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Sample records for facial performance relighting

  1. Relighting multiple color textures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIAO Chang-yu; LU Dong-ming; LIU Gang

    2005-01-01

    With the development of digital library technology, library books made of paper can be digital released and read, and Endangered Cultural Heritages can be preserved. Traditional library's contents and functions can be greatly enhanced by digital technologies. For these new library objects, the primary key problem is precisely reconstructing their 3D models. When constructing complete 3D models, multiple color texture maps are often necessary. A commonly encountered problem uncounted during fusing of textures from multiple color images is color distortion. Each texture of a single 3D model may be obtained under possibly different lighting conditions and color response of the camera. To remove any visible seam and improve color consistency between the textures while avoiding color distortion, we propose a new efficient algorithm to relight all the texture images globally,spread residual light difference, and recolor each image by homogeneous transformation. A relative illumination model was adopted to obtain the relighting function. We choose lαβ color space with minimal correlation between channels for many natural scenes, for calculating the relighting result. Looking into two overlapped images A and B, we can pairwise relight B into A's luminosity condition in two steps. We first scale B's l channel by the lA/lB ratio of the overlapped region. We can assume A and B are in a same color plane now. Then a homogeneous transformation is applied to B's α and β channels which moves B into A's hue and saturation condition. For multiple overlapped color textures, a patch based weighted global relighting method was proposed to minimize the total color difference. The pairwise relighting method was used between each two overlapped images, and the difference in every overlapped region after relighting was weighted and summed up to construct an energy value. We used Nelder-Mead method to find a minimal energy value and the relighting parameters for every image. After

  2. Relighting for energy efficiency and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Purcell, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of the process and approach of the Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI). It describes the major steps in relighting Federal buildings for energy efficiency and increased productivity.

  3. Relighting for energy efficiency and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, L. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Purcell, C.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the process and approach of the Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI). It describes the major steps in relighting Federal buildings for energy efficiency and increased productivity.

  4. Flame Imaging of Gas-Turbine Relight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Robert; Rogerson, J.W.; Hochgreb, S.

    2010-01-01

    High-altitude relight inside a lean-direct-injection gas-turbine combustor is investigated experimentally by highspeed imaging. Realistic operating conditions are simulated in a ground-based test facility, with two conditions being studied: one inside and one outside the combustor ignition loop....... The motion of hot gases during the early stages of relight is recorded using a high-speed camera. An algorithm is developed to track the flame movement and breakup, revealing important characteristics of the flame development process, including stabilization timescales, spatial trajectories, and typical...... velocities of hot gas motion. Although the observed patterns of ignition failure are in broad agreement with results from laboratory-scale studies, other aspects of relight behavior are not reproduced in laboratory experiments employing simplified flow geometries and operating conditions. For example, when...

  5. Reflectance Transfer for Material Editing and Relighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Hilton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to diffuse reflectance estimation for dynamic scenes. Non-parametric image statistics are used to transfer reflectance properties from a static example set to a dynamic image sequence. The approach allows diffuse reflectance estimation for surface materials with inhomogeneous appearance, such as those which commonly occur with patterned or textured clothing. Material editing is also possible by transferring edited reflectance properties. Material reflectance properties are initially estimated from static images of the subject under multiple directional illuminations using photometric stereo. The estimated reflectance together with the corresponding image under uniform ambient illumination form a prior set of reference material observations. Material reflectance properties are then estimated for video sequences of a moving person captured under uniform ambient illumination by matching the observed local image statistics to the reference observations. Results demonstrate that the transfer of reflectance properties enables estimation of the dynamic surface normals and subsequent relighting combined with material editing. This approach overcomes limitations of previous work on material transfer and relighting of dynamic scenes which was limited to surfaces with regions of homogeneous reflectance. We evaluate our approach for relighting 3D model sequences reconstructed from multiple view video. Comparison to previous model relighting demonstrates improved reproduction of detailed texture and shape dynamics.

  6. Aviation fuel property effects on altitude relight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, K.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this experimental program was to investigate the effects of fuel property variation on altitude relight characteristics. Four fuels with widely varying volatility properties (JP-4, Jet A, a blend of Jet A and 2040 Solvent, and Diesel 2) were tested in a five-swirl-cup-sector combustor at inlet temperatures and flows representative of windmilling conditions of turbofan engines. The effects of fuel physical properties on atomization were eliminated by using four sets of pressure-atomizing nozzles designed to give the same spray Sauter mean diameter (50 + or - 10 micron) for each fuel at the same design fuel flow. A second series of tests was run with a set of air-blast nozzles. With comparable atomization levels, fuel volatility assumes only a secondary role for first-swirl-cup lightoff and complete blowout. Full propagation first-cup blowout were independent of fuel volatility and depended only on the combustor operating conditions.

  7. The development of reactive fuel grains for pyrophoric relight of in-space hybrid rocket thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Matthew Wellington

    This study presents and investigates a novel hybrid fuel grain that reacts pyrophorically with gaseous oxidizer to achieve restart of a hybrid rocket motor propulsion system while reducing cost and handling concerns. This reactive fuel grain (RFG) relies on the pyrophoric nature of finely divided metal particles dispersed in a solid dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) binder, which has been shown to encapsulate air-sensitive additives until they are exposed to combustion gases. An RFG is thus effectively inert in open air in the absence of an ignition source, though the particles encapsulated within remain pyrophoric. In practice, this means that an RFG that is ignited in the vacuum of space and then extinguished will expose unoxidized pyrophoric particles, which can be used to generate sufficient heat to relight the propellant when oxidizer is flowed. The experiments outlined in this work aim to develop a suitable pyrophoric material for use in an RFG, demonstrate pyrophoric relight, and characterize performance under conditions relevant to a hybrid rocket thruster. Magnesium, lithium, calcium, and an alloy of titanium, chromium, and manganese (TiCrMn) were investigated to determine suitability of pure metals as RFG additives. Additionally, aluminum hydride (AlH3), lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4), lithium borohydride (LiBH4), and magnesium hydride (MgH2) were investigated to determine suitability of metals hydrides as RFG additives or as precursors for pure-metal RFG additives. Pyrophoric metals have been previously investigated as additives for increasing the regression rate of hybrid fuels, but to the author's knowledge, these materials have not been specifically investigated for their ability to ignite a propellant pyrophorically. Commercial research-grade metals were obtained as coarse powders, then ball-milled to attempt to reduce particle size below a critical diameter needed for pyrophoricity. Magnesium hydride was ball-milled and then cycled in a hydride cycling

  8. Systems Design and Experimental Evaluation of a High-Altitude Relight Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Brendan

    Novel advances in gas turbine engine combustor technology, led by endeavors into fuel efficiency and demanding environmental regulations, have been fraught with performance and safety concerns. While the majority of low emissions gas turbine engine combustor technology has been necessary for power generation applications, the push for ultra-low NOx combustion in aircraft jet engines has been ever present. Recent state-of-the-art combustor designs notably tackle historic emissions challenges by operating at fuel-lean conditions, which are characterized by an increase in the amount of air flow sent to the primary combustion zone. While beneficial in reducing NOx emissions, the fuel-lean mechanisms that characterize these combustor designs rely heavily upon high-energy and high-velocity air flows to sufficiently mix and atomize fuel droplets, ultimately leading to flame stability concerns during low-power operation. When operating at high-altitude conditions, these issues are further exacerbated by the presence of low ambient air pressures and temperatures, which can lead to engine flame-out situations and hamper engine relight attempts. To aid academic and industrial research ventures into improving the high-altitude lean blow-out and relight performance of modern gas turbine engine combustor technologies, the High-Altitude Relight Test Facility (HARTF) was designed and constructed at the University of Cincinnati (UC) Combustion and Fire Research Laboratory (CFRL). Following its construction, an experimental evaluation of its abilities to facilitate optically-accessible ignition, combustion, and spray testing for gas turbine engine combustor hardware at simulated high-altitude conditions was performed. In its evaluation, performance limit references were established through testing of the HARTF vacuum and cryogenic air-chilling capabilities. These tests were conducted with regard to end-user control---the creation and the maintenance of a realistic high

  9. Performance-driven facial animation: basic research on human judgments of emotional state in facial avatars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, A A; Neumann, U; Enciso, R; Fidaleo, D; Noh, J Y

    2001-08-01

    three-dimensional avatar using a performance-driven facial animation (PDFA) system developed at the University of Southern California Integrated Media Systems Center. PDFA offers a means for creating high-fidelity visual representations of human faces and bodies. This effort explores the feasibility of sensing and reproducing a range of facial expressions with a PDFA system. In order to test concordance of human ratings of emotional expression between video and avatar facial delivery, we first had facial model subjects observe stimuli that were designed to elicit naturalistic facial expressions. The emotional stimulus induction involved presenting text-based, still image, and video clips to subjects that were previously rated to induce facial expressions for the six universals2 of facial expression (happy, sad, fear, anger, disgust, and surprise), in addition to attentiveness, puzzlement and frustration. Videotapes of these induced facial expressions that best represented prototypic examples of the above emotional states and three-dimensional avatar animations of the same facial expressions were randomly presented to 38 human raters. The raters used open-end, forced choice and seven-point Likert-type scales to rate expression in terms of identification. The forced choice and seven-point ratings provided the most usable data to determine video/animation concordance and these data are presented. To support a clear understanding of this data, a website has been set up that will allow readers to view the video and facial animation clips to illustrate the assets and limitations of these types of facial expression-rendering methods (www. USCAvatars.com/MMVR). This methodological first step in our research program has served to provide valuable human user-centered feedback to support the iterative design and development of facial avatar characteristics for expression of emotional communication.

  10. Facial Performance Transfer via Deformable Models and Parametric Correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Akshay; de la Hunty, Miles; Dhall, Abhinav; Goecke, Roland

    2012-09-01

    The issue of transferring facial performance from one person's face to another's has been an area of interest for the movie industry and the computer graphics community for quite some time. In recent years, deformable face models, such as the Active Appearance Model (AAM), have made it possible to track and synthesize faces in real time. Not surprisingly, deformable face model-based approaches for facial performance transfer have gained tremendous interest in the computer vision and graphics community. In this paper, we focus on the problem of real-time facial performance transfer using the AAM framework. We propose a novel approach of learning the mapping between the parameters of two completely independent AAMs, using them to facilitate the facial performance transfer in a more realistic manner than previous approaches. The main advantage of modeling this parametric correspondence is that it allows a "meaningful" transfer of both the nonrigid shape and texture across faces irrespective of the speakers' gender, shape, and size of the faces, and illumination conditions. We explore linear and nonlinear methods for modeling the parametric correspondence between the AAMs and show that the sparse linear regression method performs the best. Moreover, we show the utility of the proposed framework for a cross-language facial performance transfer that is an area of interest for the movie dubbing industry.

  11. Analysis and Reliability Performance Comparison of Different Facial Image Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Madhavan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study performs reliability analysis on the different facial features with weighted retrieval accuracy on increasing facial database images. There are many methods analyzed in the existing papers with constant facial databases mentioned in the literature review. There were not much work carried out to study the performance in terms of reliability and also how the method will perform on increasing the size of the database. In this study certain feature extraction methods were analyzed on the regular performance measure and also the performance measures are modified to fit the real time requirements by giving weight ages for the closer matches. In this study four facial feature extraction methods are performed, they are DWT with PCA, LWT with PCA, HMM with SVD and Gabor wavelet with HMM. Reliability of these methods are analyzed and reported. Among all these methods Gabor wavelet with HMM gives more reliability than other three methods performed. Experiments are carried out to evaluate the proposed approach on the Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL face database.

  12. People with chronic facial pain perform worse than controls at a facial emotion recognition task, but it is not all about the emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Piekartz, H; Wallwork, S B; Mohr, G; Butler, D S; Moseley, G L

    2015-04-01

    Alexithymia, or a lack of emotional awareness, is prevalent in some chronic pain conditions and has been linked to poor recognition of others' emotions. Recognising others' emotions from their facial expression involves both emotional and motor processing, but the possible contribution of motor disruption has not been considered. It is possible that poor performance on emotional recognition tasks could reflect problems with emotional processing, motor processing or both. We hypothesised that people with chronic facial pain would be less accurate in recognising others' emotions from facial expressions, would be less accurate in a motor imagery task involving the face, and that performance on both tasks would be positively related. A convenience sample of 19 people (15 females) with chronic facial pain and 19 gender-matched controls participated. They undertook two tasks; in the first task, they identified the facial emotion presented in a photograph. In the second, they identified whether the person in the image had a facial feature pointed towards their left or right side, a well-recognised paradigm to induce implicit motor imagery. People with chronic facial pain performed worse than controls at both tasks (Facially Expressed Emotion Labelling (FEEL) task P facial pain were worse than controls at both the FEEL emotion recognition task and the left/right facial expression task and performance covaried within participants. We propose that disrupted motor processing may underpin or at least contribute to the difficulty that facial pain patients have in emotion recognition and that further research that tests this proposal is warranted.

  13. Coherent radiance capture of scenes under changing illumination conditions for relighting applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Katrien; Vesterbæk, Jeppe; Nielsen, Anders Hjorth

    2010-01-01

    Relighting algorithms make it possible to take a model of a real-world scene and virtually modify its lighting. Unlike other methods that require controlled conditions, we introduce a new radiance capture method that allows the user to capture parts of the scene under different lighting conditions....... A novel calibration method is presented that finds the positions of reflective spheres and their mathematically accurate projection onto the scene geometry. The resulting radiance distribution is used to estimate a diffuse reflectance for each object, computed coherently using the appropriate light probe...

  14. Comparison on Integer Wavelet Transforms in Spherical Wavelet Based Image Based Relighting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZe; LEEYin; LEUNGChising; WONGTientsin; ZHUYisheng

    2003-01-01

    To provide a good quality rendering in the Image based relighting (IBL) system, tremendous reference images under various illumination conditions are needed. Therefore data compression is essential to enable interactive action. And the rendering speed is another crucial consideration for real applications. Based on Spherical wavelet transform (SWT), this paper presents a quick representation method with Integer wavelet transform (IWT) for the IBL system. It focuses on comparison on different IWTs with the Embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) used in the IBL system. The whole compression procedure contains two major compression steps. Firstly, SWT is applied to consider the correlation among different reference images. Secondly, the SW transformed images are compressed with IWT based image compression approach. Two IWTs are used and good results are showed in the simulations.

  15. Planar laser-induced fluorescence fuel imaging during gas-turbine relight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Robert; Rogerson, J.W.; Hochgreb, S.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the influence of fuel distribution on ignition outcome during high-altitude relight of a gas turbine. Planar laser-induced fluorescence is used to image fuel inside a lean direct-injection combustor under realistic conditions. A novel apparatus is developed...... to permit planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging, in which large quantities of poorly atomized fuel impinges on the internal surfaces of the combustor. Results reveal high variability in atomization quality. In the absence of flame, small droplets are confined to areas of recirculating flow, whereas...... of ignition when the airflow rate is high. In the presence of flame, medium-sized burning droplets are observed close to the injector centerline. Flame interference resulting from fluorescence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is apparent, but small, suggesting that kerosene planar laser...

  16. The Facial Appearance of CEOs: Faces Signal Selection but Not Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garretsen, Harry; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.

    2016-01-01

    Research overwhelmingly shows that facial appearance predicts leader selection. However, the evidence on the relevance of faces for actual leader ability and consequently performance is inconclusive. By using a state-of-the-art, objective measure for face recognition, we test the predictive value of CEOs’ faces for firm performance in a large sample of faces. We first compare the faces of Fortune500 CEOs with those of US citizens and professors. We find clear confirmation that CEOs do look different when compared to citizens or professors, replicating the finding that faces matter for selection. More importantly, we also find that faces of CEOs of top performing firms do not differ from other CEOs. Based on our advanced face recognition method, our results suggest that facial appearance matters for leader selection but that it does not do so for leader performance. PMID:27462986

  17. Facial Expressions of Emotion and the Assessment of Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    is associated with energy mobilization, low subjective stress, and enhanced task performance (Tomaka, & Palacios- Esquivel , 1997). Thus, emotional...of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 248-260. Tomaka, J., & Palacios- Esquivel , R. L. (1997). Motivational systems and stress-related

  18. Analysis of the drilling sound component from expert performance in a maxillo-facial surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Gosselin, Florian; Taha, Farid

    2009-01-01

    Auditory displays can have a great potential in surgical simulators that aim at training skills associated to the correct interpretation of auditory information. Here, we present preliminary results in the analysis of the sound produced by the drilling procedure in a maxillo-facial surgery when...... performed by expert surgeons. The motivation of this work is to find relevant acoustic parameters that allow for an efficient synthesis method of auditory displays so that they can effectively convey information on expert surgical drilling....

  19. Assessing photoplethysmographic imaging performance beyond facial perfusion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelard, Robert; Hughson, Richard L.; Greaves, Danielle K.; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) systems are relatively new non-contact biophotonic diffuse reflectance systems able to assess arterial pulsations through transient changes in light-tissue interaction. Many PPGI studies have focused on extracting heart rate from the face or hand. Though PPGI systems can be used for widefield imaging of any anatomical area, whole-body investigations are lacking. Here, using a novel PPGI system, coded hemodynamic imaging (CHI), we explored and analyzed the pulsatility at major arterial locations across the whole body, including the neck (carotid artery), arm/wrist (brachial, radial and ulnar arteries), and leg/feet (popliteal and tibial arteries). CHI was positioned 1.5 m from the participant, and diffuse reactance from a broadband tungsten-halogen illumination was filtered using 850{1000 nm bandpass filter for deep tissue penetration. Images were acquired over a highly varying 24-participant sample (11/13 female/male, age 28.7+/-12.4 years, BMI 25.5+/-5.2 kg/m2), and a preliminary case study was performed. B-mode ultrasound images were acquired to validate observations through planar arterial characteristics.

  20. Facial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery.

  1. Urinary oxytocin positively correlates with performance in facial visual search in unmarried males, without specific reaction to infant face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko eSaito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a central role in prosocial and parental behavior in non-human mammals as well as humans. It has been suggested that oxytocin may affect visual processing of infant faces and emotional reaction to infants. Healthy male volunteers (N = 13 were tested for their ability to detect infant or adult faces among adult or infant faces (facial visual search task. Urine samples were collected from all participants before the study to measure the concentration of oxytocin. Urinary oxytocin positively correlated with performance in the facial visual search task. However, task performance and its correlation with oxytocin concentration did not differ between infant faces and adult faces. Our data suggests that endogenous oxytocin is related to facial visual cognition, but does not promote infant-specific responses in unmarried men who are not fathers.

  2. Facial Expression Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial compon

  3. Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial

  4. Face relighting from a single image under arbitrary unknown lighting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Zicheng; Hua, Gang; Wen, Zhen; Zhang, Zhengyou; Samaras, Dimitris

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to modify the appearance of a face image by manipulating the illumination condition, when the face geometry and albedo information is unknown. This problem is particularly difficult when there is only a single image of the subject available. Recent research demonstrates that the set of images of a convex Lambertian object obtained under a wide variety of lighting conditions can be approximated accurately by a low-dimensional linear subspace using a spherical harmonic representation. Moreover, morphable models are statistical ensembles of facial properties such as shape and texture. In this paper, we integrate spherical harmonics into the morphable model framework by proposing a 3D spherical harmonic basis morphable model (SHBMM). The proposed method can represent a face under arbitrary unknown lighting and pose simply by three low-dimensional vectors, i.e., shape parameters, spherical harmonic basis parameters, and illumination coefficients, which are called the SHBMM parameters. However, when the image was taken under an extreme lighting condition, the approximation error can be large, thus making it difficult to recover albedo information. In order to address this problem, we propose a subregion-based framework that uses a Markov random field to model the statistical distribution and spatial coherence of face texture, which makes our approach not only robust to extreme lighting conditions, but also insensitive to partial occlusions. The performance of our framework is demonstrated through various experimental results, including the improved rates for face recognition under extreme lighting conditions.

  5. Facial blindsight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eSolcà

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Blindsight denotes unconscious residual visual capacities in the context of an inability to consciously recollect or identify visual information. It has been described for color and shape discrimination, movement or facial emotion recognition. The present study investigates a patient suffering from cortical blindness whilst maintaining select residual abilities in face detection. Our patient presented the capacity to distinguish between jumbled/normal faces, known/unknown faces or famous people’s categories although he failed to explicitly recognize or describe them. Conversely, performance was at chance level when asked to categorize non-facial stimuli. Our results provide clinical evidence for the notion that some aspects of facial processing can occur without perceptual awareness, possibly using direct tracts from the thalamus to associative visual cortex, bypassing the primary visual cortex.

  6. Performance enhancement for audio-visual speaker identification using dynamic facial muscle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadpour, Vahid; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Homayounpour, Mohammad Mehdi

    2006-10-01

    Science of human identification using physiological characteristics or biometry has been of great concern in security systems. However, robust multimodal identification systems based on audio-visual information has not been thoroughly investigated yet. Therefore, the aim of this work to propose a model-based feature extraction method which employs physiological characteristics of facial muscles producing lip movements. This approach adopts the intrinsic properties of muscles such as viscosity, elasticity, and mass which are extracted from the dynamic lip model. These parameters are exclusively dependent on the neuro-muscular properties of speaker; consequently, imitation of valid speakers could be reduced to a large extent. These parameters are applied to a hidden Markov model (HMM) audio-visual identification system. In this work, a combination of audio and video features has been employed by adopting a multistream pseudo-synchronized HMM training method. Noise robust audio features such as Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), spectral subtraction (SS), and relative spectra perceptual linear prediction (J-RASTA-PLP) have been used to evaluate the performance of the multimodal system once efficient audio feature extraction methods have been utilized. The superior performance of the proposed system is demonstrated on a large multispeaker database of continuously spoken digits, along with a sentence that is phonetically rich. To evaluate the robustness of algorithms, some experiments were performed on genetically identical twins. Furthermore, changes in speaker voice were simulated with drug inhalation tests. In 3 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR), the dynamic muscle model improved the identification rate of the audio-visual system from 91 to 98%. Results on identical twins revealed that there was an apparent improvement on the performance for the dynamic muscle model-based system, in which the identification rate of the audio-visual system was enhanced from 87

  7. Emotional facial expressions differentially influence predictions and performance for face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomi, Jason S; Rhodes, Matthew G; Cleary, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how participants' predictions of future memory performance are influenced by emotional facial expressions. Participants made judgements of learning (JOLs) predicting the likelihood that they would correctly identify a face displaying a happy, angry, or neutral emotional expression in a future two-alternative forced-choice recognition test of identity (i.e., recognition that a person's face was seen before). JOLs were higher for studied faces with happy and angry emotional expressions than for neutral faces. However, neutral test faces with studied neutral expressions had significantly higher identity recognition rates than neutral test faces studied with happy or angry expressions. Thus, these data are the first to demonstrate that people believe happy and angry emotional expressions will lead to better identity recognition in the future relative to neutral expressions. This occurred despite the fact that neutral expressions elicited better identity recognition than happy and angry expressions. These findings contribute to the growing literature examining the interaction of cognition and emotion.

  8. Nonsurgical Facial Rejuvenation: Outcomes and Safety of Neuromodulator and Soft-Tissue Filler Procedures Performed in a Resident Cosmetic Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Ali A; Parikh, Rajiv P; Sharma, Ketan; Myckatyn, Terence M; Tenenbaum, Marissa M

    2017-05-25

    The ability to perform nonsurgical facial rejuvenation procedures is a core competency requirement for plastic surgery residents. However, limited data exist on training models to achieve competency in nonsurgical facial rejuvenation and on outcomes of these procedures performed by residents. The purpose here is to evaluate patient-reported outcomes and safety of nonsurgical facial rejuvenation procedures performed by plastic surgery residents. We prospectively enrolled 50 patients undergoing neuromodulator and/or soft-tissue filler injections in a resident cosmetic clinic between April and August 2016. Patients completed FACE-Q modules pre-procedure, and at 1 week and 1 month post-procedure. Paired t-tests were used to calculate statistical significance of changes between pre- and post-procedure scores. Effect sizes were calculated to assess clinical improvement from pre- to post-procedure. The magnitude of change was interpreted using Cohen's arbitrary criteria (small 0.20, moderate 0.50, large 0.80). Forty-five patients completed the study. Patients experienced significant improvements (p Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors http://www.springer.com/00266 .

  9. Simultaneous facial feature tracking and facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Shangfei; Zhao, Yongping; Ji, Qiang

    2013-07-01

    The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images or videos have attracted great attention in computer vision field. Facial activities are characterized by three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature points around each facial component, i.e., eyebrow, mouth, etc., capture the detailed face shape information. Second, in the middle level, facial action units, defined in the facial action coding system, represent the contraction of a specific set of facial muscles, i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc. Finally, in the top level, six prototypical facial expressions represent the global facial muscle movement and are commonly used to describe the human emotion states. In contrast to the mainstream approaches, which usually only focus on one or two levels of facial activities, and track (or recognize) them separately, this paper introduces a unified probabilistic framework based on the dynamic Bayesian network to simultaneously and coherently represent the facial evolvement in different levels, their interactions and their observations. Advanced machine learning methods are introduced to learn the model based on both training data and subjective prior knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, all three levels of facial activities are simultaneously recognized through a probabilistic inference. Extensive experiments are performed to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model on all three level facial activities.

  10. Social hierarchies and emotions: cortical prefrontal activity, facial feedback (EMG), and cognitive performance in a dynamic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Pagani, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    In the present research, we manipulated the perceived superior/inferior status during a competitive cognitive task. In two experiments, we created an explicit and strongly reinforced social hierarchy based on incidental rating on an attentional task. Based on our hypotheses, social rank may influence nonverbal cues (such as facial mimic related to emotional response), cortical lateralized activity in frontal areas (brain oscillations), and cognitive outcomes in response to rank modulation. Thus, the facial mimic (corrugators vs. zygomatic muscle activity), frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta), and real cognitive performance [(error rate (ER); response times (RTs)] were considered. Specifically, a peer-group comparison was enrolled and an improved (experiment 1, N = 29) or decreased (experiment 2, N = 31) performance was artificially manipulated by the experimenter. Results showed a significant improved cognitive performance (decreased ER and RTs), an increased zygomatic activity (positive emotions), and a more prefrontal left-lateralized cortical response in the case of a perceived increased social ranking. On the contrary, a significant decreased cognitive performance (increased ER and RTs), an increased corrugators activity (negative emotions), and a less left-lateralized cortical response were observed as a consequence of a perceived decreased social ranking. Moreover, the correlational values revealed a consistent trend between behavioral (RTs) and EMG and EEG measures for both experiments. The present results suggest that social status not only guides social behavior, but it also influences cognitive processes and subjects' performance.

  11. Facial paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003028.htm Facial paralysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Facial paralysis occurs when a person is no longer able ...

  12. PCA facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

  13. [Facial palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavoy, R

    2013-09-01

    Facial palsy is a daily challenge for the clinicians. Determining whether facial nerve palsy is peripheral or central is a key step in the diagnosis. Central nervous lesions can give facial palsy which may be easily differentiated from peripheral palsy. The next question is the peripheral facial paralysis idiopathic or symptomatic. A good knowledge of anatomy of facial nerve is helpful. A structure approach is given to identify additional features that distinguish symptomatic facial palsy from idiopathic one. The main cause of peripheral facial palsies is idiopathic one, or Bell's palsy, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The most common cause of symptomatic peripheral facial palsy is Ramsay-Hunt syndrome. Early identification of symptomatic facial palsy is important because of often worst outcome and different management. The prognosis of Bell's palsy is on the whole favorable and is improved with a prompt tapering course of prednisone. In Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, an antiviral therapy is added along with prednisone. We also discussed of current treatment recommendations. We will review short and long term complications of peripheral facial palsy.

  14. Classifying Facial Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  15. Facial swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help reduce facial swelling. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if you have: Sudden, painful, or severe facial ... or if you have breathing problems. The health care provider will ask about your medical and personal history. This helps determine treatment or ...

  16. Facial-shape controlled precursors for lithium cobalt oxides and the electrochemical performances in lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Cho, Sang-Woo; Missiul, Aleksandr; Jung, Hyun-Ok; Lee, Sanghun

    2015-01-01

    Two types of lithium cobalt oxides (LiCoO2) as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries are synthesized from two cobalt sources of different facial-shapes (octahedral and truncated-octahedral Co3O4) and Li2CO3 using solid state synthesis. From X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy measurements, the reaction mechanism of the formation of LiCoO2 is investigated. It is revealed that LiCoO2 from octahedral Co3O4 with only {111} surfaces grows in one direction whereas the crystal orientation of LiCoO2 from truncated-octahedral Co3O4 with {111} and {100} surfaces is not unique and the spinel intermediates of LixCo2O4 are formed during synthesis. They show largely unequal rate and cycling performances for lithium ion battery, even though their outer appearances are nearly identical. Almost single-crystalline LiCoO2 from octahedral precursors shows much better electrochemical performances than LiCoO2 from truncated-octahedral precursors as a lithium ion battery cathode. By studying crystal orientation, it is shown that the poor electrochemical performances of LiCoO2 from truncated-octahedral Co3O4 are originated by crystal-mismatch between crystallites.

  17. Facial tics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tic - facial; Mimic spasm ... Tics may involve repeated, uncontrolled spasm-like muscle movements, such as: Eye blinking Grimacing Mouth twitching Nose wrinkling Squinting Repeated throat clearing or grunting may also be ...

  18. Facial Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mihalache Sergiu; Stoica Mihaela-Zoica

    2014-01-01

    .... From birth, faces are important in the individual's social interaction. Face perceptions are very complex as the recognition of facial expressions involves extensive and diverse areas in the brain...

  19. Perception of facial expression and facial identity in subjects with social developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefter, Rebecca L; Manoach, Dara S; Barton, Jason J S

    2005-11-22

    It has been hypothesized that the social dysfunction in social developmental disorders (SDDs), such as autism, Asperger disorder, and the socioemotional processing disorder, impairs the acquisition of normal face-processing skills. The authors investigated whether this purported perceptual deficit was generalized to both facial expression and facial identity or whether these different types of facial perception were dissociated in SDDs. They studied 26 adults with a variety of SDD diagnoses, assessing their ability to discriminate famous from anonymous faces, their perception of emotional expression from facial and nonfacial cues, and the relationship between these abilities. They also compared the performance of two defined subgroups of subjects with SDDs on expression analysis: one with normal and one with impaired recognition of facial identity. While perception of facial expression was related to the perception of nonfacial expression, the perception of facial identity was not related to either facial or nonfacial expression. Likewise, subjects with SDDs with impaired facial identity processing perceived facial expression as well as those with normal facial identity processing. The processing of facial identity and that of facial expression are dissociable in social developmental disorders. Deficits in perceiving facial expression may be related to emotional processing more than face processing. Dissociations between the perception of facial identity and facial emotion are consistent with current cognitive models of face processing. The results argue against hypotheses that the social dysfunction in social developmental disorder causes a generalized failure to acquire face-processing skills.

  20. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News media interested in ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports injuries ...

  1. Children and Facial Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Children and Facial Trauma Children and Facial Trauma Patient Health Information News ... staff at newsroom@entnet.org . What is facial trauma? The term facial trauma means any injury to ...

  2. Facial Cosmetic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ...

  3. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision Understanding Facial Scar Treatment When the skin is injured from a cut or tear the body heals by forming scar tissue. The appearance of the scar can range from ...

  4. Rejuvenecimiento facial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Daniel Jacubovsky, Dr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento facial es un proceso único y particular a cada individuo y está regido en especial por su carga genética. El lifting facial es una compleja técnica desarrollada en nuestra especialidad desde principios de siglo, para revertir los principales signos de este proceso. Los factores secundarios que gravitan en el envejecimiento facial son múltiples y por ello las ritidectomías o lifting cérvico faciales descritas han buscado corregir los cambios fisonómicos del envejecimiento excursionando, como se describe, en todos los planos tisulares involucrados. Esta cirugía por lo tanto, exige conocimiento cabal de la anatomía quirúrgica, pericia y experiencia para reducir las complicaciones, estigmas quirúrgicos y revisiones secundarias. La ridectomía facial ha evolucionado hacia un procedimiento más simple, de incisiones más cortas y disecciones menos extensas. Las suspensiones musculares han variado en su ejecución y los vectores de montaje y resección cutánea son cruciales en los resultados estéticos de la cirugía cérvico facial. Hoy estos vectores son de tracción más vertical. La corrección de la flaccidez va acompañada de un interés en reponer el volumen de la superficie del rostro, en especial el tercio medio. Las técnicas quirúrgicas de rejuvenecimiento, en especial el lifting facial, exigen una planificación para cada paciente. Las técnicas adjuntas al lifting, como blefaroplastias, mentoplastía, lipoaspiración de cuello, implantes faciales y otras, también han tenido una positiva evolución hacia la reducción de riesgos y mejor éxito estético.

  5. Computer facial animation

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Frederic I

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive work provides the fundamentals of computer facial animation and brings into sharper focus techniques that are becoming mainstream in the industry. Over the past decade, since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant developments by academic research groups and in the film and games industries leading to the development of morphable face models, performance driven animation, as well as increasingly detailed lip-synchronization and hair modeling techniques. These topics are described in the context of existing facial animation principles. The second ed

  6. A Re-Lighting Algorithm to Improve Recall Rate of Face Recognition%提高人脸识别率的重光照算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗光明

    2015-01-01

    在逃犯追缉领域,基于人脸识别的逃犯鉴别技术受到高度重视。但是,各种恶劣的光照条件严重影响了对目标人脸的辨识。因此,如何排除光照干扰成为一个迫切需要解决的问题。本文提出一种新的重光照算法,利用自商图像算法求出人脸纹理特征,再利用辅助光照集合来归一化人脸光照分量,最后合成新的人脸图像用于人脸识别。在AR、CMU_PIE、CSA_Lighting库上进行人脸识别测试,结果表明改进的新算法有效地减轻了光照影响,提高了人脸正确识别率。在实际的追逃图片处理中也明显改善了追逃效率。%In escapee hunting, face recognition is applied widely. However, face recognition rate is affected by complex lighting environment. So it is a key problem that how to diminish the effect of illumination for face recognition. A re-lighting algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, the inherent texture features of the input image is extracted by self-quotient image algorithm. Then the illumination of the image is normalized based on an illumination bootstrap set. Finally the re-lighting image is produced by the combining texture image and the normalized illumination image. Experiments on AR, CMU_PIE and CAS_Lighting Face Database demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can improve the recall rate of face recognition algorithm, and further help to chase escapee.

  7. Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuura Naomi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. Methods We tested 24 male adolescent/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control participants. Using standard photographs of facial expressions illustrating six basic emotions, participants matched each emotional facial expression with an appropriate verbal label. Results Delinquents were less accurate in the recognition of facial expressions that conveyed disgust than were control participants. The delinquents misrecognized the facial expressions of disgust as anger more frequently than did controls. Conclusion These results suggest that one of the underpinnings of delinquency might be impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions, with a specific bias toward interpreting disgusted expressions as hostile angry expressions.

  8. Pediatric facial nerve rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Caroline A; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-11-01

    Facial paralysis is a rare but severe condition in the pediatric population. Impaired facial movement has multiple causes and varied presentations, therefore individualized treatment plans are essential for optimal results. Advances in facial reanimation over the past 4 decades have given rise to new treatments designed to restore balance and function in pediatric patients with facial paralysis. This article provides a comprehensive review of pediatric facial rehabilitation and describes a zone-based approach to assessment and treatment of impaired facial movement.

  9. Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergal Coulter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patient’s paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film actuators. Thedevelopment of this facial prosthetic device focused onrecreating a varying intensity smile, with emphasis ontiming, displacement and the appearance of the wrinklesand folds that commonly appear around the nose and eyesduring the expression.An animatronic face was constructed with actuations beingmade to a silicone representation musculature, usingmultiple shape-memory alloy cascades. Alongside theartificial muscle physical prototype, a facial expressionrecognition software system was constructed. This formsthe basis of an automated calibration and reconfigurationsystem for the artificial muscles following implantation, soas to suit the implantee’s unique physiognomy.ResultsAn animatronic model face with silicone musculature wasdesigned and built to evaluate the performance of ShapeMemory Alloy artificial muscles, their power controlcircuitry and software control systems. A dual facial motionsensing system was designed to allow real time control overmodel – a piezoresistive flex sensor to measure physicalmotion, and a computer vision system to evaluate real toartificial muscle performance.Analysis of various facial expressions in real subjects wasmade, which give useful data upon which to base thesystems parameter limits.ConclusionThe system performed well, and the various strengths andshortcomings of the materials and methods are reviewedand considered for the next research phase, when newpolymer based artificial muscles are constructed

  10. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more to fully heal and achieve maximum improved appearance. Facial plastic surgery makes it possible to correct facial flaws that can undermine self-confidence. Changing how your scar looks can help change ...

  11. Facial attractiveness: General patterns of facial preferences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    This review covers universal patterns in facial preferences. Facial attractiveness has fascinated thinkers since antiquity, but has been the subject of intense scientific study for only the last quarter of a century...

  12. [Surgical facial reanimation after persisting facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    Facial reanimation following persistent facial paralysis can be managed with surgical procedures of varying complexity. The choice of the technique is mainly determined by the cause of facial paralysis, the age and desires of the patient. The techniques most commonly used are the nerve grafts (VII-VII, XII-VII, cross facial graft), dynamic muscle transfers (temporal myoplasty, free muscle transfert) and static suspensions. An intensive rehabilitation through specific exercises after all procedures is essential to archieve good results.

  13. Facial porokeratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Dafnis C; Haley, Jennifer C; Chiu, Melvin

    2008-01-01

    A 34-year-old man from El Salvador was referred to our clinic with a 10-year history of a pruritic erythematous facial eruption. He reported increased pruritus and scaling of lesions when exposed to the sun. He worked as a construction worker and admitted to frequent sun exposure. Physical examination revealed well-circumscribed erythematous to violaceous papules with raised borders and atrophic centers localized to the nose (Figure 1). He did not have lesions on the arms or legs. He did not report a family history of similar lesions. A biopsy specimen was obtained from the edge of a lesion on the right ala. Histologic examination of the biopsy specimen showed acanthosis of the epidermis with focal invagination of the corneal layer and a homogeneous column of parakeratosis in the center of that layer consistent with a cornoid lamella (Figure 2). Furthermore, the granular layer was absent at the cornoid lamella base. The superficial dermis contained a sparse, perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. No evidence of dysplasia or malignancy was seen. These findings supported a diagnosis of porokeratosis. The patient underwent a trial of cryotherapy with moderate improvement of the facial lesions.

  14. Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Zeng

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Change in a speaker’s emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI. Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description and are expensive to model, we treat emotional facial expression detection as a one- class classification problem, which is to describe target objects (i.e., emotional facial expressions and distinguish them from outliers (i.e., non-emotional ones. Our preliminary experiments on AAI data suggest that one-class classification methods can reach a good balance between cost (labeling and computing and recognition performance by avoiding non-emotional expression labeling and modeling.

  15. Allometry of facial mobility in anthropoid primates: implications for the evolution of facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Seth D

    2009-01-01

    Body size may be an important factor influencing the evolution of facial expression in anthropoid primates due to allometric constraints on the perception of facial movements. Given this hypothesis, I tested the prediction that observed facial mobility is positively correlated with body size in a comparative sample of nonhuman anthropoids. Facial mobility, or the variety of facial movements a species can produce, was estimated using a novel application of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). I used FACS to estimate facial mobility in 12 nonhuman anthropoid species, based on video recordings of facial activity in zoo animals. Body mass data were taken from the literature. I used phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) to perform a multiple regression analysis with facial mobility as the dependent variable and two independent variables: log body mass and dummy-coded infraorder. Together, body mass and infraorder explain 92% of the variance in facial mobility. However, the partial effect of body mass is much stronger than for infraorder. The results of my study suggest that allometry is an important constraint on the evolution of facial mobility, which may limit the complexity of facial expression in smaller species. More work is needed to clarify the perceptual bases of this allometric pattern.

  16. Neuroticism delays detection of facial expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    The rapid detection of emotional signals from facial expressions is fundamental for human social interaction. The personality factor of neuroticism modulates the processing of various types of emotional facial expressions; however, its effect on the detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. In this study, participants with high- and low-neuroticism scores performed a visual search task to detect normal expressions of anger and happiness, and their anti-expressions within a cr...

  17. Measuring Facial Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  18. Facial Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalache Sergiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During their lifetime, people learn to recognize thousands of faces that they interact with. Face perception refers to an individual's understanding and interpretation of the face, particularly the human face, especially in relation to the associated information processing in the brain. The proportions and expressions of the human face are important to identify origin, emotional tendencies, health qualities, and some social information. From birth, faces are important in the individual's social interaction. Face perceptions are very complex as the recognition of facial expressions involves extensive and diverse areas in the brain. Our main goal is to put emphasis on presenting human faces specialized studies, and also to highlight the importance of attractiviness in their retention. We will see that there are many factors that influence face recognition.

  19. [Peripheral facial nerve palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Y; Ukkola-Pons, E; Ballivet de Régloix, S; Champagne, C; Raynal, M; Lepage, P; Kossowski, M

    2013-06-01

    Facial palsy can be defined as a decrease in function of the facial nerve, the primary motor nerve of the facial muscles. When the facial palsy is peripheral, it affects both the superior and inferior areas of the face as opposed to central palsies, which affect only the inferior portion. The main cause of peripheral facial palsies is Bell's palsy, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The prognosis is good in most cases. In cases with significant cosmetic sequelae, a variety of surgical procedures are available (such as hypoglossal-facial anastomosis, temporalis myoplasty and Tenzel external canthopexy) to rehabilitate facial aesthetics and function.

  20. Freestyle Local Perforator Flaps for Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the successful reconstruction of facial defects, various perforator flaps have been used in single-stage surgery, where tissues are moved to adjacent defect sites. Our group successfully performed perforator flap surgery on 17 patients with small to moderate facial defects that affected the functional and aesthetic features of their faces. Of four complicated cases, three developed venous congestion, which resolved in the subacute postoperative period, and one patient with partial necrosis underwent minor revision. We reviewed the literature on freestyle perforator flaps for facial defect reconstruction and focused on English articles published in the last five years. With the advance of knowledge regarding the vascular anatomy of pedicled perforator flaps in the face, we found that some perforator flaps can improve functional and aesthetic reconstruction for the facial defects. We suggest that freestyle facial perforator flaps can serve as alternative, safe, and versatile treatment modalities for covering small to moderate facial defects.

  1. Freestyle Local Perforator Flaps for Facial Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Ji Min; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No; Shim, Hyung Sup; Kim, Sang Wha

    2015-01-01

    For the successful reconstruction of facial defects, various perforator flaps have been used in single-stage surgery, where tissues are moved to adjacent defect sites. Our group successfully performed perforator flap surgery on 17 patients with small to moderate facial defects that affected the functional and aesthetic features of their faces. Of four complicated cases, three developed venous congestion, which resolved in the subacute postoperative period, and one patient with partial necrosis underwent minor revision. We reviewed the literature on freestyle perforator flaps for facial defect reconstruction and focused on English articles published in the last five years. With the advance of knowledge regarding the vascular anatomy of pedicled perforator flaps in the face, we found that some perforator flaps can improve functional and aesthetic reconstruction for the facial defects. We suggest that freestyle facial perforator flaps can serve as alternative, safe, and versatile treatment modalities for covering small to moderate facial defects.

  2. Three-Dimensional Accuracy of Facial Scan for Facial Deformities in Clinics: A New Evaluation Method for Facial Scanner Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Jiao; Xiong, Yu-Xue; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the practical accuracy (PA) of optical facial scanners for facial deformity patients in oral clinic was evaluated. Ten patients with a variety of facial deformities from oral clinical were included in the study. For each patient, a three-dimensional (3D) face model was acquired, via a high-accuracy industrial "line-laser" scanner (Faro), as the reference model and two test models were obtained, via a "stereophotography" (3dMD) and a "structured light" facial scanner (FaceScan) separately. Registration based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm was executed to overlap the test models to reference models, and "3D error" as a new measurement indicator calculated by reverse engineering software (Geomagic Studio) was used to evaluate the 3D global and partial (upper, middle, and lower parts of face) PA of each facial scanner. The respective 3D accuracy of stereophotography and structured light facial scanners obtained for facial deformities was 0.58±0.11 mm and 0.57±0.07 mm. The 3D accuracy of different facial partitions was inconsistent; the middle face had the best performance. Although the PA of two facial scanners was lower than their nominal accuracy (NA), they all met the requirement for oral clinic use.

  3. Three-Dimensional Accuracy of Facial Scan for Facial Deformities in Clinics: A New Evaluation Method for Facial Scanner Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-jiao; Xiong, Yu-xue; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the practical accuracy (PA) of optical facial scanners for facial deformity patients in oral clinic was evaluated. Ten patients with a variety of facial deformities from oral clinical were included in the study. For each patient, a three-dimensional (3D) face model was acquired, via a high-accuracy industrial “line-laser” scanner (Faro), as the reference model and two test models were obtained, via a “stereophotography” (3dMD) and a “structured light” facial scanner (FaceScan) separately. Registration based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm was executed to overlap the test models to reference models, and “3D error” as a new measurement indicator calculated by reverse engineering software (Geomagic Studio) was used to evaluate the 3D global and partial (upper, middle, and lower parts of face) PA of each facial scanner. The respective 3D accuracy of stereophotography and structured light facial scanners obtained for facial deformities was 0.58±0.11 mm and 0.57±0.07 mm. The 3D accuracy of different facial partitions was inconsistent; the middle face had the best performance. Although the PA of two facial scanners was lower than their nominal accuracy (NA), they all met the requirement for oral clinic use. PMID:28056044

  4. Predicting facial characteristics from complex polygenic variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Wolffhechel, Karin Marie Brandt; Pers, Tune

    2015-01-01

    genetic principal components across a population of 1,266 individuals. For this we perform a genome-wide association analysis to select a large number of SNPs linked to specific facial traits, recode these to genetic principal components and then use these principal components as predictors for facial...

  5. Surgical-Allogeneic Facial Reconstruction: Facial Transplants

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Coelho Goiato; Daniela Micheline Dos Santos; Lisiane Cristina Bannwart; Marcela Filié Haddad; Leonardo Viana Pereira; Aljomar José Vechiato Filho

    2014-01-01

    Several factors including cancer, malformations and traumas may cause large facial mutilation. These functional and aesthetic deformities negatively affect the psychological perspectives and quality of life of the mutilated patient. Conventional treatments are prone to fail aesthetically and functionally. The recent introduction of the composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA), which uses transplanted facial tissues of healthy donors to recover the damaged or non-existent facial tissue of mu...

  6. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippl, Martin; Karim, Ahmed A; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al., 2002). The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs) and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1). Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser), AU4 (brow lowerer), AU12 (lip corner puller) and AU24 (lip presser), each in alternation with a resting phase. Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g., M1, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, putamen), as well as in the thalamus, insula, and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the "like attracts like" principle (Donoghue et al., 1992). AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.

  7. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eKrippl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS,Ekman et al., 2002. The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1. Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser, AU4 (brow lowerer, AU12 (lip corner puller and AU24 (lip presser, each in alternation with a resting phase.Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g. M1, premotor cortex, SMA, putamen, as well as in the thalamus, insula and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU 4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the like attracts like principle (Donoghue et al., 1992 . AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.

  8. Neuroticism Delays Detection of Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    The rapid detection of emotional signals from facial expressions is fundamental for human social interaction. The personality factor of neuroticism modulates the processing of various types of emotional facial expressions; however, its effect on the detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. In this study, participants with high- and low-neuroticism scores performed a visual search task to detect normal expressions of anger and happiness, and their anti-expressions within a crowd of neutral expressions. Anti-expressions contained an amount of visual changes equivalent to those found in normal expressions compared to neutral expressions, but they were usually recognized as neutral expressions. Subjective emotional ratings in response to each facial expression stimulus were also obtained. Participants with high-neuroticism showed an overall delay in the detection of target facial expressions compared to participants with low-neuroticism. Additionally, the high-neuroticism group showed higher levels of arousal to facial expressions compared to the low-neuroticism group. These data suggest that neuroticism modulates the detection of emotional facial expressions in healthy participants; high levels of neuroticism delay overall detection of facial expressions and enhance emotional arousal in response to facial expressions.

  9. Categorical Perception of Affective and Linguistic Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX…

  10. Robust facial expression recognition via compressive sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiqing; Zhao, Xiaoming; Lei, Bicheng

    2012-01-01

    Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC). The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP), are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN), linear support vector machines (SVM) and the nearest subspace (NS), experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks.

  11. Facial Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...

  12. Clinical performance of a dermal filler containing natural glycolic Acid and a polylactic Acid polymer: results of a clinical trial in human immunodeficiency virus subjects with facial lipoatrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Jorge M; Macchetto, Pedro Cervantes; Durán Páramo, Rosa Margarita

    2010-02-01

    : seven in two sessions, eight in three sessions, 14 in four sessions, and one in five sessions. Each treatment session was separated by approximately 20 days as per the manufacturer's instructions. The follow-up phase consisted of four observation periods over two years from the last injection. The primary efficacy endpoint was measurement of correction of human immunodeficiency virus highly active antiretroviral therapy induced facial lipoatrophy. Using a multipoint scale of facial divergence, correction was measured as a percentage of correction (diversion correction percentage) from baseline. A secondary endpoint was safety based upon the incidence and type of adverse events experienced. All 30 patients completed the active treatment phase with 100 percent (N=30) undergoing at least two treatments at Days 1 and 20 after entry into study. Seventy-four percent (n=23) underwent a third treatment at Day 60, and 50 percent (n=15) received a fourth treatment at Day 80. A single subject received a fifth treatment at Day 100. There were no serious adverse events and no adverse events noted during the study period. Histology through skin biopsy (2mm punch) was performed on 10 subjects, and all subjects had dermal skin thickness measured with ultrasound. Histology demonstrated a foreign body reaction with multinucleated giant cells with phagocytized lactate crystals. New collagen formation was demonstrated. United States measurements of dermal skin thickness increase ranged from 0.22cm to 0.37cm. All subjects were rated for expected injection events to include erythema, edema, ecchymosis, and hematoma. This dermal collagen stimulator containing glycolic acid and polylactic acid represents a tangible alternative in therapeutic and aesthetic medicine. More than four years of clinical trials have demonstrated that this dermal collagen stimulator helps to improve the exterior quality of the skin while restoring lost facial volumes. Patient satisfaction was high due to its

  13. Facial paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sashank; Redett, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Facial paralysis can have devastating physical and psychosocial consequences. These are particularly severe in children in whom loss of emotional expressiveness can impair social development and integration. The etiologies of facial paralysis, prospects for spontaneous recovery, and functions requiring restoration differ in children as compared with adults. Here we review contemporary management of facial paralysis with a focus on special considerations for pediatric patients.

  14. Surgical-allogeneic facial reconstruction: facial transplants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho Goiato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several factors including cancer, malformations and traumas may cause large facial mutilation. These functional and aesthetic deformities negatively affect the psychological perspectives and quality of life of the mutilated patient. Conventional treatments are prone to fail aesthetically and functionally. The recent introduction of the composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA, which uses transplanted facial tissues of healthy donors to recover the damaged or non-existent facial tissue of mutilated patients, resulted in greater clinical results. Therefore, the present study aims to conduct a literature review on the relevance and effectiveness of facial transplants in mutilated subjects. It was observed that the facial transplants recovered both the aesthetics and function of these patients and consequently improved their quality of life.

  15. Identity information content depends on the type of facial movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobs, Katharina; Bülthoff, Isabelle; Schultz, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Facial movements convey information about many social cues, including identity. However, how much information about a person’s identity is conveyed by different kinds of facial movements is unknown. We addressed this question using a recent motion capture and animation system, with which we animated one avatar head with facial movements of three types: (1) emotional, (2) emotional in social interaction and (3) conversational, all recorded from several actors. In a delayed match-to-sample task, observers were best at matching actor identity across conversational movements, worse with emotional movements in social interactions, and at chance level with emotional facial expressions. Model observers performing this task showed similar performance profiles, indicating that performance variation was due to differences in information content, rather than processing. Our results suggest that conversational facial movements transmit more dynamic identity information than emotional facial expressions, thus suggesting different functional roles and processing mechanisms for different types of facial motion.

  16. Mutual information-based facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

  17. Odontogenic Facial Cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordany Boza Mejias

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: odontogenic facial cellulitis is an acute inflammatory process manifested in very different ways, with a variable scale in clinical presentation ranging from harmless well defined processes, to diffuse and progressive that may develop complications leading the patient to a critical condition, even risking their lives. Objective: To characterize the behavior of odontogenic facial cellulitis. Methods: A descriptive case series study was conducted at the dental clinic of Aguada de Pasajeros, Cienfuegos, from September 2010 to March 2011. It included 56 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Variables analyzed included: sex, age, teeth and regions affected, causes of cellulite and prescribed treatment. Results: no sex predilection was observed, lower molars and submandibular anatomical region were the most affected (50% and 30 4% respectively being tooth decay the main cause for this condition (51, 7%. The opening access was not performed to all the patients in the emergency service. The causal tooth extraction was not commonly done early, according to the prescribed antibiotic group. Thermotherapy with warm fomentation and saline mouthwash was the most prescribed and the most widely used group of antibiotics was the penicillin. Conclusions: dental caries were the major cause of odontogenic cellulite. There are still difficulties with the implementation of opening access.

  18. Holistic gaze strategy to categorize facial expression of varying intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Guo

    Full Text Available Using faces representing exaggerated emotional expressions, recent behaviour and eye-tracking studies have suggested a dominant role of individual facial features in transmitting diagnostic cues for decoding facial expressions. Considering that in everyday life we frequently view low-intensity expressive faces in which local facial cues are more ambiguous, we probably need to combine expressive cues from more than one facial feature to reliably decode naturalistic facial affects. In this study we applied a morphing technique to systematically vary intensities of six basic facial expressions of emotion, and employed a self-paced expression categorization task to measure participants' categorization performance and associated gaze patterns. The analysis of pooled data from all expressions showed that increasing expression intensity would improve categorization accuracy, shorten reaction time and reduce number of fixations directed at faces. The proportion of fixations and viewing time directed at internal facial features (eyes, nose and mouth region, however, was not affected by varying levels of intensity. Further comparison between individual facial expressions revealed that although proportional gaze allocation at individual facial features was quantitatively modulated by the viewed expressions, the overall gaze distribution in face viewing was qualitatively similar across different facial expressions and different intensities. It seems that we adopt a holistic viewing strategy to extract expressive cues from all internal facial features in processing of naturalistic facial expressions.

  19. Running performance in the heat is improved by similar magnitude with pre-exercise cold-water immersion and mid-exercise facial water spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Christopher J; Kittel, Aden; Sculley, Dean V; Callister, Robin; Taylor, Lee; Dascombe, Ben J

    2017-04-01

    This investigation compared the effects of external pre-cooling and mid-exercise cooling methods on running time trial performance and associated physiological responses. Nine trained male runners completed familiarisation and three randomised 5 km running time trials on a non-motorised treadmill in the heat (33°C). The trials included pre-cooling by cold-water immersion (CWI), mid-exercise cooling by intermittent facial water spray (SPRAY), and a control of no cooling (CON). Temperature, cardiorespiratory, muscular activation, and perceptual responses were measured as well as blood concentrations of lactate and prolactin. Performance time was significantly faster with CWI (24.5 ± 2.8 min; P = 0.01) and SPRAY (24.6 ± 3.3 min; P = 0.01) compared to CON (25.2 ± 3.2 min). Both cooling strategies significantly (P < 0.05) reduced forehead temperatures and thermal sensation, and increased muscle activation. Only pre-cooling significantly lowered rectal temperature both pre-exercise (by 0.5 ± 0.3°C; P < 0.01) and throughout exercise, and reduced sweat rate (P < 0.05). Both cooling strategies improved performance by a similar magnitude, and are ergogenic for athletes. The observed physiological changes suggest some involvement of central and psychophysiological mechanisms of performance improvement.

  20. Surgical treatment of facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ritvik P

    2009-03-01

    The management of facial paralysis is one of the most complex areas of reconstructive surgery. Given the wide variety of functional and cosmetic deficits in the facial paralysis patient, the reconstructive surgeon requires a thorough understanding of the surgical techniques available to treat this condition. This review article will focus on surgical management of facial paralysis and the treatment options available for acute facial paralysis (facial paralysis (3 weeks to 2 yr) and chronic facial paralysis (>2 yr). For acute facial paralysis, the main surgical therapies are facial nerve decompression and facial nerve repair. For facial paralysis of intermediate duration, nerve transfer procedures are appropriate. For chronic facial paralysis, treatment typically requires regional or free muscle transfer. Static techniques of facial reanimation can be used for acute, intermediate, or chronic facial paralysis as these techniques are often important adjuncts to the overall management strategy.

  1. Contemporary facial reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhama, Prabhat K; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-04-01

    The facial nerve is the most commonly paralyzed nerve in the human body. Facial paralysis affects aesthetic appearance, and it has a profound effect on function and quality of life. Management of patients with facial paralysis requires a multidisciplinary approach, including otolaryngologists, plastic surgeons, ophthalmologists, and physical therapists. Regardless of etiology, patients with facial paralysis should be evaluated systematically, with initial efforts focused upon establishing proper diagnosis. Management should proceed with attention to facial zones, including the brow and periocular region, the midface and oral commissure, the lower lip and chin, and the neck. To effectively compare contemporary facial reanimation strategies, it is essential to employ objective intake assessment methods, and standard reassessment schemas during the entire management period.

  2. Facial Reconstruction and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Genther, Dane J; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Extracranial infiltration of the facial nerve by salivary gland tumors is the most frequent cause of facial palsy secondary to malignancy. Nevertheless, facial palsy related to salivary gland cancer is uncommon. Therefore, reconstructive facial reanimation surgery is not a routine undertaking for most head and neck surgeons. The primary aims of facial reanimation are to restore tone, symmetry, and movement to the paralyzed face. Such restoration should improve the patient's objective motor function and subjective quality of life. The surgical procedures for facial reanimation rely heavily on long-established techniques, but many advances and improvements have been made in recent years. In the past, published experiences on strategies for optimizing functional outcomes in facial paralysis patients were primarily based on small case series and described a wide variety of surgical techniques. However, in the recent years, larger series have been published from high-volume centers with significant and specialized experience in surgical and nonsurgical reanimation of the paralyzed face that have informed modern treatment. This chapter reviews the most important diagnostic methods used for the evaluation of facial paralysis to optimize the planning of each individual's treatment and discusses surgical and nonsurgical techniques for facial rehabilitation based on the contemporary literature.

  3. [Facial tics and spasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R E; van Dijk, J Marc C; Elting, Jan Willem J; de Koning-Tijssen, Marina A J

    2014-01-01

    Facial tics and spasms are socially incapacitating, but effective treatment is often available. The clinical picture is sufficient for distinguishing between the different diseases that cause this affliction.We describe three cases of patients with facial tics or spasms: one case of tics, which are familiar to many physicians; one case of blepharospasms; and one case of hemifacial spasms. We discuss the differential diagnosis and the treatment possibilities for facial tics and spasms. Early diagnosis and treatment is important, because of the associated social incapacitation. Botulin toxin should be considered as a treatment option for facial tics and a curative neurosurgical intervention should be considered for hemifacial spasms.

  4. History of facial pain diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M; Jensen, Troels S

    2017-01-01

    Premise Facial pain refers to a heterogeneous group of clinically and etiologically different conditions with the common clinical feature of pain in the facial area. Among these conditions, trigeminal neuralgia (TN), persistent idiopathic facial pain, temporomandibular joint pain, and trigeminal...

  5. Deep plane facelifting for facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Neil; Adam, Stewart

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the facial plastic surgeon with anatomical and embryologic evidence to support the use of the deep plane technique for optimal treatment of facial aging. A detailed description of the procedure is provided to allow safe and consistent performance. Insights into anatomical landmarks, technical nuances, and alternative approaches for facial variations are presented. The following points will be further elucidated in the article. The platysma muscle/submuscular aponeurotic system/galea are the continuous superficial cervical fascia encompassing the majority of facial fat, and this superficial soft tissue envelope is poorly anchored to the face. The deep cervical fascia binds the structural aspects of the face and covers the facial nerve and buccal fat pad. Facial aging is mainly due to gravity's long-term effects on the superficial soft tissue envelope, with more subtle effects on the deeper structural compartments. The deep plane is the embryologic cleavage plane between these fascial layers, and is the logical place for facial dissection. The deep plane allows access to the buccal fat pad for treatment of jowling. Soft tissue mobilization is maximized in deep plane dissections and requires careful hairline planning. Flap advancement creates tension only at the fascia level allowing natural, tension-free skin closure, and long-lasting outcomes. The deep plane advancement flap is well vascularized and resistant to complications.

  6. Freestyle Local Perforator Flaps for Facial Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Yong Lee; Ji Min Kim; Ho Kwon; Sung-No Jung; Hyung Sup Shim; Sang Wha Kim

    2015-01-01

    For the successful reconstruction of facial defects, various perforator flaps have been used in single-stage surgery, where tissues are moved to adjacent defect sites. Our group successfully performed perforator flap surgery on 17 patients with small to moderate facial defects that affected the functional and aesthetic features of their faces. Of four complicated cases, three developed venous congestion, which resolved in the subacute postoperative period, and one patient with partial necrosi...

  7. Facial expression recognition in perceptual color space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajevardi, Seyed Mehdi; Wu, Hong Ren

    2012-08-01

    This paper introduces a tensor perceptual color framework (TPCF) for facial expression recognition (FER), which is based on information contained in color facial images. The TPCF enables multi-linear image analysis in different color spaces and demonstrates that color components provide additional information for robust FER. Using this framework, the components (in either RGB, YCbCr, CIELab or CIELuv space) of color images are unfolded to two-dimensional (2- D) tensors based on multi-linear algebra and tensor concepts, from which the features are extracted by Log-Gabor filters. The mutual information quotient (MIQ) method is employed for feature selection. These features are classified using a multi-class linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The effectiveness of color information on FER using low-resolution and facial expression images with illumination variations is assessed for performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that color information has significant potential to improve emotion recognition performance due to the complementary characteristics of image textures. Furthermore, the perceptual color spaces (CIELab and CIELuv) are better overall for facial expression recognition than other color spaces by providing more efficient and robust performance for facial expression recognition using facial images with illumination variation.

  8. Facial expression and sarcasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, P

    2001-08-01

    This study examined facial expression in the presentation of sarcasm. 60 responses (sarcastic responses = 30, nonsarcastic responses = 30) from 40 different speakers were coded by two trained coders. Expressions in three facial areas--eyebrow, eyes, and mouth--were evaluated. Only movement in the mouth area significantly differentiated ratings of sarcasm from nonsarcasm.

  9. Holistic facial expression classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, John; McDonald, J.

    2005-06-01

    This paper details a procedure for classifying facial expressions. This is a growing and relatively new type of problem within computer vision. One of the fundamental problems when classifying facial expressions in previous approaches is the lack of a consistent method of measuring expression. This paper solves this problem by the computation of the Facial Expression Shape Model (FESM). This statistical model of facial expression is based on an anatomical analysis of facial expression called the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We use the term Action Unit (AU) to describe a movement of one or more muscles of the face and all expressions can be described using the AU's described by FACS. The shape model is calculated by marking the face with 122 landmark points. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to analyse how the landmark points move with respect to each other and to lower the dimensionality of the problem. Using the FESM in conjunction with Support Vector Machines (SVM) we classify facial expressions. SVMs are a powerful machine learning technique based on optimisation theory. This project is largely concerned with statistical models, machine learning techniques and psychological tools used in the classification of facial expression. This holistic approach to expression classification provides a means for a level of interaction with a computer that is a significant step forward in human-computer interaction.

  10. Facial talon cusps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, T

    1997-12-01

    This is a report of two patients with isolated facial talon cusps. One occurred on a permanent mandibular central incisor; the other on a permanent maxillary canine. The locations of these talon cusps suggests that the definition of a talon cusp include teeth in addition to the incisor group and be extended to include the facial aspect of teeth.

  11. Familial congenital peripheral facial paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Portillo Vallenas, Roberto; Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, EsSalud, Lima, Perú; Aldave, Raquel; Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, EsSalud, Lima, Perú; Reyes, Juan; Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, EsSalud, Lima, Perú; Castañeda, César; Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, EsSalud, Lima, Perú; VERA, JOSÉ; Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, Servicio de Neurología. Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study 29 individuals belonging to four familiar generations in whom 9 cases of facial paralysis was found in 2 generations. Setting: Neurophysiology Service, Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen National Hospital. Material and Methods: Neurological exam and electrophysiologic (EMG and VCN), otorrhinolaryngologic, radiologic, electroencephalographic, dermatoglyphic and laboratory studies were performed in 7 of the 9 patients (5 men and 2 women). Results: One case of right peripheral facia...

  12. Camouflaging Facial Emphysema: a new syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carpio, Pedro A; del Campillo, Ángel F Bedoya; Leal, María Jesús; Lleopart, Núria; Marrón, María T; Trelles, Mario A

    2012-10-10

    Camouflaging Facial Emphysema, as is defined in this paper, is the result of a simple technique used by the patient to deform his face in order to prevent recognition at a police identity parade. The patient performs two punctures in the mucosa at the rear of the upper lip and, after several Valsalva manoeuvres, manages to deform his face in less than 15 min by inducing subcutaneous facial emphysema. The examination shows an accumulation of air in the face, with no laterocervical, mediastinal or thoracic affectations. The swelling is primarily observed in the eyelids and the orbital and zygomatic regions, whereas it is less prominent in other areas of the face. Patients therefore manage to avoid recognition in properly conducted police identity parades. Only isolated cases of self-induced facial emphysema have been reported to date among psychiatric patients and prison inmates. However, the facial emphysema herein described exhibits specific characteristics of significant medical, deontological, social, police-related, and legal implications.

  13. Ethics and the facial plastic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Neeraj

    2016-09-01

    The facial plastic surgeon potentially has a conflict of interest when confronted with the patients requesting surgery, due to the personal gain attainable by agreeing to perform surgery. The aim of this review is to discuss the potential harm the surgeon can inflict by carrying out facial plastic surgery, beyond the standard surgical complications of infection or bleeding. It will discuss the desire for self-improvement and perfection and increase in the prevalence facial plastic surgery. We address the principles of informed consent, beneficence and non-maleficence, as well as justice and equality and how the clinician who undertakes facial plastic surgery is at risk of breaching these principles without due care and diligence.

  14. Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2007-01-01

    Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

  15. Sound-induced facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming-San; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.; Meek, Marcel F.

    2009-01-01

    Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve. Patients suffer from inappropriate and involuntary synchronous facial muscle contractions. Here we describe two

  16. FACIAL LANDMARKING LOCALIZATION FOR EMOTION RECOGNITION USING BAYESIAN SHAPE MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan F. Garcia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a framework for emotion recognition, based in facial expression analysis using Bayesian Shape Models (BSM for facial landmarking localization. The Facial Action Coding System (FACS compliant facial feature tracking based on Bayesian Shape Model. The BSM estimate the parameters of the model with an implementation of the EM algorithm. We describe the characterization methodology from parametric model and evaluated the accuracy for feature detection and estimation of the parameters associated with facial expressions, analyzing its robustness in pose and local variations. Then, a methodology for emotion characterization is introduced to perform the recognition. The experimental results show that the proposed model can effectively detect the different facial expressions. Outperforming conventional approaches for emotion recognition obtaining high performance results in the estimation of emotion present in a determined subject. The model used and characterization methodology showed efficient to detect the emotion type in 95.6% of the cases.

  17. The MPI facial expression database--a validated database of emotional and conversational facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Kaulard

    Full Text Available The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural

  18. Live facial feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO JieYu

    2008-01-01

    Precise facial feature extraction is essential to the high-level face recognition and expression analysis. This paper presents a novel method for the real-time geomet-ric facial feature extraction from live video. In this paper, the input image is viewed as a weighted graph. The segmentation of the pixels corresponding to the edges of facial components of the mouth, eyes, brows, and nose is implemented by means of random walks on the weighted graph. The graph has an 8-connected lattice structure and the weight value associated with each edge reflects the likelihood that a random walker will cross that edge. The random walks simulate an anisot-ropic diffusion process that filters out the noise while preserving the facial expres-sion pixels. The seeds for the segmentation are obtained from a color and motion detector. The segmented facial pixels are represented with linked lists in the origi-nal geometric form and grouped into different parts corresponding to facial com-ponents. For the convenience of implementing high-level vision, the geometric description of facial component pixels is further decomposed into shape and reg-istration information. Shape is defined as the geometric information that is invari-ant under the registration transformation, such as translation, rotation, and iso-tropic scale. Statistical shape analysis is carried out to capture global facial fea-tures where the Procrustes shape distance measure is adopted. A Bayesian ap-proach is used to incorporate high-level prior knowledge of face structure. Ex-perimental results show that the proposed method is capable of real-time extraction of precise geometric facial features from live video. The feature extraction is robust against the illumination changes, scale variation, head rotations, and hand inter-ference.

  19. A Study of Facial Index among Malay Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahamida Yesmin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial analysis is anthropologically useful to identify the racial, ethnical, and sexual differences. The present study was done to see the sex difference and variation of facial index among Malaysian population. Cross-sectional descriptive type of study was done in Anatomy Department in UniKL RCMP which was performed on 81 Malay people (40 males, 41 females aged 19–30 years. To measure the morphological parameters (facial height, facial width, and facial index, digital slide calliper and scale were used. There were significant differences found in all facial parameters of males compared with the females. The mean morphological facial height was 111.9 ± 8.4 and morphological facial width was 127.3 ± 8.0. The range of facial index was 67.44–106.90 for males and 75.21–97.99 for females. The total facial index was calculated according to the formula and the results obtained were analyzed statistically using the t-test which was statistically significant (0.003. The dominant phenotype in Malay population was mesoprosopic or round face (45% and least common face type was hyperleptoprosopic or very long face (5%. There were significant variations in the face index between Malay males and females; further study with large sample size in different races in Malaysia is recommended.

  20. Surgical Treatment of Facial Paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Ritvik P.

    2009-01-01

    The management of facial paralysis is one of the most complex areas of reconstructive surgery. Given the wide variety of functional and cosmetic deficits in the facial paralysis patient, the reconstructive surgeon requires a thorough understanding of the surgical techniques available to treat this condition. This review article will focus on surgical management of facial paralysis and the treatment options available for acute facial paralysis (2 yr). For acute facial paralysis, the main surgi...

  1. Fusiform Correlates of Facial Memory in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Lange

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies have shown that performance on standardized measures of memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD is substantially reduced in comparison to matched typically developing controls (TDC. Given reported deficits in face processing in autism, the current study compared performance on an immediate and delayed facial memory task for individuals with ASD and TDC. In addition, we examined volumetric differences in classic facial memory regions of interest (ROI between the two groups, including the fusiform, amygdala, and hippocampus. We then explored the relationship between ROI volume and facial memory performance. We found larger volumes in the autism group in the left amygdala and left hippocampus compared to TDC. In contrast, TDC had larger left fusiform gyrus volumes when compared with ASD. Interestingly, we also found significant negative correlations between delayed facial memory performance and volume of the left and right fusiform and the left hippocampus for the ASD group but not for TDC. The possibility of larger fusiform volume as a marker of abnormal connectivity and decreased facial memory is discussed.

  2. Altering sensorimotor feedback disrupts visual discrimination of facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Adrienne; Lupyan, Gary; Sherrin, Steven; Niedenthal, Paula

    2016-08-01

    Looking at another person's facial expression of emotion can trigger the same neural processes involved in producing the expression, and such responses play a functional role in emotion recognition. Disrupting individuals' facial action, for example, interferes with verbal emotion recognition tasks. We tested the hypothesis that facial responses also play a functional role in the perceptual processing of emotional expressions. We altered the facial action of participants with a gel facemask while they performed a task that involved distinguishing target expressions from highly similar distractors. Relative to control participants, participants in the facemask condition demonstrated inferior perceptual discrimination of facial expressions, but not of nonface stimuli. The findings suggest that somatosensory/motor processes involving the face contribute to the visual perceptual-and not just conceptual-processing of facial expressions. More broadly, our study contributes to growing evidence for the fundamentally interactive nature of the perceptual inputs from different sensory modalities.

  3. Persistent facial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete

    2016-01-01

    , clinical features, consequences, central and peripheral mechanisms, diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD), and principles of management. For each of the neuropathic facial pain entities, the definitions, prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostics are described. The current understanding of the pathophysiology......Persistent facial pains, especially temporomandibular disorders (TMD), are common conditions. As dentists are responsible for the treatment of most of these disorders, up-to date knowledge on the latest advances in the field is essential for successful diagnosis and management. The review covers...... TMD, and different neuropathic or putative neuropathic facial pains such as persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia, trigeminal neuralgia and painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy. The article presents an overview of TMD pain as a biopsychosocial condition, its prevalence...

  4. Persistent facial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete

    2016-01-01

    TMD, and different neuropathic or putative neuropathic facial pains such as persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia, trigeminal neuralgia and painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy. The article presents an overview of TMD pain as a biopsychosocial condition, its prevalence......Persistent facial pains, especially temporomandibular disorders (TMD), are common conditions. As dentists are responsible for the treatment of most of these disorders, up-to date knowledge on the latest advances in the field is essential for successful diagnosis and management. The review covers......, clinical features, consequences, central and peripheral mechanisms, diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD), and principles of management. For each of the neuropathic facial pain entities, the definitions, prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostics are described. The current understanding of the pathophysiology...

  5. Persistent facial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete;

    2016-01-01

    , clinical features, consequences, central and peripheral mechanisms, diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD), and principles of management. For each of the neuropathic facial pain entities, the definitions, prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostics are described. The current understanding of the pathophysiology...

  6. Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Evidence from an fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tingting; Mo, Lei; Mo, Ce; Tan, Li Hai; Cant, Jonathan S.; Zhong, Luojin; Cupchik, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments were performed to answer this question. Experiment 1 investigated the network of moral aesthetic judgments and facial aesthetic judgments. Participants performed aesthetic judgments and gender judgments on both faces and scenes containing moral acts. The conjunction analysis of the contrasts ‘facial aesthetic judgment > facial gender judgment’ and ‘scene moral aesthetic judgment > scene gender ...

  7. Management of facial blushing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter B; Pilegaard, Hans K

    2008-01-01

    people. Side effects are frequent, but most patients are satisfied with the operation. In the short term, the key to success in sympathetic surgery for facial blushing lies in a meticulous and critical patient selection and in ensuring that the patient is thoroughly informed about the high risk of side...... effects. In the long term, the key to success in sympathetic surgery for facial blushing lies in more quality research comparing surgical, pharmacologic, and psychotherapeutic treatments....

  8. Facial Affect Recognition and Social Anxiety in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,…

  9. Regression-based Multi-View Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudovic, Ognjen; Patras, Ioannis; Pantic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    We present a regression-based scheme for multi-view facial expression recognition based on 2-D geometric features. We address the problem by mapping facial points (e.g. mouth corners) from non-frontal to frontal view where further recognition of the expressions can be performed using a state-of-the-

  10. Facial Affect Recognition and Social Anxiety in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,…

  11. Regression-based Multi-View Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudovic, Ognjen; Patras, Ioannis; Pantic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    We present a regression-based scheme for multi-view facial expression recognition based on 2蚠D geometric features. We address the problem by mapping facial points (e.g. mouth corners) from non-frontal to frontal view where further recognition of the expressions can be performed using a

  12. Relationships between Facial Discrimination and Social Adjustment in Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Esbensen, Anna J.; Hoch, Theodore A.

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-two adults with mental retardation of heterogeneous etiology performed four facial emotion discrimination tasks and two facial nonemotion tasks. Staff members familiar with the participants completed measures of social adjustment (the Socialization and Communication domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the Social Performance…

  13. Facial recognition and laser surface scan: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Clausen, Maja-Lisa; Kristoffersen, Agnethe May

    2009-01-01

    Surface scanning of the face of a suspect is presented as a way to better match the facial features with those of a perpetrator from CCTV footage. We performed a simple pilot study where we obtained facial surface scans of volunteers and then in blind trials tried to match these scans with 2D...

  14. [Facial locoregional anesthetics: principles and precautions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, H; Lacroix, G; Cordier, A; Bey, E; Duhamel, P

    2009-12-01

    Facial locoregional anesthetics (ALR) with nervous blocks are simple and reliable to perform, need little technical resources with a very low iatrogenic risk. These blocks allow anesthesia without deforming wound banks using the same materials as usual local anesthetic procedures. Three principal nervous blocks, in a straight line along the vertical pupil axis, allow managing - even extensive - facial wounds. Few side effects may occur which can be easily prevented. It is a good alternative to local anesthetic for the treatment of extensive and deep areas which is performed with a lower number of injections and a high rate of success. These techniques are easy to learn and practise. These anesthetic techniques allow a nice treatment of different kinds of facial wounds from simple suture to flaps.

  15. Improvement of chronic facial pain and facial dyskinesia with the help of botulinum toxin application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellies Maik

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial pain syndromes can be very heterogeneous and need individual diagnosis and treatment. This report describes an interesting case of facial pain associated with eczema and an isolated dyskinesia of the lower facial muscles following dental surgery. Different aspects of the pain, spasms and the eczema will be discussed. Case presentation In this patient, persistent intense pain arose in the lower part of her face following a dental operation. The patient also exhibited dyskinesia of her caudal mimic musculature that was triggered by specific movements. Several attempts at therapy had been unsuccessful. We performed local injections of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A into the affected region of the patient's face. Pain relief was immediate following each set of botulinum toxin injections. The follow up time amounts 62 weeks. Conclusion Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A can be a safe and effective therapy for certain forms of facial pain syndromes.

  16. Facial identity and facial expression are initially integrated at visual perceptual stages of face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Katie; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-08

    It is frequently assumed that facial identity and facial expression are analysed in functionally and anatomically distinct streams within the core visual face processing system. To investigate whether expression and identity interact during the visual processing of faces, we employed a sequential matching procedure where participants compared either the identity or the expression of two successively presented faces, and ignored the other irrelevant dimension. Repetitions versus changes of facial identity and expression were varied independently across trials, and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during task performance. Irrelevant facial identity and irrelevant expression both interfered with performance in the expression and identity matching tasks. These symmetrical interference effects show that neither identity nor expression can be selectively ignored during face matching, and suggest that they are not processed independently. N250r components to identity repetitions that reflect identity matching mechanisms in face-selective visual cortex were delayed and attenuated when there was an expression change, demonstrating that facial expression interferes with visual identity matching. These findings provide new evidence for interactions between facial identity and expression within the core visual processing system, and question the hypothesis that these two attributes are processed independently.

  17. Adolescents with HIV and facial lipoatrophy: response to facial stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus Claudio Gabana-Silveira; Laura Davison Mangilli; Sassi, Fernanda C.; Arnaldo Feitosa Braga; Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of facial stimulation over the superficial muscles of the face in individuals with facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with no indication for treatment with polymethyl methacrylate. METHOD: The study sample comprised four adolescents of both genders ranging from 13 to 17 years in age. To participate in the study, the participants had to score six or less points on the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. The facial stim...

  18. Assessing Pain by Facial Expression: Facial Expression as Nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Prkachin, Kenneth M.

    2009-01-01

    The experience of pain is often represented by changes in facial expression. Evidence of pain that is available from facial expression has been the subject of considerable scientific investigation. The present paper reviews the history of pain assessment via facial expression in the context of a model of pain expression as a nexus connecting internal experience with social influence. Evidence about the structure of facial expressions of pain across the lifespan is reviewed. Applications of fa...

  19. CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF LARGE AMPLITUDE ACTION POTENTIAL OF THE SUFFERED FACIAL MUSCLES IN INTRATEMPORAL FACIAL NERVE PARALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任重; 惠莲

    1999-01-01

    Objctive. To testify the phenomenon that large amplitude action potential appears at the early stage oil facial paralysis, and to search for the mechanism through clinical and experimental studies. Patients(aninmls) and methods. The action potentials of the orbicular ocular and oral museles were recorded in 34 normal persons by electromyogram instrtiments. The normal range of amplitude percentage was found out according to the normal distribution, One hundred patients with facial paralysis were also studied. The action potentials of facial muscles were recorded ia 17 guinea pigs before and after the facial nerve was comp~ and the facial nerve was examined under electromicroscope before and after the compression.Results. The amplitude percentage of the suffered side to the healthy side was more than 153 percent in 6 of the 100 patients. Large amplitude action potential occured in 35 per cent guinea pigs which were performed the experiment of facial nerve compression. Electromicroscopic examination revealed separation of the lammae of the facial nerve's myelin sheath in the guinea pigs which exhibited large amplitude action potential Conclusion. The facial nerve exhibited a temporary over-excitability at the early stage of facial nerve injury in scane patients and guinea pigs. If the injury was limited in the myelin sheath, the prognods was relatively good.

  20. CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF LARGE AMPLITUDE ACTION POTENTIAL OF THE SUFFERED FACIAL MUSCLES IN INTRATEMPORAL FACIAL NERVE PARALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ojective. To testify the phenomenon that large amplitude action potential appears at the early stage of facial paralysis, and to search for the mechanism through clinical and experimental studies. Patients(animals) and methods. The action potentials of the orbicular ocular and oral muscles were recorded in 34 normal persons by electromyogram instruments. The normal range of amplitude percentage was found out according to he normal distribution. One hundred patients with facial paralysis were also studied. The action potentials of facial muscles were recorded in 17 guinea pigs before and after the facial nerve was compressed and the facial nerve was examined under electromicroscope before and after the compression.Results. The amplitude percentage of the suffered ide to the healthy side was more than 153 percent in 6 of the 100 patients. Lare amplitude action potential ocured in 35 per cent guinea pigs which were performed the experiment of facial nrve compression. Electromicroscopic examination revealed separation of the lammae of the facial nerve's myelin sheath in the guinea pigs which exhibited large amplitude action potential.Conclusion. The facial nerve exhibited a temporary over-exciability at the early stage of facial nerve injury in some patients and guinea pigs. If the injury waslimited in the myelin sheath, te prognosis was relatively good.

  1. Privacy in the Face of Surveillance: Fourth Amendment Considerations for Facial Recognition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    five decades later, are: “head rotation and tilt, lighting intensity and angle, facial expression , aging, etc.”51 47 Charlie Savage, “ Facial ...OF SURVEILLANCE: FOURTH AMENDMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR FACIAL RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY by Eric Z. Wynn March 2015 Thesis Advisor: Carolyn... FACIAL RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric Z. Wynn 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NA:i\\tiE(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey

  2. Altered prosaposin expression in the rat facial nerve nucleus following facial nerve transection and repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wang; Wenlong Luo; Cuiying Zhou; Jingjing Li

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that damaged facial nerves synthesize prosaposin to promote repair of facial neurons.OBJECTIVE: To observe time-course changes of prosaposin expression in the facial nerve nucleus of Sprague Dawley rats following facial nerve transection and repair.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized control neuropathological animal experiment was performed in Chongqing Medical University between March 2007 and September 2008.MATERIALS: A total of 48 adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats were selected and randomly divided into transection and transection + end-to-end anastomosis groups (n =24). Rabbit anti-rat prosaposin antibody, instant SABC immunohistochemical kit, and antibody dilution solution were purchased from Wuhan Uscn Science Co., Ltd., China.METHODS: In the transection group, the nerve trunk of the distal retroauricular branch of the left facial nerves was ligated in Sprague Dawley rats, and a 5-mm nerve trunk at the distal end of the ligation site was removed. In the transection + end-to-end anastomosis group, epineurial anastomosis was performed immediately following transection of the left facial nerves. The right facial nerves in the two groups sewed as the normal control group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of prosaposin-positive neurons, as well as intensity of immunostaining in facial nerve nucleus, following transection and end-to-end anastomosis were determined by immunohistochemistry at 1,3, 7, 14, 21, and 35 days after injury.RESULTS: Transection group: transection of facial nerves resulted in increased number of prosaposin-positive neurons and immunoreactivity intensity in the facial nucleus on day 1. These values significantly increased by day 3. Expression was greater than in the control side. The peak of the reduction was reached at 7 days post-surgery. Transection + end-to-end anastomosis group: the number of prosaposin-positive neurons and immunoreactivity intensity was reduced in the facial nerve nucleus following

  3. Neuromuscular retraining for facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diels, H J; Combs, D

    1997-10-01

    Neuromuscular retraining is an effective method for rehabilitating facial musculature in patients with facial paralysis. This nonsurgical therapy has demonstrated improved functional outcomes and is an important adjunct to surgical treatment for restoring facial movement. Treatment begins with an intensive clinical evaluation and incorporates appropriate sensory feedback techniques into a patient-specific, comprehensive, home therapy program. This article discusses appropriate patients, timelines for referral, and basic treatment practices of facial neuromuscular retraining for restoring function and expression to the highest level possible.

  4. Risk factors associated with facial fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Margareth Batista

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for facial fractures in patients treated in the emergency department of a hospital. The medical charts of 1121 patients treated in an emergency ward over a three-year period were analyzed. The independent variables were gender, age, place of residence (urban or rural area and type of accident. The dependent variables were fractured mandible, zygoma, maxilla, nasal bone and more than one fractured facial bone. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test (a < 0.05, univariate and multivariate Poisson distributions and the logistic regression analysis (p < 0.20. Maxillofacial trauma was recorded in 790 charts (70.5%, with 393 (35.1% charts reporting facial fractures. Motorcycle accidents were found to be the main risk factor for mandibular fractures (PR = 1.576, CI = 1.402-1.772 and simultaneous fractures of more than one facial bone (OR = 4.625, CI = 1.888-11.329 as well as the only risk factor for maxillary bone fractures (OR = 11.032, CI = 5.294-22.989. Fractures of the zygomatic and nasal bones were mainly associated with accidents involving animals (PR = 1.206, CI = 1.104-1.317 and sports (OR = 8.710, CI = 4.006-18.936, respectively. The determinant for the majority of facial fractures was motorcycle accidents, followed by accidents involving animals and sports.

  5. Facial Edema Evaluation Using Digital Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Villafuerte-Nuñez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the facial edema evaluation is providing the needed information to determine the effectiveness of the anti-inflammatory drugs in development. This paper presents a system that measures the four main variables present in facial edemas: trismus, blush (coloration, temperature, and inflammation. Measurements are obtained by using image processing and the combination of different devices such as a projector, a PC, a digital camera, a thermographic camera, and a cephalostat. Data analysis and processing are performed using MATLAB. Facial inflammation is measured by comparing three-dimensional reconstructions of inflammatory variations using the fringe projection technique. Trismus is measured by converting pixels to centimeters in a digitally obtained image of an open mouth. Blushing changes are measured by obtaining and comparing the RGB histograms from facial edema images at different times. Finally, temperature changes are measured using a thermographic camera. Some tests using controlled measurements of every variable are presented in this paper. The results allow evaluating the measurement system before its use in a real test, using the pain model approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, which consists in extracting the third molar to generate the facial edema.

  6. Facial Data Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuliang; YUAN Hanning; CAO Baohua; WANG Dakui

    2015-01-01

    Expressional face recognition is a challenge in computer vision for complex expressions. Facial data field is proposed to recognize expression. Fundamentals are presented in the methodology of face recognition upon data field and subsequently, technical algorithms including normalizing faces, generating facial data field, extracting feature points in partitions, assigning weights and recog-nizing faces. A case is studied with JAFFE database for its verification. Result indicates that the proposed method is suitable and eff ective in expressional face recognition con-sidering the whole average recognition rate is up to 94.3%. In conclusion, data field is considered as a valuable alter-native to pattern recognition.

  7. Extraction of Facial Features from Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pavlovicova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for localization and extraction of faces and characteristic facial features such as eyes, mouth and face boundaries from color image data is proposed. This approach exploits color properties of human skin to localize image regions – face candidates. The facial features extraction is performed only on preselected face-candidate regions. Likewise, for eyes and mouth localization color information and local contrast around eyes are used. The ellipse of face boundary is determined using gradient image and Hough transform. Algorithm was tested on image database Feret.

  8. Traditional facial tattoos disrupt face recognition processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttle, Heather; East, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Factors that are important to successful face recognition, such as features, configuration, and pigmentation/reflectance, are all subject to change when a face has been engraved with ink markings. Here we show that the application of facial tattoos, in the form of spiral patterns (typically associated with the Maori tradition of a Moko), disrupts face recognition to a similar extent as face inversion, with recognition accuracy little better than chance performance (2AFC). These results indicate that facial tattoos can severely disrupt our ability to recognise a face that previously did not have the pattern.

  9. Facial palsy after blunt trauma and without facial bone fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltro, Pedro Soler; Goldenberg, Dov Charles; Aldunate, Johnny Leandro Conduta Borda; Alessi, Mariana Sisto; Chang, Alexandre Jin Bok Audi; Alonso, Nivaldo; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2010-07-01

    A 14-year-old patient had a low-energy facial blunt trauma that evolved to right facial paralysis caused by parotid hematoma with parotid salivary gland lesion. Computed tomography and angiography demonstrated intraparotid collection without pseudoaneurysm and without radiologic signs of fracture in the face. The patient was treated with serial punctures for hematoma deflation, resolving with regression and complete remission of facial paralysis, with no late sequela. The authors discuss the relationship between facial nerve traumatic injuries associated or not with the presence of facial fractures, emphasizing the importance of early recognition and appropriate treatment of such cases.

  10. Use of spherical coordinates to evaluate three-dimension facial changes after orthognathic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Ryu, Sun Youl; Hwang, Hyeon Shik; Kang, Byung Cheol; Lee, Jae [School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Rui Feng [Dept. of Biologic and Material Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Palomo, Juan M. [Dept. of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (United States)

    2014-03-15

    This study aimed to assess the three-dimensional (3D) facial changes after orthognathic surgery by evaluating the spherical coordinates of facial lines using 3D computed tomography (CT). A 19-year-old girl was diagnosed with class III malocclusion and facial asymmetry. Orthognathic surgery was performed after orthodontic treatment. Facial CT scans were taken before and after orthognathic surgery. The patient had a menton deviation of 12.72 mm before surgery and 0.83 mm after surgery. The spherical coordinates of four bilateral facial lines (ramal height, ramal lateral, ramal posterior and mandibular body) were estimated from CT scans before and after surgery on the deviated and opposite side. The spherical coordinates of all facial lines changed after orthognathic surgery. Moreover, the bilateral differences of all facial lines changed after surgery, and no bilateral differences were zero. The spherical coordinate system was useful to compare differences between the presurgical and postsurgical changes to facial lines.

  11. Analysis of facial characteristics in spectropolarimetric imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Tieheng; Wei, Peifen; Yang, Hongfang

    2007-11-01

    Spectropolarimetric imaging can provide useful discriminating information for human face recognition that cannot be obtained by other imaging methods. This paper examines the ability of face recognition by using spectropolarimetric images. The Spectropolarimetric images were collected by using a CCD camera equipped with a liquid crystal tunable filter, which could capture 32 bands of images over the visible and near-infrared light (0.4μm-0.72μm). Since polarization techniques have better contrast mechanisms for tissue imaging and spectroscopy, and can also provide additional information about the structure of tissues, it is expected that better discriminate performance can be obtained by using polarimetric and spectral information than just using spectral information. An algorithm for facial characteristics analysis is presented to exploit only the spectropolarimetric information from different types of facial tissues. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can distinguish efficiently the different facial tissues.

  12. Facial Animation Based on Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid method for synthesizing natural animation of facial expression with data from motion capture. The captured expression was transferred from the space of source performance to that of a 3D target face using an accurate mapping process in order to realize the reuse of motion data. The transferred animation was then applied to synthesize the expression of the target model through a framework of two-stage deformation. A local deformation technique preliminarily considered a set of neighbor feature points for every vertex and their impact on the vertex. Furthermore, the global deformation was exploited to ensure the smoothness of the whole facial mesh. The experimental results show our hybrid mesh deformation strategy was effective, which could animate different target face without complicated manual efforts required by most of facial animation approaches.

  13. Facial biometrics of peri-oral changes in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, L; Adegun, O K; Willis, A; Fortune, Farida

    2014-05-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory condition which affects any part of the gastrointestinal tract. In the oro-facial region, patients can present peri-oral swellings which results in severe facial disfigurement. To date, assessing the degree of facial changes and evaluation of treatment outcomes relies on clinical observation and semi-quantitative methods. In this paper, we describe the development of a robust and reproducible measurement strategy using 3-D facial biometrics to objectively quantify the extent and progression of oro-facial Crohn's disease. Using facial laser scanning, 32 serial images from 13 Crohn's patients attending the Oral Medicine clinic were acquired during relapse, remission, and post-treatment phases. Utilising theories of coordinate metrology, the facial images were subjected to registration, regions of interest identification, and reproducible repositioning prior to obtaining volume measurements. To quantify the changes in tissue volume, scan images from consecutive appointments were compared to the baseline (first scan image). Reproducibility test was performed to ascertain the degree of uncertainty in volume measurements. 3-D facial biometric imaging is a reliable method to identify and quantify peri-oral swelling in Crohn's patients. Comparison of facial scan images at different phases of the disease revealed precisely profile and volume changes. The volume measurements were highly reproducible as adjudged from the 1% standard deviation. 3-D facial biometrics measurements in Crohn's patients with oro-facial involvement offers a quick, robust, economical and objective approach for guided therapeutic intervention and routine assessment of treatment efficacy on the clinic.

  14. MET and AKT genetic influence on facial emotion perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Teng Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Facial emotion perception is a major social skill, but its molecular signal pathway remains unclear. The MET/AKT cascade affects neurodevelopment in general populations and face recognition in patients with autism. This study explores the possible role of MET/AKT cascade in facial emotion perception. METHODS: One hundred and eighty two unrelated healthy volunteers (82 men and 100 women were recruited. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of MET (rs2237717, rs41735, rs42336, and rs1858830 and AKT rs1130233 were genotyped and tested for their effects on facial emotion perception. Facial emotion perception was assessed by the face task of Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT. Thorough neurocognitive functions were also assessed. RESULTS: Regarding MET rs2237717, individuals with the CT genotype performed better in facial emotion perception than those with TT (p = 0.016 by ANOVA, 0.018 by general linear regression model [GLM] to control for age, gender, and education duration, and showed no difference with those with CC. Carriers with the most common MET CGA haplotype (frequency = 50.5% performed better than non-carriers of CGA in facial emotion perception (p = 0.018, df = 1, F = 5.69, p = 0.009 by GLM. In MET rs2237717/AKT rs1130233 interaction, the C carrier/G carrier group showed better facial emotion perception than those with the TT/AA genotype (p = 0.035 by ANOVA, 0.015 by GLM, even when neurocognitive functions were controlled (p = 0.046 by GLM. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest that genetic factors can affect performance of facial emotion perception. The findings indicate that MET variances and MET/AKT interaction may affect facial emotion perception, implicating that the MET/AKT cascade plays a significant role in facial emotion perception. Further replication studies are needed.

  15. Latest Application of High-performance Nonwovens to Facial Protective Filtration Media%高性能非织造布在面部防护过滤介质上的最新应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦长椿

    2015-01-01

    防护面罩是个人健康防护及特殊工种作业人员安全防护的重要工具,大量高性能非织造布应用于此。本文重点介绍了熔喷非织造布、纺粘非织造布以及聚合物纳米纤维的技术特征及在外科手术面罩、呼吸器过滤介质等面部防护装备中的应用现状,并详细分析了现阶段全球个人面部防护装置市场的发展形势以及我国个人防护装备行业面临的机遇和挑战。%Protective facemask is an important part of personal protective equipment, and lots of high-performance nonwovens have been used in this industry. Technique features of meltblown nonwovens, spunbond nonwovens and nanofiber which are used in protective facemask are introduced in this article, as well as the latest applications of the above three to surgical mask, dust respirator and other facial protective equipments. The developing trend of personal facial protective equipment at home and abroad is also discussed.

  16. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Mohd Noor, Nor Farid; Basri, Rehana; Yew, Tan Fo; Wen, Tay Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian), with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18-25). Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects' evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI), Malaysian Chinese (MC) and Malaysian Malay (MM) were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; Pmean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts. 1) Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%); 2) Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3) Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4) All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5) No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population.

  17. Diplegia facial traumatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de paralisia facial bilateral, incompleta, associada a hipoacusia esquerda, após traumatismo cranioencefálico, com fraturas evidenciadas radiológicamente. Algumas considerações são formuladas tentando relacionar ditas manifestações com fraturas do osso temporal.

  18. Management of facial blushing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter B; Pilegaard, Hans K

    2008-01-01

    an indication for treatment, facial blushing may be treated effectively by thoracoscopic sympathectomy. The type of blushing likely to benefit from sympathectomy is mediated by the sympathetic nerves and is the uncontrollable, rapidly developing blush typically elicited when one receives attention from other...

  19. Facial Paralysis Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razfar, Ali; Lee, Matthew K; Massry, Guy G; Azizzadeh, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Facial nerve paralysis is a devastating condition arising from several causes with severe functional and psychological consequences. Given the complexity of the disease process, management involves a multispecialty, team-oriented approach. This article provides a systematic approach in addressing each specific sequela of this complex problem.

  20. Paralisia facial bilateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.

  1. Novel Facial Features Segmentation Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for facial features extractions is proposed. The facial features we segment are the two eyes, nose and mouth. The algorithm is based on an improved Gabor wavelets edge detector, morphological approach to detect the face region and facial features regions, and an improved T-shape face mask to locate the extract location of facial features. The experimental results show that the proposed method is robust against facial expression, illumination, and can be also effective if the person wearing glasses, and so on.

  2. Visualizing surface strain distribution of facial skin using stereovision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagisa Miura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental technique has been developed for measuring and visualizing strain distribution on facial skin. A stereovision technique based on digital image correlation is employed for obtaining the displacement distribution on the human face. Time-variation of the movement of the facial skin surface is obtained from consecutive images obtained using a pair of high-speed cameras. The strains on the facial skin surface are then obtained from the measured displacements. The performance of the developed system is demonstrated by applying it to the measurement of the strain on facial skin during the production of sound. Results show that the strains on facial skin can be visualized. Further discussion on the relationship between the creation of wrinkles and strains is possible with the help of the developed system.

  3. Facial nerve image enhancement from CBCT using supervised learning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping Lu; Barazzetti, Livia; Chandran, Vimal; Gavaghan, Kate; Weber, Stefan; Gerber, Nicolas; Reyes, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    Facial nerve segmentation plays an important role in surgical planning of cochlear implantation. Clinically available CBCT images are used for surgical planning. However, its relatively low resolution renders the identification of the facial nerve difficult. In this work, we present a supervised learning approach to enhance facial nerve image information from CBCT. A supervised learning approach based on multi-output random forest was employed to learn the mapping between CBCT and micro-CT images. Evaluation was performed qualitatively and quantitatively by using the predicted image as input for a previously published dedicated facial nerve segmentation, and cochlear implantation surgical planning software, OtoPlan. Results show the potential of the proposed approach to improve facial nerve image quality as imaged by CBCT and to leverage its segmentation using OtoPlan.

  4. Tissue Engineering and the Future of Facial Volumization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, Marsha; Watson, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    Volume loss due to facial aging can be restored by facial volumization using a variety of materials. Volumization can be performed in isolation or concurrent with other facial rejuvenation procedures to obtain an optimal aesthetic result. There is a myriad of manufactured products available for volumization. The use of autologous fat as facial filler has been adopted more recently and possesses certain advantages; however, the ideal filler is still lacking. Tissue engineering may offer a solution. This technology would provide autologous soft-tissue components for use in facial volumization. The use of stem cells may enable customization of the engineered product for the specific needs of each patient. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. The review and results of different methods for facial recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Yifan

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, facial recognition draws much attention due to its wide potential applications. As a unique technology in Biometric Identification, facial recognition represents a significant improvement since it could be operated without cooperation of people under detection. Hence, facial recognition will be taken into defense system, medical detection, human behavior understanding, etc. Several theories and methods have been established to make progress in facial recognition: (1) A novel two-stage facial landmark localization method is proposed which has more accurate facial localization effect under specific database; (2) A statistical face frontalization method is proposed which outperforms state-of-the-art methods for face landmark localization; (3) It proposes a general facial landmark detection algorithm to handle images with severe occlusion and images with large head poses; (4) There are three methods proposed on Face Alignment including shape augmented regression method, pose-indexed based multi-view method and a learning based method via regressing local binary features. The aim of this paper is to analyze previous work of different aspects in facial recognition, focusing on concrete method and performance under various databases. In addition, some improvement measures and suggestions in potential applications will be put forward.

  6. Interaction between facial expression and color

    OpenAIRE

    Kae Nakajima; Tetsuto Minami; Shigeki Nakauchi

    2017-01-01

    Facial color varies depending on emotional state, and emotions are often described in relation to facial color. In this study, we investigated whether the recognition of facial expressions was affected by facial color and vice versa. In the facial expression task, expression morph continua were employed: fear-anger and sadness-happiness. The morphed faces were presented in three different facial colors (bluish, neutral, and reddish color). Participants identified a facial expression between t...

  7. Relationship between Locations of Facial Injury and the Use of Bicycle Helmets: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Jeon, Yun Moon; Ko, Yeong Seung; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to review the protective effect of a bicycle helmet on each facial location systematically. PubMed was searched for articles published before December 12, 2014. The data were summarized, and the odds ratio (OR) between the locations of facial injury was calculated. A statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager (The Nordic Cochrane Centre). Bicycle helmets protect the upper and middle face from serious facial injury but do not protect the lower face. Non-wearers had significantly increased risks of upper facial injury (OR, 2.07; Pchin cap might decrease the risk of lower facial injury.

  8. Idiopathic facial pain related with dental implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Geon Kwon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain after dental implantation is rare but difficult issue for the implant practitioner. Patients with chronic pain who had been performed previous implant surgery or related surgical intervention sometimes accompany with psychological problem and difficult to adequately manage. According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD 3rd eds, Cepalagia 2013, painful neuropathies and other facial pains are subdivided into the 12 subcategories; 13.1. Trigeminal neuralgia; 13.2 Glossopharyngeal neuralgia; 13.3 Nervus intermedius (facial nerve neuralgia; 13.4 Occipital neuralgia; 13.5 Optic neuritis; 13.6 Headache attributed to ischaemic ocular motor nerve palsy; 13.7 Tolosa-Hunt syndrome; 13.8 Paratrigeminal oculo-sympathetic (Raeder’s syndrome; 13.9 Recurrent painful ophthalmoplegic neuropathy; 13.10 Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS; 13.11 Persistent Idiopathic Facial Pain (PIFP; 13.12 Central neuropathic pain. Chronic orofacial pain after dental implant surgery can be largely into the two main categories that can be frequently encountered in clinical basis ; 1 Neuropathic pain, 2 Idiopathic pain. If there is no direct evidence of the nerve injury related with the implant surgery, the clinician need to consider the central cause of pain instead of the peripheral cause of the pain. There might be several possibilities; 1 Anaesthesia dolorosa, 2 Central post-stroke pain, 3 Facial pain attributed to multiple sclerosis, 4 Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP, 5 Burning mouth syndrome. In this presentation, Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP, the disease entity that can be frequently encountered in the clinic would be discussed. Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP can be defined as “persistent facial and/or oral pain, with varying presentations but recurring daily for more than 2 hours per day over more than 3 months, in the absence of clinical neurological deficit”. ‘Atypical’ pain is a diagnosis of

  9. Retinotopy of facial expression adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumiya, Kazumichi

    2014-01-01

    The face aftereffect (FAE; the illusion of faces after adaptation to a face) has been reported to occur without retinal overlap between adaptor and test, but recent studies revealed that the FAE is not constant across all test locations, which suggests that the FAE is also retinotopic. However, it remains unclear whether the characteristic of the retinotopy of the FAE for one facial aspect is the same as that of the FAE for another facial aspect. In the research reported here, an examination of the retinotopy of the FAE for facial expression indicated that the facial expression aftereffect occurs without retinal overlap between adaptor and test, and depends on the retinal distance between them. Furthermore, the results indicate that, although dependence of the FAE on adaptation-test distance is similar between facial expression and facial identity, the FAE for facial identity is larger than that for facial expression when a test face is presented in the opposite hemifield. On the basis of these results, I discuss adaptation mechanisms underlying facial expression processing and facial identity processing for the retinotopy of the FAE.

  10. Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

  11. Other facial neuralgias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Francis; Nurmikko, Turo; Sommer, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Premise In this article we review some lesser known cranial neuralgias that are distinct from trigeminal neuralgia, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, or trigeminal neuropathies. Included are occipital neuralgia, superior laryngeal neuralgia, auriculotemporal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal and nervus intermedius neuralgia, and pain from acute herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia of the trigeminal and intermedius nerves. Problem Facial neuralgias are rare and many physicians do not see such cases in their lifetime, so patients with a suspected diagnosis within this group should be referred to a specialized center where multidisciplinary team diagnosis may be available. Potential solution Each facial neuralgia can be identified on the basis of clinical presentation, allowing for precision diagnosis and planning of treatment. Treatment remains conservative with oral or topical medication recommended for neuropathic pain to be tried before more invasive procedures are undertaken. However, evidence for efficacy of current treatments remains weak.

  12. Facial resemblance enhances trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruine, Lisa M

    2002-07-07

    Organisms are expected to be sensitive to cues of genetic relatedness when making decisions about social behaviour. Relatedness can be assessed in several ways, one of which is phenotype matching: the assessment of similarity between others' traits and either one's own traits or those of known relatives. One candidate cue of relatedness in humans is facial resemblance. Here, I report the effects of an experimental manipulation of facial resemblance in a two-person sequential trust game. Subjects were shown faces of ostensible playing partners manipulated to resemble either themselves or an unknown person. Resemblance to the subject's own face raised the incidence of trusting a partner, but had no effect on the incidence of selfish betrayals of the partner's trust. Control subjects playing with identical pictures failed to show such an effect. In a second experiment, resemblance of the playing partner to a familiar (famous) person had no effect on either trusting or betrayals of trust.

  13. Congenital Facial Teratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Manjunath; Hegde, Padmaraj; Devaraju, Umesh M.

    2011-01-01

    Teratomas are neoplasm composed of three germinal layers of the embryo that form tissues not normally found in the organ in which they arise. These are most common in the sacrococcygeal region and are rare in the head and neck, which account for less than 6%. An unusual case of facial teratoma in a new born, managed successfully is described here with postoperative follow up of 2 years without any recurrence.

  14. Extraction of Eyes for Facial Expression Identification of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Sofia,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions play an essential role in communications in social interactions with other human beings which deliver rich information about their emotions. Facial expression analysis has wide range ofapplications in the areas such as Psychology, Animations, Interactive games, Image retrieval and Image understanding. Selecting the relevant feature and ignoring the unimportant feature is the key step in facial expression recognition system. Here, we propose an efficient method for identifying the expressions of the students torecognize their comprehension from the facial expressions in static images containing the frontal view of the human face. Our goal is to categorize the facial expressions of the students in the given image into two basic emotional expression states – comprehensible, incomprehensible. One of the key action units in the face to expose expression is eye. In this paper, Facial expressions are identified from the expressions of the eyes. Our method consists of three steps, Edge detection, Eye extraction and Emotion recognition. Edge detection is performed through Prewitt operator. Extraction of eyes is performed using iterative search algorithm on the edge image. All the extracted information are combined together to form the feature vector. Finally, the features are given as an input for a BPN classifier and thus the facial expressions are being identified. The proposed method is tested on the Yale Face database.

  15. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khursheed Alam

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian, with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18-25. Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects' evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI, Malaysian Chinese (MC and Malaysian Malay (MM were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; P<0.05 but no significant difference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1% were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5% short and 81 (28.3% long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts.1 Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%; 2 Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3 Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4 All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5 No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population.

  16. Bilateral lingual-facial trunk: anatomic and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupis, T; Michalinos, A; Kakisis, J; Natsis, K; Sofidis, G; Skandalakis, P

    2015-01-01

    Common origin of lingual and facial artery is a relatively frequent anatomic varia-tion. Instead, bilateral lingual-facial trunk has been described only sparsely in the literature. In this report authors describe and analyse a case of bilateral common lingual-facial trunk in the context of its anatomical, clinical and embryological implications. We also describe possible consequences in performance of elective and emergent surgical operations and modification in surgical techniques that should be considered. We believe that surgeons should be suspicious for this variation's existence and keep alternative solutions in their armentarium.

  17. Facial pain and temporomandibular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of facial pain and the association of facial pain with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) as well as with other factors, in a geographically defined population-based sample consisting of subjects born in 1966 in northern Finland, and in a case-control study including subjects with facial pain and their healthy controls. In addition, the influence of conservative stomatognathic and necessary prosthetic treatme...

  18. Ancillary procedures in facial animation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Bernardo; Ferri, Andrea; Ferrari, Silvano; Leporati, Massimiliano; Ferri, Teore; Sesenna, Enrico

    2014-12-01

    Facial animation surgery with neuromuscular transplants has become a standard procedure for the treatment of facial palsies. However, the forehead, periocular complex, nasal base area, and inferior lip are secondary sites that also need to be considered in the complete rehabilitation of a flaccid facial palsy. A total of 136 ancillary procedures were performed in 49 patients between 2003 and 2013 and consisted of eyebrow suspensions (11), upper eyelid loading with a platinum chain (39), inferior palpebral suspension with fascia lata (22), nasal base suspension with fascia lata (26), and botulinum toxin injection (38). Cosmetic results were good and excellent in 30.7% and 63.2% of the procedures, respectively. Functionally, periocular complex rehabilitation and nasal base suspension led to excellent improvements in function in 87.2% and 73.1% of the patients, respectively. The use of ancillary procedures can improve the functional and esthetic results of facial animation surgery. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.

  20. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  1. History of facial pain diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Troels S

    2017-01-01

    Premise Facial pain refers to a heterogeneous group of clinically and etiologically different conditions with the common clinical feature of pain in the facial area. Among these conditions, trigeminal neuralgia (TN), persistent idiopathic facial pain, temporomandibular joint pain, and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TAC) are the most well described conditions. Conclusion TN has been known for centuries, and is recognised by its characteristic and almost pathognomonic clinical features. The other facial pain conditions are less well defined, and over the years there has been confusion about their classification. PMID:28181442

  2. [Dynamics of lagophthalmos depending on facial nerve repair and its intraoperative monitoring in neurosurgical patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnikova, T V; Serova, N K; Shimansky, V N

    2014-01-01

    Over 200 patients with acoustic neuromas and over 100 patients with posterior cranial fossa meningiomas are annually operated on at the N.N. Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute. Intraoperative monitoring of the facial nerve function is used in most patients with tumors of the posterior cranial fossa to identify the facial nerve in the surgical wound. If the anatomical integrity of the facial nerve in the cranial cavity cannot be retained, facial nerve repair is performed to restore the facial muscle function. Intraoperative electrical stimulation of the facial nerve has a great prognostic significance to evaluate the dynamics of lagophthalmos in the late postoperative period and to select the proper method for lagophthalmos correction. When the facial nerve was reinnervated by the descending branch or trunk of the hypoglossal nerve, sufficient eyelid closure was observed only in 3 patients out of 17.

  3. Giant sialocele following facial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros Júnior, Rui; Rocha Neto, Alípio Miguel da; Queiroz, Isaac Vieira; Cauby, Antônio de Figueiredo; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino Monteiro; Leão, Jair Carneiro

    2012-01-01

    Injuries in the parotid and masseter region can cause serious impairment secondary to damage of important anatomical structures. Sialocele is observed as facial swelling associated with parotid duct rupture due to trauma. The aim of this paper is to report a case of a giant traumatic sialocele in the parotid gland, secondary to a knife lesion in a 40-year-old woman. Conservative measures could not promote clinical resolution and a surgical intervention for the placement of a vacuum drain was selected. Under local anesthesia, a small incision was performed adjacent to parotid duct papilla, followed by muscular divulsion and draining of significant amount of saliva. An active vacuum suction drain was placed for 15 days, aiming to form a new salivary duct. This technique was shown to be a safe, effective and low-cost option, leading to complete resolution and no recurrence after 28 months of follow up.

  4. Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles Sections Botulinum Toxin (Botox) ... Facial Wrinkles How Does Botulinum Toxin (Botox) Work? Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  5. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be seen ...

  6. Privacy Preserving Facial and Fingerprint Multi-biometric Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzaku, Esla Timothy; Sohn, Hosik; Ro, Yong Man

    The cases of identity theft can be mitigated by the adoption of secure authentication methods. Biohashing and its variants, which utilizes secret keys and biometrics, are promising methods for secure authentication; however, their shortcoming is the degraded performance under the assumption that secret keys are compromised. In this paper, we extend the concept of Biohashing to multi-biometrics - facial and fingerprint traits. We chose these traits because they are widely used, howbeit, little research attention has been given to designing privacy preserving multi-biometric systems using them. Instead of just using a single modality (facial or fingerprint), we presented a framework for using both modalities. The improved performance of the proposed method, using face and fingerprint, as against either facial or fingerprint trait used in isolation is evaluated using two chimerical bimodal databases formed from publicly available facial and fingerprint databases.

  7. Automatic Facial Expression Recognition and Operator Functional State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanson, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of human error in safety-critical occupations remains a major challenge to mission success despite increasing automation in control processes. Although various methods have been proposed to prevent incidences of human error, none of these have been developed to employ the detection and regulation of Operator Functional State (OFS), or the optimal condition of the operator while performing a task, in work environments due to drawbacks such as obtrusiveness and impracticality. A video-based system with the ability to infer an individual's emotional state from facial feature patterning mitigates some of the problems associated with other methods of detecting OFS, like obtrusiveness and impracticality in integration with the mission environment. This paper explores the utility of facial expression recognition as a technology for inferring OFS by first expounding on the intricacies of OFS and the scientific background behind emotion and its relationship with an individual's state. Then, descriptions of the feedback loop and the emotion protocols proposed for the facial recognition program are explained. A basic version of the facial expression recognition program uses Haar classifiers and OpenCV libraries to automatically locate key facial landmarks during a live video stream. Various methods of creating facial expression recognition software are reviewed to guide future extensions of the program. The paper concludes with an examination of the steps necessary in the research of emotion and recommendations for the creation of an automatic facial expression recognition program for use in real-time, safety-critical missions

  8. Frame-Based Facial Expression Recognition Using Geometrical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the human-computer interaction (HCI to be as good as human-human interaction, building an efficient approach for human emotion recognition is required. These emotions could be fused from several modalities such as facial expression, hand gesture, acoustic data, and biophysiological data. In this paper, we address the frame-based perception of the universal human facial expressions (happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, fear, and sadness, with the help of several geometrical features. Unlike many other geometry-based approaches, the frame-based method does not rely on prior knowledge of a person-specific neutral expression; this knowledge is gained through human intervention and not available in real scenarios. Additionally, we provide a method to investigate the performance of the geometry-based approaches under various facial point localization errors. From an evaluation on two public benchmark datasets, we have found that using eight facial points, we can achieve the state-of-the-art recognition rate. However, this state-of-the-art geometry-based approach exploits features derived from 68 facial points and requires prior knowledge of the person-specific neutral expression. The expression recognition rate using geometrical features is adversely affected by the errors in the facial point localization, especially for the expressions with subtle facial deformations.

  9. iFace: Facial Expression Training System

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Kyoko; Kurose, Hiroyuki; Takami, Ai; Nishida, Shogo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a target facial expression selection interface for a facial expression training system and a facial expression training system were both proposed and developed. Twelve female dentists used the facial expression training system, and evaluations and opinions about the facial expression training system were obtained from these participants. In the future, we will attempt to improve both the target facial expression selection interface and the comparison of a current and a target f...

  10. [Objective assessment of facial paralysis using local binary pattern in infrared thermography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xulong; Hong, Wenxue; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Zhenying

    2013-02-01

    Facial paralysis is a frequently-occurring disease, which causes the loss of the voluntary muscles on one side of the face due to the damages the facial nerve and results in an inability to close the eye and leads to dropping of the angle of the mouth. There have been few objective methods to quantitatively diagnose it and assess this disease for clinically treating the patients so far. The skin temperature distribution of a healthy human body exhibits a contralateral symmetry. Facial paralysis usually causes an alteration of the temperature distribution of body with the disease. This paper presents the use of the histogram distance of bilateral local binary pattern (LBP) in the facial infrared thermography to measure the asymmetry degree of facial temperature distribution for objective assessing the severity of facial paralysis. Using this new method, we performed a controlled trial to assess the facial nerve function of the healthy subjects and the patients with Bell's palsy respectively. The results showed that the mean sensitivity and specificity of this method are 0.86 and 0.89 respectively. The correlation coefficient between the asymmetry degree of facial temperature distribution and the severity of facial paralysis is an average of 0.657. Therefore, the histogram distance of local binary pattern in the facial infrared thermography is an efficient clinical indicator with respect to the diagnosis and assessment of facial paralysis.

  11. Facial emotion perception impairments in schizophrenia patients with comorbid antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dorothy Y Y; Liu, Amy C Y; Lui, Simon S Y; Lam, Bess Y H; Siu, Bonnie W M; Lee, Tatia M C; Cheung, Eric F C

    2016-02-28

    Impairment in facial emotion perception is believed to be associated with aggression. Schizophrenia patients with antisocial features are more impaired in facial emotion perception than their counterparts without these features. However, previous studies did not define the comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) using stringent criteria. We recruited 30 participants with dual diagnoses of ASPD and schizophrenia, 30 participants with schizophrenia and 30 controls. We employed the Facial Emotional Recognition paradigm to measure facial emotion perception, and administered a battery of neurocognitive tests. The Life History of Aggression scale was used. ANOVAs and ANCOVAs were conducted to examine group differences in facial emotion perception, and control for the effect of other neurocognitive dysfunctions on facial emotion perception. Correlational analyses were conducted to examine the association between facial emotion perception and aggression. Patients with dual diagnoses performed worst in facial emotion perception among the three groups. The group differences in facial emotion perception remained significant, even after other neurocognitive impairments were controlled for. Severity of aggression was correlated with impairment in perceiving negative-valenced facial emotions in patients with dual diagnoses. Our findings support the presence of facial emotion perception impairment and its association with aggression in schizophrenia patients with comorbid ASPD.

  12. Long-term subjective and objective outcome after primary repair of traumatic facial nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijters, Erik; Hofer, Stefan O P; Mureau, Marc A M

    2008-08-01

    Although traumatic facial nerve paralysis is a severe handicap, there are no follow-up studies evaluating outcome after primary repair of traumatic facial nerve injuries. From May 1988 to August 2005, 27 patients (mean age, 27 years) were operated for traumatic facial nerve lesions (mean number of affected branches, 2.2). End-to-end facial nerve repair was always performed. All patients were invited to our outpatient clinic for standardized questionnaires (Facial Disability Index, Short Form-36 Health Survey), physical examination (Sunnybrook Facial Grading System), and clinical photographs. Sixteen patients participated in the follow-up study (mean, 9.2 years). Mean Facial Disability Index Physical and Social scores were 86 and 81, respectively, indicating good subjective facial functioning. The mean Sunnybrook Facial Grading System score was 74 indicating adequate facial functioning. Mean physical and mental health scores (Short Form-36 Health Survey) were comparable with normative data. Primary end-to-end repair of traumatic facial nerve injuries results in good long-term objective and subjective functional and emotional outcome.

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis for Facial Complexion in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbo Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss. However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as qualitative analysis in our perspective. For quantitative analysis expectation, the severity or degree of facial complexion has not been reported yet. This paper aims to make both qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion. We propose a novel feature representation of facial complexion from the whole face of patients. The features are established with four chromaticity bases splitting up by luminance distribution on CIELAB color space. Chromaticity bases are constructed from facial dominant color using two-level clustering; the optimal luminance distribution is simply implemented with experimental comparisons. The features are proved to be more distinctive than the previous facial complexion feature representation. Complexion recognition proceeds by training an SVM classifier with the optimal model parameters. In addition, further improved features are more developed by the weighted fusion of five local regions. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed features achieve highest facial color recognition performance with a total accuracy of 86.89%. And, furthermore, the proposed recognition framework could analyze both color and gloss degrees of facial complexion by learning a ranking function.

  14. Cephalometric soft tissue facial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R T

    1999-10-01

    My objective is to present a cephalometric-based facial analysis to correlate with an article that was published previously in the American Journal of Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopedics. Eighteen facial or soft tissue traits are discussed in this article. All of them are significant in successful orthodontic outcome, and none of them depend on skeletal landmarks for measurement. Orthodontic analysis most commonly relies on skeletal and dental measurement, placing far less emphasis on facial feature measurement, particularly their relationship to each other. Yet, a thorough examination of the face is critical for understanding the changes in facial appearance that result from orthodontic treatment. A cephalometric approach to facial examination can also benefit the diagnosis and treatment plan. Individual facial traits and their balance with one another should be identified before treatment. Relying solely on skeletal analysis, assuming that the face will balance if the skeletal/dental cephalometric values are normalized, may not yield the desired outcome. Good occlusion does not necessarily mean good facial balance. Orthodontic norms for facial traits can permit their measurement. Further, with a knowledge of standard facial traits and the patient's soft tissue features, an individualized norm can be established for each patient to optimize facial attractiveness. Four questions should be asked regarding each facial trait before treatment: (1) What is the quality and quantity of the trait? (2) How will future growth affect the trait? (3) How will orthodontic tooth movement affect the existing trait (positively or negatively)? (4) How will surgical bone movement to correct the bite affect the trait (positively or negatively)?

  15. Plastic Changes of Synapses and Excitatory Neurotransmitter Receptors in Facial Nucleus Following Facial-facial Anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei CHEN; Jun SONG; Linghui LUO; Shusheng GONG

    2008-01-01

    The remodeling process of synapses and eurotransmitter receptors of facial nucleus were observed. Models were set up by facial-facial anastomosis in rat. At post-surgery day (PSD) 0, 7, 21 and 60, synaptophysin (p38), NMDA receptor subunit 2A and AMPA receptor subunit 2 (GIuR2) were observed by immunohistochemical method and emi-quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Meanwhile, the synaptic structure of the facial motorneurons was observed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The intensity of p38 immunoreactivity was decreased, reaching the lowest value at PSD day 7, and then increased slightly at PSD 21. Ultrastructurally, the number of synapses in nucleus of the operational side decreased, which was consistent with the change in P38 immhnoreactivity. NMDAR2A mRNA was down-regulated significantly in facial nucleus after the operation (P000.05). The synapses innervation and the expression of NMDAR2A and AMPAR2 mRNA in facial nucleus might be modified to suit for the new motor tasks following facial-facial anastomosis, and influenced facial nerve regeneration and recovery.

  16. Static Facial Slings: Approaches to Rehabilitation of the Paralyzed Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Morgan; Singh, Prabhjyot

    2016-02-01

    Facial paralysis results from a variety of different causes. Patients with facial paralysis have cosmetic and functional defects that significantly affect quality of life. Surgical intervention has the potential to help improve cosmetic and functional outcomes. The 2 main categories of surgical rehabilitation are static and dynamic surgical procedures. Static rehabilitation of the midface is typically performed using autologous tissue grafts, allografts, synthetic grafts, permanent suspension sutures, and a novel technique using percutaneous suture-based slings.

  17. High resolution computed tomography for peripheral facial nerve paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, O.; Straehler-Pohl, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution computer tomographic examinations of the petrous bones were performed on 19 patients with confirmed peripheral facial nerve paralysis. High resolution CT provides accurate information regarding the extent, and usually regarding the type, of pathological process; this can be accurately localised with a view to possible surgical treatments. The examination also differentiates this from idiopathic paresis, which showed no radiological changes. Destruction of the petrous bone, without facial nerve symptoms, makes early suitable treatment mandatory.

  18. Children's Facial Trustworthiness Judgments: Agreement and Relationship with Facial Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2016-01-01

    This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness.

  19. [Rehabilitation of facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F

    2015-10-01

    Rehabilitation takes an important part in the treatment of facial paralysis, especially when these are severe. It aims to lead the recovery of motor activity and prevent or reduce sequelae like synkinesis or spasms. It is preferable that it be proposed early in order to set up a treatment plan based on the results of the assessment, sometimes coupled with an electromyography. In case of surgery, preoperative work is recommended, especially in case of hypoglossofacial anastomosis or lengthening temporalis myoplasty (LTM). Our proposal is to present an original technique to enhance the sensorimotor loop and the cortical control of movement, especially when using botulinum toxin and after surgery.

  20. Automatic prediction of facial trait judgments: appearance vs. structural models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rojas

    Full Text Available Evaluating other individuals with respect to personality characteristics plays a crucial role in human relations and it is the focus of attention for research in diverse fields such as psychology and interactive computer systems. In psychology, face perception has been recognized as a key component of this evaluation system. Multiple studies suggest that observers use face information to infer personality characteristics. Interactive computer systems are trying to take advantage of these findings and apply them to increase the natural aspect of interaction and to improve the performance of interactive computer systems. Here, we experimentally test whether the automatic prediction of facial trait judgments (e.g. dominance can be made by using the full appearance information of the face and whether a reduced representation of its structure is sufficient. We evaluate two separate approaches: a holistic representation model using the facial appearance information and a structural model constructed from the relations among facial salient points. State of the art machine learning methods are applied to a derive a facial trait judgment model from training data and b predict a facial trait value for any face. Furthermore, we address the issue of whether there are specific structural relations among facial points that predict perception of facial traits. Experimental results over a set of labeled data (9 different trait evaluations and classification rules (4 rules suggest that a prediction of perception of facial traits is learnable by both holistic and structural approaches; b the most reliable prediction of facial trait judgments is obtained by certain type of holistic descriptions of the face appearance; and c for some traits such as attractiveness and extroversion, there are relationships between specific structural features and social perceptions.

  1. Reduced facial expressiveness in Parkinson's disease: A pure motor disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Lucia; Bologna, Matteo; Morgante, Francesca; Ricciardi, Diego; Morabito, Bruno; Volpe, Daniele; Martino, Davide; Tessitore, Alessandro; Pomponi, Massimiliano; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Bernabei, Roberto; Fasano, Alfonso

    2015-11-15

    Impaired emotional facial expressiveness is an important feature in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although there is evidence of a possible relationship between reduced facial expressiveness and altered emotion recognition or imagery in PD, it is unknown whether other aspects of the emotional processing, such as subjective emotional experience (alexithymia), might influence hypomimia in this condition. In this study wee aimed to investigate possible relationship between reduced facial expressiveness and altered emotion processing (including facial recognition and alexithymia) in patients with PD. Forty PD patients and seventeen healthy controls were evaluated. Facial expressiveness was rated on video recordings, according to the UPDRS-III item 19 and using an ad hoc scale assessing static and dynamic facial expression and posed emotions. Six blind raters evaluated the patients' videos. Emotion facial recognition was tested using the Ekman Test; alexithymia was assessed using Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). PD patients had a significantly reduced static and dynamic facial expressiveness and a deficit in posing happiness and surprise. They performed significantly worse than healthy controls in recognizing surprise (p=0.03). The Ekman total score positively correlated with the global expressiveness (R^2=0.39, p=0.01) and with the expressiveness of disgust (R^2=0.32, p=0.01). The occurrence of alexithymia was not different between PD patients and HC; however, a significant negative correlation between the expressiveness of disgust was found for a subscore of TAS (R^2=-.447, p=0.007). Reduced facial expressiveness in PD may be in part related to difficulties with emotional recognition in a context of an unimpaired subjective emotional experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Processing faces and facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posamentier, Mette T; Abdi, Hervé

    2003-09-01

    This paper reviews processing of facial identity and expressions. The issue of independence of these two systems for these tasks has been addressed from different approaches over the past 25 years. More recently, neuroimaging techniques have provided researchers with new tools to investigate how facial information is processed in the brain. First, findings from "traditional" approaches to identity and expression processing are summarized. The review then covers findings from neuroimaging studies on face perception, recognition, and encoding. Processing of the basic facial expressions is detailed in light of behavioral and neuroimaging data. Whereas data from experimental and neuropsychological studies support the existence of two systems, the neuroimaging literature yields a less clear picture because it shows considerable overlap in activation patterns in response to the different face-processing tasks. Further, activation patterns in response to facial expressions support the notion of involved neural substrates for processing different facial expressions.

  3. Tracking facial features with occlusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARKIN Evgeny; PRAKASH Edmond C.

    2006-01-01

    Facial expression recognition consists of determining what kind of emotional content is presented in a human face.The problem presents a complex area for exploration, since it encompasses face acquisition, facial feature tracking, facial expression classification. Facial feature tracking is of the most interest. Active Appearance Model (AAM) enables accurate tracking of facial features in real-time, but lacks occlusions and self-occlusions. In this paper we propose a solution to improve the accuracy of fitting technique. The idea is to include occluded images into AAM training data. We demonstrate the results by running ex periments using gradient descent algorithm for fitting the AAM. Our experiments show that using fitting algorithm with occluded training data improves the fitting quality of the algorithm.

  4. Facial Asymmetry and Emotional Expression

    CERN Document Server

    Pickin, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This report is about facial asymmetry, its connection to emotional expression, and methods of measuring facial asymmetry in videos of faces. The research was motivated by two factors: firstly, there was a real opportunity to develop a novel measure of asymmetry that required minimal human involvement and that improved on earlier measures in the literature; and secondly, the study of the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression is both interesting in its own right, and important because it can inform neuropsychological theory and answer open questions concerning emotional processing in the brain. The two aims of the research were: first, to develop an automatic frame-by-frame measure of facial asymmetry in videos of faces that improved on previous measures; and second, to use the measure to analyse the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression, and connect our findings with previous research of the relationship.

  5. Vascularization of the facial bones by facial artery: implications for full face allotransplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Rampazzo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background-The maxillary artery is recognized as the main vascular supply of the facial bones; nonetheless clinical evidence supports a co-dominant role for the facial artery. This study explores the extent of the facial skeleton within a facial allograft that can be harvested based on the facial artery. Methods-Twenty-three cadaver heads were used in this study. In 12 heads, the right facial, superficial temporal and maxillary arteries were injected. In 1 head, facial artery angiography w...

  6. Automatic three-dimensional quantitative analysis for evaluation of facial movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontanilla, B; Aubá, C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a new 3D capture system of facial movements called FACIAL CLIMA. It is an automatic optical motion system that involves placing special reflecting dots on the subject's face and video recording with three infrared-light cameras the subject performing several face movements such as smile, mouth puckering, eye closure and forehead elevation. Images from the cameras are automatically processed with a software program that generates customised information such as 3D data on velocities and areas. The study has been performed in 20 healthy volunteers. The accuracy of the measurement process and the intrarater and interrater reliabilities have been evaluated. Comparison of a known distance and angle with those obtained by FACIAL CLIMA shows that this system is accurate to within 0.13 mm and 0.41 degrees . In conclusion, the accuracy of the FACIAL CLIMA system for evaluation of facial movements is demonstrated and also the high intrarater and interrater reliability. It has advantages with respect to other systems that have been developed for evaluation of facial movements, such as short calibration time, short measuring time, easiness to use and it provides not only distances but also velocities and areas. Thus the FACIAL CLIMA system could be considered as an adequate tool to assess the outcome of facial paralysis reanimation surgery. Thus, patients with facial paralysis could be compared between surgical centres such that effectiveness of facial reanimation operations could be evaluated.

  7. When age matters: differences in facial mimicry and autonomic responses to peers' emotions in teenagers and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ardizzi

    Full Text Available Age-group membership effects on explicit emotional facial expressions recognition have been widely demonstrated. In this study we investigated whether Age-group membership could also affect implicit physiological responses, as facial mimicry and autonomic regulation, to observation of emotional facial expressions. To this aim, facial Electromyography (EMG and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA were recorded from teenager and adult participants during the observation of facial expressions performed by teenager and adult models. Results highlighted that teenagers exhibited greater facial EMG responses to peers' facial expressions, whereas adults showed higher RSA-responses to adult facial expressions. The different physiological modalities through which young and adults respond to peers' emotional expressions are likely to reflect two different ways to engage in social interactions with coetaneous. Findings confirmed that age is an important and powerful social feature that modulates interpersonal interactions by influencing low-level physiological responses.

  8. When age matters: differences in facial mimicry and autonomic responses to peers' emotions in teenagers and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardizzi, Martina; Sestito, Mariateresa; Martini, Francesca; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Age-group membership effects on explicit emotional facial expressions recognition have been widely demonstrated. In this study we investigated whether Age-group membership could also affect implicit physiological responses, as facial mimicry and autonomic regulation, to observation of emotional facial expressions. To this aim, facial Electromyography (EMG) and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) were recorded from teenager and adult participants during the observation of facial expressions performed by teenager and adult models. Results highlighted that teenagers exhibited greater facial EMG responses to peers' facial expressions, whereas adults showed higher RSA-responses to adult facial expressions. The different physiological modalities through which young and adults respond to peers' emotional expressions are likely to reflect two different ways to engage in social interactions with coetaneous. Findings confirmed that age is an important and powerful social feature that modulates interpersonal interactions by influencing low-level physiological responses.

  9. Robust facial landmark detection based on initializing multiple poses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For robot systems, robust facial landmark detection is the first and critical step for face-based human identification and facial expression recognition. In recent years, the cascaded-regression-based method has achieved excellent performance in facial landmark detection. Nevertheless, it still has certain weakness, such as high sensitivity to the initialization. To address this problem, regression based on multiple initializations is established in a unified model; face shapes are then estimated independently according to these initializations. With a ranking strategy, the best estimate is selected as the final output. Moreover, a face shape model based on restricted Boltzmann machines is built as a constraint to improve the robustness of ranking. Experiments on three challenging datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed facial landmark detection method against state-of-the-art methods.

  10. [Developmental change in facial recognition by premature infants during infancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yukihiko; Kusaka, Takashi; Nishida, Tomoko; Isobe, Kenichi; Itoh, Susumu

    2014-09-01

    Premature infants are thought to be at increased risk for developmental disorders. We evaluated facial recognition by premature infants during early infancy, as this ability has been reported to be impaired commonly in developmentally disabled children. In premature infants and full-term infants at the age of 4 months (4 corrected months for premature infants), visual behaviors while performing facial recognition tasks were determined and analyzed using an eye-tracking system (Tobii T60 manufactured by Tobii Technologics, Sweden). Both types of infants had a preference towards normal facial expressions; however, no preference towards the upper face was observed in premature infants. Our study suggests that facial recognition ability in premature infants may develop differently from that in full-term infants.

  11. Facial Emotion Recognition in Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, Mario; Padalino, Flavia A; Stella, Eleonora; Balzotti, Angela; Bellomo, Antonello; Palumbo, Rocco; Di Domenico, Alberto; Mammarella, Nicola; Fairfield, Beth

    2016-03-01

    Emotional face recognition is impaired in bipolar disorder, but it is not clear whether this is specific for the illness. Here, we investigated how aging and bipolar disorder influence dynamic emotional face recognition. Twenty older adults, 16 bipolar patients, and 20 control subjects performed a dynamic affective facial recognition task and a subsequent rating task. Participants pressed a key as soon as they were able to discriminate whether the neutral face was assuming a happy or angry facial expression and then rated the intensity of each facial expression. Results showed that older adults recognized happy expressions faster, whereas bipolar patients recognized angry expressions faster. Furthermore, both groups rated emotional faces more intensely than did the control subjects. This study is one of the first to compare how aging and clinical conditions influence emotional facial recognition and underlines the need to consider the role of specific and common factors in emotional face recognition.

  12. Colesteatoma causando paralisia facial Cholesteatoma causing facial paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gurgel Testa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A paralisia facial causada pelo colesteatoma é pouco freqüente. As porções do nervo mais acometidas são a timpânica e a região do 2º joelho. Nos casos de disseminação da lesão colesteatomatosa para o epitímpano anterior, o gânglio geniculado é o segmento do nervo facial mais sujeito à injúria. A etiopatogenia pode estar ligada à compressão do nervo pelo colesteatoma seguida de diminuição do seu suprimento vascular como também pela possível ação de substâncias neurotóxicas produzidas pela matriz do tumor ou pelas bactérias nele contidas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, as características clínicas e o tratamento da paralisia facial decorrente da lesão colesteatomatosa. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo dez casos de paralisia facial por colesteatoma selecionados através de levantamento de 206 descompressões do nervo facial com diferentes etiologias, realizadas na UNIFESP-EPM nos últimos dez anos. RESULTADOS: A incidência de paralisia facial por colesteatoma neste estudo foi de 4,85%,com predominância do sexo feminino (60%. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 39 anos. A duração e o grau da paralisia (inicial juntamente com a extensão da lesão foram importantes em relação à recuperação funcional do nervo facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico precoce é fundamental para que ocorra um resultado funcional mais adequado. Nos casos de ruptura ou intensa fibrose do tecido nervoso, o enxerto de nervo (auricular magno/sural e/ou a anastomose hipoglosso-facial podem ser sugeridas.Facial paralysis caused by cholesteatoma is uncommon. The portions most frequently involved are horizontal (tympanic and second genu segments. When cholesteatomas extend over the anterior epitympanic space, the facial nerve is placed in jeopardy in the region of the geniculate ganglion. The aetiology can be related to compression of the nerve followed by impairment of its

  13. MRI of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saatci, I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sahintuerk, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sennaroglu, L. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Boyvat, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Guersel, B. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Besim, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to define the enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell`s palsy) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with routine doses of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). Using 0.5 T imager, 24 patients were examined with a mean interval time of 13.7 days between the onset of symptoms and the MR examination. Contralateral asymptomatic facial nerves constituted the control group and five of the normal facial nerves (20.8%) showed enhancement confined to the geniculate ganglion. Hence, contrast enhancement limited to the geniculate ganglion in the abnormal facial nerve (3 of 24) was referred to a equivocal. Not encountered in any of the normal facial nerves, enhancement of other segments alone or associated with geniculate ganglion enhancement was considered to be abnormal and noted in 70.8% of the symptomatic facial nerves. The most frequently enhancing segments were the geniculate ganglion and the distal intracanalicular segment. (orig.)

  14. Facial Expression Recognition via Non-Negative Least-Squares Sparse Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sparse coding is an active research subject in signal processing, computer vision, and pattern recognition. A novel method of facial expression recognition via non-negative least squares (NNLS sparse coding is presented in this paper. The NNLS sparse coding is used to form a facial expression classifier. To testify the performance of the presented method, local binary patterns (LBP and the raw pixels are extracted for facial feature representation. Facial expression recognition experiments are conducted on the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE database. Compared with other widely used methods such as linear support vector machines (SVM, sparse representation-based classifier (SRC, nearest subspace classifier (NSC, K-nearest neighbor (KNN and radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN, the experiment results indicate that the presented NNLS method performs better than other used methods on facial expression recognition tasks.

  15. The Facial Profile in the Context of Facial Aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppt, Werner J; Vent, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Beauty has been an intriguing issue since the evolving of a culture in mankind. Even the Neanderthals are believed to have applied makeover to enhance facial structures and thus underline beauty. The determinants of beauty and aesthetics have been defined by artists and scientists alike. This article will give an overview of the evolvement of a beauty concept and the significance of the facial profile. It aims at sharpening the senses of the facial plastic surgeon for analyzing the patient's face, consulting the patient on feasible options, planning, and conducting surgery in the most individualized way.

  16. Diplegia facial traumatica Traumatic facial diplegia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de paralisia facial bilateral, incompleta, associada a hipoacusia esquerda, após traumatismo cranioencefálico, com fraturas evidenciadas radiológicamente. Algumas considerações são formuladas tentando relacionar ditas manifestações com fraturas do osso temporal.A case of traumatic facial diplegia with left partial loss of hearing following head injury is reported. X-rays showed fractures on the occipital and left temporal bones. A review of traumatic facial paralysis is made.

  17. Paralisia facial bilateral Bilateral facial paralysis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.A case of bilateral facial paralysis following meningococcal meningitis and herpes simplex infection is reported. The author discusses the differential diagnosis of bilateral facial nerve paralysis which includes several diseases and syndromes and concludes by herpetic aetiology.

  18. Automatic recognition of emotions from facial expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Henry; Gertner, Izidor

    2014-06-01

    In the human-computer interaction (HCI) process it is desirable to have an artificial intelligent (AI) system that can identify and categorize human emotions from facial expressions. Such systems can be used in security, in entertainment industries, and also to study visual perception, social interactions and disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and autism). In this work we survey and compare the performance of different feature extraction algorithms and classification schemes. We introduce a faster feature extraction method that resizes and applies a set of filters to the data images without sacrificing the accuracy. In addition, we have enhanced SVM to multiple dimensions while retaining the high accuracy rate of SVM. The algorithms were tested using the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database and the Database of Faces (AT&T Faces).

  19. The Dehiscent Facial Nerve Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Yetiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental injury to the facial nerve where the bony canal defects are present may result with facial nerve dysfunction during otological surgery. Therefore, it is critical to know the incidence and the type of facial nerve dehiscences in the presence of normal development of the facial canal. The aim of this study is to review the site and the type of such bony defects in 144 patients operated for facial paralysis, myringoplasty, stapedotomy, middle ear exploration for sudden hearing loss, and so forth, other than chronic suppurative otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, middle ear tumors, and anomaly. Correlation of intraoperative findings with preoperative computerized tomography was also analyzed in 35 patients. Conclusively, one out of every 10 surgical cases may have dehiscence of the facial canal which has to be always borne in mind during surgical manipulation of the middle ear. Computerized tomography has some limitations to evaluate the dehiscent facial canal due to high false negative and positive rates.

  20. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  1. Analysis methods for facial motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Mishima

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective techniques to evaluate a facial movement are indispensable for the contemporary treatment of patients with motor disorders such as facial paralysis, cleft lip, postoperative head and neck cancer, and so on. Recently, computer-assisted, video-based techniques have been devised and reported as measuring systems in which facial movements can be evaluated quantitatively. Commercially available motion analysis systems, in which a stereo-measuring technique with multiple cameras and markers to facilitate search of matching among images through all cameras, also are utilized, and are used in many measuring systems such as video-based systems. The key is how the problems of facial movement can be extracted precisely, and how useful information for the diagnosis and decision-making process can be derived from analyses of facial movement. Therefore, it is important to discuss which facial animations should be examined, and whether fixation of the head and markers attached to the face can hamper natural facial movement.

  2. Acupuncture Treatment of Facial Spasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Case History Ms. Zheng from Singapore, aged 51 years, paid her first visit on Aug.30, 2006, with the chief complaint of left facial paralysis accompanied with facial spasm for 5 years. The patient got left facial paralysis in 2001, which was not completely cured, and developed into facial spasm one year later. Although she had received various treatments including surgical operation, the disease was not cured. At the moment she had discomfort and dull sensation in the left facial area, mainly accompanied with twitching of the peripheral nerve of the eye. She was also accompanied with posterior auricular muscle tension and discomfort. She had fairly good sleep and appetite, but slightly quick temper. Physical examination at the moment showed that the patient had a slightly thin body figure, flushing face, and good mental state. The blood pressure was 110/75mmHg and the heart rate was 85 beats/min. No abnormal signs were found in the heart and lungs. The facial examination showed mild swelling of the left side of the face, incomplete closing of the eye lids, disappearance of wrinkles on the forehead, shallow nasolabial groove, and obvious muscle tension and tenderness in the left opisthotic region. Careful observation could find slight facial muscular twitching. The tongue proper was red with little coating, and the pulse thready-wiry.

  3. Facial Action Units Recognition: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Wiggers, P.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Shan, C.

    2011-01-01

    Many approaches to facial expression recognition focus on assessing the six basic emotions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, sadness, and surprise). Real-life situations proved to produce many more subtle facial expressions. A reliable way of analyzing the facial behavior is the Facial Action Coding

  4. Microbial biofilms on silicone facial prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariani, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Facial disfigurements can result from oncologic surgery, trauma and congenital deformities. These disfigurements can be rehabilitated with facial prostheses. Facial prostheses are usually made of silicones. A problem of facial prostheses is that microorganisms can colonize their surface. It is hard

  5. Improving outcomes in aesthetic facial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Stefan O P; Mureau, Marc A M

    2009-07-01

    Aesthetic facial reconstruction is a challenging art. Improving outcomes in aesthetic facial reconstruction requires a thorough understanding of the basic principles of the functional and aesthetic requirements for facial reconstruction. From there, further refinement and attention to detail can be provided. This paper discusses basic principles of aesthetic facial reconstruction.

  6. Facial Action Units Recognition: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Wiggers, P.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Shan, C.

    2011-01-01

    Many approaches to facial expression recognition focus on assessing the six basic emotions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, sadness, and surprise). Real-life situations proved to produce many more subtle facial expressions. A reliable way of analyzing the facial behavior is the Facial Action Coding

  7. Facial melanoses: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Khanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial melanoses (FM are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl′s melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP, erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl′s melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ, which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion.

  8. Relation between facial affect recognition and configural face processing in antipsychotic-free schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, Eric; Jouve, Elisabeth; Guillaume, Fabrice; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Blin, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Deficit in facial affect recognition is a well-documented impairment in schizophrenia, closely connected to social outcome. This deficit could be related to psychopathology, but also to a broader dysfunction in processing facial information. In addition, patients with schizophrenia inadequately use configural information-a type of processing that relies on spatial relationships between facial features. To date, no study has specifically examined the link between symptoms and misuse of configural information in the deficit in facial affect recognition. Unmedicated schizophrenia patients (n = 30) and matched healthy controls (n = 30) performed a facial affect recognition task and a face inversion task, which tests aptitude to rely on configural information. In patients, regressions were carried out between facial affect recognition, symptom dimensions and inversion effect. Patients, compared with controls, showed a deficit in facial affect recognition and a lower inversion effect. Negative symptoms and lower inversion effect could account for 41.2% of the variance in facial affect recognition. This study confirms the presence of a deficit in facial affect recognition, and also of dysfunctional manipulation in configural information in antipsychotic-free patients. Negative symptoms and poor processing of configural information explained a substantial part of the deficient recognition of facial affect. We speculate that this deficit may be caused by several factors, among which independently stand psychopathology and failure in correctly manipulating configural information. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Simple technique for facial dimple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan El-Sabbagh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subjects seeking aesthetic surgery for facial dimples are increasing in number. Literature on dimple creation surgery are sparse. Various techniques have been used with their own merits and disadvantages. Materials and Methods: Facial dimples were created in 23 cases. All the subjects were females. Five cases were bilateral and the rest were unilateral. Results: Minor complications such as swelling and hematoma were observed in four cases. Infection occurred in two cases. Most of the subjects were satisfied with the results. Conclusions: Suturing technique is safe, reliable and an easily reproducible way to create facial dimple. Level of Evidence: IV: Case series.

  10. Sleep Wrinkles: Facial Aging and Facial Distortion During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Goesel; Kane, Michael A C; Lambros, Val

    2016-09-01

    Wrinkles are just one indicator of facial aging, but an indicator that is of prime importance in our world of facial aesthetics. Wrinkles occur where fault lines develop in aging skin. Those fault lines may be due to skin distortion resulting from facial expression or may be due to skin distortion from mechanical compression during sleep. Expression wrinkles and sleep wrinkles differ in etiology, location, and anatomical pattern. Compression, shear, and stress forces act on the face in lateral or prone sleep positions. We review the literature relating to the development of wrinkles and the biomechanical changes that occur in response to intrinsic and extrinsic influences. We explore the possibility that compression during sleep not only results in wrinkles but may also contribute to facial skin expansion.

  11. Facial Emotion Processing in Aviremic HIV-infected Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Baeza, A; Carvajal, F; Bayón, C; Pérez-Valero, I; Montes-Ramírez, M; Arribas, J R

    2016-08-01

    The emotional processing in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive individuals (HIV+) has been scarcely studied. We included HIV+ individuals (n = 107) on antiretroviral therapy (≥2 years) who completed 6 facial processing tasks and neurocognitive testing. We compared HIV+ and healthy adult (HA) participants (n = 40) in overall performance of each facial processing task. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to explore predictors of poorer accuracy in those measures in which HIV+ individuals performed poorer than HA participants. We separately explored the impact of neurocognitive status, antiretroviral regimen, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection on the tasks performance. We found similar performance in overall facial emotion discrimination, recognition, and recall between HIV+ and HA participants. The HIV+ group had poorer recognition of particular negative emotions. Lower WAIS-III Vocabulary scores and active HCV predicted poorer accuracy in recognition of particular emotions. Our results suggest that permanent damage of emotion-related brain systems might persist despite long-term effective antiretroviral therapy.

  12. Facial nerve palsy: Evaluation by contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, T.; Ishii, K.; Okitsu, T.; Okudera, T.; Ogawa, T

    2001-11-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with peripheral facial nerve palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR imaging was performed in 147 patients with facial nerve palsy, using a 1.0 T unit. All of 147 patients were evaluated by contrast-enhanced MR imaging and the pattern of enhancement was compared with that in 300 control subjects evaluated for suspected acoustic neurinoma. RESULTS: The intrameatal and labyrinthine segments of the normal facial nerve did not show enhancement, whereas enhancement of the distal intrameatal segment and the labyrinthine segment was respectively found in 67% and 43% of patients with Bell's palsy. The geniculate ganglion or the tympanic-mastoid segment was enhanced in 21% of normal controls versus 91% of patients with Bell's palsy. Abnormal enhancement of the non-paralyzed facial nerve was found in a patient with bilateral temporal bone fracture. CONCLUSION: Enhancement of the distal intrameatal and labyrinthine segments is specific for facial nerve palsy. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging can reveal inflammatory facial nerve lesions and traumatic nerve injury, including clinically silent damage in trauma. Kinoshita T. et al. (2001)

  13. Facial emotion recognition in patients with violent schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbuga, Sedat; Sahin, Esat; Ozver, Ismail; Aliustaoglu, Suheyla; Kandemir, Eyup; Varkal, Mihriban D; Emul, Murat; Ince, Haluk

    2013-03-01

    People with schizophrenia are more likely considered to be violent than the general population. Besides some well described symptoms, patients with schizophrenia have problems in recognizing basic facial emotions which could underlie the misinterpretation of others' intentions that could lead to violent behaviors. We aimed to investigate the facial emotion recognition ability in violent or non-violent patients with schizophrenia. The severity in both groups was evaluated according to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A computer-based test included the photos of four male and four female models with happy, surprised, fearful, sad, angry, disgusted, and neutral facial expressions from Ekman & Friesen's series has been performed to groups. Totally, 41 outpatients with violent schizophrenia and 35 outpatients with non-violent schizophrenia participated in the study. The mean age of violent schizophrenia group was 41.50±7.56, and control group's mean age was 39.94±6.79years. There were no significant differences between groups among reaction time for each emotion while recognizing them (p>0.05). In addition, the accuracy rate of answers towards facial emotion recognition test for each emotion and the distribution misidentifications were not significantly different between groups (p>0.05). The facial emotion recognition in violent schizophrenia is lacking and we found that the facial emotion recognition ability in violent schizophrenia seems to be a trait feature of the illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Avoiding Facial Incisions with Midface Free Tissue Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Mark W.; Sosin, Michael; Urbinelli, Leo J.; Mayo, James L.; Dorafshar, Amir H.; Hilaire, Hugo St.; Borsuk, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We have adopted an intraoral microsurgical anastomosis to the facial vessels to eliminate the need for any visible facial incisions. Methods: Cadaveric dissection was used to demonstrate accessibility of the facial artery and vein through an intraoral approach. Additionally, 5 patients underwent free tissue transfer for reconstruction of major defects of the midface through an intraoral, transmucosal approach, obviating the need for visible skin incisions. Results: The pathology included palatal defects due to mucoepidermoid carcinoma and ischemic necrosis from cocaine abuse, maxillary defects secondary to fibrous dysplasia and avascular necrosis from traumatic blast injury, and a residual posttraumatic bony deformity of the zygoma. Reconstructions were performed with a free ulnar forearm flap, a free vastus lateralis muscle flap, a deep circumflex iliac artery myoosseous flap, a free fibula flap, and a deep circumflex iliac artery osseous flap, respectively. The facial artery and vein were used as recipient vessels for microvascular anastomosis for all cases. Mean follow-up was 12.2 months. All free tissue transfers were successful, and each patient had a satisfactory aesthetic outcome with no associated facial scars. Conclusion: This technique can be employed during reconstruction of an array of bony or soft-tissue midface deficits with minimal morbidity. This small series effectively demonstrates the varied pathologies and tissue deficiencies that can be successfully reconstructed with free tissue transfer using an entirely intraoral approach to the recipient facial vessels, resulting in no visible scars on the face and an improvement in the overall aesthetic outcome. PMID:28280662

  15. Pediatric facial burns: Is facial transplantation the new reconstructive psychosurgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark D; Zuker, Ronald M; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Current pediatric burn care has resulted in survival being the expectation for most children. Composite tissue allotransplantation in the form of face or hand transplantation may present opportunities for reconstructive surgery of patients with burns. The present paper addresses the question “Could facial transplantation be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of pediatric burns associated with facial disfigurement?” METHODS: Therapeutic benefit of facial transplantation was defined in terms of psychiatric adjustment and quality of life (QOL). To ascertain therapeutic benefit, studies of pediatric burn injury and associated psychiatric adjustment and QOL in children, adolescents and adults with pediatric burns, were reviewed. RESULTS: Pediatric burn injury is associated with anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and depressive disorders. Many patients with pediatric burns do not routinely access psychiatric care for these disorders, including those for psychiatric assessment of suicidal risk. A range of QOL outcomes were reported; four were predominantly satisfactory and one was predominantly unsatisfactory. DISCUSSION: Facial transplantation may reduce the risk of depressive and anxiety disorders other than post-traumatic stress disorder. Facial transplantation promises to be the new reconstructive psychosurgery, because it may be a surgical intervention with the potential to reduce the psychiatric suffering associated with pediatric burns. Furthermore, patients with pediatric burns may experience the stigma of disfigurement and psychiatric conditions. The potential for improved appearance with facial transplantation may reduce this ‘dual stigmata’. Studies combining surgical and psychiatric research are warranted. PMID:19949498

  16. Discriminative shared Gaussian processes for multiview and view-invariant facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, Stefanos; Rudovic, Ognjen; Pantic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Images of facial expressions are often captured from various views as a result of either head movements or variable camera position. Existing methods for multiview and/or view-invariant facial expression recognition typically perform classification of the observed expression using either classifiers learned separately for each view or a single classifier learned for all views. However, these approaches ignore the fact that different views of a facial expression are just different manifestations of the same facial expression. By accounting for this redundancy, we can design more effective classifiers for the target task. To this end, we propose a discriminative shared Gaussian process latent variable model (DS-GPLVM) for multiview and view-invariant classification of facial expressions from multiple views. In this model, we first learn a discriminative manifold shared by multiple views of a facial expression. Subsequently, we perform facial expression classification in the expression manifold. Finally, classification of an observed facial expression is carried out either in the view-invariant manner (using only a single view of the expression) or in the multiview manner (using multiple views of the expression). The proposed model can also be used to perform fusion of different facial features in a principled manner. We validate the proposed DS-GPLVM on both posed and spontaneously displayed facial expressions from three publicly available datasets (MultiPIE, labeled face parts in the wild, and static facial expressions in the wild). We show that this model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods for multiview and view-invariant facial expression classification, and several state-of-the-art methods for multiview learning and feature fusion.

  17. Nablus mask-like facial syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allanson, Judith; Smith, Amanda; Hare, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) has many distinctive phenotypic features, particularly tight glistening skin with reduced facial expression, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, bulky nasal tip, abnormal external ear architecture, upswept frontal hairline, and sparse eyebrows. Over the last few...... heterozygous deletions significantly overlapping the region associated with NMLFS. Notably, while one mother and child were said to have mild tightening of facial skin, none of these individuals exhibited reduced facial expression or the classical facial phenotype of NMLFS. These findings indicate...

  18. Facial Expression Recognition Using SVM Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Facial feature tracking and facial actions recognition from image sequence attracted great attention in computer vision field. Computational facial expression analysis is a challenging research topic in computer vision. It is required by many applications such as human-computer interaction, computer graphic animation and automatic facial expression recognition. In recent years, plenty of computer vision techniques have been developed to track or recognize the facial activities in three levels...

  19. Analysis of facial expressions in parkinson's disease through video-based automatic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandini, Andrea; Orlandi, Silvia; Escalante, Hugo Jair; Giovannelli, Fabio; Cincotta, Massimo; Reyes-Garcia, Carlos A; Vanni, Paola; Zaccara, Gaetano; Manfredi, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    The automatic analysis of facial expressions is an evolving field that finds several clinical applications. One of these applications is the study of facial bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease (PD), which is a major motor sign of this neurodegenerative illness. Facial bradykinesia consists in the reduction/loss of facial movements and emotional facial expressions called hypomimia. In this work we propose an automatic method for studying facial expressions in PD patients relying on video-based METHODS: 17 Parkinsonian patients and 17 healthy control subjects were asked to show basic facial expressions, upon request of the clinician and after the imitation of a visual cue on a screen. Through an existing face tracker, the Euclidean distance of the facial model from a neutral baseline was computed in order to quantify the changes in facial expressivity during the tasks. Moreover, an automatic facial expressions recognition algorithm was trained in order to study how PD expressions differed from the standard expressions. Results show that control subjects reported on average higher distances than PD patients along the tasks. This confirms that control subjects show larger movements during both posed and imitated facial expressions. Moreover, our results demonstrate that anger and disgust are the two most impaired expressions in PD patients. Contactless video-based systems can be important techniques for analyzing facial expressions also in rehabilitation, in particular speech therapy, where patients could get a definite advantage from a real-time feedback about the proper facial expressions/movements to perform. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter Bjørn; Pilegaard, Hans K; Ladegaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background. Facial blushing is one of the most peculiar of human expressions. The pathophysiology is unclear, and the prevalence is unknown. Thoracoscopic sympathectomy may cure the symptom and is increasingly used in patients with isolated facial blushing. The evidence base for the optimal level...... of targeting the sympathetic chain is limited to retrospective case studies. We present a randomized clinical trial. Methods. 100 patients were randomized (web-based, single-blinded) to rib-oriented (R2 or R2-R3) sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing at two university hospitals during a 6-year period...... in all social and mental domains in both groups. Overall, 85% of the patients had an excellent or satisfactory result, with no significant difference between the R2 procedure and the R2-R3 procedure. Mild recurrence of facial blushing occurred in 30% of patients within the first year. One patient...

  1. Facial nerve paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-12-16

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology.

  2. Imaging of the facial nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veillon, F. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)], E-mail: Francis.Veillon@chru-strasbourg.fr; Ramos-Taboada, L.; Abu-Eid, M. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Charpiot, A. [Service d' ORL, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Riehm, S. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

    2010-05-15

    The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve.

  3. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  4. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  5. Facial wrinkles correction through autologous fat microinjection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Cháves Sánchez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: autologous fat microinjection is a technique which allows the correction of different dispositions that appear in the face in a very fast, effective and simple way compared to other procedures implying more pain, incisions, and elevated doses of anesthesia. Objective: to show the effectiveness of the autologous fat microinjection in the correction of facial wrinkles. Methods: a series study was carried out from May 2005 to May 2006 at the University Hospital “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” in Cienfuegos city, Cuba. 60 patients of both sexes constituted this series study. They had facial wrinkles and this procedure was performed on them. Age, sex, patient’s race, localization and the type of wrinkle as well as the satisfaction level of the patient with the surgical procedure were analyzed. Results: Female sex was predominant, as well as white race and the ages from 45-50. A good aesthetic result was obtained. The satisfaction level of the patients was more elevated in short and medium terms. Conclusions: the level of satisfaction reached in the studied series reassure the advantages of the autologous fat microinjection technique so that, it is recommended for the elimination of facial wrinkles.

  6. A REVIEW ON FACIAL NEURALGIAS

    OpenAIRE

    Solanki, Gaurav

    2010-01-01

    Facial neuralgias are produced by a change in neurological structure or function. This type of neuropathic pain affects the mental health as well as quality of life of patients. There are different types of neuralgias affecting the oral and maxillofacial region. These unusual pains are linked to some possible mechanisms. Various diagnostic tests are done to diagnose the proper cause of facial neuralgia and according to it the medical and surgical treatment is done to provide relief to patient.

  7. Animating facial images with drawings

    OpenAIRE

    Tunali, Gamze Dilek

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent Univ., 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 54-56. The work presented here describes the power of 2D animation with texture mai^ping controlled by line drawings. Animation is specifically intended for facial animation and not restricted by the human face. We initially have a sequence of facial images which are taken from a video sequence of the same face and an image of another face to be animated...

  8. Pediatric facial injuries: It's management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Geeta; Mohammad, Shadab; Pal, U. S.; Hariram; Malkunje, Laxman R.; Singh, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    Background: Facial injuries in children always present a challenge in respect of their diagnosis and management. Since these children are of a growing age every care should be taken so that later the overall growth pattern of the facial skeleton in these children is not jeopardized. Purpose: To access the most feasible method for the management of facial injuries in children without hampering the facial growth. Materials and Methods: Sixty child patients with facial trauma were selected randomly for this study. On the basis of examination and investigations a suitable management approach involving rest and observation, open or closed reduction and immobilization, trans-osseous (TO) wiring, mini bone plate fixation, splinting and replantation, elevation and fixation of zygoma, etc. were carried out. Results and Conclusion: In our study fall was the predominant cause for most of the facial injuries in children. There was a 1.09% incidence of facial injuries in children up to 16 years of age amongst the total patients. The age-wise distribution of the fracture amongst groups (I, II and III) was found to be 26.67%, 51.67% and 21.67% respectively. Male to female patient ratio was 3:1. The majority of the cases of facial injuries were seen in Group II patients (6-11 years) i.e. 51.67%. The mandibular fracture was found to be the most common fracture (0.60%) followed by dentoalveolar (0.27%), mandibular + midface (0.07) and midface (0.02%) fractures. Most of the mandibular fractures were found in the parasymphysis region. Simple fracture seems to be commonest in the mandible. Most of the mandibular and midface fractures in children were amenable to conservative therapies except a few which required surgical intervention. PMID:22639504

  9. Developmental facial paralysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Julia K; Anesti, Katerina

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the confusing nomenclature and pathogenesis of Developmental Facial Paralysis, and how it can be differentiated from other causes of facial paralysis present at birth. Differentiating developmental from traumatic facial paralysis noted at birth is important for determining prognosis, but also for medicolegal reasons. Given the dramatic presentation of this condition, accurate and reliable guidelines are necessary in order to facilitate early diagnosis and initiate appropriate therapy, while providing support and counselling to the family. The 30 years experience of our center in the management of developmental facial paralysis is dependent upon a thorough understanding of facial nerve embryology, anatomy, nerve physiology, and an appreciation of well-recognized mishaps during fetal development. It is hoped that a better understanding of this condition will in the future lead to early targeted screening, accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment in this population of facially disfigured patients, which will facilitate their emotional and social rehabilitation, and their reintegration among their peers.

  10. Facial contour deformity correction with microvascular flaps based on the 3-dimentional template and facial moulage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Facial contour deformities presents with varied aetiology and degrees severity. Accurate assessment, selecting a suitable tissue and sculpturing it to fill the defect is challenging and largely subjective. Objective assessment with imaging and software is not always feasible and preparing a template is complicated. A three-dimensional (3D wax template pre-fabricated over the facial moulage aids surgeons to fulfil these tasks. Severe deformities demand a stable vascular tissue for an acceptable outcome. Materials and Methods: We present review of eight consecutive patients who underwent augmentation of facial contour defects with free flaps between June 2005 and January 2011. De-epithelialised free anterolateral thigh (ALT flap in three, radial artery forearm flap and fibula osteocutaneous flap in two each and groin flap was used in one patient. A 3D wax template was fabricated by augmenting the deformity on facial moulage. It was utilised to select the flap, to determine the exact dimensions and to sculpture intraoperatively. Ancillary procedures such as genioplasty, rhinoplasty and coloboma correction were performed. Results: The average age at the presentation was 25 years and average disease free interval was 5.5 years and all flaps survived. Mean follow-up period was 21.75 months. The correction was aesthetically acceptable and was maintained without any recurrence or atrophy. Conclusion: The 3D wax template on facial moulage is simple, inexpensive and precise objective tool. It provides accurate guide for the planning and execution of the flap reconstruction. The selection of the flap is based on the type and extent of the defect. Superiority of vascularised free tissue is well-known and the ALT flap offers a versatile option for correcting varying degrees of the deformities. Ancillary procedures improve the overall aesthetic outcomes and minor flap touch-up procedures are generally required.

  11. The facial expression of schizophrenic patients applied with infrared thermal facial image sequence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bo-Lin Jian; Chieh-Li Chen; Wen-Lin Chu; Min-Wei Huang

    2017-01-01

    .... Thus, this study used non-contact infrared thermal facial images (ITFIs) to analyze facial temperature changes evoked by different emotions in moderately and markedly ill schizophrenia patients...

  12. Effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics: changes in facial content and frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2012-11-01

    Aesthetic units of the face can be divided into facial content (FC; eyes, nose, lips, and mouth), anterior facial frame (AFF; a contour line from the trichion, the temporal line of the frontal bone, the lateral orbital rim, the most lateral line of the anterior part of the zygomatic body, the anterior border of the masseter muscle, to the inferior border of the chin), and posterior facial frame (PFF; a contour line from the hairline, the zygomatic arch, to the ramus and gonial angle area of the mandible). The size and shape of each FC and the balance and proportion between FCs create a unique appearance for each person. The facial form can be determined through the combination of AFF and PFF. In the Asian population, clinicians frequently encounter problems of FC (eg, acute nasolabial angle, protrusive and everted lips, nonconsonant lip line, or lip canting), AFF (eg, midface hypoplasia, protrusive and asymmetric chin, vertical deficiency/excess of the anterior maxilla and symphysis, or prominent zygoma), and PFF (eg, square mandibular angle). These problems can be efficiently and effectively corrected through the combination of hard tissue surgery such as anterior segmental osteotomy, genioplasty, mandibular angle reduction, malarplasty, and orthognathic surgery. Therefore, the purposes of this article were to introduce the concepts of FC, AFF, and PFF, and to explain the effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics.

  13. Recognition of Facial Expressions and Prosodic Cues with Graded Emotional Intensities in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hirokazu; Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Kanai, Chieko; Ohta, Haruhisa; Yokoi, Hideki; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of adults with Asperger syndrome to recognize emotional categories of facial expressions and emotional prosodies with graded emotional intensities. The individuals with Asperger syndrome showed poorer recognition performance for angry and sad expressions from both facial and vocal information. The group…

  14. Assessing the Utility of a Virtual Environment for Enhancing Facial Affect Recognition in Adolescents with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Esubalew; Crittendon, Julie; Zheng, Zhi; Swanson, Amy; Weitlauf, Amy; Warren, Zachary; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2014-01-01

    Teenagers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age-matched controls participated in a dynamic facial affect recognition task within a virtual reality (VR) environment. Participants identified the emotion of a facial expression displayed at varied levels of intensity by a computer generated avatar. The system assessed performance (i.e.,…

  15. From Facial Emotional Recognition Abilities to Emotional Attribution: A Study in Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippolyte, Loyse; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Van der Linden, Martial; Detraux, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression processing and the attribution of facial emotions to a context were investigated in adults with Down syndrome (DS) in two experiments. Their performances were compared with those of a child control group matched for receptive vocabulary. The ability to process faces without emotional content was controlled for, and no differences…

  16. Shared Gaussian Process Latent Variable Model for Multi-view Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eleftheriadis, Stefanos; Rudovic, Ognjen; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Facial-expression data often appear in multiple views either due to head-movements or the camera position. Existing methods for multi-view facial expression recognition perform classification of the target expressions either by using classifiers learned separately for each view or by using a single

  17. Predicting the Accuracy of Facial Affect Recognition: The Interaction of Child Maltreatment and Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Putnam, Frank W.; Noll, Jennie G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both child maltreatment and intellectual performance contribute uniquely to the accurate identification of facial affect by children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to extend this research by examining whether child maltreatment affects the accuracy of facial recognition differently at varying…

  18. Discriminative shared Gaussian processes for multi-view and view-invariant facial expression recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eleftheriadis, Stefanos; Rudovic, Ognjen; Pantic, Maja

    Images of facial expressions are often captured from various views as a result of either head movements or variable camera position. Existing methods for multiview and/or view-invariant facial expression recognition typically perform classification of the observed expression using either classifiers

  19. Assessing the Utility of a Virtual Environment for Enhancing Facial Affect Recognition in Adolescents with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Esubalew; Crittendon, Julie; Zheng, Zhi; Swanson, Amy; Weitlauf, Amy; Warren, Zachary; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2014-01-01

    Teenagers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age-matched controls participated in a dynamic facial affect recognition task within a virtual reality (VR) environment. Participants identified the emotion of a facial expression displayed at varied levels of intensity by a computer generated avatar. The system assessed performance (i.e.,…

  20. From Facial Emotional Recognition Abilities to Emotional Attribution: A Study in Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippolyte, Loyse; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Van der Linden, Martial; Detraux, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression processing and the attribution of facial emotions to a context were investigated in adults with Down syndrome (DS) in two experiments. Their performances were compared with those of a child control group matched for receptive vocabulary. The ability to process faces without emotional content was controlled for, and no differences…

  1. Recognition of Facial Expressions and Prosodic Cues with Graded Emotional Intensities in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hirokazu; Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Kanai, Chieko; Ohta, Haruhisa; Yokoi, Hideki; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of adults with Asperger syndrome to recognize emotional categories of facial expressions and emotional prosodies with graded emotional intensities. The individuals with Asperger syndrome showed poorer recognition performance for angry and sad expressions from both facial and vocal information. The group…

  2. Discriminative shared Gaussian processes for multi-view and view-invariant facial expression recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eleftheriadis, Stefanos; Rudovic, Ognjen; Pantic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Images of facial expressions are often captured from various views as a result of either head movements or variable camera position. Existing methods for multiview and/or view-invariant facial expression recognition typically perform classification of the observed expression using either classifiers

  3. Predicting the Accuracy of Facial Affect Recognition: The Interaction of Child Maltreatment and Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Putnam, Frank W.; Noll, Jennie G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both child maltreatment and intellectual performance contribute uniquely to the accurate identification of facial affect by children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to extend this research by examining whether child maltreatment affects the accuracy of facial recognition differently at varying…

  4. A Contemporary Approach to Facial Reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowett, Nate; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2015-01-01

    The management of acute facial nerve insult may entail medical therapy, surgical exploration, decompression, or repair depending on the etiology. When recovery is not complete, facial mimetic function lies on a spectrum ranging from flaccid paralysis to hyperkinesis resulting in facial immobility. Through systematic assessment of the face at rest and with movement, one may tailor the management to the particular pattern of dysfunction. Interventions for long-standing facial palsy include physical therapy, injectables, and surgical reanimation procedures. The goal of the management is to restore facial balance and movement. This article summarizes a contemporary approach to the management of facial nerve insults.

  5. Computer Aided Facial Prosthetics Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial deformities can impose burden to the patient. There are many solutions for facial deformities such as plastic surgery and facial prosthetics. However, current fabrication method of facial prosthetics is high-cost and time consuming. This study aimed to identify a new method to construct a customized facial prosthetic. A 3D scanner, computer software and 3D printer were used in this study. Results showed that the new developed method can be used to produce a customized facial prosthetics. The advantages of the developed method over the conventional process are low cost, reduce waste of material and pollution in order to meet the green concept.

  6. Female Facial Appearance and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan W. Gray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study addressed whether rated femininity, attractiveness, and health in female faces are associated with numerous indices of self-reported health history (number of colds/stomach bugs/frequency of antibiotic use in a sample of 105 females. It was predicted that all three rating variables would correlate negatively with bouts of illness (with the exception of rates of stomach infections, on the assumption that aspects of facial appearance signal mate quality. The results showed partial support for this prediction, in that there was a general trend for both facial femininity and attractiveness to correlate negatively with the reported number of colds in the preceding twelve months and with the frequency of antibiotic use in the last three years and the last twelve months. Rated facial femininity (as documented in September was also associated with days of flu experienced in the period spanning the November-December months. However, rated health did not correlate with any of the health indices (albeit one marginal result with antibiotic use in the last twelve months. The results lend support to previous findings linking facial femininity to health and suggest that facial femininity may be linked to some aspects of disease resistance but not others.

  7. Cortical control of facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müri, René M

    2016-06-01

    The present Review deals with the motor control of facial expressions in humans. Facial expressions are a central part of human communication. Emotional face expressions have a crucial role in human nonverbal behavior, allowing a rapid transfer of information between individuals. Facial expressions can be either voluntarily or emotionally controlled. Recent studies in nonhuman primates and humans have revealed that the motor control of facial expressions has a distributed neural representation. At least five cortical regions on the medial and lateral aspects of each hemisphere are involved: the primary motor cortex, the ventral lateral premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area on the medial wall, and the rostral and caudal cingulate cortex. The results of studies in humans and nonhuman primates suggest that the innervation of the face is bilaterally controlled for the upper part and mainly contralaterally controlled for the lower part. Furthermore, the primary motor cortex, the ventral lateral premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area are essential for the voluntary control of facial expressions. In contrast, the cingulate cortical areas are important for emotional expression, because they receive input from different structures of the limbic system.

  8. Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basić-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanović; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

    2013-06-01

    Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients.

  9. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another.

  10. [The history of facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicenstein, J

    2015-10-01

    Facial paralysis has been a recognized condition since Antiquity, and was mentionned by Hippocratus. In the 17th century, in 1687, the Dutch physician Stalpart Van der Wiel rendered a detailed observation. It was, however, Charles Bell who, in 1821, provided the description that specified the role of the facial nerve. Facial nerve surgery began at the end of the 19th century. Three different techniques were used successively: nerve anastomosis, (XI-VII Balance 1895, XII-VII, Korte 1903), myoplasties (Lexer 1908), and suspensions (Stein 1913). Bunnell successfully accomplished the first direct facial nerve repair in the temporal bone, in 1927, and in 1932 Balance and Duel experimented with nerve grafts. Thanks to progress in microsurgical techniques, the first faciofacial anastomosis was realized in 1970 (Smith, Scaramella), and an account of the first microneurovascular muscle transfer published in 1976 by Harii. Treatment of the eyelid paralysis was at the origin of numerous operations beginning in the 1960s; including palpebral spring (Morel Fatio 1962) silicone sling (Arion 1972), upperlid loading with gold plate (Illig 1968), magnets (Muhlbauer 1973) and transfacial nerve grafts (Anderl 1973). By the end of the 20th century, surgeons had at their disposal a wide range of valid techniques for facial nerve surgery, including modernized versions of older techniques.

  11. How Do Typically Developing Deaf Children and Deaf Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Use the Face When Comprehending Emotional Facial Expressions in British Sign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Tanya; Atkinson, Joanna; Campbell, Ruth; Swettenham, John

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions in sign language carry a variety of communicative features. While emotion can modulate a spoken utterance through changes in intonation, duration and intensity, in sign language specific facial expressions presented concurrently with a manual sign perform this function. When deaf adult signers cannot see facial features, their…

  12. Impact of Childhood Maltreatment on the Recognition of Facial Expressions of Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardizzi, Martina; Martini, Francesca; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Evangelista, Valentina; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    The development of the explicit recognition of facial expressions of emotions can be affected by childhood maltreatment experiences. A previous study demonstrated the existence of an explicit recognition bias for angry facial expressions among a population of adolescent Sierra Leonean street-boys exposed to high levels of maltreatment. In the present study, the recognition bias for angry facial expressions was investigated in a younger population of street-children and age-matched controls. Participants performed a forced-choice facial expressions recognition task. Recognition bias was measured as participants' tendency to over-attribute anger label to other negative facial expressions. Participants' heart rate was assessed and related to their behavioral performance, as index of their stress-related physiological responses. Results demonstrated the presence of a recognition bias for angry facial expressions among street-children, also pinpointing a similar, although significantly less pronounced, tendency among controls. Participants' performance was controlled for age, cognitive and educational levels and for naming skills. None of these variables influenced the recognition bias for angry facial expressions. Differently, a significant effect of heart rate on participants' tendency to use anger label was evidenced. Taken together, these results suggest that childhood exposure to maltreatment experiences amplifies children's "pre-existing bias" for anger labeling in forced-choice emotion recognition task. Moreover, they strengthen the thesis according to which the recognition bias for angry facial expressions is a manifestation of a functional adaptive mechanism that tunes victim's perceptive and attentive focus on salient environmental social stimuli.

  13. Slowing down facial movements and vocal sounds enhances facial expression recognition and facial-vocal imitation in children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Tardif, Carole; Lainé, France; Rodriguez, Mélissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on CD-Rom, under audio or silent conditions, and under dynamic visual conditions (slowly, very slowly, at normal speed) plus a st...

  14. Neurobiological mechanisms associated with facial affect recognition deficits after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Dawn; McDonald, Brenna C; West, John; Keiski, Michelle A; Wang, Yang

    2016-06-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms that underlie facial affect recognition deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not yet been identified. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), study aims were to 1) determine if there are differences in brain activation during facial affect processing in people with TBI who have facial affect recognition impairments (TBI-I) relative to people with TBI and healthy controls who do not have facial affect recognition impairments (TBI-N and HC, respectively); and 2) identify relationships between neural activity and facial affect recognition performance. A facial affect recognition screening task performed outside the scanner was used to determine group classification; TBI patients who performed greater than one standard deviation below normal performance scores were classified as TBI-I, while TBI patients with normal scores were classified as TBI-N. An fMRI facial recognition paradigm was then performed within the 3T environment. Results from 35 participants are reported (TBI-I = 11, TBI-N = 12, and HC = 12). For the fMRI task, TBI-I and TBI-N groups scored significantly lower than the HC group. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals for facial affect recognition compared to a baseline condition of viewing a scrambled face, revealed lower neural activation in the right fusiform gyrus (FG) in the TBI-I group than the HC group. Right fusiform gyrus activity correlated with accuracy on the facial affect recognition tasks (both within and outside the scanner). Decreased FG activity suggests facial affect recognition deficits after TBI may be the result of impaired holistic face processing. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed.

  15. Sequential Clustering based Facial Feature Extraction Method for Automatic Creation of Facial Models from Orthogonal Views

    CERN Document Server

    Ghahari, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Multiview 3D face modeling has attracted increasing attention recently and has become one of the potential avenues in future video systems. We aim to make more reliable and robust automatic feature extraction and natural 3D feature construction from 2D features detected on a pair of frontal and profile view face images. We propose several heuristic algorithms to minimize possible errors introduced by prevalent nonperfect orthogonal condition and noncoherent luminance. In our approach, we first extract the 2D features that are visible to both cameras in both views. Then, we estimate the coordinates of the features in the hidden profile view based on the visible features extracted in the two orthogonal views. Finally, based on the coordinates of the extracted features, we deform a 3D generic model to perform the desired 3D clone modeling. Present study proves the scope of resulted facial models for practical applications like face recognition and facial animation.

  16. Autonomous facial recognition system inspired by human visual system based logarithmical image visualization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qianwen; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos

    2017-05-01

    Autonomous facial recognition system is widely used in real-life applications, such as homeland border security, law enforcement identification and authentication, and video-based surveillance analysis. Issues like low image quality, non-uniform illumination as well as variations in poses and facial expressions can impair the performance of recognition systems. To address the non-uniform illumination challenge, we present a novel robust autonomous facial recognition system inspired by the human visual system based, so called, logarithmical image visualization technique. In this paper, the proposed method, for the first time, utilizes the logarithmical image visualization technique coupled with the local binary pattern to perform discriminative feature extraction for facial recognition system. The Yale database, the Yale-B database and the ATT database are used for computer simulation accuracy and efficiency testing. The extensive computer simulation demonstrates the method's efficiency, accuracy, and robustness of illumination invariance for facial recognition.

  17. Overview of facial paralysis: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Thuy-Anh N; Limb, Charles J

    2008-05-01

    Facial paralysis represents the end result of a wide array of disorders and heterogeneous etiologies, including congenital, traumatic, infectious, neoplastic, and metabolic causes. Thus, facial palsy has a diverse range of presentations, from transient unilateral paresis to devastating permanent bilateral paralysis. Although not life-threatening, facial paralysis remains relatively common and can have truly severe effects on one's quality of life, with important ramifications in terms of psychological impact and physiologic burden. Prognosis and outcomes for patients with facial paralysis are highly dependent on the etiologic nature of the weakness as well as the treatment offered to the patient. Facial plastic surgeons are often asked to manage the sequelae of long-standing facial paralysis. It is important, however, for any practitioner who assists this population to have a sophisticated understanding of the common etiologies and initial management of facial paralysis. This article reviews the more common causes of facial paralysis and discusses relevant early treatment strategies.

  18. Automatic Facial Expression Analysis A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Sumathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Automatic Facial Expression Recognition has been one of the latest research topic since1990’s.There have been recent advances in detecting face, facial expression recognition andclassification. There are multiple methods devised for facial feature extraction which helps in identifyingface and facial expressions. This paper surveys some of the published work since 2003 till date. Variousmethods are analysed to identify the Facial expression. The Paper also discusses about the facialparameterization using Facial Action Coding System(FACS action units and the methods whichrecognizes the action units parameters using facial expression data that are extracted. Various kinds offacial expressions are present in human face which can be identified based on their geometric features,appearance features and hybrid features . The two basic concepts of extracting features are based onfacial deformation and facial motion. This article also identifies the techniques based on thecharacteristics of expressions and classifies the suitable methods that can be implemented.

  19. [Therapy for atypical facial pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Satoshi; Kimura, Hiroko

    2009-09-01

    Atypical facial pain is a pain in the head, neck and the face, without organic causes. It is treated at departments of physical medicine, such as dental, oral and maxillofacial surgery, otolaryngology, cerebral surgery, or head and neck surgery. In primary care, it is considered to be a medically unexplained symptom (MUS), or a somatoform disorder, such as somatization caused by a functional somatic syndrome (FSS) by psychiatrists. Usually, patients consult departments of physical medicine complaining of physical pain. Therefore physicians in these departments should examine the patients from the holistic perspective, and identify organic diseases. As atypical facial pain becomes chronic, other complications, including psychiatric complaints other than physical pain, such as depression may develop. Moreover, physical, psychological, and social factors affect the symptoms by interacting with one another. Therefore, in examining atypical facial pain, doctors specializing in dental, oral and maxillofacial medicine are required to provide psychosomatic treatment that is based on integrated knowledge.

  20. STUDY OF ACQUIRED FACIAL HYPERPIGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunjumani Sobhanakumari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Facial hypermelanosis is a clinical feature of a diverse group of disorders most commonly in middle-aged females who are exposed to sunlight. There is a considerable overlap in clinical features among the clinical entities of facial hypermelanosis. Aetiology in most of facial melanosis is unknown, but some factors like UV radiation in melasma and exposure to allergens in Riehl’s melanosis could be implicated. Histopathology is an accurate diagnostic tool. The benefit of histopathology is not only to confirm diagnosis, but also to exclude related disorders. Among the hyperpigmented conditions, melasma, Riehl’s melanosis, Acanthosis Nigricans (AN and Lichen Planus Pigmentosus (LPP are the common causes of facial hypermelanosis - most common being melasma. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of hundred consenting patients who attended the outpatient wing of Dermatology Department of Government Medical College, Kottayam. They were included only after getting the written informed consent. RESULTS Maximum number of patients were in the 5 th decade. 65% were females. Homemakers/housewives constituted the main study group (34%.55% of patients had duration of pigmentation between 1 to 5 years. Among these, melasma and acanthosis nigricans had the longest duration of disease. 69% of patients were symptomatic. Most common clinical diagnosis was melasma (45 followed by acanthosis nigricans (17, Riehl’s melanosis (15 and lichen planus pigmentosus (14. One case each of exogenous ochronosis and Addison’s disease and remaining were post inflammatory. Histopathologically, 63% of patients had histological features suggestive of melasma, which evolved as the most common cause of facial melanosis, next common being acanthosis nigricans and Riehl’s melanosis. CONCLUSION Clinical and histopathological examination is must to confirm the definite diagnosis of facial hyper-pigmentation. Skin is said to be the window to

  1. Facial Expression Synthesis Based on Imitation

    OpenAIRE

    Yihjia Tsai; Hwei Jen Lin; Fu Wen Yang

    2012-01-01

    It is an interesting and challenging problem to synthesise vivid facial expression images. In this paper, we propose a facial expression synthesis system which imitates a reference facial expression image according to the difference between shape feature vectors of the neutral image and expression image. To improve the result, two stages of postprocessing are involved. We focus on the facial expressions of happiness, sadness, and surprise. Experimental results show vivid and flexible results.

  2. Facial skin care products and cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2014-01-01

    Facial skin care products and cosmetics can both aid or incite facial dermatoses. Properly selected skin care can create an environment for barrier repair aiding in the re-establishment of a healing biofilm and diminution of facial redness; however, skin care products that aggressively remove intercellular lipids or cause irritation must be eliminated before the red face will resolve. Cosmetics are an additive variable either aiding or challenging facial skin health.

  3. Down syndrome detection from facial photographs using machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Rosenbaum, Kenneth; Sze, Raymond; Zand, Dina; Summar, Marshall; Linguraru, Marius George

    2013-02-01

    Down syndrome is the most commonly occurring chromosomal condition; one in every 691 babies in United States is born with it. Patients with Down syndrome have an increased risk for heart defects, respiratory and hearing problems and the early detection of the syndrome is fundamental for managing the disease. Clinically, facial appearance is an important indicator in diagnosing Down syndrome and it paves the way for computer-aided diagnosis based on facial image analysis. In this study, we propose a novel method to detect Down syndrome using photography for computer-assisted image-based facial dysmorphology. Geometric features based on facial anatomical landmarks, local texture features based on the Contourlet transform and local binary pattern are investigated to represent facial characteristics. Then a support vector machine classifier is used to discriminate normal and abnormal cases; accuracy, precision and recall are used to evaluate the method. The comparison among the geometric, local texture and combined features was performed using the leave-one-out validation. Our method achieved 97.92% accuracy with high precision and recall for the combined features; the detection results were higher than using only geometric or texture features. The promising results indicate that our method has the potential for automated assessment for Down syndrome from simple, noninvasive imaging data.

  4. [Conservative treatment and rehabilitation in peripheral facial palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternostro-Sluga, T; Herceg, M; Frey, M

    2010-04-01

    Facial paralysis may be treated by physical therapies with different therapeutic strategies and devices. Exercise therapy, electrotherapy, massage, lymph-drainage, biofeedback therapy are applied. Therapeutic strategies are based on the course of disease. It may be assumed that paralysis in moderate and moderate to severe courses of disease in acute lesions, moreover in chronic partial lesions and after gracilis muscle transplantation will benefit best from physical therapies. Course of disease depends on the degree of lesion, low-grade lesion will improve earlier and prognosis of motor recovery is good. To predict the course of disease in idiopathic facial paralysis nerve conduction studies can render valuable information by measuring the amplitude of the motor evoked potential in side to side comparison. In regard to scientific studies there is limited evidence that exercise therapy and biofeedback therapy improve the course of disease, motor performance recovers earlier and motor synkinesis are decreased. There is no evidence for electrotherapy to improve the course of disease nor to have any adverse effects. There is no relevant literature for massage and lymph-drainage in regard to facial paralysis. Every patient with facial paralysis--regardless to the degree of lesion--should receive a brochure with mimic exercises and instructions to support facial symmetry as basic intervention.

  5. Facial Canal Dehiscence in Patients with Chronic Otitis Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Uluat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To examine facial canal status in patients with chronic otitis media (COM surgery and to detect the relation between facial canals dehiscence (FCD with middle ear pathology in these patients. Material and Method: The surgery data of patients who were subjected to tympanoplasty with or without mastoidectomy and radical mastoidectomy due to COM were analyzed retrospectively from January 2006 to December 2012. In addition to demonstrative data of the patients, status of facial canal and preoperative diagnoses of patients, type of the operation performed, status of middle ear, number of surgeries, existence of cholesteatoma, existence of ossicular chain defect, lateral canal defect and dura defect were assessed and the relation thereof with facial canal dehiscence (FCD was analyzed statistically. Results: Seven hundred ninety six patients were included in the study. FCD was detected in 10.05% of the patients. FCD was most frequently observed in the tympanic segment. It was found out that there was a statistically significant relationship of middle ear pathology, cholesteatoma, revision surgery, lateral semicircular canal and ossicular chain defect with FCD. Discussion: COM diagnosed patients may have defect in facial canal according to their preoperative diagnoses, middle ear pathologies, number of operations and ossicular chain defects. These patients should be applied a more careful surgery and closely followed up in postoperative periods.

  6. Facial sculpting: Comprehensive approach for aesthetic correction of round face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Standards for an aesthetic face are dynamic. The current trend is towards a leaner looking face with preservation of the inverted triangle of youth. Procedures that have been reported to be employed for correction of a chubby face include buccal fat pad excision, facial liposuction and injection lipolysis. In addition to giving the face an aesthetic triangular cut, chin and malar augmentation may be performed. The rounded appearance at the angles may further be reduced by injection of Botulinum toxin into the masseter. Materials and Methods: Forty patients who presented to us for correction of chubby (round faces were analysed and treated by facial sculpting surgery, which included at least two of the procedures in combination. The procedures included facial liposuction, buccal fat pad excision, chin augmentation, malar augmentation and injection lipolysis. All cases were followed-up for a minimum of 6 months after surgery. Results: Aesthetic expectations of the patients were met in 39 cases, one patient complained of facial asymmetry following facial liposuction and was subjected to a touch-up injection lipolysis. Conclusions: A combination of procedures is necessary to give the face an attractive contour. All the individual procedures have stood the test of time and are safe, proven and are put in mainstream. However, a thorough analysis of the face preoperatively and then subjecting the patient to a combination of these procedures in a single surgical sitting has yielded good results as seen in this study.

  7. Recognition of facial affect in girls with conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen; Leininger, Lisa; Gardner, William

    2010-02-28

    Impaired recognition of facial affect has been reported in youths and adults with antisocial behavior. However, few of these studies have examined subjects with the psychiatric disorders associated with antisocial behavior, and there are virtually no data on females. Our goal was to determine if facial affect recognition was impaired in adolescent girls with conduct disorder (CD). Performance on the Ekman Pictures of Facial Affect (POFA) task was compared in 35 girls with CD (mean age of 17.9 years+/-0.95; 38.9% African-American) and 30 girls who had no lifetime history of psychiatric disorder (mean age of 17.6 years+/-0.77; 30% African-American). Forty-five slides representing the six emotions in the POFA were presented one at a time; stimulus duration was 5s. Multivariate analyses indicated that CD vs. control status was not significantly associated with the total number of correct answers nor the number of correct answers for any specific emotion. Effect sizes were all considered small. Within-CD analyses did not demonstrate a significant effect for aggressive antisocial behavior on facial affect recognition. Our findings suggest that girls with CD are not impaired in facial affect recognition. However, we did find that girls with a history of trauma/neglect made a greater number of errors in recognizing fearful faces. Explanations for these findings are discussed and implications for future research presented. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. How facial expressions of emotion affect distance perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Gyoon eKim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions of emotion are thought to convey expressers’ behavioral intentions, thus priming observers’ approach and avoidance tendencies appropriately. The present study examined whether detecting expressions of behavioral intent influence perceivers’ estimation of the expresser’s distance from them. Eighteen undergraduates (9 male and 9 female participated in the study. Six facial expressions were chosen on the basis of degree of threat—anger, hate (threatening expressions, shame, surprise (neutral expressions, pleasure and joy (safe expressions. Each facial expression was presented on a tablet PC held by an assistant covered by a black drape who stood 1m, 2m, or 3m away from participants. Participants performed a visual matching task to report the perceived distance. Results showed that facial expression influenced distance estimation, with faces exhibiting threatening or safe expressions judged closer than those showing neutral expressions. Females’ judgments were more likely to be influenced; but these influences largely disappeared beyond the 2m distance. These results suggest that facial expressions of emotion (particularly threatening or safe emotions influence others’ (especially females’ distance estimations but only within close proximity.

  9. Facial aging: A clinical classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiffman Melvin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this classification of facial aging is to have a simple clinical method to determine the severity of the aging process in the face. This allows a quick estimate as to the types of procedures that the patient would need to have the best results. Procedures that are presently used for facial rejuvenation include laser, chemical peels, suture lifts, fillers, modified facelift and full facelift. The physician is already using his best judgment to determine which procedure would be best for any particular patient. This classification may help to refine these decisions.

  10. The Epidemiology of Facial Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Koopman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Assuming that the average age of the readership of this thesis is 35 years, and that 49% is male, given the number of theses printed (n=500) and the average life expectancy (78 years for men, 82.3 years for women), nine [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 8 - 10] readers (1.8%) will get a form of facial pain as studied in this thesis. Despite its low frequency the severity and debilitating nature of certain facial pain conditions is an important motivator for scien...

  11. Darwin, deception, and facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Paul

    2003-12-01

    Darwin did not focus on deception. Only a few sentences in his book mentioned the issue. One of them raised the very interesting question of whether it is difficult to voluntarily inhibit the emotional expressions that are most difficult to voluntarily fabricate. Another suggestion was that it would be possible to unmask a fabricated expression by the absence of the difficult-to-voluntarily-generate facial actions. Still another was that during emotion body movements could be more easily suppressed than facial expression. Research relevant to each of Darwin's suggestions is reviewed, as is other research on deception that Darwin did not foresee.

  12. Connections between the facial and trigeminal nerves: Anatomical basis for facial muscle proprioception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Cobo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Proprioception is a quality of sensibility that originates in specialized sensory organs (proprioceptors that inform the central nervous system about static and dynamic conditions of muscles and joints. The facial muscles are innervated by efferent motor nerve fibers and typically lack proprioceptors. However, facial proprioception plays a key role in the regulation and coordination of the facial musculature and diverse reflexes. Thus, facial muscles must be necessarily supplied also for afferent sensory nerve fibers provided by other cranial nerves, especially the trigeminal nerve. Importantly, neuroanatomical studies have demonstrated that facial proprioceptive impulses are conveyed through branches of the trigeminal nerve to the central nervous system. The multiple communications between the facial and the trigeminal nerves are at the basis of these functional characteristics. Here we review the literature regarding the facial (superficial communications between the facial and the trigeminal nerves, update the current knowledge about proprioception in the facial muscles, and hypothesize future research in facial proprioception.

  13. The Comparison of Facial Estethics between Orthodontically Treated Patients and Their Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Aksakalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontists emphasize the importance of facial esthetics while planning a treatment, and orthodontist state that orthodontics have more than expected effects on dentofacial esthetics. The facial esthetics of treated patients and their parents was analyzed and compared to define facial growth and to use in forensic sciences. Our study was applied to 45 orthodontic patients who were treated in our clinic and their untreated parents. The patients were divided into Classes I, II, and III groups according to their malocclusions. Pre- and posttreatment changes, pretreatment facial esthetics of the paitents and its accordance with their parents, and the calculation of heritability tests were performed. After the statistics, for pre- and posttreatment changes, all the groups except Class I revealed significant changes. There were significant correlations of patients for the heritability values and pretreatment esthetic in accordance with parents, but there were more correlations of fathers when compared to mothers. The facial esthetics in adolescences is related with so many factors, not only related with one factor. The facial esthetics in fact includes the aim of evaluation of facial properties partly or totally. Because orthodontic treatments affect facial esthetics, performing similar studies for the treatment outcomes, capabilities, and borders is important.

  14. Facial Specialty. Teacher Edition. Cosmetology Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is one of a series of curriculum guides designed to direct and support instruction in vocational cosmetology programs in the State of Oklahoma. It contains seven units for the facial specialty: identifying enemies of the skin, using aromatherapy on the skin, giving facials without the aid of machines, giving facials with the aid…

  15. Exploiting facial expressions for affective video summarisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joho, H.; Jose, J.M.; Valenti, R.; Sebe, N.; Marchand-Maillet, S.; Kompatsiaris, I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to affective video summarisation based on the facial expressions (FX) of viewers. A facial expression recognition system was deployed to capture a viewer's face and his/her expressions. The user's facial expressions were analysed to infer personalised affective scenes

  16. Personalised modelling of facial action unit intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Shuang; Rudovic, Ognjen; Pavlovic, Vladimir; Pantic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions depend greatly on facial morphology and expressiveness of the observed person. Recent studies have shown great improvement of the personalized over non-personalized models in variety of facial expression related tasks, such as face and emotion recognition. However, in the context

  17. Facial Baroparesis Caused by Scuba Diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kamide

    2012-01-01

    tympanic membrane and right facial palsy without other neurological findings. But facial palsy was disappeared immediately after myringotomy. We considered that the etiology of this case was neuropraxia of facial nerve in middle ear caused by over pressure of middle ear.

  18. Facial Nerve Palsy In Secondary Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuria B.L

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of secondary syphilis with right facial nerve palsy is reported. A 28 year old unmarried male presented with diffuse maculopapular rash and facial nerve palsy. He had elevated while cells and protein in cerebrospinal fluid. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for VDRL and TPHA tests. Facial nerve palsy and maculopapular rash improved with penicillin therapy.

  19. Fit factors for quarter masks and facial size categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H

    2000-05-01

    Respirator fit testing is necessary before entering hazardous working environments to ensure that the respirator, when worn, satisfies a minimum fit and that the wearer knows when the respirator fits properly. In the many countries that do not have fit testing or total inward leakage regulations (including Korea), however, many workers wearing respirators may be potentially exposed to hazardous environments. It is necessary to suggest a useful tool to provide an alternative for fit testing in these countries. This study was conducted to evaluate fitting performance for quarter-mask respirators, and fit factors in facial size categories based on face lengths and lip lengths of the wearers. A total of 778 subjects (408 males, 370 females) were fit tested for three quarter masks: Sejin Co. SK-6 (Ulsan, Korea), Yongsung Co. YS-2010 S (Seoul, Korea), and 3 M Co. Series 7500 Medium (MN, USA) masks with a PortaCount 8020 (TSI Co., USA). A facial dimension survey of the subjects was conducted to develop facial size categories, on the basis of face length and lip length. Geometric mean fit factors (GMFFs) of Series 7500 Medium were found to be the highest of the three respirators. All of the respirators were more suitable for males than females in fitting performance. The Series 7500 Medium fitted a large number of the males tested, since the GMFFs for males were above 100 for every box of facial size categories, and high pass proportion rates were shown at an individual fit factor level of 100. The YS-2010 S provides an adequate fit for males in a limited range of facial dimensions. The Series 7500 Medium is more limited in providing adequate fit for females at specific facial dimensions than for males. For adequate fitting performance, the SK-6 is not preferentially recommended for Korean male and female workers due to low GMFFs and pass proportions. The result of this study indicates that after more accurate studies are performed, facial size categories, on the basis of

  20. Facial diplegia: etiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnostic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefer Varol

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Facial diplegia (FD is a rare neurological manifestation with diverse causes. This article aims to systematically evaluate the etiology, diagnostic evaluation and treatment of FD. Method The study was performed retrospectively and included 17 patients with a diagnosis of FD. Results Patients were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS (11, Bickerstaff’s brainstem encephalitis (1, neurosarcoidosis (1, non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (1, tuberculous meningitis (1 herpes simplex reactivation (1 and idiopathic (1. In addition, two patients had developed FD during pregnancy. Conclusion Facial diplegia is an ominous symptom with widely varying causes that requires careful investigation.

  1. Efficient Facial Expression and Face Recognition using Ranking Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Krishna kanala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Expression detection is useful as a non-invasive method of lie detection and behaviour prediction. However, these facial expressions may be difficult to detect to the untrained eye. In this paper we implements facial expression recognition techniques using Ranking Method. The human face plays an important role in our social interaction, conveying people's identity. Using human face as a key to security, the biometrics face recognition technology has received significant attention in the past several years. Experiments are performed using standard database like surprise, sad and happiness. The universally accepted three principal emotions to be recognized are: surprise, sad and happiness along with neutral.

  2. Facial landmark detection in real-time with correlation filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Viridiana; Díaz-Ramírez, Víctor H.

    2016-09-01

    An algorithm for facial landmark detection based on template matched filtering is presented. The algorithm is able to detect and estimate the position of a set of prespecified landmarks by employing a bank of linear filters. Each filter in the bank is trained to detect a single landmark that is located in a small region of the input face image. The filter bank is implemented in parallel on a graphics processing unit to perform facial landmark detection in real-time. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed algorithm are presented and discussed in terms of detection rate, accuracy of landmark location estimation, and real-time efficiency.

  3. Quality-of-life improvement after free gracilis muscle transfer for smile restoration in patients with facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Robin W; Bhama, Prabhat; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-01-01

    Facial paralysis can contribute to disfigurement, psychological difficulties, and an inability to convey emotion via facial expression. In patients unable to perform a meaningful smile, free gracilis muscle transfer (FGMT) can often restore smile function. However, little is known about the impact on disease-specific quality of life. To determine quantitatively whether FGMT improves quality of life in patients with facial paralysis. Prospective evaluation of 154 FGMTs performed at a facial nerve center on 148 patients with facial paralysis. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) survey and Facial Assessment by Computer Evaluation software (FACE-gram) were used to quantify quality-of-life improvement, oral commissure excursion, and symmetry with smile. Free gracilis muscle transfer. Change in FaCE score, oral commissure excursion, and symmetry with smile. There were 127 successful FGMTs on 124 patients and 14 failed procedures on 13 patients. Mean (SD) FaCE score increased significantly after successful FGMT (42.30 [15.9] vs 58.5 [17.60]; paired 2-tailed t test, P Free gracilis muscle transfer has become a mainstay in the management armamentarium for patients with severe reduction in oral commissure movement after facial nerve insult and recovery. We found a quantitative improvement in quality of life after FGMT in patients who could not recover a meaningful smile after facial nerve insult. Quality-of-life improvement was not statistically different between donor nerve groups or facial paralysis types.

  4. Facial Expression Recognition Using 3D Convolutional Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hyen Byeon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with video-based facial expression recognition frequently used in conjunction with HRI (Human-Robot Interaction that can naturally interact between human and robot. For this purpose, we design a 3D-CNN(3D Convolutional Neural Networks by augmenting dimensionality reduction methods such as PCA(Principal Component Analysis and TMPCA(Tensor-based Multilinear Principal Component Analysis to recognize simultaneously the successive frames with facial expression images obtained through video camera. The 3D-CNN can achieve some degree of shift and deformation invariance using local receptive fields and spatial subsampling through dimensionality reduction of redundant CNN’s output. The experimental results on video-based facial expression database reveal that the presented method shows a good performance in comparison to the conventional methods such as PCA and TMPCA.

  5. Internal facial features are signals of personality and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Robin S S; Ward, Robert

    2010-11-01

    We investigated forms of socially relevant information signalled from static images of the face. We created composite images from women scoring high and low values on personality and health dimensions and measured the accuracy of raters in discriminating high from low trait values. We also looked specifically at the information content within the internal facial features, by presenting the composite images with an occluding mask. Four of the Big Five traits were accurately discriminated on the basis of the internal facial features alone (conscientiousness was the exception), as was physical health. The addition of external features in the full-face images led to improved detection for extraversion and physical health and poorer performance on intellect/imagination (or openness). Visual appearance based on internal facial features alone can therefore accurately predict behavioural biases in the form of personality, as well as levels of physical health.

  6. Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Based on Hybrid Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali K. K. Bermani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of automatic recognition of facial expressions deduce a lot of researchers in the late last century and has increased a great interest in the past few years. Several techniques have emerged in order to improve the efficiency of the recognition by addressing problems in face detection and extraction features in recognizing expressions. This paper has proposed automatic system for facial expression recognition which consists of hybrid approach in feature extraction phase which represent a combination between holistic and analytic approaches by extract 307 facial expression features (19 features by geometric, 288 feature by appearance. Expressions recognition is performed by using radial basis function (RBF based on artificial neural network to recognize the six basic emotions (anger, fear, disgust, happiness, surprise, sadness in addition to the natural.The system achieved recognition rate 97.08% when applying on person-dependent database and 93.98% when applying on person-independent.

  7. Facial Recognition in Uncontrolled Conditions for Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghan Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of computers nowadays, information security is becoming an important issue for private companies and government organizations. Various security technologies have been developed, such as authentication, authorization, and auditing. However, once a user logs on, it is assumed that the system would be controlled by the same person. To address this flaw, we developed a demonstration system that uses facial recognition technology to periodically verify the identity of the user. If the authenticated user's face disappears, the system automatically performs a log-off or screen-lock operation. This paper presents our further efforts in developing image preprocessing algorithms and dealing with angled facial images. The objective is to improve the accuracy of facial recognition under uncontrolled conditions. To compare the results with others, the frontal pose subset of the Face Recognition Technology (FERET database was used for the test. The experiments showed that the proposed algorithms provided promising results.

  8. Facial Recognition in Uncontrolled Conditions for Information Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qinghan; Yang, Xue-Dong

    2010-12-01

    With the increasing use of computers nowadays, information security is becoming an important issue for private companies and government organizations. Various security technologies have been developed, such as authentication, authorization, and auditing. However, once a user logs on, it is assumed that the system would be controlled by the same person. To address this flaw, we developed a demonstration system that uses facial recognition technology to periodically verify the identity of the user. If the authenticated user's face disappears, the system automatically performs a log-off or screen-lock operation. This paper presents our further efforts in developing image preprocessing algorithms and dealing with angled facial images. The objective is to improve the accuracy of facial recognition under uncontrolled conditions. To compare the results with others, the frontal pose subset of the Face Recognition Technology (FERET) database was used for the test. The experiments showed that the proposed algorithms provided promising results.

  9. Lateral skull base chondroblastoma resected with facial nerve posterior transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnot, J; Langlois, O; Tollard, E; Crahes, M; Auquit-Auckbur, I; Marie, J-P

    2017-05-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare tumor that can involve the temporal bone. Because it is a benign tumor, functional surgery must be proposed. We report a case of a patient with a massive chondroblastoma operated on with preservation of the facial nerve, and description of the surgical technique. A 37-year-old man presented with a 9-month history of a growing left pre-auricular mass and hearing loss. Neuroimaging showed an osteolytic mass invading the temporal bone and temporomandibular joint. Excision was performed via a transpetrosal and transcochlear approach with posterior transposition of the facial nerve. EMG monitoring was effective in preventing facial palsy. Four years later, no sign of recurrence was observed. Chondroblastoma is a locally aggressive tumor, especially when located in the petrous bone and temporomandibular joint. The suggested treatment is a complete excision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a System for Automatic Facial Expression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diago, Luis A.; Kitaoka, Tetsuko; Hagiwara, Ichiro

    Automatic recognition of facial expressions can be an important component of natural human-machine interactions. While a lot of samples are desirable for estimating more accurately the feelings of a person (e.g. likeness) about a machine interface, in real world situation, only a small number of samples must be obtained because the high cost in collecting emotions from observed person. This paper proposes a system that solves this problem conforming to individual differences. A new method is developed for facial expression classification based on the combination of Holographic Neural Networks (HNN) and Type-2 Fuzzy Logic. For the recognition of emotions induced by facial expressions, compared with former HNN and Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers, proposed method achieved the best generalization performance using less learning time than SVM classifiers.

  11. Impaired facial emotion recognition in a ketamine model of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Andreas; Haussleiter, Ida Sibylle; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin; Roser, Patrik

    2012-12-30

    Social cognitive disabilities are a common feature in schizophrenia. Given the role of glutamatergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia-related cognitive impairments, we investigated the effects of the glutamatergic NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine on facial emotion recognition. Eighteen healthy male subjects were tested on two occasions, one without medication and one after administration with subanesthetic doses of intravenous ketamine. Emotion recognition was examined using the Ekman 60 Faces Test. In addition, attention was measured by the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and psychopathology was rated using the Psychotomimetic States Inventory (PSI). Ketamine produced a non-significant deterioration of global emotion recognition abilities. Specifically, the ability to correctly identify the facial expression of sadness was significantly reduced in the ketamine condition. These results were independent of psychotic symptoms and selective attention. Our results point to the involvement of the glutamatergic system in the ability to recognize facial emotions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute pathological changes of facial nucleus and expressions of postsynaptic density protein-95 following facial nerve injury of varying severity A semi-quantitative analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjing Li; Wenlong Luo

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) is widely distributed in the central nervous system and is related to the development of the CNS and sensory signal transmission as well as acute or chronic nerve cell death following ischemic brain injury.OBJECTIVE: To semi-quantitatively determine the pathological changes of apoptotic facial neurons and the expression of PSD-95 in the facial nucleus following facial nerve injury of varying extents using immunohistochemical staining methods.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled animal experiments were performed in the Ultrasonic Institute of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing University of Medical Sciences from September to December 2007.MATERIALS: Sixty-five healthy, adult, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, both male and female, were used for this study. Rabbit anti-rat PSD-95 polyclonal antibody was purchased from Beijing Biosynthesis Biotechnology Co., Ltd.METHODS: SD rats were randomly assigned into a control group with five rats and three injured groups with 20 rats per group. Exposure, clamp and cut for bilateral facial nerve trunks were performed in the rats of the injury groups, and no injury was inflicted on the rats of the control group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The brainstems of all the rats were excised on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 post injury, and then the facial nuclei were stained with hematoxylin-eosin to observe any pathological changes due to apoptosis in facial neurons. PSD-95 expression in facial nuclei was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the number of PSD-95 positive cells was counted under a light microscope.RESULTS: The expression of PSD-95 in the facial nucleus and morphology of the facial neuron within the exposure group had no obvious changes at various points in time tested (P>0.05). However, the expressions of PSD-95 in the facial nucleus of the clamp group and cut group increased on day 1 post injury (Pclamp group>exposure group

  13. Facial EMG responses to odors in solitude and with an audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, L; Kaufmann, N

    1994-04-01

    Two experiments were undertaken to examine whether facial responses to odors correlate with the hedonic odor evaluation. Experiment 1 examined whether subjects (n = 20) spontaneously generated facial movements associated with odor evaluation when they are tested in private. To measure facial responses, EMG was recorded over six muscle regions (M. corrugator supercilii, M. procerus, M. nasalis, M. levator, M. orbicularis oculi and M. zygomaticus major) using surface electrodes. In experiment 2 the experimental group (n = 10) smelled the odors while they were visually inspected by the experimenter sitting in front of the test subjects. The control group (n = 10) performed the same experimental condition as those subjects participating in experiment 1. Facial EMG over four mimetic muscle regions (M. nasalis, M. levator, M. zygomaticus major, M. orbicularis oculi) was measured while subjects smelled different odors. The main findings of this study may be summarized as follows: (i) there was no correlation between valence rating and facial EMG responses; (ii) pleasant odors did not evoke smiles when subjects smelled the odors in private; (iii) in solitude, highly concentrated malodors evoked facial EMG reactions of those mimetic muscles which are mainly involved in generating a facial display of disgust; (iv) those subjects confronted with an audience showed stronger facial reactions over the periocular and cheek region (indicative of a smile) during the smelling of pleasant odors than those who smelled these odors in private; (v) those subjects confronted with an audience showed stronger facial reactions over the M. nasalis region (indicative of a display of disgust) during the smelling of malodors than those who smelled the malodors in private. These results were taken as evidence for a more social communicative function of facial displays and strongly mitigates the reflexive-hedonic interpretation of facial displays to odors as supposed by Steiner.

  14. Enhanced MRI in patients with facial palsy; Study of time-related enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Masahiro; Kato, Tsutomu; Ushiro, Koichi; Kitajiri, Masanori; Yamashita, Toshio; Kumazawa, Tadami; Tanaka, Yoshimasa (Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1991-03-01

    We performed Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations at several stages in 40 patients with peripheral facial nerve palsy (Bell's palsy and Ramsay-Hunt syndrome). In 38 of the 40 patients, one and more enhanced region could be seen in certain portion of the facial nerve in the temporal bone on the affected side, whereas no enhanced regions were seen on the intact side. Correlations between the timing of the MRI examination and the location of the enhanced regions were analysed. In all 6 patients examined by MRI within 5 days after the onset of facial nerve palsy, enhanced regions were present in the meatal portion. In 3 of the 8 patients (38%) examined by MRI 6 to 10 days after the onset of facial palsy, enhanced areas were seen in both the meatal and labyrinthine portions. In 8 of the 9 patients (89%) tested 11 to 20 days after the onset of palsy, the vertical portion was enhanced. In the 12 patients examined by MRI 21 to 40 days after the onset of facial nerve palsy, the meatal portion was not enhanced while the labyrinthine portion, the horizontal portion and the vertical portion were enhanced in 5 (42%), 8 (67%) and 11 (92%), respectively. Enhancement in the vertical portion was observed in all 5 patients examined more than 41 days after the onset of facial palsy. These results suggest that the central portion of the facial nerve in the temporal bone tends to be enhanced in the early stage of facial nerve palsy, while the peripheral portion is enhanced in the late stage. These changes of Gd-DTPA enhanced regions in the facial nerve may suggest dromic degeneration of the facial nerve in peripheral facial nerve palsy. (author).

  15. Facial Expression Recognition in Nonvisual Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olague, Gustavo; Hammoud, Riad; Trujillo, Leonardo; Hernández, Benjamín; Romero, Eva

    This chapter presents two novel approaches that allow computer vision applications to perform human facial expression recognition (FER). From a prob lem standpoint, we focus on FER beyond the human visual spectrum, in long-wave infrared imagery, thus allowing us to offer illumination-independent solutions to this important human-computer interaction problem. From a methodological stand point, we introduce two different feature extraction techniques: a principal com ponent analysis-based approach with automatic feature selection and one based on texture information selected by an evolutionary algorithm. In the former, facial fea tures are selected based on interest point clusters, and classification is carried out us ing eigenfeature information; in the latter, an evolutionary-based learning algorithm searches for optimal regions of interest and texture features based on classification accuracy. Both of these approaches use a support vector machine-committee for classification. Results show effective performance for both techniques, from which we can conclude that thermal imagery contains worthwhile information for the FER problem beyond the human visual spectrum.

  16. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  17. Facial three-dimensional morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Poggio, C E; Serrao, G

    1996-01-01

    Three-dimensional facial morphometry was investigated in a sample of 40 men and 40 women, with a new noninvasive computerized method. Subjects ranged in age between 19 and 32 years, had sound dentitions, and no craniocervical disorders. For each subject, 16 cutaneous facial landmarks were automatically collected by a system consisting of two infrared camera coupled device (CCD) cameras, real time hardware for the recognition of markers, and software for the three-dimensional reconstruction of landmarks' x, y, z coordinates. From these landmarks, 15 linear and 10 angular measurements, and four linear distance ratios were computed and averaged for sex. For all angular values, both samples showed a narrow variability and no significant gender differences were demonstrated. Conversely, all the linear measurements were significantly higher in men than in women. The highest intersample variability was observed for the measurements of facial height (prevalent vertical dimension), and the lowest for the measurements of facial depth (prevalent horizontal dimension). The proportions of upper and lower face height relative to the anterior face height showed a significant sex difference. Mean values were in good agreement with literature data collected with traditional methods. The described method allowed the direct and noninvasive calculation of three-dimensional linear and angular measurements that would be usefully applied in clinics as a supplement to the classic x-ray cephalometric analyses.

  18. Genetic determinants of facial clefting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Shi, Min; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Facial clefts are common birth defects with a strong genetic component. To identify fetal genetic risk factors for clefting, 1536 SNPs in 357 candidate genes were genotyped in two population-based samples from Scandinavia (Norway: 562 case-parent and 592 control-parent triads; Denmark...

  19. Topical management of facial burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Villapalos, Jorge; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N

    2008-11-01

    The face is the central point of the physical features of the human being. It transmits expressions and emotions, communicates feelings and allows for individual identity. It contains complex musculature and a pliable and unique skin envelope that reacts to the environment through a vast network of nerve endings. The face hosts vital areas that make phonation, feeding, and vision possible. Facial burns disrupt these anatomical and functional structures creating pain, deformity, swelling, and contractures that may lead to lasting physical and psychological sequelae. The management of facial burns may include operative and non-operative treatment or both, depending on the depth and extent of the burn. This paper intends to provide a review of the available options for topical management of facial burns. Topical agents will be defined as any agent applied to the surface of the skin that alters the outcome of the facial burn. Therefore, the classic concept of topical therapy will be expanded and developed within two major stages: acute and rehabilitation. Comparison of the effectiveness of the different treatments and relevant literature will be discussed.

  20. Constraint-based facial animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.M. Ruttkay

    1999-01-01

    textabstractConstraints have been traditionally used for computer animation applications to define side conditions for generating synthesized motion according to a standard, usually physically realistic, set of motion equations. The case of facial animation is very different, as no set of motion equ

  1. Guide to Understanding Facial Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a significant loss of tone in the tissues and considerable facial sagging. One of the most important functions of ... involve proce- dures in which a patient’s own tissue is used to ele- vate the sagging portions of the face. These slings may be applied to the portion ...

  2. Constraint-based facial animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.M. Ruttkay

    1999-01-01

    textabstractConstraints have been traditionally used for computer animation applications to define side conditions for generating synthesized motion according to a standard, usually physically realistic, set of motion equations. The case of facial animation is very different, as no set of motion

  3. Trends in the aetiology of facial fractures in the south of Ireland (1975-1993).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, S M

    2012-02-03

    An aetiological review of 332 patients with facial fractures seen in a 1 year period (1993) was carried out and compared to a similar study of 266 patients, performed in this unit in 1975. Males predominated in both years. Two thirds of fractures occurred in the second and third decades. Road traffic accident (RTA) related facial fractures decreased from 27% of the total in 1975 to 17% in 1993. Assault related facial fractures increased from 18% of the total in 1975 to 27% in 1993. In both study periods nasal fractures were the most common facial fracture seen and sport was the most common cause of facial fracture. The number of patients undergoing surgery increased from 67% of the total to 79% over the same period.

  4. Automatic facial feature extraction and expression recognition based on neural network

    CERN Document Server

    Khandait, S P; Khandait, P D

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to the problem of automatic facial feature extraction from a still frontal posed image and classification and recognition of facial expression and hence emotion and mood of a person is presented. Feed forward back propagation neural network is used as a classifier for classifying the expressions of supplied face into seven basic categories like surprise, neutral, sad, disgust, fear, happy and angry. For face portion segmentation and localization, morphological image processing operations are used. Permanent facial features like eyebrows, eyes, mouth and nose are extracted using SUSAN edge detection operator, facial geometry, edge projection analysis. Experiments are carried out on JAFFE facial expression database and gives better performance in terms of 100% accuracy for training set and 95.26% accuracy for test set.

  5. Three-dimensional facial distances of Northern Sudanese persons from childhood to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Chiarella; Dolci, Claudia; Tommasi, Davide G; Pisoni, Luca; De Menezes, Marcio; Elamin, Fadil

    2014-07-01

    No current age- and gender-related normative data exist for the dimensions of facial structures in Northern Sudanese subjects. In the current study information about normal sex- and age-related linear distances is provided. The three-dimensional coordinates of 14 landmarks on the facial soft tissues were obtained using a hand-held laser scanner in 653 healthy Northern Sudanese subjects (326 males and 327 females) aged 4-30 years. From the landmarks, 13 linear distances were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. All analyzed linear soft tissue facial dimensions were significantly larger in men than in women (p facial height (n-sn), mandibular body length (pg-go) and width (go-go). All measurements underwent significant modifications as a function of age (p facial morphology during normal growth and development.

  6. Role of low-level laser therapy added to facial expression exercises in patients with idiopathic facial (Bell's) palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordahan, Banu; Karahan, Ali Yavuz

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy in conjunction with conventional facial exercise treatment on functional outcomes during the early recovery period in patients with facial paralysis. Forty-six patients (mean age 41 ± 9.7 years; 40 women and 6 men) were randomized into two groups. Patients in the first group received low-level laser treatment as well as facial exercise treatment, while patients in the second group participated in facial exercise intervention alone. Laser treatment was administered at a wavelength of 830 nm, output power of 100 Mw, and frequency of 1 KHz using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAIAs, infrared laser) diode laser. A mean energy density of 10 J/cm(2) was administered to eight points of the affected side of the face three times per week, for a total of 6 weeks. The rate of facial improvement was evaluated using the facial disability index (FDI) before, 3 weeks after, and 6 weeks after treatment. Friedman analysis of variance was performed to compare the data from the parameters repeatedly measured in the inner-group analysis. Bonferroni correction was performed to compare between groups as a post hoc test if the variance analysis test result was significant. To detect the group differences, the Bonferroni Student t test was used. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare numeric data between the groups. In the exercise group, although no significant difference in FDI scores was noted between the start of treatment and week 3 (p FDI scores relative to baseline was observed at 3 and 6 weeks (p FDI scores were significantly greater at weeks 3 and 6 in the laser group than those in the exercise group (p FDI when compared with exercise therapy alone.

  7. [Neurological disease and facial recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko

    2012-07-01

    To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system.

  8. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  9. FaceWarehouse: a 3D facial expression database for visual computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chen; Weng, Yanlin; Zhou, Shun; Tong, Yiying; Zhou, Kun

    2014-03-01

    We present FaceWarehouse, a database of 3D facial expressions for visual computing applications. We use Kinect, an off-the-shelf RGBD camera, to capture 150 individuals aged 7-80 from various ethnic backgrounds. For each person, we captured the RGBD data of her different expressions, including the neutral expression and 19 other expressions such as mouth-opening, smile, kiss, etc. For every RGBD raw data record, a set of facial feature points on the color image such as eye corners, mouth contour, and the nose tip are automatically localized, and manually adjusted if better accuracy is required. We then deform a template facial mesh to fit the depth data as closely as possible while matching the feature points on the color image to their corresponding points on the mesh. Starting from these fitted face meshes, we construct a set of individual-specific expression blendshapes for each person. These meshes with consistent topology are assembled as a rank-3 tensor to build a bilinear face model with two attributes: identity and expression. Compared with previous 3D facial databases, for every person in our database, there is a much richer matching collection of expressions, enabling depiction of most human facial actions. We demonstrate the potential of FaceWarehouse for visual computing with four applications: facial image manipulation, face component transfer, real-time performance-based facial image animation, and facial animation retargeting from video to image.

  10. A motivational determinant of facial emotion recognition: regulatory focus affects recognition of emotions in faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassenrath, Claudia; Sassenberg, Kai; Ray, Devin G; Scheiter, Katharina; Jarodzka, Halszka

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined an unexplored motivational determinant of facial emotion recognition: observer regulatory focus. It was predicted that a promotion focus would enhance facial emotion recognition relative to a prevention focus because the attentional strategies associated with promotion focus enhance performance on well-learned or innate tasks - such as facial emotion recognition. In Study 1, a promotion or a prevention focus was experimentally induced and better facial emotion recognition was observed in a promotion focus compared to a prevention focus. In Study 2, individual differences in chronic regulatory focus were assessed and attention allocation was measured using eye tracking during the facial emotion recognition task. Results indicated that the positive relation between a promotion focus and facial emotion recognition is mediated by shorter fixation duration on the face which reflects a pattern of attention allocation matched to the eager strategy in a promotion focus (i.e., striving to make hits). A prevention focus did not have an impact neither on perceptual processing nor on facial emotion recognition. Taken together, these findings demonstrate important mechanisms and consequences of observer motivational orientation for facial emotion recognition.

  11. Mu desynchronization during observation and execution of facial expressions in 30-month-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Rayson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Simulation theories propose that observing another’s facial expression activates sensorimotor representations involved in the execution of that expression, facilitating recognition processes. The mirror neuron system (MNS is a potential mechanism underlying simulation of facial expressions, with like neural processes activated both during observation and performance. Research with monkeys and adult humans supports this proposal, but so far there have been no investigations of facial MNS activity early in human development. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG to explore mu rhythm desynchronization, an index of MNS activity, in 30-month-old children as they observed videos of dynamic emotional and non-emotional facial expressions, as well as scrambled versions of the same videos. We found significant mu desynchronization in central regions during observation and execution of both emotional and non-emotional facial expressions, which was right-lateralized for emotional and bilateral for non-emotional expressions during observation. These findings support previous research suggesting movement simulation during observation of facial expressions, and are the first to provide evidence for sensorimotor activation during observation of facial expressions, consistent with a functioning facial MNS at an early stage of human development.

  12. Intratemporal facial nerve neuromas and their mimics: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Kyung Hwan; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Chong Sun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Joon [Chungang Gil General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    CT and MR findings of nine cases with intra temporal facial nerve neuromas were described and compared with CT findings of 3 cases with facial nerve palsy and facial nerve canal erosion which may mimic facial nerve neuroma. The tympanic segment of the facial nerve was involved in 8 cases, mastoid segment in 7 cases and labyrinthine segment in 5 cases. The lesions were easily diagnosed with high resolution CT with bone algorithms by showing the expansion of bony structures along the course of the facial nerves. In 4 cases with large vertical segment tumors, extensive destruction of mastoid air cells and external auditory canals posed difficulty in making a diagnosis. Two out of 5 cases with labyrinthine segment involvement were presented as middle cranial fossa masses. MRI with enhancement was performed in 4 cases and was useful in characterizing the lesion as a tumor with its superior sensitivity to enhancement. Three cases of facial neuroma-mimicking lesion including post-inflammatory peri neural thickening, peri neural extension from parotid adenoid cystic carcinoma, and congenita; cholesteatoma showed irregular erosion or mild expansion of the facial nerve canal which may be helpful for differential diagnosis from neuromas.

  13. Pose-variant facial expression recognition using an embedded image system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai-Tai; Han, Meng-Ju; Chang, Shuo-Hung

    2008-12-01

    In recent years, one of the most attractive research areas in human-robot interaction is automated facial expression recognition. Through recognizing the facial expression, a pet robot can interact with human in a more natural manner. In this study, we focus on the facial pose-variant problem. A novel method is proposed in this paper to recognize pose-variant facial expressions. After locating the face position in an image frame, the active appearance model (AAM) is applied to track facial features. Fourteen feature points are extracted to represent the variation of facial expressions. The distance between feature points are defined as the feature values. These feature values are sent to a support vector machine (SVM) for facial expression determination. The pose-variant facial expression is classified into happiness, neutral, sadness, surprise or anger. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the performance for practical applications, this study also built a low resolution database (160x120 pixels) using a CMOS image sensor. Experimental results show that the recognition rate is 84% with the self-built database.

  14. Novel dynamic Bayesian networks for facial action element recognition and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Park, Jeong-Seon; Choi, Dong-You; Lee, Sang-Woong

    2011-12-01

    In daily life, language is an important tool of communication between people. Besides language, facial action can also provide a great amount of information. Therefore, facial action recognition has become a popular research topic in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). However, facial action recognition is quite a challenging task due to its complexity. In a literal sense, there are thousands of facial muscular movements, many of which have very subtle differences. Moreover, muscular movements always occur simultaneously when the pose is changed. To address this problem, we first build a fully automatic facial points detection system based on a local Gabor filter bank and principal component analysis. Then, novel dynamic Bayesian networks are proposed to perform facial action recognition using the junction tree algorithm over a limited number of feature points. In order to evaluate the proposed method, we have used the Korean face database for model training. For testing, we used the CUbiC FacePix, facial expressions and emotion database, Japanese female facial expression database, and our own database. Our experimental results clearly demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  15. Facial emotion recognition in psychiatrists and influences of their therapeutic identification on that ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalkıran, Mihriban; Gultekin, Gozde; Yuksek, Erhan; Varsak, Nalan; Gul, Hesna; Kıncır, Zeliha; Tasdemir, Akif; Emul, Murat

    2016-08-01

    Although emotional cues like facial emotion expressions seem to be important in social interaction, there is no specific training about emotional cues for psychiatrists. Here, we aimed to investigate psychiatrists' ability of facial emotion recognition and relation with their clinical identification as psychotherapy-psychopharmacology oriented or being adult and childhood-adolescent psychiatrist. Facial Emotion Recognition Test was performed to 130 psychiatrists that were constructed by a set of photographs (happy, sad, fearful, angry, surprised, disgusted and neutral faces) from Ekman and Friesen's. Psychotherapy oriented adult psychiatrists were significantly better in recognizing sad facial emotion (p=.003) than psychopharmacologists while no significant differences were detected according to therapeutic orientation among child-adolescent psychiatrists (for each, p>.05). Adult psychiatrists were significantly better in recognizing fearful (p=.012) and disgusted (p=.003) facial emotions than child-adolescent psychiatrists while the latter were better in recognizing angry facial emotion (p=.008). For the first time, we have shown some differences on psychiatrists' facial emotion recognition ability according to therapeutic identification and being adult or child-adolescent psychiatrist. It would be valuable to investigate how these differences or training the ability of facial emotion recognition would affect the quality of patient-clinician interaction and treatment related outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Tani, Akiko; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Omori, Koichi

    2014-10-01

    Parotid lymphangioma is a relatively rare disease that is usually detected in infancy or early childhood, and which has typical features. Clinical reports of facial nerve paralysis caused by lymphangioma, however, are very rare. Usually, facial nerve paralysis in a child suggests malignancy. Here we report a very rare case of parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis. A 7-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a rapidly enlarging mass in the left parotid region. Left peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis was also noted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging also revealed multiple cystic lesions. Open biopsy was undertaken in order to investigate the cause of the facial nerve paralysis. The histopathological findings of the excised tumor were consistent with lymphangioma. Prednisone (40 mg/day) was given in a tapering dose schedule. Facial nerve paralysis was completely cured 1 month after treatment. There has been no recurrent facial nerve paralysis for eight years.

  17. Man-machine collaboration using facial expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying; Katahera, S.; Cai, D.

    2002-09-01

    For realizing the flexible man-machine collaboration, understanding of facial expressions and gestures is not negligible. In our method, we proposed a hierarchical recognition approach, for the understanding of human emotions. According to this method, the facial AFs (action features) were firstly extracted and recognized by using histograms of optical flow. Then, based on the facial AFs, facial expressions were classified into two calsses, one of which presents the positive emotions, and the other of which does the negative ones. Accordingly, the facial expressions belonged to the positive class, or the ones belonged to the negative class, were classified into more complex emotions, which were revealed by the corresponding facial expressions. Finally, the system architecture how to coordinate in recognizing facil action features and facial expressions for man-machine collaboration was proposed.

  18. Deep Pain: Exploiting Long Short-Term Memory Networks for Facial Expression Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Pau; Cucurull, Guillem; Gonzàlez, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    appearance versus taking into account the whole image: As a result, we outperform current state- of-the-art AUC performance in the UNBC-McMaster Shoulder Pain Expression Archive Database. In addition, to evaluate the generalization properties of our proposed methodology on facial motion recognition, we also...... report competitive results in the Cohn Kanade+ facial expression database....... in pain assessment, which are based on facial features only, we suggest that the performance can be enhanced by feeding the raw frames to deep learning models, outperforming the latest state-of-the-art results while also directly facing the problem of imbalanced data. As a baseline, our approach first...

  19. Genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity decrease facial attractiveness of female relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2014-02-01

    For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework.

  20. The mysterious noh mask: contribution of multiple facial parts to the recognition of emotional expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromitsu Miyata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask worn by expert actors when performing on a Japanese traditional Noh drama is suggested to convey countless different facial expressions according to different angles of head/body orientation. The present study addressed the question of how different facial parts of a Noh mask, including the eyebrows, the eyes, and the mouth, may contribute to different emotional expressions. Both experimental situations of active creation and passive recognition of emotional facial expressions were introduced. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, participants either created happy or sad facial expressions, or imitated a face that looked up or down, by actively changing each facial part of a Noh mask image presented on a computer screen. For an upward tilted mask, the eyebrows and the mouth shared common features with sad expressions, whereas the eyes with happy expressions. This contingency tended to be reversed for a downward tilted mask. Experiment 2 further examined which facial parts of a Noh mask are crucial in determining emotional expressions. Participants were exposed to the synthesized Noh mask images with different facial parts expressing different emotions. Results clearly revealed that participants primarily used the shape of the mouth in judging emotions. The facial images having the mouth of an upward/downward tilted Noh mask strongly tended to be evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that Noh masks express chimeric emotional patterns, with different facial parts conveying different emotions This appears consistent with the principles of Noh which highly appreciate subtle and composite emotional expressions, as well as with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western art. It was further demonstrated that the mouth serves as a diagnostic feature in characterizing the emotional expressions. This indicates the superiority of biologically-driven factors over the

  1. Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma" "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Ramírez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Las técnicas subperiósticas descritas por Tessier revolucionaron el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial, recomendando esta vía para tratar los signos tempranos del envejecimiento en pacientes jóvenes y de mediana edad. Psillakis refinó la técnica y Ramírez describió un método más seguro y eficaz de lifting subperióstico, demostrando que la técnica subperióstica de rejuveneciento facial se puede aplicar en el amplio espectro del envejecimiento facial. La introducción del endoscopio en el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial ha abierto una nueva era en la Cirugía Estética. Hoy la disección subperióstica asistida endocópicamente del tercio superior, medio e inferior de la cara, proporciona un medio eficaz para la reposición de los tejidos blandos, con posibilidad de aumento del esqueleto óseo craneofacial, menor edema facial postoperatorio, mínima lesión de las ramas del nervio facial y mejor tratamiento de las mejillas. Este abordaje, desarrollado y refinado durante la última década, se conoce como "Ritidectomía en Doble Sigma". El Arco Veneciano en doble sigma, bien conocido en Arquitectura desde la antigüedad, se caracteriza por ser un trazo armónico de curva convexa y a continuación curva cóncava. Cuando se observa una cara joven, desde un ángulo oblicuo, presenta una distribución característica de los tejidos, previamente descrita para el tercio medio como un arco ojival arquitectónico o una curva en forma de "S". Sin embargo, en un examen más detallado de la cara joven, en la vista de tres cuartos, el perfil completo revela una "arco ojival doble" o una sigma "S" doble. Para ver este recíproco y multicurvilíneo trazo de la belleza, debemos ver la cara en posición oblicua y así poder ver ambos cantos mediales. En esta posición, la cara joven presenta una convexidad característica de la cola de la ceja que confluye en la concavidad de la pared orbitaria lateral formando así el primer arco (superior

  2. Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Evidence from an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Mo, Ce; Tan, Li Hai; Cant, Jonathan S.; Zhong, Luojin; Cupchik, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments were performed to answer this question. Experiment 1 investigated the network of moral aesthetic judgments and facial aesthetic judgments. Participants performed aesthetic judgments and gender judgments on both faces and scenes containing moral acts. The conjunction analysis of the contrasts ‘facial aesthetic judgment > facial gender judgment’ and ‘scene moral aesthetic judgment > scene gender judgment’ identified the common involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), inferior temporal gyrus and medial superior frontal gyrus, suggesting that both types of aesthetic judgments are based on the orchestration of perceptual, emotional and cognitive components. Experiment 2 examined the network of facial beauty and moral beauty during implicit perception. Participants performed a non-aesthetic judgment task on both faces (beautiful vs common) and scenes (containing morally beautiful vs neutral information). We observed that facial beauty (beautiful faces > common faces) involved both the cortical reward region OFC and the subcortical reward region putamen, whereas moral beauty (moral beauty scenes > moral neutral scenes) only involved the OFC. Moreover, compared with facial beauty, moral beauty spanned a larger-scale cortical network, indicating more advanced and complex cerebral representations characterizing moral beauty. PMID:25298010

  3. Facial Expression Recognition Based on Local Binary Patterns and Kernel Discriminant Isomap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Zhao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition is an interesting and challenging subject. Considering the nonlinear manifold structure of facial images, a new kernel-based manifold learning method, called kernel discriminant isometric mapping (KDIsomap, is proposed. KDIsomap aims to nonlinearly extract the discriminant information by maximizing the interclass scatter while minimizing the intraclass scatter in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. KDIsomap is used to perform nonlinear dimensionality reduction on the extracted local binary patterns (LBP facial features, and produce low-dimensional discrimimant embedded data representations with striking performance improvement on facial expression recognition tasks. The nearest neighbor classifier with the Euclidean metric is used for facial expression classification. Facial expression recognition experiments are performed on two popular facial expression databases, i.e., the JAFFE database and the Cohn-Kanade database. Experimental results indicate that KDIsomap obtains the best accuracy of 81.59% on the JAFFE database, and 94.88% on the Cohn-Kanade database. KDIsomap outperforms the other used methods such as principal component analysis (PCA, linear discriminant analysis (LDA, kernel principal component analysis (KPCA, kernel linear discriminant analysis (KLDA as well as kernel isometric mapping (KIsomap.

  4. Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Evidence from an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Mo, Lei; Mo, Ce; Tan, Li Hai; Cant, Jonathan S; Zhong, Luojin; Cupchik, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments were performed to answer this question. Experiment 1 investigated the network of moral aesthetic judgments and facial aesthetic judgments. Participants performed aesthetic judgments and gender judgments on both faces and scenes containing moral acts. The conjunction analysis of the contrasts 'facial aesthetic judgment > facial gender judgment' and 'scene moral aesthetic judgment > scene gender judgment' identified the common involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), inferior temporal gyrus and medial superior frontal gyrus, suggesting that both types of aesthetic judgments are based on the orchestration of perceptual, emotional and cognitive components. Experiment 2 examined the network of facial beauty and moral beauty during implicit perception. Participants performed a non-aesthetic judgment task on both faces (beautiful vs common) and scenes (containing morally beautiful vs neutral information). We observed that facial beauty (beautiful faces > common faces) involved both the cortical reward region OFC and the subcortical reward region putamen, whereas moral beauty (moral beauty scenes > moral neutral scenes) only involved the OFC. Moreover, compared with facial beauty, moral beauty spanned a larger-scale cortical network, indicating more advanced and complex cerebral representations characterizing moral beauty. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Facial plexiform neurofibromatosis: A surgical challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat B Dogra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plexiform neurofibromatosis is a relatively common but potentially devastating manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. It produces very hideous deformity if the face is involved. Surgical management remains the mainstay of therapy, but in the head and neck region it is limited by the infiltrating nature of these tumors, inherent operative morbidity and high rate of regrowth. We present two cases of facial neurofibromatosis managed in our hospital. The first patient presented with overhanging mass of skin folds on the right side of her face, completely obliterating her right eye. The other patient was a young male having a huge, unsightly swelling over the right cheek, resulting in pulled down right eyelids and right pinna. Physical examination revealed the presence of café au lait macules, freckling in the axillary region and multiple neurofibromas over the trunk. Reconstructive surgical procedure in the form of subtotal excision of tumor mass followed by re draping of the facial skin was performed in both cases. There was evidence of regrowth of the tumor on review after 6 months.

  6. Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Zaproudina

    Full Text Available Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology.

  7. Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaproudina, Nina; Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Lipponen, Jukka A; Kamshilin, Alexei A; Närhi, Matti; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI) technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology.

  8. Culture shapes efficiency of facial age judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizelle Anzures

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cultural differences in socialization can lead to characteristic differences in how we perceive the world. Consistent with this influence of differential experience, our perception of faces (e.g., preference, recognition ability is shaped by our previous experience with different groups of individuals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we examined whether cultural differences in social practices influence our perception of faces. Japanese, Chinese, and Asian-Canadian young adults made relative age judgments (i.e., which of these two faces is older? for East Asian faces. Cross-cultural differences in the emphasis on respect for older individuals was reflected in participants' latency in facial age judgments for middle-age adult faces--with the Japanese young adults performing the fastest, followed by the Chinese, then the Asian-Canadians. In addition, consistent with the differential behavioural and linguistic markers used in the Japanese culture when interacting with individuals younger than oneself, only the Japanese young adults showed an advantage in judging the relative age of children's faces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that different sociocultural practices shape our efficiency in processing facial age information. The impact of culture may potentially calibrate other aspects of face processing.

  9. Facial Expression at Retrieval Affects Recognition of Facial Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng eChen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that memory can be modulated by emotional stimuli at the time of encoding and consolidation. For example, happy faces create better identity recognition than faces with certain other expressions. However, the influence of facial expression at the time of retrieval remains unknown in the literature. To separate the potential influence of expression at retrieval from its effects at earlier stages, we had participants learn neutral faces but manipulated facial expression at the time of memory retrieval in a standard old/new recognition task. The results showed a clear effect of facial expression, where happy test faces were identified more successfully than angry test faces. This effect is unlikely due to greater image similarity between the neutral learning face and the happy test face, because image analysis showed that the happy test faces are in fact less similar to the neutral learning faces relative to the angry test faces. In the second experiment, we investigated whether this emotional effect is influenced by the expression at the time of learning. We employed angry or happy faces as learning stimuli, and angry, happy, and neutral faces as test stimuli. The results showed that the emotional effect at retrieval is robust across different encoding conditions with happy or angry expressions. These findings indicate that emotional expressions affect the retrieval process in identity recognition, and identity recognition does not rely on emotional association between learning and test faces.

  10. Facial and Dental Injuries Facial and Dental Injuries in Karate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovic-Stesevic, Vesna; Verna, Carlalberta; Krastl, Gabriel; Kuhl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Karate is a martial art that carries a high trauma risk. Trauma-related Swiss and European karate data are currently unavailable. This survey seeks to increase knowledge of the incidence of traumatic facial and dental injuries, their emergency management, awareness of tooth rescue boxes, the use of mouthguards and their modifications. Interviews were conducted with 420 karate fighters from 43 European countries using a standardized questionnaire. All the participants were semi-professionals. The data were evaluated with respect to gender, kumite level (where a karate practitioner trains against an adversary), and country. Of the 420 fighters interviewed, 213 had experienced facial trauma and 44 had already had dental trauma. A total of 192 athletes had hurt their opponent by inflicting a facial or dental injury, and 290 knew about the possibility of tooth replantation following an avulsion. Only 50 interviewees knew about tooth rescue boxes. Nearly all the individuals interviewed wore a mouthguard (n = 412), and 178 of them had made their own modifications to the guard. The results of the present survey suggest that more information and education in wearing protective gear are required to reduce the incidence of dental injuries in karate.

  11. Agmatine promotes expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brainstem facial nucleus in the rat facial nerve injury model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fang; Wenlong Luo

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that agmatine can reduce inhibition of neuronal regeneration by increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of morphine-dependent rats. The hypothesis that agmatine exerts similar effects on facial nerve injury deserves further analysis.OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of peritoneal agmatine injection on BDNF levels in the rat brainstem after facial nerve injury.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A controlled animal experiment was performed at the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing University of Medical Sciences (Chongqing, China), between October and December in 2007.MATERIALS: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control, a lesion, and an agmatine treatment group, with eight rats in each group. Bilateral facial nerve anastomosis was induced in the lesion and agmatine treatment groups, while the control group remained untreated. A rat BDNF Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was used to measure BDNF levels in the brainstem facial nucleus.METHODS: Starting on the day of lesion, the agmatine group received a peritoneal injection of 100 mg/kg agmatine, once per day, for a week, whereas rats in the lesion group received saline injections.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: BDNF levels in the brainstem containing facial nucleus were measured by ELISA.RESULTS: Twenty-four rats were included in the final analysis without any loss. Two weeks after lesion, BDNF levels were significantly higher in the lesion group than in the control group (P<0.01). A significant increase was noted in the agmatine group compared to the lesion group (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Agmatine can substantially increase BDNF levels in the rat brainstem after facial nerve injury.

  12. Don't Listen With Your Mouth Full: The Role of Facial Motor Action in Visual Speech Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Angela C; McIntosh, Daniel N; Moody, Eric J

    2015-06-01

    Theories of speech perception agree that visual input enhances the understanding of speech but disagree on whether physically mimicking the speaker improves understanding. This study investigated whether facial motor mimicry facilitates visual speech perception by testing whether blocking facial motor action impairs speechreading performance. Thirty-five typically developing children (19 boys; 16 girls; M age = 7 years) completed the Revised Craig Lipreading Inventory under two conditions. While observing silent videos of 15 words being spoken, participants either held a tongue depressor horizontally with their teeth (blocking facial motor action) or squeezed a ball with one hand (allowing facial motor action). As hypothesized, blocking motor action resulted in fewer correctly understood words than that of the control task. The results suggest that facial mimicry or other methods of facial action support visual speech perception in children. Future studies on the impact of motor action on the typical and atypical development of speech perception are warranted.

  13. Facial Expression Recognition from Video Sequences Based on Spatial-Temporal Motion Local Binary Pattern and Gabor Multiorientation Fusion Histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes novel framework for facial expressions analysis using dynamic and static information in video sequences. First, based on incremental formulation, discriminative deformable face alignment method is adapted to locate facial points to correct in-plane head rotation and break up facial region from background. Then, spatial-temporal motion local binary pattern (LBP feature is extracted and integrated with Gabor multiorientation fusion histogram to give descriptors, which reflect static and dynamic texture information of facial expressions. Finally, a one-versus-one strategy based multiclass support vector machine (SVM classifier is applied to classify facial expressions. Experiments on Cohn-Kanade (CK + facial expression dataset illustrate that integrated framework outperforms methods using single descriptors. Compared with other state-of-the-art methods on CK+, MMI, and Oulu-CASIA VIS datasets, our proposed framework performs better.

  14. Structure-preserving sparse decomposition for facial expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Sima; Qiang Qiu; Chellappa, Rama

    2014-08-01

    Although facial expressions can be decomposed in terms of action units (AUs) as suggested by the facial action coding system, there have been only a few attempts that recognize expression using AUs and their composition rules. In this paper, we propose a dictionary-based approach for facial expression analysis by decomposing expressions in terms of AUs. First, we construct an AU-dictionary using domain experts' knowledge of AUs. To incorporate the high-level knowledge regarding expression decomposition and AUs, we then perform structure-preserving sparse coding by imposing two layers of grouping over AU-dictionary atoms as well as over the test image matrix columns. We use the computed sparse code matrix for each expressive face to perform expression decomposition and recognition. Since domain experts' knowledge may not always be available for constructing an AU-dictionary, we also propose a structure-preserving dictionary learning algorithm, which we use to learn a structured dictionary as well as divide expressive faces into several semantic regions. Experimental results on publicly available expression data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for facial expression analysis.

  15. Facial emotion recognition impairments in individuals with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Uraina S; Cohen, Ronald A; Westbrook, Michelle L; Devlin, Kathryn N; Tashima, Karen T

    2010-11-01

    Characterized by frontostriatal dysfunction, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities. Several studies have noted impaired facial emotion recognition abilities in patient populations that demonstrate frontostriatal dysfunction; however, facial emotion recognition abilities have not been systematically examined in HIV patients. The current study investigated facial emotion recognition in 50 nondemented HIV-seropositive adults and 50 control participants relative to their performance on a nonemotional landscape categorization control task. We examined the relation of HIV-disease factors (nadir and current CD4 levels) to emotion recognition abilities and assessed the psychosocial impact of emotion recognition abnormalities. Compared to control participants, HIV patients performed normally on the control task but demonstrated significant impairments in facial emotion recognition, specifically for fear. HIV patients reported greater psychosocial impairments, which correlated with increased emotion recognition difficulties. Lower current CD4 counts were associated with poorer anger recognition. In summary, our results indicate that chronic HIV infection may contribute to emotion processing problems among HIV patients. We suggest that disruptions of frontostriatal structures and their connections with cortico-limbic networks may contribute to emotion recognition abnormalities in HIV. Our findings also highlight the significant psychosocial impact that emotion recognition abnormalities have on individuals with HIV.

  16. Recognizing Action Units for Facial Expression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ying-Li; Kanade, Takeo; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2001-02-01

    Most automatic expression analysis systems attempt to recognize a small set of prototypic expressions, such as happiness, anger, surprise, and fear. Such prototypic expressions, however, occur rather infrequently. Human emotions and intentions are more often communicated by changes in one or a few discrete facial features. In this paper, we develop an Automatic Face Analysis (AFA) system to analyze facial expressions based on both permanent facial features (brows, eyes, mouth) and transient facial features (deepening of facial furrows) in a nearly frontal-view face image sequence. The AFA system recognizes fine-grained changes in facial expression into action units (AUs) of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), instead of a few prototypic expressions. Multistate face and facial component models are proposed for tracking and modeling the various facial features, including lips, eyes, brows, cheeks, and furrows. During tracking, detailed parametric descriptions of the facial features are extracted. With these parameters as the inputs, a group of action units (neutral expression, six upper face AUs and 10 lower face AUs) are recognized whether they occur alone or in combinations. The system has achieved average recognition rates of 96.4 percent (95.4 percent if neutral expressions are excluded) for upper face AUs and 96.7 percent (95.6 percent with neutral expressions excluded) for lower face AUs. The generalizability of the system has been tested by using independent image databases collected and FACS-coded for ground-truth by different research teams.

  17. Treatments for unwanted facial hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, J; Lui, H

    Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal.

  18. Facial cystic lymphangioma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasotto, Matteo; Clozza, Emanuele; Tirelli, Giancarlo

    2012-07-01

    Lymphangiomas are uncommon congenital malformations of the lymphatic system, generally diagnosed during childhood. These malformations are rarely seen in adults, and the literature provides poor guidelines for treatment options that must be carefully applied to the facial region. Diagnosis in adult subjects is difficult to achieve, and also management of these conditions is still challenging because they tend to infiltrate adjacent tissues, causing frequent relapses. Radical surgery is the main form of treatment, avoiding the sacrifice of function or aesthetics of the patient. Two cases of cystic lymphangioma of the facial region found in adults are described from a clinical and pathologic point of view. The aim of this article was to point out that an early recognition of cystic lymphangioma is a crucial goal to initiate a prompt treatment avoiding serious complication.

  19. Asymmetry of Facial Mimicry and Emotion Perception in Patients With Unilateral Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Sebastian; Wood, Adrienne; Banks, Caroline A; Agoulnik, Dasha; Hadlock, Tessa A; Niedenthal, Paula M

    2016-05-01

    The ability of patients with unilateral facial paralysis to recognize and appropriately judge facial expressions remains underexplored. To test the effects of unilateral facial paralysis on the recognition of and judgments about facial expressions of emotion and to evaluate the asymmetry of facial mimicry. Patients with left or right unilateral facial paralysis at a university facial plastic surgery unit completed 2 computer tasks involving video facial expression recognition. Side of facial paralysis was used as a between-participant factor. Facial function and symmetry were verified electronically with the eFACE facial function scale. Across 2 tasks, short videos were shown on which facial expressions of happiness and anger unfolded earlier on one side of the face or morphed into each other. Patients indicated the moment or side of change between facial expressions and judged their authenticity. Type, time, and accuracy of responses on a keyboard were analyzed. A total of 57 participants (36 women and 21 men) aged 20 to 76 years (mean age, 50.2 years) and with mild left or right unilateral facial paralysis were included in the study. Patients with right facial paralysis were faster (by about 150 milliseconds) and more accurate (mean number of errors, 1.9 vs 2.5) to detect expression onsets on the left side of the stimulus face, suggesting anatomical asymmetry of facial mimicry. Patients with left paralysis, however, showed more anomalous responses, which partly differed by emotion. The findings favor the hypothesis of an anatomical asymmetry of facial mimicry and suggest that patients with a left hemiparalysis could be more at risk of developing a cluster of disabilities and psychological conditions including emotion-recognition impairments. 3.

  20. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Reyes, José Antonio; Iglesias-Julios, Marta; Pita, Miguel; Turiegano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness.

  1. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Muñoz-Reyes

    Full Text Available Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness.

  2. Giant sialocele following facial trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros Júnior,Rui; Rocha Neto,Alípio Miguel da; Queiroz, Isaac Vieira; Cauby,Antônio de Figueiredo; Gueiros,Luiz Alcino Monteiro; Leão,Jair Carneiro

    2012-01-01

    Injuries in the parotid and masseter region can cause serious impairment secondary to damage of important anatomical structures. Sialocele is observed as facial swelling associated with parotid duct rupture due to trauma. The aim of this paper is to report a case of a giant traumatic sialocele in the parotid gland, secondary to a knife lesion in a 40-year-old woman. Conservative measures could not promote clinical resolution and a surgical intervention for the placement of a vacuum drain was ...

  3. Facial anthropometric dimensions of Koreans and their associations with fit of quarter-mask respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunwook; Han, Don-Hee; Roh, Young-Man; Kim, Kangyoon; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2003-01-01

    Past studies on respirator fit or performance have mostly been done for Whites or male subjects, and little attention has been paid to minorities and Asians. To fill this gap, this study was designed to provide facial anthropometric data for Koreans and to analyze the association between facial dimensions and respirator fit factors for three brands of quarter-mask respirators, two domestic and one imported brand, using a Portacount 8020. A total of 110 university student subjects, 70 males and 40 females volunteered for participation in the study. The results of this study showed that Korean males and females have different facial dimensions as compared with those of White males and females. Unexpectedly, the imported respirator performed better than the domestic respirators. Males were found to achieve better respirator fit than females regardless of respirator brands tested. The regression analysis found no common prognostic variables with the three respirator brands studied. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was conducted to find predictive facial dimensions with respirator fits. Some facial dimensions were found to be statistically significant, but these dimensions are different from the traditionally recommended facial dimensions of face length and lip width for quarter mask. To improve respirator fit for Koreans, these different facial characteristics need to be considered in the design of quarter mask respirators.

  4. EXPRESSION OF CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE IN FACIAL NERVE OF HEMIFACIAL SPASM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the immunoreactivity of Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the facial nerve when Hemifacial Spasm is occurring. Methods The electrophysiological technique was used to explore abnormal muscle response (AMR) which was characteristic of Hemifacial Spasm.The animal models of Hemifacial Spasm in New Zealand white rabbits were established by compressing the main trunk of artificial demyelinated facial nerve with the temporal superficial artery. At 6 weeks after surgery, the facial nerves were taken from the experimental group and control one, the immunohistochemistry for CGRP using polyclonal antibody with ABC kit was performed in the facial nerves; at the same time, the observation for the facial nerves of light and transmission electron microscope was performed. Results The facial nerve demyelinated and the axons retrogressively changed, CGRP immunoreactive positive fibers were significantly detected in experimental groups; whereas this phenomenon was not found in control group. Conclusion CGRP can nutrien the injured facial nerve and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Hemifacial Spasm.

  5. A detailed investigation of facial expression processing in congenital prosopagnosia as compared to acquired prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kate; Avidan, Galia; Behrmann, Marlene

    2007-01-01

    Whether the ability to recognize facial expression can be preserved in the absence of the recognition of facial identity remains controversial. The current study reports the results of a detailed investigation of facial expression recognition in three congenital prosopagnosic (CP) participants, in comparison with two patients with acquired prosopagnosia (AP) and a large group of 30 neurologically normal participants, including individually age- and gender-matched controls. Participants completed a fine-grained expression recognition paradigm requiring a six-alternative forced-choice response to continua of morphs of six different basic facial expressions (e.g. happiness and surprise). Accuracy, sensitivity and reaction times were measured. The performance of all three CP individuals was indistinguishable from that of controls, even for the most subtle expressions. In contrast, both individuals with AP displayed pronounced difficulties with the majority of expressions. The results from the CP participants attest to the dissociability of the processing of facial identity and of facial expression. Whether this remarkably good expression recognition is achieved through normal, or compensatory, mechanisms remains to be determined. Either way, this normal level of performance does not extend to include facial identity.

  6. Effects of Mirror Therapy Using a Tablet PC on Central Facial Paresis in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-A; Chun, Min Ho; Choi, Su Jin; Chang, Min Cheol; Yi, You Gyoung

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of mirror therapy using a tablet PC for post-stroke central facial paresis. A prospective, randomized controlled study was performed. Twenty-one post-stroke patients were enrolled. All patients performed 15 minutes of orofacial exercise twice daily for 14 days. The mirror group (n=10) underwent mirror therapy using a tablet PC while exercising, whereas the control group (n=11) did not. All patients were evaluated using the Regional House-Brackmann Grading Scale (R-HBGS), and the length between the corner of the mouth and the ipsilateral earlobe during rest and smiling before and after therapy were measured bilaterally. We calculated facial movement by subtracting the smile length from resting length. Differences and ratios between bilateral sides of facial movement were evaluated as the final outcome measure. Baseline characteristics were similar for the two groups. There were no differences in the scores for the basal Modified Barthel Index, the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, R-HBGS, and bilateral differences and ratios of facial movements. The R-HBGS as well as the bilateral differences and ratios of facial movement showed significant improvement after therapy in both groups. The degree of improvement of facial movement was significantly larger in the mirror group than in the control group. Mirror therapy using a tablet PC might be an effective tool for treating central facial paresis after stroke.

  7. INTEGRATED EXPRESSIONAL AND COLOR INVARIANT FACIAL RECOGNITION SCHEME FOR HUMAN BIOMETRIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Punithavalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In many practical applications like biometrics, video surveillance and human computer interaction, face recognition plays a major role. The previous works focused on recognizing and enhancing the biometric systems based on the facial components of the system. In this work, we are going to build Integrated Expressional and Color Invariant Facial Recognition scheme for human biometric recognition suited to different security provisioning public participation areas.At first, the features of the face are identified and processed using bayes classifier with RGB and HSV color bands. Second, psychological emotional variance are identified and linked with the respective human facial expression based on the facial action code system. Finally, an integrated expressional and color invariant facial recognition is proposed for varied conditions of illumination, pose, transformation, etc. These conditions on color invariant model are suited to easy and more efficient biometric recognition system in public domain and high confidential security zones. The integration is made derived genetic operation on the color and expression components of the facial feature system. Experimental evaluation is planned to done with public face databases (DBs such as CMU-PIE, Color FERET, XM2VTSDB, SCface, and FRGC 2.0 to estimate the performance of the proposed integrated expressional facial and color invariant recognition scheme [IEFCIRS]. Performance evaluation is done based on the constraints like recognition rate, security and evalaution time.

  8. Removal of unwanted facial hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenenberger, Donald W; Utecht, Lynn M

    2002-11-15

    Unwanted facial hair is a common problem that is seldom discussed in the primary care setting. Although men occasionally request removal of unwanted facial hair, women most often seek help with this condition. Physicians generally neglect to address the problem if the patient does not first request help. The condition may be caused by androgen overproduction, increased sensitivity to circulating androgens, or other metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be properly evaluated. Options for hair removal vary in efficacy, degree of discomfort, and cost. Clinical studies on the efficacy of many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is electrolysis. However, the practice of electrolysis lacks standardization, and regulation of the procedure varies from state to state. Shaving, epilation, and depilation are the most commonly attempted initial options for facial hair removal. Although these methods are less expensive, they are only temporary. Laser hair removal, although better studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, has yet to be proved permanent in all patients. Eflornithine, a topical treatment, is simple to apply and has minimal side effects. By the time most patients consult a physician, they have tried several methods of hair removal. Family physicians can properly educate patients and recommend treatment for this common condition if they are armed with basic knowledge about the treatment options.

  9. Identification based on facial parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanov Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two opposing views dominate face identification literature, one suggesting that the face is processed as a whole and another suggesting analysis based on parts. Our research tried to establish which of these two is the dominant strategy and our results fell in the direction of analysis based on parts. The faces were covered with a mask and the participants were uncovering different parts, one at the time, in an attempt to identify a person. Already at the level of a single facial feature, such as mouth or eye and top of the nose, some observers were capable to establish the identity of a familiar face. Identification is exceptionally successful when a small assembly of facial parts is visible, such as eye, eyebrow and the top of the nose. Some facial parts are not very informative on their own but do enhance recognition when given as a part of such an assembly. Novel finding here is importance of the top of the nose for the face identification. Additionally observers have a preference toward the left side of the face. Typically subjects view the elements in the following order: left eye, left eyebrow, right eye, lips, region between the eyes, right eyebrow, region between the eyebrows, left check, right cheek. When observers are not in a position to see eyes, eyebrows or top of the nose, they go for lips first and then region between the eyebrows, region between the eyes, left check, right cheek and finally chin.

  10. Three-Dimensional Accuracy of Facial Scan for Facial Deformities in Clinics: A New Evaluation Method for Facial Scanner Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yi-jiao; Xiong, Yu-xue; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the practical accuracy (PA) of optical facial scanners for facial deformity patients in oral clinic was evaluated. Ten patients with a variety of facial deformities from oral clinical were included in the study. For each patient, a three-dimensional (3D) face model was acquired, via a high-accuracy industrial “line-laser” scanner (Faro), as the reference model and two test models were obtained, via a “stereophotography” (3dMD) and a “structured light” facial scanner (FaceScan) ...

  11. Does Facial Amimia Impact the Recognition of Facial Emotions? An EMG Study in Parkinson's Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Argaud, Soizic; Delplanque, Sylvain; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Auffret, Manon; Duprez, Joan; Vérin, Marc; Grandjean, Didier; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-01-01

    .... The present study used the pathological model of PD to examine the role of facial mimicry on emotion recognition by investigating EMG responses in PD patients during a facial emotion recognition task (anger, joy, neutral...

  12. Mind-Refreshing Acupuncture Therapy for Facial Spasm,Trigeminal Neuralgia and Stubborn Facial Paralysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正; 方桂梅

    2004-01-01

    @@ Facial spasm, trigeminal neuralgia and stubborn facial paralysis are commonly seen in clinic. The authors have obtained quite good therapeutic results for the above diseases by using the mind-refreshing acupuncture therapy. These are introduced in the following.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrugia, M.E. [Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.e.farrugia@doctors.org.uk; Bydder, G.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92103-8226 (United States); Francis, J.M.; Robson, M.D. [OCMR, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders.

  14. Síndrome de dolor facial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. F. Eugenio Tenhamm

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El dolor o algia facial constituye un síndrome doloroso de las estructuras cráneo faciales bajo el cual se agrupan un gran número de enfermedades. La mejor manera de abordar el diagnóstico diferencial de las entidades que causan el dolor facial es usando un algoritmo que identifica cuatro síndromes dolorosos principales que son: las neuralgias faciales, los dolores faciales con síntomas y signos neurológicos, las cefaleas autonómicas trigeminales y los dolores faciales sin síntomas ni signos neurológicos. Una evaluación clínica detallada de los pacientes, permite una aproximación etiológica lo que orienta el estudio diagnóstico y permite ofrecer una terapia específica a la mayoría de los casos

  15. Recognition of Facial Expression Using Eigenvector Based Distributed Features and Euclidean Distance Based Decision Making Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeemoni Kalita

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Eigenvector based system has been presented to recognize facial expressions from digital facial images. In the approach, firstly the images were acquired and cropping of five significant portions from the image was performed to extract and store the Eigenvectors specific to the expressions. The Eigenvectors for the test images were also computed, and finally the input facial image was recognized when similarity was obtained by calculating the minimum Euclidean distance between the test image and the different expressions.

  16. Radiological evaluation of facial types in mouth breathing children: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, E N; Costa, J R; Pereira, S R A; Weckx, L L M; Pignatari, S N; Uema, S F H

    2008-01-01

    Mouth breathing is a condition often associated with a long face, half-open mouth and increased anterior facial height. We performed conventional lateral and frontal cephalograms of eighty-nine children with nasal and mouth breathing and independently measured Total Facial Height using the analysis technique of Ricketts, and the Morphologic Facial Index employing the technique of Avila. It was concluded that dolicofacial following mesofacial were the most frequent patterns found in mouth-breathing children and this suggests that both analyses can be used independently.

  17. A Review of Facial Nerve Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    An intimate knowledge of facial nerve anatomy is critical to avoid its inadvertent injury during rhytidectomy, parotidectomy, maxillofacial fracture reduction, and almost any surgery of the head and neck. Injury to the frontal and marginal mandibular branches of the facial nerve in particular can lead to obvious clinical deficits, and areas where these nerves are particularly susceptible to injury have been designated danger zones by previous authors. Assessment of facial nerve function is no...

  18. Influence of gravity upon some facial signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, F; Bazin, R; Piot, B

    2015-06-01

    Facial clinical signs and their integration are the basis of perception than others could have from ourselves, noticeably the age they imagine we are. Facial modifications in motion and their objective measurements before and after application of skin regimen are essential to go further in evaluation capacities to describe efficacy in facial dynamics. Quantification of facial modifications vis à vis gravity will allow us to answer about 'control' of facial shape in daily activities. Standardized photographs of the faces of 30 Caucasian female subjects of various ages (24-73 year) were successively taken at upright and supine positions within a short time interval. All these pictures were therefore reframed - any bias due to facial features was avoided when evaluating one single sign - for clinical quotation by trained experts of several facial signs regarding published standardized photographic scales. For all subjects, the supine position increased facial width but not height, giving a more fuller appearance to the face. More importantly, the supine position changed the severity of facial ageing features (e.g. wrinkles) compared to an upright position and whether these features were attenuated or exacerbated depended on their facial location. Supine station mostly modifies signs of the lower half of the face whereas those of the upper half appear unchanged or slightly accentuated. These changes appear much more marked in the older groups, where some deep labial folds almost vanish. These alterations decreased the perceived ages of the subjects by an average of 3.8 years. Although preliminary, this study suggests that a 90° rotation of the facial skin vis à vis gravity induces rapid rearrangements among which changes in tensional forces within and across the face, motility of interstitial free water among underlying skin tissue and/or alterations of facial Langer lines, likely play a significant role. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Fran

  19. Facial nerve schwannoma in revision stapedotomy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerber, Sébastien; Lavieille, Jean-Pierre

    2004-05-01

    We describe a male patient who presented a progressive conductive unilateral hearing loss 20 years after otosclerosis surgery. Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings suggested a facial schwannoma in its tympanic segment. At the time of revision surgery, a facial schwannoma was found to originate at the tympanic segment, pushing the prosthesis out of the oval window fenestration. The Teflon-piston was repositioned with difficulties in the central platinotomy, and the facial schwannoma was left intact.

  20. [Peripheral paralysis of facial nerve in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steczkowska-Klucznik, Małgorzata; Kaciński, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Peripheral facial paresis is one of the most common diagnosed neuropathies in adults and also in children. Many factors can trigger facial paresis and most frequent are infectious, carcinoma and demyelinisation diseases. Very important and interesting problem is an idiopathic facial paresis (Bell's palsy). Actually the main target of scientific research is to assess the etiology (infectious, genetic, immunologic) and to find the most appropriate treatment.

  1. The Science and Theory behind Facial Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan P. Farkas, MD; Joel E. Pessa, MD; Bradley Hubbard, MD; Rod J. Rohrich, MD, FACS

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The etiology of age-related facial changes has many layers. Multiple theories have been presented over the past 50–100 years with an evolution of understanding regarding facial changes related to skin, soft tissue, muscle, and bone. This special topic will provide an overview of the current literature and evidence and theories of facial changes of the skeleton, soft tissues, and skin over time.

  2. The temporal endoscopic midface lift -centrofacial rejuvenation without facial scars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Haffner

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The author describes a new endoscopic midface lifting technique using solely temporal access and evaluates its advantages and perspectives.Methods: This is a single-surgeon case study. Through a short temporal incision, dissection is performed along a single plane connecting the superifcial surfaces of both the facial and temporal superifcial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) layers. Subsequent midface dissection divides the malar fat pad into the deeper and superifcial parts. A new concept of a combination high malar SMAS lift and internal skin lfap anchorage that provides long-term stability is described.Results: The temporal endoscopic midface (TEM) lift technique resulted in good objective results with high patient satisfaction. The temporal access allowed proper vertical vector correction of the sagging centro-facial structures. The resulting scar was inconspicuous and hidden in the hair bearing skin, and its length was measured between 5-6 cm. A conversion to the conventional long facial scar approach was completely avoided.Conclusion:The TEM lift is a new and effective procedure for facial rejuvenation, especially the midface and cheek. The results illustrate the importance of internal anchorage of both the midface SMAS and skin lfap. These are the keys to long-lasting and pleasing results. The procedure is best suited for younger men and women with little or no neck skin laxity.

  3. Laser facial nerve welding in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Jason D; Bleier, Benjamin S; Goldstein, Stephen A; Carniol, Paul J; Palmer, James N; Cohen, Noam A

    2012-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of laser tissue welding for repair of facial nerve injury. In a prospective in vivo animal survival surgery model, rabbit facial nerve injury was followed by either standard suture neurorrhaphy or laser tissue welding using a diode laser (808 ± 1 nm) to weld biological solder. Rabbits were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks by facial videography and electromyography. Histopathological analysis of the repair was performed at 4 and 16 weeks. Videographic analysis demonstrated the laser tissue welding repair trended toward superior outcomes compared with suture neurorrhaphy at all 4 time points. Electrophysiological analysis demonstrated similar or better results, with statistically significant improvement at week 16 (P laser nerve repair created a greater initial inflammatory reaction. An analysis of operative time demonstrated significantly decreased time and ease of use for laser tissue welding. This pilot study demonstrates that laser nerve welding may be an expedient, feasible, and safe method for facial nerve repair in a rabbit model. Further experiments with larger numbers are needed to provide additional evidence that laser tissue welding produces a neurorrhaphy that has functional, electrophysiological, and histological results that could rival traditional suture neurorrhaphy.

  4. [Application of fibrin glue in facial nerve repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinying; Hua, Qingquan; Wang, Shenqing

    2007-06-01

    This animal experiment was aimed to apply fibrin in facial nerve repair and to quest for technical improvements in facial surgery. In each of 15 healthy large ear white rabbits, a unilateral 5 mm intratemporal facial nerve gap was created, the proximal and distal stumps were inserted into chitin tube, 1 ml autologous fibrin glue was applied around the anastomotic zone, and no suture was employed. At 3 months and 5 months after opertion, electrophysioligical study was performed. Compared with normal nerves, the regenerating nerves in both the chitin tube bridged group and the perineurium suture group had longer incubation period, lower amplitude, slower nerve-muscle conduction velocity at 3 months postoperatively. The differences were distinctly significant (P < 0.01). Although being decreased at 5 months after operation, the differences were still statistically significant (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the chitin tube bridged group and perineurium suture group at 3 months and 5 months, respectively. The study suggests that facial nerve repair using fibrin glue and chitin tube has the advantages of being easier,faster and more stable.

  5. Scales of degree of facial paralysis: analysis of agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kércia Melo de Oliveira Fonseca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It has become common to use scales to measure the degree of involvement of facial paralysis in phonoaudiological clinics. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the inter- and intra-rater agreement of the scales of degree of facial paralysis and to elicit point of view of the appraisers regarding their use. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational clinical study of the Chevalier and House & Brackmann scales performed by five speech therapists with clinical experience, who analyzed the facial expression of 30 adult subjects with impaired facial movements two times, with a one week interval between evaluations. The kappa analysis was employed. RESULTS: There was excellent inter-rater agreement for both scales (kappa > 0.80, and on the Chevalier scale a substantial intra-rater agreement in the first assessment (kappa = 0.792 and an excellent agreement in the second assessment (kappa = 0.928. The House & Brackmann scale showed excellent agreement at both assessments (kappa = 0.850 and 0.857. As for the appraisers' point of view, one appraiser thought prior training is necessary for the Chevalier scale and, four appraisers felt that training is important for the House & Brackmann scale. CONCLUSION: Both scales have good inter- and intra-rater agreement and most of the appraisers agree on the ease and relevance of the application of these scales.

  6. Facial transplantation: a review of ethics, progress, and future targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards JA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available James A Edwards1, David W Mathes21Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Skagit Valley Hospital, Mount Vernon, WA, USA; 2Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: The surgical history of transplantation in the modern era begins in 1956 with the successful transplantation of a kidney between identical twins. Since then the field of transplantation has seen remarkable advancements in both surgical techniques and our understanding and ability to manipulate the immune response. Composite tissue allotransplantation involves the transplantation of any combination of vascularized skin, subcutaneous tissue, blood vessels, nerves, muscle, and bone. Orthotopic hand transplantation is considered the first clinical example of CTA and has seen success at many different centers worldwide. Facial allotransplantation is a recent development in the field of CTA and the first successful case was performed as recently as November 2005. Since then there have been a number of successful facial transplants. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the issues surrounding facial transplantation including the complex ethical issues, the surgical and clinical issues, cost and administrative issues, and future directions for this new, exciting, and controversial field.Keywords: composite tissue allograft, facial transplantation

  7. Facial features and social attractiveness: preferences of Bosnian female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bosankić

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at testing multiple fitness hypothesis of attraction, investigating relationship between male facial characteristic and female students' reported readiness to engage in various social relations. A total of 27 male photos were evaluated on five dimensions on a seven-point Likert-type scale ranging from -3 to 3, by convenient sample of 90 female students of University of Sarajevo. The dimensions were: desirable to date – not desirable to date; desirable to marry – not desirable to marry; desirable to have sex with – not desirable to have sex with; desirable to be a friend – not desirable to be a friend; attractive - not attractive. Facial metric measurements of facial features such as distance between the eyes, smile width and height were performed using AutoCad. The results indicate that only smile width positively correlates with desirability of establishing friendship, whilst none of the other characteristics correlates with any of the other dimensions. This leads to the conclusion that motivation to establish various social relations cannot be reduced to mere physical appearance, mainly facial features, but many other variables yet to be investigated.

  8. Sir Charles Alfred Ballance (1856-1936) and the introduction of facial nerve crossover anastomosis in 1895

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaf, Robert C.; Ijpma, Frank F. A.; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.

    2009-01-01

    Sir Charles Ballance (1856-1936) was the first surgeon in history to perform a facial nerve crossover anastomosis in 1895. Although, recently, several papers on the history of facial nerve surgery have been published, little is known about this historically important operation, the theoretical reaso

  9. Anatomical considerations to prevent facial nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaeian, Jason; Rohrich, Rod J; Stuzin, James M

    2015-05-01

    Injury to the facial nerve during a face lift is a relatively rare but serious complication. A large body of literature has been dedicated toward bettering the understanding of the anatomical course of the facial nerve and the relative danger zones. Most of these prior reports, however, have focused on identifying the location of facial nerve branches based on their trajectory mostly in two dimensions and rarely in three dimensions. Unfortunately, the exact location of the facial nerve relative to palpable or visible facial landmarks is quite variable. Although the precise location of facial nerve branches is variable, its relationship to soft-tissue planes is relatively constant. The focus of this report is to improve understanding of facial soft-tissue anatomy so that safe planes of dissection during surgical undermining may be identified for each branch of the facial nerve. Certain anatomical locations more prone to injury and high-risk patient parameters are further emphasized to help minimize the risk of facial nerve injury during rhytidectomy.

  10. Facial expression recognition using thermal image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guotai; Song, Xuemin; Zheng, Fuhui; Wang, Peipei; Omer, Ashgan

    2005-01-01

    Facial expression recognition will be studied in this paper using mathematics morphology, through drawing and analyzing the whole geometry characteristics and some geometry characteristics of the interesting area of Infrared Thermal Imaging (IRTI). The results show that geometry characteristic in the interesting region of different expression are obviously different; Facial temperature changes almost with the expression at the same time. Studies have shown feasibility of facial expression recognition on the basis of IRTI. This method can be used to monitor the facial expression in real time, which can be used in auxiliary diagnosis and medical on disease.

  11. Social Use of Facial Expressions in Hylobatids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Scheider

    Full Text Available Non-human primates use various communicative means in interactions with others. While primate gestures are commonly considered to be intentionally and flexibly used signals, facial expressions are often referred to as inflexible, automatic expressions of affective internal states. To explore whether and how non-human primates use facial expressions in specific communicative interactions, we studied five species of small apes (gibbons by employing a newly established Facial Action Coding System for hylobatid species (GibbonFACS. We found that, despite individuals often being in close proximity to each other, in social (as opposed to non-social contexts the duration of facial expressions was significantly longer when gibbons were facing another individual compared to non-facing situations. Social contexts included grooming, agonistic interactions and play, whereas non-social contexts included resting and self-grooming. Additionally, gibbons used facial expressions while facing another individual more often in social contexts than non-social contexts where facial expressions were produced regardless of the attentional state of the partner. Also, facial expressions were more likely 'responded to' by the partner's facial expressions when facing another individual than non-facing. Taken together, our results indicate that gibbons use their facial expressions differentially depending on the social context and are able to use them in a directed way in communicative interactions with other conspecifics.

  12. Periocular Reconstruction in Patients with Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shannon S; Joseph, Andrew W; Douglas, Raymond S; Massry, Guy G

    2016-04-01

    Facial paralysis can result in serious ocular consequences. All patients with orbicularis oculi weakness in the setting of facial nerve injury should undergo a thorough ophthalmologic evaluation. The main goal of management in these patients is to protect the ocular surface and preserve visual function. Patients with expected recovery of facial nerve function may only require temporary and conservative measures to protect the ocular surface. Patients with prolonged or unlikely recovery of facial nerve function benefit from surgical rehabilitation of the periorbital complex. Current reconstructive procedures are most commonly intended to improve coverage of the eye but cannot restore blink.

  13. Reflectance confocal microscopy features of facial angiofibromas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán-Cayetano, José-Francisco; Yélamos, Oriol; Rossi, Anthony M.; Marchetti, Michael A.; Jain, Manu

    2017-01-01

    Facial angiofibromas are benign tumors presenting as firm, dome-shaped, flesh-colored to pink papules, typically on the nose and adjoining central face. Clinically and dermoscopically they can mimic melanocytic nevi or basal cell carcinomas (BCC). Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a noninvasive imaging tool that is useful in diagnosing melanocytic and non-melanocytic facial lesions. To date no studies have described the RCM features of facial angiofibromas. Herein, we present two cases of facial angiofibromas that were imaged with RCM and revealed tumor island-like structures that mimicked BCC, leading to skin biopsy.

  14. The neurosurgical treatment of neuropathic facial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey A

    2014-04-01

    This article reviews the definition, etiology and evaluation, and medical and neurosurgical treatment of neuropathic facial pain. A neuropathic origin for facial pain should be considered when evaluating a patient for rhinologic surgery because of complaints of facial pain. Neuropathic facial pain is caused by vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve in the prepontine cistern and is characterized by an intermittent prickling or stabbing component or a constant burning, searing pain. Medical treatment consists of anticonvulsant medication. Neurosurgical treatment may require microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional integration of the posterior superior temporal sulcus correlates with facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2016-05-01

    Face perception is essential for daily and social activities. Neuroimaging studies have revealed a distributed face network (FN) consisting of multiple regions that exhibit preferential responses to invariant or changeable facial information. However, our understanding about how these regions work collaboratively to facilitate facial information processing is limited. Here, we focused on changeable facial information processing, and investigated how the functional integration of the FN is related to the performance of facial expression recognition. To do so, we first defined the FN as voxels that responded more strongly to faces than objects, and then used a voxel-based global brain connectivity method based on resting-state fMRI to characterize the within-network connectivity (WNC) of each voxel in the FN. By relating the WNC and performance in the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test across participants, we found that individuals with stronger WNC in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS) were better at recognizing facial expressions. Further, the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between the rpSTS and right occipital face area (rOFA), early visual cortex (EVC), and bilateral STS were positively correlated with the ability of facial expression recognition, and the FCs of EVC-pSTS and OFA-pSTS contributed independently to facial expression recognition. In short, our study highlights the behavioral significance of intrinsic functional integration of the FN in facial expression processing, and provides evidence for the hub-like role of the rpSTS for facial expression recognition. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1930-1940, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Relationships between Processing Facial Identity, Emotional Expression, Facial Speech, and Gaze Direction during Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Sibylle M.; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Korell, Monika; Maier-Karius, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with 5- to 11-year-olds and adults to investigate whether facial identity, facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction are processed independently of or in interaction with one another. In a computer-based, speeded sorting task, participants sorted faces according to facial identity while disregarding…

  17. Dielectric elastomer actuators for facial expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuzhe; Zhu, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators have the advantage of mimicking the salient feature of life: movements in response to stimuli. In this paper we explore application of dielectric elastomer actuators to artificial muscles. These artificial muscles can mimic natural masseter to control jaw movements, which are key components in facial expressions especially during talking and singing activities. This paper investigates optimal design of the dielectric elastomer actuator. It is found that the actuator with embedded plastic fibers can avert electromechanical instability and can greatly improve its actuation. Two actuators are then installed in a robotic skull to drive jaw movements, mimicking the masseters in a human jaw. Experiments show that the maximum vertical displacement of the robotic jaw, driven by artificial muscles, is comparable to that of the natural human jaw during speech activities. Theoretical simulations are conducted to analyze the performance of the actuator, which is quantitatively consistent with the experimental observations.

  18. How facial attractiveness affects sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Oksama, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated whether and how facial attractiveness affects sustained attention. We adopted a multiple-identity tracking paradigm, using attractive and unattractive faces as stimuli. Participants were required to track moving target faces amid distractor faces and report the final location of each target. In Experiment 1, the attractive and unattractive faces differed in both the low-level properties (i.e., luminance, contrast, and color saturation) and high-level properties (i.e., physical beauty and age). The results showed that the attractiveness of both the target and distractor faces affected the tracking performance: The attractive target faces were tracked better than the unattractive target faces; when the targets and distractors were both unattractive male faces, the tracking performance was poorer than when they were of different attractiveness. In Experiment 2, the low-level properties of the facial images were equalized. The results showed that the attractive target faces were still tracked better than unattractive targets while the effects related to distractor attractiveness ceased to exist. Taken together, the results indicate that during attentional tracking the high-level properties related to the attractiveness of the target faces can be automatically processed, and then they can facilitate the sustained attention on the attractive targets, either with or without the supplement of low-level properties. On the other hand, only low-level properties of the distractor faces can be processed. When the distractors share similar low-level properties with the targets, they can be grouped together, so that it would be more difficult to sustain attention on the individual targets. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the world's largest specialty association for facial plastic surgery. It represents more than 2,700 facial plastic ... the American Board of Otolaryngology , which includes facial plastic surgery. Others are certified in plastic surgery, ophthalmology, and ...

  20. A CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT FOR FACIAL PARALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TOH Foh Fook

    2002-01-01

    @@ Peripheral facial paralysis is a common disease with manifestation of facial paralysis. The author's clinical observation on 50 cases of facial paralysis treated mainly with acupuncture showed an effeclive rate of 98%, and the remarkable effectiveness was reported as follow.

  1. Using Kinect for real-time emotion recognition via facial expressions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-rong MAO; Xin-yu PAN; Yong-zhao ZHAN; Xiang-jun SHEN

    2015-01-01

    Emotion recognition via facial expressions (ERFE) has attracted a great deal of interest with recent advances in artificial intelligence and pattern recognition. Most studies are based on 2D images, and their performance is usually computationally expensive. In this paper, we propose a real-time emotion recognition approach based on both 2D and 3D facial expression features captured by Kinect sensors. To capture the deformation of the 3D mesh during facial expression, we combine the features of animation units (AUs) and feature point positions (FPPs) tracked by Kinect. A fusion algorithm based on improved emotional profiles (IEPs) and maximum confidence is proposed to recognize emotions with these real-time facial expression features. Experiments on both an emotion dataset and a real-time video show the superior performance of our method.

  2. Male Aesthetics: A Review of Facial Anatomy and Pertinent Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadian, Joshua A; Bloom, Bradley S; Brauer, Jeremy A

    2015-09-01

    Aesthetics continues to be a rapidly growing field within dermatology. In 2014, Americans spent 5 billion dollars on an estimated 9 million minimally invasive cosmetic procedures. Between 1997 and 2014, the number of aesthetic procedures performed on men increased by 273%. The approach to male aesthetics differs from that of females. Men have a squarer face, a more angled and larger jaw, and equally balanced upper and lower facial proportions. Facial muscle mass, subcutaneous tissue, and blood vessel density are also increased in men relative to women. While many of the same cosmetic procedures are performed in males and females, the approach, assessment, and treatment parameters are often different. Improper technique in a male patient can result in feminizing facial features and patient dissatisfaction. With an increasing number of men seeking aesthetic procedures, it behooves dermatologists to familiarize themselves with male facial anatomy and the practice of cosmetic dermatology in this population.

  3. The study on facial soft tissue thickness using Han population in Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jierui; Zhao, Xi; Mi, Congbo; Raza, Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Facial profile is an important aspect in physical anthropology, forensic science, and cosmetic research. Thus, facial soft tissue measurement technology plays a significant role in facial restoration. A considerable amount of work has investigated facial soft tissue thickness, which significantly varies according to gender, age, and race. However, only few studies have considered the nutritional status of the investigated individuals. Moreover, no sufficient research among Chinese ethnic groups, particularly Xinjiang population in China, is currently available. Hence, the current study investigated the adaptability of facial soft tissue to the underlying hard tissue among young adults of Han population in Xinjiang, China; the analysis was performed on the basis of gender, skeletal class, and body mass index (BMI). Measurements were obtained from the lateral cephalometric radiographs of 256 adults aged 18-26 years old. Differences in soft tissue thickness were observed between genders and among skeletal classes. With regard to gender, significant differences in soft tissue thickness were found at rhinion, glabella, subnasale, stomion, labrale superius, pogonion, and gnathion among different BMI groups. Thus, nutritional status should be considered when reconstructing an individual's facial profile. Results showed that the thinnest and thickest craniofacial soft tissues existed in rhinion and lip regions, respectively. Overall, this research provides valuable data for forensic facial reconstruction and identification of young adults in Xinjiang, China.

  4. Directional sensitivity in the thermal response of the facial pit in western diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Tobias; Colayori, Samantha E; Westhoff, Guido; Bakken, George S; Young, Bruce A

    2012-08-01

    Recent work published in the accompanying paper used a combination of 3D morphological reconstruction to define optical spread functions and heat transfer physics to study how external heat energy would reach the sensory membrane within the facial pit of pitvipers. The results from all of the species examined indicated asymmetric directional sensitivity, e.g. the pit would preferentially respond to stimuli located below and behind the snake. The present study was intended as a test of these findings through a quantitative neurophysiological analysis of directional sensitivity in the facial pit of the western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox. An infrared emitter was positioned through a coordinate system (with varying angular orientations and distances) and the response it evoked measured through neurophysiological recordings of a trigeminal nerve branch composed of the afferents from the sensory membrane of the facial pit. Significant differences were found in the strength of the membrane's neural response to a constant stimulus presented at different orientations (relative to the facial pit opening) and over different distances. The peak sensitivity (at 12 deg above and 20 deg in front of the facial pit opening) was in good agreement with the predicted directional sensitivities based on optical spread functions and 3D topography. These findings support the hypothesis that the topography, and functional performance, of the facial pit has undergone an adaptive radiation within the pit vipers, and that differences in the behavioral ecology of the pit vipers (i.e. terrestrial versus arboreal) are reflected within the facial pits.

  5. Iatrogenic facial nerve palsy "Prevention is better than cure": Analysis of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic facial nerve palsy in mastoid surgery is considered a crime or a taboo in the present scenario of medical science. But one has to accept the fact that every otologist encounters this entity at some point in his/her career. Hence it is of prime importance to be equipped to detect and to manage these cases. The obvious and disfiguring facial deformity it causes makes this a dreaded complication. Our article here discusses our experience in managing four cases of iatrogenic facial palsy. The etiology in all the cases was mastoidectomy for cholesteatoma. The detection of the site and repair was performed by the same surgeon in all cases. The facial nerve was transected completely in three cases, and in one case there was partial loss (>50% of fibers. Cable nerve grafting was utilized in three patients. There was grade 4 improvement in three patients who underwent cable nerve grafting, and one patient had grade 2 recovery after end-to-end anastomosis. A good anatomical knowledge and experience with temporal bone dissection is of great importance in preventing facial nerve injury. If facial nerve injury is detected, it should be managed as early as possible. An end-to-end anastomosis provides better results in final recovery as opposed to cable nerve grafting for facial nerve repair.

  6. Relationship between Locations of Facial Injury and the Use of Bicycle Helmets: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hwang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to review the protective effect of a bicycle helmet on each facial location systematically. PubMed was searched for articles published before December 12, 2014. The data were summarized, and the odds ratio (OR between the locations of facial injury was calculated. A statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager (The Nordic Cochrane Centre. Bicycle helmets protect the upper and middle face from serious facial injury but do not protect the lower face. Non-wearers had significantly increased risks of upper facial injury (OR, 2.07; P<0.001 and of middle facial injury (OR, 1.97; P<0.001 as compared to helmet users. In the case of lower facial injury, however, only a slightly increased risk (OR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.67-3.00, P=0.36 was observed. The abovementioned results can be attributed to the fact that a helmet covers the head and forehead but cannot cover the lower face. However, helmets having a chin cap might decrease the risk of lower facial injury.

  7. Acquisition of conditioned facial reflexes in the cat: cortical control of different facial movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, C D

    1982-04-01

    The motor cortex plays a role in determining which of three different facial movements is acquired in Pavlovian conditioning experiments. Three separate facial reflexes can be distinguished by recording electromyographic activity from the orbicularis oculi (eye blink) and levator orii (nose twitch) muscles. One in a pure eye blink; a second is a nose twitch; the third is a compound eye blink and nose twitch. Which of these movements is elicited by a click (conditioned stimulus) following associative conditioning is reflected by the pattern of unit activity elicited by the click at the motor cortex. Activity is enhanced, after conditioning, in those units that project polysynaptically to the specific muscles performing the learned movement. This enhancement of activity is, in turn, relatable to an enhanced electrical excitability of the involved neurons. Analogous changes in the excitability of neurons of the motor cortex to applied currents can be produced by local application of cholinergic agents. Iontophoresis of acetylcholine, aceclidine (a cholinomimetic drug), or intracellularly applied cyclic GMP produces changes in single neuron membrane resistance that increase neuronal excitability. The units of the motor cortex that respond preferentially to these agents and to the click conditioned stimuli with short latencies have been identified as pyramidal cells of layer V. The axons of these neurons form the pyramidal tract, a pathway characterized as serving voluntary movement. It appears that this system supports rapid transmission and processing of auditory-motor information used to perform learned movements adaptively, selectively, and discriminatively.

  8. Social perception and aging: The relationship between aging and the perception of subtle changes in facial happiness and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Penton, Tegan; Köybaşı, Şerife Leman; Banissy, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Previous findings suggest that older adults show impairments in the social perception of faces, including the perception of emotion and facial identity. The majority of this work has tended to examine performance on tasks involving young adult faces and prototypical emotions. While useful, this can influence performance differences between groups due to perceptual biases and limitations on task performance. Here we sought to examine how typical aging is associated with the perception of subtle changes in facial happiness and facial identity in older adult faces. We developed novel tasks that permitted the ability to assess facial happiness, facial identity, and non-social perception (object perception) across similar task parameters. We observe that aging is linked with declines in the ability to make fine-grained judgements in the perception of facial happiness and facial identity (from older adult faces), but not for non-social (object) perception. This pattern of results is discussed in relation to mechanisms that may contribute to declines in facial perceptual processing in older adulthood. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

  10. Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

  11. Analysis of 1,545 Fractures of Facial Region—A Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gaddipati, Rajasekhar; Ramisetti, Sudhir; Vura, Nandagopal; Reddy, K. Rajiv; Nalamolu, Bhargav

    2015-01-01

    Incidence and etiology of facial fractures vary from region to region due to various constituents. This study was carried to evaluate the patterns and distribution of fractures in the facial region among different age groups of patients in both males and females caused due to various etiologies. This is a retrospective epidemiological study, which was performed on patients with fractures in the maxillofacial region during a period of 2005 to 2013 at Mamata Dental College and Hospital, Khammam...

  12. Facial emotion recognition is inversely correlated with tremor severity in essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzou, Nicolas; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Dupouy, Sandrine; Meissner, Wassilios G

    2014-04-01

    We here assess limbic and orbitofrontal control in 20 patients with essential tremor (ET) and 18 age-matched healthy controls using the Ekman Facial Emotion Recognition Task and the IOWA Gambling Task. Our results show an inverse relation between facial emotion recognition and tremor severity. ET patients also showed worse performance in joy and fear recognition, as well as subtle abnormalities in risk detection, but these differences did not reach significance after correction for multiple testing.

  13. Lateral facial cleft associated with accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and peripheral facial weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçelik, D; Toplu, G; Türkseven, A; Senses, D A; Yiğit, B

    2014-07-01

    Transverse facial cleft is a very rare malformation. The Tessier no. 7 cleft is a lateral facial cleft which emanates from oral cavity and extends towards the tragus, involving both soft tissue and skeletal components. Here, we present a case having transverse facial cleft, accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and ipsilateral peripheral facial nerve weakness. After surgical repair of the cleft in 2-month of age, improvement of the facial nerve function was detected in 3-year of age. Resection of the accessory mandible was planned in 5-6 years of age.

  14. Facial image identification using Photomodeler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Andersen, Marie; Lauritsen, Helle Petri

    2003-01-01

    consist of many images of the same person taken from different angles. We wanted to see if it was possible to combine such a suite of images in useful 3-D renderings of facial proportions.Fifteen male adults were photographed from four different angles. Based on these photographs, a 3-D wireframe model......We present the results of a preliminary study on the use of 3-D software (Photomodeler) for identification purposes. Perpetrators may be photographed or filmed by surveillance systems. The police may wish to have these images compared to photographs of suspects. The surveillance imagery will often...

  15. Early Observations on Facial Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2015-01-01

    Before Charles Bell's eponymous account of facial palsy, physicians of the Graeco-Roman era had chronicled the condition. The later neglected accounts of the Persian physicians Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari and Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi ("Rhazes") and Avicenna in the first millennium are presented here as major descriptive works preceding the later description by Stalpart van der Wiel in the seventeenth century and those of Friedreich and Bell at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries.

  16. Acute facial palsy in children--a 2-year follow-up study with focus on Lyme neuroborreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogman, B Hedin; Croner, S; Odkvist, L

    2003-06-01

    Acute facial palsy in children is believed to be a rather benign neurological condition. Follow-up-studies are sparse, especially including a thorough otoneurological re-examination. The aim of this study was to examine children with a history of facial palsy in order to register the incidence of complete recovery and the severity and nature of sequelae. We also wanted to investigate whether there was a correlation between sequelae and Lyme Borreliosis, treatment or other health problems. Twenty-seven children with a history of facial palsy were included. A re-examination was performed by an Ear-Nose-Throat (ENT) specialist 1-2.9 years (median 2) after the acute facial palsy. The otoneurological examination included grading the three branches of the facial nerve with the House-Brackman score, otomicroscopy and investigation with Frenzel glasses. A paediatrician interviewed the families. Medical files were analysed. The incidence of complete recovery was 78% at the 2-year follow-up. In six out of 27 children (22%), the facial nerve function was mildly or moderately impaired. Four children reported problems with tear secretion and pronunciation. There was no correlation between sequelae after the facial palsy and gender, age, related symptoms, Lyme neuroborreliosis (NB), treatment, other health problems or performance. One fifth of children with an acute facial palsy get a permanent dysfunction of the facial nerve. Other neurological symptoms or health problems do not accompany the sequelae of the facial palsy. Lyme NB or treatment seems to have no correlation to clinical outcome. Factors of importance for complete recovery after an acute facial palsy are still not known.

  17. Electromyographic monitoring of facial nerve under different levels of neuromuscular blockade during middle ear microsurgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yi-rong; XU Jing; CHEN Lian-hua; CHI Fang-lu

    2009-01-01

    Background The evoked electromyography (EMG) is frequently used to identify facial nerve in order to prevent its damage during surgeries. Partial neuromuscular blockade (NMB) has been suggested to favor EMG activity and insure patients' safety. The aim of this study was to determine an adequate level of NMB correspondent to sensible facial nerve identification by evaluating the relationship between facial EMG responses and peripheral NMB levels during the middle ear surgeries.Methods Facial nerve evoked EMG and NMB monitoring were performed simultaneously in 40 patients who underwent tympanoplasty. Facial electromyographic responses were recorded by insertion of needle electrodes into the orbicularis oris and orbicularis oculi muscles after electrical stimulation on facial nerve. The NMB was observed objectively with the hypothenar muscle's twitching after electrical stimulation of ulnar nerve, and the intensity of blockade was adjusted at levels of 0, 25%, 50%, 75%, 90%, and 100% respectively with increased intravenous infusion of Rocuronium (muscle relaxant).Results All of the patients had detectable EMG responses at the levels of NMB ≤50%. Four out of forty patients had no EMG response at the levels of NMB ≥75%. A significant linear positive correlation was present between stimulation thresholds and NMB levels while a linear negative correlation was present between EMG amplitudes and NMB levels.Conclusions The facial nerve monitoring via facial electromyographic responses can be obtained when an intraoperative partial neuromuscular blockade is induced to provide an adequate immobilization of the patient. The 50% NMB should be considered as the choice of anesthetic management for facial nerve monitoring in otologic microsurgery based on the relationship of correlation.

  18. Is facial emotion recognition impairment in schizophrenia identical for different emotions? A signal detection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Daniel T; Lee, Kwang-Hyuk; Khokhar, Waqqas A; Mir, Nusrat U; Swalli, Jaspal S; Gee, Kate A; Pluck, Graham; Woodruff, Peter W R

    2008-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have difficulty recognising the emotion that corresponds to a given facial expression. According to signal detection theory, two separate processes are involved in facial emotion perception: a sensory process (measured by sensitivity which is the ability to distinguish one facial emotion from another facial emotion) and a cognitive decision process (measured by response criterion which is the tendency to judge a facial emotion as a particular emotion). It is uncertain whether facial emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia are primarily due to impaired sensitivity or response bias. In this study, we hypothesised that individuals with schizophrenia would have both diminished sensitivity and different response criteria in facial emotion recognition across different emotions compared with healthy controls. Twenty-five individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia were compared with age and IQ matched healthy controls. Participants performed a "yes-no" task by indicating whether the 88 Ekman faces shown briefly expressed one of the target emotions in three randomly ordered runs (happy, sad and fear). Sensitivity and response criteria for facial emotion recognition was calculated as d-prime and In(beta) respectively using signal detection theory. Patients with schizophrenia showed diminished sensitivity (d-prime) in recognising happy faces, but not faces that expressed fear or sadness. By contrast, patients exhibited a significantly less strict response criteria (In(beta)) in recognising fearful and sad faces. Our results suggest that patients with schizophrenia have a specific deficit in recognising happy faces, whereas they were more inclined to attribute any facial emotion as fearful or sad.

  19. The relationships between processing facial identity, emotional expression, facial speech, and gaze direction during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Sibylle M; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Korell, Monika; Maier-Karius, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with 5- to 11-year-olds and adults to investigate whether facial identity, facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction are processed independently of or in interaction with one another. In a computer-based, speeded sorting task, participants sorted faces according to facial identity while disregarding facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction or, alternatively, according to facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction while disregarding facial identity. Reaction times showed that children and adults were able to direct their attention selectively to facial identity despite variations of other kinds of face information, but when sorting according to facial speech and emotional expression, they were unable to ignore facial identity. In contrast, gaze direction could be processed independently of facial identity in all age groups. Apart from shorter reaction times and fewer classification errors, no substantial change in processing facial information was found to be correlated with age. We conclude that adult-like face processing routes are employed from 5 years of age onward.

  20. Facial-affect recognition and visual scanning behaviour in the course of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, M; Wölwer, W; Gaebel, W

    1997-04-11

    The performance of schizophrenic in-patients in facial expression identification was assessed in an acute phase and in a partly remitted phase of the illness. During visual exploration of the face stimuli, the patient's eye movements were recorded using an infrared-corneal-reflection technique. Compared to healthy controls, patients demonstrated a significant deficit in facial-affect recognition. In addition, schizophrenics differed from controls in several eye movement parameters such as length of mean scan path and mean duration of fixation. Both the facial-affect recognition deficit and the eye movement abnormalities remained stable over time. However, performance in facial-affect recognition and eye movement abnormalities were not correlated. Patients with flattened affect showed relatively selective scan pattern characteristics. In contrast, affective flattening was not correlated with performance in facial-affect recognition. Dosage of neuroleptic medication did not affect the results. The main findings of the study suggest that schizophrenia is associated with disturbances in primarily unrelated neurocognitive operations mediating visuomotor processing and facial expression analysis. Given their time stability, the disturbances might have a trait-like character.

  1. Guiding atypical facial growth back to normal. Part 1: Understanding facial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galella, Steve; Chow, Daniel; Jones, Earl; Enlow, Donald; Masters, Ari

    2011-01-01

    Many practitioners find the complexity of facial growth overwhelming and thus merely observe and accept the clinical features of atypical growth and do not comprehend the long-term consequences. Facial growth and development is a strictly controlled biological process. Normal growth involves ongoing bone remodeling and positional displacement. Atypical growth begins when this biological balance is disturbed With the understanding of these processes, clinicians can adequately assess patients and determine the causes of these atypical facial growth patterns and design effective treatment plans. This is the first of a series of articles which addresses normal facial growth, atypical facial growth, patient assessment, causes of atypical facial growth, and guiding facial growth back to normal.

  2. Fast Facial Detection by Depth Map Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Shieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain correct facial recognition results, one needs to adopt appropriate facial detection techniques. Moreover, the effects of facial detection are usually affected by the environmental conditions such as background, illumination, and complexity of objectives. In this paper, the proposed facial detection scheme, which is based on depth map analysis, aims to improve the effectiveness of facial detection and recognition under different environmental illumination conditions. The proposed procedures consist of scene depth determination, outline analysis, Haar-like classification, and related image processing operations. Since infrared light sources can be used to increase dark visibility, the active infrared visual images captured by a structured light sensory device such as Kinect will be less influenced by environmental lights. It benefits the accuracy of the facial detection. Therefore, the proposed system will detect the objective human and face firstly and obtain the relative position by structured light analysis. Next, the face can be determined by image processing operations. From the experimental results, it demonstrates that the proposed scheme not only improves facial detection under varying light conditions but also benefits facial recognition.

  3. Facial Mimicry in its Social Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate eSeibt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In interpersonal encounters, individuals often exhibit changes in their own facial expressions in response to emotional expressions of another person. Such changes are often called facial mimicry. While this tendency first appeared to be an automatic tendency of the perceiver to show the same emotional expression as the sender, evidence is now accumulating that situation, person, and relationship jointly determine whether and for which emotions such congruent facial behavior is shown. We review the evidence regarding the moderating influence of such factors on facial mimicry with a focus on understanding the meaning of facial responses to emotional expressions in a particular constellation. From this, we derive recommendations for a research agenda with a stronger focus on the most common forms of encounters, actual interactions with known others, and on assessing potential mediators of facial mimicry. We conclude that facial mimicry is modulated by many factors: attention deployment and sensitivity, detection of valence, emotional feelings, and social motivations. We posit that these are the more proximal causes of changes in facial mimicry due to changes in its social setting.

  4. Large destructive facial hemangioma in PHACE syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagdeve N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an infant who presented with large facial hemangioma associated with Dandy-Walker cyst and atrial septal defect. This case is peculiar in that the large facial hemangioma in posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, coarctation of aorta and other cardiac defects (PHACE syndrome resulted in massive tissue destruction.

  5. Immunobiology of Facial Nerve Repair and Regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Shi-ming; GAO Zhi-qiang

    2006-01-01

    Immunobiological study is a key to revealing the important basis of facial nerve repair and regeneration for both research and development of clinic treatments. The microenvironmental changes around an injuried facial motoneuron, i.e., the aggregation and expression of various types of immune cells and molecules in a dynamic equilibrium, impenetrate from the start to the end of the repair of an injured facial nerve. The concept of "immune microenvironment for facial nerve repair and regeneration", mainly concerns with the dynamic exchange between expression and regulation networks and a variaty of immune cells and immune molecules in the process of facial nerve repair and regeneration for the maintenance of a immune microenvironment favorable for nerve repair.Investigation on microglial activation and recruitment, T cell behavior, cytokine networks, and immunological cellular and molecular signaling pathways in facial nerve repair and regeneration are the current hot spots in the research on immunobiology of facial nerve injury. The current paper provides a comprehensive review of the above mentioned issues. Research of these issues will eventually make immunological interventions practicable treatments for facial nerve injury in the clinic.

  6. The Facial Adipose Tissue: A Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglikov, Ilja; Trujillo, Oscar; Kristen, Quick; Isac, Kerelos; Zorko, Julia; Fam, Maria; Okonkwo, Kasie; Mian, Asima; Thanh, Hyunh; Koban, Konstantin; Sclafani, Anthony P; Steinke, Hanno; Cotofana, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Recent advantages in the anatomical understanding of the face have turned the focus toward the subcutaneous and deep facial fat compartments. During facial aging, these fat-filled compartments undergo substantial changes along with other structures in the face. Soft tissue filler and fat grafting are valid methods to fight the signs of facial aging, but little is known about their precise effect on the facial fat. This narrative review summarizes the current knowledge about the facial fat compartments in terms of anatomical location, histologic appearance, immune-histochemical characteristics, cellular interactions, and therapeutic options. Three different types of facial adipose tissue can be identified, which are located either superficially (dermal white adipose tissue) or deep (subcutaneous white adipose tissue): fibrous (perioral locations), structural (major parts of the midface), and deposit (buccal fat pad and deep temporal fat pad). These various fat types differ in the size of the adipocytes and the collagenous composition of their extracellular matrix and thus in their mechanical properties. Minimal invasive (e.g., soft tissue fillers or fat grafting) and surgical interventions aiming to restore the youthful face have to account for the different fat properties in various facial areas. However, little is known about the macro- and microscopic characteristics of the facial fat tissue in different compartments and future studies are needed to reveal new insights to better understand the process of aging and how to fight its signs best.

  7. Facial nerve palsy and hemifacial spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Solé, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Facial nerve lesions are usually benign conditions even though patients may present with emotional distress. Facial palsy usually resolves in 3-6 weeks, but if axonal degeneration takes place, it is likely that the patient will end up with a postparalytic facial syndrome featuring synkinesis, myokymic discharges, and hemifacial mass contractions after abnormal reinnervation. Essential hemifacial spasm is one form of facial hyperactivity that must be distinguished from synkinesis after facial palsy and also from other forms of facial dyskinesias. In this condition, there can be ectopic discharges, ephaptic transmission, and lateral spread of excitation among nerve fibers, giving rise to involuntary muscle twitching and spasms. Electrodiagnostic assessment is of relevance for the diagnosis and prognosis of peripheral facial palsy and hemifacial spasm. In this chapter the most relevant clinical and electrodiagnostic aspects of the two disorders are reviewed, with emphasis on the various stages of facial palsy after axonal degeneration, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the various features of hemifacial spasm, and the cues for differential diagnosis between the two entities.

  8. [Recognition of facial emotions and theory of mind in schizophrenia: could the theory of mind deficit be due to the non-recognition of facial emotions?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besche-Richard, C; Bourrin-Tisseron, A; Olivier, M; Cuervo-Lombard, C-V; Limosin, F

    2012-06-01

    The deficits of recognition of facial emotions and attribution of mental states are now well-documented in schizophrenic patients. However, we don't clearly know about the link between these two complex cognitive functions, especially in schizophrenia. In this study, we attempted to test the link between the recognition of facial emotions and the capacities of mentalization, notably the attribution of beliefs, in health and schizophrenic participants. We supposed that the level of performance of recognition of facial emotions, compared to the working memory and executive functioning, was the best predictor of the capacities to attribute a belief. Twenty schizophrenic participants according to DSM-IVTR (mean age: 35.9 years, S.D. 9.07; mean education level: 11.15 years, S.D. 2.58) clinically stabilized, receiving neuroleptic or antipsychotic medication participated in the study. They were matched on age (mean age: 36.3 years, S.D. 10.9) and educational level (mean educational level: 12.10, S.D. 2.25) with 30 matched healthy participants. All the participants were evaluated with a pool of tasks testing the recognition of facial emotions (the faces of Baron-Cohen), the attribution of beliefs (two stories of first order and two stories of second order), the working memory (the digit span of the WAIS-III and the Corsi test) and the executive functioning (Trail Making Test A et B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test brief version). Comparing schizophrenic and healthy participants, our results confirmed a difference between the performances of the recognition of facial emotions and those of the attribution of beliefs. The result of the simple linear regression showed that the recognition of facial emotions, compared to the performances of working memory and executive functioning, was the best predictor of the performances in the theory of mind stories. Our results confirmed, in a sample of schizophrenic patients, the deficits in the recognition of facial emotions and in the

  9. Photographic Standards for Patients With Facial Palsy and Recommendations by Members of the Sir Charles Bell Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Katherine B; Fattah, Adel; Gavilán, Javier; Hadlock, Tessa A; Snyder-Warwick, Alison K

    2017-07-01

    There is no widely accepted assessment tool or common language used by clinicians caring for patients with facial palsy, making exchange of information challenging. Standardized photography may represent such a language and is imperative for precise exchange of information and comparison of outcomes in this special patient population. To review the literature to evaluate the use of facial photography in the management of patients with facial palsy and to examine the use of photography in documenting facial nerve function among members of the Sir Charles Bell Society-a group of medical professionals dedicated to care of patients with facial palsy. A literature search was performed to review photographic standards in patients with facial palsy. In addition, a cross-sectional survey of members of the Sir Charles Bell Society was conducted to examine use of medical photography in documenting facial nerve function. The literature search and analysis was performed in August and September 2015, and the survey was conducted in August and September 2013. The literature review searched EMBASE, CINAHL, and MEDLINE databases from inception of each database through September 2015. Additional studies were identified by scanning references from relevant studies. Only English-language articles were eligible for inclusion. Articles that discussed patients with facial palsy and outlined photographic guidelines for this patient population were included in the study. The survey was disseminated to the Sir Charles Bell Society members in electronic form. It consisted of 10 questions related to facial grading scales, patient-reported outcome measures, other psychological assessment tools, and photographic and videographic recordings. In total, 393 articles were identified in the literature search, 7 of which fit the inclusion criteria. Six of the 7 articles discussed or proposed views specific to patients with facial palsy. However, none of the articles specifically focused on

  10. A review of facial nerve anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myckatyn, Terence M; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2004-02-01

    An intimate knowledge of facial nerve anatomy is critical to avoid its inadvertent injury during rhytidectomy, parotidectomy, maxillofacial fracture reduction, and almost any surgery of the head and neck. Injury to the frontal and marginal mandibular branches of the facial nerve in particular can lead to obvious clinical deficits, and areas where these nerves are particularly susceptible to injury have been designated danger zones by previous authors. Assessment of facial nerve function is not limited to its extratemporal anatomy, however, as many clinical deficits originate within its intratemporal and intracranial components. Similarly, the facial nerve cannot be considered an exclusively motor nerve given its contributions to taste, auricular sensation, sympathetic input to the middle meningeal artery, and parasympathetic innervation to the lacrimal, submandibular, and sublingual glands. The constellation of deficits resulting from facial nerve injury is correlated with its complex anatomy to help establish the level of injury, predict recovery, and guide surgical management.

  11. Warfare facial trauma: who will treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, D K

    1996-09-01

    Most of the facial trauma in the United States is treated in trauma centers in large urban or university medical centers, with limited trauma care taking place in our military medical treatment facilities. In many cases, active duty facial trauma surgeons may lack the current experience necessary for the optimal care of facial wounds of our inquired military personnel in the early stages of the conflict. Consequently, the skills of the reservist trauma surgeons who staff our civilian trauma centers and who care for facial trauma victims daily will be critical in caring for our wounded. These "trauma-current" reservists may act as a cadre of practiced surgeons to aid those with less experience. A plan for refresher training of active duty facial trauma surgeons is presented.

  12. Acro-cardio-facial syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallapiccola Bruno

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acro-cardio-facial syndrome (ACFS is a rare genetic disorder characterized by split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM, facial anomalies, cleft lip/palate, congenital heart defect (CHD, genital anomalies, and mental retardation. Up to now, 9 patients have been described, and most of the reported cases were not surviving the first days or months of age. The spectrum of defects occurring in ACFS is wide, and both interindividual variability and clinical differences among sibs have been reported. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, since the genetic mechanism underlying ACFS is still unknown. The differential diagnosis includes other disorders with ectrodactyly, and clefting conditions associated with genital anomalies and heart defects. An autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance has been suggested, based on parental consanguinity and disease's recurrence in sibs in some families. The more appropriate recurrence risk of transmitting the disease for the parents of an affected child seems to be up to one in four. Management of affected patients includes treatment of cardiac, respiratory, and feeding problems by neonatal pediatricians and other specialists. Prognosis of ACFS is poor.

  13. [Progressive bone elongation of the maxillo-facial area: mandibular distraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, M A; Parri, F J; Rivera, A; Grande, C; Sarget, R; Casal, C; Morales, L

    2000-10-01

    Thanks to the distraction osteogenesis technique, it is nowadays possible to create new bone in the facial area. Between january 1997 and march 1999 we have performed 20 such procedures, from which 15 were mandibular. We present our experience in 10 patients with this new technique, 5 unilateral and 5 bilateral. Those were 7 boys and 3 girls, aged 2 to 14 years, affected with hemifacial microsomia, Goldenhar syndrome: 3; retrognatism with severe malocclusion: 4; facial assimetry due temporomandibular joint abnormalities: 2; and facial assimetry: 1. The proposed elongation was achieved in all cases. There was not only a skeletal improvement, but also growth and remodeling of the facial soft tissues. Distraction osteogenesis is the early treatment of the mandibulofacial deformities and offers a great deal of advantages to the growing patient.

  14. Central retinal artery occlusion with concomitant ipsilateral cerebral infarction after cosmetic facial injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeong-Ho; Ahn, Seong Joon; Woo, Se Joon; Jung, Cheolkyu; Chang, Jun Young; Chung, Jin-Heon; Han, Moon-Ku

    2014-11-15

    We report 2 cases of central retinal artery occlusion with concomitant ipsilateral cerebral infarction after cosmetic facial injections and a literature review. The 2 patients were two healthy women, in which cosmetic facial injections with autologous fat and filler were performed, respectively. The patients had no light perception at the final visit and their conditions led to memory retrieval disturbance in case 1 and right arm weakness, dysarthria, facial palsy, and ophthalmoplegia in case 2. Neuroimaging showed multifocal small infarctions in the ipsilateral frontal lobe with occlusion of the ophthalmic artery in case 1 and multiple infarctions in the ipsilateral anterior and middle cerebral artery territories with subsequent hemorrhagic transformation in case 2. Poor visual prognosis and neurological complications can occur in healthy adults undergoing cosmetic facial injection, and all patients should be informed of this risk before the procedure.

  15. Psychopathic traits in adolescents and recognition of emotion in facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio José Lemos Vasconcellos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have investigated the ability of adult psychopaths and children with psychopathy traits to identify specific facial expressions of emotion. Conclusive results have not yet been found regarding whether psychopathic traits are associated with a specific deficit in the ability of identifying negative emotions such as fear and sadness. This study compared 20 adolescents with psychopathic traits and 21 adolescents without these traits in terms of their ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion using facial stimuli presented during 200 milliseconds, 500 milliseconds, and 1 second expositions. Analyses indicated significant differences between the two groups' performances only for fear and when displayed for 200 ms. This finding is consistent with findings from other studies in the field and suggests that controlling the duration of exposure to affective stimuli in future studies may help to clarify the mechanisms underlying the facial affect recognition deficits of individuals with psychopathic traits.

  16. Automated classification of female facial beauty by image analysis and supervised learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Hatice; Piccardi, Massimo; Jan, Tony

    2004-01-01

    The fact that perception of facial beauty may be a universal concept has long been debated amongst psychologists and anthropologists. In this paper, we performed experiments to evaluate the extent of beauty universality by asking a number of diverse human referees to grade a same collection of female facial images. Results obtained show that the different individuals gave similar votes, thus well supporting the concept of beauty universality. We then trained an automated classifier using the human votes as the ground truth and used it to classify an independent test set of facial images. The high accuracy achieved proves that this classifier can be used as a general, automated tool for objective classification of female facial beauty. Potential applications exist in the entertainment industry and plastic surgery.

  17. Verbal bias in recognition of facial emotions in children with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, J B; Klin, A; Carter, A S; Volkmar, F R

    2000-03-01

    Thirteen children and adolescents with diagnoses of Asperger syndrome (AS) were matched with 13 nonautistic control children on chronological age and verbal IQ. They were tested on their ability to recognize simple facial emotions, as well as facial emotions paired with matching, mismatching, or irrelevant verbal labels. There were no differences between the groups at recognizing simple emotions but the Asperger group performed significantly worse than the control group at recognizing emotions when faces were paired with mismatching words (but not with matching or irrelevant words). The results suggest that there are qualitative differences from nonclinical populations in how children with AS process facial expressions. When presented with a more demanding affective processing task, individuals with AS showed a bias towards visual-verbal over visual-affective information (i.e., words over faces). Thus, children with AS may be utilizing compensatory strategies, such as verbal mediation, to process facial expressions of emotion.

  18. Forensic Facial Reconstruction: Relationship Between the Alar Cartilage and Piriform Aperture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapasson, Raíssa Ananda Paim; Herrera, Lara Maria; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2017-03-29

    During forensic facial reconstruction, facial features may be predicted based on the parameters of the skull. This study evaluated the relationships between alar cartilage and piriform aperture and nose morphology and facial typology. Ninety-six cone beam computed tomography images of Brazilian subjects (49 males and 47 females) were used in this study. OsiriX software was used to perform the following measurements: nasal width, distance between alar base insertion points, lower width of the piriform aperture, and upper width of the piriform aperture. Nasal width was associated with the lower width of the piriform aperture, sex, skeletal vertical pattern of the face, and age. The current study contributes to the improvement of forensic facial guides by identifying the relationships between the alar cartilages and characteristics of the biological profile of members of a population that has been little studied thus far. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. COMBINED TREATMENT OF 200CASES OF PERIPHERY FACIAL PARALYSIS WITH ACUPUNCTURE AND CHINESE MEDICINAL HERBS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoHeping

    2000-01-01

    In the present study,200cases of periphery facial paralysis were treated with combined therapies of handle needle,electroacupuncture(EA),electronic moxibustion and oral administration of Supplemented Qianzheng San.After treatment,of the200cases,176were cured,15had marked im-provement and 9had improvement.Two groups of acupoints were chosen and used alternately for keeping the excitement of acupoints,preventing acupoint fatigue and raising the therapeutic effect.In the acute stage of periphery facial palsy,acupuncture treatment was performed using shallow needing,mild manipulation and no needing penetration.In the convalescence stage and sequela stage,penetra-tion needling was adopted and stronger stimulation given.During acute period and when facial muscu-lar spasm appeared,EA stimulation was not suitable for facial acupoints.Over use of vision should be avoided.

  20. Mouth breathing: adverse effects on facial growth, health, academics, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Yosh

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of health care professionals are unaware of the negative impact of upper airway obstruction (mouth breathing) on normal facial growth and physiologic health. Children whose mouth breathing is untreated may develop long, narrow faces, narrow mouths, high palatal vaults, dental malocclusion, gummy smiles, and many other unattractive facial features, such as skeletal Class II or Class III facial profiles. These children do not sleep well at night due to obstructed airways; this lack of sleep can adversely affect their growth and academic performance. Many of these children are misdiagnosed with attention deficit disorder (ADD) and hyperactivity. It is important for the entire health care community (including general and pediatric dentists) to screen and diagnose for mouth breathing in adults and in children as young as 5 years of age. If mouth breathing is treated early, its negative effect on facial and dental development and the medical and social problems associated with it can be reduced or averted.

  1. Intranasal oxytocin increases facial expressivity, but not ratings of trustworthiness, in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, J D; Chuang, B; Fussell, C; Scherer, S; Biagianti, B; Fulford, D; Mathalon, D H; Vinogradov, S

    2017-05-01

    Blunted facial affect is a common negative symptom of schizophrenia. Additionally, assessing the trustworthiness of faces is a social cognitive ability that is impaired in schizophrenia. Currently available pharmacological agents are ineffective at improving either of these symptoms, despite their clinical significance. The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin has multiple prosocial effects when administered intranasally to healthy individuals and shows promise in decreasing negative symptoms and enhancing social cognition in schizophrenia. Although two small studies have investigated oxytocin's effects on ratings of facial trustworthiness in schizophrenia, its effects on facial expressivity have not been investigated in any population. We investigated the effects of oxytocin on facial emotional expressivity while participants performed a facial trustworthiness rating task in 33 individuals with schizophrenia and 35 age-matched healthy controls using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Participants rated the trustworthiness of presented faces interspersed with emotionally evocative photographs while being video-recorded. Participants' facial expressivity in these videos was quantified by blind raters using a well-validated manualized approach (i.e. the Facial Expression Coding System; FACES). While oxytocin administration did not affect ratings of facial trustworthiness, it significantly increased facial expressivity in individuals with schizophrenia (Z = -2.33, p = 0.02) and at trend level in healthy controls (Z = -1.87, p = 0.06). These results demonstrate that oxytocin administration can increase facial expressivity in response to emotional stimuli and suggest that oxytocin may have the potential to serve as a treatment for blunted facial affect in schizophrenia.

  2. Reduced facial reactivity as a contributor to preserved emotion regulation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedder, David J; Terrett, Gill; Bailey, Phoebe E; Henry, Julie D; Ruffman, Ted; Rendell, Peter G

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated whether differences in the type of strategy used, or age-related differences in intensity of facial reactivity, might contribute to preserved emotion regulation ability in older adults. Young (n = 35) and older (n = 33) adults were instructed to regulate their emotion to positive and negative pictures under 3 conditions (watch, expressive suppression, cognitive 'detached' reappraisal). Participants were objectively monitored using facial electromyography (EMG) and assessed on memory performance. Both age groups were effectively, and equivalently, able to reduce their facial expressions. In relation to facial reactivity, the percentage increase of older adults' facial muscle EMG activity in the watch condition was significantly reduced relative to young adults. Recall of pictures following regulation was similar to the watch condition, and there was no difference in memory performance between the 2 regulation strategies for both groups. These findings do not support the proposal that the type of strategy used explains preserved emotion regulation ability in older adults. Coupled with the lack of memory costs following regulation, these data instead are more consistent with the suggestion that older adults may retain emotion regulation capacity partly because they exhibit less facial reactivity to begin with.

  3. Transformation of Face Transplants: Volumetric and Morphologic Graft Changes Resemble Aging After Facial Allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueckelhaus, M; Turk, M; Kumamaru, K K; Wo, L; Bueno, E M; Lian, C G; Alhefzi, M; Aycart, M A; Fischer, S; De Girolami, U; Murphy, G F; Rybicki, F J; Pomahac, B

    2016-03-01

    Facial allotransplantation restores normal anatomy to severely disfigured faces. Although >30 such operations performed worldwide have yielded promising short-term results, data on long-term outcomes remain scarce. Three full-face transplant recipients were followed for 40 months. Severe changes in volume and composition of the facial allografts were noted. Data from computed tomography performed 6, 18 and 36 months after transplantation were processed to separate allograft from recipient tissues and further into bone, fat and nonfat soft tissues. Skin and muscle biopsies underwent diagnostic evaluation. All three facial allografts sustained significant volume loss (mean 19.55%) between 6 and 36 months after transplant. Bone and nonfat soft tissue volumes decreased significantly over time (17.22% between months 6 and 18 and 25.56% between months 6 and 36, respectively), whereas fat did not. Histological evaluations showed atrophy of muscle fibers. Volumetric and morphometric changes in facial allografts have not been reported previously. The transformation of facial allografts in this study resembled aging through volume loss but differed substantially from regular aging. These findings have implications for risk-benefit assessment, donor selection and measures counteracting muscle and bone atrophy. Superior long-term outcomes of facial allotransplantation will be crucial to advance toward future clinical routine.

  4. Facial orientation and facial shape in extant great apes: a geometric morphometric analysis of covariation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Neaux

    Full Text Available The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hypotheses in a sample of adult specimens belonging to three extant hominid genera (Homo, Pan and Gorilla. Intraspecific variation and covariation patterns are analyzed using geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics, such as partial least squared on three-dimensional landmarks coordinates. Our results indicate significant intraspecific covariation between facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. Hominids share similar characteristics in the relationship between anterior facial shape and facial block orientation. Modern humans exhibit a specific pattern in the covariation between anterior facial shape and basicranial flexion. This peculiar feature underscores the role of modern humans' highly-flexed basicranium in the overall integration of the cranium. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the reduction of the value of the cranial base angle and a downward rotation of the facial block in modern humans, and to a lesser extent in chimpanzees.

  5. Automated Facial Action Coding System for dynamic analysis of facial expressions in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jihun; Kohler, Christian G; Gur, Ruben C; Verma, Ragini

    2011-09-15

    Facial expression is widely used to evaluate emotional impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Ekman and Friesen's Facial Action Coding System (FACS) encodes movements of individual facial muscles from distinct momentary changes in facial appearance. Unlike facial expression ratings based on categorization of expressions into prototypical emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, etc.), FACS can encode ambiguous and subtle expressions, and therefore is potentially more suitable for analyzing the small differences in facial affect. However, FACS rating requires extensive training, and is time consuming and subjective thus prone to bias. To overcome these limitations, we developed an automated FACS based on advanced computer science technology. The system automatically tracks faces in a video, extracts geometric and texture features, and produces temporal profiles of each facial muscle movement. These profiles are quantified to compute frequencies of single and combined Action Units (AUs) in videos, and they can facilitate a statistical study of large populations in disorders known to impact facial expression. We derived quantitative measures of flat and inappropriate facial affect automatically from temporal AU profiles. Applicability of the automated FACS was illustrated in a pilot study, by applying it to data of videos from eight schizophrenia patients and controls. We created temporal AU profiles that provided rich information on the dynamics of facial muscle movements for each subject. The quantitative measures of flatness and inappropriateness showed clear differences between patients and the controls, highlighting their potential in automatic and objective quantification of symptom severity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Facial Expression Spacial Charts for Describing Dynamic Diversity of Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Madokoro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new framework to describe individual facial expression spaces, particularly addressing the dynamic diversity of facial expressions that appear as an exclamation or emotion, to create a unique space for each person. We name this framework Facial Expression Spatial Charts (FESCs. The FESCs are created using Self– Organizing Maps (SOMs and Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART of unsupervised neural networks. For facial images with emphasized sparse representations using Gabor wavelet filters, SOMs extract topological information in facial expression images and classify them as categories in the fixed space that are decided by the number of units on the mapping layer. Subsequently, Fuzzy ART integrates categories classified by SOMs using adaptive learning functions under fixed granularity that is controlled by the vigilance parameter. The categories integrated by Fuzzy ART are matched to Expression Levels (ELs for quantifying facial expression intensity based on the arrangement of facial expressions on Russell’s circumplex model. We designate the category that contains neutral facial expression as the basis category. Actually, FESCs can visualize and represent dynamic diversity of facial expressions consisting of ELs extracted from facial expressions. In the experiment, we created an original facial expression dataset consisting of three facial expressions—happiness, anger, and sadness— obtained from 10 subjects during 7–20 weeks at one-week intervals. Results show that the method can adequately display the dynamic diversity of facial expressions between subjects, in addition to temporal changes in each subject. Moreover, we used stress measurement sheets to obtain temporal changes of stress for analyzing psychological effects of the stress that subjects feel. We estimated stress levels of four grades using Support Vector Machines (SVMs. The mean estimation rates for all 10 subjects and for 5 subjects over more than

  7. Perceptual expertise in forensic facial image comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Phillips, P Jonathon; Hahn, Carina A; Hill, Matthew; O'Toole, Alice J

    2015-09-07

    Forensic facial identification examiners are required to match the identity of faces in images that vary substantially, owing to changes in viewing conditions and in a person's appearance. These identifications affect the course and outcome of criminal investigations and convictions. Despite calls for research on sources of human error in forensic examination, existing scientific knowledge of face matching accuracy is based, almost exclusively, on people without formal training. Here, we administered three challenging face matching tests to a group of forensic examiners with many years' experience of comparing face images for law enforcement and government agencies. Examiners outperformed untrained participants and computer algorithms, thereby providing the first evidence that these examiners are experts at this task. Notably, computationally fusing responses of multiple experts produced near-perfect performance. Results also revealed qualitative differences between expert and non-expert performance. First, examiners' superiority was greatest at longer exposure durations, suggestive of more entailed comparison in forensic examiners. Second, experts were less impaired by image inversion than non-expert students, contrasting with face memory studies that show larger face inversion effects in high performers. We conclude that expertise in matching identity across unfamiliar face images is supported by processes that differ qualitatively from those supporting memory for individual faces.

  8. Facial nucleus up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA following electroacupuncture treatment in a rabbit model of facial nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Gao; Bangyu Ju; Guohua Jiang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of acupuncture treatment on peripheral facial nerve injury is generally accepted. However, the mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To validate the effect of acupoint electro-stimulation on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in the facial nucleus of rabbits with facial nerve injury, with the hypothesis that acupuncture treatment efficacy is related to BDNE DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Peripheral facial nerve injury, in situ hybridization, and randomized, controlled, animal trial. The experiment was performed at the Laboratory of Anatomy, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine from March to September 2005. MATERIALS: A total of 120 healthy, adult, Japanese rabbits, with an equal number of males and females were selected. Models of peripheral facial nerve injury were established using the facial nerve pressing method. METHODS: The rabbits were randomly divided into five groups (n = 24): sham operation, an incision to the left facial skin, followed by suture; model, no treatment following facial nerve model establishment; western medicine, 10 mg vitamin B1, 50 μg vitamin B12, and dexamethasone (2 mg/d, reduced to half every 7 days) intramuscular injection starting with the first day following lesion, once per day; traditional acupuncture, acupuncture at Yifeng, Quanliao, Dicang, Jiache, Sibai, and Yangbai acupoints using a acupuncture needle with needle twirling every 10 minutes, followed by needle retention for 30 minutes, for successive 5 days; electroacupuncture, similar to the traditional acupuncture group, the Yifeng (negative electrode), Jiache (positive electrode), Dicang (negative electrode), and Sibai (positive electrode) points were connected to an universal pulse electro-therapeutic apparatus for 30 minutes per day, with disperse-dense waves for successive 5 days, and resting for 2 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Left hemisphere brain stem tissues were harvested on post-operative days 7, 14

  9. Real Time Facial Expression Recognition Using a Novel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumil Srivastava

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a novel method for Facial Expression Recognition System which performs facial expression analysis in a near real time from a live web cam feed. Primary objectives were to get results in a near real time with light invariant, person independent and pose invariant way. The system is composed of two different entities trainer and evaluator. Each frame of video feed is passed through a series of steps including haar classifiers, skin detection, feature extraction, feature points tracking, creating a learned Support Vector Machine model to classify emotions to achieve a tradeoff between accuracy and result rate. A processing time of 100-120 ms per 10 frames was achieved with accuracy of around 60%. We measure our accuracy in terms of variety of interaction and classification scenarios. We conclude by discussing relevance of our work to human computer interaction and exploring further measures that can be taken.

  10. [Facial diplegia as the presenting feature of Lyme disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesourd, A; Ngo, S; Sauvêtre, G; Héron, F; Levesque, H; Marie, I

    2015-05-01

    Diagnosis of neuroborreliosis may be difficult. Neuroborreliosis mainly results in lymphocytic meningitis and in meningoradiculitis (67-83% of cases). We report the case of a patient who developed a sudden facial diplegia, revealing neuroborreliosis proved by positive blood and cerebrospinal fluid serology. The patient had no previous history of tick bite and migrans erythema. The patient was given ceftriaxone therapy (2 g/day for 21 days), leading to resolution of all clinical symptoms. Our report underscores that neuroborreliosis should be considered in patients exhibiting facial diplegia. Thus, Lyme serology should be performed systematically in these patients. Altogether, early management is crucial, before the onset of neurological manifestations at late stage, leading to disabling sequelae despite antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2014 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Face Identification from Manipulated Facial Images using SIFT

    CERN Document Server

    Chennamma, H R; Veerabhadrappa,

    2011-01-01

    Editing on digital images is ubiquitous. Identification of deliberately modified facial images is a new challenge for face identification system. In this paper, we address the problem of identification of a face or person from heavily altered facial images. In this face identification problem, the input to the system is a manipulated or transformed face image and the system reports back the determined identity from a database of known individuals. Such a system can be useful in mugshot identification in which mugshot database contains two views (frontal and profile) of each criminal. We considered only frontal view from the available database for face identification and the query image is a manipulated face generated by face transformation software tool available online. We propose SIFT features for efficient face identification in this scenario. Further comparative analysis has been given with well known eigenface approach. Experiments have been conducted with real case images to evaluate the performance of ...

  12. Facial Feature Extraction Method Based on Coefficients of Variances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Xi Song; David Zhang; Cai-Kou Chen; Jing-Yu Yang

    2007-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) are two popular feature ex- traction techniques in statistical pattern recognition field. Due to small sample size problem LDA cannot be directly applied to appearance-based face recognition tasks. As a consequence, a lot of LDA-based facial feature extraction techniques are proposed to deal with the problem one after the other. Nullspace Method is one of the most effective methods among them. The Nullspace Method tries to find a set of discriminant vectors which maximize the between-class scatter in the null space of the within-class scatter matrix. The calculation of its discriminant vectors will involve performing singular value decomposition on a high-dimensional matrix. It is generally memory- and time-consuming. Borrowing the key idea in Nullspace method and the concept of coefficient of variance in statistical analysis we present a novel facial feature extraction method, i.e., Discriminant based on Coefficient of Variance (DCV) in this paper. Experimental results performed on the FERET and AR face image databases demonstrate that DCV is a promising technique in comparison with Eigenfaces, Nullspace Method, and other state-of-the-art facial feature extraction methods.

  13. Delayed facial palsy after microvascular decompression: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Lakshmi Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microvascular decompression (MVD is a novel surgical procedure predominantly performed for treating trigeminal neuralgia (TN and hemifacial spasm (HS. Multiple studies have proven the long-term success of MVD for both these conditions. The most common complications of MVD reported include chemical meningitis, facial hypesthesia, cerebrospinal fluid leak, facial paresis, and hearing loss. Delayed facial palsy (DFP is an uncommon complication mostly noted in MVD for HS and after the removal of acoustic tumors. We report two cases of DFP occurring after performing MVD, one each for HS and TN. This is also the first case of DFP to be reported after MVD for TN. Both were young females who developed DFP 2 weeks after surgery. They were managed with oral steroids and acyclovir for 2–3 weeks and achieved excellent outcome at an average of 4.5 weeks from the onset. We conclude that although majority of the cases improve spontaneously, steroids and acyclovir might assist in faster recovery.

  14. Facial Beautification Method Based on Age Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan; DING Shou-hong; HU Gan-le; MA Li-zhuang

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new facial beautification method using facial rejuvenation based on the age evolution. Traditional facial beautification methods only focus on the color of skin and deformation and do the transformation based on an experimental standard of beauty. Our method achieves the beauty effect by making facial image looks younger, which is different from traditional methods and is more reasonable than them. Firstly, we decompose the image into different layers and get a detail layer. Secondly, we get an age-related parameter:the standard deviation of the Gaussian distribution that the detail layer follows, and the support vector machine (SVM) regression is used to fit a function about the age and the standard deviation. Thirdly, we use this function to estimate the age of input image and generate a new detail layer with a new standard deviation which is calculated by decreasing the age. Lastly, we combine the original layers and the new detail layer to get a new face image. Experimental results show that this algo-rithm can make facial image become more beautiful by facial rejuvenation. The proposed method opens up a new way about facial beautification, and there are great potentials for applications.

  15. Amblyopia Associated with Congenital Facial Nerve Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Hitoshi; Kondo, Kenji; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Baba, Shintaro; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    The association between congenital facial paralysis and visual development has not been thoroughly studied. Of 27 pediatric cases of congenital facial paralysis, we identified 3 patients who developed amblyopia, a visual acuity decrease caused by abnormal visual development, as comorbidity. These 3 patients had facial paralysis in the periocular region and developed amblyopia on the paralyzed side. They started treatment by wearing an eye patch immediately after diagnosis and before the critical visual developmental period; all patients responded to the treatment. Our findings suggest that the incidence of amblyopia in the cases of congenital facial paralysis, particularly the paralysis in the periocular region, is higher than that in the general pediatric population. Interestingly, 2 of the 3 patients developed anisometropic amblyopia due to the hyperopia of the affected eye, implying that the periocular facial paralysis may have affected the refraction of the eye through yet unspecified mechanisms. Therefore, the physicians who manage facial paralysis should keep this pathology in mind, and when they see pediatric patients with congenital facial paralysis involving the periocular region, they should consult an ophthalmologist as soon as possible. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Milutinovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of a patient’s facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP. Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions.

  17. The identification of unfolding facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Schmidt, Susanna; Viviani, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    We asked whether the identification of emotional facial expressions (FEs) involves the simultaneous perception of the facial configuration or the detection of emotion-specific diagnostic cues. We recorded at high speed (500 frames s-1) the unfolding of the FE in five actors, each expressing six emotions (anger, surprise, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness). Recordings were coded every 10 frames (20 ms of real time) with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al 2002, Salt Lake City, UT: Research Nexus eBook) to identify the facial actions contributing to each expression, and their intensity changes over time. Recordings were shown in slow motion (1/20 of recording speed) to one hundred observers in a forced-choice identification task. Participants were asked to identify the emotion during the presentation as soon as they felt confident to do so. Responses were recorded along with the associated response times (RTs). The RT probability density functions for both correct and incorrect responses were correlated with the facial activity during the presentation. There were systematic correlations between facial activities, response probabilities, and RT peaks, and significant differences in RT distributions for correct and incorrect answers. The results show that a reliable response is possible long before the full FE configuration is reached. This suggests that identification is reached by integrating in time individual diagnostic facial actions, and does not require perceiving the full apex configuration.

  18. A comparison of facial expression properties in five hylobatid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheider, Linda; Liebal, Katja; Oña, Leonardo; Burrows, Anne; Waller, Bridget

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about facial communication of lesser apes (family Hylobatidae) and how their facial expressions (and use of) relate to social organization. We investigated facial expressions (defined as combinations of facial movements) in social interactions of mated pairs in five different hylobat

  19. A dynamic appearance descriptor approach to facial actions temporal modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Bihan; Valstar, Michel; Martinez, Brais; Pantic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Both the configuration and the dynamics of facial expressions are crucial for the interpretation of human facial behavior. Yet to date, the vast majority of reported efforts in the field either do not take the dynamics of facial expressions into account, or focus only on prototypic facial expression

  20. Facial Grading System: Physical and Psychological Impairments to Be Considered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Meng-yao; FENG Guo-dong; GAO Zhi-qiang

    2008-01-01

    In the past half century, more than twenty facial grading systems have been developed to assess the facial nerve function after the onset of facial nerve paralysis and during rehabilitation. Patients' selfevaluation on disability caused by facial paralysis and its impact on quality of life are also useful information in planning treatment strategies and defining outcomes.

  1. Supramaximal stimulation during intraoperative facial nerve monitoring as a simple parameter to predict early functional outcome after parotidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamelle, Elisabeth; Bernat, Isabelle; Pichon, Soizic; Granger, Benjamin; Sain-Oulhen, Charlotte; Lamas, Georges; Tankéré, Frédéric

    2013-07-01

    A supramaximal stimulation at 2 mA during intraoperative electromyographic (EMG) facial nerve monitoring appears to be a simple and effective parameter to predict immediate postoperative injury. To assess the role of systematic intraoperative facial nerve monitoring in predicting the early functional outcomes obtained after parotidectomy. Data were collected from patients who underwent parotidectomy. Intraoperative EMG monitoring of the facial nerve was performed by registering two parameters, event intensity (>100 μV) and amplitude of response after a supramaximal stimulation at 2 mA, at the beginning and end of gland removal. Early postoperative clinical functional facial nerve disorder was assessed at day 2. Overall, 50 patients were included and an early facial dysfunction was detected in 27 cases (54%). The maximal response amplitude after supramaximal stimulation at the trunk of the facial nerve was higher in patients with normal facial function compared with those with poor outcomes at the end of surgery (p stimulation thresholds, were indicative of a nerve conduction block and were significantly lower in the patient group with a poor outcome compared with the group with a normal facial outcome (p < 0.02).

  2. Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    The face is a vital component of one’s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecting social life and general quality of life are vital and the plastic surgeon should be aware of such issues and competent to deal with them in patients and families. PMID:21217982

  3. Fusing Facial Features for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Ahmad Dargham

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is an important biometric method because of its potential applications in many fields, such as access control, surveillance, and human-computer interaction. In this paper, a face recognition system that fuses the outputs of three face recognition systems based on Gabor jets is presented. The first system uses the magnitude, the second uses the phase, and the third uses the phase-weighted magnitude of the jets. The jets are generated from facial landmarks selected using three selection methods. It was found out that fusing the facial features gives better recognition rate than either facial feature used individually regardless of the landmark selection method.

  4. Razi's description and treatment of facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmood; Kalantar Hormozi, Abdoljalil; Asadi, Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    In the modern medical era, facial paralysis is linked with the name of Charles Bell. This disease, which is usually unilateral and is a peripheral facial palsy, causes facial muscle weakness in the affected side. Bell gave a complete description of the disease; but historically other physicians had described it several hundred years prior although it had been ignored for different reasons, such as the difficulty of the original text language. The first and the most famous of these physicians who described this disease was Mohammad Ibn Zakaryya Razi (Rhazes). In this article, we discuss his opinion.

  5. Bullous leukemia cutis mimicking facial cellulitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldato, Luciana de Sales; Britto, Juliana de Sousa; Niero-Melo, Ligia; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2016-01-01

    Bullous leukemia cutis is an uncommon clinical manifestation of cutaneous infiltration by leukemic cells, from B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We present the case of a 67-year-old, female, chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient. She was taking chlorambucil and developed facial edema with erythema and warmth, misjudged as facial cellulitis. Two days later, she developed bullous lesions in the arms, legs, neck and face. The histopathology of facial and bullous lesions confirmed leukemia cutis. All lesions disappeared following the administration of rituximab combined with cycles of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide. Although soft tissue infections are common complications in patients undergoing chemotherapy, leukemia cutis can also resemble cellulitis. PMID:27192532

  6. Intratemporal Hemangiomas Involving the Facial Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sanjaya; Karmarkar, Sandeep; Calabrese, V.; Landolfi, Mauro; Taibah, Abdelkader; Russo, Alessandra; Mazzoni, Antonio; Sanna, Mario

    1995-01-01

    Intratemporal vascular tumors involving the facial nerve are rare benign lesions. Because of their variable clinical features, they are often misdiagnosed preoperatively. This study presents a series of 21 patients with such lesions managed from 1977 to 1994. Facial nerve dysfunction was the most common complaint, present in 60% of the cases, followed by hearing loss, present in 40% of cases. High-resolution computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium, and a high index of clinical suspicion is required for preoperative diagnosis of these lesions. Early surgical resection of these tumors permits acceptable return of facial nerve function in many patients. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:17170963

  7. Valid facial cues to cooperation and trust: male facial width and trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirrat, M; Perrett, D I

    2010-03-01

    Decisions about whom to trust are biased by stable facial traits such as attractiveness, similarity to kin, and perceived trustworthiness. Research addressing the validity of facial trustworthiness or its basis in facial features is scarce, and the results have been inconsistent. We measured male trustworthiness operationally in trust games in which participants had options to collaborate for mutual financial gain or to exploit for greater personal gain. We also measured facial (bizygomatic) width (scaled for face height) because this is a sexually dimorphic, testosterone-linked trait predictive of male aggression. We found that men with greater facial width were more likely to exploit the trust of others and that other players were less likely to trust male counterparts with wide rather than narrow faces (independent of their attractiveness). Moreover, manipulating this facial-width ratio with computer graphics controlled attributions of trustworthiness, particularly for subordinate female evaluators.

  8. Impaired Overt Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Sayaka; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Previous electromyographic studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibited atypical patterns of facial muscle activity in response to facial expression stimuli. However, whether such activity is expressed in visible facial mimicry remains unknown. To investigate this issue, we videotaped facial responses in…

  9. The role of facial skeletal augmentation and dental restoration in facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, J W; Elia, J P

    1994-01-01

    Facial aging is almost exclusively a result of soft tissue changes in patients with full dentition. Loss of teeth can hasten facial aging and make aging more pronounced as a result of bony erosion of the alveolar ridges. This article describes these changes and demonstrates that properly selected oral implants and precisely placed hydroxyapatite implants can integrate with facelifts to produce superior facial rejuvenation in edentulous patients.

  10. Rhinoplasty and facial asymmetry: Analysis of subjective and anthropometric factors in the Caucasian nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anthropometric proportions and symmetry are considered determinants of beauty. These parameters have significant importance in facial plastic surgery, particularly in rhinoplasty. As the central organ of the face, the nose is especially important in determining facial symmetry, both through the perception of a crooked nose and through the determination of facial growth. The evaluation of the presence of facial asymmetry has great relevance preoperatively, both for surgical planning and counseling. Aim/Objective: To evaluate and document the presence of facial asymmetry in patients during rhinoplasty planning and to correlate the anthropometric measures with the perception of facial symmetry or asymmetry, assessing whether there is a higher prevalence of facial asymmetry in these patients compared to volunteers without nasal complaints. Methods: This prospective study was performed by comparing photographs of patients with rhinoplasty planning and volunteers (controls, n = 201, and by evaluating of anthropometric measurements taken from a line passing through the center of the face, until tragus, medial canthus, corner side wing margin, and oral commissure of each side, by statistical analysis (Z test and odds ratio. Results: None of the patients or volunteers had completely symmetric values. Subjectively, 59% of patients were perceived as asymmetric, against 54% of volunteers. Objectively, more than 89% of respondents had asymmetrical measures. Patients had greater RLMTr (MidLine Tragus Ratio asymmetry than volunteers, which was statistically significant. Discussion/Conclusion: Facial asymmetries are very common in patients seeking rhinoplasty, and special attention should be paid to these aspects both for surgical planning and for counseling of patients.

  11. Processing of facial blends of emotion: support for right hemisphere cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodan, Calin I; Orbelo, Diana M; Ross, Elliott D

    2007-02-01

    Clinical research on facial emotions has focused primarily on differences between right and left hemiface. Social psychology, however, has suggested that differences between upper versus lower facial displays may be more important, especially during social interactions. We demonstrated previously that upper facial displays are perceived preferentially by the right hemisphere, while lower facial displays are perceived preferentially by the left hemisphere. A marginal age-related effect was observed. The current research expands our original cohort to include 26 elderly individuals over age 62. Fifty-six, strongly right-handed, healthy, adult volunteers were tested tachistoscopically by flashing randomized facial displays of emotion to the right and left visual fields. The stimuli consisted of line drawings displaying various combinations of emotions on the upper and lower face. The subjects were tested under two conditions: without attend instruction and with instructions to attend to the upper face. Based on linear regression and discriminant analyses modeling age, subject performance could be divided into two distinct groups: Young ( 62 years). Without attend instructions, both groups robustly identified the emotion displayed on the lower face, regardless of visual field presentation. With instructions to attend to the upper face, the Old group demonstrated a markedly decreased ability to identify upper facial displays, compared to the Young group. The most significant difference was noted in the left visual field/right hemisphere. Our results demonstrate a significant decline in the processing of upper facial emotions by the right hemisphere in older individuals, thus providing partial support for the right hemisphere hypothesis of cognitive aging. The decreased ability to perceive upper facial displays coupled with age-related deficits in processing affective prosody may well cause impaired psychosocial competency in the elderly.

  12. Facial emotion and identity processing development in 5- to 15-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Patrick J; Kaufman, Jordy; Bajic, Julie; Sercombe, Alicia; Michie, Patricia T; Karayanidis, Frini

    2011-01-01

    Most developmental studies of emotional face processing to date have focused on infants and very young children. Additionally, studies that examine emotional face processing in older children do not distinguish development in emotion and identity face processing from more generic age-related cognitive improvement. In this study, we developed a paradigm that measures processing of facial expression in comparison to facial identity and complex visual stimuli. The three matching tasks were developed (i.e., facial emotion matching, facial identity matching, and butterfly wing matching) to include stimuli of similar level of discriminability and to be equated for task difficulty in earlier samples of young adults. Ninety-two children aged 5-15 years and a new group of 24 young adults completed these three matching tasks. Young children were highly adept at the butterfly wing task relative to their performance on both face-related tasks. More importantly, in older children, development of facial emotion discrimination ability lagged behind that of facial identity discrimination.

  13. Orthodromic Transfer of the Temporalis Muscle in Incomplete Facial Nerve Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Ho Aum

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Temporalis muscle transfer produces prompt surgical results with a one-stage operation in facial palsy patients. The orthodromic method is surgically simple, and the vector of muscle action is similar to the temporalis muscle action direction. This article describes transferring temporalis muscle insertion to reconstruct incomplete facial nerve palsy patients.Methods Between August 2009 and November 2011, 6 unilateral incomplete facial nerve palsy patients underwent surgery for orthodromic temporalis muscle transfer. A preauricular incision was performed to expose the mandibular coronoid process. Using a saw, the coronoid process was transected. Three strips of the fascia lata were anchored to the muscle of the nasolabial fold through subcutaneous tunneling. The tension of the strips was adjusted by observing the shape of the nasolabial fold. When optimal tension was achieved, the temporalis muscle was sutured to the strips. The surgical results were assessed by comparing pre- and postoperative photographs. Three independent observers evaluated the photographs.Results The symmetry of the mouth corner was improved in the resting state, and movement of the oral commissure was enhanced in facial animation after surgery.Conclusions The orthodromic transfer of temporalis muscle technique can produce prompt results by applying the natural temporalis muscle vector. This technique preserves residual facial nerve function in incomplete facial nerve palsy patients and produces satisfying cosmetic outcomes without malar muscle bulging, which often occurs in the turn-over technique.

  14. Facial Emotion and Identity Processing Development in 5- to 15-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eJohnston

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most developmental studies of emotional face processing to date have focussed on infants and very young children. Additionally, studies that examine emotional face processing in older children do not distinguish development in emotion and identity face processing from more generic age-related cognitive improvement. In this study, we developed a paradigm that measures processing of facial expression in comparison to facial identity and complex visual stimuli. The three matching tasks were developed (i.e., facial emotion matching, facial identity matching and butterfly wing matching to include stimuli of similar level of discriminability and to be equated for task difficulty in earlier samples of young adults. Ninety two children aged 5 to 15 years and a new group of 24 young adults completed these three matching tasks. Young children were highly adept at the butterfly wing task relative to their performance on both face-related tasks. More importantly, in older children, development of facial emotion discrimination ability lagged behind that of facial identity discrimination.

  15. Facial Expression Recognition Based on Features Derived From the Distinct LBP and GLCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorti Satyanarayana Murty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recognition of facial expressions can be an important component of natural human-machine interfaces; it may also be used in behavioural science and in clinical practice. Although humans recognise facial expressions virtually without effort or delay, reliable expression recognition by machine is still a challenge. This paper, presents recognition of facial expression by integrating the features derived from Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM with a new structural approach derived from distinct LBP’s (DLBP ona 3 x 3 First order Compressed Image (FCI. The proposed method precisely recognizes the 7 categories of expressions i.e.: neutral, happiness, sadness, surprise, anger, disgust and fear. The proposed method contains three phases. In the first phase each 5 x 5 sub image is compressed into a 3 x 3 sub image. The second phase derives two distinct LBP’s (DLBP using the Triangular patterns between the upper and lower parts of the 3 x 3 sub image. In the third phase GLCM is constructed based on the DLBP’s and feature parameters are evaluated for precise facial expression recognition. The derived DLBP is effective because it integrated with GLCM and provides better classification performance. The proposed method overcomes the disadvantages of statistical and formal LBP methods in estimating the facial expressions. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on facial expression recognition.

  16. [Summery and recommendations for acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Qiang; Yu, Su; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2011-12-01

    Articles on acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were picked up from CNKI database. The retrieved original studies were evaluated and summarized. The problems of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were analyzed, and concrete solutions were proposed. Problems that differential diagnosis, prognosis, treatment of severe facial paralysis, and identification of sequelae and compliation were not embasized in clinical treatment of facial paralysis. Consequently, the effectiveness of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis will be improved by sloving above problems.

  17. Quantitative facial asymmetry: using three-dimensional photogrammetry to measure baseline facial surface symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Helena O; Morrison, Clinton S; Linden, Olivia; Phillips, Benjamin; Chang, Johnny; Byrne, Margaret E; Sullivan, Stephen R; Forrest, Christopher R

    2014-01-01

    Although symmetry is hailed as a fundamental goal of aesthetic and reconstructive surgery, our tools for measuring this outcome have been limited and subjective. With the advent of three-dimensional photogrammetry, surface geometry can be captured, manipulated, and measured quantitatively. Until now, few normative data existed with regard to facial surface symmetry. Here, we present a method for reproducibly calculating overall facial symmetry and present normative data on 100 subjects. We enrolled 100 volunteers who underwent three-dimensional photogrammetry of their faces in repose. We collected demographic data on age, sex, and race and subjectively scored facial symmetry. We calculated the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the native and reflected faces, reflecting about a plane of maximum symmetry. We analyzed the interobserver reliability of the subjective assessment of facial asymmetry and the quantitative measurements and compared the subjective and objective values. We also classified areas of greatest asymmetry as localized to the upper, middle, or lower facial thirds. This cluster of normative data was compared with a group of patients with subtle but increasing amounts of facial asymmetry. We imaged 100 subjects by three-dimensional photogrammetry. There was a poor interobserver correlation between subjective assessments of asymmetry (r = 0.56). There was a high interobserver reliability for quantitative measurements of facial symmetry RMSD calculations (r = 0.91-0.95). The mean RMSD for this normative population was found to be 0.80 ± 0.24 mm. Areas of greatest asymmetry were distributed as follows: 10% upper facial third, 49% central facial third, and 41% lower facial third. Precise measurement permitted discrimination of subtle facial asymmetry within this normative group and distinguished norms from patients with subtle facial asymmetry, with placement of RMSDs along an asymmetry ruler. Facial surface symmetry, which is poorly assessed

  18. Facial rehabilitation: a neuromuscular reeducation, patient-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanswearingen, Jessie

    2008-05-01

    Individuals with facial paralysis and distorted facial expressions and movements secondary to a facial neuromotor disorder experience substantial physical, psychological, and social disability. Previously, facial rehabilitation has not been widely available or considered to be of much benefit. An emerging rehabilitation science of neuromuscular reeducation and evidence for the efficacy of facial neuromuscular reeducation, a process of facilitating the return of intended facial movement patterns and eliminating unwanted patterns of facial movement and expression, may provide patients with disorders of facial paralysis or facial movement control opportunity for the recovery of facial movement and function. We provide a brief overview of the scientific rationale for facial neuromuscular reeducation in the structure and function of the facial neuromotor system, the neuropsychology of facial expression, and relations among expressions, movement, and emotion. The primary purpose is to describe principles of neuromuscular reeducation, assessment and outcome measures, approach to treatment, the process, including surface-electromyographic biofeedback as an adjunct to reeducation, and the goal of enhancing the recovery of facial expression and function in a patient-centered approach to facial rehabilitation.

  19. Men's facial masculinity: when (body) size matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzleitner, Iris J; Hunter, David W; Tiddeman, Bernard P; Seck, Alassane; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that judgments of facial masculinity reflect more than sexually dimorphic shape. Here, we investigated whether the perception of masculinity is influenced by facial cues to body height and weight. We used the average differences in three-dimensional face shape of forty men and forty women to compute a morphological masculinity score, and derived analogous measures for facial correlates of height and weight based on the average face shape of short and tall, and light and heavy men. We found that facial cues to body height and weight had substantial and independent effects on the perception of masculinity. Our findings suggest that men are perceived as more masculine if they appear taller and heavier, independent of how much their face shape differs from women's. We describe a simple method to quantify how body traits are reflected in the face and to define the physical basis of psychological attributions.

  20. Wavelet based approach for facial expression recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Abidin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition is one of the most active fields of research. Many facial expression recognition methods have been developed and implemented. Neural networks (NNs have capability to undertake such pattern recognition tasks. The key factor of the use of NN is based on its characteristics. It is capable in conducting learning and generalizing, non-linear mapping, and parallel computation. Backpropagation neural networks (BPNNs are the approach methods that mostly used. In this study, BPNNs were used as classifier to categorize facial expression images into seven-class of expressions which are anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, neutral and surprise. For the purpose of feature extraction tasks, three discrete wavelet transforms were used to decompose images, namely Haar wavelet, Daubechies (4 wavelet and Coiflet (1 wavelet. To analyze the proposed method, a facial expression recognition system was built. The proposed method was tested on static images from JAFFE database.

  1. Recurrent facial urticaria following herpes simplex labialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawar, Vijay; Godse, Kiran

    2012-03-01

    We describe recurrent acute right-sided facial urticaria associated with herpes labialis infection in a middle-aged female patient. Antiviral medications and antihistamines not only successfully cleared the herpes infection and urticaria but also prevented further recurrences.

  2. Recurrent facial urticaria following herpes simplex labialis

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Zawar; Kiran Godse

    2012-01-01

    We describe recurrent acute right-sided facial urticaria associated with herpes labialis infection in a middle-aged female patient. Antiviral medications and antihistamines not only successfully cleared the herpes infection and urticaria but also prevented further recurrences.

  3. [Facial paralysis: functional and aesthetic rehabilitation techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveze, A; Paris, J

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of a permanent facial paralysis can be devastating to a patient, because of the cosmetic, functional and psychological disorders. Our society places on physical appearance and leads to isolation of patients who are embarrassed with their paralyzed face. The objectives of the facial rehabilitation is to correct the functional and cosmetic losses of the patient. The main functional goals are to protect the eye and reestablish oral competence. The primary cosmetic goals are to create balance and symmetry of the face at rest and to reestablish the coordinated movement of the facial musculature. The surgeon should be familiar with the variety of options available so that an individual plan can be developed based on each patient's clinical picture. History of the facial paralysis, its etiology and the duration of the paralysis are of particular interest as they orientate the rehabilitation plan strategy.

  4. Facial reconstruction using 3-D computer graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanezi, P; Vanezis, M; McCombe, G; Niblett, T

    2000-02-14

    Facial reconstruction using 3-D computer graphics is being used in our institute as a routine procedure in forensic cases as well as for skulls of historical and archaeological interest. Skull and facial data from living subjects is acquired using an optical laser scanning system. For the production of the reconstructed image, we employ facial reconstruction software which is constructed using the TCL/Tk scripting language, the latter making use of the C3D system. The computer image may then be exported to enable the production of a solid model, employing, for example, stereolithography. The image can also be modified within an identikit system which allows the addition of facial features as appropriate.

  5. Role of diode lasers in oro-facial pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, F; Kellesarian, S V; Romanos, G E

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing use of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in clinical dentistry, the aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of diode lasers in the management of orofacial pain. Indexed databases were searched without language and time restrictions up to and including July 2016 using different combinations of the following key words: oral, low level laser therapy, dental, pain, diode lasers, discomfort and analgesia. From the literature reviewed it is evident that LLLT is effective compared to traditional procedures in the management of oro-facial pain associated to soft tissue and hard tissue conditions such as premalignant lesions, gingival conditions and dental extractions. However, it remains to be determined which particular wavelength will produce the more favorable and predictable outcome in terms of pain reduction. It is highly recommended that further randomized control trials with well-defined control groups should be performed to determine the precise wavelengths of the diode lasers for the management of oro-facial pain. Within the limits of the present review, it is concluded that diode lasers therapy is more effective in the management of oro-facial pain compared to traditional procedures.

  6. Facial Feature Extraction Using Frequency Map Series in PCNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rencan Nie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulse coupled neural network (PCNN has been widely used in image processing. The 3D binary map series (BMS generated by PCNN effectively describes image feature information such as edges and regional distribution, so BMS can be treated as the basis of extracting 1D oscillation time series (OTS for an image. However, the traditional methods using BMS did not consider the correlation of the binary sequence in BMS and the space structure for every map. By further processing for BMS, a novel facial feature extraction method is proposed. Firstly, consider the correlation among maps in BMS; a method is put forward to transform BMS into frequency map series (FMS, and the method lessens the influence of noncontinuous feature regions in binary images on OTS-BMS. Then, by computing the 2D entropy for every map in FMS, the 3D FMS is transformed into 1D OTS (OTS-FMS, which has good geometry invariance for the facial image, and contains the space structure information of the image. Finally, by analyzing the OTS-FMS, the standard Euclidean distance is used to measure the distances for OTS-FMS. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of OTS-FMS in facial recognition, and it shows better recognition performance than other feature extraction methods.

  7. Attachment avoidance modulates neural response to masked facial emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, Thomas; Kugel, Harald; Rauch, Astrid Veronika; Dannlowski, Udo; Bauer, Jochen; Konrad, Carsten; Arolt, Volker; Heindel, Walter; Ohrmann, Patricia

    2009-11-01

    According to recent models of individual differences in attachment organization, a basic dimension of adult attachment is avoidance. Attachment-related avoidance corresponds to tendencies to withdraw from close relationships and to an unwillingness to rely on others. In the formation of attachment orientation during infancy facial emotional interaction plays a central role. There exists an inborn very rapid decoding capacity for facial emotional expression. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine differences in automatic brain reactivity to facial emotions as a function of attachment avoidance in a sample of 51 healthy adults. Pictures of sad and happy faces (which are approach-related interpersonal signals) were presented masked by neutral faces. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) was used to assess the attachment avoidance. Masked sad faces activated the amygdala, the insula, occipito-temporal areas, and the somatosensory cortices. Independently from trait anxiety, depressivity, and detection performance, attachment avoidance was found to be inversely related to responses of the primary somatosensory cortex (BA 3) to masked sad faces. A low spontaneous responsivity of the primary somatosensory cortex to negative faces could be a correlate of the habitual unwillingness to deal with partners' distress and needs for proximity. The somatosensory cortices are known to be critically involved in the processes of emotional mimicry and simulation which have the potential to increase social affiliation. Our data are consistent with the idea that people who withdraw from close relationships respond spontaneously to a lesser extent to negative interpersonal emotional signals than securely attached individuals.

  8. Facial biometrics based on 2D vector geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Obaidul; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios; Androutsos, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    The main challenge of facial biometrics is its robustness and ability to adapt to changes in position orientation, facial expression, and illumination effects. This research addresses the predominant deficiencies in this regard and systematically investigates a facial authentication system in the Euclidean domain. In the proposed method, Euclidean geometry in 2D vector space is being constructed for features extraction and the authentication method. In particular, each assigned point of the candidates' biometric features is considered to be a 2D geometrical coordinate in the Euclidean vector space. Algebraic shapes of the extracted candidate features are also computed and compared. The proposed authentication method is being tested on images from the public "Put Face Database". The performance of the proposed method is evaluated based on Correct Recognition (CRR), False Acceptance (FAR), and False Rejection (FRR) rates. The theoretical foundation of the proposed method along with the experimental results are also presented in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Characteristics of the perception for unilateral facial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sue Jean; Park, Kyung Tae; Kim, Yoonjoong; Park, Joo Hyun; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-11-01

    Patients with facial nerve palsy (FNP) are actually evaluated by other people rather than doctors or the patients themselves. This study was performed to investigate the characteristics of the perception of unilateral FNP in Korean people. A questionnaire using photographs of four patients with four different grades (House-Brackmann) of FNP was given to two hundred people with no FNP. Subjects of each gender, ranging from 20 to 69 years of age, participated. The questionnaire, showing facial expressions of resting, smiling, whistling, eye closing, and frowning, consisted of questions concerning the identification and the involved side of FNP, the unnatural areas of the face, and the unnaturalness of the facial expressions. The overall identification rate of FNP was 75.0%. The identification rate increased according to the increase in the grade of the patient's FNP (p FNP according to education level. However, the overall detection rate of the involved side was higher in the high-education group (p FNP was lower than the rate of identification of FNP and was significantly low in the middle-aged/elderly and low-education level groups.

  10. Body actions change the appearance of facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    Full Text Available Perception, cognition, and emotion do not operate along segregated pathways; rather, their adaptive interaction is supported by various sources of evidence. For instance, the aesthetic appraisal of powerful mood inducers like music can bias the facial expression of emotions towards mood congruency. In four experiments we showed similar mood-congruency effects elicited by the comfort/discomfort of body actions. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure, we let participants perform comfortable/uncomfortable visually-guided reaches and tested them in a facial emotion identification task. Through the alleged mediation of motor action induced mood, action comfort enhanced the quality of the participant's global experience (a neutral face appeared happy and a slightly angry face neutral, while action discomfort made a neutral face appear angry and a slightly happy face neutral. Furthermore, uncomfortable (but not comfortable reaching improved the sensitivity for the identification of emotional faces and reduced the identification time of facial expressions, as a possible effect of hyper-arousal from an unpleasant bodily experience.

  11. Photometric facial analysis of the Igbo Nigerian adult male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukoha Ukoha Ukoha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A carefully performed facial analysis can serve as a strong foundation for successful facial reconstructive and plastic surgeries, rhinoplasty or orthodontics. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the facial features and qualities of the Igbo Nigerian adult male using photometry. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects aged between 18 and 28 years were studied at the Anambra State University, Uli, Nigeria. The frontal and right lateral view photographs of their faces were taken and traced out on tracing papers. On these, two vertical distances, nasion to subnasal and subnasale to menton, and four angles, nasofrontal (NF, nasofacial, nasomental (NM and mentocervical, were measured. Results: The result showed that the Igbo Nigerian adult male had a middle face that was shorter than the lower one (41.76% vs.58.24%, a moderate glabella (NF=133.97°, a projected nose (NM=38.68° and a less prominent chin (NM=125.87°. Conclusion: This study is very important in medical practice as it can be used to compare the pre- and post-operative results of plastic surgery and other related surgeries of the face.

  12. The facial skeleton: Armor to the brain?

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Satishkumar G.; Patil, Bindu S.; Joshi, Udupikrishna; Allurkar, Soumya; Japatti, Sharanabasappa; Munnangi, Ashwini

    2016-01-01

    Background: With the development of urban setting worldwide, the major issue of concern is the increase in the mortality rate in the population due to road traffic accidents. The face, being the most exposed region is susceptible to injuries and maybe associated with injuries to the adjacent neuro-cranium. The literature has conflicting views on the relationship between facial fractures and head injuries with some authors opining that the facial skeleton cushions the brain while some other au...

  13. Penetrating facial injury by a wooden log

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Sadanandan; Varghese, George; Kumar, Sanjay; Subramanian, Dinesh Pambungal

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating facial injuries are potentially dangerous and require emergency management because of the presence of vital structures in the face and it may be life threatening especially when the injury involves airway, major blood vessels, spinal cord and cervical spines. Penetrating injuries of facial region can occur due to missile injuries, blast injuries, accidental fall on sharp objects such as sticks or glass and motor vehicle accidents etc., Indications for immediate surgical management...

  14. Facial age affects emotional expression decoding

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions convey important information on emotional states of our interaction partners. However, in interactions between younger and older adults, there is evidence for a reduced ability to accurately decode emotional facial expressions. Previous studies have often followed up this phenomenon by examining the effect of the observers' age. However, decoding emotional faces is also likely to be influenced by stimulus features, and age-related changes in the face such as wrinkles and fo...

  15. Facial age affects emotional expression decoding

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions convey important information on emotional states of our interaction partners. However, in interactions between younger and older adults, there is evidence for a reduced ability to accurately decode emotional facial expressions.Previous studies have often followed up this phenomenon by examining the effect of the observers’ age. However, decoding emotional faces is also likely to be influenced by stimulus features, and age-related changes in the face such as wrinkles and fol...

  16. Chronic Facial Pain: A Clinical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Marotta, Joseph T.

    1983-01-01

    Facial pain is a common presenting complaint requiring patience and diagnostic acumen. The proliferation of eponyms attached to various syndromes complicates the subject. The most frequent cause of pain is likely to be muscle spasm in masticatory or temporalis muscles. This article presents a rank order for the common causes of facial pain that present diagnostic difficulty, such as temporomandibular joint pain, trigeminal neuralgia, giant cell arteritis, and post-herpetic neuralgia.

  17. Fronto-facial advancement and bipartition in Crouzon-Pfeiffer and Apert syndromes: Impact of fronto-facial surgery upon orbital and airway parameters in FGFR2 syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Roman H; Way, Benjamin; Nysjö, Johan; Odri, Guillaume A; Olszewski, Raphaël; Evans, Robert D; Dunaway, David J; Nyström, Ingela; Britto, Jonathan A

    2016-10-01

    A major concern in FGFR2 craniofaciosynostosis is oculo-orbital disproportion, such that orbital malformation provides poor accommodation and support for the orbital contents and peri-orbita, leading to insufficient eyelid closure, corneal exposure and eventually to functional visual impairment. Fronto-facial monobloc osteotomy followed by distraction osteogenesis aims to correct midfacial growth deficiencies in Crouzon-Pfeiffer syndrome patients. Fronto-facial bipartition osteotomy followed by distraction is a procedure of choice in Apert syndrome patients. These procedures modify the shape and volume of the orbit and tend to correct oculo-orbital disproportion. Little is known about the detailed 3D shape of the orbital phenotype in CPS and AS, and about how this is modified by fronto-facial surgery. Twenty-eight patients with CMS, 13 patients with AS and 40 control patients were included. CT scans were performed before and after fronto-facial surgery. Late post-operative scans were available for the Crouzon-Pfeiffer syndrome group. Orbital morphology was investigated using conventional three-dimensional cephalometry and shape analysis after mesh-based segmentation of the orbital contents. We characterized the 3D morphology of CPS and AS orbits and showed how orbital shape is modified by surgery. We showed that monobloc-distraction in CPS and bipartition-distraction in AS specifically address the morphological characteristics of the two syndromes. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Facial nerve paralysis after cervical traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Edmund Cheung

    2010-10-01

    Cervical traction is a frequently used treatment in rehabilitation clinics for cervical spine problems. This modality works, in principle, by decompressing the spinal cord or its nerve roots by applying traction on the cervical spine through a harness placed over the mandible (Olivero et al., Neurosurg Focus 2002;12:ECP1). Previous reports on treatment complications include lumbar radicular discomfort, muscle injury, neck soreness, and posttraction pain (LaBan et al., Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992;73:295-6; Lee et al., J Biomech Eng 1996;118:597-600). Here, we report the first case of unilateral facial nerve paralysis developed after 4 wks of intermittent cervical traction therapy. Nerve conduction velocity examination revealed a peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis. Symptoms of facial nerve paralysis subsided after prednisolone treatment and suspension of traction therapy. It is suspected that a misplaced or an overstrained harness may have been the cause of facial nerve paralysis in this patient. Possible causes were (1) direct compression by the harness on the right facial nerve near its exit through the stylomastoid foramen; (2) compression of the right external carotid artery by the harness, causing transient ischemic injury at the geniculate ganglion; or (3) coincidental herpes zoster virus infection or idiopathic Bell's palsy involving the facial nerve.

  19. Forensic Facial Reconstruction: The Final Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sonia; Gupta, Vineeta; Vij, Hitesh; Vij, Ruchieka; Tyagi, Nutan

    2015-09-01

    Forensic facial reconstruction can be used to identify unknown human remains when other techniques fail. Through this article, we attempt to review the different methods of facial reconstruction reported in literature. There are several techniques of doing facial reconstruction, which vary from two dimensional drawings to three dimensional clay models. With the advancement in 3D technology, a rapid, efficient and cost effective computerized 3D forensic facial reconstruction method has been developed which has brought down the degree of error previously encountered. There are several methods of manual facial reconstruction but the combination Manchester method has been reported to be the best and most accurate method for the positive recognition of an individual. Recognition allows the involved government agencies to make a list of suspected victims'. This list can then be narrowed down and a positive identification may be given by the more conventional method of forensic medicine. Facial reconstruction allows visual identification by the individual's family and associates to become easy and more definite.

  20. Similarities in Aegyptopithecus and Afropithecus facial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leakey, M G; Leakey, R E; Richtsmeier, J T; Simons, E L; Walker, A C

    1991-01-01

    Recently discovered cranial fossils from the Oligocene deposits of the Fayum depression in Egypt provide many details of the facial morphology of Aegyptopithecus zeuxis. Similar features are found in the Miocene hominoid Afropithecus turkanensis. Their presence is the first good evidence of a strong phenetic link between the Oligocene and Miocene hominoids of Africa. A comparison of trait lists emphasizes the similarities of the two fossil species, and leads us to conclude that the two fossil genera share many primitive facial features. In addition, we studied facial morphology using finite-element scaling analysis and found that the two genera show similarities in morphological integration, or the way in which biological landmarks relate to one another in three dimensions to define the form of the organism. Size differences between the two genera are much greater than the relatively minor shape differences. Analysis of variability in landmark location among the four Aegyptopithecus specimens indicates that variability within the sample is not different from that found within two samples of modern macaques. We propose that the shape differences found among the four Aegyptopithecus specimens simply reflect individual variation in facial characteristics, and that the similarities in facial morphology between Aegyptopithecus and Afropithecus probably represent a complex of primitive facial features retained over millions of years.

  1. Physical therapy for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Lázaro J; Valbuza, Juliana S; Prado, Gilmar F

    2011-12-07

    with acupuncture (360 participants). For most outcomes we were unable to perform meta-analysis because the interventions and outcomes were not comparable.For the primary outcome of incomplete recovery after six months, electrostimulation produced no benefit over placebo (moderate quality evidence from one study with 86 participants). Low quality comparisons of electrostimulation with prednisolone (an active treatment)(149 participants), or the addition of electrostimulation to hot packs, massage and facial exercises (22 participants), reported no significant differences. Similarly a meta-analysis from two studies, one of three months and the other of six months duration, (142 participants) found no statistically significant difference in synkinesis, a complication of Bell's palsy, between participants receiving electrostimulation and controls. A single low quality study (56 participants), which reported at three months, found worse functional recovery with electrostimulation (mean difference (MD) 12.00 points (scale of 0 to 100) 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 22.74).Two trials of facial exercises, both at high risk of bias, found no difference in incomplete recovery at six months when exercises were compared to waiting list controls or conventional therapy. There is evidence from a single small study (34 participants) of moderate quality that exercises are beneficial on measures of facial disability to people with chronic facial palsy when compared with controls (MD 20.40 points (scale of 0 to 100), 95% CI 8.76 to 32.04) and from another single low quality study with 145 people with acute cases treated for three months where significantly fewer participants developed facial motor synkinesis after exercise (risk ratio 0.24, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.69). The same study showed statistically significant reduction in time for complete recovery, mainly in more severe cases (47 participants, MD -2.10 weeks, 95% CI -3.15 to -1.05) but this was not a prespecified outcome in this

  2. Subjective and Objective Facial Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Mark A.; Frisina, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have not adequately compared subjective/objective ratings of female dermatology patients including patients presenting for cosmetic procedures. Objective: To examine objective versus subjective facial attractiveness ratings, demographic variables, and how men versus women judge female facial attractiveness. Methods: Sixty-five women (mean 42 years) presenting to a dermatology office. Subjects filled out a demographic and attractiveness questionnaire and were photographed. Four judges (2 male and 2 female) rated the photographs on a predefined 1 to 7 scale. Results: Mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) was 4.85 versus 3.61 for objective rating (judges rating subjects) (p<0.001). The mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 5 to 7 range was 39 years; the mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 3 to 4 range was 45 years (p=0.053). The mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 5 to 7 range was 33 years; the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 3 to 4 range was 43 years (p<0.001); and the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 1 to 2 range was 50 years (p<0.001). The mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) for married women was 4.55 versus 5.27 for unmarried women (p=0.007); the mean objective rating (judges rating subjects) was 3.22 versus 4.15 (p<0.001). The mean objective rating by male judges was 3.09 versus 4.12 for female judges (p<0.001) Conclusion: Female patients presenting to a dermatology office rated themselves more attractive than did judges who viewed photographs of the subjects. Age and marital status were significant factors, and male judges rated attractiveness lower than female judges. Limitations of the study, implications, and suggestions for future research directions are discussed. PMID:21203353

  3. Effectiveness of C5 or C6-Cz assembly in predicting immediate post operative facial nerve deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verst, Silvia Mazzali; Sucena, Andrea Caivano; Maldaun, Marcos Vinicius Calfat; Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Pires

    2013-10-01

    Intraoperative neurophysiology monitoring (IOM) is a valuable tool in cerebellopontine angle (CPA) surgeries posing risk to the cranial nerves. Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) for cranial nerves has been performed in the last 7 years, for obtaining the facial nerve motor evoked potential (MEP), using either C3/C4-Cz or C3-C4 (or inverse) stimulating points, which have been correlated with facial nerve functional outcome. Intraoperative surgical and electrophysiological findings were documented prospectively. Patient files were reviewed for clinical data. We studied 23 patients undergoing CPA tumor resection using C5 or C6-Cz montage for TES, and were able to determine the correlation between facial nerve functional outcome and the amplitude drop of facial MEP above 50 %. Patients were evaluated for immediate facial nerve outcome and 6 months after the surgery. Follow-up was performed by structured telephone interviews with local physicians. The sensibility of the studied parameters was 92.8 % for amplitude drop of facial nerve MEP, with positive predictive value of 81.2 %. The absence of changes during IOM has shown a negative predictive value of 100 %. In this series, the used montage was effective in predicting new facial deficit.

  4. Automated Facial Expression Recognition Using Gradient-Based Ternary Texture Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of human expression from facial image is an interesting research area, which has received increasing attention in the recent years. A robust and effective facial feature descriptor is the key to designing a successful expression recognition system. Although much progress has been made, deriving a face feature descriptor that can perform consistently under changing environment is still a difficult and challenging task. In this paper, we present the gradient local ternary pattern (GLTP—a discriminative local texture feature for representing facial expression. The proposed GLTP operator encodes the local texture of an image by computing the gradient magnitudes of the local neighborhood and quantizing those values in three discrimination levels. The location and occurrence information of the resulting micropatterns is then used as the face feature descriptor. The performance of the proposed method has been evaluated for the person-independent face expression recognition task. Experiments with prototypic expression images from the Cohn-Kanade (CK face expression database validate that the GLTP feature descriptor can effectively encode the facial texture and thus achieves improved recognition performance than some well-known appearance-based facial features.

  5. Joint Facial Action Unit Detection and Feature Fusion: A Multi-conditional Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, Stefanos; Rudovic, Ognjen; Pantic, Maja

    2016-10-05

    Automated analysis of facial expressions can benefit many domains, from marketing to clinical diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Facial expressions are typically encoded as a combination of facial muscle activations, i.e., action units. Depending on context, these action units co-occur in specific patterns, and rarely in isolation. Yet, most existing methods for automatic action unit detection fail to exploit dependencies among them, and the corresponding facial features. To address this, we propose a novel multi-conditional latent variable model for simultaneous fusion of facial features and joint action unit detection. Specifically, the proposed model performs feature fusion in a generative fashion via a low-dimensional shared subspace, while simultaneously performing action unit detection using a discriminative classification approach. We show that by combining the merits of both approaches, the proposed methodology outperforms existing purely discriminative/generative methods for the target task. To reduce the number of parameters, and avoid overfitting, a novel Bayesian learning approach based on Monte Carlo sampling is proposed, to integrate out the shared subspace. We validate the proposed method on posed and spontaneous data from three publicly available datasets (CK+, DISFA and Shoulder-pain), and show that both feature fusion and joint learning of action units leads to improved performance compared to the state-of-the-art methods for the task.

  6. Exploring facial emotion perception in schizophrenia using transcranial magnetic stimulation and spatial filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassovsky, Yuri; Lee, Junghee; Nori, Poorang; Wu, Allan D; Iacoboni, Marco; Breitmeyer, Bruno G; Hellemann, Gerhard; Green, Michael F

    2014-11-01

    Schizophrenia patients have difficulty extracting emotional information from facial expressions. Perception of facial emotion can be examined by systematically altering the spatial frequency of stimuli and suppressing visual processing with temporal precision using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In the present study, we compared 25 schizophrenia patients and 27 healthy controls using a facial emotion identification task. Spatial processing was examined by presenting facial photographs that contained either high (HSF), low (LSF), or broadband/unfiltered (BSF) spatial frequencies. Temporal processing was manipulated using a single-pulse TMS delivered to the visual cortex either before (forward masking) or after (backward masking) photograph presentation. Consistent with previous studies, schizophrenia patients performed significantly below controls across all three spatial frequencies. A spatial frequency by forward/backward masking interaction effect demonstrated reduced performance in the forward masking component in the BSF condition and a reversed performance pattern in the HSF condition, with no significant differences between forward and backward masking in the LSF condition. However, the group by spatial frequency interaction was not significant. These findings indicate that manipulating visual suppression of emotional information at the level of the primary visual cortex results in comparable effects on both groups. This suggests that patients' deficits in facial emotion identification are not explained by low-level processes in the retino-geniculo-striate projection, but may rather depend on deficits of affect perception occurring at later integrative processing stages.

  7. Is V̇O2 supressed during nonapnoeic facial submersion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah; Chamberlain, Maggie R; Musgrove, Samantha; Partusch, Antonia; Tice, Keagan R J; Thorp, David B

    2016-11-01

    The mammalian dive response (DR) is described as oxygen-conserving based on measures of bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and decreased ventilation (V̇E). Using a model of simulated diving, this study examined the effect of nonapnoeic facial submersions (NAFS) on oxygen consumption (V̇O2). 19 participants performed four 2-min NAFS with 8 min of rest between each. Two submersions were performed in 5 °C water, 2 in 25 °C water. Heart rate (HR) was collected using chest strap monitors. A tube connected to the inspired port of a non-rebreathing valve allowed participants to breathe during facial submersion. Expired air was directed to a metabolic cart to determine V̇O2 and V̇E. Baseline (BL) HR, V̇O2, and V̇E values were determined by the average during the 2 min prior to facial submersion; cold shock response (CSR) values were the maximum during the first 30 s of facial submersion; and NAFS values were the minimum during the last 90 s of facial submersion. A 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA indicated that both HR and V̇E were greater during the CSR (92.5 ± 3.6 beats/min, 16.3 ± 0.8 L/min) compared with BL (78.9 ± 3.2 beats/min, 8.7 ± 0.4 L/min), while both were decreased from BL during the NAFS (60.0 ± 4.0 beats/min, 6.0 ± 0.4 L/min) (all, p < 0.05). HRCSR was higher and HRNAFS lower in 5 °C versus 25 °C water (p < 0.05), while V̇E was greater in 5 °C conditions (p < 0.05). V̇O2 exceeded BL during the CSR and decreased below BL during the NAFS (BL: 5.3 ± 0.1, CSR: 9.8 ± 0.4, NAFS: 3.1 ± 0.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), p < 0.05). The data illustrate that NAFS alone contributes to the oxygen conservation associated with the human DR.

  8. Infrared facial recognition technology being pushed toward emerging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David C.

    1997-02-01

    Human identification is a two-step process of initial identity assignment and later verification or recognition. The positive identification requirement is a major part of the classic security, legal, banking, and police task of granting or denying access to a facility, authority to take an action or, in police work, to identify or verify the identity of an individual. To meet this requirement, a three-part research and development (R&D) effort was undertaken Betac International Corporation, through its subsidiaries of Betac Corporation and Technology Recognition Systems, to develop an automated access control system using infrared (IR) facial images to verify the identity of an individual in real time. The system integrates IR facial imaging and a computer-based matching algorithm to perform the human recognition task rapidly, accurately, and nonintrusively, based on three basic principles: every human IR facial image (or thermogram) is unique to that individual; an IR camera can be used to capture human thermograms; and captured thermograms can be digitized, stored, and matched using a computer and mathematical algorithms. The first part of the development effort, an operator-assisted IR image matching proof-of-concept demonstration, was successfully completed in the spring of 1994. The second part of the R&D program, the design and evaluation of a prototype automated access control unit using the IR image matching technology, was completed in April 1995. This paper describes the final development effort to identify, assess, and evaluate the availability and suitability of robust image matching algorithms capable of supporting and enhancing the use of IR facial recognition technology. The most promising mature and available image matching algorithm was integrated into a demonstration access control unit (ACU) using a state-of-the-art IR imager and a performance evaluation was compared against that of a prototype automated ACU using a less robust algorithm and a

  9. Facial Age Estimation with Age Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenzhen; Wen, Yonggang; Wang, Jianfeng; Wang, Meng; Hong, Richang; Yan, Shuicheng

    2016-12-01

    Age estimation based on the human face remains a significant problem in computer vision and pattern recognition. In order to estimate an accurate age or age group of a facial image, most of the existing algorithms require a huge face data set attached with age labels. This imposes a constraint on the utilization of the immensely unlabeled or weakly labeled training data, e.g. the huge amount of human photos in the social networks. These images may provide no age label, but it is easily to derive the age difference for an image pair of the same person. To improve the age estimation accuracy, we propose a novel learning scheme to take advantage of these weakly labeled data via the deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). For each image pair, Kullback-Leibler divergence is employed to embed the age difference information. The entropy loss and the cross entropy loss are adaptively applied on each image to make the distribution exhibit a single peak value. The combination of these losses is designed to drive the neural network to understand the age gradually from only the age difference information. We also contribute a dataset including more than one hundred thousand face images attached with their taken dates. Each image is both labeled with the timestamp and people identity. Experimental results on two aging face databases show the advantages of the proposed age difference learning system and the state-of-the-art performance is gained.

  10. Shadows alter facial expressions of Noh masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Miyata, Hiromitsu; Nishimura, Ritsuko; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressions. In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa's smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art "yugen (profound grace and subtlety)", which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness.

  11. Shadows alter facial expressions of Noh masks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa's smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art "yugen (profound grace and subtlety", which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness.

  12. Facial image identification using Photomodeler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Andersen, Marie; Lauritsen, Helle Petri

    2003-09-01

    We present the results of a preliminary study on the use of 3-D software (Photomodeler) for identification purposes. Perpetrators may be photographed or filmed by surveillance systems. The police may wish to have these images compared to photographs of suspects. The surveillance imagery will often consist of many images of the same person taken from different angles. We wanted to see if it was possible to combine such a suite of images in useful 3-D renderings of facial proportions.Fifteen male adults were photographed from four different angles. Based on these photographs, a 3-D wireframe model was produced by Photomodeler. The wireframe models were then rotated to full lateral and frontal views, and compared to like sets of photographs of the subjects. In blind trials, 9/15 of the wireframe models were assigned to the correct sets of photographs. In five/15 cases, the wireframe models were assigned to several sets, including the correct set. Only in one case was a wireframe model not assigned to a correct set of photographs at all.

  13. [Potter's reno-facial syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdi, Radhouane; Kaabi, Mahdi; M'Hamdi, Hichem; Chtioui, Ines; Basly, Mohamed; Messaoudi, Fethi; Zayene, Houcine; Messaoudi, Lotfi; Chibani, Mounir; Gaigi, Soumaya

    2004-07-01

    Potter's reno-facial syndrome is a rare innate abnormality. We bring 4 observations repertoried at the maternity of military hospital of Tunis over a period of 6 years (1997 - 2002). The purpose of our work is to determine after a review of the literature the echographic and foetopathologic characteristics, and the forecast of this syndrome. The frequency of the bilateral renale agenesis is of 0.27 per thousand. Positive diagnosis bases essentially on the ultrasound of the 2th, or the 3-th trimester. The signs of appeal are essentially the oligoamnios associated to an hypotrophy. The caryotype is systematic to eliminate an associeted chromosomic abnormality. Foetopathologic exam is usefull for the diagnosis. Main abnormality except the urinary pathology is the lung hypoplasia. Therapeutic interruption of the pregnancy in this situation not compatible with the extra-uterine life., only type IV authorize the development of the pregnancy according to echographic data and of foetal urinaire biochemistry. We insist on the early practice of the morphological ultrasound between 20 - 22 weeks for the diagnosis of foetal abnormalities and the place of the genetic advice in association with the geneticist in the coverage of the couple.

  14. Facial Behaviometrics: the Case of Facial Deformation in Spontenaous Smile/Laughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    In this paper we explore the use of dense facial deformation in spontaneous smile/laughter as a biometric signature. The facial deformation is calculated between a neutral image (as neutral we define the least expressive image of the smile/laughter episode) and the apex of spontaneous smile/laughter

  15. Facial Behaviometrics: the Case of Facial Deformation in Spontenaous Smile/Laughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of dense facial deformation in spontaneous smile/laughter as a biometric signature. The facial deformation is calculated between a neutral image (as neutral we define the least expressive image of the smile/laughter episode) and the apex of spontaneous smile/laughter

  16. A successful double-layer facial nerve repair: A case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Dadaci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The best method to repair the facial nerve is to perform the primary repair soon after the injury, without any tension in the nerve ends. We present a case of patient who had a full-thickness facial nerve cut at two different levels. The patient underwent primary repair, recovered almost completely in the fourth postoperative month, and had full movement in mimic muscles. Despite lower success rates in double-level cuts, performing appropriate primary repair at an appropriate time can reverse functional losses at early stages, and lead to recovery without any complications. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(1.000: 24-27

  17. Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India

    CERN Document Server

    Thorat, S B; Dandale, Jyoti P

    2010-01-01

    A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. In this paper we focus on 3-D facial recognition system and biometric facial recognision system. We do critics on facial recognision system giving effectiveness and weaknesses. This paper also introduces scope of recognision system in India.

  18. An optimized ERP brain-computer interface based on facial expression changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Daly, Ian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Interferences from spatially adjacent non-target stimuli are known to evoke event-related potentials (ERPs) during non-target flashes and, therefore, lead to false positives. This phenomenon was commonly seen in visual attention-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) using conspicuous stimuli and is known to adversely affect the performance of BCI systems. Although users try to focus on the target stimulus, they cannot help but be affected by conspicuous changes of the stimuli (such as flashes or presenting images) which were adjacent to the target stimulus. Furthermore, subjects have reported that conspicuous stimuli made them tired and annoyed. In view of this, the aim of this study was to reduce adjacent interference, annoyance and fatigue using a new stimulus presentation pattern based upon facial expression changes. Our goal was not to design a new pattern which could evoke larger ERPs than the face pattern, but to design a new pattern which could reduce adjacent interference, annoyance and fatigue, and evoke ERPs as good as those observed during the face pattern. Approach. Positive facial expressions could be changed to negative facial expressions by minor changes to the original facial image. Although the changes are minor, the contrast is big enough to evoke strong ERPs. In this paper, a facial expression change pattern between positive and negative facial expressions was used to attempt to minimize interference effects. This was compared against two different conditions, a shuffled pattern containing the same shapes and colours as the facial expression change pattern, but without the semantic content associated with a change in expression, and a face versus no face pattern. Comparisons were made in terms of classification accuracy and information transfer rate as well as user supplied subjective measures. Main results. The results showed that interferences from adjacent stimuli, annoyance and the fatigue experienced by the subjects could be

  19. Quantitative evaluation of three-dimensional facial scanners measurement accuracy for facial deformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-jiao; Xiong, Yu-xue; Sun, Yu-chun; Yang, Hui-fang; Lyu, Pei-jun; Wang, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the measurement accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) facial scanners for facial deformity patients from oral clinic. Methods: 10 patients in different types of facial deformity from oral clinical were included. Three 3D digital face models for each patient were obtained by three facial scanners separately (line laser scanner from Faro for reference, stereophotography scanner from 3dMD and structured light scanner from FaceScan for test). For each patient, registration based on Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm was executed to align two test models (3dMD data & Facescan data) to the reference models (Faro data in high accuracy) respectively. The same boundaries on each pair models (one test and one reference models) were obtained by projection function in Geomagic Stuido 2012 software for trimming overlapping region, then 3D average measurement errors (3D errors) were calculated for each pair models also by the software. Paired t-test analysis was adopted to compare the 3D errors of two test facial scanners (10 data for each group). 3D profile measurement accuracy (3D accuracy) that is integrated embodied by average value and standard deviation of 10 patients' 3D errors were obtained by surveying analysis for each test scanner finally. Results: 3D accuracies of 2 test facial scanners in this study for facial deformity were 0.44+/-0.08 mm and 0.43+/-0.05 mm. The result of structured light scanner was slightly better than stereophotography scanner. No statistical difference between them. Conclusions: Both test facial scanners could meet the accuracy requirement (0.5mm) of 3D facial data acquisition for oral clinic facial deformity patients in this study. Their practical measurement accuracies were all slightly lower than their nominal accuracies.

  20. Association between facial growth pattern and facial muscle activity: A prospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdullah, Mohannad; Saltaji, Humam; Abou-Hamed, Hussein; Youssef, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between facial growth pattern and electromyography (EMG) of facial muscles: anterior temporalis, masseter, buccinators, orbicularis oris, mentalis and anterior digastric. The sample consisted of 77 subjects aged between 18-28 years (mean age 21.10±2.03), with dental Class I relationship, normal overjet and overbite, balanced facial profile, no signs of temporomandibular disorders, and no previous orthodontic treatment. Facial growth pattern was determined on the lateral cephalograms according to the Björk sum (sum of the N-S-Ar, S-Ar-Go, and Ar-Go-Me angles) dividing the sample into three groups: horizontal facial pattern group (24 subjects), normal facial pattern group (41 subjects), and vertical facial pattern group (12 subjects). The EMG of anterior temporalis, masseter, buccinator, orbicularis oris, mentalis and anterior digastric muscles were examined for each patient in the rest position and in functional positions (central maximum intercuspation, chewing on right side, chewing on left side and swallowing). Mean values and standard deviation of EMG were obtained and compared between the three groups. At rest, the EMG of the masseter, orbicularis oris and anterior digastric were higher in the vertical facial pattern group compared with the other two groups, with a moderate positive correlation between the EMG of these muscles and the Björk sum (Pmuscles (Pmuscle activity and facial growth pattern. The findings suggest that the activity of masticatory and perioral muscles could play a role in the direction of the facial growth. Copyright © 2015 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.