were identified by this method. A novel function of the histidyl residue, which enhances the binding of a substrate to the catalyst by capturing an iminium intermediate, was indicated.

  12. Using Method of Instruction to Predict the Skills Supporting Initial Reading Development: Insight from a Synthetic Phonics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Medford, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the skills predicting early reading development when children were taught by a synthetic phonics approach. Eighty five children taught to read by systematic synthetic phonics were assessed on reading and cognitive assessments prior to reading instruction (average age 4 years, 7 months), 6 months later (5 years, 1 month), and 73…

  13. Adsorption of Uranyl ions on Amine-functionalization of MIL-101(Cr) Nanoparticles by a Facile Coordination-based Post-synthetic strategy and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Yong; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Linjuan; Fang, Yongzheng; Deng, Wei; Yu, Ming; Wang, Ziqiang; Li, Lina; Liu, Xiyan; Li, Jingye

    2015-09-10

    By a facile coordination-based post-synthetic strategy, the high surface area MIL-101(Cr) nanoparticles was functionallized by grafting amine group of ethylenediamine (ED) on coordinatively unsaturated Cr(III) centers, yielding a series of ED-MIL-101(Cr)-based adsorbents and their application for adsorption of U(VI) from aqueous solution were also studied. The obtained ED-functionallized samples with different ED contents were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), FTIR, elemental analysis (EA) and N2 adsorption and desorption isothermal. Compared with the pristine MIL-101(Cr) sorbents, the ED-functionallized MIL-101(Cr) exhibits significantly higher adsorption capacity for U(VI) ions from water with maximum adsorption capacities as high as 200 mg/g (corresponding to 100% extraction rate) at pH of 4.5 with ED/Cr ratio of 0.68 and the sorbed U(VI) ions can easily be desorbed at lower pH (pH ≤ 2.0). The adsorption mode of U(VI) ions and effects of grafted ED on the MIL-101(Cr) frameworks were also been studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). We believe that this work establishes a simple and energy efficient route to a novel type of functional materials for U(VI) ions extraction from solution via the post-synthetic modification (PSM) strategy.

  14. Facility and Methods Developed for Simulated Space Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure Testing of Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Pietromica, Anthony J.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Messer, Russell K.

    2002-01-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation of wavelengths between 115 and 200 nm produced by the Sun in the space environment can degrade polymer films, producing changes in their optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. These effects are particularly important for thin polymer films being considered for ultralightweight space structures, because, for most polymers, VUV radiation is absorbed in a thin surface layer. The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed facilities and methods for long-term ground testing of polymer films to evaluate space environmental VUV radiation effects. VUV exposure can also be used as part of combined or sequential simulated space environmental exposures to determine combined damaging effects with other aspects of the space environment, which include solar ultraviolet radiation, solar flare x-rays, electron and proton radiation, atomic oxygen (for low-Earth-orbit missions), and temperature effects. Because the wavelength sensitivity of VUV damage is not well known for most materials, Glenn's VUV facility uses a broad-spectrum deuterium lamp with a magnesium fluoride window that provides output between 115 and 200 nm. Deuterium lamps of this type were characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and through measurements at Glenn. Spectral irradiance measurements show that from approximately 115 to 160 nm, deuterium lamp irradiance can be many times that of air mass zero solar irradiance, and as wavelength increases above approximately 160 nm, deuterium lamp irradiance decreases in comparison to the Sun. The facility is a cryopumped vacuum chamber that achieves a system pressure of approximately 5310(exp -6) torr. It contains four individual VUV-exposure compartments in vacuum, separated by water-cooled copper walls to minimize VUV radiation and any sample contamination cross interactions between compartments. Each VUV-exposure compartment contains a VUV deuterium lamp, a motor-controlled sample stage coupled with a

  15. Preparation of multi-functional superhydrophobic lanthanum surface on carbon steel via facile electrochemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; He, Yi; Fan, Yi; Yang, Qiangbin; Li, Han

    2016-12-01

    We have constructed a superhydrophobic surface with lanthanum palmitate on carbon steel via a facile one-step electrodeposition. The morphology and chemical composition of the superhydrophobic surface were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy with attached energy dispersive X-ray spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The as-prepared surface with hierarchical structure has a largest contact angle of 160° ± 0.5° and a lowest sliding angle of 2° ± 0.5°. We found that both high electrodeposition potential and high concentrations lanthanum nitrate can accelerate the formation of superhydrophobic film. The electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the superhydrophobic surface exhibited excellent anti-corrosion performance in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. Moreover, we also investigated the chemical stability, self-cleaning and oil/water separation of the superhydrophobic film. We believe that the facile fabrication method provides a promising strategy to fabricate multi-functional superhydrophobic surface with lanthanide series rare-earth elements on kinds of substrates.

  16. A facile method for electrospinning of Ag nanoparticles/poly (vinyl alcohol)/carboxymethyl-chitosan nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yinghui; Zhou, Ying [Beijing Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Utilization and Management, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wu, Xiaomian [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Orthodontics College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Wang, Lu [Beijing Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Utilization and Management, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu, Ling, E-mail: lingxu@pku.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Utilization and Management, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); PKU-HKUST ShenZhen-HongKong Institution, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Wei, Shicheng, E-mail: sc-wei@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2012-09-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AgNPs/PVA/CM-chitosan nanofibers were prepared via electrospinning method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AgNPs were in situ synthesized in electrospinning solution via a facile method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AgNPs distributed homogeneously on the surface of nanofibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prepared nanofibers possessed certain antibacterial ability against Escherichia coli. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AgNPs containing nanofibers had potential as antibacterial biomaterial. - Abstract: A facile method to prepare silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) containing nanofibers via electrospinning has been demonstrated. AgNPs were in situ synthesized in poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/carboxymethyl-chitosan (CM-chitosan) blend aqueous solution before electrospinning. UV-vis spectra, viscosity and conductivity of the electrospinning solution were measured to investigate their effects on the electrospinning procedure. The morphology of AgNPs/PVA/CM-chitosan nanofibers was observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The formation and morphology of AgNPs were investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The resulted nanofibers have smooth surface and uniform diameters ranging from 295 to 343 nm. The diameters of AgNPs mainly distributed in the range of 4-14 nm, and the electrostatic interaction between AgNPs and fibers was observed. Finally, in vitro Ag release from the nanofibers was measured and the antibacterial behavior of the nanofibers against Escherichia coli was studied by bacterial growth inhibition halos and bactericidal kinetic testing. The AgNPs/PVA/CM-chitosan nanofibers possessed certain antibacterial ability, which makes them capable for antibacterial biomaterials.

  17. Improvement of thermoelectric properties of Bi2Sr2Co1.8Ox through solution synthetic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diez, J. C.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several solution synthetic methods, sol-gel and a polymeric route, have been studied in order to obtain Bi2Sr2Co1.8Ox ceramics with improved thermoelectric properties, compared to the classical solid state reaction. The products obtained by these different methods have been compared using DTA-TGA, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and thermoelectric characterizations. All the samples obtained by solution synthesis show higher homogeneity and lower content of secondary phases. The main differences in thermoelectrical properties are due to the decrease of electrical resistivity in samples obtained by solution methods, compared with the solid state obtained samples. Between them, the decrease is especially high for those samples prepared by the polymer solution method. Therefore, the polymeric solution synthesis route is shown to yield a power factor four times higher than the obtained for the solid state and sol-gel methods at room temperature.Se han obtenido cerámicas termoeléctricas Bi2Sr2Co1.8Ox utilizando varios métodos de síntesis, el clásico por estado sólido, sol-gel y de matriz polimérica. Se han comparado los productos obtenidos por las diferentes vías a través de técnicas de DTA-TGA, difracción de rayos X en polvo, microscopía electrónica de barrido y de caracterización termoeléctrica. Todas las muestras obtenidas por los métodos en disolución poseen una mayor homogeneidad y menor contenido de fases secundarias. La principal diferencia en las propiedades termoeléctricas es debida a la disminución de la resistividad eléctrica en las muestras obtenidas por medio de métodos en disolución, comparado con las que se obtienen por estado sólido. Entre ellas, la reducción de la resistividad es mucho mayor para las que se obtienen por el método de matriz polimérica. Además, los materiales obtenidos por este último método poseen un factor de potencia, a temperatura ambiente, cuatro veces mayor que

  18. Simultaneous Determination of 6-Mercaptopurine and its Oxidative Metabolites in Synthetic Solutions and Human Plasma using Spectrophotometric Multivariate Calibration Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Rashidi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: 6-Mercaptopurine (6MP is an important chemotherapeutic drug in the conventional treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. It is catabolized to 6-thiouric acid (6TUA through 8-hydroxo-6-mercaptopurine (8OH6MP or 6-thioxanthine (6TX intermediates. Methods: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC is usually used to determine the contents of therapeutic drugs, metabolites and other important biomedical analytes in biological samples. In the present study, the multivariate calibration methods, partial least squares (PLS-1 and principle component regression (PCR have been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 6MP and its oxidative metabolites (6TUA, 8OH6MP and 6TX without analyte separation in spiked human plasma. Mixtures of 6MP, 8-8OH6MP, 6TX and 6TUA have been resolved by PLS-1 and PCR to their UV spectra. Results: Recoveries (% obtained for 6MP, 8-8OH6MP, 6TX and 6TUA were 94.5-97.5, 96.6-103.3, 95.1-96.9 and 93.4-95.8, respectively, using PLS-1 and 96.7-101.3, 96.2-98.8, 95.8-103.3 and 94.3-106.1, respectively, using PCR. The NAS (Net analyte signal concept was used to calculate multivariate analytical figures of merit such as limit of detection (LOD, selectivity and sensitivity. The limit of detections for 6MP, 8-8OH6MP, 6TX and 6TUA were calculated to be 0.734, 0.439, 0.797 and 0.482 µmol L-1, respectively, using PLS and 0.724, 0.418, 0783 and 0.535 µmol L-1, respectively, using PCR. HPLC was also applied as a validation method for simultaneous determination of these thiopurines in the synthetic solutions and human plasma. Conclusion: Combination of spectroscopic techniques and chemometric methods (PLS and PCR has provided a simple but powerful method for simultaneous analysis of multicomponent mixtures.

  19. A novel, efficient and facile method for the template removal from mesoporous materials

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lu

    2014-11-12

    © 2014, Jilin University, The Editorial Department of Chemical Research in Chinese Universities and Springer-Verlag GmbH. A new catalytic-oxidation method was adopted to remove the templates from SBA-15 and MCM-41 mesoporous materials via Fenton-like techniques under microwave irradiation. The mesoporous silica materials were treated with different Fenton agents based on the template’s property and textural property. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction(XRD) measurement, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, infrared spectroscopy, 29Si MAS NMR and thermo gravimetric analysis(TGA). The results reveal that this is an efficient and facile approach to the thorough template-removal from mesoporous silica materials, as well as to offering products with more stable structures, higher BET surface areas, larger pore volumes and larger quantity of silanol groups.

  20. Facile method for liquid-exfoliated graphene size prediction by UV-visible spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Zulhelmi, E-mail: helmie83@hotmail.com [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia); Yusoh, Kamal, E-mail: kamal@ump.edu.my [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    In this work, an application of UV spectroscopy for facile prediction of liquid –exfoliated graphene size is discussed. Dynamic light scattering method was used to estimate the graphene flake size ( whilst UV spectroscopy measurement was carried out for extinction coefficient value (ε) determination. It was found that the value of (ε) decreased gradually as the graphene size was further reduced after intense sonication time (7h). This observation showed the influence of sonication time on electronic structure of graphene. A mathematical equation was derived from log-log graph for correlation between () and (ε) value. Both values can be expressed in a single equation as ( = (3.4 × 10{sup −2}) ε{sup 1.2}).

  1. A Facile Synthesis of Silver-Coated Composite Particles by Swelling Surface Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jun-Bing; LI Neng; WANG Si-Zhen; ZHANG Jian-Hui; WANG Zhen-Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ We report a facile and rapid method for fabrication of composite particles consisting of a polystyrene (PS) core and a uniform silver shell.The process involves the PS colloid surface swelling, the anchoring of silver ions and nanoparticles onto the surfaces, and the subsequent growth of metal seeds in a short period.The present approach has the advantages of simplicity and high efficiency.The TEM images show the morphology of the obtained PS core-silver shell particles, and their chemical composition and crystallinity are analysed by x-ray diffraction.To our knowledge, this is the first study based on swelling PS surface for synthesis of silver-coated PS particles and may be implemented for preparing other metal-coated PS particles.

  2. Facile synthesis of hydroxyapatite particles from cockle shells(Anadaragranosaby hydrothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelmida Azis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite particles, Ca10(PO46(OH2, (HAp, have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method using cockle shells (Anadaragranosawaste as the starting material. The cockle shells were calcined, hydrated (slaking and undergone carbonation to form precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC.The PCC was added with (NH42HPO4 to form HAp by varying the temperatures and reaction times under basic condition (pH 10 – 11. The X-ray Diffraction (XRDpatterns revealed that the excellent product of HAp with hexagonal crystal structure can obtained via facile hydrothermal procedure (140 oC for 16 h. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectra analyses showed the presence of OH, HPO42‒, and PO43‒ absorption bands, indicating the formation of HAp. The dried HAp particles powder was extremely pure with a specific surface area of 17.8 m²/g.

  3. Evaluation of a Virtual Citizen Science Facility: A Comprehensive Mixed-Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, G.

    2014-07-01

    The CosmoQuest Virtual Citizen Science Facility allows the public to participate in scientific research, learning opportunities, and community activities. Evaluation efforts include an online survey of users' attitudes about and use of the CosmoQuest website and their motivations for participation. Pre/post-participation assessments examine learning of science content. Along with these quantitative assessments we seek a deeper level of understanding through qualitative methods. Formative and summative evaluations use semi-structured interviews and open-ended survey questions. Participant responses are analyzed using an iterative process of open coding, allowing patterns to emerge inductively from the data. Triangulation of data increases the validity of findings. This approach gives a more rigorous look at the motivations, behaviors, and learning of participants, and a more complete and in-depth understanding of project impact.

  4. A facile method for fabricating TiO2@mesoporous carbon and three-layered nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Jin, Haibao; Zhu, Shenmin; Liu, Yunchun; Long, Mingce; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue

    2012-08-17

    Herein, we report a new and facile method for fabricating TiO(2)@mesoporous carbon hybrid materials. Uniform polydopamine (PDA) layers were coated onto the surface of titanate nanotubes (TNTs) and TiO(2) nanorods (TNDs) through the spontaneous adhesion and self-polymerization of dopamine during the dipping process. Core-shell mesoporous carbon nanotubes with TiO(2) nanorods or nanoparticles encapsulated inside (TiO(2)@MC) were then obtained by transforming PDA layers into carbonaceous ones through calcination in nitrogen at 800 °C. The thickness of the mesoporous carbon layers is tens of nanometers and can be controlled by adjusting the coated PDA layers through the self-polymerization reaction time. In addition, three-layered nanocomposites of TiO(2)@MC@MO (MO, metal oxide) can be readily prepared by utilizing PDA layers in TNTs@PDA or TNDs@PDA to adsorb the metal ions, followed by the calcination process.

  5. [Screening method for 29 forbidden or limited synthetic pigments in cheese by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yansheng; Yang, Minli; Zhang, Feng; Feng, Feng; Chu, Xiaogang; Dong, Ying

    2011-07-01

    A screening method for 29 forbidden or limited synthetic pigments in cheese samples was established by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF MS). The pigments were extracted by n-hexane/water (3:1, v/v). After extraction, the n-hexane extract, water extract and residue, were obtained. The n-hexane extract was then cleaned-up by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The water extract was extracted by acetonitrile, and the residue by ammonia water/methanol (1:99, v/v). The results showed that the 29 synthetic pigments with a wide range of polarities were extracted effectively with the recoveries between 70% and 95%, and matched well by Q-TOF MS precision mass searching to the mass spectral library with matching scores between 59. 66 and 99. 47. The quantitative analysis of the 29 pigments was carried out by Target MS/MS. The limits of detection (LODs) for 8 Sudan dyes were 0.4-2.5 micro/kg while for 21 water-soluble synthetic pigments were 20-80 microg/kg. The screening method is suitable for a wide range of synthetic pigments, and can be applied to food samples with proteins and fat in matrix.

  6. A new and facile method for measurement of apparent density of monodisperse polymer beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Li, Yuanpeng; Jing, Ying; Xing, Chengguo; Chang, Jin; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2010-03-15

    The apparent density, an intrinsic physical property of polymer beads, plays an important role in the application of beads in micro-total analysis systems and separation. Here we have developed a new, facile and milligram-scale method to describe the motion of beads in aqueous solution and further detect the apparent density of beads. The motion of beads in solutions is determined by the viscosity of solutions and the density difference between beads and solutions. In this study, using various glycerol aqueous solutions with certain viscosities and densities, the motion time (i.e. floating or sedimentation time) of hybrid polymer beads was experimentally measured and theoretically deduced, and consequently, the apparent density of monodisperse beads can be quickly and easily calculated. The results indicated that the present method provided a more precise way to predict the movement of hybrid beads in aqueous solution compared with the approach for commercial use. This new method can be potentially employed in flow cytometry, suspension stability, and particle analysis systems.

  7. A Facile Method for the Synthesis of 4- Acetylaminobenzo[15]crown-5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yan-qing; WEI Tai-bao; ZHANG You-ming; ZONG Guo-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The 4-acetylaminobenzo[15]crown-5 is an important intermediate in the synthesis of crown ether cyanine dyes1, in addition, the acetylamino can easily be hydrolyzed to be amine2, to our knowledge which also is an usful intermediate3,4, The classical procedure for the synthesis of 4-acetylaminobenzo[15]crown-5 involves several steps2,5: typically nitration of the benzo[15]crown-5, followed by reduction of the introduced nitro group to form amine, and finally,acylation of the amine to give the amide. In the classical procedure, the reduction of the nitro group is usually proceeded under N2 atmosphere and catalysts such as palladium, Raney Ni are usually employed, which constitute a particular inconvenience.We now report a facile one-pot reaction which can be conducted under mild conditions and avoid the time-consuming nitration step and the inconvenient reduction step.The reaction starts with para-selective C-acylation of the benzo[15]crown-5, which is followed by oxime formation and Beckmann rearrangement in situ. The reaction is proceeded by stirring at moderate temperature, a mixture of polyphosphonic acid, benzo[15]crown-5, glacial acetic acid and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (Scheme I), herein polyphosphonic acid act as catalyst.In conclusion, we have found a facile and convenient method for the synthesis of 4-acetylaminobenzo[15]crown-5, with the advantage of mild conditions, simple operation, short reaction time and less pollution compared with the classical procedure. It is a novel procedure for the synthesis of 4- acetylaminobenzo[15]crown-5.

  8. Future carbon beams at SPIRAL1 facility: Which method is the most efficient?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunoury, L., E-mail: maunoury@ganil.fr; Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Dupuis, M.; Frigot, R.; Grinyer, J.; Jardin, P.; Leboucher, C. [GANIL, CEA/CNRS, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Angot, J.; Lamy, T. [LPSC, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, Grenoble INP, 53 rue des martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2014-02-15

    Compared to in-flight facilities, Isotope Separator On-Line ones can in principle produce significantly higher radioactive ion beam intensities. On the other hand, they have to cope with delays for the release and ionization which make the production of short-lived isotopes ion beams of reactive and refractory elements particularly difficult. Many efforts are focused on extending the capabilities of ISOL facilities to those challenging beams. In this context, the development of carbon beams is triggering interest [H. Frånberg, M. Ammann, H. W. Gäggeler, and U. Köster, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 03A708 (2006); M. Kronberger, A. Gottberg, T. M. Mendonca, J. P. Ramos, C. Seiffert, P. Suominen, and T. Stora, in Proceedings of the EMIS 2012 [Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B Production of molecular sideband radioisotope beams at CERN-ISOLDE using a Helicon-type plasma ion source (to be published)]: despite its refractory nature, radioactive carbon beams can be produced from molecules (CO or CO{sub 2}), which can subsequently be broken up and multi-ionized to the required charge state in charge breeders or ECR sources. This contribution will present results of experiments conducted at LPSC with the Phoenix charge breeder and at GANIL with the Nanogan ECR ion source for the ionization of carbon beams in the frame of the ENSAR and EMILIE projects. Carbon is to date the lightest condensable element charge bred with an ECR ion source. Charge breeding efficiencies will be compared with those obtained using Nanogan ECRIS and charge breeding times will be presented as well.

  9. Future carbon beams at SPIRAL1 facility: Which method is the most efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunoury, L.; Delahaye, P.; Angot, J.; Dubois, M.; Dupuis, M.; Frigot, R.; Grinyer, J.; Jardin, P.; Leboucher, C.; Lamy, T.

    2014-02-01

    Compared to in-flight facilities, Isotope Separator On-Line ones can in principle produce significantly higher radioactive ion beam intensities. On the other hand, they have to cope with delays for the release and ionization which make the production of short-lived isotopes ion beams of reactive and refractory elements particularly difficult. Many efforts are focused on extending the capabilities of ISOL facilities to those challenging beams. In this context, the development of carbon beams is triggering interest [H. Frånberg, M. Ammann, H. W. Gäggeler, and U. Köster, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 03A708 (2006); M. Kronberger, A. Gottberg, T. M. Mendonca, J. P. Ramos, C. Seiffert, P. Suominen, and T. Stora, in Proceedings of the EMIS 2012 [Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B Production of molecular sideband radioisotope beams at CERN-ISOLDE using a Helicon-type plasma ion source (to be published)]: despite its refractory nature, radioactive carbon beams can be produced from molecules (CO or CO2), which can subsequently be broken up and multi-ionized to the required charge state in charge breeders or ECR sources. This contribution will present results of experiments conducted at LPSC with the Phoenix charge breeder and at GANIL with the Nanogan ECR ion source for the ionization of carbon beams in the frame of the ENSAR and EMILIE projects. Carbon is to date the lightest condensable element charge bred with an ECR ion source. Charge breeding efficiencies will be compared with those obtained using Nanogan ECRIS and charge breeding times will be presented as well.

  10. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  11. 9 CFR 71.7 - Means of conveyance, facilities, premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and disinfecting. 71.7 Section 71.7 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.7 Means of conveyance, facilities, premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and disinfecting. (a) Railroad cars...

  12. Methods for characterizing x-ray detectors for use at the National Ignition Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S F; Benedetti, L R; Hargrove, D R; Glenn, S M; Simanovskaia, N; Holder, J P; Barrios, M A; Hahn, D; Nagel, S R; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K

    2012-10-01

    Gated and streaked x-ray detectors generally require corrections in order to counteract instrumental effects in the data. The method of correcting for gain variations in gated cameras fielded at National Ignition Facility (NIF) is described. Four techniques for characterizing the gated x-ray detectors are described. The current principal method of characterizing x-ray instruments is the production of controlled x-ray emission by laser-generated plasmas as a dedicated shot at the NIF. A recently commissioned pulsed x-ray source has the potential to replace the other characterization systems. This x-ray source features a pulsed power source consisting of a Marx generator, capacitor bank that is charged in series and discharged in parallel, producing up to 300 kV. The pulsed x-ray source initially suffered from a large jitter (∼60 ns), but the recent addition of a pulsed laser to trigger the spark gap has reduced the jitter to ∼5 ns. Initial results show that this tool is a promising alternative to the other flat fielding techniques.

  13. A facile and green method towards coal-based fluorescent carbon dots with photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengliang; Wei, Zhijia; Chang, Qing; Trinchi, Adrian; Yang, Jinlong

    2016-08-01

    One of the most widely used methods for exfoliating crystalline nanocarbon is via strong oxidizing acid treatment of bulk carbon sources, such as graphite, carbon black and coal. Not only is such method dangerous and accompanied by the liberation of toxic gases, it is also plagued by issues of purity, requiring the thorough and costly removal of the excess oxidizing acids and salts formed during the process. Herein we report a facile, green and inexpensive top-down strategy towards fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) from coal without incurring the burden of tedious or inefficient post-processing steps and facing the danger of highly toxic gas liberation. The presented approach shows a high yield and great potential for carbon dot production scale-up using coal, one of our most abundant and low-cost resources. The prepared CDs demonstrate photocatalytic behavior capable of rapidly degrading organic dyes under visible light. Our findings may lead to alternative uses of coal, particularly for applications including the treatment of environmental pollution, solar energy conversion or storage, and highlight coal's applicability in areas other than energy producing via burning of this great resource.

  14. Facile time-of-flight methods for characterizing pulsed superfluid helium droplet beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Yang; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei, E-mail: wei.kong@oregonstate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We present two facile time-of-flight (TOF) methods of detecting superfluid helium droplets and droplets with neutral dopants. Without an electron gun and with only a heated filament and pulsed electrodes, the electron impact ionization TOF mass spectrometer can resolve ionized helium clusters such as He{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sub 4}{sup +}, which are signatures of superfluid helium droplets. Without ionizing any helium atoms, multiphoton non-resonant laser ionization of CCl{sub 4} doped in superfluid helium droplets at 266 nm generates complex cluster ions of dopant fragments with helium atoms, including (He){sub n}C{sup +}, (He){sub n}Cl{sup +}, and (He){sub n}CCl{sup +}. Using both methods, we have characterized our cryogenic pulsed valve—the Even-Lavie valve. We have observed a primary pulse with larger helium droplets traveling at a slower speed and a rebound pulse with smaller droplets at a faster speed. In addition, the pickup efficiency of dopant is higher for the primary pulse when the nozzle temperature is higher than 13 K, and the total time duration of the doped droplet pulse is only on the order of 20 μs. These results stress the importance of fast and easy characterization of the droplet beam for sensitive measurements such as electron diffraction of doped droplets.

  15. Facile time-of-flight methods for characterizing pulsed superfluid helium droplet beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Yang; Freund, William M; Kong, Wei

    2015-08-01

    We present two facile time-of-flight (TOF) methods of detecting superfluid helium droplets and droplets with neutral dopants. Without an electron gun and with only a heated filament and pulsed electrodes, the electron impact ionization TOF mass spectrometer can resolve ionized helium clusters such as He2(+) and He4(+), which are signatures of superfluid helium droplets. Without ionizing any helium atoms, multiphoton non-resonant laser ionization of CCl4 doped in superfluid helium droplets at 266 nm generates complex cluster ions of dopant fragments with helium atoms, including (He)(n)C(+), (He)(n)Cl(+), and (He)(n)CCl(+). Using both methods, we have characterized our cryogenic pulsed valve—the Even-Lavie valve. We have observed a primary pulse with larger helium droplets traveling at a slower speed and a rebound pulse with smaller droplets at a faster speed. In addition, the pickup efficiency of dopant is higher for the primary pulse when the nozzle temperature is higher than 13 K, and the total time duration of the doped droplet pulse is only on the order of 20 μs. These results stress the importance of fast and easy characterization of the droplet beam for sensitive measurements such as electron diffraction of doped droplets.

  16. 一种相移合成孔径数字全息图高精度合成方法%A High Precision Synthetic Method of Sub-Holograms in Phase-Shifting Synthetic Aperture Digital Hologram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红燕; 马志俭; 钟丽云; 吕晓旭

    2011-01-01

    进行了相移合成孔L径数字全息的分析与实验研究,分别给出了合成孔L径数字全息和相移合成孔径数字全息图的数学表述方法,提出一种用物光场强度图像与多步相移子全息图结合进行相移子孔径数字全息图的合成方法.先以物光场强度图像之间重叠区域的相关运算精确地确定子全息图之间的空间对接位置,在此基础上,再通过相移子全息图之间的重叠区域的相关运算进行相移同步匹配,实现了空间对接匹配与相移同步匹配的分离实施.以2#分辨率板为物体进行了相应的实验研究,子全息图的空间对接匹配的相关系数和相移同步匹配的相关系数均超过了0.99,获得了高质量的再现像,证明了方法的可行性和优点.%The mathematical expressions of synthetic aperture digital holography and phase-shifting synthetic aperture digital holography are presented. Based on the cross-correlation algorithm of both the object waves and the phase-shifting sub-holograms, a high precision synthetic method of the sub-holograms in phase-shifting synthetic aperture digital holography is proposed. Firstly, the position relation of the sub-holograms is determined by the crosscorrelation algorithm of the adjacent object waves, then phase-shifting synchronization matching is implemented by the cross-correlation algorithm of the phase-shifting sub-holograms, thus it is convenient to reach the separation of the spatial connection matching of the sub-holograms and phase-shifting synchronization matching of the phaseshifting holograms. By use of the Chinese standard resolution test chart 2# as the experimental sample, the results show that the correlation coefficient of both the sub-holograms connection matching and phase-shifting synchronization are more than 0.99, and the reconstructed image with high quality is obtained.

  17. Synthetic foldamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Gilles; Huc, Ivan

    2011-06-07

    Foldamers are artificial folded molecular architectures inspired by the structures and functions of biopolymers. This highlight focuses on important developments concerning foldamers produced by chemical synthesis and on the perspectives that these new self-organized molecular scaffolds offer. Progress in the field has led to synthetic objects that resemble small proteins in terms of size and complexity yet that may not contain any α-amino acids. Foldamers have introduced new tools and concepts to develop biologically active substances, synthetic receptors and novel materials.

  18. Development of a facile method for high throughput screening with reporter gene assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, A S; Andrews, J L; Littleton, T R; Ignar, D M

    2000-10-01

    This report describes a facile methodology for high throughput screening with stable mammalian cell reporter gene assays. We have adapted a 96-well adherent cell method to an assay in which cells propagated in suspension are dispensed into 96- or 384-well plates containing test compounds in 100% DMSO. The validation of a stable CHO cell line that expresses 6xCRE-luciferase for use as a reporter gene host cell line is described. The reporter gene, when expressed in this particular CHO cell line, appears to respond specifically to modulation of cAMP levels, thus the cell line is appropriate for screening and pharmacological analysis of Galpha(s)- and Galpha(i)-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors. The development of the new suspension cell assay in both 96- and 384-well formats was performed using a derivative of the CHO host reporter cell line that was stably transfected with human melanocortin-1 receptor. The response of this cell line to NDP-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and forskolin was nearly identical between the adherent and suspension methods. The new method offers improvements in cost, throughput, cell culture effort, compound stability, accuracy of compound delivery, and hands-on time. The 384-well assay can be performed at high capacity in any laboratory without the use of expensive automation systems such that a single person can screen 100 plates per day with 3.5-4 h hands-on time. Although the system has been validated using Galpha(s)-coupled receptor-mediated activation of a cAMP response element, the method can be applied to other types of targets and/or transcriptional response elements.

  19. A facile method to prepare superparamagnetic iron oxide and hydrophobic drug-encapsulated biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kuo-Wei; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) have a wide range of biomedical applications such as in magnetic resonance imaging, targeting, and hyperthermia therapy. Aggregation of SPIO NPs can occur because of the hydrophobic surface and high surface energy of SPIO NPs. Here, we developed a facile method to encapsulate SPIO NPs in amphiphilic biodegradable polymer. Anionic biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles (PU NPs) with ~35 nm size and different chemistry were prepared by waterborne processes. SPIO NPs were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation. SPIO NPs were then added to the aqueous dispersion of PU NPs, followed by application of high-frequency (~20 kHz) ultrasonic vibration for 3 min. This method rendered SPIO-PU hybrid NPs (size ~110 nm) suspended in water. SPIO-PU hybrid NPs contained ~50-60 wt% SPIO and retained the superparamagnetic property (evaluated by a magnetometer) as well as high contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. SPIO-PU NPs also showed the ability to provide cell hyperthermic treatment. Using the same ultrasonic method, hydrophobic drug (Vitamin K3 [VK3]) or (9-(methylaminomethyl) anthracene [MAMA]) could also be encapsulated in PU NPs. The VK3-PU or MAMA-PU hybrid NPs had ~35 nm size and different release profiles for PUs with different chemistry. The encapsulation efficiency for VK3 and MAMA was high (~95%) without burst release. The encapsulation mechanism may be attributed to the low glass transition temperature (Tg) and good mechanical compliance of PU NPs. The new encapsulation method involving waterborne biodegradable PU NPs is simple, rapid, and effective to produce multimodular NP carriers.

  20. A facile method to prepare superparamagnetic iron oxide and hydrophobic drug-encapsulated biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng K

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kuo-Wei Cheng, Shan-hui Hsu Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs have a wide range of biomedical applications such as in magnetic resonance imaging, targeting, and hyperthermia therapy. Aggregation of SPIO NPs can occur because of the hydrophobic surface and high surface energy of SPIO NPs. Here, we developed a facile method to encapsulate SPIO NPs in amphiphilic biodegradable polymer. Anionic biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles (PU NPs with ~35 nm size and different chemistry were prepared by waterborne processes. SPIO NPs were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation. SPIO NPs were then added to the aqueous dispersion of PU NPs, followed by application of high-frequency (~20 kHz ultrasonic vibration for 3 min. This method rendered SPIO-PU hybrid NPs (size ~110 nm suspended in water. SPIO-PU hybrid NPs contained ~50–60 wt% SPIO and retained the superparamagnetic property (evaluated by a magnetometer as well as high contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. SPIO-PU NPs also showed the ability to provide cell hyperthermic treatment. Using the same ultrasonic method, hydrophobic drug (Vitamin K3 [VK3] or (9-(methylaminomethylanthracene [MAMA] could also be encapsulated in PU NPs. The VK3-PU or MAMA-PU hybrid NPs had ~35 nm size and different release profiles for PUs with different chemistry. The encapsulation efficiency for VK3 and MAMA was high (~95% without burst release. The encapsulation mechanism may be attributed to the low glass transition temperature (Tg and good mechanical compliance of PU NPs. The new encapsulation method involving waterborne biodegradable PU NPs is simple, rapid, and effective to produce multimodular NP carriers. Keywords: superparamagnetic iron oxide, polyurethane, drug release, hybrid nanoparticles

  1. A facile method to prepare superparamagnetic iron oxide and hydrophobic drug-encapsulated biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kuo-Wei; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2017-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) have a wide range of biomedical applications such as in magnetic resonance imaging, targeting, and hyperthermia therapy. Aggregation of SPIO NPs can occur because of the hydrophobic surface and high surface energy of SPIO NPs. Here, we developed a facile method to encapsulate SPIO NPs in amphiphilic biodegradable polymer. Anionic biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles (PU NPs) with ~35 nm size and different chemistry were prepared by waterborne processes. SPIO NPs were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation. SPIO NPs were then added to the aqueous dispersion of PU NPs, followed by application of high-frequency (~20 kHz) ultrasonic vibration for 3 min. This method rendered SPIO-PU hybrid NPs (size ~110 nm) suspended in water. SPIO-PU hybrid NPs contained ~50–60 wt% SPIO and retained the superparamagnetic property (evaluated by a magnetometer) as well as high contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. SPIO-PU NPs also showed the ability to provide cell hyperthermic treatment. Using the same ultrasonic method, hydrophobic drug (Vitamin K3 [VK3]) or (9-(methylaminomethyl) anthracene [MAMA]) could also be encapsulated in PU NPs. The VK3-PU or MAMA-PU hybrid NPs had ~35 nm size and different release profiles for PUs with different chemistry. The encapsulation efficiency for VK3 and MAMA was high (~95%) without burst release. The encapsulation mechanism may be attributed to the low glass transition temperature (Tg) and good mechanical compliance of PU NPs. The new encapsulation method involving waterborne biodegradable PU NPs is simple, rapid, and effective to produce multimodular NP carriers. PMID:28280341

  2. Evaluation of Legionella Air Contamination in Healthcare Facilities by Different Sampling Methods: An Italian Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Napoli, Christian; Pacifico, Claudia; Agodi, Antonella; Baldovin, Tatjana; Casini, Beatrice; Coniglio, Maria Anna; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Delia, Santi Antonino; Deriu, Maria Grazia; Guida, Marco; Laganà, Pasqualina; Liguori, Giorgio; Moro, Matteo; Mura, Ida; Pennino, Francesca; Privitera, Gaetano; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Sembeni, Silvia; Spagnolo, Anna Maria; Tardivo, Stefano; Torre, Ida; Valeriani, Federica; Albertini, Roberto; Pasquarella, Cesira

    2017-06-22

    Healthcare facilities (HF) represent an at-risk environment for legionellosis transmission occurring after inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In general, the control of water is preferred to that of air because, to date, there are no standardized sampling protocols. Legionella air contamination was investigated in the bathrooms of 11 HF by active sampling (Surface Air System and Coriolis(®)μ) and passive sampling using settling plates. During the 8-hour sampling, hot tap water was sampled three times. All air samples were evaluated using culture-based methods, whereas liquid samples collected using the Coriolis(®)μ were also analyzed by real-time PCR. Legionella presence in the air and water was then compared by sequence-based typing (SBT) methods. Air contamination was found in four HF (36.4%) by at least one of the culturable methods. The culturable investigation by Coriolis(®)μ did not yield Legionella in any enrolled HF. However, molecular investigation using Coriolis(®)μ resulted in eight HF testing positive for Legionella in the air. Comparison of Legionella air and water contamination indicated that Legionella water concentration could be predictive of its presence in the air. Furthermore, a molecular study of 12 L. pneumophila strains confirmed a match between the Legionella strains from air and water samples by SBT for three out of four HF that tested positive for Legionella by at least one of the culturable methods. Overall, our study shows that Legionella air detection cannot replace water sampling because the absence of microorganisms from the air does not necessarily represent their absence from water; nevertheless, air sampling may provide useful information for risk assessment. The liquid impingement technique appears to have the greatest capacity for collecting airborne Legionella if combined with molecular investigations.

  3. A method for comparison testing of window accessories: The AMSCO thermal test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lexen, T.C.; Muldary, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    A test facility has been developed for the comparison of the thermal performance of window accessories. The facility is presented as a developmental tool, allowing direct comparison testing of prototypes and new products, under controlled interior and real weather conditions. Nighttime U-value testing is emphasized; testing options and limitations are discussed, along with future plans.

  4. A facile method to fabricate hydrogels with microchannel-like porosity for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Joshua; Han, Li-Hsin; Tong, Xinming; Yang, Fan

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogels are widely used as three-dimensional (3D) tissue engineering scaffolds due to their tissue-like water content, as well as their tunable physical and chemical properties. Hydrogel-based scaffolds are generally associated with nanoscale porosity, whereas macroporosity is highly desirable to facilitate nutrient transfer, vascularization, cell proliferation and matrix deposition. Diverse techniques have been developed for introducing macroporosity into hydrogel-based scaffolds. However, most of these methods involve harsh fabrication conditions that are not cell friendly, result in spherical pore structure, and are not amenable for dynamic pore formation. Human tissues contain abundant microchannel-like structures, such as microvascular network and nerve bundles, yet fabricating hydrogels containing microchannel-like pore structures remains a great challenge. To overcome these limitations, here we aim to develop a facile, cell-friendly method for engineering hydrogels with microchannel-like porosity using stimuli-responsive microfibers as porogens. Microfibers with sizes ranging 150-200 μm were fabricated using a coaxial flow of alginate and calcium chloride solution. Microfibers containing human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells were encapsulated within a 3D gelatin hydrogel, and then exposed to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution at varying doses and duration. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed effective dissolution of alginate microfibers after EDTA treatment, leaving well-defined, interconnected microchannel structures within the 3D hydrogels. Upon release from the alginate fibers, HEK cells showed high viability and enhanced colony formation along the luminal surfaces of the microchannels. In contrast, HEK cells in non-EDTA treated control exhibited isolated cells, which remained entrapped in alginate microfibers. Together, our results showed a facile, cell-friendly process for dynamic microchannel formation within hydrogels, which may

  5. Evaluation of environmental sampling methods and rapid detection assays for recovery and identification of Listeria spp. from meat processing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacević, Jovana; Bohaychuk, Valerie M; Barrios, Pablo Romero; Gensler, Gary E; Rolheiser, Deana L; McMullen, Lynn M

    2009-04-01

    Studies that isolated Listeria spp. from the environment of two meat processing facilities were conducted. Samples were collected in the processing environment of the facilities with three different sampling methods (cotton swab, sterile sponge, and composite-ply tissues) to evaluate their ability to recover Listeria spp. A total of 240 samples for each sampling method were collected and tested. The cotton swab method of sampling was significantly (P 0.05) in their ability to recover Listeria spp. The specificity and sensitivity of four detection methods (conventional culture, Petrifilm Environmental Listeria Plates [ELP], lateral-flow immunoprecipitation [LFI], and automated PCR) were evaluated for identification of Listeria spp. Facilities were visited until a minimum of 100 positive and 100 negative samples per detection method were collected. The LFI and PCR methods were highly sensitive (95.5 and 99.1%, respectively) and specific (100%) relative to the culture method. The ELP method was significantly less efficient (P < 0.01) than LFI and PCR in detection of Listeria spp., with lower sensitivity (50.6%) and specificity (91.5%). Kappa values indicated excellent agreement of the LFI and PCR assays and moderate agreement of the ELP method to the culture method. Overall, ELP was easy to use but less efficient in detection of Listeria spp. from environmental samples, while the LFI and PCR methods were found to be excellent alternatives to culture, considering performance and time and labor inputs.

  6. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  7. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  8. A method for studying the development pattern of urban commercial service facilities based on customer reviews from social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is one of the most important human social activities in the 21st century (Chaolin et al., 2012. With an increasing number of people visiting cities, the provision of adequate urban service facilities, including public and commercial service facilities, in locations where people live has become an important guarantee of the success of urbanization. Exploring the commercial service facilities in a specific area of a city can help us understand the progress and trends of urban renewal in the area, provide a quantitative basis for evaluating the rationality of planning implementation, and facilitate an analysis of the effects of different factors on the regional development of a city (Schor et al. 2003. In this paper, we proposed a data processing and analysis method for studying the distribution and development pattern of urban commercial facilities based on customer reviews. In addition, based on road network constraints, we explored the patterns contained in customer reviews data, including patterns for the spatial distribution and spatial-temporal evolution of facilities as well as the number of facilities and degree of satisfaction.

  9. A method for studying the development pattern of urban commercial service facilities based on customer reviews from social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. D.; Jiang, B. T.; Ye, X. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Urbanization is one of the most important human social activities in the 21st century (Chaolin et al., 2012). With an increasing number of people visiting cities, the provision of adequate urban service facilities, including public and commercial service facilities, in locations where people live has become an important guarantee of the success of urbanization. Exploring the commercial service facilities in a specific area of a city can help us understand the progress and trends of urban renewal in the area, provide a quantitative basis for evaluating the rationality of planning implementation, and facilitate an analysis of the effects of different factors on the regional development of a city (Schor et al. 2003). In this paper, we proposed a data processing and analysis method for studying the distribution and development pattern of urban commercial facilities based on customer reviews. In addition, based on road network constraints, we explored the patterns contained in customer reviews data, including patterns for the spatial distribution and spatial-temporal evolution of facilities as well as the number of facilities and degree of satisfaction.

  10. Fault detection and analysis in nuclear research facility using artificial intelligence methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazali, Abu Bakar, E-mail: Abakar@uniten.edu.my [Department of Electronics & Communication, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, 43009 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd [Instrumentation Program, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    In this article, an online detection of transducer and actuator condition is discussed. A case study is on the reading of area radiation monitor (ARM) installed at the chimney of PUSPATI TRIGA nuclear reactor building, located at Bangi, Malaysia. There are at least five categories of abnormal ARM reading that could happen during the transducer failure, namely either the reading becomes very high, or very low/ zero, or with high fluctuation and noise. Moreover, the reading may be significantly higher or significantly lower as compared to the normal reading. An artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are good methods for modeling this plant dynamics. The failure of equipment is based on ARM reading so it is then to compare with the estimated ARM data from ANN/ ANFIS function. The failure categories in either ‘yes’ or ‘no’ state are obtained from a comparison between the actual online data and the estimated output from ANN/ ANFIS function. It is found that this system design can correctly report the condition of ARM equipment in a simulated environment and later be implemented for online monitoring. This approach can also be extended to other transducers, such as the temperature profile of reactor core and also to include other critical actuator conditions such as the valves and pumps in the reactor facility provided that the failure symptoms are clearly defined.

  11. A facile method to compare EFTEM maps obtained from materials changing composition over time

    KAUST Repository

    Casu, Alberto

    2015-10-31

    Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy (EFTEM) is an analytical tool that has been successfully and widely employed in the last two decades for obtaining fast elemental maps in TEM mode. Several studies and efforts have been addressed to investigate limitations and advantages of such technique, as well as to improve the spatial resolution of compositional maps. Usually, EFTEM maps undergo post-acquisition treatments by changing brightness and contrast levels, either via dedicated software or via human elaboration, in order to maximize their signal-to-noise ratio and render them as visible as possible. However, elemental maps forming a single set of EFTEM images are usually subjected to independent map-by-map image treatment. This post-acquisition step becomes crucial when analyzing materials that change composition over time as a consequence of an external stimulus, because the map-by-map approach doesn\\'t take into account how the chemical features of the imaged materials actually progress, in particular when the investigated elements exhibit very low signals. In this article, we present a facile procedure applicable to whole sets of EFTEM maps acquired on a sample that is evolving over time. The main aim is to find a common method to treat the images features, in order to make them as comparable as possible without affecting the information there contained. Microsc. Res. Tech. 78:1090–1097, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A Facile Method for Preparing Transparent, Conductive, and Paper-Like Silver Nanowire Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent, conductive, and flexible silver nanowire (AgNW films have been fabricated by a facile two-step method. Firstly, the well-dispersed AgNW suspension is vacuum filtered using mixed esters of cellulose (MCE membranes as filters. Then, the AgNW-MCE films are treated with acetone vapor. After the infiltration of acetone vapor, the white and porous MCE membranes change into transparent and pore-free, and AgNW-MCE films are obtained with extraordinary optical, conductive, and mechanical properties. An optimal result is obtained with transmittance of 85% at 550 nm and sheet resistance about 50 Ohm/sq. The flexibility of AgNW-MCE films is remarkable, which is comparable to that of the AgNW film on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET. More important, AgNW-MCE films show an excellent adhesion to the substrate, which causes a stable electrical conductivity even after scotch tape test and finger friction test. As a result of improved adhesion to the substrate, the sheet resistance of AgNW-MCE films is about 20% smaller than that of AgNW-PET films.

  13. A facile method for preparation superhydrophobic paper with enhanced physical strength and moisture-proofing property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Yang, Jin; Li, Pan; Lan, Tianqing; Peng, Lincai

    2017-03-15

    We proposed a green and facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic paper in this study, which is layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition of TiO2 nanoparticles/sodium alginate (ALG) multilayers on paper surface followed by an adsorption treatment of colloidal carnauba wax. The formation of TiO2/ALG multilayers on paper surface was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), zeta potential measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The wetting property of modified paper was investigated by water contact angle (WCA) measurement. Moreover, the modified paper tensile strength has been evaluated. The results showed that WCA of paper modified with a wax-treated (TiO2/ALG)3.5 multilayer reached up to 151.5°, and this obtained superhydrophobic paper exhibited improved tensile strength (increased by 4.1% compared to the pristine paper), excellent moisture-proofing property and high strength stability under high relative humidity condition, which might has a great potential for use in the liquid paper packaging and moisture-proof paper packaging.

  14. A facile method for fabricating TiO2@mesoporous carbon and three-layered nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Jin, Haibao; Zhu, Shenmin; Liu, Yunchun; Long, Mingce; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue

    2012-08-01

    Herein, we report a new and facile method for fabricating TiO2@mesoporous carbon hybrid materials. Uniform polydopamine (PDA) layers were coated onto the surface of titanate nanotubes (TNTs) and TiO2 nanorods (TNDs) through the spontaneous adhesion and self-polymerization of dopamine during the dipping process. Core-shell mesoporous carbon nanotubes with TiO2 nanorods or nanoparticles encapsulated inside (TiO2@MC) were then obtained by transforming PDA layers into carbonaceous ones through calcination in nitrogen at 800 °C. The thickness of the mesoporous carbon layers is tens of nanometers and can be controlled by adjusting the coated PDA layers through the self-polymerization reaction time. In addition, three-layered nanocomposites of TiO2@MC@MO (MO, metal oxide) can be readily prepared by utilizing PDA layers in TNTs@PDA or TNDs@PDA to adsorb the metal ions, followed by the calcination process.

  15. Iron pyrite: Phase and shape control by facile hot injection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Thanh Kieu; Pham, Viet Thanh Hau; Truong, Nguyen Tam Nguyen; Kim, Chang Duk; Park, Chinho

    2017-03-01

    Pure phases of cubic and spherical FeS2 nanocrystals (NCs) with the mean size of 80 nm and 30 nm, respectively, were obtained using trioctylamine and oleylamine as the solvents to dissolve the sulfur source via a facile and efficient hot injection method. The pure phase formation and shape control were strongly dependent on the concentration of active sulfur source (H2S) that could be formed by the reaction between the elemental sulfur and a primary amine. The chemically active sulfur source could facilitate the formation of a pure FeS2 phase from a FeS phase via a Fe3S4 phase. In addition, the active sulfur concentration is believed to be the main factor to drive the orientation attachment to obtain different shapes of FeS2 NCs. The obtained FeS2 pyrite NCs with excellent phase purity and good optical properties are believed to have potential applications to various energy devices including low-cost photovoltaics.

  16. 237 Np analytical method using 239 Np tracers and application to a contaminated nuclear disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Clark, Sue B.; Olson, John E.; Watrous, Matthew G.

    2017-06-01

    Environmental 237Np analyses are challenged by low 237Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive 237Np analytical approach employing the short lived 239Np (t1/2 = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by 237Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 239Np tracer is obtained via separation from a 243Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 watt “Walmart” microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99.8 ± 0.1% digestion yields, while chromatographic separations enable Np/U separation factors on the order of 106 and total Np yields of 95 ± 4% (2σ). Application of this method to legacy soil samples surrounding a radioactive disposal facility (the Subsurface Disposal Area at Idaho National Laboratory) reveal the presence of low level 237Np contamination within 600 meters of this site, with maximum 237Np concentrations on the order of 103 times greater than nuclear weapons testing fallout levels.

  17. A facile method for electrospinning of Ag nanoparticles/poly (vinyl alcohol)/carboxymethyl-chitosan nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinghui; Zhou, Ying; Wu, Xiaomian; Wang, Lu; Xu, Ling; Wei, Shicheng

    2012-09-01

    A facile method to prepare silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) containing nanofibers via electrospinning has been demonstrated. AgNPs were in situ synthesized in poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/carboxymethyl-chitosan (CM-chitosan) blend aqueous solution before electrospinning. UV-vis spectra, viscosity and conductivity of the electrospinning solution were measured to investigate their effects on the electrospinning procedure. The morphology of AgNPs/PVA/CM-chitosan nanofibers was observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The formation and morphology of AgNPs were investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The resulted nanofibers have smooth surface and uniform diameters ranging from 295 to 343 nm. The diameters of AgNPs mainly distributed in the range of 4-14 nm, and the electrostatic interaction between AgNPs and fibers was observed. Finally, in vitro Ag release from the nanofibers was measured and the antibacterial behavior of the nanofibers against Escherichia coli was studied by bacterial growth inhibition halos and bactericidal kinetic testing. The AgNPs/PVA/CM-chitosan nanofibers possessed certain antibacterial ability, which makes them capable for antibacterial biomaterials.

  18. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of BiOBr/ZnO Heterojunction Semiconductors Prepared by Facile Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchao Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal wurtzite pure ZnO and BiOBr-ZnO composites were synthesized by facile hydrothermal method. The amount of BiOBr as dopant was adjusted from 5 wt.% to 75 wt.%, and correspondingly the morphologies and crystal structures of the as-prepared composites were measured and discussed. Specifically, according to XRD patterns and SEM images, the main crystalline structure of ZnO was not destroyed after doping, but growth of ZnO crystals was inhibited by doping BiOBr. Meanwhile, the optical properties of the composites were measured by the diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS. The band gap of composites was also calculated using the classical Tauc equation and it was found to be around 3.0 eV. In the test of photocatalytic activation, the ZnO-BiOBr photocatalysts exhibited high photocatalytic efficiencies in the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB under visible-light irradiation. It was ascribed to not only the small size of crystalline, but also the reduction in the recombination rate of the photogenerated carriers for the enhancement effect of p-n heterojunction. This work sheds light on improving the photocatalytic performance by establishing the heterojunction and contributes to the development of a commercially competitive photocatalyst.

  19. Fault detection and analysis in nuclear research facility using artificial intelligence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Abu Bakar; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd

    2016-01-01

    In this article, an online detection of transducer and actuator condition is discussed. A case study is on the reading of area radiation monitor (ARM) installed at the chimney of PUSPATI TRIGA nuclear reactor building, located at Bangi, Malaysia. There are at least five categories of abnormal ARM reading that could happen during the transducer failure, namely either the reading becomes very high, or very low/ zero, or with high fluctuation and noise. Moreover, the reading may be significantly higher or significantly lower as compared to the normal reading. An artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are good methods for modeling this plant dynamics. The failure of equipment is based on ARM reading so it is then to compare with the estimated ARM data from ANN/ ANFIS function. The failure categories in either `yes' or `no' state are obtained from a comparison between the actual online data and the estimated output from ANN/ ANFIS function. It is found that this system design can correctly report the condition of ARM equipment in a simulated environment and later be implemented for online monitoring. This approach can also be extended to other transducers, such as the temperature profile of reactor core and also to include other critical actuator conditions such as the valves and pumps in the reactor facility provided that the failure symptoms are clearly defined.

  20. Preparing hydrophobic nanocellulose-silica film by a facile one-pot method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Duy; Kongparakul, Suwadee; Samart, Chanatip; Phanthong, Patchiya; Karnjanakom, Surachai; Abudula, Abuliti; Guan, Guoqing

    2016-11-20

    Hydrophobic nanocellulose-silica film was successfully prepared by a facile one-pot method using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and dodecyl triethoxylsilane (DTES). Morphological characterization of the hydrophobic nanocellulose-silica (NC-SiO2-DTES) film showed well self-assembled DTES modified silica spherical nanoparticles with the particle sizes in the range of 88-126nm over the nanocellulose film. The hydrophobicity of the NC-SiO2-DTES film was achieved owing to the improvement of roughness of the nanocellulose film by coating dodecyl- terminated silica nanoparticles. An increase in DTES loading amount and reaction time increased the hydrophobicity of the film, and the optimum condition for NC-SiO2-DTES film preparation was achieved at DTES/TEOS molar ratio of 2.0 for 8h reaction time. Besides, the NC-SiO2-DTES film performed superoleophilic property with octane and hexadecane contact angles of 0°. It also showed an excellent hydrophobic property over all pH values ranged from 1 to 14.

  1. Effect of alkali cations on two-dimensional networks of two new quaternary thioarsenates (III) prepared by a facile surfactant-thermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Dongming [School of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hou, Peipei; Liu, Chang [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chai, Wenxiang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zheng, Xuerong [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, Luodong [School of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhi, Mingjia; Zhou, Chunmei [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu, Yi, E-mail: liuyimse@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Two new quaternary thioarsenates(III) NaAg{sub 2}AsS{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O (1) and KAg{sub 2}AsS{sub 3} (2) with high yields have been successfully prepared through a facile surfactant-thermal method. It is interesting that 2 can only be obtained with the aid of ethanediamine (en), which indicates that weak basicity of solvent is beneficial to the growth of 2 compared with 1. Both 1 and 2 feature the similar two-dimensional (2D) layer structures. However, the distortion of the primary honeycomb-like nets in 2 is more severe than that of 1, which demonstrates that Na{sup +} and K{sup +} cations have different structure directing effects on these two thioarsenates(III). Both experimental and theoretical studies confirm 1 and 2 are semiconductors with band gaps in the visible region. Our success in preparing these two quaternary thioarsenates(III) proves that surfactant-thermal technique is a powerful yet facile synthetic method to explore new complex chalcogenides. - Graphical abstract: Two new quaternary thioarsenates(III) NaAg{sub 2}AsS{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O (1) and KAg{sub 2}AsS{sub 3} (2) with high yields have been successfully prepared through a facile surfactant-thermal method. X-ray single crystal diffraction analyses demonstrate that Na{sup +} and K{sup +} cations have different structure directing effects on these two thioarsenates(III). Both experimental and theoretical studies confirm 1 and 2 are semiconductors with band gaps in the visible region. Display Omitted - Highlights: • NaAg{sub 2}AsS{sub 3}⋅H{sub 2}O (1) and KAg{sub 2}AsS{sub 3} (2) were prepared through surfactant-thermal method. • Crystal structures show Na{sup ±} and K{sup ±} have different structure directing effects. • The weak basicity of solvent is benefit to the growth of 2 compared with 1. • Experimental and theoretical studies confirm 1 and 2 are semiconductors.

  2. Solubility of {sup 238}U radionuclide from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids using “US in vitro” digestion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Sarmani, Sukiman; Majid, Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok, E-mail: khoo@ukm.edu.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    238U radionuclide is a naturally occuring radioactive material that can be found in soil. In this study, the solubility of 238U radionuclide obtained from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids was analysed by “US P in vitro” digestion method. The synthetic gastrointestinal fluids were added to the samples with well-ordered, mixed throughly and incubated according to the human physiology digestive system. The concentration of 238U radionuclide in the solutions extracted from the soil was measured using Induced Coupling Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The concentration of 238U radionuclide from the soil samples in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids showed different values due to different homogenity of soil types and chemical reaction of 238U radionuclide. In general, the solubility of 238U radionuclide in gastric fluid was higher (0.050 – 0.209 ppm) than gastrointestinal fluids (0.024 – 0.050 ppm). It could be concluded that the US P in vitro digestion method is practicle for estimating the solubility of 238U radionuclide from soil materials and could be useful for monitoring and risk assessment purposes applying to environmental, health and contaminated soil samples.

  3. A MoLC+MoM-based G0distribution parameter estimation method with application to synthetic aperture radar target detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱正为; 周建江; 郭玉英

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of background clutter model is a key factor which determines the performance of a constant false alarm rate (CFAR) target detection method. G0 distribution is one of the optimal statistic models in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image background clutter modeling and can accurately model various complex background clutters in the SAR images. But the application of the distribution is greatly limited by its disadvantages that the parameter estimation is complex and the local detection threshold is difficult to be obtained. In order to solve the above-mentioned problems, an synthetic aperture radar CFAR target detection method using the logarithmic cumulant (MoLC) + method of moment (MoM)-based G0distribution clutter model is proposed. In the method, G0 distribution is used for modeling the background clutters, a new MoLC+MoM-based parameter estimation method coupled with a fast iterative algorithm is used for estimating the parameters of G0 distribution and an exquisite dichotomy method is used for obtaining the local detection threshold of CFAR detection, which greatly improves the computational efficiency, detection performance and environmental adaptability of CFAR detection. Experimental results show that the proposed SAR CFAR target detection method has good target detection performance in various complex background clutter environments.

  4. Synthetic chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Daniel; Waldminghaus, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    What a living organism looks like and how it works and what are its components-all this is encoded on DNA, the genetic blueprint. Consequently, the way to change an organism is to change its genetic information. Since the first pieces of recombinant DNA have been used to transform cells in the 1970s, this approach has been enormously extended. Bigger and bigger parts of the genetic information have been exchanged or added over the years. Now we are at a point where the construction of entire chromosomes becomes a reachable goal and first examples appear. This development leads to fundamental new questions, for example, about what is possible and desirable to build or what construction rules one needs to follow when building synthetic chromosomes. Here we review the recent progress in the field, discuss current challenges and speculate on the appearance of future synthetic chromosomes.

  5. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...... harmonic techniques have been made, but none of these methods have so far been applicable for in-vivo imaging. The basis of this project is a synthetic aperture technique known as synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB). The technique utilizes a two step beamforming approach to drastically reduce...

  6. A facile method to prepare a high performance solid-state flexible paper-based supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Jen-Yu; Zhang, Sheng-Hui; Wu, Cheng-Hung [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Yu, Hsin Her, E-mail: hhyu@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: A flexible paper-based supercapacitor was assembled into a sandwich structure, which exhibits well-retained triangular-shaped curves. The cycle life stability of this device still retains about 96% of the initial capacitance after 2000 cycles at a scan rate of 400 mV/s. An as-fabricated paper-based supercapacitor could light a red LED well after charging at constant potential of 3 V. - Highlights: • A facile approach is proposed to fabricate paper-based supercapacitors. • Apple pectin is an excellent dispersant for MWCNTs. • Paper provides a strong binding and flexible characteristic for electrode. • A paper-based supercapacitor could light a red LED after charging. • This device shows excellent electrochemical performance and cycling stability. - Abstract: We propose a low cost and simple method to prepare a paper-based supercapacitor in this study. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were dispersed with a pectin solution under an ultrasonic homogenizer. Carbon nanotube suspension was prepared using a centrifuge to eliminate impurities. The dispersed MWCNTs suspension was dropped and dried onto the shallow surface of commercial copy paper. A paper-based conductive paper was formed as the electrodes. The electrical conductivity and dispersed morphology of the paper-based conductive paper were examined by four probes, atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The solid-state electrolyte was prepared by casting a solution of phosphoric acid and polyvinyl alcohol onto a glass plate. The paper-based supercapacitor was constructed with one solid-state electrolyte inserted between two electrodes, which were assembled into a sandwich structure by hot press. The specific capacitance and cycle-life stability of the paper-based supercapacitor was investigated by cyclic voltammetry analysis.

  7. Study on decolorization method of the synthetic ester%合成酯的脱色方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月萍; 赵平; 任鹏; 赵磊

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and performance of synthetic ester,the synthetic ester is firstly deacidified and then decolorized with extraction, distillation or adsorption, respectively. The results show that the free fatty acids and part of the coloring impurity can be removed with deacidification. The acid value reduces from 8. 75 to 0. 4 and the decoloring rate is 5.9%. However, the coloring impurity cannot be removed effectively with extraction and distillation except adsorption. The active carbon adsorbent displays better decolorization capability than active clay, neutral alumina, diatomite and attapulgite. The decolorization rate of synthetic ester with 6. 8% ( wt) of active carbon adsorbent at 811 after 55 minutes is 24. 8 %. The yellowish red synthetic ester became pale yellow through deacidification and decolorization, which makes it meet the quality requirement of product.%为提高合成酯产品的质量和性能,对合成酯先脱酸,再分别采用萃取、蒸馏和吸附3种方法进行脱色处理.实验结果表明,脱酸不仅能脱除合成酯当中的游离脂肪酸,还能脱除部分有色杂质,脱酸后酸值从8.75降到0.40,脱色率为5.9%;萃取脱色和蒸馏脱色均不能有效地去除合成酯当中的色素;活性白土、中性氧化铝、硅藻土、凹凸棒土作为脱色剂对色素的吸附效果均不及活性炭;以活性炭为吸附剂,脱色时间55 min,温度81℃,吸附剂用量为原料质量的6.8%,合成酯脱色率为24.8%;经过脱酸、活性炭吸附脱色处理,合成酯从黄红色变成浅黄色液体,产品质量符合要求.

  8. Analysis Methods for Extracting Knowledge from Large-Scale WiFi Monitoring to Inform Building Facility Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Antonio; Blunck, Henrik; Prentow, Thor Siiger

    2014-01-01

    realistic data to inform facility planning. In this paper, we propose analysis methods to extract knowledge from large sets of network collected WiFi traces to better inform facility management and planning in large building complexes. The analysis methods, which build on a rich set of temporal and spatial...... features, include methods for noise removal, e.g., labeling of beyond building-perimeter devices, and methods for quantification of area densities and flows, e.g., building enter and exit events, and for classifying the behavior of people, e.g., into user roles such as visitor, hospitalized or employee...... noise removal of beyond building perimeter devices. We furthermore present detailed statistics from our analysis regarding people’s presence, movement and roles, and example types of visualizations that both highlight their potential as inspection tools for planners and provide interesting insights...

  9. The antioxidant activity of ethanol and methanol extracts of sesamemeal by Ultra sonic method in comparison with the synthetic antioxidants in Iranian muttont allow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Soodbar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sesame seeds and its compounds are resistance to oxidative deterioration owing to their natural antioxidants, such as sesamin, sesamolin, sesamol, sesaminol and their glucosides. The purpose of this research is to extract sesame ethanol and methanol antioxidant compounds as by-products by ultrasonic method, then identified by HPLC and has been compared with synthetic antioxidants BHA, BHT, TBHQ on mutton tallow. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts which were extracted by ultrasonic and synthetic antioxidants at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 200mg/kg were applied on mutton tallow. The results ofthe oxidative stability based on Rancimat apparatus,Rancimat was operated at 110 °C with an air flow of 18-20 L/h and measures the induction period (IP of the selected samples,showed that ethanolic and methanolic extracts of sesamemeal at concentrations of 100 and 200mg/kg are not much different from BHT at 50 and 100mg/kg concentrations and also from the methanolic extract at 200 mg/kg concentration in terms of oxidative stability, behave similarly to 50mg/kg concentration of BHA. The results show that the natural antioxidants can be the perfect alternative to synthetic antioxidants.

  10. Synthetic growth reference charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanussen, Michael; Stec, Karol; Aßmann, Christian; Meigen, Christof; Van Buuren, Stef

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To reanalyze the between-population variance in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), and to provide a globally applicable technique for generating synthetic growth reference charts. Methods: Using a baseline set of 196 female and 197 male growth studies published since 1831, common

  11. A Synthetic Method for Atmospheric Diffusion Simulation and Environmental Impact Assessment of Accidental Pollution in the Chemical Industry in a WEBGIS Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haochen Ni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical industry poses a potential security risk to factory personnel and neighboring residents. In order to mitigate prospective damage, a synthetic method must be developed for an emergency response. With the development of environmental numeric simulation models, model integration methods, and modern information technology, many Decision Support Systems (DSSs have been established. However, existing systems still have limitations, in terms of synthetic simulation and network interoperation. In order to resolve these limitations, the matured simulation model for chemical accidents was integrated into the WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS platform. The complete workflow of the emergency response, including raw data (meteorology information, and accident information management, numeric simulation of different kinds of accidents, environmental impact assessments, and representation of the simulation results were achieved. This allowed comprehensive and real-time simulation of acute accidents in the chemical industry. The main contribution of this paper is that an organizational mechanism of the model set, based on the accident type and pollutant substance; a scheduling mechanism for the parallel processing of multi-accident-type, multi-accident-substance, and multi-simulation-model; and finally a presentation method for scalar and vector data on the web browser on the integration of a WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS platform. The outcomes demonstrated that this method could provide effective support for deciding emergency responses of acute chemical accidents.

  12. A synthetic method for atmospheric diffusion simulation and environmental impact assessment of accidental pollution in the chemical industry in a WEBGIS context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Haochen; Rui, Yikang; Wang, Jiechen; Cheng, Liang

    2014-09-05

    The chemical industry poses a potential security risk to factory personnel and neighboring residents. In order to mitigate prospective damage, a synthetic method must be developed for an emergency response. With the development of environmental numeric simulation models, model integration methods, and modern information technology, many Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been established. However, existing systems still have limitations, in terms of synthetic simulation and network interoperation. In order to resolve these limitations, the matured simulation model for chemical accidents was integrated into the WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The complete workflow of the emergency response, including raw data (meteorology information, and accident information) management, numeric simulation of different kinds of accidents, environmental impact assessments, and representation of the simulation results were achieved. This allowed comprehensive and real-time simulation of acute accidents in the chemical industry. The main contribution of this paper is that an organizational mechanism of the model set, based on the accident type and pollutant substance; a scheduling mechanism for the parallel processing of multi-accident-type, multi-accident-substance, and multi-simulation-model; and finally a presentation method for scalar and vector data on the web browser on the integration of a WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The outcomes demonstrated that this method could provide effective support for deciding emergency responses of acute chemical accidents.

  13. Methods of Dust Air Flows Reduction at Ore Transfer Facilities of Mining and Processing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulmira K. Saparova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the most typical schemes of ore stationary transfers. Aspirate units, depending on dust intensity are divided into three groups. Typical schemes of stationary transfers were presented. On the ground of the research, the classification of ore transfer facilities types at mining and processing plants was offered

  14. Methods for using computer training facilities in studies of special disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.L. Tashlykov

    2016-12-01

    The use of the analytical simulator is illustrated by a laboratory research project entitled “BN-800 Reactor Power Maneuvering”, which investigates the reactor facility power control modes in a power range of 100–80–100% of the rated power.

  15. 42 CFR 412.632 - Method of payment under the inpatient rehabilitation facility prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rehabilitation facility's preparation and submittal of bills to the intermediary beyond its normal billing cycle... costs for each discharge only following submission of a discharge bill. (b) Periodic interim payments—(1... outlier payments are made based on the submission of a discharge bill and represent final payment....

  16. A method for targeting air samplers for facility monitoring in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieringer, Paul E.; Longmore, Scott; Bieberbach, George; Rodriguez, Luna M.; Copeland, Jeff; Hannan, John

    2013-12-01

    /Exceedence spatial maps for prescribed concentration thresholds or standards. The method is flexible and can be tuned to allow the detailed characterization of Probability of Detection (POD) for a given sampler detection threshold and sampling period (e.g. sampling duration, season, time of day). An example of this methodology is illustrated for a single facility in an urban location surrounded by numerous multi-story buildings.

  17. Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  18. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  19. Monitoring, Controlling and Safeguarding Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities, Part 2: Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Orton, Christopher R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.

    2012-02-10

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-useable nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies based upon gamma-ray and optical spectroscopic measurements to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major stable flowsheet reagents using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. Multi-variate analysis is also applied to the optical measurements in order to quantify concentrations of analytes of interest within a complex array of radiochemical streams. This paper will provide an overview of these methods and reports on-going efforts to develop

  20. Structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of flower-like ZnO nanostructures prepared by a facile wet chemical method

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Flower-like ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a facile wet chemical method. Structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of these nanostructures have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. SEM and TEM studies revealed flower-like structures consisting of nanosheets, formed due to oriented attachment of ZnO nanoparticles. Flower-like ZnO structures ...

  1. A facile method to synthesize polypyrrole nanoparticles in the presence of natural organic phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chao; Mo, Haodao [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nonferrous Metals and Specific Materials Processing, College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Zang, Limin, E-mail: D14S004@akita-pu.ac.jp [Department of Machine Intelligence and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Akita Prefectural University, Yurihonjo City, Akita 015-0055 (Japan); Qiu, Jianhui; Sakai, Eiichi; Wu, Xueli [Department of Machine Intelligence and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Akita Prefectural University, Yurihonjo City, Akita 015-0055 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    The conductive polymers with unique nanostructures have attracted intense interest due to their potential application. Here the well-defined polypyrrole nanoparticles were facile fabricated via the facile chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole with high feeding ratio of phytic acid. Phytic acid is a renewable resource and a natural carbohydrate compound with a vast number of phosphate groups from plant which was used as the template and dopant for the nanostructured conductive polymer for the first time. The samples exhibit the well-defined nanoparticles observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The PPy nanoparticles were achieved and outstanding electrical conductivity as high as 5263 S m{sup −1} was obtained with the feeding mass ratio of phytic acid: pyrrole=3:7. Furthermore, the polypyrrole nanoparticles were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and electrical conductivity techniques.

  2. A facile method to synthesize polypyrrole nanoparticles in the presence of natural organic phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Mo, Haodao; Zang, Limin; Qiu, Jianhui; Sakai, Eiichi; Wu, Xueli

    2014-09-01

    The conductive polymers with unique nanostructures have attracted intense interest due to their potential application. Here the well-defined polypyrrole nanoparticles were facile fabricated via the facile chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole with high feeding ratio of phytic acid. Phytic acid is a renewable resource and a natural carbohydrate compound with a vast number of phosphate groups from plant which was used as the template and dopant for the nanostructured conductive polymer for the first time. The samples exhibit the well-defined nanoparticles observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The PPy nanoparticles were achieved and outstanding electrical conductivity as high as 5263 S m-1 was obtained with the feeding mass ratio of phytic acid: pyrrole=3:7. Furthermore, the polypyrrole nanoparticles were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and electrical conductivity techniques.

  3. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  4. Synthetic Brainbows

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists.

  5. 食品中合成色素快速检测方法初探%Preliminary Study on Rapid Detection Method of Synthetic Pigment in Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琛; 魏昭; 靳雅楠; 李培然; 王权

    2016-01-01

    色素是食品生产加工中常见的添加剂,但不少商家为了追逐经济利益,将非食用色素添加到食品生产加工中,直接危害到人们的健康。传统的食品合成色素检测方法耗时较长,程序繁琐,不适合现场快速检测。因此,简要探讨食品中合成色素的快速检测方法,以供参考。%Pigment is a common additive in food production and processing. Many businesses in order to pursue economic interests, the non edible pigment added to the food production and processing, directly endanger people's health. Traditional food synthetic pigment detection methods are time-consuming, cumbersome procedures, and not suitable for on-site rapid detection. Therefore, this paper brielfy discussed the rapid detection method of synthetic pigment in food, for reference.

  6. Metal Nanoparticles Covered with a Metal-Organic Framework: From One-Pot Synthetic Methods to Synergistic Energy Storage and Conversion Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Mitsuka, Yuko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Hybrid materials composed of metal nanoparticles and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted much attention in many applications, such as enhanced gas storage and catalytic, magnetic, and optical properties, because of the synergetic effects between the metal nanoparticles and MOFs. In this Forum Article, we describe our recent progress on novel synthetic methods to produce metal nanoparticles covered with a MOF (metal@MOF). We first present Pd@copper(II) 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate (HKUST-1) as a novel hydrogen-storage material. The HKUST-1 coating on Pd nanocrystals results in a remarkably enhanced hydrogen-storage capacity and speed in the Pd nanocrystals, originating from charge transfer from Pd nanocrystals to HKUST-1. Another material, Pd-Au@Zn(MeIM)2 (ZIF-8, where HMeIM = 2-methylimidazole), exhibits much different catalytic activity for alcohol oxidation compared with Pd-Au nanoparticles, indicating a design guideline for the development of composite catalysts with high selectivity. A composite material composed of Cu nanoparticles and Cr3F(H2O)2O{C6H3(CO2)3}2 (MIL-100-Cr) demonstrates higher catalytic activity for CO2 reduction into methanol than Cu/γ-Al2O3. We also present novel one-pot synthetic methods to produce composite materials including Pd/ZIF-8 and Ni@Ni2(dhtp) (MOF-74, where H4dhtp = 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid).

  7. Motion estimation in wide band synthetic aperture sonar based on the raw echo data using the method of displaced phase center antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiaokui; SUN Chao; FANG Jie

    2003-01-01

    Phase errors in synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) imaging must be reduced to less than one eighth of a wavelength so as to avoid image destruction. Most of the phase errors occur as a result of platform motion errors, for example, sway yaw and surge that are the most important error sources. The phase error of a wide band synthetic aperture sonar is modeled and solutions to sway yaw and surge motion estimation based on the raw sonar echo data with a Displaced Phase Center Antenna (DPCA) method are proposed and their implementations are detailed in this paper. It is shown that the sway estimates can be obtained from the correlation lag and phase difference between the returns at coincident phase centers. An estimate of yaw is also possible if such a technique is applied to more than one overlapping phase center positions. Surge estimates can be obtained by identifying pairs of phase centers with a maximum correlation coefficient. The method works only if the platform velocity is low enough such that a number of phase centers from adjacent pings overlap.

  8. Monitoring, Controlling and Safeguarding Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities with Optical and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Orton, Christopher R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.

    2012-11-06

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-useable nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resourceintensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies based upon gamma-ray and optical spectroscopic measurements to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify offnormal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major stable flowsheet reagents using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. Multi-variate analysis is also applied to the optical measurements in order to quantify concentrations of analytes of interest within a complex array of radiochemical streams. This paper will provide an overview of these methods and reports on-going efforts to develop

  9. Method of measuring nighttime U-values using the Mobile Window Thermal Test (MoWiTT) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klems, J.H.

    1992-04-01

    Although primarily designed for studying the dynamic net energy flows through fenestration systems over the full diurnal cycle, the Mobile Window Thermal Test (MoWiTT) Facility is also frequently used to measure nighttime U-values. These measurements have the advantage of incorporating the exterior film coefficient resulting from the true ambient conditions at a particular time and location, rather than relying on a laboratory simulation of some assumed average or extreme condition. On the other hand, the MoWiTT is a much more complicated facility than a laboratory hot box, and the number of potential error sources is correspondingly larger. The method of deriving the nighttime U-value from directly measured data and the effect of random and systematic errors are discussed.

  10. Intake risk and dose evaluation methods for workers in radiochemistry labs of a medical cyclotron facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandrino, Riccardo; del Vecchio, Antonella; Savi, Annarita; Todde, Sergio; Belloli, Sara

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the risks and doses for the internal contamination of the radiochemistry staff in a high workload medical cyclotron facility. The doses from internal contamination derive from the inhalation of radioactive gas leakage from the cells by personnel involved in the synthesis processes and are calculated from urine sample measurements. Various models are considered for the calculation of the effective committed dose from the analysis of these urine samples, and the results are compared with data obtained from local environmental measurement of the radioactivity released inside the lab.

  11. Synthetic River Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    The description of fluvial form has evolved from anecdotal descriptions to artistic renderings to 2D plots of cross section or longitudinal profiles and more recently 3D digital models. Synthetic river valleys, artificial 3D topographic models of river topography, have a plethora of potential applications in fluvial geomorphology, and the earth sciences in general, as well as in computer science and ecology. Synthetic river channels have existed implicitly since approximately the 1970s and can be simulated from a variety of approaches spanning the artistic and numerical. An objective method of synthesizing 3D stream topography based on reach scale attributes would be valuable for sizing 3D flumes in the physical and numerical realms, as initial input topography for morphodynamic models, stream restoration design, historical reconstruction, and mechanistic testing of interactions of channel geometric elements. Quite simply - simulation of synthetic channel geometry of prescribed conditions can allow systematic evaluation of the dominant relationships between river flow and geometry. A new model, the control curve method, is presented that uses hierarchically scaled parametric curves in over-lapping 2D planes to create synthetic river valleys. The approach is able to simulate 3D stream geometry from paired 2D descriptions and can allow experimental insight into form-process relationships in addition to visualizing past measurements of channel form that are limited to two dimension descriptions. Results are presented that illustrate the models ability to simulate fluvial topography representative of real world rivers as well as how channel geometric elements can be adjusted. The testing of synthetic river valleys would open up a wealth of knowledge as to why some 3D attributes of river channels are more prevalent than others as well as bridging the gap between the 2D descriptions that have dominated fluvial geomorphology the past century and modern, more complete, 3D

  12. SU-E-T-569: Neutron Shielding Calculation Using Analytical and Multi-Monte Carlo Method for Proton Therapy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S; Shin, E H; Kim, J; Ahn, S H; Chung, K; Kim, D-H; Han, Y; Choi, D H [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the shielding wall design to protect patients, staff and member of the general public for secondary neutron using a simply analytic solution, multi-Monte Carlo code MCNPX, ANISN and FLUKA. Methods: An analytical and multi-Monte Carlo method were calculated for proton facility (Sumitomo Heavy Industry Ltd.) at Samsung Medical Center in Korea. The NCRP-144 analytical evaluation methods, which produced conservative estimates on the dose equivalent values for the shielding, were used for analytical evaluations. Then, the radiation transport was simulated with the multi-Monte Carlo code. The neutron dose at evaluation point is got by the value using the production of the simulation value and the neutron dose coefficient introduced in ICRP-74. Results: The evaluation points of accelerator control room and control room entrance are mainly influenced by the point of the proton beam loss. So the neutron dose equivalent of accelerator control room for evaluation point is 0.651, 1.530, 0.912, 0.943 mSv/yr and the entrance of cyclotron room is 0.465, 0.790, 0.522, 0.453 mSv/yr with calculation by the method of NCRP-144 formalism, ANISN, FLUKA and MCNP, respectively. The most of Result of MCNPX and FLUKA using the complicated geometry showed smaller values than Result of ANISN. Conclusion: The neutron shielding for a proton therapy facility has been evaluated by the analytic model and multi-Monte Carlo methods. We confirmed that the setting of shielding was located in well accessible area to people when the proton facility is operated.

  13. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2017-01-01

    "Are we alone?" is one of the primary questions of astrobiology, and whose answer defines our significance in the universe. Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - as an enabling technology. One theme, the "Hell Cell" project, focuses on creating artificial extremophiles in order to push the limits for Earth life, and to understand how difficult it is for life to evolve into extreme niches. In another project, we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids.

  14. Review of the Synthetic Methods for Antidepressants of Duloxetine%抗抑郁药度洛西汀的合成方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱平; 陈灿

    2012-01-01

    Duloxetine,an antidepressant,which is chemically stable,and has less side effects and better efficacy,has greater market prospects than other antidepressants in the treatment of depression.Several synthetic methods of duloxetine were presented in the paper,and their advantages and disadvantages were compared.The synthetic route that use(S)-3-(dimethylamino)-1-(2-thienyl)-1-propanol as raw materials,through split,etherification,esterification and hydrolysis to synthesis of duloxetine was the most competitive route.%抗抑郁药度洛西汀因其化学稳定、副作用小、药效明显优于其它抗抑郁药而具有广阔的发展前景,文章详细叙述了近年来国内外常见的几种合成方法,评述了各自优缺点,得出了一条最具竞争力的合成路线:以(S)-3-二甲胺基一1-2-噻吩基)-1-丙醇为原料,经拆分、醚化、酯化、水解得到目标。

  15. Exploration of Porphyrin-based Semiconductors for Negative Charge Transport Applications Using Synthetic, Spectroscopic, Potentiometric, Magnetic Resonance, and Computational Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Jeffrey Scott

    synthetic efforts that expand the repertoire of readily available meso-heptafluoropropyl porphyrin building blocks. The findings suggest that the remaining challenges to the exploitation of these pigments will be overcome by a sufficiently firm grasp of their subtle electronic structures, and a willingness to eschew the customary strategies of chromophore assembly.

  16. A proactive method for safety management in nuclear facilities; Um metodo proativo para gerenciamento da seguranca em instalacoes nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecco, Claudio Henrique dos Santos; Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de; Santos, Isaac Antonio Luquetti dos, E-mail: grecco@ien.gov.br, E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br, E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Instrumentacao e Confiabilidade Humana

    2014-07-01

    Due to the modern approach to address the safety of nuclear facilities which highlights that these organizations must be able to assess and proactively manage their activities becomes increasingly important the need for instruments to evaluate working conditions. In this context, this work presents a proactive method of managing organizational safety, which has three innovative features: 1) the use of predictive indicators that provide current information on the performance of activities, allowing preventive actions and not just reactive in safety management, different from safety indicators traditionally used (reactive indicators) that are obtained after the occurrence of undesired events; 2) the adoption of resilience engineering approach in the development of indicators - indicators are based on six principles of resilience engineering: top management commitment, learning, flexibility, awareness, culture of justice and preparation for the problems; 3) the adoption of the concepts and properties of fuzzy set theory to deal with subjectivity and consistency of human trials in the evaluation of the indicators. The fuzzy theory is used primarily to map qualitative models of decision-making, and inaccurate representation methods. The results of this study aim an improvement in performance and safety in organizations. The method was applied in a radiopharmaceutical shipping sector of a nuclear facility. The results showed that the method is a good monitoring tool objectively and proactively of the working conditions of an organizational domain.

  17. Development of new peptide synthetic method of enzyme using the extraction reactivity; Chushutsu hanno wo mochiita shiki pepuchido koso goseiho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Makoto [Oita University, Oita (Japan)

    1999-03-05

    Recently, taste and bioactivation of large number of oligopeptide become clear, and the development of the efficient synthetic method becomes the urgency. In the production process by conventional enzyme reaction which combined the crystallization, because the solubility of the product to the water which is reaction solvent is low, the yield remained at about 60%, and the problem of reaction inhibition of the product by the crystal had also been indicated. In the enzyme synthesis of the aspartame in which he is the representative oligopeptide, it aimed at the establishment of the new synthesis method which can improve yield and reaction rate, while the segregation enzyme was continuously utilized. In this synthetic method, supply of organic solvent which dissolved the substrate, extraction of the substrate from organic solvent to water phase, synthesis reaction by the segregation enzyme in water phase, extraction of the aspartame which is a product from water phase to organic solvent progress, and they continuously progress by one complete mixing reactor. The process which controlled these speeds and yields was quantitatively analyzed, and material balance style considering substrate, enzyme and mass transfer of the product and enzyme reaction speed was deduced. The optimum operating condition for improving yield and productivity of the purpose product using this solution was examined, and optimum supply concentration and agitation speed of aspartic acid which was a substrate were started, and the optimum operating condition which realizes the improvement in high yield and productivity over 90% of the aspartame was clarified. Like this, it is that this research adopts features of liquid Citrus nobilis two-phase partition for the enzyme synthesis of the aspartame, and it is considered that there is a value, because it is the creative research which verified that the productivity can be greatly improved by the utilization of the chemical-engineering technique, and

  18. A facile one-pot method to Au–SnO{sub 2}-graphene ternary hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Diou, E-mail: xudiou@sina.com [Department of Agriculture, Jilin University, Changchun 130062 (China); Li, Xiaotian [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhang, Dawei [Department of Agriculture, Jilin University, Changchun 130062 (China)

    2014-11-15

    In this article, we propose a facile one-pot route for synthesizing Au–SnO{sub 2}-graphene ternary hybrid. In the system, SnCl{sub 2} not only as the precursor of SnO{sub 2}, but also is employed as reducing agent for the effective reduction of both GO and HAuCl{sub 4} to graphene and Au nanoparticles, respectively. The obtained Au–SnO{sub 2}-graphene hybrid materials are characterized by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis. It is found that the content of Au nanoparticles decorated on the surface of graphene can be simply adjusted by changing the amount of HAuCl{sub 4} used in the synthesis process.

  19. Synthetic LDL as targeted drug delivery vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Trudy M.; Nikanjam, Mina

    2012-08-28

    The present invention provides a synthetic LDL nanoparticle comprising a lipid moiety and a synthetic chimeric peptide so as to be capable of binding the LDL receptor. The synthetic LDL nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of incorporating and targeting therapeutics to cells expressing the LDL receptor for diseases associated with the expression of the LDL receptor such as central nervous system diseases. The invention further provides methods of using such synthetic LDL nanoparticles.

  20. Reaction of Silane Alkoxide with Acid Anhydride as a Novel Synthetic Method for Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiro Fujiwara

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Sol-gel method is a potent method to produce new inorganic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials. The key step of this methodology is the hydrolysis of a metal alkoxide or other metal substrates such as acetylacetonates to form hydroxyl metal species, followed by their condensation to metal-oxygen-metal (M - O - M)bonds. In this process, the utilization of water, generally in excess, is essential and alcoholic solvents such as ethanol are often required to homogenize the solution when organic compounds coexist. As the common sol-gel method using water allows for limited uses of organic substrates due to their low solubility and stability in aqueous solution, modified variations of sol-gel method are required. Recently, some processes were reported for preparing metal oxides from metal alkoxides without the utilization of water.

  1. Quality assessment of the saffron samples using second-order spectrophotometric data assisted by three-way chemometric methods via quantitative analysis of synthetic colorants in adulterated saffron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoum, Saeed; Gholami, Ali; Hemmesi, Marjan; Abbasi, Saleheh

    2015-09-01

    Saffron is a valuable culinary spice that can be used not only for dyes and cooking, but also for many medical purposes. Due to its high price and restriction of its production, various fraud manners in its production have been growing. Addition of synthetic colorants to saffron is the most common way for adulteration. In this work, chemometric methods are proposed to resolve the three-dimensional absorbance spectra-pH data for simultaneous determination of the two colorants Tartrazin and Sunset yellow, in adulterated saffron. The rank deficiency in the concentration mode impaired the system. Therefore, to extirpate the ambiguity, which results from rank deficiency, three-way variation array V was generated by subtracting the first pH spectrum from each spectrum at each pH. This allows the extraction of extent reaction profile and mixture reaction spectral profiles, as well as the relative concentrations of the analytes.

  2. Methods, forms and facilities of professional preparation of teachers-tutors in the conditions of the controlled from distance form of teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osadchiy V.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of professional preparation of teachers-tutors are studied. The features of application of methods are considered, forms and facilities of professional preparation of teachers-tutors in the conditions of the controlled from distance form of teaching. As expedient methods are selected: method of lecture, video trainings, interactive methods (role-playing, case studies, brainstorming, methods of reflection, control methods, exercises, laboratory method. By the forms of organization are electronic seminars, web-seminars, videos-seminars. By teaching facilities are electronic educational resources and services of network the Internet.

  3. A statistical method for determining the dimensions, tolerances and specification of optics for the Laser Megajoule facility (LMJ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Vincent

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents a statistical method for determining the dimensions, tolerance and specifications of components for the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ). Numerous constraints inherent to a large facility require specific tolerances: the huge number of optical components; the interdependence of these components between the beams of same bundle; angular multiplexing for the amplifier section; distinct operating modes between the alignment and firing phases; the definition and use of alignment software in the place of classic optimization. This method provides greater flexibility to determine the positioning and manufacturing specifications of the optical components. Given the enormous power of the Laser MegaJoule (over 18 kJ in the infrared and 9 kJ in the ultraviolet), one of the major risks is damage the optical mounts and pollution of the installation by mechanical ablation. This method enables estimation of the beam occultation probabilities and quantification of the risks for the facility. All the simulations were run using the ZEMAX-EE optical design software.

  4. Improvement of thermoelectric properties of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Co{sub 1}.8O{sub x} through solution synthetic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, M. A.; Sotelo, A.; Raskeh, S. H.; Serrano, I.; Constantinescu, C.; Madre, M. A.; Diez, J. C.

    2012-07-01

    Several solution synthetic methods, sol-gel and a polymeric route, have been studied in order to obtain Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Co{sub 1}.8O{sub x} ceramics with improved thermoelectric properties, compared to the classical solid state reaction. The products obtained by these different methods have been compared using DTA-TGA, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and thermoelectric characterizations. All the samples obtained by solution synthesis show higher homogeneity and lower content of secondary phases. The main differences in thermo electrical properties are due to the decrease of electrical resistivity in samples obtained by solution methods, compared with the solid state obtained samples. Between them, the decrease is especially high for those samples prepared by the polymer solution method. Therefore, the polymeric solution synthesis route is shown to yield a power factor four times higher than the obtained for the solid state and sol-gel methods at room temperature. (Author) 17 refs.

  5. Integer programming-based method for designing synthetic metabolic networks by Minimum Reaction Insertion in a Boolean model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lu

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the Minimum Reaction Insertion (MRI problem for finding the minimum number of additional reactions from a reference metabolic network to a host metabolic network so that a target compound becomes producible in the revised host metabolic network in a Boolean model. Although a similar problem for larger networks is solvable in a flux balance analysis (FBA-based model, the solution of the FBA-based model tends to include more reactions than that of the Boolean model. However, solving MRI using the Boolean model is computationally more expensive than using the FBA-based model since the Boolean model needs more integer variables. Therefore, in this study, to solve MRI for larger networks in the Boolean model, we have developed an efficient Integer Programming formalization method in which the number of integer variables is reduced by the notion of feedback vertex set and minimal valid assignment. As a result of computer experiments conducted using the data of metabolic networks of E. coli and reference networks downloaded from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database, we have found that the developed method can appropriately solve MRI in the Boolean model and is applicable to large scale-networks for which an exhaustive search does not work. We have also compared the developed method with the existing connectivity-based methods and FBA-based methods, and show the difference between the solutions of our method and the existing methods. A theoretical analysis of MRI is also conducted, and the NP-completeness of MRI is proved in the Boolean model. Our developed software is available at "http://sunflower.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~rogi/minRect/minRect.html."

  6. Integer Programming-Based Method for Designing Synthetic Metabolic Networks by Minimum Reaction Insertion in a Boolean Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiangning; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the Minimum Reaction Insertion (MRI) problem for finding the minimum number of additional reactions from a reference metabolic network to a host metabolic network so that a target compound becomes producible in the revised host metabolic network in a Boolean model. Although a similar problem for larger networks is solvable in a flux balance analysis (FBA)-based model, the solution of the FBA-based model tends to include more reactions than that of the Boolean model. However, solving MRI using the Boolean model is computationally more expensive than using the FBA-based model since the Boolean model needs more integer variables. Therefore, in this study, to solve MRI for larger networks in the Boolean model, we have developed an efficient Integer Programming formalization method in which the number of integer variables is reduced by the notion of feedback vertex set and minimal valid assignment. As a result of computer experiments conducted using the data of metabolic networks of E. coli and reference networks downloaded from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, we have found that the developed method can appropriately solve MRI in the Boolean model and is applicable to large scale-networks for which an exhaustive search does not work. We have also compared the developed method with the existing connectivity-based methods and FBA-based methods, and show the difference between the solutions of our method and the existing methods. A theoretical analysis of MRI is also conducted, and the NP-completeness of MRI is proved in the Boolean model. Our developed software is available at “http://sunflower.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~rogi/minRect/minRect.html.” PMID:24651476

  7. Integer programming-based method for designing synthetic metabolic networks by Minimum Reaction Insertion in a Boolean model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Tamura, Takeyuki; Song, Jiangning; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the Minimum Reaction Insertion (MRI) problem for finding the minimum number of additional reactions from a reference metabolic network to a host metabolic network so that a target compound becomes producible in the revised host metabolic network in a Boolean model. Although a similar problem for larger networks is solvable in a flux balance analysis (FBA)-based model, the solution of the FBA-based model tends to include more reactions than that of the Boolean model. However, solving MRI using the Boolean model is computationally more expensive than using the FBA-based model since the Boolean model needs more integer variables. Therefore, in this study, to solve MRI for larger networks in the Boolean model, we have developed an efficient Integer Programming formalization method in which the number of integer variables is reduced by the notion of feedback vertex set and minimal valid assignment. As a result of computer experiments conducted using the data of metabolic networks of E. coli and reference networks downloaded from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, we have found that the developed method can appropriately solve MRI in the Boolean model and is applicable to large scale-networks for which an exhaustive search does not work. We have also compared the developed method with the existing connectivity-based methods and FBA-based methods, and show the difference between the solutions of our method and the existing methods. A theoretical analysis of MRI is also conducted, and the NP-completeness of MRI is proved in the Boolean model. Our developed software is available at "http://sunflower.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~rogi/minRect/minRect.html."

  8. Method of moving target detection based on sub-image cancellation for single-antenna airborne synthetic aperture radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The method of moving target detection based on subimage cancellation for single-antenna airborne SAR is presented.First the subimage is obtained through frequency processing is pointed out.The imaging difference of a stationary objects and moving object in the subimage based on the frequency division is analyzed from the fundamental principle.Then the developed method combines the shear averaging algorithm to focus on the moving target in the subimage,after the clutter suppression and the focusing position in each subimage is obtained.Next the observation model and the relative movement of the moving targets between the subimages estimate the moving targets.The theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the method is effective and can not only detect the moving targets,but also estimate their motion parameters precisely.

  9. Pulse combustion reactor as a fast and scalable synthetic method for preparation of Li-ion cathode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Križan, Gregor; Križan, Janez; Dominko, Robert; Gaberšček, Miran

    2017-09-01

    In this work a novel pulse combustion reactor method for preparation of Li-ion cathode materials is introduced. Its advantages and potential challenges are demonstrated on two widely studied cathode materials, LiFePO4/C and Li-rich NMC. By exploiting the nature of efficiency of pulse combustion we have successfully established a slightly reductive or oxidative environment necessary for synthesis. As a whole, the proposed method is fast, environmentally friendly and easy to scale. An important advantage of the proposed method is that it preferentially yields small-sized powders (in the nanometric range) at a fast production rate of 2 s. A potential disadvantage is the relatively high degree of disorder of synthesized active material which however can be removed using a post-annealing step. This additional step allows a further tuning of materials morphology as shown and commented in some detail.

  10. Facile method to synthesize dopamine-capped mixed ferrite nanoparticles and their peroxidase-like activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Shazia; Wang, Li-Sheng; Abdullah, Muhammad; Zajif Hussain, Syed; Iqbal, Zafar; Rotello, Vincent M.; Hussain, Irshad

    2017-03-01

    A facile single-step strategy to prepare stable and water-dispersible dopamine-functionalized ultra-small mixed ferrite nanoparticles MFe2O4-DOPA (where M is a bivalent metal atom i.e. Fe, Co Cu, Mn and Ni) at room temperature is described. The nanoparticles formed have narrow size distribution as indicated by their characterization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering. The surface chemistry of these nanoparticles was probed by FTIR spectroscopy indicating their successful capping with dopamine ligands, which was further confirmed using zetapotential measurements and thermogravimetric analysis. The comparative horseradish peroxidase (HRP)—like activity of these cationic mixed ferrites nanoparticles was studied at pH 4.6 using a negatively-charged 2, 2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) as a chromogenic substrate in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. A time-dependent relative peroxidase-like activity follows the following order CoFe2O4-DOPA  >  MnFe2O4-DOPA  >  CuFe2O4-DOPA  >  NiFe2O4-DOPA  >  Fe3O4-DOPA. This diversity in HRP-like activity may be attributed to the different redox properties of ferrite nanoparticles when doped with M (Fe, Co Cu, Mn and Ni).

  11. Health facility and skilled birth deliveries among poor women with Jamkesmas health insurance in Indonesia: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Mohamad I; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Fox, Matthew P; Wirtz, Veronika J; Feeley, Frank G; Sabin, Lora L

    2017-02-02

    The growing momentum for quality and affordable health care for all has given rise to the recent global universal health coverage (UHC) movement. As part of Indonesia's strategy to achieve the goal of UHC, large investments have been made to increase health access for the poor, resulting in the implementation of various health insurance schemes targeted towards the poor and near-poor, including the Jamkesmas program. In the backdrop of Indonesia's aspiration to reach UHC is the high rate of maternal mortality that disproportionally affects poor women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of health facility and skilled birth deliveries among poor women with and without Jamkesmas and explore perceived barriers to health insurance membership and maternal health service utilization. We used a mixed-methods design. Utilizing data from the 2012 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey (n = 45,607), secondary analysis using propensity score matching was performed on key outcomes of interest: health facility delivery (HFD) and skilled birth delivery (SBD). In-depth interviews (n = 51) were conducted in the provinces of Jakarta and Banten among poor women, midwives, and government representatives. Thematic framework analysis was performed on qualitative data to explore perceived barriers. In 2012, 63.0% of women did not have health insurance; 19.1% had Jamkesmas. Poor women with Jamkesmas were 19% (OR = 1.19 [1.03-1.37]) more likely to have HFD and 17% (OR = 1.17 [1.01-1.35]) more likely to have SBD compared to poor women without insurance. Qualitative interviews highlighted key issues, including: lack of proper documentation for health insurance registration; the preference of pregnant women to deliver in their parents' village; the use of traditional birth attendants; distance to health facilities; shortage of qualified health providers; overcrowded health facilities; and lack of health facility accreditation. Poor women with

  12. Synthetic Method and Application of Acyl Cyanides Compound%酰腈化合物的合成和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶素斌; 徐宏烈; 林婷婷; 刘志滨

    2016-01-01

    分别介绍了以酰卤和金属氰化物、 K4[Fe(CN)6]和芳酰卤、α-溴-苯乙腈、炔醛为原料的四种酰腈化合物的合成方法,以及酰腈化合物在有机合成中的应用。%Four different methods to the synthesis of acyl cyanides were introduced and their application in organic synthesis were discussed. Acyl cyanides can be synthesized by the addition of acyl halide and metal cyanide directly. Metal cyanide can be replaced by potassium ferrocyanide, which can react with aro-matic acyl halide to generate acyl cyanides. Another two methods are using alpha-bromo-benzylacetonitrile and ethynylaldehyde as starting materials.

  13. [Analytical validation of a chromatographic method dedicated to search and identify natural and semi-synthetic opiates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Nathalie; Counerotte, Stéphane; Goffin, Eric; Pirotte, Bernard; Charlier, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    The identification of a product absorbed by an opiate consumer is sometimes problematic since there is no specific biomarker for all molecules. We developed an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry technique which allows the identification and the quantification of 25 opiates in plasma. The sample preparation consists in a solid-phase extraction on Oasis MCX cartridges (Waters). The method has been validated according to FDA criteria completely for 21 substances and with some reservations for the remaining 4 analytes. This method has been applied to 80 patients treated at the University Hospital of Liege for whom the screening of opiates was positive. The identification of the product consumed was effective in 86% of cases.

  14. Unsupervised Classification Method for Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery Based on Yamaguchi Four-Component Decomposition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For improving the accuracy of unsupervised classification based on scattering models, the four-component Yamaguchi model is introduced, which is an improved version of the best-known three-component Freeman model. Therewith, the four-component model is combined with the Wishart distance model. The new proposed algorithm of clustering is rolled out thereafter and the procedure of this new method is listed. In experiments, seven areas of various homogeneities are singled out from the Flevoland sample image in AIRSAR dataset. Qualitative and quantitative experiments are performed for a comparative study. It can be easily seen that the resolution and details are remarkably upgraded by the new proposed method. The accuracy of classification in homogeneous areas has also increased significantly by adopting the new iterative algorithm.

  15. TiO2 and SnO2 magnetic nanocomposites: influence of semiconductors and synthetic methods on photoactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, Henrique A J L; Ribeiro, Caue

    2011-09-01

    A number of reports have been published on use of TiO2 in thin films, magnetic nanocomposites, or heterostructures such as TiO2/Ag and TiO2/SnO2, as catalysts for water decontamination. Hence, semiconductor materials such as SnO2, associated with TiO2 in such nanocomposites, should be assessed in depth for such applications, especially those involving complex structures, such as magnetic photocatalytic nanocomposites. The present study describes the synthesis, characterization and testing of the photocatalytic potential of TiO2 or SnO2 magnetic nanocomposites obtained by the polymeric precursor and the hydrolytic sol-gel methods. The nanocomposites TiO2/CoFe2O4 and SnO2/CoFe2O4 were synthesized from polymeric precursors while TiO2/Fe3O4 and SnO2/Fe3O4 were synthesized by the hydrolytic sol-gel method. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (FEG/SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic potentials were evaluated by rhodamine B dye photodegradation under UV-C radiation. Compared to SnO2, the nanocomposites with a coating of TiO2 were found to show better photocatalytic activity, but the SnO2 magnetic nanocomposites showed some photocatalytic activity, even though SnO2 is reported to be inactive for these purposes. As for the synthesis method, the nanocomposites obtained from polymeric precursors had smaller surface areas, but higher photocatalytic activity, than those obtained by the hydrolytic sol-gel method. This observation was attributed to the higher crystallinity and a more active surface resulting from calcination of the polymeric precursor material.

  16. Biomimetic superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces fabricated with a facile scraping, bonding and peeling method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Huanhuan; Zheng, Tingting; Wang, Huiliang

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the superhydrophobicity of juicy peach surface, on which microscale hairs are standing vertically to the surface plane, an extremely simple, inexpensive physical method is developed for fabrication of superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces over large areas. This method includes three st

  17. A Manual of Simplified Laboratory Methods for Operators of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, Arnold F., Ed.; Bennett, Ernest C., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide the small wastewater treatment plant operator, as well as the new or inexperienced operator, with simplified methods for laboratory analysis of water and wastewater. It is emphasized that this manual is not a replacement for standard methods but a guide for plants with insufficient equipment to perform analyses…

  18. Biomimetic superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces fabricated with a facile scraping, bonding and peeling method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Huanhuan; Zheng, Tingting; Wang, Huiliang

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the superhydrophobicity of juicy peach surface, on which microscale hairs are standing vertically to the surface plane, an extremely simple, inexpensive physical method is developed for fabrication of superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces over large areas. This method includes three st

  19. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with excellent mechanical abrasion and corrosion resistance on copper substrate by a novel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fenghua; Yao, Kai

    2014-06-11

    A novel method for controllable fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of 162 ± 1° and a sliding angle of 3 ± 0.5° on copper substrate is reported in this Research Article. The facile and low-cost fabrication process is composed from the electrodeposition in traditional Watts bath and the heat-treatment in the presence of (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) triethoxysilane (AC-FAS). The superhydrophobicity of the fabricated surface results from its pine-cone-like hierarchical micro-nanostructure and the assembly of low-surface-energy fluorinated components on it. The superhydrophobic surface exhibits high microhardness and excellent mechanical abrasion resistance because it maintains superhydrophobicity after mechanical abrasion against 800 grit SiC sandpaper for 1.0 m at the applied pressure of 4.80 kPa. Moreover, the superhydrophobic surface has good chemical stability in both acidic and alkaline environments. The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test shows that the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has excellent corrosion resistance that can provide effective protection for the bare Cu substrate. In addition, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has self-cleaning ability. It is believed that the facile and low-cost method offer an effective strategy and promising industrial applications for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on various metallic materials.

  20. Improvements to coal transport methods and associated site reception and handling facilities for the industrial user

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive coal handling system, installed at CRE for receiving, storing and supplying coal to a test boilerhouse, has shown itself generally reliable and environmentally attractive. The system comprises coal reception by means of a 22 tonne tipping hopper and storage within two silos, one of flat-bottomed concrete stave (250 tonnes) construction and the other of glassed steel (160 tonnes) construction with a hopper bottom. Transfer of coal between these components and boiler feed hoppers is provided by a dense-phase pneumatic conveying system. In addition to the tipping hopper two further reception systems, containerisation and a wide belt vehicle unloader, have been investigated. Facilities developed to receive, unload and tip standard 20 tonne capacity ISO containers have been installed at a customer trial site. Tests with a 200 mm diameter suction nozzle have demonstrated that coal conveying rates of up to 61 tonne/hr can be achieved. The consequence of long term storage of smalls coal has been investigated during a storage period of 12 months within the concrete stave silo at CRE. During this period, the carbon monoxide concentrations in the silo headspace underwent considerable daily variation. This was found to be dependent upon atmospheric temperature, pressure and windspeed. Based on the principles derived from a test unit, a hydraulic ash sluicing system has been installed to transport oversize ash extracted from the bed of a 9 MWt fluidised bed furnace at an industrial site. A low-cost, submerged, rubber belt wet ash extraction system has been installed on a modular boilerhouse which was on test at CRE. This unit has undergone long-term evaluation trials and has been operated successfully during a nine-month trial period. The unit, together with the modular boilerhouse, is to be moved to a customer site and a second unit has been placed on order. 13 refs., 48 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. A Method to Enhance the Performance of Synthetic Origin-Destination (O-D) Trip Table Estimation Models

    OpenAIRE

    Sivanandan, R.; Nanda, Dhruv

    1998-01-01

    The conventional methods of determining origin-destination (O-D) trip tables involve elaborate surveys, e.g., home interviews, that require considerable time, staff, and funds. To overcome this drawback, a number of theoretical models that synthesize O-D trip tables from link volume data have been developed. The focus of the research reported here was on two of these models The Highway Emulator (THE) and the Linear Programming (LP) model. These models use target/seed tables for guiding the de...

  2. Synthetic biology and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, K K

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology, application of synthetic chemistry to biology, is a broad term that covers the engineering of biological systems with structures and functions not found in nature to process information, manipulate chemicals, produce energy, maintain cell environment and enhance human health. Synthetic biology devices contribute not only to improve our understanding of disease mechanisms, but also provide novel diagnostic tools. Methods based on synthetic biology enable the design of novel strategies for the treatment of cancer, immune diseases metabolic disorders and infectious diseases as well as the production of cheap drugs. The potential of synthetic genome, using an expanded genetic code that is designed for specific drug synthesis as well as delivery and activation of the drug in vivo by a pathological signal, was already pointed out during a lecture delivered at Kuwait University in 2005. Of two approaches to synthetic biology, top-down and bottom-up, the latter is more relevant to the development of personalized medicines as it provides more flexibility in constructing a partially synthetic cell from basic building blocks for a desired task. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Application Of Mathematical Methods For Condition Monitoring Of Oil And Gas Facilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O. M. MANDRYK; A. P. OLIJNYK; A. A. MOROZ

    2016-01-01

    The difference schemes of the method of variable directions for numerical realization of two-dimensional models in different frames account for environmental heterogeneity of matter distribution have been presented...

  4. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  5. Facile method of building hydroxyapatite 3D scaffolds assembled from porous hollow fibers enabling nutrient delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamon, David; Da Silva Teixeira, Sandra; Dutczak, S.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, diffusion through scaffold and tissue usually limits transport, and forms potentially hypoxic regions. Several methods are used for preparation of 3D hydroxyapatite scaffolds, however, production of a scaffold including porous hollow fibers for nutrition delivery is difficult and

  6. Research on common methods for evaluating the operation effect of integrated wastewater treatment facilities of iron and steel enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingsheng, Xu

    2017-04-01

    Considering the large quantities of wastewater generated from iron and steel enterprises in China, this paper is aimed to research the common methods applied for evaluating the integrated wastewater treatment effect of iron and steel enterprises. Based on survey results on environmental protection performance, technological economy, resource & energy consumption, services and management, an indicator system for evaluating the operation effect of integrated wastewater treatment facilities is set up. By discussing the standards and industrial policies in and out of China, 27 key secondary indicators are further defined on the basis of investigation on main equipment and key processes for wastewater treatment, so as to determine the method for setting key quantitative and qualitative indicators for evaluation indicator system. It is also expected to satisfy the basic requirements of reasonable resource allocation, environmental protection and sustainable economic development, further improve the integrated wastewater treatment effect of iron and steel enterprises, and reduce the emission of hazardous substances and environmental impact.

  7. Biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles prepared from two novel natural precursors by facile thermal decomposition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Mojgan; Mir, Noshin; Mousavi-Kamazani, Mehdi; Bagheri, Samira; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2016-09-01

    In this work, two natural sources, including pomegranate peel extract and cochineal dye were employed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The natural silver complex from pomegranate peel extract resulted in nano-sized structures through solution-phase method, but this method was not efficient for cochineal dye-silver precursor and the as-formed products were highly agglomerated. Therefore, an alternative facile solid-state approach was investigated as for both natural precursors and the results showed successful production of well-dispersed nanoparticles with narrow size distribution for cochineal dye-silver precursor. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

  8. Uniform silica coated fluorescent nanoparticles: synthetic method, improved light stability and application to visualize lymph network tracer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liman Cong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB was developed as a new modality in the surgical diagnosis of lymph node metastases. Dye and radioisotope are major tracers for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN. Dye tends to excessively infiltrate into the interstitium due to their small size (less than several nanometers, resulting in difficulties in maintaining clear surgical fields. Radioisotopes are available in limited number of hospitals. Fluorescent nanoparticles are good candidates for SLN tracer to solve these problems, as we can choose suitable particle size and fluorescence wavelength of near-infrared. However, the use of nanoparticles faces safety issues, and many attempts have been performed by giving insulating coats on nanoparticles. In addition, the preparation of the uniform insulating layer is important to decrease variations in the quality as an SLN tracer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We herein succeeded in coating fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles of 40 nm with uniform silica layer of 13 nm by the modified Stöber method. The light stability of silica coated nanoparticles was 1.3-fold greater than noncoated nanoparticles. The popliteal lymph node could be visualized by the silica coated nanoparticles with injection in the rat feet. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The silica coated nanoparticles in lymph nodes could be observed by transmission electron microscope, suggesting that our silica coating method is useful as a SLN tracer with highly precise distribution of nanoparticles in histological evaluation. We also demonstrated for the first time that a prolonged enhancement of SLN is caused by the phagocytosis of fluorescent nanoparticles by both macrophages and dendritic cells.

  9. Highly efficient removal of arsenic metal ions with high superficial area hollow magnetite nanoparticles synthetized by AACVD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monárrez-Cordero, B.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Leyva-Porras, C.; Pizá-Ruiz, P. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C., and Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih. C.P. 31109 (Mexico); Miki-Yoshida, M., E-mail: mario.miki@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C., and Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih. C.P. 31109 (Mexico)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► Fast and high arsenic removal efficiency, almost 100% in one minute. ► Successful synthesis of high purity magnetite hollow nanoparticles is reported. ► They were synthesized by one step aerosol assisted CVD technique. ► Detailed microstructural characterization by electron microscopy was performed. -- Abstract: New nanotechnology alternatives and methodologies have been developed in order to overcome the limitations of conventional techniques for metal ions removal from water. Currently, the removal of heavy metals requires multiple steps which include the separation and post-treatment of the generated sludge. Usually, this sludge is composed of dangerous environmental pollutants mixed with the material used for removing the metal ion. Thus, the removal of these metals becomes a challenging task. Herein we report the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles with high specific area by the aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition method. Deposition temperature were fixed at 450 °C and a mixture of Ar–air were used as a carrier gas, a flow of 1.0 and 0.015 L min{sup −1} were used for Ar and air, respectively. The precursor solution was a dilution of Fe (II) chloride in methanol, with different concentration 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mol dm{sup −3}. The crystalline structure of the nanoparticles was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Morphology and microstructure were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic properties were evaluated with a vibrating sample magnetometer and specific area was measured by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method. To determine the removal efficiency of arsenic ion from water, several tests were carried out at six exposition times 1, 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 min. Results showed high removal efficiency, more than 99%, in less than 1 min.

  10. Water-contained surfactant-based vortex-assisted microextraction method combined with liquid chromatography for determination of synthetic antioxidants from edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlashi, Nadiya Ekbatani; Hadjmohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nazari, Seyed Saman Seyed Jafar

    2014-09-26

    For the first time, a novel water-contained surfactant-based vortex-assisted microextraction method (WSVAME) was developed for the extraction of two synthetic antioxidants (t-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)) from edible oil samples. The novel microextraction method is based on the injection of an aqueous solution of non-ionic surfactant, Brij-35, into the oil sample in a conical bottom glass tube to form a cloudy solution. Vortex mixing was applied to accelerate the dispersion process. After extraction and phase separation by centrifugation, the lower sediment phase was directly analyzed by HPLC. The effects of the four experimental parameters including volume and concentration of extraction solvent (aqueous solution of Brij-35), percentage of acetic acid added to the oil sample and vortex time on the extraction efficiency were studied with a full factorial design. The central composite design and multiple linear regression method were applied for the construction of the best polynomial model based on experimental recoveries. The proposed method showed good linearity within the range of 0.200-200 μg mL(-1), the square of correlation coefficient higher than 0.999 and appropriate limit of detection (0.026 and 0.020 μg mL(-1) for TBHQ and BHA, respectively), while the precision for inner-day was ≤ 3.0 (n=5) and it was ≤ 3.80 (n=5) for inter-day assay. Under the optimal condition (30 μL of 0.10 mol L(-1) Brij-35 solution as extraction solvent and vortex time 1 min), the method was successfully applied for determination of TBHQ and BHA in different commercial edible oil samples. The recoveries in all cases were above 95%, with relative standard deviations below 5%. This approach is considered as a simple, sensitive and environmentally friendly method because of biodegradability of the extraction phase and no use of organic solvent in the extraction procedure.

  11. Liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of vildagliptin in the presence of its synthetic intermediate and the simultaneous determination of pioglitazone hydrochloride and metformin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bagary, Ramzia I; Elkady, Ehab F; Ayoub, Bassam M

    2011-09-01

    Two reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) methods are described for the determination of two binary mixtures of hypoglycemic agents. In the first method, vildagliptin (VDG) was determined in the presence of 3-amino-1-adamantanol (AAD), a synthetic intermediate and impurity of VDG. In the second method, pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGZ) and metformin hydrochloride (MET) were simultaneously determined in their binary mixture. Chromatographic separation in the two methods was achieved on a Symmetry(®) Waters C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm). In the first mixture, isocratic elution using a mobile phase of potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer pH (4.6) - acetonitrile - methanol (30:50:20, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1) with UV detection at 220 nm was performed. In the second method, isocratic elution based on potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer pH (4.6) - acetonitrile (60:40, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1) with UV detection at 210 nm was performed. Linearity, accuracy and precision were found to be acceptable over the concentration ranges of 5-200 μg mL(-1), 0.5-3 μg mL(-1) and 10-150 μg mL(-1) for VDG, PGZ and MET, respectively. The optimized methods were validated and proved to be specific, robust, precise and accurate for the quality control of the drugs in their pharmaceutical preparations.

  12. A facile cost-effective method for preparing robust self-cleaning transparent superhydrophobic coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Liu, Jie; Chang, Wenkai; Fan, Xiaoliang; Li, Chunyan; Shi, Yu

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports an easy method to prepare transparent superhydrophobic coating by two-step spray-coating method. In order to improve robustness, PDMS oligomers were used to bond the SiO2 nanoparticle/fluoroalkylsilane composite coating to the substrate. The transmittance of coated glass was above 80 % for wavelengths larger than 500 nm. Moreover, the prepared coating exhibited excellent self-cleaning properties in either air or oil environment. Furthermore, this coating retained superhydrophobic properties after three cycles of abrasion test or strong acid/base attack. Therefore, this robust self-cleaning transparent superhydrophobic coating may have a wide range of practical applications in the optical industry.

  13. A facile spectrophotometric method for the determination of hypochlorite using rhodamine B

    OpenAIRE

    Pasha,Chand; Narayana, B.

    2007-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of hypochlorite using Rhodamine B. The proposed method reports the reaction of hypochlorite with potassium iodide in an acid medium with iodine liberation. The liberated iodine bleaches the pinkish red color of the Rhodamine B and can be measured at 553 nm. This decrease in absorbance is directly proportional to the hypochlorite concentration and obeys Beer's law in the range of 0.1 - 4.0 µg mL-1o...

  14. A facile spectrophotometric method for the determination of periodate using azure B

    OpenAIRE

    Narayana, B.; Cherian,Tom

    2005-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of periodate in solution and river water samples. The method is based on the reaction of periodate with iodide in an acid medium to liberate iodine. This liberated iodine bleaches the violet color of the azure B and is measured at 644 nm. This decrease in absorbance is directly proportional to the periodate concentration and obeys Beer's law in the range of 0.2 - 5.5 µg mL-1. The molar absorptivit...

  15. Evaluating the Mobility of Arsenic in Synthetic Iron-containing Solids Using a Modified Sequential Extraction Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jilei; Sáez, A Eduardo; Ela, Wendell P

    2010-02-01

    Many water treatment technologies for arsenic removal that are used today produce arsenic-bearing residuals which are disposed in non-hazardous landfills. Previous works have established that many of these residuals will release arsenic to a much greater extent than predicted by standard regulatory leaching tests (e.g. the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, TCLP) and, consequently, require stabilization to ensure benign behavior after disposal. In this work, a four-step sequential extraction method was developed in an effort to determine the proportion of arsenic in various phases in untreated as well as stabilized iron-based solid matrices. The solids synthesized using various potential stabilization techniques included: amorphous arsenic-iron sludge (ASL), reduced ASL via reaction with zero valent iron (RASL), amorphous ferrous arsenate (PFA), a mixture of PFA and SL (M1), crystalline ferrous arsenate (HPFA), and a mixture of HPFA and SL (M2). The overall arsenic mobility of the tested samples increased in the following order: ASL > RASL > PFA > M1 > HPFA > M2.

  16. ICE-COLA: Towards fast and accurate synthetic galaxy catalogues optimizing a quasi $N$-body method

    CERN Document Server

    Izard, Albert; Fosalba, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Next generation galaxy surveys demand the development of massive ensembles of galaxy mocks to model the observables and their covariances, what is computationally prohibitive using $N$-body simulations. COLA is a novel method designed to make this feasible by following an approximate dynamics but with up to 3 orders of magnitude speed-ups when compared to an exact $N$-body. In this paper we investigate the optimization of the code parameters in the compromise between computational cost and recovered accuracy in observables such as two-point clustering and halo abundance. We benchmark those observables with a state-of-the-art $N$-body run, the MICE Grand Challenge simulation (MICE-GC). We find that using 40 time steps linearly spaced since $z_i \\sim 20$, and a force mesh resolution three times finer than that of the number of particles, yields a matter power spectrum within $1\\%$ for $k \\lesssim 1\\,h {\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ and a halo mass function within $5\\%$ of those in the $N$-body. In turn the halo bias is accura...

  17. Iron oxidation state in (Mg,Fe)O: Calibration of the flank method on synthetic samples and application to natural inclusions in Lower Mantle diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, M.; McCammon, C.; Bulanova, G.; Kaminsky, F.

    2008-12-01

    Ferropericlase (Mg,Fe)O and (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O3 perovskite are believed to form the bulk of the Lower Mantle (LM). The interval of redox conditions in the LM is still debatable. It was shown that the Fe3+ concentration in perovskite is insensitive to oxygen fugacity, therefore we have turned our attention to (Mg,Fe)O. Our work involves calibrating the so-called "flank method" for synthetic (Mg,Fe)O, and applying the results to determine Fe3+/Fetot in ferropericlase inclusions from LM diamonds, as a direct tool for investigating LM redox conditions during diamond formation. Experiments were performed in a multi anvil apparatus to obtain ferropericlase crystals with high quality surfaces, and Fe3+/Fetot in them was determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Samples were subsequently analyzed using the EMP. The flank method sensu strictu consists of measuring two pre-defined energy positions FeLAlfa and FeLBeta, whose ratio is sensitive to Fe2+/Fe3+. Positive correlations of LBeta/LAlfa as a function of Fetot (wt percent) and Fe2+ (wt percent) were observed for (Mg,Fe)O similar to those reported in the literature for garnets. We applied a least-squares regression model to fit the three variables Fetot, LBeta/LAlfa and Fe2+, and chose the simplest equation that fit the data. Our calibration for (Mg,Fe)O with xFe between 2 and 36.6 wt percent shows an agreement of 1 sigma with Fe3+/Fetot determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy, but with the additional advantage of a spatial resolution on the order of 10 microns (compared to no smaller than 100 microns for Moessbauer). We applied the flank method calibration to 6 ferropericlase inclusions from ultra deep diamonds (4 from Mato Grosso and 2 from Machado River, Brazil). Results show that LBeta/LAlfa ratios are consistent with the trend observed for synthetic (Mg,Fe)O, with no obvious evidence for magnesioferrite exsolution. The obtained Fe3+/Fetot values between 8 and 13 percent, and their correlations with Na, Cr and Al show that

  18. Applicability of the 5S management method for quality improvement in health-care facilities: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Shogo; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    The 5S management method (where 5S stands for sort, set in order, shine, standardize, and sustain) was originally implemented by manufacturing enterprises in Japan. It was then introduced to the manufacturing sector in the West and eventually applied to the health sector for organizing and standardizing the workplace. 5S has recently received attention as a potential solution for improving government health-care services in low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a narrative literature review to explore its applicability to health-care facilities globally, with a focus on three aspects: (a) the context of its application, (b) its impacts, and (c) its adoption as part of government initiatives. To identify relevant research articles, we researched public health databases in English, including CINAHL, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science. We found 15 of the 114 articles obtained from the search results to be relevant for full-text analysis of the context and impacts of the 5S application. To identify additional information particularly on its adoption as part of government initiatives, we also examined other types of resources including reference books, reports, didactic materials, government documents, and websites. The 15 empirical studies highlighted its application in primary health-care facilities and a wide range of hospital areas in Brazil, India, Jordan, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, the UK, and the USA. The review also found that 5S was considered to be the starting point for health-care quality improvement. Ten studies presented its impacts on quality improvements; the changes resulting from the 5S application were classified into the three dimensions of safety, efficiency, and patient-centeredness. Furthermore, 5S was adopted as part of government quality improvement strategies in India, Senegal, Sri Lanka, and Tanzania. 5S could be applied to health-care facilities regardless of locations. It could be not only a tool for health workers and

  19. A facile method to assemble PNIPAM-containing microgel photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Xing, Fubao; Ren, Meilin; Feng, Yan; Zhao, Yongqiang; Qiu, Haixia; Wang, Xiaodong; Gao, Chunjuan; Sun, Feifei; He, Yongqiang; Ma, Zhiqing; Wen, Pu; Gao, Jianping

    2009-02-23

    Structural colors: Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) based microgel photonic crystals are fabricated by using a new method called "high-temperature-induced hydrophobic assembly". The assembling conditions affect the water content of the crystals, thus determining their structural color (see image). The obtained photonic crystals are sensitive to solvents, and the reversible changes in their color can be observed with the naked eye.

  20. Evaluation of Geophysical Methods for Cavity Detection at the WES Cavity Test Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    reduction, and interpretive procedures for the crosshole method are described by Ballard (1976) and Butler, Skogland , and Landers (1978). The...K., Skogland , G. R., and Landers, G. B. 1970. "CROSSHOLE: An Interpretive Computer Code for Crosshole Seismic Test Results, Documentation ani Examples

  1. A facile and versatile method for preparation of colored TiO2 with enhanced solar-driven photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huaqiao; Zhao, Zhao; Niu, Mang; Mao, Chengyu; Cao, Dapeng; Cheng, Daojian; Feng, Pingyun; Sun, Zaicheng

    2014-09-07

    Colored TiO2 has attracted enormous attention due to its visible light absorption and excellent photocatalytic activity. In this report, we develop a simple and facile solid-state chemical reduction approach for a large-scale production of colored TiO2 at mild temperature (300-350 °C). The obtained sample possesses a crystalline core/amorphous shell structure (TiO2@TiO2-x). The oxygen vacancy results in the formation of a disordered TiO2-x shell on the surface of TiO2 nanocrystals. XPS and theoretical calculation results indicate that valence band tail and vacancy band below the conduction band minimum appear for the TiO2-x, which implies that the TiO2@TiO2-x nanocrystal has a narrow band gap and therefore leads to a broad visible light absorption. Oxygen vacancy in a proper concentration promotes the charge separation of photogenerated carriers, which improves the photocatalytic activity of TiO2@TiO2-x nanocrystals. This facile and general method could be potentially used for large scale production of colored TiO2 with remarkable enhancement in the visible light absorption and solar-driven H2 production.

  2. Solving the competitive facility location problem considering the reactions of competitor with a hybrid algorithm including Tabu Search and exact method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherinejad, Jafar; Niknam, Azar

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a leader-follower competitive facility location problem considering the reactions of the competitors is studied. A model for locating new facilities and determining levels of quality for the facilities of the leader firm is proposed. Moreover, changes in the location and quality of existing facilities in a competitive market where a competitor offers the same goods or services are taken into account. The competitor could react by opening new facilities, closing existing ones, and adjusting the quality levels of its existing facilities. The market share, captured by each facility, depends on its distance to customer and its quality that is calculated based on the probabilistic Huff's model. Each firm aims to maximize its profit subject to constraints on quality levels and budget of setting up new facilities. This problem is formulated as a bi-level mixed integer non-linear model. The model is solved using a combination of Tabu Search with an exact method. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with an upper bound that is achieved by applying Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. Computational results show that our algorithm finds near the upper bound solutions in a reasonable time.

  3. Facile synthesis of hydrotalcite and its thermal decomposition kinetics mechanism study with masterplots method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Qiwei; Xia, Yao [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Resource Processing and Process Intensification Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Liao, Sen, E-mail: liaosen@gxu.edu.cn [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Resource Processing and Process Intensification Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Li, Yu; Wu, Wenwei [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Resource Processing and Process Intensification Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Huang, Yingheng [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Resource Processing and Process Intensification Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The values of E{sub α} were determined with advanced isoconversional procedure. • Masterplots and nonlinear methods were used to study the mechanisms. • Mechanism equations obtained from the two methods are the same. • Nonlinear method is more efficient than Masterplots method. - Abstract: The hydrotalcite, Mg{sub 4}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12}CO{sub 3}·3H{sub 2}O, was synthesized via low-heating solid-state reaction at 80 °C. The thermal decomposition of Mg{sub 4}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12}CO{sub 3}·3H{sub 2}O experienced two stages. The apparent activation energy E{sub a} was estimated with Vyazovkin procedure. The average values of E{sub a} associated with the two stages were determined to be 110.9 ± 10.3, 140.3 ± 4.2 kJ mol{sup −1}, respectively, which the two stages are single-step kinetic processes. Masterplots and nonlinear methods were used to define the most probable reaction mechanisms of the two stages. The results show that the reaction mechanism functions of the two stages are as follows: (i) g(α) = (1 − α){sup −2} − 1, (ii) g(α) = (1 − α){sup −1/2} − 1, respectively. The values of pre-exponential factor A for the two stages were obtained on the basis of E{sub a} and g(α). Besides, some thermodynamic functions (ΔS{sup #}, ΔH{sup #} and ΔG{sup #}) of the transition state complexes for the two stages were also calculated.

  4. In-situ determination of radionuclide levels in facilities to be decommissioned using the allowable residual contamination level method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.J.; Haggard, D.L.

    1989-07-01

    This feasibility study resulted in verification of a direct and two alternate indirect techniques for making in-situ determinations of {sup 90}Sr and other radionuclide levels in a Hanford facility to be decommissioned that was evaluated using the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. The ARCL method is used to determine the extent of decontamination that will be required before a facility can be decommissioned. A sump in the 1608F Building was chosen for the feasibility study. Hanford decommissioning personnel had previously taken 79 concrete and surface scale samples from the building to be analyzed by radiochemical analysis. The results of the radiochemical analyses compare favorably with the values derived by the in-situ methods presented in this report. Results obtained using a portable spectrometer and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were both very close to the radiochemistry results. Surface {sup 90}Sr levels detected on the sump floor were 550 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the spectrometer system and 780 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the TLD data. This compares favorably with the levels determined by radiochemical analyses (i.e., 230 to 730 pCi/cm{sup 2}). Surface {sup 90}Sr levels detected on the sump wall ranged between 10 and 80 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the spectrometer system, compared with a conservative 200 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the TLD data. The radiochemical results ranged between 19 and 77 pCi/cm{sup 2} for the four samples taken from the wall at indeterminate locations. 17 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Parallel three-dimensional magnetotelluric inversion using adaptive finite-element method. Part I: theory and synthetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayver, Alexander V.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a distributed magnetotelluric inversion scheme based on adaptive finite-element method (FEM). The key novel aspect of the introduced algorithm is the use of automatic mesh refinement techniques for both forward and inverse modelling. These techniques alleviate tedious and subjective procedure of choosing a suitable model parametrization. To avoid overparametrization, meshes for forward and inverse problems were decoupled. For calculation of accurate electromagnetic (EM) responses, automatic mesh refinement algorithm based on a goal-oriented error estimator has been adopted. For further efficiency gain, EM fields for each frequency were calculated using independent meshes in order to account for substantially different spatial behaviour of the fields over a wide range of frequencies. An automatic approach for efficient initial mesh design in inverse problems based on linearized model resolution matrix was developed. To make this algorithm suitable for large-scale problems, it was proposed to use a low-rank approximation of the linearized model resolution matrix. In order to fill a gap between initial and true model complexities and resolve emerging 3-D structures better, an algorithm for adaptive inverse mesh refinement was derived. Within this algorithm, spatial variations of the imaged parameter are calculated and mesh is refined in the neighborhoods of points with the largest variations. A series of numerical tests were performed to demonstrate the utility of the presented algorithms. Adaptive mesh refinement based on the model resolution estimates provides an efficient tool to derive initial meshes which account for arbitrary survey layouts, data types, frequency content and measurement uncertainties. Furthermore, the algorithm is capable to deliver meshes suitable to resolve features on multiple scales while keeping number of unknowns low. However, such meshes exhibit dependency on an initial model guess. Additionally, it is demonstrated

  6. Synthetic nacre by predesigned matrix-directed mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Li-Bo; Gao, Huai-Ling; Yao, Hong-Bin; Liu, Lei; Cölfen, Helmut; Liu, Gang; Chen, Si-Ming; Li, Shi-Kuo; Yan, You-Xian; Liu, Yang-Yi; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-10-01

    Although biomimetic designs are expected to play a key role in exploring future structural materials, facile fabrication of bulk biomimetic materials under ambient conditions remains a major challenge. Here, we describe a mesoscale “assembly-and-mineralization” approach inspired by the natural process in mollusks to fabricate bulk synthetic nacre that highly resembles both the chemical composition and the hierarchical structure of natural nacre. The millimeter-thick synthetic nacre consists of alternating organic layers and aragonite platelet layers (91 weight percent) and exhibits good ultimate strength and fracture toughness. This predesigned matrix-directed mineralization method represents a rational strategy for the preparation of robust composite materials with hierarchically ordered structures, where various constituents are adaptable, including brittle and heat-labile materials.

  7. Accuracy of navigation-guided socket drilling before implant installation compared to the conventional free-hand method in a synthetic edentulous lower jaw model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Jürgen; Westendorff, Carsten; Gomez-Roman, German; Reinert, Siegmar

    2005-10-01

    In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) accuracy of navigation-guided (NG) socket drilling before implant installation was compared to the conventional free-hand (CF) method in a synthetic edentulous lower jaw model. The drillings were performed by two surgeons with different years of working experience. The inter-individual outcome was assessed. NG drillings were performed using an optical computerized tomography (CT)-based navigation system. CF drillings were performed using a surgical template. The coordinates of the drilled sockets were determined on the basis of CT scans. A total of n=224 drillings was evaluated. Inter-individual differences in terms of the surgeons' years of work experience were without statistical significance. The mean deviation of the CF drilled sockets (n=112) on the vestibulo-oral and mesio-distal direction was 11.2+/-5.6 degrees (range: 4.1-25.3 degrees ). With respect to the NG drilled sockets (n=112), the mean deviation was 4.2+/-1.8 degrees (range: 2.3-11.5). The mean distance to the mandibular canal was 1.1+/-0.6 mm (range: 0.1-2.3 mm) for CF-drilled sockets and 0.7+/-0.5 mm (range: 0.1-1.8 mm) for NG drilled sockets. The differences between the two methods were highly significant (P<0.01). A potential benefit from image-data-based navigation in implant surgery is discussed against the background of cost-effectiveness.

  8. 几种杂环烯酮缩胺类化合物的合成方法研究%Study on synthetic method of heterocyclic ketene aminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹彦冰; 裴爽; 尹官武

    2015-01-01

    以α-羰基二硫缩烯酮和乙二胺为原料,乙醇为溶剂,经过连续两步反应,合成了4种杂环烯酮缩胺类化合物,讨论了合成反应机理,并用核磁、红外等测试手段对化合物进行了表征。该方法具有反应条件温和、操作简单及产率高等优点,为杂环烯酮缩胺类化合物的合成提供了新的方法。%Whileα-ketene dithioacetals and ethylene diamine were selected as raw material,ethanol as solvent, after two steps of reactions,four kinds of heterocycle ketene aminals were synthesized,the reaction mechanism was discussed.The structure of the compounds were confirmed by NMR and IR.Compared with the conventional methods,advantages of the synthetic method were detected,such as the simple raw materials,the mild reaction conditions,and the high yield of production etc.

  9. Methods of correction of carriage of junior schoolchildren by facilities of physical exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagara V.F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of influence of methods of physical rehabilitation on the organism of children are resulted. In research took part 16 children of lower school with the scoliotic changes of pectoral department of spine. The complex of methods of physical rehabilitation included special correction and general health-improving exercises, medical gymnastics, correction position. Employments on a medical gymnastics during 30-45 minutes 3-4 times per a week were conducted. The improvement of indexes of mobility of spine and state of carriage of schoolchildren is marked. The absolute indexes of the state of carriage and flexibility of spine considerably got around physiology sizes. A rehabilitation complex which includes the elements of correction gymnastics is recommended, medical physical culture, correction, massage of muscles of trunk, position. It is also necessary to adhere to the rational mode of day and feed, provide the normative parameters of working furniture and self-control of the state of carriage.

  10. Biomimetic superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces fabricated with a facile scraping, bonding and peeling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Huanhuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the superhydrophobicity of juicy peach surface, on which microscale hairs are standing vertically to the surface plane, an extremely simple, inexpensive physical method is developed for fabrication of superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces over large areas. This method includes three steps: abrasive paper scraping, adhesive tape bonding and 90° peeling. Scraping increases the roughness and enhence water contact angles (CAs on polyolefin surfaces. It increases more when the scraped surface are bonded with adhesive types and then then 90° peeled. The CA variation depends on the types of polyolefin and abrasive paper. Superhydrophobic lowdensity polyethylene (LDPE, high-density polyethylene (HDPE and polypropylene (PP surfaces (CA>150° are obtained and they all exhibit very low adhesive force and high resistance to strong acids and bases.

  11. Preparation of bimetallic nanoparticles using a facile green synthesis method and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bihua; He, Fang; Li, Lidong

    2013-04-16

    A straightforward, economically viable, and green approach for the synthesis of well-stabilized Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles is described; this method uses nontoxic and renewable degraded pueraria starch (DPS) as a matrix and mild reaction conditions. The DPS acted as both a reducing agent and a capping agent for the bimetallic nanoparticles. Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles were successfully grown within the DPS matrixes, and the bimetallic structures were characterized using various methods, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction. Moreover, it was shown that these DPS-capped Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles could function as catalysts for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH4 and were more effective than Au or Ag monometallic nanoparticles.

  12. Facile fabrication of controllable zinc oxide nanorod clusters on polyacrylonitrile nanofibers via repeatedly alternating immersion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Xia; Yu, Hou-Yong; Hu, Guo-Liang; Yao, Ju-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Polyacrylonitrile/zinc oxide (PAN/ZnO) composite nanofiber membranes with different ZnO morphologies were fabricated by repeatedly alternating hot-cold immersion and single alternating hot-cold immersion methods. The influence of the PAN/ZnCl2 ratio and different immersion methods on the morphology, microstructure, and properties of the nanofiber membranes was investigated by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. A possible mechanism for different morphologies of PAN/ZnO nanofiber membranes with different PAN/ZnCl2 ratio through different immersion processes was presented, and well-dispersed ZnO nanorod clusters with smallest average dimeter of 115 nm and hexagonal wurtzite structure were successfully anchored onto the PAN nanofiber surface for R-7/1 nanofiber membrane. Compared to S-5/1 prepared by single alternating hot-cold immersion method, the PAN/ZnO nanofiber membrane fabricated by repeatedly alternating hot-cold immersion method (especially for R-7/1) showed improved thermal stability and high photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB). Compared to S-5/1, decomposition temperature at 5% weight loss ( T 5%) was increased by 43 °C from 282 to 325 °C for R-7/1; meanwhile, R-7/1 showed higher photocatalytic degradation ratio of approximately 100% (after UV light irradiation for 8 h) than 65% for S-5/1 even after irradiation for 14 h. Moreover, the degradation efficiency of R-7/1 with good reuse stability remained above 94% after 3 cycles.

  13. Facile preparation method for rare earth phosphate hollow spheres and their photoluminescence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Mingyun; Tao, Feifei; Sun, Jianhua; Xu, Zheng

    2008-08-01

    We have developed a template-free hydrothermal method of constructing rare earth phosphate hollow spheres using H(6)P(4)O(13) as the PO(4) (3-) source. The mechanism of hollow spheres formation was proposed on the basis of Ostwald ripening. The resulting hollow spheres, especially with the aid of doping of other lanthanide cations, exhibit emission spanning the whole UV-visible wavelength range.

  14. A Facile Method for Asymmetric Synthesis of β-Hydroxy-α-amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Shuo; LI,Lei; ZHANG,Zhi-Hui; XU,Peng-Fei

    2004-01-01

    @@ β-Hydroxy-a-amino acids are an important class of amino acids due to their inherent biological investigations[1] and as structural components of more complex biomolecules.[2] β-Hydroxy-a-amino acids have been used as intermediates in the asymmetric synthesis of other compounds.[3] An efficient and convenient concise method for the preparation of optically pure enantiomers of β-hydroxy-α-amino acids would be of general interest.

  15. A facile and convenient method for synthesis of alkyl thiocyanates under homogeneous phase transfer catalyst conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Reza Kiasat; Rashid Badri; Soheil Sayyahi

    2008-01-01

    A simple and environmentally friendly method is described for the efficient conversion of alkyl halide to alkyl thiocyanate using tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) as a phase transfer catalyst.The reactions occur in water and furnish the corresponding alkyl thiocyanate in high yields.No evidence for the formation of isothiocyanates as by-product of the reaction was observed and the products were obtained in pure form without further purification.

  16. A facile method of fabricating PbBi alloy nanowires with controlled component proportion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xue-wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Lab for Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China); He, Zhao-cheng; Li, Ju-shan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Yuan, Zhi-hao, E-mail: zhyuan@tjut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices (Tianjin University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • A method of high temperature melting is developed to fabricate PbBi nanowires. • The composition controllable and homogeneous PbBi nanowires can be synthesized. • The component proportion is controlled by adjusting electrodeposition time. • Pores of AAO play an important role during the formation of alloy nanowires. - Abstract: The ability of controlled component proportion for metallic alloy nanowires is still rather limited even after well over a decade of intensive research efforts. Here, a very simple method of high temperature melting in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide templates is developed to fabricate low melting point metallic alloy nanowires, in which the component proportion of elements can be controlled by adjusting electrodeposition time in the separate electrolytes. Taking the fabrication of PbBi alloy nanowires as example, we show how to control the uniform composition and component proportion of metallic alloy nanowires. The PbBi alloy nanowire arrays with three different atomic ratios of Bi–10 at.%, 30 at.%, 80 at.% respectively are successfully fabricated. The morphologies and composition of PbBi alloy nanowires are investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy equipped with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analyzer, and the crystal structures are determined by X-ray diffractometer. These results of experiments indicate that the composition controllable and homogeneous alloy nanowire arrays can be synthesized using this new method.

  17. Modeling Methods for the Main Switch of High Pulsed-Power Facilities Based on Transmission Line Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yixiang; Zeng, Jiangtao; Sun, Fengju; Wei, Hao; Yin, Jiahui; Cong, Peitian; Qiu, Aici

    2014-09-01

    Based on the transmission line code (TLCODE), a circuit model is developed here for analyses of main switches in the high pulsed-power facilities. With the structure of the ZR main switch as an example, a circuit model topology of the switch is proposed, and in particular, calculation methods of the dynamic inductance and resistance of the switching arc are described. Moreover, a set of closed equations used for calculations of various node voltages are theoretically derived and numerically discretized. Based on these discrete equations and the Matlab program, a simulation procedure is established for analyses of the ZR main switch. Voltages and currents at different key points are obtained, and comparisons are made with those of a PSpice L-C model. The comparison results show that these two models are perfectly in accord with each other with discrepancy less than 0.1%, which verifies the effectiveness of the TLCODE model to a certain extent.

  18. Structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of flower-like ZnO nanostructures prepared by a facile wet chemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Kuriakose

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Flower-like ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a facile wet chemical method. Structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of these nanostructures have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, photoluminescence (PL and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. SEM and TEM studies revealed flower-like structures consisting of nanosheets, formed due to oriented attachment of ZnO nanoparticles. Flower-like ZnO structures showed enhanced photocatalytic activity towards sun-light driven photodegradation of methylene blue dye (MB as compared to ZnO nanoparticles. XRD, UV–vis absorption, PL, FTIR and TEM studies revealed the formation of Zn(OH2 surface layer on ZnO nanostructures upon ageing. We demonstrate that the formation of a passivating Zn(OH2 surface layer on the ZnO nanostructures upon ageing deteriorates their efficiency to photocatalytically degrade of MB.

  19. A Facile Preparation Method of ZrO2 Hollow Sphere Using PVA Microcapsule as a Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Dong-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we proposed a simple and facile preparation method of ZrO2 hollow sphere using PVA microcapsule as a template. The prepared hollow sphere was characterized by XRD, FESEM, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, FT-IR techniques. PVA microcapsule were prepared by polymerization in a water-in-oil emulsion and coated by adding of zirconia sol. Uniform and spherical shaped zirconia hollow sphere with very narrow size distribution was obtained after calcination at 700 °C by removing the PVA microcapsule template. No other carbon residues and carbon-zirconium compounds were observed. These results indicate that the zirconia capsule formed without deformation of the zirconia shell structure, and CO2 and H2O gases by decomposition of the PVA microcapsule during sintering process removed through the zirconia shell.

  20. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Co doped ZnO nanodisks and nanorods prepared by a facile wet chemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Sini; Satpati, Biswarup; Mohapatra, Satyabrata

    2014-07-07

    Cobalt doped ZnO nanodisks and nanorods were synthesized by a facile wet chemical method and well characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated for sunlight driven degradation of an aqueous methylene blue (MB) solution. The results showed that Co doped ZnO nanodisks and nanorods exhibit highly enhanced photocatalytic activity, as compared to pure ZnO nanodisks and nanorods. The enhanced photocatalytic activities of Co doped ZnO nanostructures were attributed to the combined effects of enhanced surface area of ZnO nanodisks and improved charge separation efficiency due to optimal Co doping which inhibit recombination of photogenerated charge carriers. The possible mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of Co doped ZnO nanostructures is tentatively proposed.

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag–ZnO hybrid plasmonic nanostructures prepared by a facile wet chemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Kuriakose

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of Ag–ZnO hybrid plasmonic nanostructures with enhanced photocatalytic activity by a facile wet-chemical method. The structural, optical, plasmonic and photocatalytic properties of the Ag–ZnO hybrid nanostructures were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, photoluminescence (PL and UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. The effects of citrate concentration and Ag nanoparticle loading on the photocatalytic activity of Ag–ZnO hybrid nanostructures towards sun-light driven degradation of methylene blue (MB have been investigated. Increase in citrate concentration has been found to result in the formation of nanodisk-like structures, due to citrate-assisted oriented attachment of ZnO nanoparticles. The decoration of ZnO nanostructures with Ag nanoparticles resulted in a significant enhancement of the photocatalytic degradation efficiency, which has been found to increase with the extent of Ag nanoparticle loading.

  2. A Facile Method for Low-Temperature Synthesis of NaV₃O₈ as Cathode Materials for Lithium Secondary Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao YUAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A facile method has been used to synthesize NaV3O8 powders with oxalic acid as the complexing agent. This soft-synthesis technique can effectively reduce the calcination temperature for synthesizing NaV3O8 powders to 300 °C, which is much lower than that in the solid-state synthesis. The thus-synthesized NaV3O8 powders are characterized by XRD, SEM and galvanostatic charge-discharge test. Among the as-prepared powders, the NaV3O8 powder obtained at 350 °C exhibits morphology of porous particles. The electrochemical analysis reveals that this powder demonstrates high discharge capacity and good cycleability.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.252

  3. A project to develop restoration methods for buildings and facilities after a terrorist attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre; Volchek, K.; Hornof, M.; Boudreau, L.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Best, M. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Garbutt, M.; Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K. [Health Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Haslip, D. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    A multi-agent project was initiated to review site restoration after a terrorist attack. The objective was to acquire and compile information on all known restoration procedures for buildings, exteriors of buildings, their interior contents, and adjacent areas such as parking lots, lawns and vehicles. All procedures were then tested and validated. Restoration procedures included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction/deposition of the contaminant, cleaning material and contaminated debris resulting from the terrorist act. This research and development project considered chemical, biological and nuclear contamination with the intent to develop methods to decontaminate and restore buildings after a chemical, biological and radiological (CBR) attack. Ideas were collected from work conducted around the world. The efficacy of best candidates was tested along with all selected chemical target items. The project also involved the preparation of procedures for decontamination and restoration. Ultimately, a tradeoff decision basis will be developed to provide information on abandonment and quarantine versus cleanup. The study revealed that there are several technologies that can be used for the decontamination of structures and equipment after acts of terrorism, however, no one technique will work for all contaminants on all surfaces. The selection of a decontamination method depends on the contaminant, the surface being decontaminated and economic, social and health factors. The amount of waste generated by decontamination is a major feasibility factor. 25 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. European network for promoting the physical health of residents in psychiatric and social care facilities (HELPS: background, aims and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marginean Roxana

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of physical illnesses and reduced life expectancy as compared with the general population. However, there is a lack of knowledge across Europe concerning interventions that aim at reducing somatic morbidity and excess mortality by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. Methods and design HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i gathering relevant knowledge on physical illness in people with mental illness, (ii identifying health promotion initiatives in European countries that meet country-specific needs, and (iii at identifying best practice across Europe. Criteria for best practice will include evidence on the efficacy of physical health interventions and of their effectiveness in routine care, cost implications and feasibility for adaptation and implementation of interventions across different settings in Europe. HELPS will develop and implement a "physical health promotion toolkit". The toolkit will provide information to empower residents and staff to identify the most relevant risk factors in their specific context and to select the most appropriate action out of a range of defined health promoting interventions. The key methods are (a stakeholder analysis, (b international literature reviews, (c Delphi rounds with experts from participating centres, and (d focus groups with staff and residents of mental health care facilities. Meanwhile a multi-disciplinary network consisting of 15 European countries has been established and took up the work. As one main result of the project they expect that a widespread use of the HELPS toolkit could have a significant positive effect on the physical health status of residents of mental health and social care facilities, as well as to hold resonance for community dwelling people with mental health problems. Discussion A general strategy on health promotion for people with mental

  5. Facile method for modulating the profiles and periods of self-ordered three-dimensional alumina taper-nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Li, Congshan; Chen, Cheng; Hao, Qingli; Wang, Zhijia; Zhu, Jie; Gao, Xuefeng

    2012-10-24

    We report a facile nanofabrication method, one-step hard anodizing and etching peeling (OS-HA-EP) of aluminum foils followed by multistep mild anodizing and etching pore-widening (MS-MA-EW), for the controllable tailoring of hexagonally packed three-dimensional alumina taper-nanopores. Their profiles can be precisely tailored by the synergistic control of anodizing time, etching time and cyclic times at the MS-MA-EW stage, exemplified by linear cones, whorl-embedded cones, funnels, pencils, parabolas, and trumpets. Meantime, their periods can also be modulated in the range of 70-370 nm by choosing matched anodizing electrolytes (e.g., H(2)C(2)O(4), H(2)SO(4), H(2)C(2)O(4)-H(2)SO(4), and H(2)C(2)O(4)-C(2)H(5)OH mixture) and anodizing voltages at the OS-HA-EP stage. We also demonstrated that the long-range ordering of nanopits and the peak voltage of stable self-ordered HA, which are unachievable in a single H(2)C(2)O(4) electrolyte system, can be effectively tuned by simply adding tiny quantity of H(2)SO(4) and C(2)H(5)OH to keep an appropriate HA current density, respectively. This method of using the combination of simple pure chemical nanofabrication technologies is very facile and efficient in realizing the controllable tailoring of large-area alumina membranes containing self-ordered taper-nanopores. Our work opens a door for exploring the novel physical and chemical properties of different materials of nanotaper arrays.

  6. Calculation methods for air supply design in industrial facilities. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstroem, K.; Siren, K.; Zhivov, A.M.

    1999-09-01

    The objectives of air distribution systems for warm air heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning are to create the proper thermal environment conditions in the occupied zone (combination of temperature, humidity, and air movement), and to control vapor and air born particle concentration within the target levels set by the process requirements and/or threshold limit values based on health effects, fire and explosion prevention, or other considerations. HVAC systems designs are constrained by existing codes, standards, and guidelines, which specify some minimum requirements for the HVAC system elements, occupant`s and process environmental quality and safety. There is a variety of different methods consulting engineers use to design room air diffusion and to select and size air diffusers, such as assumption of perfect mixing, design methods employing the empirical relations determined through research, such as the air diffusion performance index (ADPI), air jet theory and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. Air supplied into the room through the various types of outlets (grills, ceiling mounted air diffusers, perforated panels etc.), is distributed by turbulent air jets. In mixing type air distribution systems, these air jets are the primary factor affecting room air motion. Numerous theoretical and experimental studies that developed a solid base for turbulent air jets theory were conducted concurrently in different countries (Germany, Sweden, Russia, U.K., USA) from the 1930`s through the 1980`s. Design methods based on air jet theory allows for the prediction of extreme values of air velocities and air temperatures in the occupied zone of empty spaces. Current air jet theory techniques account for the effects of buoyancy, confinement, jets interaction. For many conditions of jet discharge, it is possible to analyze jet performance and determine: the angle of divergence of the jet boundary; the velocity patterns along heated or chilled the jet axis; the

  7. Novel facile method for obtaining CdSe/polyaniline/C60 composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusen, Edina; Diacon, Aurel; Mocanu, Alexandra; Nistor, Leona Cristina

    2016-08-01

    This study presents a novel method for the oxidative polymerization of aniline (ANI) by employing fullerene C60/cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots, as promoting agent of the polymerization system. The polymerization initiation mechanism is based on the difference between the HOMO-LUMO energy levels of the components which permits the formation of a continuous donor-acceptor exchange. Both the polymerization reaction evolution and the molecular weights of the obtained polymers have been characterized. The novelty of the paper consists in the synthesis of a novel nano-composite material through a novel polymerization technique. The resulting material containing PANI, CdSe quantum dots and C60 has been characterized by UV-Vis, NIR, fluorescence, TEM and GPC analyses.

  8. Facile Precipitation Method for Morphological Tuning of Cu{sub 2}O Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Sik; Huh, Young Duk [Dankook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    We have developed a simple method for tuning the morphologies of Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals. Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals were prepared by precipitation at room temperature from a mixture of Cu(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O, N,N,N',N'- tetramethyl ethylenediamine (TMEDA), ascorbic acid, and polyethylene glycol (PEG). TMEDA was used to promote the formation of copper-TMEDA complexes. A variety of Cu{sub 2}O microcrystal morphologies were obtained simply by varying the concentrations of TMEDA and ascorbic acid. Aggregated Cu{sub 2}O microspheres are formed at higher concentrations of ascorbic acid in the absence of TMEDA. Aggregated Cu{sub 2}O microcubes are formed at lower concentrations of ascorbic acid and higher concentrations of TMEDA. The crystal growth mechanism of these Cu{sub 2}O morphologies is explained.

  9. Facile Method to Fabricate Highly Thermally Conductive Graphite/PP Composite with Network Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Changping; Ni, Haiying; Chen, Jun; Yang, Wei

    2016-08-03

    Thermally conductive polymer composites have aroused significant academic and industrial interest for several decades. Herein, we report a novel fabrication method of graphite/polypropylene (PP) composites with high thermal conductivity in which graphite flakes construct a continuous thermally conductive network. The thermal conductivity coefficient of the graphite/PP composites is markedly improved to be 5.4 W/mK at a graphite loading of 21.2 vol %. Such a great improvement of the thermal conductivity is ascribed to the occurrence of orientations of crystalline graphite flakes with large particles around PP resin particles and the formation of a perfect thermally conductive network. The model of Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) is adopted to interpret the outstanding thermally conductive property of the graphite/PP composites. This work provides a guideline for the easy fabrication of thermally conductive composites with network structures.

  10. Novel facile method for obtaining CdSe/polyaniline/C60 composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusen, Edina; Diacon, Aurel; Mocanu, Alexandra; Nistor, Leona Cristina

    2016-08-30

    This study presents a novel method for the oxidative polymerization of aniline (ANI) by employing fullerene C60/cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots, as promoting agent of the polymerization system. The polymerization initiation mechanism is based on the difference between the HOMO-LUMO energy levels of the components which permits the formation of a continuous donor-acceptor exchange. Both the polymerization reaction evolution and the molecular weights of the obtained polymers have been characterized. The novelty of the paper consists in the synthesis of a novel nano-composite material through a novel polymerization technique. The resulting material containing PANI, CdSe quantum dots and C60 has been characterized by UV-Vis, NIR, fluorescence, TEM and GPC analyses.

  11. Novel facile method for obtaining CdSe/polyaniline/C60 composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusen, Edina; Diacon, Aurel; Mocanu, Alexandra; Nistor, Leona Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a novel method for the oxidative polymerization of aniline (ANI) by employing fullerene C60/cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots, as promoting agent of the polymerization system. The polymerization initiation mechanism is based on the difference between the HOMO-LUMO energy levels of the components which permits the formation of a continuous donor-acceptor exchange. Both the polymerization reaction evolution and the molecular weights of the obtained polymers have been characterized. The novelty of the paper consists in the synthesis of a novel nano-composite material through a novel polymerization technique. The resulting material containing PANI, CdSe quantum dots and C60 has been characterized by UV-Vis, NIR, fluorescence, TEM and GPC analyses. PMID:27572228

  12. Facile Method for the Production of Recombinant Cholera Toxin B Subunit in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamorsky, Krystal; Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report an Escherichia coli-based expression and purification method of recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (CTB). The CTB gene (E. coli codon optimized) is cloned into commercial pET-22b(+) vector using standard molecular biology techniques and the resulting vector is transformed into BL21(DE3) electrocompetent cells. The bacterial cells are grown and induction with isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) results in accumulation of CTB in the culture medium. CTB is purified from the culture medium using a simple two-step chromatography process: immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) followed by ceramic hydroxyapatite (CHT). CTB is purified to >95 % homogeneity with a yield of over 10 mg per liter of culture. Depending on the application, endotoxin is removed using a commercially available endotoxin removal resin to <1 EU/mg.

  13. Facile synthesis of pectin coated Fe3O4 nanospheres by the sonochemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Junjun; Wu, Shixi; Jiang, Wei; Li, Pingyun; Chen, Xiaolong; Liu, Li; Liu, Jie; Sun, Danping; Chen, Wei; Chen, Binhua; Li, Fengsheng

    2013-04-01

    Pectin coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanospheres (PCMNs) were synthesized by the sonochemical method. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by chemical precipitation as reported in the previous articles, and the PCMNs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, a vibrating sample magnetometer and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. The results indicated that the magnetic nanoparticles have been coated by pectin, magnetite content of which was up to 63%, with the saturation magnetization being 32.69 emu/g. The formation mechanism and further application of PCMNs have also been discussed. The results show that the PCMNs can be applied to biomedical applications.

  14. Facile method to prepare CdS nanostructure based on the CdTe films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ligang; Chen, Yuehui; Wei, Zelu; Cai, Hongling; Zhang, Fengming; Wu, Xiaoshan, E-mail: xswu@nju.edu.cn

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdS nanostructure is directly fabricated on CdTe film only by heating treatment under H{sub 2}S/N{sub 2} mixed atmosphere at a relatively low temperature (450 °C) with gold layer as the intermediate. • Nanostructure of CdS layer, varying from nanowires to nanosheets, may be controlled by the thickness of gold film. • The change of morphology adjusts its luminescence properties. - Abstract: Nanostructured cadmium sulfide (CdS) plays critical roles in electronics and optoelectronics. In this paper, we report a method to fabricate CdS nanostructure directly on CdTe film, via a thermal annealing method in H{sub 2}S/N{sub 2} mixed gas flow at a relatively low temperature (450 °C). The microstructure and optical properties of CdS nanostructure are investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman, and photoluminescence. The morphology of CdS nanostructure, evolving from nanowires to nanosheets, can be controlled by the thickness of Au film deposited on the CdTe film. And CdS nanostructures are single crystalline with the hexagonal wurtzite structure. Raman spectroscopy under varying the excitation wavelengths confirm that synthesized CdS-CdTe films contain two layers, i.e., CdS nanostructure (top) and CdTe layer (bottom). The change of morphology modifies its luminescence properties. Obviously, through simply thermal annealing in H{sub 2}S/N{sub 2} mixed gas, fabricating CdS nanostructure on CdTe film can open up the new possibility for obtaining high efficient CdTe solar cell.

  15. RAFT-HDA Chemistry - Conception, Development and Application of a Facile Tool for Precision Macromolecular Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Inglis, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The conceptualization, development and application of the herein named RAFT-HDA Chemistry is reported. This chemistry is presented as a facile conjugation method (falling within the field of click chemistry) whereby synthetic polymeric materials may be covalently linked to other species, including other polymers with high efficiency.

  16. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M; Meier, W P; Sinner, E K

    2012-07-16

    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology - about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal and even artificial life, the engineering of biochemical pathways on the organismic level, the modelling of molecular processes and finally, the combination of synthetic with nature-derived materials and architectural concepts, such as a cellular membrane. Still, synthetic biology is a discipline, which embraces interdisciplinary attempts in order to have a profound, scientific base to enable the re-design of nature and to compose architectures and processes with man-made matter. We like to give an overview about the developments in the field of synthetic biology, regarding polymer-based analogs of cellular membranes and what questions can be answered by applying synthetic polymer science towards the smallest unit in life, namely a cell.

  17. A Facile Synthetic Method for (3Z, 6Z, 9S, 10R)-9, 10-Epoxy-3, 6- heneicosadiene, Sex Pheromone Component of Hyphantria Cunea (Drug)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao CHE; Zhong Ning ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Total synthesis of (3Z, 6Z, 9S, 10R)-9, 10-epoxy-3, 6-heneicosadiene, sex pheromone component of Hyphantria cunea (Drug), was achieved using Sharpless AE kinetic resolution and alkylative epoxide rearrangement as key steps.

  18. A facile method for preparing highly conductive and reflective surface-silvered polyimide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan; Cao, Bing; Wang, Wen-Cai; Zhang, Liqun; Wu, Dezhen; Jin, Riguang

    2009-07-01

    A novel method was developed for the preparation of reflective and electrically conductive surface-silvered polyimide (PI) films. The polyimide films were functionalized with poly(dopamine), simply by dipping the PI films into aqueous dopamine solution and mildly stirring at room temperature. Electroless plating of silver was readily carried out on the poly(dopamine) deposited PI (PI-DOPA) surface. The surface compositions of the modified PI films were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results show that the PI-DOPA surfaces were successfully deposited with ploy(dopamine) and were ready for electroless deposition of silver. The poly(dopamine) layer was used not only as the chemi-sorption sites for silver particles during the electroless plating of silver, but also as an adhesion promotion layer for the electrolessly deposited silver. The as-prepared silvered PI films show high conductivity and reflectivity, with a surface resistance of 1.5 Ω and a reflectivity of 95%, respectively.

  19. A facile method for preparing highly conductive and reflective surface-silvered polyimide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Yuan; Cao Bing [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, and the Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 Beisanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Wencai, E-mail: wangw@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 Beisanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang Liqun; Wu Dezhen; Jin Riguang [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 Beisanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2009-07-15

    A novel method was developed for the preparation of reflective and electrically conductive surface-silvered polyimide (PI) films. The polyimide films were functionalized with poly(dopamine), simply by dipping the PI films into aqueous dopamine solution and mildly stirring at room temperature. Electroless plating of silver was readily carried out on the poly(dopamine) deposited PI (PI-DOPA) surface. The surface compositions of the modified PI films were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results show that the PI-DOPA surfaces were successfully deposited with ploy(dopamine) and were ready for electroless deposition of silver. The poly(dopamine) layer was used not only as the chemi-sorption sites for silver particles during the electroless plating of silver, but also as an adhesion promotion layer for the electrolessly deposited silver. The as-prepared silvered PI films show high conductivity and reflectivity, with a surface resistance of 1.5 {Omega} and a reflectivity of 95%, respectively.

  20. Application Of Mathematical Methods For Condition Monitoring Of Oil And Gas Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. MANDRYK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The difference schemes of the method of variable directions for numerical realization of two-dimensional models in different frames account for environmental heterogeneity of matter distribution have been presented. The schemes allow to measure concentration of substances in real objects through building of functions, modeling various boundary conditions. A software complex for their implementation has been devised and the test findings as well as their analysis have been presented. To model processes which parameters depend on three spatial coordinates, we have suggested numerical schemes for implementing three-dimensional models that are absolutely stable and have the second order of accuracy at all spatial coordinates. Contaminated areas of anthropogenic origin, particularly surface and underground waters as well as soils have been analyzed. The mathematical models of diffusion processes, based on the use of two- and three-dimensional diffusion equations with a wide range of boundary and initial conditions, have been suggested. It is determined that exact solutions prohibit studying of the peculiarities of their behavior depending on the type of boundary conditions, therefore we suggest using numerical solutions.

  1. Facile Synthesis of Sub-20 nm Silver Nanowires through a Bromide-Mediated Polyol Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Robson Rosa; Yang, Miaoxin; Choi, Sang-Il; Chi, Miaofang; Luo, Ming; Zhang, Chao; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Camargo, Pedro H C; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; Xia, Younan

    2016-08-23

    Essentially all of the Ag nanowires reported in the literature have sizes larger than 30 nm in diameter. In this article, we report a simple and robust approach to the synthesis of Ag nanowires with diameters below 20 nm and aspect ratios over 1000 using a one-pot polyol method. The Ag nanowires took a penta-twinned structure, and they could be obtained rapidly (85% of the as-obtained solid product) under atmospheric pressure. The key to the success of this synthesis is to restrain the nanowires from lateral growth by employing both Br(-) ions and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) with a high molecular weight of 1 300 000 g/mol to cap the {100} side faces, together with the use of a syringe pump to slowly introduce AgNO3 into the reaction solution. By optimizing the ratios between the capping agents and AgNO3, we were able to slow down the reduction kinetics and effectively direct the Ag nanowires to grow along the longitudinal direction only. The nanowires showed great mechanical flexibility and could be bent with acute angles without breaking. Because of their small diameters, the transverse localized surface plasmon resonance peak of the Ag nanowires could be pushed down to the ultraviolet region, below 400 nm, making them ideal conductive elements for the fabrication of touch screens, solar cells, and smart windows.

  2. Facile method for preparing superoleophobic surfaces with hierarchical microcubic/nanowire structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Wonshik; Hwang, Woonbong

    2016-02-01

    To facilitate the fabrication of superoleophobic surfaces having hierarchical microcubic/nanowire structures (HMNS), even for low surface tension liquids including octane (surface tension = 21.1 mN m-1), and to understand the influences of surface structures on the oleophobicity, we developed a convenient method to achieve superoleophobic surfaces on aluminum substrates using chemical acid etching, anodization and fluorination treatment. The liquid repellency of the structured surface was validated through observable experimental results the contact and sliding angle measurements. The etching condition required to ensure high surface roughness was established, and an optimal anodizing condition was determined, as a critical parameter in building the superoleophobicity. The microcubic structures formed by acid etching are essential for achieving the formation of the hierarchical structure, and therefore, the nanowire structures formed by anodization lead to an enhancement of the superoleophobicity for low surface tension liquids. Under optimized morphology by microcubic/nanowire structures with fluorination treatment, the contact angle over 150° and the sliding angle less than 10° are achieved even for octane.

  3. The Improvement of Two Kinds of Synthetic Methods of Indazoles%两种吲唑合成方法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易奋飞; 何毅

    2011-01-01

    苯乙烯类吲唑衍生物是一类重要的类胰岛素生长因素1受体抑制剂。本文介绍了它的两种合成原料:6-氯-3-甲基吲唑和6-氟-3-羰甲基吲唑的合成方法,并对以邻卤苯羰基类化合物为原料生成苯腙再分子内环化和吲哚的重氮化反应这两种方法进行了改进。改进后的方法产率大大提高,反应时间缩短,后处理简化,更利于吲唑类化合物的大规模生产,对吲唑的工业化生产和医药行业具有重要的意义。%The styrene's derivatives of the indazole were a type of important IGF-1R inhibitor.In this article,the synthetic methods of two kinds of starting materials which are 6-chloro-3-methyl-1H-indazole and 6-fluoro-1H-indazole-3-carbaldehyde were introduced.And the methods of intramolecular cyclization of phenylhydrazine using o-halogen phenylcarbamoyl as starting materials and diazo-reaction of indole were improved.The improved methods made to raise the yield,shorten the reaction time and simplify the post-treatment.It was good for full scale operation of the indazoles,and had important sense on production in industry and medical vocation.

  4. Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on high-fructose corn syrup supply in Canada: a natural experiment using synthetic control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; McKee, Martin; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2017-07-04

    Critics of free trade agreements have argued that they threaten public health, as they eliminate barriers to trade in potentially harmful products, such as sugar. Here we analyze the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), testing the hypothesis that lowering tariffs on food and beverage syrups that contain high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) increased its use in foods consumed in Canada. We used supply data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to assess changes in supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS after NAFTA. We estimate the impact of NAFTA on supply of HFCS in Canada using an innovative, quasi-experimental methodology - synthetic control methods - that creates a control group with which to compare Canada's outcomes. Additional robustness tests were performed for sample, control groups and model specification. Tariff reductions in NAFTA coincided with a 41.6 (95% confidence interval 25.1 to 58.2) kilocalorie per capita daily increase in the supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS. This change was not observed in the control groups, including Australia and the United Kingdom, as well as a composite control of 16 countries. Results were robust to placebo tests and additional sensitivity analyses. NAFTA was strongly associated with a marked rise in HFCS supply and likely consumption in Canada. Our study provides evidence that even a seemingly modest change to product tariffs in free trade agreements can substantially alter population-wide dietary behaviour and exposure to risk factors. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  5. Determination of low isotopic enrichment of L-[1-C-13]valine by gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry : a robust method for measuring protein fractional synthetic rates in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijngoud, DJ; Hellstern, G; Elzinga, H; de Sain-van der Velden, MG; Okken, A; Stellaard, F

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed for measuring protein fractional synthetic rates using the N-methoxycarbonylmethyl ester (MCM) derivative of L-[1-C-13]valine and on-line gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). The derivatization procedure can be performed rapidly and GC sep

  6. Determination of low isotopic enrichment of L-[1-C-13]valine by gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry : a robust method for measuring protein fractional synthetic rates in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijngoud, DJ; Hellstern, G; Elzinga, H; de Sain-van der Velden, MG; Okken, A; Stellaard, F

    A method was developed for measuring protein fractional synthetic rates using the N-methoxycarbonylmethyl ester (MCM) derivative of L-[1-C-13]valine and on-line gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). The derivatization procedure can be performed rapidly and GC

  7. Computational synthetic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bokowski, Jürgen

    1989-01-01

    Computational synthetic geometry deals with methods for realizing abstract geometric objects in concrete vector spaces. This research monograph considers a large class of problems from convexity and discrete geometry including constructing convex polytopes from simplicial complexes, vector geometries from incidence structures and hyperplane arrangements from oriented matroids. It turns out that algorithms for these constructions exist if and only if arbitrary polynomial equations are decidable with respect to the underlying field. Besides such complexity theorems a variety of symbolic algorithms are discussed, and the methods are applied to obtain new mathematical results on convex polytopes, projective configurations and the combinatorics of Grassmann varieties. Finally algebraic varieties characterizing matroids and oriented matroids are introduced providing a new basis for applying computer algebra methods in this field. The necessary background knowledge is reviewed briefly. The text is accessible to stud...

  8. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants.

  9. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A recent study found that 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), a common synthetic cathinone, affects the brain in ... but is at least 10 times more powerful. MDPV is the most common synthetic cathinone found in ...

  10. What Are Synthetic Cannabinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dried plant materials. Chemical tests show that their active ingredients are man-made cannabinoid compounds. Synthetic cannabinoid users report some effects similar to those produced by marijuana: elevated mood relaxation altered perception symptoms of psychosis Synthetic cannabinoids can ...

  11. Development and validation of a simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of anastrozole, bicalutamide, tamoxifen, and their synthetic impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fabio Pereira; Garcia, Pedro Lopez

    2012-11-15

    A simple and sensitive analytical method for simultaneous determination of anastrozole, bicalutamide, and tamoxifen as well as their synthetic impurities, anastrozole pentamethyl, bicalutamide 3-fluoro-isomer, and tamoxifen e-isomer, was developed and validated by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation was achieved on a Symmetry(®) C-8 column (100×4.6 mm i.d., 3.5 μm) at room temperature (±24 °C), with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/water containing 0.18% N,N dimethyloctylamine and pH adjusted to 3.0 with orthophosphoric acid (46.5/53.5, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) within 20 min. The detection was made at a wavelength of 270 nm by using ultraviolet (UV) detector. No interference peaks from excipients and relative retention time indicated the specificity of the method. The calibration curve showed correlation coefficients (r) >0.99 calculated by linear regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ), respectively, were 2.2 and 6.7 μg mL(-1) for anastrozole, 2.61 and 8.72 μg mL(-1) for bicalutamide, 2.0 and 6.7 μg mL(-1) for tamoxifen, 0.06 and 0.22 μg mL(-1) for anastrozole pentamethyl, 0.02 and 0.07 μg mL(-1) for bicalutamide 3-fluoro-isomer, and 0.002 and 0.007 μg mL(-1) for tamoxifen e-isomer. Intraday and interday relative standard deviations (RSDs) were <2.0% (drugs) and <10% (degradation products) as well as the comparison between two different analysts, which were calculated by f test.

  12. The role of the acquisition methods in the analysis of natural and synthetic steroids and cholic acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrási, N; Helenkár, A; Vasanits-Zsigrai, A; Záray, Gy; Molnár-Perl, I

    2011-11-11

    An exhaustive GC-MS acquisition study was performed, for the simultaneous analysis of natural and synthetic steroids and cholic acids (in order to insert them into the last tierce of our multiresidue analysis system), such as androsterone, β-estradiol, transdehydroandro-sterone, transdehyroandrosterone, mestranol, dihydrotestosterone, ethinylestradiol, testosterone, norethisterone, estriol, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, gestodene, levonorgestrel, etonogestrel, coprostanol, progesterone, cholesterol, medroxyprogesterone-acetate, lithocholic acid, stigmasterol, cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, β-sitosterol, ursodeoxycholic acid, 3-hydroxy-7-ketocholic acid and dehydrocholic acid, in total 26 compounds. As novelties to the field, for the trimethylsilyl (TMS) oxime ether/ester derivatives of steroids and cholic acids, at first, a tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS), multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) type acquisition method has been developed in a single run; also for the first time, the three acquisition techniques, the full scan (FS), the selective ion monitoring (SIM), in our case the multiple ion monitoring (MIM) and the currently optimized MRM methods, have been compared; all three, in parallel, under strictly the same derivatization/instrumental conditions, both in matrix free solutions and municipal wastewater from two Hungarian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Critical evaluation of the three acquisition protocols was collated on their analytical performances and validated under the same conditions. The data of six point calibration curves for FS, MIM and MRM methods, showed that both R² (0.9995, 0.9858, 0.9975) and RSD (5.3, 5.8, 5.0), for two parallel derivatizations, each injected three times, proved to be independent of the acquisition processes. Whereas, for the method limit of quantification (LOQ) and the instrument limit of quantification (ILQ) values showed considerable differences. LOQ data, were decreasing in the FS, MIM, MRM line (expressed in ng

  13. Automated rapid method for the determination of Ni-63 and Fe-55 in environmental samples from dismantling of nuclear facilities; Automatisiertes Schnellverfahren zur Bestimmung von Ni-63 und Fe-55 in Umweltproben aus dem Rueckbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coeguer, E.; Zoriy, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz

    2016-07-01

    The shutdown and decommissioning of nuclear facilities is continuing in Germany. As a consequence, due to the resulting radioactive waste, it becomes more and more important to analyse the nuclides in the produced radioactive waste efficiently. Thereby a fast and reliable analysis procedure for the determination of Ni-63 and Fe-55 is needed. Therefor we developed recently a method for the determination of Ni-63 and Fe-55 in waste water based on extraction chromatography. The method was optimized in order to improve the sample preparation. The samples with usually relatively high matrix content were decomposed by wet chemical digestion. A unique feature of the current method is the use of an automated separating column module (TSM), developed in our laboratory, in order to selectively separate the radionuclides of interest. At last separated Ni-63 and Fe-55 are analyzed by means of Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). To validate the developed procedure synthetically prepared (doped) matrix-matched samples as well as certificated standards were analyzed. The obtained results were in a good agreement with the expected or certified values.

  14. Facile method to synthesize magnetic iron oxides/TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles and their photodegradation application of methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Wei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many methods have been reported to improving the photocatalytic efficiency of organic pollutant and their reliable applications. In this work, we propose a facile pathway to prepare three different types of magnetic iron oxides/TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles (NPs by seed-mediated method. The hybrid NPs are composed of spindle, hollow, and ultrafine iron oxide NPs as seeds and 3-aminopropyltriethyloxysilane as linker between the magnetic cores and TiO2 layers, respectively. The composite structure and the presence of the iron oxide and titania phase have been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectra. The hybrid NPs show good magnetic response, which can get together under an external applied magnetic field and hence they should become promising magnetic recovery catalysts (MRCs. Photocatalytic ability examination of the magnetic hybrid NPs was carried out in methylene blue (MB solutions illuminated under Hg light in a photochemical reactor. About 50% to 60% of MB was decomposed in 90 min in the presence of magnetic hybrid NPs. The synthesized magnetic hybrid NPs display high photocatalytic efficiency and will find recoverable potential applications in cleaning polluted water with the help of magnetic separation.

  15. Experimental investigation for an isolation technique on conducting the electromechanical impedance method in high-temperature pipeline facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Wongi S.; Lee, Hyeonseok

    2016-11-01

    In general, the pipelines within a nuclear power plant facility may experience high temperatures up to several hundred degrees. Thus it is absolutely vital to monitor these pipes to prevent leakage of radioactive substances which may lead to a catastrophic outcome of the surrounding environment. Over the years, one of the structural health monitoring technique known as the electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique has been of great interests in various fields including civil infrastructures, mechanical and aerospace structures. Although it has one of the best advantages to be able for a single piezoelectric transducer to act as a sensor and an actuator, simultaneously, its low curie temperature makes it difficult for the EMI technique to be conducted at high temperature environment. To overcome this problem, this study shows a method to avoid attaching the piezoelectric transducer directly onto the target structure using a metal wire for damage detection at high temperature. By shifting the frequency to compensate the signature changes subjected to the variations in temperature, the experimental results indicate that damage identification is more successful above 200 oC, making the metal wire method suitable for the EMI technique at high temperature environment.

  16. Analysis of Unit Process Cost for an Engineering-Scale Pyroprocess Facility Using a Process Costing Method in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungki Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing, which is a dry recycling method, converts spent nuclear fuel into U (Uranium/TRU (TRansUranium metal ingots in a high-temperature molten salt phase. This paper provides the unit process cost of a pyroprocess facility that can process up to 10 tons of pyroprocessing product per year by utilizing the process costing method. Toward this end, the pyroprocess was classified into four kinds of unit processes: pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinning. The unit process cost was calculated by classifying the cost consumed at each process into raw material and conversion costs. The unit process costs of the pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinning were calculated as 195 US$/kgU-TRU, 310 US$/kgU-TRU, 215 US$/kgU-TRU and 231 US$/kgU-TRU, respectively. Finally the total pyroprocess cost was calculated as 951 US$/kgU-TRU. In addition, the cost driver for the raw material cost was identified as the cost for Li3PO4, needed for the LiCl-KCl purification process, and platinum as an anode electrode in the electrochemical reduction process.

  17. Effect of synthetic methods on the thermo electrical properties of textured Bi{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Co{sub 1}.7O{sub x} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasekh, SH.; Madre, M. A.; Sotelo, A.; Guilmeau, E.; Marinel, S.; Diez, J. C.

    2010-07-01

    Thermoelectric performances on cobaltite ceramics can be changed by grain orientation. This can be performed by directional solidification on samples prepared from different synthetic methods. Three synthetic methods, conventional solid state reaction, sol-gel and polymer solution were used for preparation of Bi{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Co{sub 1}.7O{sub x} powders. The powders have been directionally grown, at a rate of 30 mm/h, by the laser floating zone method. In all the cases, the microstructure shows alternated layers, of Bi{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub x} and a Bi-Ca-O solid solution, with small CoO inclusions. It has been found an improvement on the power factor at 50 degree centigrade for the solution methods with respect to the conventional solid sate sintered samples. (Author)

  18. Use of the event tree method for evaluate the safety of radioactive facilities; Utilizacion del metodo de arboles de eventos para evaluar la seguridad de instalaciones radiactivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez S, A.; Cornejo D, N.; Callis F, E. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113, e/41 y 47 Playa, CP 11300, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: ale@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The work shows the validity of the use of Trees of Events like a quantitative method appropriate to carry out evaluations of radiological safety. Its were took like base the evaluations of safety of five Radiotherapy Departments, carried out in the mark of the process of authorization of these facilities. The risk values were obtained by means of the combination of the probabilities of occurrence of the events with its consequences. The use of the method allowed to suggest improvements to the existent safety systems, as well as to confirm that the current regulator requirements for this type of facilities to lead to practices with acceptable risk levels. (Author)

  19. Development and validation of a general non-digestive method for the determination of palladium in bulk pharmaceutical chemicals and their synthetic intermediates by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Walden, S; Egan, R

    1997-02-01

    A simple, selective, sensitive, accurate and relatively inexpensive method for the determination of palladium in bulk pharmaceutical chemicals (BPC) and their synthetic intermediates by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy has been developed and validated. Sample preparation by direct dissolution of sample in 70% nitric acid is simple and effective without adverse effects. The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation of the method were determined to be 0.7 ppm and 2 ppm respectively in BPC.

  20. Two-faces stationary irradiation method and dosimetric considerations for radiation processing at the multipurpose gamma irradiation facility / IPEN-CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo S.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S., E-mail: psantos@ipen.br, E-mail: pavsalva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Over the last ten years, the Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN/CNEN located inside the Sao Paulo University campus has been providing services on radiation processing, especially for sterilization of health care and disposable medical products as well as support to research studies on modification of physical, chemical and biological properties of several materials. Placed at the same campus operates an extremely important radiopharmaceutical production facility when almost all disposable supplies used to produce medical products as the technetium-99m are continuously sterilized by gamma radiation. Many university biomedical research laboratories specially those working with equipment for cell cultures and vaccine production also make use of the gamma sterilization. Animal feed and shavings used by certified bioteries are routinely disinfected. Alternative underwater irradiation methods were developed to meet the demand of gemstone color enhancement. Human tissues including bone, skin, amniotic membranes, tendons, and cartilage belonging to National Banks are usually irradiated too. Different kind of polymers, hydrogels, foods as well native fruits, have been irradiated in this facility. Cultural heritage objects as books, paintings and furniture are disinfected routinely by gamma radiation. The success of the implementation of radiation processing in this facility is due to research and development of irradiation and dosimetry methods suitable for each condition. In this work are presented some considerations about the distribution dose and the two-faces stationary irradiation method developed and validated for this facility. (author)

  1. Facilities & Leadership

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The facilities web service provides VA facility information. The VA facilities locator is a feature that is available across the enterprise, on any webpage, for the...

  2. Facile and Scalable Synthesis Method for High-Quality Few-Layer Graphene through Solution-Based Exfoliation of Graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Boon-Hong; Wu, Tong-Fei; Hong, Jong-Dal

    2017-02-08

    Here we describe a facile and scalable method for preparing defect-free graphene sheets exfoliated from graphite using the positively charged polyelectrolyte precursor poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV-pre) as a stabilizer in an aqueous solution. The graphene exfoliated by PPV-pre was apparently stabilized in the solution as a form of graphene/PPV-pre (denoted to GPPV-pre), which remains in a homogeneous dispersion over a year. The thickness values of 300 selected 76% GPPV-pre flakes ranged from 1 to 10 nm, corresponding to between one and a few layers of graphene in the lateral dimensions of 1 to 2 μm. Furthermore, this approach was expected to yield a marked decrease in the density of defects in the electronic conjugation of graphene compared to that of graphene oxide (GO) obtained by Hummers' method. The positively charged GPPV-pre was employed to fabricate a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) electrode layer-by-layer with negatively charged GO, yielding (GPPV-pre/GO)n film electrode. The PPV-pre and GO in the (GPPV-pre/GO)n films were simultaneously converted using hydroiodic acid vapor to fully conjugated PPV and reduced graphene oxide (RGO), respectively. The electrical conductivity of (GPPV/RGO)23 multilayer films was 483 S/cm, about three times greater than that of the (PPV/RGO)23 multilayer films (166 S/cm) comprising RGO (prepared by Hummers method). Furthermore, the superior electrical properties of GPPV were made evident, when comparing the capacitive performances of two supercapacitor systems; (polyaniline PANi/RGO)30/(GPPV/RGO)23/PET (volumetric capacitance = 216 F/cm(3); energy density = 19 mWh/cm(3); maximum power density = 498 W/cm(3)) and (PANi/RGO)30/(PPV/RGO)23/PET (152 F/cm(3); 9 mWh/cm(3); 80 W/cm(3)).

  3. The Evaluation Method for Facilities Planning of Logistics Centre Based on SOSA and TOPSIS%基于主客观赋权和TOPSIS的物流中心规划方案评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉民

    2011-01-01

    The scheme evaluation for facilities planning of logistics center is a multiobjective decision making problem. Based on SOSA (Subjective and Objective Synthetic Approach) and TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) , a comprehensive evaluation method is brought forward to evaluate the scheme of logistics center's facilities planning. After establishing the evaluation indexes system, ascertaining the indexes' weight by SOSA, calculating the relative approach degree as to the ideal point and negative ideal point, and then the values of these relative approach degree are obtained. Based on the values, the evaluation result and the optimum scheme could be obtained. Case analysis shows that the proposed method is effective and reasonable.%物流中心设施规划的方案评价是一个多目标决策问题.提出了一种基于主客观赋权( SOSA)和理想点法(TOPSIS)的综合评价方法,能够较好解决物流中心设施规划方案的评价优选问题.根据物流中心设施规划设计的特点和要求,建立综合评价指标体系;应用主客观赋权的方法,确定各指标在综合评价指标体系中的权重;求出各方案相应指标属性值对理想解的相对接近度;通过比较相对接近度的大小,对各个规划方案进行排序优选.应用实例表明该方法是合理有效的.

  4. A Facile Method to Form a Densely Grafted PEO-b-P4VP Brush on Gold Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨倩; 周常明; 陈旺; 方佳节; 陈道勇

    2012-01-01

    Here we report a facile method for the preparation of a PEO113-b-P4VP93 brush on gold surface with a grafting density as high as 1.32 chains/nm2; the P4VP blocks were physically adsorbed on gold surface forming an inner layer while the PEO blocks stretched towards the solution forming PEO brush. PEOl13-b-P4VPq3 micelles with P4VP core and PEO shell formed in methanol/water mixed solvents were used as the precursor. By adsorbing PEOII3-b-P4VP93 micelles from pure water, in which the density of the micelles is the largest, maximum amount of the micelles was adsorbed onto gold surface, and the adsorbed micelles existed as individual domains on the surface To prepare the polymer brush with a density as high as possible, we annealed the adsorbed micelles by metha- nol/water mixed solvent at the volume fraction of methanol (VF) of 20%, which was the proper proportion at which the core-forming P4VP chains began to be flexible but the integrity of the micelles was remained. At this volume fraction, almost all the adsorbed micelles originally existing as individual domains were transformed into a dense polymer brush.

  5. Investigating the current methods of assessing behavioral and psychological symptoms in residential aged care facilities in a metropolitan city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Samantha M; Lautenschlager, Nicola T

    2017-05-01

    Up to 90% of people with dementia living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) display behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and these are associated with poorer quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. In order to implement appropriate interventions, it is important to understand the symptoms in more detail. Despite the availability of BPSD assessment tools, it is unknown what the current practice of monitoring of BPSD in RACFs. We sought to investigate the current BPSD assessment tools being used in RACFs and explore different stakeholders' views on current practices. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 21 clinicians were identified and administered a questionnaire. Old age psychiatrists, aged psychiatry clinicians, behavior management teams and RACF staff completed the questionnaires. Clinicians reported that objective consistent information about BPSD were important for recommending and implementing pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies for BPSD; however, the use of validated BPSD assessments in RACFs was not a usual part of clinical practice. RACF staff stated the major barrier to assessment of BPSD was lack of time. Alternate methods of assessing BPSD which consider preferences from clinicians and RACF staff should be further investigated. Modern technology which can allow "real time" assessment may be a solution.

  6. Robust hybrid raspberry-like hollow particles with complex structures: a facile method of swelling polymerization towards composite spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Yao, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaomei; Feng, Lei; Qu, Jiayan; Liu, Pange

    2014-02-14

    A novel robust hybrid raspberry-like TiO2/PS hollow particles with complex double-shelled structures have been fabricated in large quantities by a facile swelling polymerization approach based on commercially available hollow polystyrene (PS) spheres. The crosslinked-PS protrusions are wedged firmly into the TiO2 shell, making the resultant particles both chemically and mechanically robust. By simply tuning the monomer concentration, the hierarchical morphology (the size and number of protrusion) of the surfaces can be well-controlled. Due to the dual-sized hierarchical morphology, the particulate coating possesses superhydrophobicity (water contact angle ≈ 161°). Moreover, the well-compartmentalized character is similar to that of typical Janus particles. The special particles with interfacial activity can stabilize water-in-toluene (w/o) emulsions well. Meanwhile, a TiO2 double-shelled hollow sphere with a complex structure is achieved by calcination or solvent treatment. All these unique features derived from a readily available method will endow the products with a broader range of applications.

  7. Biochemistry Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Biochemistry Facility provides expert services and consultation in biochemical enzyme assays and protein purification. The facility currently features 1) Liquid...

  8. 文献计量法与内容分析法的综合研究(Ⅱ)——综合研究的方法构成%A Synthetic Research of Bibliometric Method with Content Analysis Method——Method Structure of Synthetic Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曰芬

    2009-01-01

    文献计量法与内容分析法综合研究的关键是能否明确研究对象与分析单元、设计合理的方法体系和有效的方法应用流程.本文以文本信息为主论证了综合研究的分析对象和分析单元,阐述文本信息中可计量的分析单元的含义和不同分析单元组配的形式;分别设计从文献计量法出发的综合方法和从内容分析法出发的综合方法(SMoBC);最后,提出以特征单元、时空分布、内容层次为坐标的三维综合方法(SMoBC)的体系架构,将外部特征与内容特征、定量分析与定性分析、空间分析与时间分析等有机地综合在一起,构建三维SMoBC的基本流程,分析三维SMoBC的用途.%The key of synthetic research of bibliometric method with content analysis method is whether be able to identify research and analysis unit,to design reasonable method system and effective application process. Based on text information, this paper reasoned research and analysis unit of Synthetic Research, expatiated the meaning of Measurable units and the form of different units allocated,designed SMoBC in view of bibliometric method and content analysis method respectively,last,designed three-dimensional system of SMoBC which took character cell,space time distributing and content arrangement as coordinate,it synthesized the different elements organically,such as external and content character,quantitative and qualitative analysis,spacial and temporal analysis,Constructed the basic process of 3-DSMoBC,analyzed the main application of 3-D SMoBC.

  9. Optimizing Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Spatial compound images are constructed from synthetic aperture data acquired using a linear phased-array transducer. Compound images of wires, tissue, and cysts are created using a method, which allows both transmit and receive compounding without any loss in temporal resolution. Similarly to co...

  10. A facile method for studying interaction of rhodamine B and bovine serum albumin:Towards physical-binding mediated fluorescence labeling of proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宇星; 钟睿博; 郭俊; 刘雨双; 袁鸣; 白志军; 刘涛涛; 赵欣敏; 张峰

    2015-01-01

    Strategies for labeling proteins with fluorophores are always important for biotechnology. Here we take a model protein (bovine serum albumin) and a typical fluorophore (rhodamine B) to demonstrate a direct labeling method just by physical adsorption. In combination with size exclusion chromatography and the Scartchard equation, we have developed a facile analysis method for calculating the binding constant and binding sites. The molecular docking method has been used to study the binding site in amino acid level.

  11. Sequential Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) is a novel technique which allows to implement synthetic aperture beamforming on a system with a restricted complexity, and without storing RF-data. The objective is to improve lateral resolution and obtain a more depth independent resolution...... and a range independent lateral resolution is obtained. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The lateral resolution increases with a decreasing F#. Grating lobes appear if F# 6 2 for a linear array with k-pitch...

  12. Control theory meets synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Dy, Aaron J; Qian, Yili

    2016-07-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology.

  13. Control theory meets synthetic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. PMID:27440256

  14. A facile method for high yield synthesis of carbon nano onions for designing binder-free flexible supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Debananda; Badrayyana, Subramanya; Parida, Smrutiranjan

    2017-05-01

    Carbon nano onion (CNO) is a promising material for diverse application areas such as energy devices, catalysis, lubrication, biology and gas storage, etc. However, its implementation is fraught with the production of high-quality powders in bulk quantity. Herein, we report a facile scalable and one-step "wick-and-oil" flame synthesis of pure and water dispersible CNO nanopowder. Other forms of carbon did not contaminate the as-prepared CNO; hence, a post processing purification procedure was not necessary. Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) specific surface area of as-prepared CNO was 218 m2/g, which is higher as compared to other reported flame synthesis methods. Locally available daily used cotton wipe has been used for fabrication of such an ideal electrode by "dipping and drying" process providing outstanding strechability and mechanical flexibility with strong adhesion between CNOs and porous wipe. The specific capacitance 102.16 F/g, energy density 14.18 Wh/kg and power density 2448 W/kg at 20 mV/s scan rate are the highest values that ever recorded and reported so far in symmetrical two electrode cell configuration with 1M Na2SO4 electrolyte; indicating a very good synthesis conditions employed with optimum pore size in agreement with electrolyte ion size. This free standing CNOs electrode also showed an excellent cyclic performance and stability retaining 95% original capacity after 5000 charge -discharge cycles. Simple preparation of high-purity CNOs and excellent electrochemical behavior of functionalized CNOs make them a promising electrode material for supercapacitor applications. Furthermore, this unique method not only affords binder free - freestanding electrode, but also provide a general way of fabricating such multifunctional promising CNOs based nanocomposites for their potential device applications in flexible solar cells and lithium ion batteries.

  15. 一种GNSS监测站选址模糊综合评价方法%A Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation Method for Address Choosing of GNSS Monitoring Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茜; 马煦; 李春霞

    2015-01-01

    全球导航卫星系统( GNSS)监测站位置布设直接影响导航系统的服务质量,因此监测站选址在GNSS系统建设过程中尤为重要。从视场、电磁干扰、多路径干扰、精度因子( DOP)值、电离层格网可用度、气象环境地质条件、政治军事安全、工作环境等因素对影响监测站选址进行了全面分析,并提出了一种“硬判决-软判决冶相结合的模糊综合评价监测站选址方法。“北斗冶卫星导航系统( BDS)监测站选址评估实例表明,该方法达到了监测站选址高效、精确的评估效果。%The deployment of Global Navigation Satellite System( GNSS) monitoring station would directly impact the service quality,so it is an important part in construction of GNSS. Based on the full analysis of the factors influencing the address choosing of monitoring station,such as visual field,electromagnetic inter-ference,multi-path interference,dilution of precision(DOP),ionosphere availability,meteorology environ-ment and geological condition,politics and military safety,working environment,a fuzzy synthetic evaluation method of “hard decision- soft decision” for the address choosing is put forward. The example of evalua-tion of address choosing of Beidou Satellite Navigation System( BDS) monitoring station shows this method can provide high-efficiency and accurate evaluation result for address choosing of monitoring station.

  16. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B....... The method is investigated using simulations and through measurements using both phased array and convex array transducers. The images all show an improved contrast compared to images without compounding, and by construction, imaging using an improved frame rate is possible. Using a phased array transducer...... and the limiting factor is the amount of memory IO resources available. An equally high demand for memory throughput is found in the computer gaming industry, where a large part of the processing takes place on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Using the GPU, a framework for synthetic aperture imaging...

  17. 凝胶制品中合成着色剂分析的样品前处理方法改进%Improved method for sample pretreatment on detecting synthetic coloring agents in colloid products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志斌; 周雪梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To improve the method of sample pretreatment on detecting 4 kinds of synthetic coloring agents, including tartrazine, sunset yellow, amaranth and new coccine in colloid products.Methods Based on GB/T 5009.35-2003Determination of synthetic colour in foods, sample pretreatment of the synthetic coloring agents was improved.Results It showed that the improved method could obviously enhance extraction rate of 4 kinds of coloring regents in colloid products, compared with GB/T 5009.35-2003. Conclusion Using the improved method, the analytical separate steps can be carried out easily in sample treating, and this method has the advantages of accuracy, precision and high reappearance for the determination of synthetic coloring agents in practical work.%目的:对凝胶制品中4种合成着色剂柠檬黄、日落黄、苋菜红、胭脂红检测的样品前处理方法进行改进。方法以国家标准GB/T 5009.35-2003规定的样品前处理方法为依据,进行合成着色剂分析样品前处理方法的改进。结果结果表明提取方法改进后可明显提高凝胶制品中4种着色剂的提取效率。结论本法处理样品时,解析分离步骤易于进行,改变样品的预处理条件后,其准确度、精密度仍很高,重现性均符合分析要求,可应用于实际检测工作中。

  18. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Facile synthesis of titania nanowires via a hot filament method and conductometric measurement of their response to hydrogen sulfide gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, Martin; Langridge, Mark T; Devarepally, Kishore K; Cox, David C; Patel, Pravin; Martin, Nicholas A; Vargha, Gergely; Stolojan, Vlad; White, Sam; Curry, Richard J

    2013-02-01

    Titania nanostructures are of increasing interest for a variety of applications, including photovoltaics, water splitting, and chemical sensing. Because of the photocatalytical properties of TiO₂, chemical processes that occur at its surface can be exploited for highly efficient nanodevices. A facile and fast synthesis route has been explored that is free of catalysts or templates. An environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) system was employed to grow titania nanowires (NWs) in a water vapor atmosphere (∼1 mbar) and to monitor the growth in situ. In addition, the growth process was also demonstrated using a simple vacuum chamber. In both processes, a titanium filament was heated via the Joule effect and NWs were found to grow on its surface, as a result of thermal oxidation processes. A variety of nanostructures were observed across the filament, with morphologies changing with the wire temperature from the center to the end points. The longest NWs were obtained for temperatures between ∼730 °C and 810 °C. Typically, they have an approximate thickness of ∼300 nm and lengths of up to a few micrometers. Cross sections prepared by focused-ion-beam milling revealed the presence of a porous layer beneath the NW clusters. This indicates that the growth of NWs is driven by oxidation-induced stresses in the subsurface region of the Ti filament and by enhanced diffusion along grain boundaries. To demonstrate the potential of titania NWs grown via the hot filament method, single NW devices were fabricated and used for conductometric sensing of hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) gas. The NW electric resistance was found to decrease in the presence of H₂S. Its variation can be explained in terms of the surface depletion model.

  20. Exploring Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation Method for Environmental Deterioration of Aircraft%飞机结构环境损伤的模糊综合评定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛; 蒋经凯

    2011-01-01

    飞机结构环境损伤的评定是制定初始维修大纲的基础工作.考虑到现行的等级求和法的缺陷,它不能很好地反映各个影响因素对结构的影响程度.文章基于模糊数学的基本原理提出了模糊综合评定的方法.结合环境损伤的评定过程,建立数学模型,并用C程序实现模型的求解过程.最后,文中应用新方法对飞机的某一重要结构项目作了等级评定并分析了新方法的优点.%Aim. The introduction of the full paper discusses relevant matters and,then proposes the exploration mentioned in the title, which, in our opinion, has a promising future in Chinese aircraft maintenance and is fully explained in sections 1, 2 and 3. Their core consists of; ( 1) because the existing rating sum method can not reflect the degree of impact of an individual factor on an aircraft, we use fuzzy sets to develop the fuzzy synthetic evaluation method; (2) we take into consideration the environmental deterioration assessment and establish the mathematical model of multi-factor fuzzy synthetic evaluation, thus obtaining the evaluation rating as shown in eq. (9) ; (3) we use the C Language to calculate the rating values of different evaluation models. We apply our fuzzy synthetic evaluation method to evaluating the synthetic ratings of environmental deterioration of the significant item of a certain aircraft ; the evaluation results, given in Fig. 2, and their analysis show preliminarily that our method can indeed effectively evaluate its environmental deterioration, determine the aircraft maintenance interval and save maintenance costs.

  1. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative—additional investments will expand markets—but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized. PMID:26690379

  2. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized.

  3. Synthetic studies on reusable propulsion system: (1) Study on the reliability design method (2) General planning of the reusable propulsion system

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Naoshi; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Himeno, Takehiro; Hasegawa, Takuya; Aoki, Hiroshi; 倉谷 尚志; 田口 秀之; 姫野 武洋; 長谷川 卓也; 青木 宏

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic studies on the reusable and future propulsion systems are presented in this paper. Especially, focused are the high reliability design methodology for the liquid rocket engine at conceptual phase, the flight demonstration project SubLEO that is propelled by the existing propulsion system, the propellant management of the liquid propellant behavior in the fuselage tank for the reusable vehicle testing and existing rocket under the accelerated environment and the health monitoring sen...

  4. Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Niels

    2008-01-01

    of the thesis considers a method for estimating the two-dimensional velocity vector within the image plane. This method, called synthetic aperture vector flow imaging, is first shortly reviewed. The main contribution of this work is partly an analysis of the method with respect to focusing effects, motion...... estimation. The method can be used for increasing the frame rate of color flow maps or alternatively for a new imaging modality entitled quadroplex imaging, featuring a color flow map and two independent spectrograms at a high frame rate. The second is an alternative method for ultrasonic vector velocity...

  5. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  6. The Effect of Synthetic Method and Annealing Temperature on Metal Site Preference in Al1-xGaxFeO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, James D.S.; Grosvenor, Andrew P. [Saskatchewan

    2013-08-15

    Magnetoelectric materials couple both magnetic and electronic properties, making them attractive for use in multifunctional devices. The magnetoelectric AFeO3 compounds (Pna21; A = Al, Ga) have received attention as the properties of the system depend on composition as well as the synthetic method used. Al1–xGaxFeO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) was synthesized by the sol–gel and coprecipitation methods and studied by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). Al L2,3⁻, Ga K-, and Fe K-edge XANES spectra were collected to examine how the average metal coordination number (CN) changes with the synthetic method. Al and Fe were found to prefer octahedral sites, while Ga prefers the tetrahedral site. It was found that composition played a larger role in determining site occupancies than synthetic method. Samples made by the sol–gel or ceramic methods (reported previously; Walker, J. D. S.; Grosvenor, A. P. J. Solid State Chem. 2013, 197, 147–153) showed smaller spectral changes than samples made via the coprecipitation method. This is attributed to greater ion mobility in samples synthesized via coprecipitation as the reactants do not have a long-range polymeric or oxide network during synthesis like samples synthesized via the sol–gel or ceramic method. Increasing annealing temperature increases the average coordination number of Al, and to a lesser extent Ga, while the average coordination number of Fe decreases. This study indicates that greater disorder is observed when the Al1–xGaxFeO3 compounds have high Al content, and when annealed at higher temperatures.

  7. Performance of a polarizer using synthetic mica crystal in the 12-25 nm wavelength range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Ming-Qi; CHEN Kai; ZHAO Jia; SUN Li-Juan; XI Shi-Bo; YAN Fen

    2011-01-01

    To develop polarizer functioning in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray region, the polar- ization performance of synthetic mica has been investigated theoretically with a simulation code using Fresnel equations and optical constants from the Henke database. The reflectance of synthetic mica crystal for s and p polarization was measured to investigate its polarization performance in a home-made synchrotron radiation soft X-ray polarimeter at beamline 3W1B, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The reflectivity of the synthetic mica crystal at an angle of grazing incidence of 48° was obtained from the experimental data, which is about 4.8x10 at 25 nm and 6.0×10 at 12 nm, and the linear polarizance of the X-ray reflected by the synthetic mica crystal that we measured using an analyzer-rotating method increases from 80% to 96.6% in this EUV region, while higher than 98.2% in the simulation. The result indicates that this synthetic mica crystal works as a practical polarizer in this EUV region of 12-25 nm, and also in an extensive wavelength region higher than 25 nm.

  8. Research on anisotropic parameters by synthetic seismogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiao-ping; LI Qing-he; YANG Cong-jie

    2005-01-01

    ased on the extensive-dilatancy anisotropy theory, the method of synthetic seismogram is used to estimate the anisotropic parameters. The advantages of the method lie in that it avoids the singularity resolution and saves calculation time of computer by using the eigenvalue and eigenvector analytical expressions of Christoffel equation, at the same time, the result is tested by coherence function. The test result reveals there exists a fine linear relation between original records and synthetic records, indicating the anisotropic parameters estimated by synthetic seismogram can reflect and describe the anisotropic characteristics of the given region medium.

  9. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  10. Applications of synthetic carbohydrates to chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepenies, Bernd; Yin, Jian; Seeberger, Peter H

    2010-06-01

    Access to synthetic carbohydrates is an urgent need for the development of carbohydrate-based drugs, vaccines, adjuvants as well as novel drug delivery systems. Besides traditional synthesis in solution, synthetic carbohydrates have been generated by chemoenzymatic methods as well as automated solid-phase synthesis. Synthetic oligosaccharides have proven to be useful for identifying ligands of carbohydrate-binding proteins such as C-type lectins and siglecs using glycan arrays. Furthermore, glyconanoparticles and glycodendrimers have been used for specific targeting of lectins of the immune system such as selectins, DC-SIGN, and CD22. This review focuses on how diverse carbohydrate structures can be synthetically derived and highlights the benefit of synthetic carbohydrates for glycobiology.

  11. Facility Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Z.; Walling, R.; Miller, N.; Du, P.; Nelson, K.

    2005-05-01

    Microgrids are receiving a considerable interest from the power industry, partly because their business and technical structure shows promise as a means of taking full advantage of distributed generation. This report investigates three issues associated with facility microgrids: (1) Multiple-distributed generation facility microgrids' unintentional islanding protection, (2) Facility microgrids' response to bulk grid disturbances, and (3) Facility microgrids' intentional islanding.

  12. Research on synthetically evaluating method for business competitive capacity based on soft set%基于软集合的企业竞争力综合评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖智; 李潆兵; 钟波; 杨秀苔

    2003-01-01

    Combining with international emerging theory of soft set, this paper proposes a synthetically evaluating method for business competitive capacity based on soft set. The proposed approach overcomes the deficiency of traditional methods ,deal with the problems which mixed all kinds of uncertainty. It has no use for constructing an analytic mathematical model and defining the notion of the exact solution of this model, it entirely depends on drive of data to evaluate and analyze. The algorithm is very convenient and easily applicable in practice. The validity and feasibility of the proposed approach is verified with a case.

  13. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications.

  14. Application of reactive compensation method in thermal facilities%无功补偿方法在热力设施中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁银生

    2012-01-01

    简要介绍了有功功率和无功功率的概念,阐述了无功补偿的意义,对无功补偿的原理和补偿方法的发展进行了论述,对热力设施用电特性进行分析,并对热力设施用电的无功补偿方法及具体应用提出一定见解,以指导实践。%This paper briefly introduces the definition of active power and reactive power,describes the meaning of reactive compensation,discusses reactive compensation principles and compensation methods,analyzes the power supply characteristics of thermal facilities,and then puts forward specific application and some views on the reactive compensation method in the power supply of thermal facilities,so as to guide practice.

  15. Synthetic cathinone abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capriola M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. Keywords: designer drugs/chemistry, street drugs/pharmacology, substance-related disorders/epidemiology, alkaloids/poisoning

  16. Synthetic Base Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  17. A facile one-pot hydrothermal method to prepare europium-doped titania hollow phosphors and their sensitized luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Xuan; Yang Ling; Zhang Nianchun [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, 601 Western Huangpu Road, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Liu Yingliang, E-mail: tliuyl@jnu.edu.c [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, 601 Western Huangpu Road, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-09-17

    Research highlights: {yields} The strongest emission intensity was observed with TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres and TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres calcining at 550 {sup o}C. Moreover, the strongest excitation of TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres transferred from 400 to 500 {sup o}C and the effective nonradiative energy transfer from the TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres host matrix to Eu{sup 3+} ions crystal field states was realized due to changes of crystalline field in the environment around Eu{sup 3+} ions occupying Ti{sup 4+} sites. The proposed energy transfer mechanism was that UV light is absorbed in the band of TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres crystal and then the energy is relaxed to the defect states of TiO{sub 2} host. The energy can transfer to the crystal states of Eu{sup 3+} ions ({sup 7}F{sub j}, j = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4), which results in efficient photoluminescence. The fluorescent intensity of TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres was 2.2 times as strong as that of TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} bulk material. - Abstract: Monodisperse europium-activated titania hollow phosphors had been synthesized by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method using carbon spheres as hard templates. Samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer and photoluminescence spectrum. The strongest emission intensity was observed with TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres and TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres calcining at 550 {sup o}C. Moreover, the strongest excitation of TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres transferred from 400 to 500 {sup o}C and the effective nonradiative energy transfer from the TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres host matrix to Eu{sup 3+} ions crystal field states was realized due to changes of crystalline field in the environment around Eu{sup 3+} ions occupying Ti{sup 4+} sites. The proposed energy transfer mechanism was that UV light is absorbed in the band

  18. Analysis of Synthetic Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviews techniques for the characterization and analysis of synthetic polymers, copolymers, and blends. Includes techniques for structure determination, separation, and quantitation of additives and residual monomers; determination of molecular weight; and the study of thermal properties including degradation mechanisms. (MVL)

  19. Structural Antitumoral Activity Relationships of Synthetic Chalcones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Cesar; Santibañez, Juan Francisco; Donoso-Tauda, Oscar; Escobar, Carlos A.; Ramirez-Tagle, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between the structural characteristic of synthetic chalcones and their antitumoral activity were studied. Treatment of HepG2 cells for 24 h with synthetic 2’-hydroxychalcones resulted in apoptosis induction and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. The calculated reactivity indexes and the adiabatic electron affinities using the DFT method including solvent effects, suggest a structure-activity relationship between the Chalcones structure and the apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The absence of methoxy substituents in the B ring of synthetic 2’-hydroxychalcones, showed the mayor structure-activity pattern along the series. PMID:19333443

  20. Carbon nanotubes-supported palladium nanoparticles for the Suzuki reaction in supercritical carbon dioxide:A facile method for the synthesis of tetrasubstituted olefins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lei; ZHANG WeiDe; JIANG HuanFeng

    2008-01-01

    A facile and efficient method for the synthesis of tetrasubstituted olefins in supercritical carbon dioxide was developed by using carbon nanotubes-supported palladium nanoparticles (Pd/CNTs) as the cata-lyst. Compared with common Pd/C, Pd/CNTs could more effectively catalyze the reaction of di-bromo-substituted olefins with boronic acids, affording the corresponding tetrasubstituted olefins with moderate to good yields. This environmentally benign route with an easy-to-handle catalyst provides an appealing alternative to the currently available methods.

  1. Carbon nanotubes-supported palladium nanoparticles for the Suzuki reaction in supercritical carbon dioxide: A facile method for the synthesis of tetrasubstituted olefins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A facile and efficient method for the synthesis of tetrasubstituted olefins in supercritical carbon dioxide was developed by using carbon nanotubes-supported palladium nanoparticles (Pd/CNTs) as the catalyst. Compared with common Pd/C, Pd/CNTs could more effectively catalyze the reaction of dibromo-substituted olefins with boronic acids, affording the corresponding tetrasubstituted olefins with moderate to good yields. This environmentally benign route with an easy-to-handle catalyst provides an appealing alternative to the currently available methods.

  2. Synthetic cannabinoids: analysis and metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Wanas, Amira S; Radwan, Mohamed M

    2014-02-27

    Cannabimimetics (commonly referred to as synthetic cannabinoids), a group of compounds encompassing a wide range of chemical structures, have been developed by scientists with the hope of achieving selectivity toward one or the other of the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. The goal was to have compounds that could possess high therapeutic activity without many side effects. However, underground laboratories have used the information generated by the scientific community to develop these compounds for illicit use as marijuana substitutes. This chapter reviews the different classes of these "synthetic cannabinoids" with particular emphasis on the methods used for their identification in the herbal products with which they are mixed and identification of their metabolites in biological specimens.

  3. Casas Maternas in the Rural Highlands of Guatemala: A Mixed-Methods Case Study of the Introduction and Utilization of Birthing Facilities by an Indigenous Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollak, Ira; Valdez, Mario; Rivas, Karin; Perry, Henry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: An international NGO, with financial and managerial support from “partner” communities, established Casas Maternas (birthing facilities) in 3 municipalities in the isolated northwestern highlands of the department of Huehuetenango in Guatemala—an area with high maternal mortality ratio (338 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births). Traditional birth attendants are encouraged to bring patients for delivery at the Casas Maternas, where trained staff are present and access to referral care is facilitated. Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods study in San Sebastian Coatán municipality to assess the contribution of 2 Casas Maternas to health facility deliveries among partner and non-partner communities, with particular emphasis on equity in access. We surveyed all women who delivered in the study area between April 2013 and March 2014, the first full year in which both Casas Maternas in the study area were operating. In addition, using purposive sampling, we conducted in-depth interviews with 22 women who delivered and 6 focus group discussions with 42 community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and Casas Maternas staff members. We analyzed the quantitative data using descriptive statstics and the qualitative data with descriptive content analysis. Results: Of the 321 women eligible for inclusion in the study, we surveyed 275 women (14.3% could not be located or refused to participate). Between April 2013 and March 2014, 70% of women living in partner communities delivered in a health facility (54% in a Casa Materna) compared with 30% of women living in non-partner communities (17% in a Casa Materna). There was no statistically significant difference in uptake of the Casa Materna by maternal education and only a weak effect by household wealth. In contrast, distance from the Casa Materna had a pronounced effect. Traditional birth attendants were strong advocates for utilization of the Casa Materna and played an important role in the

  4. Patents on Therapeutic and Cosmetic Applications of Bioactives of Crocus Sativus L. and their Production through Synthetic Biology Methods: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawalbhakta, Mitali; Telang, Manasi

    2017-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has a long history of use as a food additive and a traditional medicine for treating a number of disorders. Prominent bioactives of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. The aim of this study was to carry out an extensive patent search to collect information on saffron bioactives and their derivatives as therapeutic and cosmeceutical agents. All patents related to the area of interest published globally till date have been reviewed. Moreover, a recent synthetic biology approach to cost effective and consistent production of saffron bioactives has been highlighted. A patent search strategy was designed based on keywords and concepts related to Crocus sativus L. and its bioactives- safranal, crocin and crocetin in combination with different patent classification codes relevant to the technology areas. This search strategy was employed to retrieve patents from various patent databases. The patents which focused on therapeutic or cosmetic applications and claimed compositions comprising crocin, crocetin or safranal as the main active component were selected and analysed. Maximum patenting activity was noticed towards the use of these bioactives in the treatment of neurological disorders followed by multiple uses of the same compound, use in treatment of metabolic disorders and use as cosmeceuticals. Interestingly, there were no patent records related to use of these bioactives in treating infectious disorders. Our patent analysis points out the populous and less explored uses of saffron bioactives and areas where there is further scope for research and growth. Recently developed synthetic biology approach is contributory in improving availability, consistency and cost effectiveness of saffron bioactives. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Calibration and intercomparison methods of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities; Metodos de calibracao e de intercomparacao de calibradores de dose utilizados em servicos de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alessandro Martins da

    1999-07-01

    Dose calibrators are used in most of the nuclear medicine facilities to determine the amount of radioactivity administered to a patient in a particular investigation or therapeutic procedure. It is therefore of vital importance that the equipment used presents good performance and is regular;y calibrated at a authorized laboratory. This occurs of adequate quality assurance procedures are carried out. Such quality control tests should be performed daily, other biannually or yearly, testing, for example, its accuracy and precision, the reproducibility and response linearity. In this work a commercial dose calibrator was calibrated with solution of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. Simple instrument tests, such as response linearity and the response variation of the source volume increase at a constant source activity concentration, were performed. This instrument can now be used as a working standard for calibration of other dose calibrators/ An intercomparison procedure was proposed as a method of quality control of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities. (author)

  6. The development of methods for predicting and measuring distribution patterns of aerial sprays. [Langley Vortex Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsbee, A. I.; Bragg, M. B.; Maughmer, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    A set of relationships used to scale small sized dispersion studies to full size results are experimentally verified and, with some qualifications, basic deposition patterns are presented. In the process of validating these scaling laws, the basic experimental techniques used in conducting such studies both with and without an operational propeller were developed. The procedures that evolved are outlined in some detail. The envelope of test conditions that can be accommodated in the Langley Vortex Research Facility, which were developed theoretically, are verified using a series of vortex trajectory experiments that help to define the limitations due to wall interference effects for models of different sizes.

  7. New irradiation facilities for development of production methods of medical radionuclides at cyclotrons at Forschungszentrum Jülich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellerberg, S.; Scholten, B.; Spahn, I.; Felden, O.; Gebel, R.; Qaim, S. M.; Bai, M.; Neumaier, B.

    2017-05-01

    An essential basis for research and development work on radiopharmaceuticals is the efficient production of radionuclides of high quality. In this process research-oriented studies aiming for elucidation of biochemical processes require novel products. The radionuclide development at INM-5 entails basic research, e.g. the determination of nuclear reaction data, as well as technical aspects of practical production, such as high-current targetry, chemical separation, formulation and quality control. In this work developments, adaptation and optimization of irradiation facilities at the BC 1710, JULIC as Injector of COSY and COSY itself are summarized, which shall allow the extension of radionuclide production possibilities, aiming at innovations in medical applications.

  8. Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Rashi (Los Alamos, NM); Ganguly, Kumkum (Los Alamos, NM); Silks, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-12-06

    Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

  9. 查耳酮类化合物的合成及其生物活性研究进展%Advances in Synthetic Methods and Biological Activity of Chalcones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏雅平; 崔冬梅

    2011-01-01

    近年来,随着查耳酮类化合物的生物活性的发现,对它的研究越来越多。本文以不同的底物出发概述了查耳酮类化合物的合成方法,并对其的生物活性做了一下总结。%Chalcones have important biological effects,so they get more attentions. In this paper, we summarize some synthetic methods of the chalcones derivatives from different starting substrates, and give a introduction about it's bioactivity.

  10. The Synthetic Cannabinoids Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Benyamina, Amine; Blecha, Lisa; Cottencin, Olivier; Billieux, Joël

    2016-01-01

    « Spice » is generally used to describe the diverse types of herbal blends that encompass synthetic cannabinoids on the market. The emergence of smokable herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids, which mimic the effects of cannabis, appears to become increasingly popular, in the new psychoactive substances landscape. In 2014, the existence of 134 different types of synthetic cannabinoids were reported by the European Union Early Warning System. These drugs are mainly sold online as an alternative to controlled and regulated psychoactive substances. They appear to have a life cycle of about 1-2 years before being replaced by a next wave of products. Legislation controlling these designer drugs has been introduced in many countries with the objective to limit the spread of existing drugs and control potential new analogs. The majority of the synthetic cannabinoids are full agonists at the CB1 receptor and do not contain tobacco or cannabis. They are becoming increasingly popular in adolescents, students and clubbers as an abused substance. Relatively high incidence of adverse effects associated with synthetic cannabinoids use has been documented in the literature. Numerous fatalities linked with their use and abuse have been reported. In this paper, we will review the available data regarding the use and effects of synthetic cannabinoids in humans in order to highlight their impact on public health. To reach this objective, a literature search was performed on two representative databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar), the Erowid Center website (a US non-profit educational organization that provides information about psychoactive plants and chemicals), and various governmental websites. The terms used for the database search were: "synthetic cannabinoids", "spice", "new psychoactive substances", and/or "substance use disorder", and/or "adverse effects", and/or "fatalities". The search was limited to years 2005 to 2016 due to emerging scientific literature at

  11. Casas Maternas in the Rural Highlands of Guatemala: A Mixed-Methods Case Study of the Introduction and Utilization of Birthing Facilities by an Indigenous Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollak, Ira; Valdez, Mario; Rivas, Karin; Perry, Henry

    2016-03-01

    An international NGO, with financial and managerial support from "partner" communities, established Casas Maternas (birthing facilities) in 3 municipalities in the isolated northwestern highlands of the department of Huehuetenango in Guatemala-an area with high maternal mortality ratio (338 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births). Traditional birth attendants are encouraged to bring patients for delivery at the Casas Maternas, where trained staff are present and access to referral care is facilitated. We conducted a mixed-methods study in San Sebastian Coatán municipality to assess the contribution of 2 Casas Maternas to health facility deliveries among partner and non-partner communities, with particular emphasis on equity in access. We surveyed all women who delivered in the study area between April 2013 and March 2014, the first full year in which both Casas Maternas in the study area were operating. In addition, using purposive sampling, we conducted in-depth interviews with 22 women who delivered and 6 focus group discussions with 42 community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and Casas Maternas staff members. We analyzed the quantitative data using descriptive statstics and the qualitative data with descriptive content analysis. Of the 321 women eligible for inclusion in the study, we surveyed 275 women (14.3% could not be located or refused to participate). Between April 2013 and March 2014, 70% of women living in partner communities delivered in a health facility (54% in a Casa Materna) compared with 30% of women living in non-partner communities (17% in a Casa Materna). There was no statistically significant difference in uptake of the Casa Materna by maternal education and only a weak effect by household wealth. In contrast, distance from the Casa Materna had a pronounced effect. Traditional birth attendants were strong advocates for utilization of the Casa Materna and played an important role in the decision regarding where the birth would take

  12. Cell microencapsulation with synthetic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabisi, Ronke M

    2015-02-01

    The encapsulation of cells into polymeric microspheres or microcapsules has permitted the transplantation of cells into human and animal subjects without the need for immunosuppressants. Cell-based therapies use donor cells to provide sustained release of a therapeutic product, such as insulin, and have shown promise in treating a variety of diseases. Immunoisolation of these cells via microencapsulation is a hotly investigated field, and the preferred material of choice has been alginate, a natural polymer derived from seaweed due to its gelling conditions. Although many natural polymers tend to gel in conditions favorable to mammalian cell encapsulation, there remain challenges such as batch to batch variability and residual components from the original source that can lead to an immune response when implanted into a recipient. Synthetic materials have the potential to avoid these issues; however, historically they have required harsh polymerization conditions that are not favorable to mammalian cells. As research into microencapsulation grows, more investigators are exploring methods to microencapsulate cells into synthetic polymers. This review describes a variety of synthetic polymers used to microencapsulate cells. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. 21 CFR 175.250 - Paraffin (synthetic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... its components by a solvent separation method, using synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances... determined by ASTM method D938-71 (Reapproved 1981), “Standard Test Method for Congealing Point of...

  14. Combined electron-beam and coagulation purification of molasses distillery slops. Features of the method, technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikaev, A.K. E-mail: pikaev@ipc.rssi.ru; Ponomarev, A.V.; Bludenko, A.V.; Minin, V.N.; Elizar' eva, L.M

    2001-04-01

    The paper summarizes the results obtained from the study on combined electron-beam and coagulation method for purification of molasses distillery slops from distillery produced ethyl alcohol by fermentation of grain, potato, beet and some other plant materials. The method consists in preliminary mixing of industrial wastewater with municipal wastewater, electron-beam treatment of the mixture and subsequent coagulation. Technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility (output of 7000 m{sup 3} day{sup -1}) with two powerful cascade electron accelerators (total maximum beam power of 400 kW) for treatment of the wastewater by the above method was carried out. It was calculated that the cost of purification of the wastes is equal to 0.25 US$ m{sup -3} that is noticeably less than in the case of the existing method.

  15. Combined electron-beam and coagulation purification of molasses distillery slops. Features of the method, technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaev, A. K.; Ponomarev, A. V.; Bludenko, A. V.; Minin, V. N.; Elizar'eva, L. M.

    2001-04-01

    The paper summarizes the results obtained from the study on combined electron-beam and coagulation method for purification of molasses distillery slops from distillery produced ethyl alcohol by fermentation of grain, potato, beet and some other plant materials. The method consists in preliminary mixing of industrial wastewater with municipal wastewater, electron-beam treatment of the mixture and subsequent coagulation. Technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility (output of 7000 m 3 day -1) with two powerful cascade electron accelerators (total maximum beam power of 400 kW) for treatment of the wastewater by the above method was carried out. It was calculated that the cost of purification of the wastes is equal to 0.25 US$ m -3 that is noticeably less than in the case of the existing method.

  16. A Facile Method for Synthesizing Dendritic Core–Shell Structured Ternary Metallic Aerogels and Their Enhanced Electrochemical Performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Qiurong; Zhu, Chengzhou; Li, Yijing; Xia, Haibing; Engelhard, Mark H.; Fu, Shaofang; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-11-08

    Currently, three dimensional self-supported metallic structures are attractive for their unique properties of high porosity, low density, excellent conductivity etc. that promote their wide application in fuel cells. Here, for the first time, we report a facile synthesis of dendritic core-shell structured Au/Pt3Pd ternary metallic aerogels via a one-pot self-assembly gelation strategy. The as-prepared Au/Pt3Pd ternary metallic aerogels demonstrated superior electrochemical performances toward oxygen reduction reaction compared to commercial Pt/C. The unique dendritic core-shell structures, Pt3Pd alloyed shells and the cross-linked network structures are beneficial for the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction performances of the Pt-based materials via the electronic effect, geometric effect and synergistic effect. This strategy of fabrication of metallic hydrogels and aerogels as well as their exceptional properties hold great promise in a variety of applications.

  17. Synthetic Method of Multiple-source Data Applied to the Study of Individual Creativity%多源数据合成方法及其在个体创造力研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴瑞敏; 李虹; 高鹏

    2011-01-01

    针对目前利用多源数据的测量方法,指出现有研究方法存在的问题和可能导致的结果偏差,提出应对测量同一事物(构念、变量)的多源数据进行合成,并基于量表信度和结构效度检验的思想,给出其合成的合理性和可行性,探讨来自不同测评方所含信息的权重设计,并以变革型领导和个体创造力的研究为例进行分析.%In order to integrate the data information from multiple sources, this paper suggests an approach to produce a multiple-source measurement variable based on the principles of reliability and validity. Firstly, we discuss the rationality and feasibility of the synthetic method; then we explore the approaches of determining weights; finally, we apply the synthetic method of multiple-source data to the study of transformational leadership and individual creativity.

  18. Study corrosion resistance of synthetic ecologic fiber concrete by rapid corrosion method%快速腐蚀法研究复合生态纤维混凝土耐腐蚀性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷伟丽; 王世儒

    2012-01-01

      Concrete corrosion resistance test generally requires much time. In view of this problem, rapid corrosion method was used for contrast testing between high-performance concrete and synthetic ecologic fiber concrete. The results of test demonstrate that mixing of synthetic ecologic fiber can improve the corrosion resistance of concrete, rapid corrosion method can be used for some corrosion resistance test while rendering less testing duration.%  针对一般混凝土抗腐蚀试验方法周期较长的问题,采用快速腐蚀法对高性能混凝土和复合生态纤维混凝土的抗腐蚀性进行对比试验,结果表明:掺加复合生态纤维能提高混凝土的抗腐蚀性,快速腐蚀法可用于某些抗腐蚀试验,且缩短了试验时间。

  19. Improvement of 5 Synthetic Pigment with HPLC Method for the Determination of Cooked Meat Products%高效液相色谱法测定熟肉制品中5种合成色素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高慧; 汪洋; 王敏

    2016-01-01

    To establish a HPLC method for the determination of 5 kinds of synthetic pigment in cooked meat products, the selection of the maximum absorption wavelength of 5 synthetic pigment in the samples was deter-mined by high performance liquid chromatography analysis, after the degreasing of the cooked meat products and the pigment extraction. The obtained regression equations of 5 kinds of synthetic pigment showed a good lin-ear relationship (r>0.999) in 0.10μg/mL-50.0μg/mL linear range, with the detection limit of 0.035μg/mL-0.040μg/mL, and the relative standard deviation was between 0.79%to 1.30%. The samples were spiked with recovery experiment, and the absolute recoveries were in the range of 91.5%-101.0%. The method is simple, rapid, accurate, which is suitable for determination of the synthetic pigment in cooked meat products.%建立熟肉制品中5种合成色素的高效液相色谱法测定方法。熟肉制品经过脱脂后提取色素,选择样品中5种色素的最大吸收波长用高效液相色谱仪分析测定。在0.10μg/mL~50.0μg/mL线性范围内,所得5种合成色素的回归方程均呈较好的线性关系(r>0.999)。该方法的检出限为0.035μg/mL~0.040μg/mL,相对标准偏差在0.79%~1.30%之间。对样品进行加标回收试验,绝对回收率在91.5%~101.0%之间。本方法简便、快速、准确,适用于熟肉制品中合成色素的测定。

  20. Nanocrystalline GaSbO{sub 4} with high surface area prepared via a facile hydrothermal method and its photocatalytic activity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Yanghe; Xue Hun; Qin Meng; Liu Ping; Fu Xianzhi [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis - State Key Laboratory Breeding Base, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Li Zhaohui, E-mail: zhaohuili1969@yahoo.com [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis - State Key Laboratory Breeding Base, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2012-05-05

    Graphical abstract: Nanocrystalline GaSbO{sub 4} prepared via a facile hydrothermal method possesses large specific surface area and exhibits photocatalytic activity for the degradations of salicylic acid and acetone. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Facile hydrothermal method to nanocrystalline GaSbO{sub 4} with large surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GaSbO{sub 4} shows photocatalytic activity for the degradations of salicylic acid and acetone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalytic mechanism of GaSbO{sub 4} was proposed based on the ESR result. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline GaSbO{sub 4} with small particle size and large BET specific area was successfully prepared via a facile hydrothermal method from Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The influence of the reaction pH on the formation of the final product was investigated. The obtained sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2}-sorption BET surface area, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The photocatalytic activity for the degradations of salicylic acid and acetone over nanocrystalline GaSbO{sub 4} under UV irradiations was for the first time revealed. Based on the electron spin resonance (ESR) result, the reactive species involved in the photocatalytic reaction over nanocrytalline GaSbO{sub 4} are determined to be HO{center_dot} and O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot}. The photocatalytic mechanism of GaSbO{sub 4} was proposed.

  1. Synthetic guide star generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  2. Knowledge-making distinctions in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A; Powell, Alexander; Davies, Jonathan F; Calvert, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an increasingly high-profile area of research that can be understood as encompassing three broad approaches towards the synthesis of living systems: DNA-based device construction, genome-driven cell engineering and protocell creation. Each approach is characterized by different aims, methods and constructs, in addition to a range of positions on intellectual property and regulatory regimes. We identify subtle but important differences between the schools in relation to their treatments of genetic determinism, cellular context and complexity. These distinctions tie into two broader issues that define synthetic biology: the relationships between biology and engineering, and between synthesis and analysis. These themes also illuminate synthetic biology's connections to genetic and other forms of biological engineering, as well as to systems biology. We suggest that all these knowledge-making distinctions in synthetic biology raise fundamental questions about the nature of biological investigation and its relationship to the construction of biological components and systems.

  3. Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Nicola J; Orzaez, Diego; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Warzecha, Heribert; Matthewman, Colette; Youles, Mark; Raitskin, Oleg; Leveau, Aymeric; Farré, Gemma; Rogers, Christian; Smith, Alison; Hibberd, Julian; Webb, Alex A R; Locke, James; Schornack, Sebastian; Ajioka, Jim; Baulcombe, David C; Zipfel, Cyril; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Jonathan D G; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke; Van Esse, H Peter; Sanders, Dale; Oldroyd, Giles; Martin, Cathie; Field, Rob; O'Connor, Sarah; Fox, Samantha; Wulff, Brande; Miller, Ben; Breakspear, Andy; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Loqué, Dominique; Granell, Antonio; Tissier, Alain; Shih, Patrick; Brutnell, Thomas P; Quick, W Paul; Rischer, Heiko; Fraser, Paul D; Aharoni, Asaph; Raines, Christine; South, Paul F; Ané, Jean-Michel; Hamberger, Björn R; Langdale, Jane; Stougaard, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Udvardi, Michael; Murray, James A H; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Schäfer, Patrick; Denby, Katherine; Edwards, Keith J; Osbourn, Anne; Haseloff, Jim

    2015-10-01

    Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Visible light induced degradation of methyl orange using β-Ag0.333V2O5 nanorod catalysts by facile thermal decomposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saravanan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One dimensional nanorods of β-Ag0.333V2O5 have been synthesized by facile thermal decomposition method without using any additives. The prepared sample was characterized by different physical and chemical techniques such as XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, DRS and XPS. The photocatalytic activity of β-Ag0.333V2O5 catalyst was investigated by studying the degradation of methyl orange (MO in aqueous medium under visible light exposure. The result shows β-Ag0.333V2O5 exhibits outstanding photocatalytic activity under visible light illumination.

  5. Experimental Evaluation for the Microvibration Performance of a Segmented PC Method Based High Technology Industrial Facility Using 1/2 Scale Test Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijun Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The precast concrete (PC method used in the construction process of high technology industrial facilities is limited when applied to those with greater span lengths, due to the transport length restriction (maximum length of 15~16 m in Korea set by traffic laws. In order to resolve this, this study introduces a structural system with a segmented PC system, and a 1/2 scale model with a width of 9000 mm (hereafter Segmented Model is manufactured to evaluate vibration performance. Since a real vibrational environment cannot be reproduced for vibration testing using a scale model, a comparative analysis of their relative performances is conducted in this study. For this purpose, a 1/2 scale model with a width of 7200 mm (hereafter Nonsegmented Model of a high technology industrial facility is additionally prepared using the conventional PC method. By applying the same experiment method for both scale models and comparing the results, the relative vibration performance of the Segmented Model is observed. Through impact testing, the natural frequencies of the two scale models are compared. Also, in order to analyze the estimated response induced by the equipment, the vibration responses due to the exciter are compared. The experimental results show that the Segmented Model exhibits similar or superior performances when compared to the Nonsegmented Model.

  6. Cosmo Cassette: A Microfluidic Microgravity Microbial System For Synthetic Biology Unit Tests and Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Aaron J.

    2013-01-01

    Although methods in the design-build-test life cycle of the synthetic biology field have grown rapidly, the expansion has been non-uniform. The design and build stages in development have seen innovations in the form of biological CAD and more efficient means for building DNA, RNA, and other biological constructs. The testing phase of the cycle remains in need of innovation. Presented will be both a theoretical abstraction of biological measurement and a practical demonstration of a microfluidics-based platform for characterizing synthetic biological phenomena. Such a platform demonstrates a design of additive manufacturing (3D printing) for construction of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to be used in experiments carried out in space. First, the biocompatibility of the polypropylene chassis will be demonstrated. The novel MFCs will be cheaper, and faster to make and iterate through designs. The novel design will contain a manifold switchingdistribution system and an integrated in-chip set of reagent reservoirs fabricated via 3D printing. The automated nature of the 3D printing yields itself to higher resolution switching valves and leads to smaller sized payloads, lower cost, reduced power and a standardized platform for synthetic biology unit tests on Earth and in space. It will be demonstrated that the application of unit testing in synthetic biology will lead to the automatic construction and validation of desired constructs. Unit testing methodologies offer benefits of preemptive problem identification, change of facility, simplicity of integration, ease of documentation, and separation of interface from implementation, and automated design.

  7. Validation of the method for determination of plutonium isotopes in urine samples and its application in a nuclear facility at Otwock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzemek Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed at determining low activities of alpha radioactive elements are widely recognized as essential for the human health, because of their high radiotoxicity in case of internal contamination. Some groups of workers of nuclear facility at Otwock are potentially exposed to contamination with plutonium isotopes. For this reason, the method for determination of plutonium isotopes has been introduced and validated in Radiation Protection Measurements Laboratory (LPD of the National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ. In this method the plutonium is isolated from a sample by coprecipitation with phosphates and separated on a AG 1-X2 Resin. After electrodeposition, the sample is measured by alpha spectrometry. Validation was performed in order to assess parameters such as: selectivity, accuracy (trueness and precision and linearity of the method. The results of plutonium determination in urine samples of persons potentially exposed to internal contamination are presented in this work.

  8. Inorganic Antiflaming Wood Caused by a TiO2-Decorated ZnO Nanorod Arrays Coating Prepared by a Facile Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood materials with antiflaming capability were successfully fabricated by depositing a TiO2-decorated ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNAs film on wood surface using a facile and one-pot hydrothermal method. The prepared specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA, and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD. To explore the antiflaming properties, the combustion parameters of the wood treated by TiO2-decorated ZNAs were measured using the cone calorimetry technique compared with the untreated wood. For treated wood, the burning duration was prolonged for 55 s; smoke production rate (SPR and total smoke production (TSP were obviously reduced, especially for the production of CO was almost zero. As a result, thin inorganic film of TiO2-decorated ZNAs had desirable fire resistance, and one-pot hydrothermal method was a feasible method to fabricate nonflammable wood materials.

  9. RESEARCH ON CONSTRUCTING SYNTHETIC MATRIX IN AHP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zeshui

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for constructing synthetic matrix whichis obtained by extending the given judgement matrices in the Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP). The consistency relationship among the given matrices and their synthetic matrixis studied. The method can be used to deal with situations where the number of the givenalternatives is larger than nine, and needs less pairwise comparisons than any others. Thusit will aid in the design of the AHP, which will reduce the information overload of decisionmaker, a major drawback of the original AHP algorithm. Finally, a numerical example isgiven to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  10. Development of facilities and methods for the metrological characterization of distributed temperature sensing systems based on optical fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failleau, G.; Beaumont, O.; Delepine-Lesoille, S.; Plumeri, S.; Razouk, R.; Beck, Y. L.; Hénault, J. M.; Bertrand, J.; Hay, B.

    2017-01-01

    Raman distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technologies are currently under evaluation by the nuclear and hydraulic industries as it may bring promising alternatives to classical measurement techniques. The reliability of the DTS measurements, as well as the traceability to the temperature standards, must be ensured throughout the entire period of monitoring (typically over a few tens of years). In order to achieve this goal, one key task consists in the verification of the performances claimed by the DTS devices manufacturers. Thus, the metrological performances and characteristics of the DTS devices, such as their limitations and accuracies, as well as the practical aspects of systems implemented on site should be evaluated step by step. This paper describes the dedicated facilities which have been developed at LNE in order to evaluate and to qualify DTS devices for very demanding applications. A first case study performed on one specific DTS device is detailed. A systematic bias has been observed among others on the spatial resolution. The DTS response to a temperature variation step over 1 m (spatial resolution typically claimed by the manufacturers) of sensing optical fibre corresponds indeed to only 90% of the temperature step magnitude, whereas the full DTS response is obtained in fact for 10 m (the practical spatial resolution) of sensing optical fibre solicited by this temperature step variation.

  11. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  12. Biodegradable synthetic bone composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

  13. Synthetic studies towards bottromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Ackermann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thio-Ugi reactions are described as an excellent synthetic tool for the synthesis of sterically highly hindered endothiopeptides. S-Methylation and subsequent amidine formation can be carried out in an inter- as well as in an intramolecular fashion. The intramolecular approach allows the synthesis of the bottromycin ring system in a straightforward manner.

  14. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eBektas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  15. 不确定需求下的设备动态布局方法%Dynamic Facility Layout Method under Uncertain Product Demands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马淑梅; 蔡惠森; 张一帆; 李爱平

    2015-01-01

    针对现有车间设备动态布局方法存在的不足,在考虑产品需求不确定性对布局性能稳定性影响的基础上,提出了一种结合模糊理论与改进遗传算法的不等面积设备动态布局方法。分析了产品需求不确定性及其随时间变化特性,引入了三角模糊数描述不确定产品需求;通过分析各生产阶段间的设备重组过程,将动态布局转化为数个静态布局,构建了基于柔性区域结构的不确定需求动态布局模型。结合三角模糊数运算及排序方法与自适应局部搜索机制提出了改进遗传算法,以物料搬运及设备重组费用总和为优化目标,解决不确定需求下的不等面积设备动态布局问题。通过算例测试和实例分析,验证了所提方法的有效性和实用性。%The dynamic facility layout method combined with fuzzy set theory and improved genet-ic algorithm was brought out on the basis of considering the influences of uncertain product demands, aiming at the deficiency of the present dynamic facility layout method.The characteristics of product demand uncertainty change over time were analyzed,and the uncertain demands were described by the triangular fuzzy numbers.The dynamic layout was transformed into several static layouts through an-alyzed facility relocation process between each period so as to establish a dynamic facility layout model under uncertain demands based on flexible bays structure.An improved genetic algorithm was pro-posed by combined triangular fuzzy number operation and adaptive local search with genetic algo-rithm,and then solved dynamic facility layout problems with uncertain product demands and unequal area constraints;the target of the problem was minimum the total cost of material handling and facili-ty relocation.At last,the examples were illustrated to verify the practicability and effectiveness of the given method.

  16. Sustainable Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    The Danish public housing sector has more than 20 years of experience with sustainable facilities management based on user involvement. The paper outlines this development in a historical perspective and gives an analysis of different approaches to sustainable facilities management. The focus...... is on the housing departments and strateies for the management of the use of resources. The research methods used are case studies based on interviews in addition to literature studies. The paper explores lessons to be learned about sustainable facilities management in general, and points to a need for new...

  17. Conservative method for determination of material thickness used in shielding of veterinary facilities; Metodo conservativo para determinacao de espessura de materiais utilizados para blindagem de instalacoes veterinarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lava, Deise D.; Borges, Diogo da S.; Affonso, Renato R.W.; Moreira, Maria de L.; Guimaraes, Antonio C.F., E-mail: deise_dy@hotmail.com, E-mail: diogosb@outlook.com, E-mail: raoniwa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br, E-mail: tony@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    For determination of an effective method for shielding of veterinary rooms, was provided shielding methods generally used in rooms which works with X-ray production and radiotherapy. Every calculation procedure is based in traditional variables used to transmission calculation. The thickness of the materials used for primary and secondary shieldings are obtained to respect the limits set by the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). This work presents the development of a computer code in order to serve as a practical tool for determining rapid and effective materials and their thicknesses to shield veterinary facilities. The code determines transmission values of the shieldings and compares them with data from transmission 'maps' provided by NCRP-148 report. These 'maps' were added to the algorithm through interpolation techniques of curves of materials used for shielding. Each interpolation generates about 1,000,000 points that are used to generate a new curve. The new curve is subjected to regression techniques, which makes possible to obtain nine degree polynomial, and exponential equations. These equations whose variables consist of transmission of values, enable trace all the points of this curve with high precision. The data obtained from the algorithm were satisfactory with official data presented by the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and can contribute as a practical tool for verification of shielding of veterinary facilities that require using Radiotherapy techniques and X-ray production.

  18. Mammography Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mammography Facility Database is updated periodically based on information received from the four FDA-approved accreditation bodies: the American College of...

  19. Health Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, such as birthing centers and psychiatric care centers. When you ...

  20. Canyon Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — B Plant, T Plant, U Plant, PUREX, and REDOX (see their links) are the five facilities at Hanford where the original objective was plutonium removal from the uranium...

  1. The SIRENE facility - an improved method for simulating the charge of dielectrics in a charging electron environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirassen, B.; Levy, L.; Reulet, R.; Payan, D.

    2003-09-01

    Due to their dielectric nature and under the effect of the different forms of radiation encountered in space, dielectrics accumulate electrical charges up to the point where electrostatic discharges may occur. To prevent and avoid harmful interference due to discharges, their behaviour under irradiation must therefore be investigated in the laboratory before they are used in space applications. A current and widely used practice is to submit the tested materials to the bombardment of monoenergetic electron beams. Such a practice ignores the presence in space of a spectrum of electrons with energies reaching several MeV, and leads solely to surface charging and surface potentials generally higher than those really induced in space. The new approach used by "SIRENE" is to build an electron source as similar as possible to the one existing in orbit. This paper describes the SIRENE facility, which was developed for simulating the spatial geo-stationary environment during great geomagnetic activity. The range of available electrons goes from 10 to 400 keV. From a monoenergetic electron beam of 400 keV and thanks to a complex diffusion foil (made of several foils of different thicknesses and surface areas) the quantity of electrons of each energy level present in this particular environment is reproduced. However, it is always possible to work at lower energy levels in the monoenergetic range, for instance to simulate the inverted gradient mode. This paper provides information on the spectrum used for testing materials in the geo-stationary environment, and on the potential for adapting it to other orbits. It also gives the first results demonstrating the interest of this new approach. It also mentions the new instruments used to measure the surface potential as well as the space charge through the complete thickness of the material.

  2. Synthetic cornea: biocompatibility and optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Kaminski, Stefan; Fernandez, Viviana; Alfonso, E.; Lamar, Peggy; Lacombe, Emmanuel; Duchesne, Bernard; Dubovy, Sander; Manns, Fabrice; Rol, Pascal O.

    2002-06-01

    Purpose. Experimentally find a method to provide a safe surgical technique and an inexpensive and long lasting mesoplant for the restoration of vision in patients with bilateral corneal blindness due to ocular surface and stromal diseases. Methods. Identify the least invasive and the safest surgical technique for synthetic cornea implantation. Identify the most compatible biomaterials and the optimal shape a synthetic cornea must have to last a long time when implanted in vivo. Results. Penetrating procedures were deemed too invasive, time consuming, difficult and prone to long term complications. Therefore a non-penetrating delamination technique with central trephination was developed to preserve the integrity of Descemet's membrane and the anterior segment. Even though this approach limits the number of indications, it is acceptable since the majority of patients only have opacities in the stroma. The prosthesis was designed to fit in the removed tissue plane with its skirt fitted under the delaminated stroma. To improve retention, the trephination wall was made conical with the smallest opening on the anterior surface and a hat-shaped mesoplant was made to fit. The skirt was perforated in its perimeter to allow passage of nutrients and tissues ingrowths. To simplify the fabrication procedure, the haptic and optic were made of the same polymer. The intrastromal biocompatibility of several hydrogels was found superior to current clinically used PMMA and PTFE materials. Monobloc mesoplants made of 4 different materials were implanted in rabbits and followed weekly until extrusion occurred. Some remained optically clear allowing for fundus photography. Conclusions. Hydrogel synthetic corneas can be made to survive for periods longer than 1 year. ArF excimer laser photoablation studies are needed to determine the refractive correction potential of these mesoplants. A pilot FDA clinical trial is needed to assess the mesoplant efficacy and very long-term stability.

  3. Facile implementation of integrated tempering sampling method to enhance the sampling over a broad range of temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Peng; Gao, Yi Qin; Lu, Zhong-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Integrated tempering sampling (ITS) method is an approach to enhance the sampling over a broad range of energies and temperatures in computer simulations. In this paper, a new version of integrated tempering sampling method is proposed. In the new approach presented here, we obtain parameters such as the set of temperatures and the corresponding weighting factors from canonical average of potential energies. These parameters can be easily obtained without estimating partition functions. We apply this new approach to study the Lennard-Jones fluid, the ALA-PRO peptide and the single polymer chain systems to validate and benchmark the method.

  4. A facile and rapid method for the black pepper leaf mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and the antimicrobial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Robin; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

    2014-10-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles is widely accepted due to the less toxicity in comparison with chemical methods. But there are certain drawbacks like slow formation of nanoparticles, difficulty to control particle size and shape make them less convenient. Here we report a novel cost-effective and eco-friendly method for the rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Piper nigrum. Our results suggest that this method can be used for obtaining silver nanoparticles with controllable size within a few minutes. The fabricated nanoparticles possessed excellent antibacterial property against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  5. Review and Analysis of Synthetic Method of Sulfonated Aliphatic Series Water-reducer%脂肪族磺酸盐减水剂合成方法综述和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇飞; 严捍东; 全志龙

    2012-01-01

    分析了脂肪族磺酸盐减水剂的合成机理,概述了脂肪族磺酸盐减水剂的合成方法及其性能.提出今后应充分重视引入酸性基团化合物对脂肪族缩合物进行接枝改良处理的研究,加大对微波和无热源法合成脂肪族减水剂工艺和性能的研究,并尝试研究用苯乙酮作为原料生产脂肪族减水剂.并就SAF型脂肪族减水剂的加料顺序、磺化剂种类、溶液pH值对减水剂减水率的影响进行了对比试验.%Synthetic mechanism of sulfonated aliphatic series water reducer is analyzed, and the synthetic method and performance is summarized. It is suggested that we should pay attention to the research of introducing acid groups compound to graft and improving aliphatic series condensation compound in future, microwave method and py-rogen free method to compound aliphatic series should be increased, and try to use acetophenone as the material to produce the aliphatic series water-reducer. Effect of water reducing ratio of SAF sulfonated aliphatic series water reducer by arranging the sequence of adding material, the type of sulfonating agent and the pH value of solution were contrasted.

  6. 基于多维极化信息的弹道目标综合识别方法%Synthetic recognition method of ballistic targets based on multi-dimensional polarization information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞礴; 代大海; 王雪松; 李永祯

    2013-01-01

    目标识别是弹道导弹防御系统的核心难题之一,针对弹道导弹突防过程中无源诱饵的极化识别问题进行了研究.首先,基于多个窄带和宽带极化特征量,并结合暗室测量数据,进行了极化特征提取和优选,去除了冗余的极化特征量.在此基础上,提出了一种基于宽窄带极化特征的弹道目标综合识别方法,并利用弹道目标的暗室实测数据进行了验证.结果表明综合识别方法和仅基于窄带或宽带极化特征的识别方法相比具有更好的目标识别性能.%Target recognition is the core difficulty in ballistic missile defense systems, this paper studies the polarization recognition problem of passive decoy during break through process of the ballistic missile. Firstly, based on a host of narrow and wide band polarization characteristics, and combined with data derived from ane-choic chamber measurement, this paper performs polarization characteristic extraction and filtration, and removes redundant polarization characteristics. A synthetic recognition method based on narrow and wide band polarization characteristics for ballistic targets is proposed, and data derived from anechoic chamber measurement is used for validation. The result shows that the synthetic recognition method has better recognition performance than recognition method based only on narrow or wide band polarization characteristics.

  7. A facile method to enhance out-coupling efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes via a random-pyramids textured layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenqing; Xiao, Teng; Zhai, Guangsheng; Yu, Jingting; Shi, Guanjie; Chen, Guo; Wei, Bin

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate a facile method to enhance light extraction in organic light-emitting diodes using a polymer layer with a texture consisting of random upright pyramids. The simple fabrication technique of the textured layer is based on silicon alkali-etching and imprint lithography. With the textured layer applied to the external face of the glass substrate, the organic light-emitting diode achieved a 26% enhancement of current efficiency and a 30% enhancement of power efficiency without spectral distortion over wide viewing angles. A ray-tracing optical simulation reveals that the textured layer can alter the traveling path of light and assist in out-coupling a large portion of light delivered into the substrate. The proposed method is a promising approach for achieving enhanced efficiency organic light-emitting diodes for the simple fabrication process and the effective light extraction.

  8. Synthetic Judgement for Filling Scheme Optimization Based on AHP and TPOSIS Methods%基于 AHP 和 TOPSIS 的充填方案综合评判优选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新民; 樊彪; 张德明; 李帅

    2016-01-01

    In order to make a synthetic assessment about filling schemes optimization,the synthetic assessment index system of filling scheme was established according to the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and TOPSIS methods.Based on the four filling schemes optimization in a metal mine,considering the economic,technical, security and etc,which influenced the evaluation indexes (filling difficulty level,roof-contacted filling level, settlement of filling body,strength of filling body,etc)of filling schemes,the influence factor indexes of the filling schemes were transformed into multi-factor decision matrix;the weight of the influence factors matrix were gotten according to the AHP method,and then,the AHP-TOPSIS multi-factor decision model was established with the fundamental theory of TOPSIS,and the synthetic superior degree of the four filling schemes were obtained.The research results show that the synthetic superior degree of filling schemes are 36.2%,85.2%,57.6%,32.0%, respectively,according to the method,and thus determine the second scheme (consolidated filling method) is the optimal one.The optimization scheme is consistent with an actual mining,filling effect is good.Practical application shows that the decision model provides a new method to the filling schemes optimization.%为对多种充填方案进行评判优选,建立了一种基于层次分析法(AHP)和逼近理想解的排序法(TOPSIS)相结合的综合评判指标体系。以某金属矿4种充填方案的选择为基础,从经济、技术及安全等方面综合考虑影响充填方案的评判指标(充填工艺难易度、充填接顶程度、充填体沉降度和充填体强度等),将待选方案指标转换成多因素决策矩阵,再通过层次分析法得到各因素权重向量,进而结合逼近理想解的排序法原理构建 AHP-TOPSIS 的多因素决策模型,得出4种方案的综合优越度。研究结果表明:4种充填方案的优越度分别为36.2%,85

  9. Microwave-assisted Facile and Ultrafast Growth of ZnO Nanostructures and Proposition of Alternative Microwave-assisted Methods to Address Growth Stoppage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abu Ul Hassan Sarwar; Kang, Mingi; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2016-04-01

    The time constraint in the growth of ZnO nanostructures when using a hydrothermal method is of paramount importance in contemporary research, where a long fabrication time rots the very essence of the research on ZnO nanostructures. In this study, we present the facile and ultrafast growth of ZnO nanostructures in a domestic microwave oven within a pressurized environment in just a few minutes. This method is preferred for the conventional solution-based method because of the ultrafast supersaturation of zinc salts and the fabrication of high-quality nanostructures. The study of the effect of seed layer density, growth time, and the solution’s molar concentration on the morphology, alignment, density, and aspect ratio of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) is explored. It is found in a microwave-assisted direct growth method that ~5 mins is the optimum time beyond which homogeneous nucleation supersedes heterogeneous nucleation, which results in the growth stoppage of ZNRs. To deal with this issue, we propound different methods such as microwave-assisted solution-replacement, preheating, and PEI-based growth methods, where growth stoppage is addressed and ZNRs with a high aspect ratio can be grown. Furthermore, high-quality ZnO nanoflowers and ZnO nanowalls are fabricated via ammonium hydroxide treatment in a very short time.

  10. Synthetic Hounsfield units from spectral CT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornefalk, Hans

    2012-04-01

    Beam-hardening-free synthetic images with absolute CT numbers that radiologists are used to can be constructed from spectral CT data by forming ‘dichromatic’ images after basis decomposition. The CT numbers are accurate for all tissues and the method does not require additional reconstruction. This method prevents radiologists from having to relearn new rules-of-thumb regarding absolute CT numbers for various organs and conditions as conventional CT is replaced by spectral CT. Displaying the synthetic Hounsfield unit images side-by-side with images reconstructed for optimal detectability for a certain task can ease the transition from conventional to spectral CT.

  11. Shape analysis of synthetic diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Mullan, C

    1997-01-01

    Two-dimensional images of synthetic industrial diamond particles were obtained using a camera, framegrabber and PC-based image analysis software. Various methods for shape quantification were applied, including two-dimensional shape factors, Fourier series expansion of radius as a function of angle, boundary fractal analysis, polygonal harmonics, and comer counting methods. The shape parameter found to be the most relevant was axis ratio, defined as the ratio of the minor axis to the major axis of the ellipse with the same second moments of area as the particle. Axis ratio was used in an analysis of the sorting of synthetic diamonds on a vibrating table. A model was derived based on the probability that a particle of a given axis ratio would travel to a certain bin. The model described the sorting of bulk material accurately but it was found not to be applicable if the shape mix of the feed material changed dramatically. This was attributed to the fact that the particle-particle interference was not taken int...

  12. A new colorimetric DPPH(•) scavenging activity method with no need for a spectrophotometer applied on synthetic and natural antioxidants and medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Zeynep; Küçük, Murat; Doğan, Hacer

    2017-12-01

    2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging, the most commonly used antioxidant method with more than seventeen thousand articles cited, is very practical; however, as with most assays, it has the major disadvantage of dependence on a spectrophotometer. To overcome this drawback, the colorimetric determination of the antioxidant activity using a scanner and freely available Image J software was developed. In this new method, the mixtures of solutions of DPPH(•) and standard antioxidants or extracts of common medicinal herbs were dropped onto TLC plates, after an incubation period. The spot images were evaluated with Image J software to determine CSC50 values, the sample concentrations providing 50% colour reduction, which were very similar with the SC50 values obtained with spectrophotometric method. The advantages of the new method are the use of lower amounts of reagents and solvents, no need for costly spectrophotometers, and thus significantly lowered costs, and convenient implementation in any environment and situation.

  13. Semi-automated solid phase extraction method for the mass spectrometric quantification of 12 specific metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides, synthetic pyrethroids, and select herbicides in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark D; Wade, Erin L; Restrepo, Paula R; Roman-Esteva, William; Bravo, Roberto; Kuklenyik, Peter; Calafat, Antonia M

    2013-06-15

    Organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides and phenoxyacetic acid herbicides represent important classes of pesticides applied in commercial and residential settings. Interest in assessing the extent of human exposure to these pesticides exists because of their widespread use and their potential adverse health effects. An analytical method for measuring 12 biomarkers of several of these pesticides in urine has been developed. The target analytes were extracted from one milliliter of urine by a semi-automated solid phase extraction technique, separated from each other and from other urinary biomolecules by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and detected using tandem mass spectrometry with isotope dilution quantitation. This method can be used to measure all the target analytes in one injection with similar repeatability and detection limits of previous methods which required more than one injection. Each step of the procedure was optimized to produce a robust, reproducible, accurate, precise and efficient method. The required selectivity and sensitivity for trace-level analysis (e.g., limits of detection below 0.5ng/mL) was achieved using a narrow diameter analytical column, higher than unit mass resolution for certain analytes, and stable isotope labeled internal standards. The method was applied to the analysis of 55 samples collected from adult anonymous donors with no known exposure to the target pesticides. This efficient and cost-effective method is adequate to handle the large number of samples required for national biomonitoring surveys. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Fabrication of transparent and conductive carbon nanotube/polyvinyl butyral films by a facile solution surface dip coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Yu, Ting; Pui, Tzesian; Chen, Peng; Zheng, Lianxi; Liao, Kin

    2011-06-01

    We present a simple solution surface dip coating method for fabricating transparent and conductive carbon nanotube/polyvinyl butyral (CNT/PVB) composite films. This fabrication process is simple to scale production and requires only ethanol and water as solvents, which is green and environment friendly.We present a simple solution surface dip coating method for fabricating transparent and conductive carbon nanotube/polyvinyl butyral (CNT/PVB) composite films. This fabrication process is simple to scale production and requires only ethanol and water as solvents, which is green and environment friendly. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10302d

  15. These Synthetic Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIT GILLET

    2008-01-01

    @@ Already slated to be one of the most important cultural events in the buildup to this summer's Olympic games, Synthetic Times-Media Art China 2008 will feature the works of more than 30 artists from around the world. Upwards of 40 media art installations will be exhibited in the National Art Museum of China alone, along with performances, workshops, presentations, and discussion panels focusing on the art works and the growth of media art as a discipline.

  16. Synthetic gases production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazaud, J.P.

    1996-06-01

    The natural gas or naphtha are the main constituents used for the production of synthetic gases. Several production ways of synthetic gases are industrially used as for example the natural gas or naphtha catalytic reforming, the selective oxidation of natural gas or heavy fuels and the coal oxy-vapo-gasification. The aim of this work is to study the different steps of production and treatment of the synthetic gases by the way of catalytic reforming. The first step is the desulfurization of the hydrocarbons feedstocks. The process used in industry is described. Then is realized the catalytic hydrocarbons reforming process. After having recalled some historical data on the catalytic reforming, the author gives the reaction kinetics and thermodynamics. The possible reforming catalysts, industrial equipments and furnaces designs are then exposed. The carbon dioxide is a compound easily obtained during the reforming reactions. It is a wasteful and harmful component which has to be extracted of the gaseous stream. The last step is then the gases de-carbonation. Two examples of natural gas or naphtha reforming reactions are at last given: the carbon monoxide conversion by steam and the carbon oxides reactions with hydrogen (methanization). (O.M.). 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Synthetic biology in plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Lars B; Bock, Ralph

    2014-06-01

    Plastids (chloroplasts) harbor a small gene-dense genome that is amenable to genetic manipulation by transformation. During 1 billion years of evolution from the cyanobacterial endosymbiont to present-day chloroplasts, the plastid genome has undergone a dramatic size reduction, mainly as a result of gene losses and the large-scale transfer of genes to the nuclear genome. Thus the plastid genome can be regarded as a naturally evolved miniature genome, the gradual size reduction and compaction of which has provided a blueprint for the design of minimum genomes. Furthermore, because of the largely prokaryotic genome structure and gene expression machinery, the high transgene expression levels attainable in transgenic chloroplasts and the very low production costs in plant systems, the chloroplast lends itself to synthetic biology applications that are directed towards the efficient synthesis of green chemicals, biopharmaceuticals and other metabolites of commercial interest. This review describes recent progress with the engineering of plastid genomes with large constructs of foreign or synthetic DNA, and highlights the potential of the chloroplast as a model system in bottom-up and top-down synthetic biology approaches.

  18. Hydrophilic Cu{sub 2}O nanostructured thin films prepared by facile spin coating method: Investigation of surface energy and roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskandari, A.; Sangpour, P., E-mail: sangpour@merc.ac.ir; Vaezi, M.R.

    2014-10-15

    We demonstrate a facile, uniform and large scale chemical route to synthesize the cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) nanostructured thin film via spin coating technique. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and UV–visible spectra. Based on the results, the transparent Cu{sub 2}O thin films were formed at the low temperature (275 °C) due to employed N{sub 2} atmosphere in annealing processes. The average roughness is decreased by increasing the number of layers from 11 to 6.4 nm for 1 and 5 times of successive deposition of copper oxide, respectively. Afterward, by increasing the cycle of deposition, the roughness increased (∼87%) owning to the transformation of the growth mechanism of thin films from Volmer–Weber to Stranski–Krastanov mode. Moreover, the prepared films were extremely hydrophilic with water contact angle about 45° and surface energy 54.26 mJ m{sup −2} after 10-cycle coating. The smooth and low energy surface with this technique could be tailored for photoelectrochemical applications such as water splitting. - Highlights: • Hydrophilic Cu{sub 2}O nanostructured thin films synthesized by a facile method. • By increasing the cycle of deposition, finer particles obtained. • Surface energy and contact angle strongly depend on the film formation mechanism. • Transformation of the thin films growth mechanism was studied.

  19. Preliminary energy-filtering neutron imaging with time-of-flight method on PKUNIFTY: A compact accelerator based neutron imaging facility at Peking University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Zou, Yubin; Wen, Weiwei; Lu, Yuanrong; Guo, Zhiyu

    2016-07-01

    Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility (PKUNIFTY) works on an accelerator-based neutron source with a repetition period of 10 ms and pulse duration of 0.4 ms, which has a rather low Cd ratio. To improve the effective Cd ratio and thus improve the detection capability of the facility, energy-filtering neutron imaging was realized with the intensified CCD camera and time-of-flight (TOF) method. Time structure of the pulsed neutron source was firstly simulated with Geant4, and the simulation result was evaluated with experiment. Both simulation and experiment results indicated that fast neutrons and epithermal neutrons were concentrated in the first 0.8 ms of each pulse period; meanwhile in the period of 0.8-2.0 ms only thermal neutrons existed. Based on this result, neutron images with and without energy filtering were acquired respectively, and it showed that detection capability of PKUNIFTY was improved with setting the exposure interval as 0.8-2.0 ms, especially for materials with strong moderating capability.

  20. Preliminary energy-filtering neutron imaging with time-of-flight method on PKUNIFTY: A compact accelerator based neutron imaging facility at Peking University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hu; Zou, Yubin, E-mail: zouyubin@pku.edu.cn; Wen, Weiwei; Lu, Yuanrong; Guo, Zhiyu

    2016-07-01

    Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility (PKUNIFTY) works on an accelerator–based neutron source with a repetition period of 10 ms and pulse duration of 0.4 ms, which has a rather low Cd ratio. To improve the effective Cd ratio and thus improve the detection capability of the facility, energy-filtering neutron imaging was realized with the intensified CCD camera and time-of-flight (TOF) method. Time structure of the pulsed neutron source was firstly simulated with Geant4, and the simulation result was evaluated with experiment. Both simulation and experiment results indicated that fast neutrons and epithermal neutrons were concentrated in the first 0.8 ms of each pulse period; meanwhile in the period of 0.8–2.0 ms only thermal neutrons existed. Based on this result, neutron images with and without energy filtering were acquired respectively, and it showed that detection capability of PKUNIFTY was improved with setting the exposure interval as 0.8–2.0 ms, especially for materials with strong moderating capability.