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Sample records for facial muscle weakness

  1. Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basić-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanović; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

    2013-06-01

    Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients.

  2. Facial-muscle weakness, speech disorders and dysphagia are common in patients with classic infantile Pompe disease treated with enzyme therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, C M; van Capelle, C I; Ebbink, B J; Moor-van Nugteren, I; van den Hout, J M P; Hakkesteegt, M M; van Doorn, P A; de Coo, I F M; Reuser, A J J; de Gier, H H W; van der Ploeg, A T

    2012-05-01

    Classic infantile Pompe disease is an inherited generalized glycogen storage disorder caused by deficiency of lysosomal acid α-glucosidase. If left untreated, patients die before one year of age. Although enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) has significantly prolonged lifespan, it has also revealed new aspects of the disease. For up to 11 years, we investigated the frequency and consequences of facial-muscle weakness, speech disorders and dysphagia in long-term survivors. Sequential photographs were used to determine the timing and severity of facial-muscle weakness. Using standardized articulation tests and fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, we investigated speech and swallowing function in a subset of patients. This study included 11 patients with classic infantile Pompe disease. Median age at the start of ERT was 2.4 months (range 0.1-8.3 months), and median age at the end of the study was 4.3 years (range 7.7 months -12.2 years). All patients developed facial-muscle weakness before the age of 15 months. Speech was studied in four patients. Articulation was disordered, with hypernasal resonance and reduced speech intelligibility in all four. Swallowing function was studied in six patients, the most important findings being ineffective swallowing with residues of food (5/6), penetration or aspiration (3/6), and reduced pharyngeal and/or laryngeal sensibility (2/6). We conclude that facial-muscle weakness, speech disorders and dysphagia are common in long-term survivors receiving ERT for classic infantile Pompe disease. To improve speech and reduce the risk for aspiration, early treatment by a speech therapist and regular swallowing assessments are recommended.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles

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    Farrugia, M.E. [Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.e.farrugia@doctors.org.uk; Bydder, G.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92103-8226 (United States); Francis, J.M.; Robson, M.D. [OCMR, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrugia, M.E.; Bydder, G.M.; Francis, J.M.; Robson, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders

  5. Effect of a Facial Muscle Exercise Device on Facial Rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ui-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Ahn, Sun-Hee; Gwak, Gyeong-Tae

    2018-01-20

    The efficacy of facial muscle exercises (FMEs) for facial rejuvenation is controversial. In the majority of previous studies, nonquantitative assessment tools were used to assess the benefits of FMEs. This study examined the effectiveness of FMEs using a Pao (MTG, Nagoya, Japan) device to quantify facial rejuvenation. Fifty females were asked to perform FMEs using a Pao device for 30 seconds twice a day for 8 weeks. Facial muscle thickness and cross-sectional area were measured sonographically. Facial surface distance, surface area, and volumes were determined using a laser scanning system before and after FME. Facial muscle thickness, cross-sectional area, midfacial surface distances, jawline surface distance, and lower facial surface area and volume were compared bilaterally before and after FME using a paired Student t test. The cross-sectional areas of the zygomaticus major and digastric muscles increased significantly (right: P jawline surface distances (right: P = 0.004, left: P = 0.003) decreased significantly after FME using the Pao device. The lower facial surface areas (right: P = 0.005, left: P = 0.006) and volumes (right: P = 0.001, left: P = 0.002) were also significantly reduced after FME using the Pao device. FME using the Pao device can increase facial muscle thickness and cross-sectional area, thus contributing to facial rejuvenation. © 2018 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  6. Exporting vector muscles for facial animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, T.D.; Butz, Andreas; Kruger, Antonio; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Olivier, Patrick; Nijholt, Antinus; Poel, Mannes

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a method of exporting vector muscles from one 3D face to another for facial animation. Starting from a 3D face with an extended version of Waters’ linear muscle system, we transfer the linear muscles to a target 3D face.We also transfer the region division, which is used

  7. Skeletal muscle weakness in osteogenesis imperfecta mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Bettina A; Ferreira, J Andries; McCambridge, Amanda J; Brown, Marybeth; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2010-09-01

    Exercise intolerance, muscle fatigue and weakness are often-reported, little-investigated concerns of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). OI is a heritable connective tissue disorder hallmarked by bone fragility resulting primarily from dominant mutations in the proα1(I) or proα2(I) collagen genes and the recently discovered recessive mutations in post-translational modifying proteins of type I collagen. In this study we examined the soleus (S), plantaris (P), gastrocnemius (G), tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (Q) muscles of mice expressing mild (+/oim) and moderately severe (oim/oim) OI for evidence of inherent muscle pathology. In particular, muscle weight, fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), fiber type, fiber histomorphology, fibrillar collagen content, absolute, relative and specific peak tetanic force (P(o), P(o)/mg and P(o)/CSA respectively) of individual muscles were evaluated. Oim/oim mouse muscles were generally smaller, contained less fibrillar collagen, had decreased P(o) and an inability to sustain P(o) for the 300-ms testing duration for specific muscles; +/oim mice had a similar but milder skeletal muscle phenotype. +/oim mice had mild weakness of specific muscles but were less affected than their oim/oim counterparts which demonstrated readily apparent skeletal muscle pathology. Therefore muscle weakness in oim mice reflects inherent skeletal muscle pathology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Contralateral reinnervation of midline muscles in nonidiopathic facial palsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilhuis, H.J.; Beurskens, C.H.G.; Vries, J. de; Marres, H.A.M.; Hartman, E.H.M.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze contralateral reinnervation of the facial nerve in eight patients with complete facial palsy after surgery or trauma and seven healthy volunteers. All patients had contralateral reinnervation of facial muscles as demonstrated by electrical nerve stimulation

  9. Enhancing facial aesthetics with muscle retraining exercises-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'souza, Raina; Kini, Ashwini; D'souza, Henston; Shetty, Nitin; Shetty, Omkar

    2014-08-01

    Facial attractiveness plays a key role in social interaction. 'Smile' is not only a single category of facial behaviour, but also the emotion of frank joy which is expressed on the face by the combined contraction of the muscles involved. When a patient visits the dental clinic for aesthetic reasons, the dentist considers not only the chief complaint but also the overall harmony of the face. This article describes muscle retraining exercises to achieve control over facial movements and improve facial appearance which may be considered following any type of dental rehabilitation. Muscle conditioning, training and strengthening through daily exercises will help to counter balance the aging effects.

  10. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volumetry of Facial Muscles in Healthy Patients with Facial Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Gerd F.; Karamyan, Inna; Klingner, Carsten M.; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not yet been established systematically to detect structural muscular changes after facial nerve lesion. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate quantitative assessment of MRI muscle volume data for facial muscles. Methods: Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with facial palsy were recruited. Using manual or semiautomatic segmentation of 3T MRI, volume measurements were performed for the frontal, procerus, risorius, corrugator supercilii, orbicularis oculi, nasalis, zygomaticus major, zygomaticus minor, levator labii superioris, orbicularis oris, depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris, and mentalis, as well as for the masseter and temporalis as masticatory muscles for control. Results: All muscles except the frontal (identification in 4/10 volunteers), procerus (4/10), risorius (6/10), and zygomaticus minor (8/10) were identified in all volunteers. Sex or age effects were not seen (all P > 0.05). There was no facial asymmetry with exception of the zygomaticus major (larger on the left side; P = 0.012). The exploratory examination of 5 patients revealed considerably smaller muscle volumes on the palsy side 2 months after facial injury. One patient with chronic palsy showed substantial muscle volume decrease, which also occurred in another patient with incomplete chronic palsy restricted to the involved facial area. Facial nerve reconstruction led to mixed results of decreased but also increased muscle volumes on the palsy side compared with the healthy side. Conclusions: First systematic quantitative MRI volume measures of 5 different clinical presentations of facial paralysis are provided. PMID:25289366

  11. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...... and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss...... properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal...

  12. Facial reanimation by muscle-nerve neurotization after facial nerve sacrifice. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, A; Labbé, D; Babin, E; Fromager, G

    2016-12-01

    Recovering a certain degree of mimicry after sacrifice of the facial nerve is a clinically recognized finding. The authors report a case of hemifacial reanimation suggesting a phenomenon of neurotization from muscle-to-nerve. A woman benefited from a parotidectomy with sacrifice of the left facial nerve indicated for recurrent tumor in the gland. The distal branches of the facial nerve, isolated at the time of resection, were buried in the masseter muscle underneath. The patient recovered a voluntary hémifacial motricity. The electromyographic analysis of the motor activity of the zygomaticus major before and after block of the masseter nerve showed a dependence between mimic muscles and the masseter muscle. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the spontaneous reanimation of facial paralysis. The clinical case makes it possible to argue in favor of muscle-to-nerve neurotization from masseter muscle to distal branches of the facial nerve. It illustrates the quality of motricity that can be obtained thanks to this procedure. The authors describe a simple implantation technique of distal branches of the facial nerve in the masseter muscle during a radical parotidectomy with facial nerve sacrifice and recovery of resting tone but also a quality voluntary mimicry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Facial Muscle Coordination in Monkeys During Rhythmic Facial Expressions and Ingestive Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Stephen V.; Lanzilotto, Marco; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the origins of communication signals generally, and primate orofacial communication signals in particular, suggest that these signals derive by ritualization of noncommunicative behaviors, notably including ingestive behaviors such as chewing and nursing. These theories are appealing in part because of the prominent periodicities in both types of behavior. Despite their intuitive appeal, however, there are little or no data with which to evaluate these theories because the coordination of muscles innervated by the facial nucleus has not been carefully compared between communicative and ingestive movements. Such data are especially crucial for reconciling neurophysiological assumptions regarding facial motor control in communication and ingestion. We here address this gap by contrasting the coordination of facial muscles during different types of rhythmic orofacial behavior in macaque monkeys, finding that the perioral muscles innervated by the facial nucleus are rhythmically coordinated during lipsmacks and that this coordination appears distinct from that observed during ingestion. PMID:22553017

  14. A weak balance: the contribution of muscle weakness to postural instability and falls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, G.C.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Allum, J.H.J.; Bloem, B.R.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle strength is a potentially important factor contributing to postural control. In this article, we consider the influence of muscle weakness on postural instability and falling. We searched the literature for research evaluating muscle weakness as a risk factor for falls in community-dwelling

  15. Middle ear osteoma causing progressive facial nerve weakness: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kate; Bance, Manohar; Carter, Michael; Hong, Paul

    2014-09-18

    Facial nerve weakness is most commonly due to Bell's palsy or cerebrovascular accidents. Rarely, middle ear tumor presents with facial nerve dysfunction. We report a very unusual case of middle ear osteoma in a 49-year-old Caucasian woman causing progressive facial nerve deficit. A subtle middle ear lesion was observed on otoscopy and computed tomographic images demonstrated an osseous middle ear tumor. Complete surgical excision resulted in the partial recovery of facial nerve function. Facial nerve dysfunction is rarely caused by middle ear tumors. The weakness is typically due to a compressive effect on the middle ear portion of the facial nerve. Early recognition is crucial since removal of these lesions may lead to the recuperation of facial nerve function.

  16. Incongruence Between Observers’ and Observed Facial Muscle Activation Reduces Recognition of Emotional Facial Expressions From Video Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja S. H. Wingenbach

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available According to embodied cognition accounts, viewing others’ facial emotion can elicit the respective emotion representation in observers which entails simulations of sensory, motor, and contextual experiences. In line with that, published research found viewing others’ facial emotion to elicit automatic matched facial muscle activation, which was further found to facilitate emotion recognition. Perhaps making congruent facial muscle activity explicit produces an even greater recognition advantage. If there is conflicting sensory information, i.e., incongruent facial muscle activity, this might impede recognition. The effects of actively manipulating facial muscle activity on facial emotion recognition from videos were investigated across three experimental conditions: (a explicit imitation of viewed facial emotional expressions (stimulus-congruent condition, (b pen-holding with the lips (stimulus-incongruent condition, and (c passive viewing (control condition. It was hypothesised that (1 experimental condition (a and (b result in greater facial muscle activity than (c, (2 experimental condition (a increases emotion recognition accuracy from others’ faces compared to (c, (3 experimental condition (b lowers recognition accuracy for expressions with a salient facial feature in the lower, but not the upper face area, compared to (c. Participants (42 males, 42 females underwent a facial emotion recognition experiment (ADFES-BIV while electromyography (EMG was recorded from five facial muscle sites. The experimental conditions’ order was counter-balanced. Pen-holding caused stimulus-incongruent facial muscle activity for expressions with facial feature saliency in the lower face region, which reduced recognition of lower face region emotions. Explicit imitation caused stimulus-congruent facial muscle activity without modulating recognition. Methodological implications are discussed.

  17. Incongruence Between Observers' and Observed Facial Muscle Activation Reduces Recognition of Emotional Facial Expressions From Video Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Tanja S H; Brosnan, Mark; Pfaltz, Monique C; Plichta, Michael M; Ashwin, Chris

    2018-01-01

    According to embodied cognition accounts, viewing others' facial emotion can elicit the respective emotion representation in observers which entails simulations of sensory, motor, and contextual experiences. In line with that, published research found viewing others' facial emotion to elicit automatic matched facial muscle activation, which was further found to facilitate emotion recognition. Perhaps making congruent facial muscle activity explicit produces an even greater recognition advantage. If there is conflicting sensory information, i.e., incongruent facial muscle activity, this might impede recognition. The effects of actively manipulating facial muscle activity on facial emotion recognition from videos were investigated across three experimental conditions: (a) explicit imitation of viewed facial emotional expressions (stimulus-congruent condition), (b) pen-holding with the lips (stimulus-incongruent condition), and (c) passive viewing (control condition). It was hypothesised that (1) experimental condition (a) and (b) result in greater facial muscle activity than (c), (2) experimental condition (a) increases emotion recognition accuracy from others' faces compared to (c), (3) experimental condition (b) lowers recognition accuracy for expressions with a salient facial feature in the lower, but not the upper face area, compared to (c). Participants (42 males, 42 females) underwent a facial emotion recognition experiment (ADFES-BIV) while electromyography (EMG) was recorded from five facial muscle sites. The experimental conditions' order was counter-balanced. Pen-holding caused stimulus-incongruent facial muscle activity for expressions with facial feature saliency in the lower face region, which reduced recognition of lower face region emotions. Explicit imitation caused stimulus-congruent facial muscle activity without modulating recognition. Methodological implications are discussed.

  18. Incongruence Between Observers’ and Observed Facial Muscle Activation Reduces Recognition of Emotional Facial Expressions From Video Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Tanja S. H.; Brosnan, Mark; Pfaltz, Monique C.; Plichta, Michael M.; Ashwin, Chris

    2018-01-01

    According to embodied cognition accounts, viewing others’ facial emotion can elicit the respective emotion representation in observers which entails simulations of sensory, motor, and contextual experiences. In line with that, published research found viewing others’ facial emotion to elicit automatic matched facial muscle activation, which was further found to facilitate emotion recognition. Perhaps making congruent facial muscle activity explicit produces an even greater recognition advantage. If there is conflicting sensory information, i.e., incongruent facial muscle activity, this might impede recognition. The effects of actively manipulating facial muscle activity on facial emotion recognition from videos were investigated across three experimental conditions: (a) explicit imitation of viewed facial emotional expressions (stimulus-congruent condition), (b) pen-holding with the lips (stimulus-incongruent condition), and (c) passive viewing (control condition). It was hypothesised that (1) experimental condition (a) and (b) result in greater facial muscle activity than (c), (2) experimental condition (a) increases emotion recognition accuracy from others’ faces compared to (c), (3) experimental condition (b) lowers recognition accuracy for expressions with a salient facial feature in the lower, but not the upper face area, compared to (c). Participants (42 males, 42 females) underwent a facial emotion recognition experiment (ADFES-BIV) while electromyography (EMG) was recorded from five facial muscle sites. The experimental conditions’ order was counter-balanced. Pen-holding caused stimulus-incongruent facial muscle activity for expressions with facial feature saliency in the lower face region, which reduced recognition of lower face region emotions. Explicit imitation caused stimulus-congruent facial muscle activity without modulating recognition. Methodological implications are discussed. PMID:29928240

  19. Middle ear osteoma causing progressive facial nerve weakness: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kate; Bance, Manohar; Carter, Michael; Hong, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Facial nerve weakness is most commonly due to Bell’s palsy or cerebrovascular accidents. Rarely, middle ear tumor presents with facial nerve dysfunction. Case presentation We report a very unusual case of middle ear osteoma in a 49-year-old Caucasian woman causing progressive facial nerve deficit. A subtle middle ear lesion was observed on otoscopy and computed tomographic images demonstrated an osseous middle ear tumor. Complete surgical excision resulted in the partial recovery...

  20. 3D-Ultrasonography for evaluation of facial muscles in patients with chronic facial palsy or defective healing: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Gerd Fabian; Pohlmann, Martin; Finkensieper, Mira; Chalmers, Heather J; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    While standardized methods are established to examine the pathway from motorcortex to the peripheral nerve in patients with facial palsy, a reliable method to evaluate the facial muscles in patients with long-term palsy for therapy planning is lacking. A 3D ultrasonographic (US) acquisition system driven by a motorized linear mover combined with conventional US probe was used to acquire 3D data sets of several facial muscles on both sides of the face in a healthy subject and seven patients with different types of unilateral degenerative facial nerve lesions. The US results were correlated to the duration of palsy and the electromyography results. Consistent 3D US based volumetry through bilateral comparison was feasible for parts of the frontalis muscle, orbicularis oculi muscle, depressor anguli oris muscle, depressor labii inferioris muscle, and mentalis muscle. With the exception of the frontal muscle, the facial muscles volumes were much smaller on the palsy side (minimum: 3% for the depressor labii inferior muscle) than on the healthy side in patients with severe facial nerve lesion. In contrast, the frontal muscles did not show a side difference. In the two patients with defective healing after spontaneous regeneration a decrease in muscle volume was not seen. Synkinesis and hyperkinesis was even more correlated to muscle hypertrophy on the palsy compared with the healthy side. 3D ultrasonography seems to be a promising tool for regional and quantitative evaluation of facial muscles in patients with facial palsy receiving a facial reconstructive surgery or conservative treatment.

  1. Muscle weakness, afferent sensory dysfunction and exercise in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Herzog, Walter; Block, Joel A

    2011-01-01

    Lower-extremity muscle strength and afferent sensory dysfunction, such as reduced proprioceptive acuity, are potentially modifiable putative risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Findings from current studies suggest that muscle weakness is a predictor of knee OA onset, while there is confli...... with previous knee injuries) are easily identified, and may benefit from exercise interventions to prevent or delay OA onset....... there is conflicting evidence regarding the role of muscle weakness in OA progression. In contrast, the literature suggests a role for afferent sensory dysfunction in OA progression but not necessarily in OA onset. The few pilot exercise studies performed in patients who are at risk of incident OA indicate...... a possibility for achieving preventive structure or load modifications. In contrast, large randomized controlled trials of patients with established OA have failed to demonstrate beneficial effects of strengthening exercises. Subgroups of individuals who are at increased risk of knee OA (such as those...

  2. Capturing Physiology of Emotion along Facial Muscles: A Method of Distinguishing Feigned from Involuntary Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Masood Mehmood; Ward, Robert D.; Ingleby, Michael

    The ability to distinguish feigned from involuntary expressions of emotions could help in the investigation and treatment of neuropsychiatric and affective disorders and in the detection of malingering. This work investigates differences in emotion-specific patterns of thermal variations along the major facial muscles. Using experimental data extracted from 156 images, we attempted to classify patterns of emotion-specific thermal variations into neutral, and voluntary and involuntary expressions of positive and negative emotive states. Initial results suggest (i) each facial muscle exhibits a unique thermal response to various emotive states; (ii) the pattern of thermal variances along the facial muscles may assist in classifying voluntary and involuntary facial expressions; and (iii) facial skin temperature measurements along the major facial muscles may be used in automated emotion assessment.

  3. P2-28: An Amplification of Feedback from Facial Muscles Strengthened Sympathetic Activations to Emotional Facial Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younbyoung Chae

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The facial feedback hypothesis suggests that feedback from cutaneous and muscular afferents influences our emotions during the control of facial expressions. Enhanced facial expressiveness is correlated with an increase in autonomic arousal, and self-reported emotional experience, while limited facial expression attenuates these responses. The present study was aimed at investigating the difference in emotional response in imitated versus observed facial expressions. For this, we measured the facial electromyogram of the corrugator muscle as well as the skin conductance response (SCR while participants were either imitating or simply observing emotional facial expressions. We found that participants produced significantly greater facial electromyogram activation during imitations compared to observations of angry faces. Similarly, they exhibited significantly greater SCR during imitations to angry faces compared to observations. An amplification of feedback from face muscles during imitation strengthened sympathetic activation to negative emotional cues. These findings suggest that manipulations of muscular feedback could modulate the bodily expression of emotion and perhaps also the emotional response itself.

  4. Wireless electronic-tattoo for long-term high fidelity facial muscle recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzelberg, Lilah; David Pur, Moshe; Steinberg, Stanislav; Rand, David; Farah, Maroun; Hanein, Yael

    2017-05-01

    Facial surface electromyography (sEMG) is a powerful tool for objective evaluation of human facial expressions and was accordingly suggested in recent years for a wide range of psychological and neurological assessment applications. Owing to technical challenges, in particular the cumbersome gelled electrodes, the use of facial sEMG was so far limited. Using innovative facial temporary tattoos optimized specifically for facial applications, we demonstrate the use of sEMG as a platform for robust identification of facial muscle activation. In particular, differentiation between diverse facial muscles is demonstrated. We also demonstrate a wireless version of the system. The potential use of the presented technology for user-experience monitoring and objective psychological and neurological evaluations is discussed.

  5. Correlation between facial types and muscle TMD in women: an anthropometric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Pacheco de ARAUJO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular disorders (TMD affecting the articular disc and/or the facial muscles are common among the population, recording a higher incidence in women age 20-40 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between facial types and muscle TMD in women. This study comprised 56 women age 18 to 49 years, seeking treatment for TMD at the School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo. All of the study individuals were diagnosed with muscle TMD, based on the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC. Facial type was determined using the Facial Brugsch Index and classified as euryprosopic (short and/or broad, mesoprosopic (average width and leptoprosopic (long and/or narrow. The data were submitted to the Chi-square test and ANOVA-Tukey’s test to conduct the statistical analysis. The faces of 27 individuals were classified as euryprosopic (48%, 18 as mesoprosopic (32%, and 11 as leptoprosopic (20%. A statistically significant difference (Chi-square, p = 0.032 was found among the facial types, in that leptoprosopic facial types showed the lowest values for muscle TMD. A greater number (p = 0.0007 of cases of muscle TMD were observed in the 20 to 39 year-old subjects than in the subjects of other age segments. In conclusion, women with euryprosopic facial types could be more susceptible to muscle TMD. Further studies are needed to investigate this hypothesis.

  6. Neck extensor muscle weakness (Dropped head syndrome) following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, S.; Miller, R.C.; Lachance, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Dropped head syndrome is an unusual condition in which the head cannot be held upright in its normal anatomic position secondary to pronounced, isolated, neck extensor muscle weakness. Case report. A case of dropped head syndrome in a female with a history of radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma and a clinical history consistent with multiple sclerosis is presented, and potential etiologies are discussed. Conclusions. Muscular atrophy and lower motor neuron injury secondary to isolated anterior horn cell injury from radiotherapy emerge as the most likely etiology. (author)

  7. The Dilator Naris Muscle as a Reporter of Facial Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, J.S.; Kleiss, I.J.; Knox, C.J.; Heaton, J.T.; Hadlock, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many investigators study facial nerve regeneration using the rat whisker pad model, although widely standardized outcomes measures of facial nerve regeneration in the rodent have not yet been developed. The intrinsic whisker pad "sling" muscles producing whisker protraction, situated at

  8. Facial reanimation with gracilis muscle transfer neurotized to cross-facial nerve graft versus masseteric nerve: a comparative study using the FACIAL CLIMA evaluating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego; Cabello, Alvaro

    2013-06-01

    Longstanding unilateral facial paralysis is best addressed with microneurovascular muscle transplantation. Neurotization can be obtained from the cross-facial or the masseter nerve. The authors present a quantitative comparison of both procedures using the FACIAL CLIMA system. Forty-seven patients with complete unilateral facial paralysis underwent reanimation with a free gracilis transplant neurotized to either a cross-facial nerve graft (group I, n=20) or to the ipsilateral masseteric nerve (group II, n=27). Commissural displacement and commissural contraction velocity were measured using the FACIAL CLIMA system. Postoperative intragroup commissural displacement and commissural contraction velocity means of the reanimated versus the normal side were first compared using the independent samples t test. Mean percentage of recovery of both parameters were compared between the groups using the independent samples t test. Significant differences of mean commissural displacement and commissural contraction velocity between the reanimated side and the normal side were observed in group I (p=0.001 and p=0.014, respectively) but not in group II. Intergroup comparisons showed that both commissural displacement and commissural contraction velocity were higher in group II, with significant differences for commissural displacement (p=0.048). Mean percentage of recovery of both parameters was higher in group II, with significant differences for commissural displacement (p=0.042). Free gracilis muscle transfer neurotized by the masseteric nerve is a reliable technique for reanimation of longstanding facial paralysis. Compared with cross-facial nerve graft neurotization, this technique provides better symmetry and a higher degree of recovery. Therapeutic, III.

  9. Gender differences in emotion experience perception under different facial muscle manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Dongjun; Zou, Feng; Li, Hao; Luo, Yanyan; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Yijun

    2016-04-01

    According to embodied emotion theory, facial manipulations should modulate and initiate particular emotions. However, whether there are gender differences in emotion experience perception under different facial muscle manipulations is not clear. Therefore, we conducted two behavioral experiments to examine gender differences in emotional perception in response to facial expressions (sad, neutral, and happy) under three conditions: (1) holding a pen using only the teeth (HPT), which facilitates the muscles typically associated with smiling; (2) holding a pen using only the lips (HPL), which inhibits the muscles typically associated with smiling; and (3) a control condition--hold no pen (HNP). We found that HPT made the emotional feelings more positive, and that the change degree of female's ratings of sad facial expressions between conditions (HPL to HPT) was larger than males'. These results suggested cognition can be affected by the interaction of the stimuli and the body, especially the female. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Case Report of Positive HTLV-I Infection with Bilateral Facial Weakness and Myelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazdeh

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Infection with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I causes multiple neurologic disorder , due to the retroviruses.Spinal cord disease of this type is named TSP (tropical spastic paraparesis that were drawn to the attention of neurologists 45 years ago. The clinical picture is one of the slowly progressive paraparesis with increased tendon reflexes & Babinski signs ; disorder of sphincteric control is usually an early change. Paresthesia , reduced vibratory & position senses, & ataxia have been described. The diagnosis is confirmed by the detection the antibodies to the virus in serum . There are anecdotal reports of improvement with IV-administration of gammaglobulin. But HTLV1-infection has other clinical manifestations. This report presents a rare case with bilateral facial weakness as primary manifestation. This case is related to a 41 years old woman. The clinical picture was bilateral facial weekness and approximately after 2 months, she referred to hospital with myelitis. In primary exams and evaluation, the diagnose was HTLV-I infection. The diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of the antibodies against the virus in her serum. She dead after 2.5 months of the first sign due to disease severity and bulbar palsy. Possible transmission routes and the risk of encountering the disease outside endemic areas must be attended , and it is recommended to evaluate antibodies in the children of the patients.

  11. Inherited and Acquired Muscle Weakness: A Moving Target for Diagnostic Muscle Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Werner; Schoser, Benedikt

    2017-08-01

    Inherited and acquired muscular weakness is caused by multiple conditions. While the inherited ones are mostly caused by mutations in genes coding for myopathic or neurogenic diseases, the acquired ones occur due to inflammatory, endocrine, or toxic etiologies. Precise diagnosis of a specific disease may be challenging and may require a multidisciplinary approach. What is the current place for a diagnostic biopsy of skeletal muscle? Diagnostic muscle biopsy lost in this context its first-tier place in the primary diagnostic workup for some diseases, but it is still mandatory for others. We here summarize conditions in which we believe a diagnostic sample is most relevant and mention those in which a biopsy may be secondary or can even be left out. We would like to stress that muscle biopsy nowadays has a new important place in description and definition of new diseases, for example, discovered by modern genetic approaches. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  12. Muscle Weakness Thresholds for Prediction of Diabetes in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark D; Zhang, Peng; Choksi, Palak; Markides, Kyriakos S; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-05-01

    Despite the known links between weakness and early mortality, what remains to be fully understood is the extent to which strength preservation is associated with protection from cardiometabolic diseases, such as diabetes. The purposes of this study were to determine the association between muscle strength and diabetes among adults, and to identify age- and sex-specific thresholds of low strength for detection of risk. A population-representative sample of 4066 individuals, aged 20-85 years, was included from the combined 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data sets. Strength was assessed using a handheld dynamometer, and the single highest reading from either hand was normalized to body mass. A logistic regression model was used to assess the association between normalized grip strength and risk of diabetes, as determined by haemoglobin A1c levels ≥6.5 % (≥48 mmol/mol), while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measures and television viewing time. For every 0.05 decrement in normalized strength, there were 1.26 times increased adjusted odds for diabetes in men and women. Women were at lower odds of having diabetes (odds ratio 0.49; 95 % confidence interval 0.29-0.82). Age, waist circumference and lower income were also associated with diabetes. The optimal sex- and age-specific weakness thresholds to detect diabetes were 0.56, 0.50 and 0.45 for men at ages of 20-39, 40-59 and 60-80 years, respectively, and 0.42, 0.38 and 0.33 for women at ages of 20-39, 40-59 and 60-80 years, respectively. We present thresholds of strength that can be incorporated into a clinical setting for identifying adults who are at risk of developing diabetes and might benefit from lifestyle interventions to reduce risk.

  13. Autologous orbicularis muscle for filling facial folds-an experimental and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellini, Silvana Artioli; Hirai, Flavio Eduardo; Hoyama, Erika; Mattos, Maila Karina; Chaves, Fernando Rodrigo; Pellizon, Claudia Helena; Padovani, Carlos Roberto

    2009-01-01

    To present a technique for filling facial folds by using autologous orbicularis oculi muscle, based on an experimental model. two studies are presented: (1) an experimental study using 15 albino guinea-pigs from which a strip of the sural triceps muscle was removed and implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of the dorsal area. The animals were sacrificed 7, 30 and 60 days after the implantation, and the material was histologically evaluated. And (2) an interventional prospective clinical trial carried out on 20 patients referred to blepharoplasty surgery. They received autologous preseptal orbicularis muscle for filling facial folds. The results where evaluated by patients satisfaction and clinical exam. the sural tricep muscle, when implanted in the subcutaneous tissue, resulted in fibrosis. The patients whom received autologous orbicularis muscle implanted for filling facial folds showed that the procedure can be successfully carried out. autologous preseptal orbicularis muscle is a good material for filling facial folds. Cicatricial tissue will be formed on its implantation site, filling the tissue gap that forms the folds on the skin.

  14. The superficial temporal fat pad and its ramifications for temporalis muscle construction in facial approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Carl N; Devine, Matthew

    2009-10-30

    The construction of the facial muscles (particularly those of mastication) is generally thought to enhance the accuracy of facial approximation methods because they increase attention paid to face anatomy. However, the lack of consideration for non-muscular structures of the face when using these "anatomical" methods ironically forces one of the two large masticatory muscles to be exaggerated beyond reality. To demonstrate and resolve this issue the temporal region of nineteen caucasoid human cadavers (10 females, 9 males; mean age=84 years, s=9 years, range=58-97 years) were investigated. Soft tissue depths were measured at regular intervals across the temporal fossa in 10 cadavers, and the thickness of the muscle and fat components quantified in nine other cadavers. The measurements indicated that the temporalis muscle generally accounts for construction of the STFP and the temporalis muscle for future facial approximation casework. This study warrants further investigations of the temporalis muscle and the STFP in younger age groups and demonstrates that untested facial approximation guidelines, including those propounded to be anatomical, should be cautiously regarded.

  15. Rat whisker movement after facial nerve lesion: evidence for autonomic contraction of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, James T; Sheu, Shu Hsien; Hohman, Marc H; Knox, Christopher J; Weinberg, Julie S; Kleiss, Ingrid J; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-04-18

    Vibrissal whisking is often employed to track facial nerve regeneration in rats; however, we have observed similar degrees of whisking recovery after facial nerve transection with or without repair. We hypothesized that the source of non-facial nerve-mediated whisker movement after chronic denervation was from autonomic, cholinergic axons traveling within the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve (ION). Rats underwent unilateral facial nerve transection with repair (N=7) or resection without repair (N=11). Post-operative whisking amplitude was measured weekly across 10weeks, and during intraoperative stimulation of the ION and facial nerves at ⩾18weeks. Whisking was also measured after subsequent ION transection (N=6) or pharmacologic blocking of the autonomic ganglia using hexamethonium (N=3), and after snout cooling intended to elicit a vasodilation reflex (N=3). Whisking recovered more quickly and with greater amplitude in rats that underwent facial nerve repair compared to resection (Pfacial-nerve-mediated whisking was elicited by electrical stimulation of the ION, temporarily diminished following hexamethonium injection, abolished by transection of the ION, and rapidly and significantly (Pfacial nerve resection. This study provides the first behavioral and anatomical evidence of spontaneous autonomic innervation of skeletal muscle after motor nerve lesion, which not only has implications for interpreting facial nerve reinnervation results, but also calls into question whether autonomic-mediated innervation of striated muscle occurs naturally in other forms of neuropathy. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatigue is associated with muscle weakness in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voermans, N C; Knoop, H; Bleijenberg, G; van Engelen, B G

    2011-06-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited connective tissue disorders characterised by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility and tissue fragility. It has recently been shown that muscle weakness occurs frequently in EDS, and that fatigue is a common and clinically important symptom. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fatigue severity and subjective and objective measures of muscle weakness. Furthermore, the predictive value of muscle weakness for fatigue severity was determined, together with that of pain and physical activity. An explorative, cross-sectional, observational study. Thirty EDS patients, recruited from the Dutch patient association, were investigated at the neuromuscular outpatient department of a tertiary referral centre in The Netherlands. Muscle strength measured with manual muscle strength testing and hand-held dynamometry. Self-reported muscle weakness, pain, physical activity levels and fatigue were assessed with standardised questionnaires. Fatigue severity in EDS was significantly correlated with measured and self-reported muscle weakness (r=-0.408 for manual muscle strength, r=0.461 for hand-held dynamometry and r=0.603 for self-reported muscle weakness). Both muscle weakness and pain severity were significant predictors of fatigue severity in a multiple regression analysis. The results suggest a positive and direct relationship between fatigue severity and muscle weakness in EDS. Future research should focus on the relationship between fatigue, muscle weakness and objectively measured physical activity, preferably in a larger cohort of EDS patients. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Difference in distribution of muscle weakness between myasthenia gravis and the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, P. W.; Sotodeh, M.; Nijnuis, M.; van Doorn, P. A.; van Engelen, B. G. M.; Hintzen, R. Q.; de Kort, P. L. M.; Kuks, J. B.; Twijnstra, A.; de Visser, M.; Visser, L. H.; Wokke, J. H.; Wintzen, A. R.; Verschuuren, J. J.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Myasthenia gravis and the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) may have a similar distribution of muscle weakness. Deciding on a diagnosis of myasthenia gravis or LEMS on clinical grounds may therefore be difficult. Objective: To compare the localisation of initial muscle weakness

  18. Respiratory muscle weakness and respiratory muscle training in severely disabled multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselink, R; Kovacs, L; Ketelaer, P; Carton, H; Decramer, M

    2000-06-01

    To evaluate the contribution of respiratory muscle weakness (part 1) and respiratory muscle training (part 2) to pulmonary function, cough efficacy, and functional status in patients with advanced multiple sclerosis (MS). Survey (part 1) and randomized controlled trial (part 2). Rehabilitation center for MS. Twenty-eight bedridden or wheelchair-bound MS patients (part 1); 18 patients were randomly assigned to a training group (n = 9) or a control group (n = 9) (part 2). The training group (part 2) performed three series of 15 contractions against an expiratory resistance (60% maximum expiratory pressure [PEmax]) two times a day, whereas the control group performed breathing exercises to enhance maximal inspirations. Forced vital capacity (FVC), inspiratory, and expiratory muscle strength (PImax and PEmax), neck flexion force (NFF), cough efficacy by means of the Pulmonary Index (PI), and functional status by means of the Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Part 1 revealed a significantly reduced FVC (43% +/- 26% predicted), PEmax (18% +/- 8% predicted), and PImax (27% +/- 11% predicted), whereas NFF was only mildly reduced (93% +/- 26% predicted). The PI (median score, 10) and EDSS (median score, 8.5) were severely reduced. PEmax was significantly correlated to FVC, EDSS, and PI (r = .77, -.79, and -.47, respectively). In stepwise multiple regression analysis. PEmax was the only factor contributing to the explained variance in FVC (R2 = .60), whereas body weight (R2 = .41) was the only factor for the PI. In part 2, changes in PImax and PEmax tended to be higher in the training group (p = .06 and p = .07, respectively). The PI was significantly improved after 3 months of training compared with the control group (p functional status. Expiratory muscle training tended to enhance inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength. In addition, subjectively and objectively rated cough efficacy improved significantly and lasted for 3 months after training cessation.

  19. Progressive Muscle Atrophy and Weakness After Treatment by Mantle Field Radiotherapy in Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeuwen-Segarceanu, Elena M. van; Dorresteijn, Lucille D.A.; Pillen, Sigrid; Biesma, Douwe H.; Vogels, Oscar J.M.; Alfen, Nens van

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the damage to the muscles and propose a pathophysiologic mechanism for muscle atrophy and weakness after mantle field radiotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. Methods and Materials: We examined 12 patients treated by mantle field radiotherapy between 1969 and 1998. Besides evaluation of their symptoms, the following tests were performed: dynamometry; ultrasound of the sternocleidomastoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles; and needle electromyography of the neck, deltoid, and ultrasonographically affected arm muscles. Results: Ten patients (83%) experienced neck complaints, mostly pain and muscle weakness. On clinical examination, neck flexors were more often affected than neck extensors. On ultrasound, the sternocleidomastoid was severely atrophic in 8 patients, but abnormal echo intensity was seen in only 3 patients. Electromyography of the neck muscles showed mostly myogenic changes, whereas the deltoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles seemed to have mostly neurogenic damage. Conclusions: Many patients previously treated by mantle field radiotherapy develop severe atrophy and weakness of the neck muscles. Neck muscles within the radiation field show mostly myogenic damage, and muscles outside the mantle field show mostly neurogenic damage. The discrepancy between echo intensity and atrophy suggests that muscle damage is most likely caused by an extrinsic factor such as progressive microvascular fibrosis. This is also presumed to cause damage to nerves within the radiated field, resulting in neurogenic damage of the deltoid and arm muscles.

  20. Restoration of orbicularis oculi muscle function in rabbits with peripheral facial paralysis via an implantable artificial facial nerve system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yajing; Jin, Cheng; Li, Keyong; Zhang, Qunfeng; Geng, Liang; Liu, Xundao; Zhang, Yi

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to restore orbicularis oculi muscle function using the implantable artificial facial nerve system (IAFNS). The in vivo part of the IAFNS was implanted into 12 rabbits that were facially paralyzed on the right side of the face to restore the function of the orbicularis oculi muscle, which was indicated by closure of the paralyzed eye when the contralateral side was closed. Wireless communication links were established between the in vivo part (the processing chip and microelectrode) and the external part (System Controller program) of the system, which were used to set the working parameters and indicate the working state of the processing chip and microelectrode implanted in the body. A disturbance field strength test of the IAFNS processing chip was performed in a magnetic field dark room to test its electromagnetic radiation safety. Test distances investigated were 0, 1, 3 and 10 m, and levels of radiation intensity were evaluated in the horizontal and vertical planes. Anti-interference experiments were performed to test the stability of the processing chip under the interference of electromagnetic radiation. The fully implanted IAFNS was run for 5 h per day for 30 consecutive days to evaluate the accuracy and precision as well as the long-term stability and effectiveness of wireless communication. The stimulus intensity (range, 0-8 mA) was set every 3 days to confirm the minimum stimulation intensity which could indicate the movement of the paralyzed side was set. Effective stimulation rate was also tested by comparing the number of eye-close movements on both sides. The results of the present study indicated that the IAFNS could rebuild the reflex arc, inducing the experimental rabbits to close the eye of the paralyzed side. The System Controller program was able to reflect the in vivo part of the artificial facial nerve system in real-time and adjust the working pattern, stimulation intensity and frequency, range of wave

  1. Simulating the effect of muscle weakness and contracture on neuromuscular control of normal gait in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Aaron S; Carty, Christopher P; Modenese, Luca; Barber, Lee A; Lichtwark, Glen A

    2018-03-01

    Altered neural control of movement and musculoskeletal deficiencies are common in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), with muscle weakness and contracture commonly experienced. Both neural and musculoskeletal deficiencies are likely to contribute to abnormal gait, such as equinus gait (toe-walking), in children with SCP. However, it is not known whether the musculoskeletal deficiencies prevent normal gait or if neural control could be altered to achieve normal gait. This study examined the effect of simulated muscle weakness and contracture of the major plantarflexor/dorsiflexor muscles on the neuromuscular requirements for achieving normal walking gait in children. Initial muscle-driven simulations of walking with normal musculoskeletal properties by typically developing children were undertaken. Additional simulations with altered musculoskeletal properties were then undertaken; with muscle weakness and contracture simulated by reducing the maximum isometric force and tendon slack length, respectively, of selected muscles. Muscle activations and forces required across all simulations were then compared via waveform analysis. Maintenance of normal gait appeared robust to muscle weakness in isolation, with increased activation of weakened muscles the major compensatory strategy. With muscle contracture, reduced activation of the plantarflexors was required across the mid-portion of stance suggesting a greater contribution from passive forces. Increased activation and force during swing was also required from the tibialis anterior to counteract the increased passive forces from the simulated dorsiflexor muscle contracture. Improvements in plantarflexor and dorsiflexor motor function and muscle strength, concomitant with reductions in plantarflexor muscle stiffness may target the deficits associated with SCP that limit normal gait. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytokine genes as potential biomarkers for muscle weakness in OPMD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Raz, Yotam; van der Slujis, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    is a dominant, late-onset myopathy, caused by an alanine-expansion mutation in the gene encoding for poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (expPABPN1). Here, we investigated the hypothesis that cytokines could mark OPMD disease state. We determined cytokines levels the vastus lateralis muscle from genetically...... confirmed expPABPN1 carriers at a symptomatic or a presymptomatic stage. We identified cytokine-related genes candidates from a transcriptome study in a mouse overexpressing exp PABPN1 Six cytokines were found to be consistently down-regulated in OPMD vastus lateralis muscles. Expression levels...

  3. An overview of the cosmetic treatment of facial muscles with a new botulinum toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Luitgard G

    2009-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BTX) is used nowadays in a much more differentiated way with a much more individualized approach to the cosmetic treatment of patients. To the well known areas of the upper face new indications in the mid and lower face have been added. Microinjection techniques are increasingly used besides the classic intramuscular injection technique. BTX injections of the mid and lower face require small and smallest dosages. The perioral muscles act in concert to achieve the extraordinarily complex movements that control facial expressions, eating, and speech. As the mouth has horizontal as well as vertical movements, paralysis of these perioral muscles has a greater effect on facial function and appearance than does paralysis of muscles of the upper face, which move primarily in vertical direction. It is essential that BTX injections should achieve the desired cosmetic result with the minimum dose without any functional discomfort. In this paper the three-year clinical experience with average dosages for an optimal outcome in the treatment of facial muscles with a newly developed botulinum toxin type A (Xeomin) free from complexing proteins is presented.

  4. Intraoperative muscle electrical stimulation for accurate positioning of the temporalis muscle tendon during dynamic, one-stage lengthening temporalis myoplasty for facial and lip reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Har-Shai, Yaron; Gil, Tamir; Metanes, Issa; Labbé, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    Facial paralysis is a significant functional and aesthetic handicap. Facial reanimation is performed either by two-stage microsurgical methods or by regional one-stage muscle pedicle flaps. Labbé has modified and improved the regional muscle pedicle transfer flaps for facial reanimation (i.e., the lengthening temporalis myoplasty procedure). This true myoplasty technique is capable of producing a coordinated, spontaneous, and symmetrical smile. An intraoperative electrical stimulation of the temporal muscle is proposed to simulate the smile of the paralyzed side on the surgical table. The intraoperative electrical stimulation of the temporalis muscle, employing direct percutaneous electrode needles or transcutaneous electrical stimulation electrodes, was utilized in 11 primary and four secondary cases with complete facial palsy. The duration of the facial paralysis was up to 12 years. Postoperative follow-up ranged from 3 to 12 months. The insertion points of the temporalis muscle tendon to the nasolabial fold, upper lip, and oral commissure had been changed according to the intraoperative muscle stimulation in six patients of the 11 primary cases (55 percent) and in all four secondary (revisional) cases. A coordinated, spontaneous, and symmetrical smile was achieved in all patients by 3 months after surgery by employing speech therapy and biofeedback. This adjunct intraoperative refinement provides crucial feedback for the surgeon in both primary and secondary facial palsy cases regarding the vector of action of the temporalis muscle and the accuracy of the anchoring points of its tendon, thus enhancing a more coordinated and symmetrical smile.

  5. Optogenetic probing of nerve and muscle function after facial nerve lesion in the mouse whisker system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Akhil; Vajtay, Thomas J.; Upadhyay, Aman; Yiantsos, S. Olga; Lee, Christian R.; Margolis, David J.

    2018-02-01

    Optogenetic modulation of neural circuits has opened new avenues into neuroscience research, allowing the control of cellular activity of genetically specified cell types. Optogenetics is still underdeveloped in the peripheral nervous system, yet there are many applications related to sensorimotor function, pain and nerve injury that would be of great benefit. We recently established a method for non-invasive, transdermal optogenetic stimulation of the facial muscles that control whisker movements in mice (Park et al., 2016, eLife, e14140)1. Here we present results comparing the effects of optogenetic stimulation of whisker movements in mice that express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) selectively in either the facial motor nerve (ChAT-ChR2 mice) or muscle (Emx1-ChR2 or ACTA1-ChR2 mice). We tracked changes in nerve and muscle function before and up to 14 days after nerve transection. Optogenetic 460 nm transdermal stimulation of the distal cut nerve showed that nerve degeneration progresses rapidly over 24 hours. In contrast, the whisker movements evoked by optogenetic muscle stimulation were up-regulated after denervation, including increased maximum protraction amplitude, increased sensitivity to low-intensity stimuli, and more sustained muscle contractions (reduced adaptation). Our results indicate that peripheral optogenetic stimulation is a promising technique for probing the timecourse of functional changes of both nerve and muscle, and holds potential for restoring movement after paralysis induced by nerve damage or motoneuron degeneration.

  6. Elbow flexor and extensor muscle weakness in lateral epicondylalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, Brooke K; Bisset, Leanne; Vicenzino, Bill

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate whether deficits of elbow flexor and extensor muscle strength exist in lateral epicondylalgia (LE) in comparison with a healthy control population. Cross-sectional study. 150 participants with unilateral LE were compared with 54 healthy control participants. Maximal isometric elbow flexion and extension strength were measured bilaterally using a purpose-built standing frame such that gripping was avoided. The authors found significant side differences in elbow extensor (-6.54 N, 95% CI -11.43 to -1.65, p=0.008, standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.45) and flexor muscle strength (-11.26 N, 95% CI -19.59 to -2.94, p=0.009, SMD -0.46) between LE and control groups. Within the LE group, only elbow extensor muscle strength deficits between sides was significant (affected-unaffected: -2.94 N, 95% CI -5.44 to -0.44). Small significant deficits of elbow extensor and flexor muscle strength exist in the affected arm of unilateral LE in comparison with healthy controls. Notably, comparing elbow strength between the affected and unaffected sides in unilateral epicondylalgia is likely to underestimate these deficits. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12609000051246.

  7. [A 34-year-old woman with delayed motor milestones, high arched palate, and proximal muscle weakness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T; Kitada, T; Hirasawa, E; Mori, H; Mizuno, Y

    1996-07-01

    We report a right-handed 34-year-old woman with diffuse muscle atrophy. The patient was a full-term infant of uneventful delivery, however, motor milestones were delayed in that neck control was obtained at 10 months of the age and she started to walk unassisted at 2 years of the age. Mental development was normal. She was unable to run with her mates at her kindergarten and she required a handrail when she walk up the stairs. She could not close her mouth completely at the primary school. She was unable to use a straw as a middle school pupil. Recently, she noted difficulty in raising her head from the supine position, and has become unable to walk a long distance. She was admitted to our hospital in September 17, 1994 when she was 34-year-old. On admission, general physical examination revealed that she looked slender weighing 38 kg with 149.5 cm height. She showed a high arched palate, slight scoliosis, and pes equinus. Otherwise general physical examination was unremarkable. Upon neurologic examination, she was alert and well oriented. Cranial nerves were unremarkable except for bilateral facial atrophy and moderate weakness. Her voice was of nasal quality, and swallowing was slightly difficult. No atrophy was noted in the sternocleidomastoid muscle. She showed waddling gait and positive Gowers' sign. Diffuse muscle atrophy was noted and mild to moderate weakness was presented more in the proximal part in both upper and lower extremities, however, deltoid muscles retained normal power. No ataxia was noted. All the deep tendon reflexes were lost. Sensation was intact. Routine laboratory examination was unremarkable. Serum CK was 56 IU/l. Electromyography revealed myogenic changes in the deltoid, biceps, and quadriceps muscles. A diagnostic biopsy was performed in the left biceps brachii muscle. The patient was discussed in the neurologic CPC, and the chief discussant arrived at the conclusion that the patient had nemaline myopathy. Opinions were divided among

  8. Comparative data from young men and women on masseter muscle fibres, function and facial morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, A.; Bakke, M.; Pinholt, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    The primary aim was to relate information about masseter muscle fibres and function to aspects of facial morphology in a group of healthy young men. The secondary aim was to investigate possible sex differences using data previously obtained from a comparable group of age-matched, healthy women......, and the tissue examined for myosin ATPase activity. Further, the cross-sectional areas of the different fibre types were measured. In spite of using age-matched healthy men and women with a full complement of teeth, statistically significant sex differences were found among measures related to muscle function...... and some measures of facial morphology. Thus data from men and women should not be pooled uncritically. The greater bite force in men than women corresponded with the greater diameter and cross-sectional area of type II fibres. Further, the males had more anteriorly inclined mandibles and shorter anterior...

  9. Proximal muscle weakness as a result of osteomalacia associated with celiac disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, B; Akan, O; Kocyigit, H; Gürgan, H A

    2016-02-01

    A 24-year-old woman suffering from back and hip pain with difficulty in walking was reported. She had proximal muscle weakness. Laboratory findings led to the diagnosis of osteomalacia. Positivity of antibodies strengthened suspicion of celiac disease. In patients with proximal muscle weakness, osteomalacia should be considered in differential diagnosis even in a young woman. A 24-year-old woman suffering from back pain, bilateral hip pain, and difficulty in walking was reported. Her symptoms had started in the first trimester of pregnancy. In her physical examination, proximal muscle weakness and waddling gait pattern were determined. Her lumbar spine and hip MRI revealed no obvious pathological findings. Electromyography showed a myophatic pattern. Physical examination, normal values of creatine kinase, and muscle biopsy were supplied to exclude the diagnosis of primer muscle diseases. Laboratory findings led to the diagnosis of osteomalacia with normal renal function. Gastrointestinal symptoms and positivity of anti-gliadin and anti-endomysium antibodies strengthened the suspicion of celiac disease as a cause of the osteomalacia. The diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed with duodenal mucosal biopsy. In patients with proximal muscle weakness and waddling gait pattern, osteomalacia should be considered in differential diagnosis even in a young woman and underlying disease should be investigated.

  10. Prevalence of joint contractures and muscle weakness in people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Phu Dinh; Gandevia, Simon C; Herbert, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of joint contracture (limited passive range of joint motion) and muscle weakness in a population with multiple sclerosis (MS). A secondary aim was to establish normative data of functional tests of mobility and balance of people with MS who are still ambulant. Cross-sectional study. People with MS living in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. 330 people with MS living in metropolitan Sydney, Australia were randomly sampled on 23 July 2009 from the MS Australia register and invited to participate. Passive range of motion of large joints of the limbs and muscle strength. Tests of walking and balance were also conducted. 156 people (109 females, 47 males; mean age 54.2 years; mean time since diagnosis 14.9 years) agreed to participate and were assessed. Fifty-six per cent (56%) of participants had contracture in at least one major joint of upper or lower limb. The most common site of contracture was the ankle (43.9%). Seventy per cent (70%) of participants had muscle weakness in one or more muscle groups. As muscle weakness, joint contractures were present at early stage of MS and the prevalence was associated with the progression of the disease. These data show that in addition to muscle weakness joint contractures are highly prevalent among people with MS, especially in the ankle joint. This implicates that prevention of contracture is crucial in providing rehabilitation to people with MS.

  11. The pedicled masseter muscle transfer for smile reconstruction in facial paralysis: repositioning the origin and insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Damir B; Yoo, John

    2012-08-01

    The pedicled masseter muscle transfer (PMMT) is introduced as a new reconstructive option for dynamic smile restoration in patients with facial paralysis. The masseter muscle is detached from both its origin and insertion and transferred to a new position to imitate the function of the native zygomaticus major muscle. Part one of this study consisted of cadaveric dissections of 4 heads (eight sides) in order to determine whether the masseter muscle could be (a) pedicled solely by its dominant neurovascular bundle and (b) repositioned directly over the native zygomaticus major. The second part of the study consisted of clinical assessments in three patients in order to confirm the applicability of this muscle transfer. Commissure excursion and vector of contraction following PMMT were compared to the non-paralyzed side. In all eight sides, the masseter muscles were successfully isolated on their pedicle and transposed on top of and in-line with the ipsilateral zygomaticus major. The mean length of the masseter and its angle from Frankfurt's horizontal line after transposition compared favorably to the native zygomaticus major muscle. In the clinical cases, the mean commissure movements of the paralyzed and normal sides were 7 mm and 12 mm respectively. The mean angles of commissural movement for the paralyzed and normal sides were 62° and 59° respectively. The PMMT can be used as a dynamic reconstruction for patients with permanent facial paralysis. As we gain experience with the PMMT, it may be possible to use it as a first-line option for patients not eligible for free micro-neurovascular reconstruction. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of hemihypoglossal-facial nerve transposition with a cross-facial nerve graft and muscle transplant for the rehabilitation of facial paralysis using the facial clima method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Vila, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    To compare quantitatively the results obtained after hemihypoglossal nerve transposition and microvascular gracilis transfer associated with a cross facial nerve graft (CFNG) for reanimation of a paralysed face, 66 patients underwent hemihypoglossal transposition (n = 25) or microvascular gracilis transfer and CFNG (n = 41). The commissural displacement (CD) and commissural contraction velocity (CCV) in the two groups were compared using the system known as Facial clima. There was no inter-group variability between the groups (p > 0.10) in either variable. However, intra-group variability was detected between the affected and healthy side in the transposition group (p = 0.036 and p = 0.017, respectively). The transfer group had greater symmetry in displacement of the commissure (CD) and commissural contraction velocity (CCV) than the transposition group and patients were more satisfied. However, the transposition group had correct symmetry at rest but more asymmetry of CCV and CD when smiling.

  13. Effects of respiratory muscle training (RMT) in children with infantile-onset Pompe disease and respiratory muscle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harrison N; Crisp, Kelly D; Moss, Tronda; Strollo, Katherine; Robey, Randy; Sank, Jeffrey; Canfield, Michelle; Case, Laura E; Mahler, Leslie; Kravitz, Richard M; Kishnani, Priya S

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory muscle weakness is a primary therapeutic challenge for patients with infantile Pompe disease. We previously described the clinical implementation of a respiratory muscle training (RMT) regimen in two adults with late-onset Pompe disease; both demonstrated marked increases in inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength in response to RMT. However, the use of RMT in pediatric survivors of infantile Pompe disease has not been previously reported. We report the effects of an intensive RMT program on maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) using A-B-A (baseline-treatment-posttest) single subject experimental design in two pediatric survivors of infantile Pompe disease. Both subjects had persistent respiratory muscle weakness despite long-term treatment with alglucosidase alfa. Subject 1 demonstrated negligible to modest increases in MIP/MEP (6% increase in MIP, d=0.25; 19% increase in MEP, d=0.87), while Subject 2 demonstrated very large increases in MIP/MEP (45% increase in MIP, d=2.38; 81% increase in MEP, d=4.31). Following three-month RMT withdrawal, both subjects maintained these strength increases and demonstrated maximal MIP and MEP values at follow-up. Intensive RMT may be a beneficial treatment for respiratory muscle weakness in pediatric survivors of infantile Pompe disease.

  14. Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by a slipped disk in the spine) Stroke MUSCLE DISEASES Becker muscular dystrophy Dermatomyositis Muscular dystrophy (Duchenne) Myotonic dystrophy POISONING Botulism Poisoning ( insecticides , nerve gas) ...

  15. Knee extensor muscle weakness is a risk factor for development of knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oiestad, B E; Juhl, C B; Eitzen, I

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between knee extensor muscle weakness and the risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted with literature searches in Medline, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE......, CINAHL, and AMED. Eligible studies had to include participants with no radiographic or symptomatic knee osteoarthritis at baseline; have a follow-up time of a minimum of 2 years, and include a measure of knee extensor muscle strength. Hierarchies for extracting data on knee osteoarthritis and knee...... extensor muscle strength were defined prior to data extraction. Meta-analysis was applied on the basis of the odds ratios (ORs) of developing symptomatic knee osteoarthritis or radiographic knee osteoarthritis in subjects with knee extensor muscle weakness. ORs for knee osteoarthritis and 95% confidence...

  16. Botulinum toxin-induced facial muscle paralysis affects amygdala responses to the perception of emotional expressions: preliminary findings from an A-B-A design

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, M Justin; Neta, Maital; Davis, F Caroline; Ruberry, Erika J; Dinescu, Diana; Heatherton, Todd F; Stotland, Mitchell A; Whalen, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Background It has long been suggested that feedback signals from facial muscles influence emotional experience. The recent surge in use of botulinum toxin (BTX) to induce temporary muscle paralysis offers a unique opportunity to directly test this ?facial feedback hypothesis.? Previous research shows that the lack of facial muscle feedback due to BTX-induced paralysis influences subjective reports of emotional experience, as well as brain activity associated with the imitation of emotional fa...

  17. Non-neural Muscle Weakness Has Limited Influence on Complexity of Motor Control during Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije Goudriaan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD are neuromuscular disorders characterized by muscle weakness. Weakness in CP has neural and non-neural components, whereas in DMD, weakness can be considered as a predominantly non-neural problem. Despite the different underlying causes, weakness is a constraint for the central nervous system when controlling gait. CP demonstrates decreased complexity of motor control during gait from muscle synergy analysis, which is reflected by a higher total variance accounted for by one synergy (tVAF1. However, it remains unclear if weakness directly contributes to higher tVAF1 in CP, or whether altered tVAF1 reflects mainly neural impairments. If muscle weakness directly contributes to higher tVAF1, then tVAF1 should also be increased in DMD. To examine the etiology of increased tVAF1, muscle activity data of gluteus medius, rectus femoris, medial hamstrings, medial gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior were measured at self-selected walking speed, and strength data from knee extensors, knee flexors, dorsiflexors and plantar flexors, were analyzed in 15 children with CP [median (IQR age: 8.9 (2.2], 15 boys with DMD [8.7 (3.1], and 15 typical developing (TD children [8.6 (2.7]. We computed tVAF1 from 10 concatenated steps with non-negative matrix factorization, and compared tVAF1 between the three groups with a Mann-Whiney U-test. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to determine if weakness in specific muscle groups contributed to altered tVAF1. No significant differences in tVAF1 were found between DMD [tVAF1: 0.60 (0.07] and TD children [0.65 (0.07], while tVAF1 was significantly higher in CP [(0.74 (0.09] than in the other groups (both p < 0.005. In CP, weakness in the plantar flexors was related to higher tVAF1 (r = −0.72. In DMD, knee extensor weakness related to increased tVAF1 (r = −0.50. These results suggest that the non-neural weakness in DMD had limited influence on

  18. Agrin mutations lead to a congenital myasthenic syndrome with distal muscle weakness and atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Sophie; Chaouch, Amina; Torbergsen, Torberg; Bauché, Stéphanie; de Bruyckere, Elodie; Fontenille, Marie-Joséphine; Horn, Morten A; van Ghelue, Marijke; Løseth, Sissel; Issop, Yasmin; Cox, Daniel; Müller, Juliane S; Evangelista, Teresinha; Stålberg, Erik; Ioos, Christine; Barois, Annie; Brochier, Guy; Sternberg, Damien; Fournier, Emmanuel; Hantaï, Daniel; Abicht, Angela; Dusl, Marina; Laval, Steven H; Griffin, Helen; Eymard, Bruno; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2014-09-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of rare diseases resulting from impaired neuromuscular transmission. Their clinical hallmark is fatigable muscle weakness associated with a decremental muscle response to repetitive nerve stimulation and frequently related to postsynaptic defects. Distal myopathies form another clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of primary muscle disorders where weakness and atrophy are restricted to distal muscles, at least initially. In both congenital myasthenic syndromes and distal myopathies, a significant number of patients remain genetically undiagnosed. Here, we report five patients from three unrelated families with a strikingly homogenous clinical entity combining congenital myasthenia with distal muscle weakness and atrophy reminiscent of a distal myopathy. MRI and neurophysiological studies were compatible with mild myopathy restricted to distal limb muscles, but decrement (up to 72%) in response to 3 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation pointed towards a neuromuscular transmission defect. Post-exercise increment (up to 285%) was observed in the distal limb muscles in all cases suggesting presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural analyses of muscle end-plate regions showed synaptic remodelling with denervation-reinnervation events. We performed whole-exome sequencing in two kinships and Sanger sequencing in one isolated case and identified five new recessive mutations in the gene encoding agrin. This synaptic proteoglycan with critical function at the neuromuscular junction was previously found mutated in more typical forms of congenital myasthenic syndrome. In our patients, we found two missense mutations residing in the N-terminal agrin domain, which reduced acetylcholine receptors clustering activity of agrin in vitro. Our findings expand the spectrum of congenital myasthenic syndromes due to agrin mutations and show an unexpected

  19. Pharmacological inhibition of myostatin protects against skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness after anterior cruciate ligament tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, Caroline Nw; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Grekin, Jeremy A; Khouri, Roger K; Russell, Alan J; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2017-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are among the most frequent knee injuries in sports medicine, with tear rates in the US up to 250,000 per year. Many patients who suffer from ACL tears have persistent atrophy and weakness even after considerable rehabilitation. Myostatin is a cytokine that directly induces muscle atrophy, and previous studies rodent models and patients have demonstrated an upregulation of myostatin after ACL tear. Using a preclinical rat model, our objective was to determine if the use of a bioneutralizing antibody against myostatin could prevent muscle atrophy and weakness after ACL tear. Rats underwent a surgically induced ACL tear and were treated with either a bioneutralizing antibody against myostatin (10B3, GlaxoSmithKline) or a sham antibody (E1-82.15, GlaxoSmithKline). Muscles were harvested at either 7 or 21 days after induction of a tear to measure changes in contractile function, fiber size, and genes involved in muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. These time points were selected to evaluate early and later changes in muscle structure and function. Compared to the sham antibody group, 7 days after ACL tear, myostatin inhibition reduced the expression of proteolytic genes and induced the expression of hypertrophy genes. These early changes in gene expression lead to a 22% increase in muscle fiber cross-sectional area and a 10% improvement in maximum isometric force production that were observed 21 days after ACL tear. Overall, myostatin inhibition lead to several favorable, although modest, changes in molecular biomarkers of muscle regeneration and reduced muscle atrophy and weakness following ACL tear. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2499-2505, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Ankle-foot orthoses that restrict dorsiflexion improve walking in polio survivors with calf muscle weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, Hilde E.; Bus, Sicco A.; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Nollet, Frans

    2014-01-01

    In polio survivors with calf muscle weakness, dorsiflexion-restricting ankle-foot orthoses (DR-AFOs) aim to improve gait in order to reduce walking-related problems such as instability or increased energy cost. However, evidence on the efficacy of DR-AFOs in polio survivors is lacking. We

  1. Fatigue is associated with muscle weakness in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voermans, N.C.; Knoop, H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited connective tissue disorders characterised by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility and tissue fragility. It has recently been shown that muscle weakness occurs frequently in EDS, and that

  2. Contactless measurement of muscles fatigue by tracking facial feature points in a video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irani, Ramin; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    their exercises when the level of the fatigue might be dangerous for the patients. The current technology for measuring tiredness, like Electromyography (EMG), requires installing some sensors on the body. In some applications, like remote patient monitoring, this however might not be possible. To deal...... with such cases, in this paper we present a contactless method based on computer vision techniques to measure tiredness by detecting, tracking, and analyzing some facial feature points during the exercise. Experimental results on several test subjects and comparing them against ground truth data show...... that the proposed system can properly find the temporal point of tiredness of the muscles when the test subjects are doing physical exercises....

  3. Variant Anterior Digastric Muscle Transfer for Marginal Mandibular Branch of Facial Nerve Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Zdilla, DC

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve (MMBFN palsy is a common consequence of head and neck surgeries. MMBFN palsy results in paralysis of muscles which depress the inferior lip. Current management of MMBFN palsy involves ruination of normal neuromuscular anatomy and physiology to restore symmetry to the mouth. The article outlines the possibility to transfer variant anterior digastric musculature to accomplish reanimation of the mouth without adversely affecting normal nonvariant anatomy. The procedure may have the additional cosmetic benefit of correcting asymmetrical muscular bulk in the submental region.

  4. Prevalence of clinically relevant muscle weakness and its association with vitamin D status among older adults in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orces, Carlos H

    2017-10-01

    Muscle weakness and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency have been associated with adverse outcomes among older adults. However, little is known about the relationship between clinically relevant muscle weakness and 25(OH)D levels in Ecuador. To examine the prevalence of muscle weakness and its association with 25(OH)D status among subjects aged 60 years and older in Ecuador. The present study was based on data from 2205 participants in the first National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging. The Foundation for the National Institute of Health Sarcopenia Project criteria was used to examine muscle weakness prevalence rates. Gender-specific general linear and logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders were created to compare mean 25(OH)D concentrations and 25(OH)D deficiency across muscle strength categories, respectively. An estimated 32.2% of women and 33.4% of men had evidence of clinically relevant muscle weakness in Ecuador. In general, increased muscle weakness prevalence rates were present among Indigenous, residents in the rural Andes Mountains, underweight subjects, and those with a sedentary lifestyle. Muscle strength was significantly and directly correlated with mean 25(OH)D levels. After controlling for potential confounders, 25(OH)D deficiency prevalence rates were 31 and 43% higher among men and women with muscle weakness than those with normal strength, respectively. One-third of older adults nationwide had evidence of muscle weakness. While the present study found a significant correlation between muscle strength and 25(OH)D concentrations, further research is needed to examine whether optimizing 25(OH)D levels may improve muscle weakness among older adults.

  5. Facial dimensions, bite force and masticatory muscle thickness in preschool children with functional posterior crossbite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Midori Castelo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Posterior crossbite may affect craniofacial growth and development. Thus, this study aimed to associate facial dimensions (by standardized frontal photographs to masseter and anterior portion of the temporal muscle thickness (by ultrasonography and maximal bilateral bite force in 49 children with deciduous and early mixed dentitions. They were distributed in four groups: deciduous-normal occlusion (DNO, n = 15, deciduous-crossbite (DCB, n = 10, mixed-normal occlusion (MNO, n = 13 and mixed-crossbite (MCB, n = 11. Anterior facial height (AFH, bizygomatic width (FWB, and intergonial width (FWI were determined and associated with muscle thickness and bite force, applying Pearson’s coefficients and multiple logistic regression, with age, gender, body weight and height as the covariates. FWB and FWI were correlated positively with the masseter thickness, whereas AFH/FWB and AFH/FWI ratios had negative correlation, except in the DNO group. The correlation between AFH/FWB and bite force in the MCB group was significantly negative. A higher AFH/FWB in MNO and MCB led to a significantly higher probability for functional crossbite development. In the studied sample, it was observed that children in the early mixed dentition with a long-face trend showed lower bite force and higher probability to present functional posterior crossbite, without significant influence of the covariates.

  6. Ca2+ sensitizers: An emerging class of agents for counterbalancing weakness in skeletal muscle diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochala, Julien

    2010-02-01

    Ca(2+) ions are key regulators of skeletal muscle contraction. By binding to contractile proteins, they initiate a cascade of molecular events leading to cross-bridge formation and ultimately, muscle shortening and force production. The ability of contractile proteins to respond to Ca(2+) attachment, also known as Ca(2+) sensitivity, is often compromised in acquired and congenital skeletal muscle disorders. It constitutes, undoubtedly, a major physiological cause of weakness for patients. In this review, we discuss recent studies giving strong molecular and cellular evidence that pharmacological modulators of some of the contractile proteins, also termed Ca(2+) sensitizers, are efficient agents to improve Ca(2+) sensitivity and function in diseased skeletal muscle cells. In fact, they compensate for the impaired contractile proteins response to Ca(2+) binding. Currently, such Ca(2+) sensitizing compounds are successfully used for reducing problems in cardiac disorders. Therefore, in the future, under certain conditions, these agents may represent an emerging class of agents to enhance the quality of life of patients suffering from skeletal muscle weakness. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quality-of-life improvement after free gracilis muscle transfer for smile restoration in patients with facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Robin W; Bhama, Prabhat; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-01-01

    Facial paralysis can contribute to disfigurement, psychological difficulties, and an inability to convey emotion via facial expression. In patients unable to perform a meaningful smile, free gracilis muscle transfer (FGMT) can often restore smile function. However, little is known about the impact on disease-specific quality of life. To determine quantitatively whether FGMT improves quality of life in patients with facial paralysis. Prospective evaluation of 154 FGMTs performed at a facial nerve center on 148 patients with facial paralysis. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) survey and Facial Assessment by Computer Evaluation software (FACE-gram) were used to quantify quality-of-life improvement, oral commissure excursion, and symmetry with smile. Free gracilis muscle transfer. Change in FaCE score, oral commissure excursion, and symmetry with smile. There were 127 successful FGMTs on 124 patients and 14 failed procedures on 13 patients. Mean (SD) FaCE score increased significantly after successful FGMT (42.30 [15.9] vs 58.5 [17.60]; paired 2-tailed t test, P improved significantly in all subgroups (nonflaccid cohort, 37.8 [19.9] vs 52.9 [19.3]; P = .02; flaccid cohort, 43.1 [15.1] vs 59.6 [17.2]; P improved from a mean (SD) of 13.8 (7.46) to 4.88 (3.47) (P improvement in quality of life after FGMT in patients who could not recover a meaningful smile after facial nerve insult. Quality-of-life improvement was not statistically different between donor nerve groups or facial paralysis types.

  8. A 13 year old girl with muscle weakness and ventricular tachycardia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, M.; Zeb, S.; Adil, M.; Gul, A.M.; Hafizullah, M.

    2012-01-01

    Gitelman's syndrome is characterized by hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. It is an autosomal recessive renal disorder and mostly present with asymptomatic hypokalemia but muscle cramps, dizziness, fatigue, muscle weakness and arrhythmias are the usual presentation. Same is the case with us, young girl presented with multiple symptoms and arrhythmia was worked up for electrolyte imbalance. Long term prognosis in terms of maintaining growth, renal function and life expectancy is excellent. Family screening is important for its early detection and treatment. This needs future genetic studies. (author)

  9. Reconstruction of Multiple Facial Nerve Branches Using Skeletal Muscle-Derived Multipotent Stem Cell Sheet-Pellet Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kosuke; Tamaki, Tetsuro; Hirata, Maki; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kenei; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Kazuno, Akihito; Sakai, Akihiro; Iida, Masahiro; Okami, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages, and surgical resection with wide margins is generally indicated, despite this treatment being associated with poor postoperative quality of life (QOL). We have previously reported on the therapeutic effects of skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells (Sk-MSCs), which exert reconstitution capacity for muscle-nerve-blood vessel units. Recently, we further developed a 3D patch-transplantation system using Sk-MSC sheet-pellets. The aim of this study is the application of the 3D Sk-MSC transplantation system to the reconstitution of facial complex nerve-vascular networks after severe damage. Mouse experiments were performed for histological analysis and rats were used for functional examinations. The Sk-MSC sheet-pellets were prepared from GFP-Tg mice and SD rats, and were transplanted into the facial resection model (ST). Culture medium was transplanted as a control (NT). In the mouse experiment, facial-nerve-palsy (FNP) scoring was performed weekly during the recovery period, and immunohistochemistry was used for the evaluation of histological recovery after 8 weeks. In rats, contractility of facial muscles was measured via electrical stimulation of facial nerves root, as the marker of total functional recovery at 8 weeks after transplantation. The ST-group showed significantly higher FNP (about three fold) scores when compared to the NT-group after 2-8 weeks. Similarly, significant functional recovery of whisker movement muscles was confirmed in the ST-group at 8 weeks after transplantation. In addition, engrafted GFP+ cells formed complex branches of nerve-vascular networks, with differentiation into Schwann cells and perineurial/endoneurial cells, as well as vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Thus, Sk-MSC sheet-pellet transplantation is potentially useful for functional reconstitution therapy of large defects in facial nerve-vascular networks.

  10. Reconstruction of Multiple Facial Nerve Branches Using Skeletal Muscle-Derived Multipotent Stem Cell Sheet-Pellet Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Saito

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages, and surgical resection with wide margins is generally indicated, despite this treatment being associated with poor postoperative quality of life (QOL. We have previously reported on the therapeutic effects of skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells (Sk-MSCs, which exert reconstitution capacity for muscle-nerve-blood vessel units. Recently, we further developed a 3D patch-transplantation system using Sk-MSC sheet-pellets. The aim of this study is the application of the 3D Sk-MSC transplantation system to the reconstitution of facial complex nerve-vascular networks after severe damage. Mouse experiments were performed for histological analysis and rats were used for functional examinations. The Sk-MSC sheet-pellets were prepared from GFP-Tg mice and SD rats, and were transplanted into the facial resection model (ST. Culture medium was transplanted as a control (NT. In the mouse experiment, facial-nerve-palsy (FNP scoring was performed weekly during the recovery period, and immunohistochemistry was used for the evaluation of histological recovery after 8 weeks. In rats, contractility of facial muscles was measured via electrical stimulation of facial nerves root, as the marker of total functional recovery at 8 weeks after transplantation. The ST-group showed significantly higher FNP (about three fold scores when compared to the NT-group after 2-8 weeks. Similarly, significant functional recovery of whisker movement muscles was confirmed in the ST-group at 8 weeks after transplantation. In addition, engrafted GFP+ cells formed complex branches of nerve-vascular networks, with differentiation into Schwann cells and perineurial/endoneurial cells, as well as vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Thus, Sk-MSC sheet-pellet transplantation is potentially useful for functional reconstitution therapy of large defects in facial nerve-vascular networks.

  11. The spectrum of muscle histopathologic findings in 42 weak scleroderma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Julie J.; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Lloyd, Thomas E.; Corse, Andrea M.; Casciola-Rosen, Livia; Shah, Ami A.; Boin, Francesco; Hummers, Laura K.; Mammen, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if distinct muscle pathological features exist in scleroderma subjects with weakness. Methods This retrospective study included weak scleroderma subjects with muscle biopsies available for review. Biopsies were systematically assessed for individual pathologic features including inflammation, necrosis, fibrosis, and acute neurogenic atrophy. Based on the aggregate individual features, biopsies were assigned a histopathologic category of polymyositis, dermatomyositis, necrotizing myopathy, non-specific myositis, “acute denervation”, “fibrosis only”, or “other”. Clinical data analyzed included autoantibody profiles, scleroderma subtype and disease duration, Medsger muscle severity scores, creatine kinase (CK), electromyography (EMG), and muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results 42 subjects (79% female and 64% diffuse scleroderma) were included in this study. Necrosis (67%), inflammation (48%), acute neurogenic atrophy (48%), and fibrosis (33%) were the most prevalent pathologic features. The presence of fibrosis was strongly associated with anti-PM-Scl antibodies. Histopathologic categories included non-specific myositis (36%), necrotizing myopathy (21%), dermatomyositis (7%), “acute denervation” (7%), “fibrosis only” (7%), and polymyositis (5%). Disease duration of scleroderma at the time of muscle biopsy was shorter in polymyositis than other histopathologic categories. Patients with anti-PM-Scl and Scl-70 antibodies also had a shorter disease duration than those with other auto-antibody profiles. Conclusion Non-specific myositis and necrotizing myopathy were the most common histopathologic categories in weak scleroderma subjects. Surprisingly, nearly half of the subjects studied had histological evidence of acute motor denervation (acute neurogenic atrophy); this has not been previously reported. Taken together, these observations suggest that a variety of pathologic mechanisms may underlie the development of

  12. MUSCLE WEAKNESS, FATIGUE, AND TORQUE VARIABILITY: EFFECTS OF AGE AND MOBILITY STATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    KENT-BRAUN, JANE A.; CALLAHAN, DAMIEN M.; FAY, JESSICA L.; FOULIS, STEPHEN A.; BUONACCORSI, JOHN P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Whereas deficits in muscle function, particularly power production, develop in old age and are risk factors for mobility impairment, a complete understanding of muscle fatigue during dynamic contractions is lacking. We tested hypotheses related to torque-producing capacity, fatigue resistance, and variability of torque production during repeated maximal contractions in healthy older, mobility-impaired older, and young women. Methods Knee extensor fatigue (decline in torque) was measured during 4 min of dynamic contractions. Torque variability was characterized using a novel 4-component logistic regression model. Results Young women produced more torque at baseline and during the protocol than older women (P torque variability differed by group (P = 0.022) and was greater in older impaired compared with young women (P = 0.010). Conclusions These results suggest that increased torque variability may combine with baseline muscle weakness to limit function, particularly in older adults with mobility impairments. PMID:23674266

  13. Effects of temporal muscle detachment and coronoidotomy on facial growth in young rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Engelberg Fernandes Gomes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the effects of unilateral detachment of the temporal muscle and coronoidotomy on facial growth in young rats. Thirty one-month-old Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: detachment, coronoidotomy and sham-operated. Under general anesthesia, unilateral detachment of the temporal muscle was performed for the detachment group, unilateral coronoidotomy was performed for the coronoidotomy group, and only surgical access was performed for the sham-operated group. The animals were sacrificed at three months of age. Their soft tissues were removed, and the mandible was disarticulated. Radiographic projections-axial views of the skulls and lateral views of hemimandibles-were taken. Cephalometric evaluations were performed, and the values obtained were submitted to statistical analyses. There was a significant homolateral difference in the length of the premaxilla, height of the mandibular ramus and body, and the length of the mandible in all three groups. However, comparisons among the groups revealed no significant differences between the detachment and coronoidotomy groups for most measurements. It was concluded that both experimental detachment of the temporal muscle and coronoidotomy during the growth period in rats induced asymmetry of the mandible and affected the premaxilla.

  14. Simvastatin reduces fibrosis and protects against muscle weakness after massive rotator cuff tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Max E; Korn, Michael A; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Harning, Julie A; Saripalli, Anjali L; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2015-02-01

    Chronic rotator cuff tears are a common source of shoulder pain and disability, and patients with chronic cuff tears often have substantial weakness, fibrosis, inflammation, and fat accumulation. Identifying therapies to prevent the development of these pathologic processes will likely have a positive impact on clinical outcomes. Simvastatin is a drug with demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects in many tissues but had not previously been studied in the context of rotator cuff tears. We hypothesized that after the induction of a massive supraspinatus tear, simvastatin would protect muscles from a loss of force production and fibrosis. We measured changes in muscle fiber contractility, histology, and biochemical markers of fibrosis and fatty infiltration in rats that received a full-thickness supraspinatus tear and were treated with either carrier alone or simvastatin. Compared with vehicle-treated controls, simvastatin did not have an appreciable effect on muscle fiber size, but treatment did increase muscle fiber specific force by 20%. Simvastatin also reduced collagen accumulation by 50% but did not affect triglyceride content of muscles. Several favorable changes in the expression of genes and other markers of inflammation, fibrosis, and regeneration were also observed. Simvastatin partially protected muscles from the weakness that occurs as a result of chronic rotator cuff tear. Fibrosis was also markedly reduced in simvastatin-treated animals. Whereas further studies are necessary, statin medication could potentially help improve outcomes for patients with rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Facial nerve problems and Bell's palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, DV; Venter, C; Valenas, O

    2015-01-01

    Bell's palsy is paralysis or weakness of muscle at the hemifacial level, a form of temporary facial paralysis, probable a virus infection or trauma, to one or two facial nerves. Damage to the facial nerve innervating the muscles on one side of the face result in a flabby appearance, fell the respective hemiface. Nerve damage can also affect the sense of taste and salivary and lacrimal secretion. This condition begins suddenly, often overnight, and usually gets better on its own within a few w...

  16. Compensatory strategies during manual wheelchair propulsion in response to weakness in individual muscle groups: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowik, Jonathan S; McNitt-Gray, Jill L; Requejo, Philip S; Mulroy, Sara J; Neptune, Richard R

    2016-03-01

    The considerable physical demand placed on the upper extremity during manual wheelchair propulsion is distributed among individual muscles. The strategy used to distribute the workload is likely influenced by the relative force-generating capacities of individual muscles, and some strategies may be associated with a higher injury risk than others. The objective of this study was to use forward dynamics simulations of manual wheelchair propulsion to identify compensatory strategies that can be used to overcome weakness in individual muscle groups and identify specific strategies that may increase injury risk. Identifying these strategies can provide rationale for the design of targeted rehabilitation programs aimed at preventing the development of pain and injury in manual wheelchair users. Muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulations of manual wheelchair propulsion were analyzed to identify compensatory strategies in response to individual muscle group weakness using individual muscle mechanical power and stress as measures of upper extremity demand. The simulation analyses found the upper extremity to be robust to weakness in any single muscle group as the remaining groups were able to compensate and restore normal propulsion mechanics. The rotator cuff muscles experienced relatively high muscle stress levels and exhibited compensatory relationships with the deltoid muscles. These results underline the importance of strengthening the rotator cuff muscles and supporting muscles whose contributions do not increase the potential for impingement (i.e., the thoracohumeral depressors) and minimize the risk of upper extremity injury in manual wheelchair users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sildenafil reduces respiratory muscle weakness and fibrosis in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Justin M; Whitehead, Nicholas P; Adams, Marvin E; Adamo, Candace M; Beavo, Joseph A; Froehner, Stanley C

    2012-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Loss of dystrophin initiates a progressive decline in skeletal muscle integrity and contractile capacity which weakens respiratory muscles including the diaphragm, culminating in respiratory failure, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in DMD patients. At present, corticosteroid treatment is the primary pharmacological intervention in DMD, but has limited efficacy and adverse side effects. Thus, there is an urgent need for new safe, cost-effective, and rapidly implementable treatments that slow disease progression. One promising new approach is the amplification of nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) signalling pathways with phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. PDE5 inhibitors serve to amplify NO signalling that is attenuated in many neuromuscular diseases including DMD. We report here that a 14-week treatment of the mdx mouse model of DMD with the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil (Viagra(®), Revatio(®)) significantly reduced mdx diaphragm muscle weakness without impacting fatigue resistance. In addition to enhancing respiratory muscle contractility, sildenafil also promoted normal extracellular matrix organization. PDE5 inhibition slowed the establishment of mdx diaphragm fibrosis and reduced matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) expression. Sildenafil also normalized the expression of the pro-fibrotic (and pro-inflammatory) cytokine tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα). Sildenafil-treated mdx diaphragms accumulated significantly less Evans Blue tracer dye than untreated controls, which is also indicative of improved diaphragm muscle health. We conclude that sildenafil-mediated PDE5 inhibition significantly reduces diaphragm respiratory muscle dysfunction and pathology in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This study provides new insights into the therapeutic utility of targeting defects in NO

  18. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. METHODS: Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U, each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. RESULTS: No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD. When the dose was 4U (2 applications the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.

  19. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Geraldo de Barros; Almeida, Henderson Celestino de; Velarde, David Toledo

    2012-01-01

    Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U), each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections) was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD). When the dose was 4U (2 applications) the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.

  20. A decline in PABPN1 induces progressive muscle weakness in oculopharyngeal muscle dystrophy and in muscle aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvar, Seyed Yahya; Raz, Yotam; Verway, Nisha

    2013-01-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion mutations in Poly(A) binding protein 1 (PABPN1). PABPN1 is a regulator of mRNA stability and is ubiquitously expressed. Here we investigated how symptoms in OPMD initiate only at midlife and why a subset...... of skeletal muscles is predominantly affected. Genome-wide RNA expression profiles from Vastus lateralis muscles human carriers of expanded-PABPN1 at pre-symptomatic and symptomatic stages were compared with healthy controls. Major expression changes were found to be associated with age rather than...... with expression of expanded-PABPN1, instead transcriptomes of OPMD and elderly muscles were significantly similar (P...

  1. Synthesis and cyclic force characterization of helical polypyrrole actuators for artificial facial muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadesse, Yonas; Grange, Robert W; Priya, Shashank

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the synthesis and characterization of thick and thin film polypyrrole (PPy)–metal composite actuators for application as artificial muscles in facial robotics. The fabrication method consists of three steps based upon the approach proposed by Ding et al (2003 Synth. Met. 138 391–8): (i) winding the conductive spiral structure around the platinum (Pt) wire core, (ii) deposition of PPy film on the Pt wire core, and (iii) removal of the Pt wire core. This approach yielded good performance from the synthesized actuators, but was complex to implement due to the difficulty in implementing the third step. To overcome the problem of mechanical damage occurring during withdrawal of the Pt wire, the core was replaced with a dispensable gold coated polylactide fiber that could be etched at the end of deposition step. Experimental results indicate that thin film actuators perform better in terms of response time and blocking force. A unique muscle-like structure with smoothly varying cross-section was grown by combining layer by layer deposition with changes in position and orientation of the counter electrode in reference to the working electrode

  2. Effect of experimental stress in 2 different pain conditions affecting the facial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Alain; L'heveder, Gildas; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Bodéré, Céline

    2013-05-01

    Chronic facial muscle pain is a common feature in both fibromyalgia (FM) and myofascial (MF) pain conditions. In this controlled study, a possible difference in the mode of deregulation of the physiological response to a stressing stimulus was explored by applying an acute mental stress to FM and MF patients and to controls. The effects of the stress test were observed on pain, sympathetic variables, and both tonic and reflex electromyographic activities of masseteric and temporal muscles. The statistical analyses were performed through a generalized linear model including mixed effects. Painful reaction to the stressor was stronger (P < .001) and longer (P = .011) in FM than in MF independently of a higher pain level at baseline. The stress-induced autonomic changes only seen in FM patients did not reach significance. The electromyographic responses to the stress test were strongest for controls and weakest for FM. The stress test had no effect on reflex activity (area under the curve [AUC]) or latency, although AUC was high in FM and latencies were low in both pain groups. It is suggested that FM is characterized by a lower ability to adapt to acute stress than MF. This study showed that an acute psychosocial stress triggered several changes in 2 pain conditions including an increase in pain of larger amplitude in FM than in MF pain. Similar stress-induced changes should be explored as possible mechanisms for differentiation between dysfunctional pain conditions. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypogonadism in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: relationship with airflow limitation, muscle weakness and systemic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Galal Daabis

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Hypogonadism is highly prevalent in clinically stable COPD patients and is particularly related to the severity of the airway obstruction. Systemic inflammation is present in stable COPD patients and its intensity is related to the severity of the underlying disease and it predisposes to skeletal muscle weakness and exercise intolerance. However, we failed to find a significant association between hypogonadism and muscle weakness or systemic inflammation.

  4. Hypoglossal-facial nerve reconstruction using a Y-tube-conduit reduces aberrant synkinetic movements of the orbicularis oculi and vibrissal muscles in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yasemin; Ozsoy, Umut; Turhan, Murat; Angelov, Doychin N; Sarikcioglu, Levent

    2014-01-01

    The facial nerve is the most frequently damaged nerve in head and neck trauma. Patients undergoing facial nerve reconstruction often complain about disturbing abnormal synkinetic movements of the facial muscles (mass movements, synkinesis) which are thought to result from misguided collateral branching of regenerating motor axons and reinnervation of inappropriate muscles. Here, we examined whether use of an aorta Y-tube conduit during reconstructive surgery after facial nerve injury reduces synkinesis of orbicularis oris (blink reflex) and vibrissal (whisking) musculature. The abdominal aorta plus its bifurcation was harvested (N = 12) for Y-tube conduits. Animal groups comprised intact animals (Group 1), those receiving hypoglossal-facial nerve end-to-end coaptation alone (HFA; Group 2), and those receiving hypoglossal-facial nerve reconstruction using a Y-tube (HFA-Y-tube, Group 3). Videotape motion analysis at 4 months showed that HFA-Y-tube group showed a reduced synkinesis of eyelid and whisker movements compared to HFA alone.

  5. Hereditary sensory ataxic neuropathy associated with proximal muscle weakness in the lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tatsufumi; Fukai, Yuta; Rikimaru, Mitsue; Henmi, Shoji; Ohsawa, Yutaka; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2010-04-15

    We describe three patients from the same family with hereditary sensory ataxic neuropathy followed by proximal muscle weakness in the lower extremities. Sensory ataxic gait began as an initial symptom when patients were in their 50s. Mild proximal weakness in the lower extremities appeared several years later. Serum creatine kinase was mildly elevated. Nerve conduction studies revealed sensory dominant axonal neuropathy, and short sensory evoked potentials showed involvement of the sensory nerve axon, dorsal root ganglia and posterior funiculus of the spinal cord. Needle electromyography showed fibrillation, positive sharp waves, and multiple giant motor unit potentials, suggesting the involvement of anterior horn motor neurons or the anterior root. Autosomal recessive inheritance was considered, because of consanguinity. The disorder described here may be a new clinical entity with unique clinical manifestations. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Age-related weakness of proximal muscle studied with motor cortical mapping: a TMS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela B Plow

    Full Text Available Aging-related weakness is due in part to degeneration within the central nervous system. However, it is unknown how changes to the representation of corticospinal output in the primary motor cortex (M1 relate to such weakness. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a noninvasive method of cortical stimulation that can map representation of corticospinal output devoted to a muscle. Using TMS, we examined age-related alterations in maps devoted to biceps brachii muscle to determine whether they predicted its age-induced weakness. Forty-seven right-handed subjects participated: 20 young (22.6 ± 0.90 years and 27 old (74.96 ± 1.35 years. We measured strength as force of elbow flexion and electromyographic activation of biceps brachii during maximum voluntary contraction. Mapping variables included: 1 center of gravity or weighted mean location of corticospinal output, 2 size of map, 3 volume or excitation of corticospinal output, and 4 response density or corticospinal excitation per unit area. Center of gravity was more anterior in old than in young (p<0.001, though there was no significant difference in strength between the age groups. Map size, volume, and response density showed no significant difference between groups. Regardless of age, center of gravity significantly predicted strength (β = -0.34, p = 0.005, while volume adjacent to the core of map predicted voluntary activation of biceps (β = 0.32, p = 0.008. Overall, the anterior shift of the map in older adults may reflect an adaptive change that allowed for the maintenance of strength. Laterally located center of gravity and higher excitation in the region adjacent to the core in weaker individuals could reflect compensatory recruitment of synergistic muscles. Thus, our study substantiates the role of M1 in adapting to aging-related weakness and subtending strength and muscle activation across age groups. Mapping from M1 may offer foundation for an examination of mechanisms that

  7. The split hypoglossal nerve versus the cross-face nerve graft to supply the free functional muscle transfer for facial reanimation: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Tarek A; El Kholy, Mohamed S

    2018-05-01

    Long-standing cases of facial paralysis are currently treated with free functional muscle transfer. Several nerves are mentioned in the literature to supply the free muscle transfer. The aim of this study is to compare the split hypoglossal nerve and the cross-face nerve graft to supply the free functional muscle transfer in facial reanimation. Of 94 patients with long-standing, unilateral facial palsy, 49 were treated using the latissimus dorsi muscle supplied by the split hypoglossal nerve, and 45 patients were treated using the latissmus dorsi muscle supplied by healthy contralateral buccal branch of the facial nerve. The excursion gained by the free muscle transfer supplied by the split hypoglossal nerve (mean 19.20 ± 6.321) was significantly higher (P value 0.001) than that obtained by the contralateral buccal branch of the facial nerve (mean 14.59 ± 6.245). The split hypoglossal nerve appears to be a good possible option to supply the free vascularised muscle transfer in facial reanimation. It yields a stronger excursion in less time than the contralateral cross-face nerve graft. Copyright © 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of trophic factors' expression between paralyzed and recovering muscles after facial nerve injury. A quantitative analysis in time course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosheva, Maria; Nohroudi, Klaus; Schwarz, Alisa; Rink, Svenja; Bendella, Habib; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Klimaschewski, Lars; Gordon, Tessa; Angelov, Doychin N

    2016-05-01

    After peripheral nerve injury, recovery of motor performance negatively correlates with the poly-innervation of neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) due to excessive sprouting of the terminal Schwann cells. Denervated muscles produce short-range diffusible sprouting stimuli, of which some are neurotrophic factors. Based on recent data that vibrissal whisking is restored perfectly during facial nerve regeneration in blind rats from the Sprague Dawley (SD)/RCS strain, we compared the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), insulin growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF1, IGF2) and nerve growth factor (NGF) between SD/RCS and SD-rats with normal vision but poor recovery of whisking function after facial nerve injury. To establish which trophic factors might be responsible for proper NMJ-reinnervation, the transected facial nerve was surgically repaired (facial-facial anastomosis, FFA) for subsequent analysis of mRNA and proteins expressed in the levator labii superioris muscle. A complicated time course of expression included (1) a late rise in BDNF protein that followed earlier elevated gene expression, (2) an early increase in FGF2 and IGF2 protein after 2 days with sustained gene expression, (3) reduced IGF1 protein at 28 days coincident with decline of raised mRNA levels to baseline, and (4) reduced NGF protein between 2 and 14 days with maintained gene expression found in blind rats but not the rats with normal vision. These findings suggest that recovery of motor function after peripheral nerve injury is due, at least in part, to a complex regulation of lesion-associated neurotrophic factors and cytokines in denervated muscles. The increase of FGF-2 protein and concomittant decrease of NGF (with no significant changes in BDNF or IGF levels) during the first week following FFA in SD/RCS blind rats possibly prevents the distal branching of regenerating axons resulting in reduced poly-innervation of motor endplates. Copyright

  9. High-intensity interval training prevents oxidant-mediated diaphragm muscle weakness in hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, T Scott; Eisenkolb, Sophia; Drobner, Juliane; Fischer, Tina; Werner, Sarah; Linke, Axel; Mangner, Norman; Schuler, Gerhard; Adams, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a key risk factor for heart failure, with the latter characterized by diaphragm muscle weakness that is mediated in part by increased oxidative stress. In the present study, we used a deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt mouse model to determine whether hypertension could independently induce diaphragm dysfunction and further investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Sham-treated (n = 11), DOCA-salt-treated (n = 11), and DOCA-salt+HIIT-treated (n = 15) mice were studied over 4 wk. Diaphragm contractile function, protein expression, enzyme activity, and fiber cross-sectional area and type were subsequently determined. Elevated blood pressure confirmed hypertension in DOCA-salt mice independent of HIIT (P HIIT. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) protein expression tended to decrease (∼30%; P = 0.06) in DOCA-salt vs. sham- and DOCA-salt+HIIT mice, whereas oxidative stress increased (P HIIT further prevented direct oxidant-mediated diaphragm contractile dysfunction (P hypertension induces diaphragm contractile dysfunction via an oxidant-mediated mechanism that is prevented by HIIT.-Bowen, T. S., Eisenkolb, S., Drobner, J., Fischer, T., Werner, S., Linke, A., Mangner, N., Schuler, G., Adams, V. High-intensity interval training prevents oxidant-mediated diaphragm muscle weakness in hypertensive mice. © FASEB.

  10. Improvements on a simple muscle-based 3D face for realistic facial expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, T.D.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Badler, N.; Thalmann, D.

    2003-01-01

    Facial expressions play an important role in face-to-face communication. With the development of personal computers capable of rendering high quality graphics, computer facial animation has produced more and more realistic facial expressions to enrich human-computer communication. In this paper, we

  11. Rat whisker movement after facial nerve lesion: Evidence for autonomic contraction of skeletal muscle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heaton, J.T.; Sheu, S.H.; Hohman, M.H.; Knox, C.J.; Weinberg, J.S.; Kleiss, I.J.; Hadlock, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrissal whisking is often employed to track facial nerve regeneration in rats; however, we have observed similar degrees of whisking recovery after facial nerve transection with or without repair. We hypothesized that the source of non-facial nerve-mediated whisker movement after chronic

  12. Appraisals Generate Specific Configurations of Facial Muscle Movements in a Gambling Task: Evidence for the Component Process Model of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentsch, Kornelia; Grandjean, Didier; Scherer, Klaus R

    2015-01-01

    Scherer's Component Process Model provides a theoretical framework for research on the production mechanism of emotion and facial emotional expression. The model predicts that appraisal results drive facial expressions, which unfold sequentially and cumulatively over time. In two experiments, we examined facial muscle activity changes (via facial electromyography recordings over the corrugator, cheek, and frontalis regions) in response to events in a gambling task. These events were experimentally manipulated feedback stimuli which presented simultaneous information directly affecting goal conduciveness (gambling outcome: win, loss, or break-even) and power appraisals (Experiment 1 and 2), as well as control appraisal (Experiment 2). We repeatedly found main effects of goal conduciveness (starting ~600 ms), and power appraisals (starting ~800 ms after feedback onset). Control appraisal main effects were inconclusive. Interaction effects of goal conduciveness and power appraisals were obtained in both experiments (Experiment 1: over the corrugator and cheek regions; Experiment 2: over the frontalis region) suggesting amplified goal conduciveness effects when power was high in contrast to invariant goal conduciveness effects when power was low. Also an interaction of goal conduciveness and control appraisals was found over the cheek region, showing differential goal conduciveness effects when control was high and invariant effects when control was low. These interaction effects suggest that the appraisal of having sufficient control or power affects facial responses towards gambling outcomes. The result pattern suggests that corrugator and frontalis regions are primarily related to cognitive operations that process motivational pertinence, whereas the cheek region would be more influenced by coping implications. Our results provide first evidence demonstrating that cognitive-evaluative mechanisms related to goal conduciveness, control, and power appraisals affect

  13. Relative contribution of different altered motor unit control to muscle weakness in stroke: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Henry; Suresh, Nina L.; Zev Rymer, William; Hu, Xiaogang

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Chronic muscle weakness impacts the majority of individuals after a stroke. The origins of this hemiparesis is multifaceted, and an altered spinal control of the motor unit (MU) pool can lead to muscle weakness. However, the relative contribution of different MU recruitment and discharge organization is not well understood. In this study, we sought to examine these different effects by utilizing a MU simulation with variations set to mimic the changes of MU control in stroke. Approach. Using a well-established model of the MU pool, this study quantified the changes in force output caused by changes in MU recruitment range and recruitment order, as well as MU firing rate organization at the population level. We additionally expanded the original model to include a fatigue component, which variably decreased the output force with increasing length of contraction. Differences in the force output at both the peak and fatigued time points across different excitation levels were quantified and compared across different sets of MU parameters. Main results. Across the different simulation parameters, we found that the main driving factor of the reduced force output was due to the compressed range of MU recruitment. Recruitment compression caused a decrease in total force across all excitation levels. Additionally, a compression of the range of MU firing rates also demonstrated a decrease in the force output mainly at the higher excitation levels. Lastly, changes to the recruitment order of MUs appeared to minimally impact the force output. Significance. We found that altered control of MUs alone, as simulated in this study, can lead to a substantial reduction in muscle force generation in stroke survivors. These findings may provide valuable insight for both clinicians and researchers in prescribing and developing different types of therapies for the rehabilitation and restoration of lost strength after stroke.

  14. [Positions of the implanted stimulating electrodes for artificial facial nerve for inducing contraction of the orbicularis oris muscle in rabbit with peripheral facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D Y; Zhao, N J; Zhao, Y X; Luo, D; Sun, Y J; Li, K Y

    2017-11-07

    Objective: To explore the optimal positions of the implanted stimulating eletrodes for artificial facial nerve (AFN) for inducing contraction of the orbicularis oris muscle (OOM) in rabbit with peripheral facial paralysis. Methods: According to the four microelectrodes of the AFN stimulating side, four modes of the implanted positions were divided. In line with different modes, the electrodes were implanted into the affected OOM of the rabbits with unilateral peripheral facial paralysis. AFN output electric stimulation to induce contraction of the affected OOM with uniform stimulating frequency and pulse length in vitro. Then compared the stimulus threshold amplitude and the peak amplitude separately among different modes by SAS 9.3 version statistical software. Results: The differences of the stimulus threshold amplitude and the peak amplitude had no statistically significant separately between the first mode and the second mode ( P >0.05), but there were statistically significant differences between the third mode and the fourth mode ( P <0.05). Both kinds of the amplitudes were approximated between the first mode and the second mode respectively, and higher than those in the third mode or the fourth mode. Furthermore, both kinds of the amplitudes in the fourth mode were higher than those in the third mode. Conclusions: The microelectrodes of the AFN stimulating lateral are implanted into the upper lip with a public microelectrode and an output microelectrode, into the lower lip with an output microelectrode, and into the way, which is located to the angle 40° to 45° about the line joining between the midpoint of the ipsilateral auricle root and the corner of the mouth with an output microelectrode. This is the third positional mode which requires lowest effective stimulus current intensity. Thus the mode is suitable as the optimal placement programme.

  15. High prevalence of respiratory muscle weakness in hospitalized acute heart failure elderly patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Verissimo

    Full Text Available Respiratory Muscle Weakness (RMW has been defined when the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP is lower than 70% of the predictive value. The prevalence of RMW in chronic heart failure patients is 30 to 50%. So far there are no studies on the prevalence of RMW in acute heart failure (AHF patients.Evaluate the prevalence of RMW in patients admitted because of AHF and the condition of respiratory muscle strength on discharge from the hospital.Sixty-three patients had their MIP measured on two occasions: at the beginning of the hospital stay, after they had reached respiratory, hemodynamic and clinical stability and before discharge from the hospital. The apparatus and technique to measure MIP were adapted because of age-related limitations of the patients. Data on cardiac ejection fraction, ECG, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels and on the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV were collected.The mean age of the 63 patients under study was 75 years. On admission the mean ejection fraction was 33% (95% CI: 31-35 and the BNP hormone median value was 726.5 pg/ml (range: 217 to 2283 pg/ml; 65% of the patients used NIV. The median value of MIP measured after clinical stabilization was -52.7 cmH2O (range: -20 to -120 cmH2O; 76% of the patients had MIP values below 70% of the predictive value. On discharge, after a median hospital stay of 11 days, the median MIP was -53.5 cmH2O (range:-20 to -150 cmH2O; 71% of the patients maintained their MIP values below 70% of the predictive value. The differences found were not statistically significant.Elderly patients admitted with AHF may present a high prevalence of RMW on admission; this condition may be maintained at similar levels on discharge in a large percentage of these patients, even after clinical stabilization of the heart condition.

  16. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the cricothyroid muscle in patients with suspected superior laryngeal nerve weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Rubin, Adam; Cox, Paul; Landini, Fernando; Jackson-Menaldi, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    In this retrospective case study, we report the apparent clinical effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in combination with voice therapy (VT) for rehabilitating dysphonia secondary to suspected superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) weakness in two female patients. Both patients failed or plateaued with traditional VT but had significant improvement with the addition of NMES of the cricothyroid muscle and SLN using a VitalStim unit. Stimulation was provided simultaneously with voice exercises based on musical phonatory tasks. Both acoustic analysis and endoscopic evaluation demonstrated important improvements after treatment. In the first patient, the major change was obtained within the primo passaggio region; specifically, a decrease in voice breaks was demonstrated. In the second patient, an improvement in voice quality (less breathiness) and vocal range were the most important findings. Additionally, each patient reported a significant improvement in their voice complaints. Neuromuscular laryngeal electrical stimulation in combination with vocal exercises might be a useful tool to improve voice quality in patients with SLN injury. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Enzyme replacement therapy rescues weakness and improves muscle pathology in mice with X-linked myotubular myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Michael W; Armstrong, Dustin; Viola, Marissa G; Widrick, Jeffrey J; Meng, Hui; Grange, Robert W; Childers, Martin K; Hsu, Cynthia P; O'Callaghan, Michael; Pierson, Christopher R; Buj-Bello, Anna; Beggs, Alan H

    2013-04-15

    No effective treatment exists for patients with X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), a fatal congenital muscle disease caused by deficiency of the lipid phosphatase, myotubularin. The Mtm1δ4 and Mtm1 p.R69C mice model severely and moderately symptomatic XLMTM, respectively, due to differences in the degree of myotubularin deficiency. Contractile function of intact extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles from Mtm1δ4 mice, which produce no myotubularin, is markedly impaired. Contractile forces generated by chemically skinned single fiber preparations from Mtm1δ4 muscle were largely preserved, indicating that weakness was largely due to impaired excitation contraction coupling. Mtm1 p.R69C mice, which produce small amounts of myotubularin, showed impaired contractile function only in EDL muscles. Short-term replacement of myotubularin with a prototypical targeted protein replacement agent (3E10Fv-MTM1) in Mtm1δ4 mice improved contractile function and muscle pathology. These promising findings suggest that even low levels of myotubularin protein replacement can improve the muscle weakness and reverse the pathology that characterizes XLMTM.

  18. Comparison of Oone-Stage Free Gracilis Muscle Flap With Two-Stage Method in Chronic Facial Palsy

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    J Ghaffari

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Rehabilitation of facial paralysis is one of the greatest challenges faced by reconstructive surgeons today. The traditional method for treatment of patients with facial palsy is the two-stage free gracilis flap which has a long latency period of between the two stages of surgery.Methods: In this paper, we prospectively compared the results of the one-stage gracilis flap method with the two -stage technique.Results:Out of 41 patients with facial palsy refered to Hazrat-e-Fatemeh Hospital 31 were selected from whom 22 underwent two- stage and 9 one-stage method treatment. The two groups were identical according to age,sex,intensity of illness, duration, and chronicity of illness. Mean duration of follow up was 37 months. There was no significant relation between the two groups regarding the symmetry of face in repose, smiling, whistling and nasolabial folds. Frequency of complications was equal in both groups. The postoperative surgeons and patients' satisfaction were equal in both groups. There was no significant difference between the mean excursion of muscle flap in one-stage (9.8 mm and two-stage groups (8.9 mm. The ratio of contraction of the affected side compared to the normal side was similar in both groups. The mean time of the initial contraction of the muscle flap in the one-stage group (5.5 months had a significant difference (P=0.001 with the two-stage one (6.5 months.The study revealed a highly significant difference (P=0.0001 between the mean waiting period from the first operation to the beginning of muscle contraction in one-stage(5.5 monthsand two-stage groups(17.1 months.Conclusion:It seems that the results and complication of the two methods are the same,but the one-stage method requires less time for facial reanimation,and is costeffective because it saves time and decreases hospitalization costs.

  19. Detecting intrinsic muscle weakness of the hallux as an addition to early-stage screening of the feet in patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahieu, R.; Coenen, M. N. O.; van Bemmel, T.; van der Zaag-Loonen, H. J.; Theuvenet, W. J.

    Aims: Present-day screening of the diabetic foot involves the Semmes Weinstein Monofilament Test for evaluating loss of sensibility, while testing for intrinsic muscle weakness is not implied. Just as with the early detection of sensibility loss, early detection of intrinsic muscle weakness might

  20. Lung volume recruitment acutely increases respiratory system compliance in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness

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    Yannick Molgat-Seon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether lung volume recruitment (LVR acutely increases respiratory system compliance (Crs in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness (RMW. Individuals with RMW resulting from neuromuscular disease or quadriplegia (n=12 and healthy controls (n=12 underwent pulmonary function testing and the measurement of Crs at baseline, immediately after, 1 h after and 2 h after a single standardised session of LVR. The LVR session involved 10 consecutive supramaximal lung inflations with a manual resuscitation bag to the highest tolerable mouth pressure or a maximum of 50 cmH2O. Each LVR inflation was followed by brief breath-hold and a maximal expiration to residual volume. At baseline, individuals with RMW had lower Crs than controls (37±5 cmH2O versus 109±10 mL·cmH2O−1, p0.05. LVR had no significant effect on measures of pulmonary function at any time point in either group (all p>0.05. During inflations, mean arterial pressure decreased significantly relative to baseline by 10.4±2.8 mmHg and 17.3±3.0 mmHg in individuals with RMW and controls, respectively (both p<0.05. LVR acutely increases Crs in individuals with RMW. However, the high airway pressures during inflations cause reductions in mean arterial pressure that should be considered when applying this technique.

  1. Diaphragm Muscle Fiber Weakness and Ubiquitin-Proteasome Activation in Critically Ill Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijman, P.E.; Beishuizen, A.; Witt, C.C.; de Waard, M.C.; Girbes, A.R.J.; Spoelstra-de Man, A.M.E.; Niessen, H.W.; Manders, E.; van Hees, H.W.H.; van den Brom, C.E.; Silderhuis, V.; Lawlor, M.W.; Labeit, S.; Stienen, G.J.M.; Hartemink, K.J.; Paul, M.A.; Heunks, L.M.A.; Ottenheijm, C.A.C.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: The clinical significance of diaphragm weakness in critically ill patients is evident: it prolongs ventilator dependency, and increases morbidity and duration of hospital stay. To date, the nature of diaphragm weakness and its underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are poorly understood.

  2. Hypoglossal-Facial Nerve Reconstruction Using a Y-Tube-Conduit Reduces Aberrant Synkinetic Movements of the Orbicularis Oculi and Vibrissal Muscles in Rats

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    Yasemin Kaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The facial nerve is the most frequently damaged nerve in head and neck trauma. Patients undergoing facial nerve reconstruction often complain about disturbing abnormal synkinetic movements of the facial muscles (mass movements, synkinesis which are thought to result from misguided collateral branching of regenerating motor axons and reinnervation of inappropriate muscles. Here, we examined whether use of an aorta Y-tube conduit during reconstructive surgery after facial nerve injury reduces synkinesis of orbicularis oris (blink reflex and vibrissal (whisking musculature. The abdominal aorta plus its bifurcation was harvested (N = 12 for Y-tube conduits. Animal groups comprised intact animals (Group 1, those receiving hypoglossal-facial nerve end-to-end coaptation alone (HFA; Group 2, and those receiving hypoglossal-facial nerve reconstruction using a Y-tube (HFA-Y-tube, Group 3. Videotape motion analysis at 4 months showed that HFA-Y-tube group showed a reduced synkinesis of eyelid and whisker movements compared to HFA alone.

  3. Effect of early implementation of electrical muscle stimulation to prevent muscle atrophy and weakness in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Arai, Ryuzo; Tamaki, Akira; Nakamura, Takashi; Moritani, Toshio

    2011-08-01

    Following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, restricted weight bearing and immobilization results in thigh and calf muscle atrophy and weakness. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on prevention of muscle atrophy in patients during the early rehabilitation stage after ACL reconstruction. Twenty patients with acute ACL tears were divided into two groups randomly. The control group (CON group) participated in only the usual rehabilitation program. In addition to this protocol, the electrical muscle stimulation group (EMS group) received EMS training using the wave form of 20 Hz exponential pulse from the 2nd post-operative day to 4 weeks after the surgery. Muscle thickness of vastus lateralis and calf increased significantly 4 weeks after surgery in the EMS group, while it decreased significantly in the CON group. The decline of knee extension strength was significantly less in the EMS group than in the CON group at 4 weeks after the surgery, and the EMS group showed greater recovery of knee extension strength at 3 months after surgery. EMS implemented during the early rehabilitation stage is effective in maintaining and increasing muscle thickness and strength in the operated limb. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Deletion of the Ste20-like kinase SLK in skeletal muscle results in a progressive myopathy and muscle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Benjamin R; Al-Zahrani, Khalid N; Dufresne, Sébastien; Belkina, Natalya; Labrèche, Cédrik; Patino-Lopez, Genaro; Frenette, Jérôme; Shaw, Stephen; Sabourin, Luc A

    2017-02-02

    The Ste20-like kinase, SLK, plays an important role in cell proliferation and cytoskeletal remodeling. In fibroblasts, SLK has been shown to respond to FAK/Src signaling and regulate focal adhesion turnover through Paxillin phosphorylation. Full-length SLK has also been shown to be essential for embryonic development. In myoblasts, the overexpression of a dominant negative SLK is sufficient to block myoblast fusion. In this study, we crossed the Myf5-Cre mouse model with our conditional SLK knockout model to delete SLK in skeletal muscle. A thorough analysis of skeletal muscle tissue was undertaken in order to identify defects in muscle development caused by the lack of SLK. Isometric force analysis was performed on adult knockout mice and compared to age-matched wild-type mice. Furthermore, cardiotoxin injections were performed followed by immunohistochemistry for myogenic markers to assess the efficiency muscle regeneration following SLK deletion. We show here that early deletion of SLK from the myogenic lineage does not markedly impair skeletal muscle development but delays the regenerative process. Interestingly, adult mice (~6 months) display an increase in the proportion of central nuclei and increased p38 activation. Furthermore, mice as young as 3 months old present with decreased force generation, suggesting that the loss of SLK impairs myofiber stability and function. Assessment of structural components revealed aberrant localization of focal adhesion proteins, such as FAK and paxillin. Our data show that the loss of SLK results in unstable myofibers resulting in a progressive myopathy. Additionally, the loss of SLK resulted in a delay in muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin injections. Our results show that SLK is dispensable for muscle development and regeneration but is required for myofiber stability and optimal force generation.

  5. Diaphragm Muscle Weakness Following Acute Sustained Hypoxic Stress in the Mouse Is Prevented by Pretreatment with N-Acetyl Cysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. O’Leary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen deficit (hypoxia is a major feature of cardiorespiratory diseases characterized by diaphragm dysfunction, yet the putative role of hypoxic stress as a driver of diaphragm dysfunction is understudied. We explored the cellular and functional consequences of sustained hypoxic stress in a mouse model. Adult male mice were exposed to 8 hours of normoxia, or hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.10 with or without antioxidant pretreatment (N-acetyl cysteine, 200 mg/kg i.p.. Ventilation and metabolism were measured. Diaphragm muscle contractile function, myofibre size and distribution, gene expression, protein signalling cascades, and oxidative stress (TBARS were determined. Hypoxia caused pronounced diaphragm muscle weakness, unrelated to increased respiratory muscle work. Hypoxia increased diaphragm HIF-1α protein content and activated MAPK, mTOR, Akt, and FoxO3a signalling pathways, largely favouring protein synthesis. Hypoxia increased diaphragm lipid peroxidation, indicative of oxidative stress. FoxO3 and MuRF-1 gene expression were increased. Diaphragm 20S proteasome activity and muscle fibre size and distribution were unaffected by acute hypoxia. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine substantially enhanced cell survival signalling, prevented hypoxia-induced diaphragm oxidative stress, and prevented hypoxia-induced diaphragm dysfunction. Hypoxia is a potent driver of diaphragm weakness, causing myofibre dysfunction without attendant atrophy. N-acetyl cysteine protects the hypoxic diaphragm and may have application as a potential adjunctive therapy.

  6. Facial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sound-induced facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming-San; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.; Meek, Marcel F.

    Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve. Patients suffer from inappropriate and involuntary synchronous facial muscle contractions. Here we describe two

  8. Mice deficient in ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation suffer from muscle weakness that reflects a growth defect and energy deficit.

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    Igor Ruvinsky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mice, whose ribosomal protein S6 cannot be phosphorylated due to replacement of all five phosphorylatable serine residues by alanines (rpS6(P-/-, are viable and fertile. However, phenotypic characterization of these mice and embryo fibroblasts derived from them, has established the role of these modifications in the regulation of the size of several cell types, as well as pancreatic beta-cell function and glucose homeostasis. A relatively passive behavior of these mice has raised the possibility that they suffer from muscle weakness, which has, indeed, been confirmed by a variety of physical performance tests. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A large variety of experimental methodologies, including morphometric measurements of histological preparations, high throughput proteomic analysis, positron emission tomography (PET and numerous biochemical assays, were used in an attempt to establish the mechanism underlying the relative weakness of rpS6(P-/- muscles. Collectively, these experiments have demonstrated that the physical inferiority appears to result from two defects: a a decrease in total muscle mass that reflects impaired growth, rather than aberrant differentiation of myofibers, as well as a diminished abundance of contractile proteins; and b a reduced content of ATP and phosphocreatine, two readily available energy sources. The abundance of three mitochondrial proteins has been shown to diminish in the knockin mouse. However, the apparent energy deficiency in this genotype does not result from a lower mitochondrial mass or compromised activity of enzymes of the oxidative phosphorylation, nor does it reflect a decline in insulin-dependent glucose uptake, or diminution in storage of glycogen or triacylglycerol (TG in the muscle. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study establishes rpS6 phosphorylation as a determinant of muscle strength through its role in regulation of myofiber growth and energy content. Interestingly, a similar

  9. A new strength assessment to evaluate the association between muscle weakness and gait pathology in children with cerebral palsy.

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    Marije Goudriaan

    Full Text Available The main goal of this validation study was to evaluate whether lower limb muscle weakness and plantar flexor rate of force development (RFD related to altered gait parameters in children with cerebral palsy (CP, when weakness was assessed with maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs in a gait related test position. As a subgoal, we analyzed intra- and intertester reliability of this new strength measurement method.Part 1 -Intra- and intertester reliability were determined with the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC2,1 in 10 typical developing (TD children (age: 5-15. We collected MVICs in four lower limb muscle groups to define maximum joint torques, as well as plantar flexor RFD. Part 2 -Validity of the strength assessment was explored by analyzing the relations of lower limb joint torques and RFD to a series of kinematic- and kinetic gait features, the GDI (gait deviation index, and the GDI-kinetic in 23 children with CP (GMFCS I-II; age: 5-15 and 23 TD children (age: 5-15 with Spearman's rank correlation coefficients.Part 1 -The best reliability was found for the torque data (Nm, with the highest ICC2,1 (0.951 for knee extension strength (inter and the lowest (0.693 for dorsiflexion strength (intra. For plantar flexor RFD, the most reliable window size was 300 milliseconds (ICC2,1: 0.828 (inter and 0.692 (intra. Part 2 -The children with CP were significantly weaker than the TD children (p <0.001. Weakness of the dorsiflexors and plantar flexors associated with delayed and decreased knee flexion angle during swing, respectively. No other significant correlations were found.While our new strength assessment was reliable, intra-joint correlations between weakness, RFD, and gait deviations were low. However, we found inter-joint associations, reflected by a strong association between plantar- and dorsiflexor weakness, and decreased and delayed knee flexion angle during swing.

  10. Uncrossed cortico-muscular projections in humans are abundant to facial muscles of the upper and lower face, but may differ between sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Urs; Hess, Christian W; Rösler, Kai M

    2005-01-01

    It is a popular concept in clinical neurology that muscles of the lower face receive predominantly crossed cortico-bulbar motor input, whereas muscles of the upper face receive additional ipsilateral, uncrossed input. To test this notion, we used focal transcranial magnetic brain stimulation to quantify crossed and uncrossed cortico-muscular projections to 6 different facial muscles (right and left Mm. frontalis, nasalis, and orbicularis oris) in 36 healthy right-handed volunteers (15 men, 21 women, mean age 25 years). Uncrossed input was present in 78% to 92% of the 6 examined muscles. The mean uncrossed: crossed response amplitude ratios were 0.74/0.65 in right/left frontalis, 0.73/0.59 in nasalis, and 0.54/0.71 in orbicularis oris; ANOVA p>0.05). Judged by the sizes of motor evoked potentials, the cortical representation of the 3 muscles was similar. The amount of uncrossed projections was different between men and women, since men had stronger left-to-left projections and women stronger right-to-right projections. We conclude that the amount of uncrossed pyramidal projections is not different for muscles of the upper from those of the lower face. The clinical observation that frontal muscles are often spared in central facial palsies must, therefore, be explained differently. Moreover, gender specific lateralization phenomena may not only be present for higher level behavioural functions, but may also affect simple systems on a lower level of motor hierarchy.

  11. [Features of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy in oral and maxillofacial region and MRI analysis of facial muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y H; Ma, Y X; Hu, J; Gao, G D; Wu, Y K; Zhang, Z Y

    2016-12-09

    Objective: To investigate the manifestation of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) in oral and maxillofacial region. Methods: A total of 12 patients diagnosed as FSHD and 20 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Their medical history was collected from these patients. The decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT), calculus index-simplified (CI-S), occlusal relationship, maximal opening of mouth and maximum bite force were recorded. The impressions were taken to measure the maximal hight of palate and the width of palate. The lateral cephalometric radiographs were also taken to measure the mandibular plane-frankfurt horizontal plane angle (MP-FH). They finally received oral and maxillofacial region MRI examination to observe the masseter muscle, medial pterygoid muscle and lateral pterygoid muscle. The data were analyzed by t -test or Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Results: There was no significant gender difference in FSHD group. The average age of treatment was (27.5 ± 8.1) years and the average age of onset was (15.7±7.5) years. Nine patients liked to eat soft foods, 4 patients had difficulties of closing eyes, 8 patients had difficulties of cheek-bulging, 10 patients showed pouty lips and 9 patients had mesio-malocclusion. DMFT (4.0±2.3), CI-S (5.8±2.1), male maximal hight of palate (20.5±2.1) mm , female maximal hight of palate (17.9±1.6) mm, MP-FH (31.8°±2.2°) of FSHD group were greater than those of the control group. Male width of palate (34.8±1.4) mm, female width of palate (33.7±1.5) mm, male maximum bite force (451.7 ± 39.0) N, female maximum bite force (326.7 ± 21.6) N, maximal opening of mouth (3.5 ± 0.4) cm of FSHD group were less than those of the control group ( P muscle asymmetr in 11 cases of masseter and 6 cases of medial pterygoid muscle, 5 cases of lateral pterygoid, and these muscle showed mild fatty infiltration mainly concentrating in the grade 0, grade 1 and grade 2. Conclusions: The FSHD patients have poor oral

  12. Skeletal Muscle and Lymphocyte Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Septic Shock Trigger ICU-Acquired Weakness and Sepsis-Induced Immunoparalysis

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    Quentin Maestraggi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental events driving the pathological processes of septic shock-induced multiorgan failure (MOF at the cellular and subcellular levels remain debated. Emerging data implicate mitochondrial dysfunction as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated MOF. If macrocirculatory and microcirculatory dysfunctions undoubtedly participate in organ dysfunction at the early stage of septic shock, an intrinsic bioenergetic failure, sometimes called “cytopathic hypoxia,” perpetuates cellular dysfunction. Short-term failure of vital organs immediately threatens patient survival but long-term recovery is also severely hindered by persistent dysfunction of organs traditionally described as nonvital, such as skeletal muscle and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. In this review, we will stress how and why a persistent mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscles and PBMC could impair survival in patients who overcome the first acute phase of their septic episode. First, muscle wasting protracts weaning from mechanical ventilation, increases the risk of mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia, and creates a state of ICU-acquired muscle weakness, compelling the patient to bed. Second, failure of the immune system (“immunoparalysis” translates into its inability to clear infectious foci and predisposes the patient to recurrent nosocomial infections. We will finally emphasize how mitochondrial-targeted therapies could represent a realistic strategy to promote long-term recovery after sepsis.

  13. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for preventing skeletal-muscle weakness and wasting in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A.; Roig, Marc; Karatzanos, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    ill patients, in comparison with usual care. Methods: We searched PubMed, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Web of Science, and PEDro to identify randomized controlled trials exploring the effect of NMES in critically ill patients, which had a well-defined NMES protocol, provided outcomes related to skeletal......-muscle strength and/or mass, and for which full text was available. Two independent reviewers extracted data on muscle-related outcomes (strength and mass), and participant and intervention characteristics, and assessed the methodological quality of the studies. Owing to the lack of means and standard deviations...... yielded 8 eligible studies involving 172 patients. The methodological quality of the studies was moderate to high. Five studies reported an increase in strength or better preservation of strength with NMES, with one study having a large effect size. Two studies found better preservation of muscle mass...

  14. Forearm Flexor Muscles in Children with Cerebral Palsy Are Weak, Thin and Stiff

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    Eva Pontén

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with cerebral palsy (CP often develop reduced passive range of motion with age. The determining factor underlying this process is believed to be progressive development of contracture in skeletal muscle that likely changes the biomechanics of the joints. Consequently, to identify the underlying mechanisms, we modeled the mechanical characteristics of the forearm flexors acting across the wrist joint. We investigated skeletal muscle strength (Grippit® and passive stiffness and viscosity of the forearm flexors in 15 typically developing (TD children (10 boys/5 girls, mean age 12 years, range 8–18 yrs and nine children with CP Nine children (6 boys/3 girls, mean age 11 ± 3 years (yrs, range 7–15 yrs using the NeuroFlexor® apparatus. The muscle stiffness we estimate and report is the instantaneous mechanical response of the tissue that is independent of reflex activity. Furthermore, we assessed cross-sectional area of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR muscle using ultrasound. Age and body weight did not differ significantly between the two groups. Children with CP had a significantly weaker (−65%, p < 0.01 grip and had smaller cross-sectional area (−43%, p < 0.01 of the FCR muscle. Passive stiffness of the forearm muscles in children with CP was increased 2-fold (p < 0.05 whereas viscosity did not differ significantly between CP and TD children. FCR cross-sectional area correlated to age (R2 = 0.58, p < 0.01, body weight (R2 = 0.92, p < 0.0001 and grip strength (R2 = 0.82, p < 0.0001 in TD children but only to grip strength (R2 = 0.60, p < 0.05 in children with CP. We conclude that children with CP have weaker, thinner, and stiffer forearm flexors as compared to typically developing children.

  15. Somatic mosaicism of a point mutation in the dystrophin gene in a patient presenting with an asymmetrical muscle weakness and contractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helderman-van den Enden, A. T. J. M.; Ginjaar, H. B.; Kneppers, A. L. J.; Bakker, E.; Breuning, M. H.; de Visser, M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a patient with somatic mosaicism of a point mutation in the dystrophin gene causing benign muscular dystrophy with an unusual asymmetrical distribution of muscle weakness and contractures. To our knowledge this is the first patient with asymmetrical weakness and contractures in an

  16. Correction of Malocclusion by Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection into Masticatory Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Seok, Hyun; Kim, Seong-Gon

    2018-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a neurotoxin, and its injection in masticatory muscles induces muscle weakness and paralysis. This paralytic effect of BTX induces growth retardation of the maxillofacial bones, changes in dental eruption and occlusion state, and facial asymmetry. Using masticatory muscle paralysis and its effect via BTX, BTX can be used for the correction of malocclusion after orthognathic surgery and mandible fracture. The paralysis of specific masticatory muscles by BTX injection r...

  17. Electrical stimulation of paralyzed vibrissal muscles reduces endplate reinnervation and does not promote motor recovery after facial nerve repair in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinis, Nektarios; Horn, Frauke; Genchev, Borislav; Skouras, Emmanouil; Merkel, Daniel; Angelova, Srebrina K; Kaidoglou, Katerina; Michael, Joern; Pavlov, Stoyan; Igelmund, Peter; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Irintchev, Andrey; Dunlop, Sarah A; Angelov, Doychin N

    2009-10-01

    The outcome of peripheral nerve injuries requiring surgical repair is poor. Recent work has suggested that electrical stimulation (ES) of denervated muscles could be beneficial. Here we tested whether ES has a positive influence on functional recovery after injury and surgical repair of the facial nerve. Outcomes at 2 months were compared to animals receiving sham stimulation (SS). Starting on the first day after end-to-end suture (facial-facial anastomosis), electrical stimulation (square 0.1 ms pulses at 5 Hz at an ex tempore established threshold amplitude of between 3.0 and 5.0V) was delivered to the vibrissal muscles for 5 min a day, 3 times a week. Restoration of vibrissal motor performance following ES or SS was evaluated using the video-based motion analysis and correlated with the degree of collateral axonal branching at the lesion site, the number of motor endplates in the target musculature and the quality of their reinnervation, i.e. the degree of mono- versus poly-innervation. Neither protocol reduced collateral branching. ES did not improve functional outcome, but rather reduced the number of innervated motor endplates to approximately one-fifth of normal values and failed to reduce the proportion of poly-innervated motor endplates. We conclude that ES is not beneficial for recovery of whisker function after facial nerve repair in rats.

  18. Muscle weakness and lack of reflex gain adaptation predominate during post-stroke posture control of the wrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Helm Frans CT

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Instead of hyper-reflexia as sole paradigm, post-stroke movement disorders are currently considered the result of a complex interplay between neuronal and muscular properties, modified by level of activity. We used a closed loop system identification technique to quantify individual contributors to wrist joint stiffness during an active posture task. Methods Continuous random torque perturbations applied to the wrist joint by a haptic manipulator had to be resisted maximally. Reflex provoking conditions were applied i.e. additional viscous loads and reduced perturbation signal bandwidth. Linear system identification and neuromuscular modeling were used to separate joint stiffness into the intrinsic resistance of the muscles including co-contraction and the reflex mediated contribution. Results Compared to an age and sex matched control group, patients showed an overall 50% drop in intrinsic elasticity while their reflexive contribution did not respond to provoking conditions. Patients showed an increased mechanical stability compared to control subjects. Conclusion Post stroke, we found active posture tasking to be dominated by: 1 muscle weakness and 2 lack of reflex adaptation. This adds to existing doubts on reflex blocking therapy as the sole paradigm to improve active task performance and draws attention to muscle strength and power recovery and the role of the inability to modulate reflexes in post stroke movement disorders.

  19. Effect of endoscopic brow lift on contractures and synkinesis of the facial muscles in patients with a regenerated postparalytic facial nerve syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bran, Gregor M; Börjesson, Pontus K E; Boahene, Kofi D; Gosepath, Jan; Lohuis, Peter J F M

    2014-01-01

    Delayed recovery after facial palsy results in aberrant nerve regeneration with symptomatic movement disorders, summarized as the postparalytic facial nerve syndrome. The authors present an alternative surgical approach for improvement of periocular movement disorders in patients with postparalytic facial nerve syndrome. The authors proposed that endoscopic brow lift leads to an improvement of periocular movement disorders by reducing pathologically raised levels of afferent input. Eleven patients (seven women and four men) with a mean age of 54 years (range, 33 to 85 years) and with postparalytic facial nerve syndrome underwent endoscopic brow lift under general anesthesia. Patients' preoperative condition was compared with their postoperative condition using a retrospective questionnaire. Subjects were also asked to compare the therapeutic effectiveness of endoscopic brow lift and botulinum toxin type A. Mean follow-up was 52 months (range, 22 to 83 months). No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. During follow-up, patients and physicians observed an improvement of periorbital contractures and oculofacial synkinesis. Scores on quality of life improved significantly after endoscopic brow lift. Best results were obtained when botulinum toxin type A was adjoined after the endoscopic brow lift. Patients described a cumulative therapeutic effect. These findings suggest endoscopic brow lift as a promising additional treatment modality for the treatment of periocular postparalytic facial nerve syndrome-related symptoms, leading to an improved quality of life. Even though further prospective investigation is needed, a combination of endoscopic brow lift and postsurgical botulinum toxin type A administration could become a new therapeutic standard.

  20. Sound-induced facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming-San; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A; Meek, Marcel F

    2009-08-01

    Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve. Patients suffer from inappropriate and involuntary synchronous facial muscle contractions. Here we describe two cases of sound-induced facial synkinesis (SFS) after facial nerve injury. As far as we know, this phenomenon has not been described in the English literature before. Patient A presented with right hemifacial palsy after lesion of the facial nerve due to skull base fracture. He reported involuntary muscle activity at the right corner of the mouth, specifically on hearing ringing keys. Patient B suffered from left hemifacial palsy following otitis media and developed involuntary muscle contraction in the facial musculature specifically on hearing clapping hands or a trumpet sound. Both patients were evaluated by means of video, audio and EMG analysis. Possible mechanisms in the pathophysiology of SFS are postulated and therapeutic options are discussed.

  1. Diospyros rhodocalyx (Tako-Na), a Thai folk medicine, associated with hypokalemia and generalized muscle weakness: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othong, Rittirak; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2017-11-01

    Diospyros rhodocalyx (Tako-Na) is a Thai folk medicine purported to promote longevity, treat impotence, etc. We present patients with hypokalemia, weakness and hypertension after consuming Tako-Na tea. Case 1: A 61-year-old man was brought in nine hours after drinking 400-500 mL of Tako-Na tea. One handful of Tako-Na bark was boiled in water to make tea. He had vomiting and watery diarrhea six hours after drinking it. He took no medications and had no history of hypertension. The only remarkable vital sign was BP 167/90 mmHg. Physical examination revealed generalized muscle weakness. Laboratory findings were potassium 2.7 mmol/L, bicarbonate 24 mmol/L, and transtubular potassium gradient (TTKG) 5.6. He was discharged the next day with a BP 140/90 mmHg and potassium 4.2 mmol/L. Case 2: A 78-year-old man, a friend of case 1, also drank Tako-Na tea from the same pot at the same time as case 1. He also had vomiting and diarrhea six hours later. He took no medications despite past history of hypertension (baseline SBP 140-160). Initial BP was 230/70 mmHg. He also had muscle weakness. Laboratory findings were potassium 3.3 mmol/L, bicarbonate 24 mmol/L, TTKG 7.37 and normal thyroid function. He was also discharged the next day with a BP 148/70 mmHg and potassium 4.2 mmol/L. Case 3-7: These were patients reported to a poison center and their potassium concentrations were 1.4, 1.4, 3.3, 1.3 and 1.2 mmol/L, respectively. Three of them were intubated and case 3 died. Tako-Na contains betulin, betulinic acid, taraxerone, lupeol, and lupenone. Their structures are similar to glycyrrhetic acid, the active metabolite of glycyrrhizic acid found in licorice which is well known to cause pseudoaldosteronism. Glycyrrhetic acid is potent in inhibiting 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and causes pseudoaldosteronism. We hypothesize that the compounds in Tako-Na act in the same way as glycyrrhetic acid in producing pseudoaldosteronism.

  2. Muscle Weakness Is Associated With an Increase of Left Ventricular Mass Through Excessive Blood Pressure Elevation During Exercise in Patients With Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Yumi; Masuda, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Akiyama, Ayako; Nakamura, Takeshi; Hamazaki, Nobuaki; Okubo, Michihito; Kobayashi, Naoyuki; Ako, Junya

    2017-08-03

    Autonomic imbalance in hypertension induces excessive blood pressure (BP) elevation during exercise, thereby increasing left ventricular mass (LVM). Although muscle weakness enhances autonomic imbalance by stimulating muscle sympathetic activity during exercise, it is unclear whether muscle weakness is associated with an increase of LVM in patients with hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between muscle weakness, BP elevation during exercise, and LVM in these patients. Eighty-six hypertensive patients aged 69 ± 8 years with controlled resting BP (ie, exercise test performed at moderate intensity (ΔNORA and ΔPWV, respectively). A difference between baseline and peak systolic BP during the exercise test was defined as BP elevation during exercise (ΔSBP). Relationships between muscle strength, ΔNORA, ΔPWV, ΔSBP, BNP, and LVMI were analyzed, and significant factors increasing LVM were identified using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Muscle strength was negatively correlated with ΔNORA (r = -0.202, P = 0.048), ΔPWV (r = -0.328, P = 0.002), ΔSBP (r = -0.230, P = 0.033), BNP (r = -0.265, P = 0.014), and LVMI (r = -0.233, P = 0.031). LVMI was positively correlated with ΔPWV (r = 0.246, P = 0.023) and ΔSBP (r = 0.307, P = 0.004). Muscle strength was a significant independent factor associated with LVMI (β = -0.331, P = 0.010). Our findings suggest that muscle weakness is associated with an increase of LVM through excessive BP elevation during exercise in patients with hypertension.

  3. Intellectual disability, muscle weakness and characteristic face in three siblings: A newly described recessive syndrome mapping to 3p24.3-p25.3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariminejad, Ariana; Nafissi, Shahriar; Nilipoor, Yalda; Tavasoli, Alireza; van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Bonnard, Carine; Ng, Yeng Ting; Majoie, Charles B.; Reversade, Bruno; Hennekam, Raoul C.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a sister and two brothers born to healthy Iranian parents with mild intellectual disability, progressive muscle weakness, and characteristic facies. including highly arched eyebrows, down-slanting palpebral fissures, prominent nasal bridge, prominent nose, columella extending below alae

  4. Adolescents with HIV and facial lipoatrophy: response to facial stimulation

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    Jesus Claudio Gabana-Silveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of facial stimulation over the superficial muscles of the face in individuals with facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and with no indication for treatment with polymethyl methacrylate. METHOD: The study sample comprised four adolescents of both genders ranging from 13 to 17 years in age. To participate in the study, the participants had to score six or less points on the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. The facial stimulation program used in our study consisted of 12 weekly 30-minute sessions during which individuals received therapy. The therapy consisted of intra- and extra-oral muscle contraction and stretching maneuvers of the zygomaticus major and minor and the masseter muscles. Pre- and post-treatment results were obtained using anthropometric static measurements of the face and the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. RESULTS: The results suggest that the therapeutic program effectively improved the volume of the buccinators. No significant differences were observed for the measurements of the medial portion of the face, the lateral portion of the face, the volume of the masseter muscle, or Facial Lipoatrophy Index scores. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that facial maneuvers applied to the superficial muscles of the face of adolescents with facial lipoatrophy associated with HIV improved the facial area volume related to the buccinators muscles. We believe that our results will encourage future research with HIV patients, especially for patients who do not have the possibility of receiving an alternative aesthetic treatment.

  5. Describing a new syndrome in L5-S1 disc herniation: Sexual and sphincter dysfunction without pain and muscle weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezih Akca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Little seems to be known about the sexual dysfunction (SD in lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Aims: Investigation of sexual and sphincter dysfunction in patient with lumbar disc hernitions. Settings and Design: A retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: Sexual and sphincter dysfunction in patients admitted with lumbar disc herniations between September 2012-March 2014. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using the Predictive Analytics SoftWare (PASW Statistics 18.0 for Windows (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois. The statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. The Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to evaluate the difference between patients. Results: Four patients with sexual and sphincter dysfunction were found, including two women and two men, aged between 20 and 52 years. All of them admitted without low back pain. In addition, on neurological examination, reflex and motor deficit were not found. However, almost all patients had perianal sensory deficit and sexual and sphincter dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of three patients displayed a large extruded disc fragment at L5-S1 level on the left side. In fourth patient, there were not prominent disc herniations. There was not statistically significant difference between pre-operative and post-operative sexual function, anal-urethral sphincter function, and perianal sensation score. A syndrome in L5-S1 disc herniation with sexual and sphincter dysfunction without pain and muscle weakness was noted. We think that it is crucial for neurosurgeons to early realise that paralysis of the sphincter and sexual dysfunction are possible in patients with lumbar L5-S1 disc disease. Conclusion: A syndrome with perianal sensory deficit, paralysis of the sphincter, and sexual dysfunction may occur in patients with lumbar L5-S1 disc disease. The improvement of perianal sensory deficit after surgery was

  6. Mutations in PTRH2 cause novel infantile-onset multisystem disease with intellectual disability, microcephaly, progressive ataxia, and muscle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Matter, Michelle L; Issa-Jahns, Lina; Jijiwa, Mayumi; Kraemer, Nadine; Musante, Luciana; de la Vega, Michelle; Ninnemann, Olaf; Schindler, Detlev; Damatova, Natalia; Eirich, Katharina; Sifringer, Marco; Schrötter, Sandra; Eickholt, Britta J; van den Heuvel, Lambert; Casamina, Chanel; Stoltenburg-Didinger, Gisela; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Wienker, Thomas F; Hübner, Christoph; Kaindl, Angela M

    2014-12-01

    To identify the cause of a so-far unreported phenotype of infantile-onset multisystem neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease (IMNEPD). We characterized a consanguineous family of Yazidian-Turkish descent with IMNEPD. The two affected children suffer from intellectual disability, postnatal microcephaly, growth retardation, progressive ataxia, distal muscle weakness, peripheral demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy, sensorineural deafness, exocrine pancreas insufficiency, hypothyroidism, and show signs of liver fibrosis. We performed whole-exome sequencing followed by bioinformatic analysis and Sanger sequencing on affected and unaffected family members. The effect of mutations in the candidate gene was studied in wild-type and mutant mice and in patient and control fibroblasts. In a consanguineous family with two individuals with IMNEPD, we identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in the previously not disease-associated peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase 2 (PTRH2) gene. PTRH2 encodes a primarily mitochondrial protein involved in integrin-mediated cell survival and apoptosis signaling. We show that PTRH2 is highly expressed in the developing brain and is a key determinant in maintaining cell survival during human tissue development. Moreover, we link PTRH2 to the mTOR pathway and thus the control of cell size. The pathology suggested by the human phenotype and neuroimaging studies is supported by analysis of mutant mice and patient fibroblasts. We report a novel disease phenotype, show that the genetic cause is a homozygous mutation in the PTRH2 gene, and demonstrate functional effects in mouse and human tissues. Mutations in PTRH2 should be considered in patients with undiagnosed multisystem neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease.

  7. Mutations in PTRH2 cause novel infantile-onset multisystem disease with intellectual disability, microcephaly, progressive ataxia, and muscle weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Matter, Michelle L; Issa-Jahns, Lina; Jijiwa, Mayumi; Kraemer, Nadine; Musante, Luciana; de la Vega, Michelle; Ninnemann, Olaf; Schindler, Detlev; Damatova, Natalia; Eirich, Katharina; Sifringer, Marco; Schrötter, Sandra; Eickholt, Britta J; van den Heuvel, Lambert; Casamina, Chanel; Stoltenburg-Didinger, Gisela; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Wienker, Thomas F; Hübner, Christoph; Kaindl, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the cause of a so-far unreported phenotype of infantile-onset multisystem neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease (IMNEPD). Methods We characterized a consanguineous family of Yazidian-Turkish descent with IMNEPD. The two affected children suffer from intellectual disability, postnatal microcephaly, growth retardation, progressive ataxia, distal muscle weakness, peripheral demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy, sensorineural deafness, exocrine pancreas insufficiency, hypothyroidism, and show signs of liver fibrosis. We performed whole-exome sequencing followed by bioinformatic analysis and Sanger sequencing on affected and unaffected family members. The effect of mutations in the candidate gene was studied in wild-type and mutant mice and in patient and control fibroblasts. Results In a consanguineous family with two individuals with IMNEPD, we identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in the previously not disease-associated peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase 2 (PTRH2) gene. PTRH2 encodes a primarily mitochondrial protein involved in integrin-mediated cell survival and apoptosis signaling. We show that PTRH2 is highly expressed in the developing brain and is a key determinant in maintaining cell survival during human tissue development. Moreover, we link PTRH2 to the mTOR pathway and thus the control of cell size. The pathology suggested by the human phenotype and neuroimaging studies is supported by analysis of mutant mice and patient fibroblasts. Interpretation We report a novel disease phenotype, show that the genetic cause is a homozygous mutation in the PTRH2 gene, and demonstrate functional effects in mouse and human tissues. Mutations in PTRH2 should be considered in patients with undiagnosed multisystem neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease. PMID:25574476

  8. An Objective Functional Characterisation of Head Movement Impairment in Individuals with Neck Muscle Weakness Due to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

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    Silvia Pancani

    Full Text Available Neck muscle weakness and head drop are well recognised in patients with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, but an objective characterisation of the consequent head movement impairment is lacking. The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterise head movements in ALS compared to aged matched controls.We evaluated two groups, one of thirteen patients with ALS and one of thirteen age-matched controls, during the execution of a series of controlled head movements, performed while wearing two inertial sensors attached on the forehead and sternum, respectively. We quantified the differences between the two groups from the sensor data using indices of velocity, smoothness and movement coupling (intended as a measure of undesired out of plane movements.Results confirmed a general limitation in the ability of the ALS patients to perform and control head movements. High inter-patient variability was observed due to a wide range of observed functional impairment levels. The ability to extend the head backward and flex it laterally were the most compromised, with significantly lower angular velocity (P 0.8, reduced smoothness and greater presence of coupled movements with respect to the controls. A significant reduction of angular velocity (P 0.8 in extension, axial rotation and lateral flexion was observed when patients were asked to perform the movements as fast as possible.This pilot study is the first study providing a functional objective quantification of head movements in ALS. Further work involving different body areas and correlation with existing methods of evaluating neuromuscular function, such as dynamometry and EMG, is needed to explore the use of this approach as a marker of disease progression in ALS.

  9. Early Life Exposure to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Primes Increased Susceptibility to Hypoxia-Induced Weakness in Rat Sternohyoid Muscle During Adulthood

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    Fiona B Mcdonald

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia is a feature of apnea of prematurity, chronic lung disease and sleep apnea. Despite the clinical relevance, the long-term effects of hypoxic exposure in early life on respiratory control are not well defined. We recently reported that exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH during postnatal development (pCIH causes upper airway muscle weakness in both sexes, which persists for several weeks. We sought to examine if there are persistent sex-dependent effects of pCIH on respiratory muscle function into adulthood and/or increased susceptibility to re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in animals previously exposed to CIH during postnatal development. We hypothesized that pCIH would cause long-lasting muscle impairment and increased susceptibility to subsequent hypoxia. Within 24 hours of delivery, pups and their respective dams were exposed to CIH: 90s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir; once every 5 min, 8 hrs per day for 3 weeks. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Three groups were studied: sham; pCIH; and pCIH combined with adult CIH (p+aCIH, where a subset of the pCIH-exposed pups were re-exposed to the same CIH paradigm beginning at 13 weeks. Following gas exposures, sternohyoid and diaphragm muscle isometric contractile and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. There was no apparent lasting effect of pCIH on respiratory muscle function in adults. However, in both males and females, re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in pCIH-exposed animals caused sternohyoid (but not diaphragm weakness. Exposure to this paradigm of CIH in adulthood alone had no effect on muscle function. Persistent susceptibility in pCIH-exposed airway dilator muscle to subsequent hypoxic insult may have implications for the control of airway patency in adult humans exposed to intermittent hypoxic stress during early life.

  10. Early life exposure to chronic intermittent Hypoxia Primes Increased Susceptibility to Hypoxia-Induced Weakness in Rat Sternohyoid Muscle during adulthood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonald, Fiona B

    2016-03-01

    Intermittent hypoxia is a feature of apnea of prematurity (AOP), chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. Despite the clinical relevance, the long-term effects of hypoxic exposure in early life on respiratory control are not well defined. We recently reported that exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during postnatal development (pCIH) causes upper airway muscle weakness in both sexes, which persists for several weeks. We sought to examine if there are persistent sex-dependent effects of pCIH on respiratory muscle function into adulthood and\\/or increased susceptibility to re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in animals previously exposed to CIH during postnatal development. We hypothesized that pCIH would cause long-lasting muscle impairment and increased susceptibility to subsequent hypoxia. Within 24 h of delivery, pups and their respective dams were exposed to CIH: 90 s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir; once every 5 min, 8 h per day for 3 weeks. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Three groups were studied: sham; pCIH; and pCIH combined with adult CIH (p+aCIH), where a subset of the pCIH-exposed pups were re-exposed to the same CIH paradigm beginning at 13 weeks. Following gas exposures, sternohyoid and diaphragm muscle isometric contractile and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. There was no apparent lasting effect of pCIH on respiratory muscle function in adults. However, in both males and females, re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in pCIH-exposed animals caused sternohyoid (but not diaphragm) weakness. Exposure to this paradigm of CIH in adulthood alone had no effect on muscle function. Persistent susceptibility in pCIH-exposed airway dilator muscle to subsequent hypoxic insult may have implications for the control of airway patency in adult humans exposed to intermittent hypoxic stress during early life.

  11. Fitness and mobility training in patients with Intensive Care Unit-acquired muscle weakness (FITonICU): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrholz, Jan; Thomas, Simone; Burridge, Jane H.; Schmidt, Andr?; Scheffler, Bettina; Schellin, Ralph; R?ckriem, Stefan; Mei?ner, Daniel; Mehrholz, Katja; Sauter, Wolfgang; Bodechtel, Ulf; Elsner, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background Critical illness myopathy (CIM) and polyneuropathy (CIP) are a common complication of critical illness. Both cause intensive-care-unit-acquired (ICU-acquired) muscle weakness (ICUAW) which increases morbidity and delays rehabilitation and recovery of activities of daily living such as walking ability. Focused physical rehabilitation of people with ICUAW is, therefore, of great importance at both an individual and a societal level. A recent systematic Cochrane review found no random...

  12. Development of Orally Bioavailable Therapeutics by the Chloroplast Expression System to Counter Muscle Degeneration, Weakness, and Fibrosis in DMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    strength in the diaphragm muscles . However, by 2 months of treatment the benefits were reduced back to untreated controls. We are continuing to analyze...Enzyme 2 Angiotensin-(1-7) Fibrosis Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Mdx Skeletal muscle Chloroplast expression Oral bioavailability 3... treatment regimen to determine if any acute functional benefit was achieved. While no significant improvement was observed in EDL muscles , the diaphragms

  13. Advances in facial reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, James R; Tollefson, Travis T

    2006-08-01

    Facial paralysis often has a significant emotional impact on patients. Along with the myriad of new surgical techniques in managing facial paralysis comes the challenge of selecting the most effective procedure for the patient. This review delineates common surgical techniques and reviews state-of-the-art techniques. The options for dynamic reanimation of the paralyzed face must be examined in the context of several patient factors, including age, overall health, and patient desires. The best functional results are obtained with direct facial nerve anastomosis and interpositional nerve grafts. In long-standing facial paralysis, temporalis muscle transfer gives a dependable and quick result. Microvascular free tissue transfer is a reliable technique with reanimation potential whose results continue to improve as microsurgical expertise increases. Postoperative results can be improved with ancillary soft tissue procedures, as well as botulinum toxin. The paper provides an overview of recent advances in facial reanimation, including preoperative assessment, surgical reconstruction options, and postoperative management.

  14. Mitochondrial Function in an In Vitro Model of Skeletal Muscle of Patients With Protracted Critical Illness and Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiroutková, Kateřina; Krajčová, Adéla; Žiak, Jakub; Fric, Michal; Gojda, Jan; Džupa, Valér; Kalous, Martin; Tůmová, Jana; Trnka, Jan; Duška, František

    2017-09-01

    Functional mitochondria in skeletal muscle of patients with protracted critical illness and intensive care unit-acquired weakness are depleted, but remaining mitochondria have increased functional capacities of respiratory complexes II and III. This can be an adaptation to relative abundancy of fatty acid over glucose caused by insulin resistance. We hypothesized that the capacity of muscle mitochondria to oxidize fatty acid is increased in protracted critical illness. We assessed fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and mitochondrial functional indices in vitro by using extracellular flux analysis in cultured myotubes obtained by isolating and culturing satellite cells from vastus lateralis muscle biopsy samples from patients with ICU-acquired weakness (n = 6) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 7). Bioenergetic measurements were performed at baseline and after 6 days of exposure to free fatty acids (FFAs). Mitochondrial density in myotubes from ICU patients was 69% of healthy controls ( P = .051). After adjustment to mitochondrial content, there were no differences in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis or the capacity and coupling of the respiratory chain. FAO capacity in ICU patients was 157% of FAO capacity in controls ( P = .015). In myotubes of ICU patients, unlike healthy controls, the exposure to FFA significantly ( P = .009) increased maximum respiratory chain capacity. In an in vitro model of skeletal muscle of patients with protracted critical illness, we have shown signs of adaptation to increased FAO. Even in the presence of glucose and insulin, elevation of FFAs in the extracellular environment increased maximal capacity of the respiratory chain.

  15. Facial paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... otherwise healthy, facial paralysis is often due to Bell palsy . This is a condition in which the facial ... speech, or occupational therapist. If facial paralysis from Bell palsy lasts for more than 6 to 12 months, ...

  16. Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis

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    Fergal Coulter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patient’s paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film actuators. Thedevelopment of this facial prosthetic device focused onrecreating a varying intensity smile, with emphasis ontiming, displacement and the appearance of the wrinklesand folds that commonly appear around the nose and eyesduring the expression.An animatronic face was constructed with actuations beingmade to a silicone representation musculature, usingmultiple shape-memory alloy cascades. Alongside theartificial muscle physical prototype, a facial expressionrecognition software system was constructed. This formsthe basis of an automated calibration and reconfigurationsystem for the artificial muscles following implantation, soas to suit the implantee’s unique physiognomy.ResultsAn animatronic model face with silicone musculature wasdesigned and built to evaluate the performance of ShapeMemory Alloy artificial muscles, their power controlcircuitry and software control systems. A dual facial motionsensing system was designed to allow real time control overmodel – a piezoresistive flex sensor to measure physicalmotion, and a computer vision system to evaluate real toartificial muscle performance.Analysis of various facial expressions in real subjects wasmade, which give useful data upon which to base thesystems parameter limits.ConclusionThe system performed well, and the various strengths andshortcomings of the materials and methods are reviewedand considered for the next research phase, when newpolymer based artificial muscles are constructed

  17. Evaluation of muscle hyperactivity of the grimacing muscles by unilateral tight eyelid closure and stapedius muscle tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Masato; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Nagai, Fumio

    2012-10-01

    Muscle hyperactivity of grimacing muscles, including the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles that cause crow's feet and a glabellar frown line with ageing, cannot be accurately evaluated by surface observation. In 71 subjects, this study investigated the extent to which grimacing muscles are innervated by the bilateral motor cortices, whether the corticofacial projection to the grimacing muscles affects the facially innervated stapedius muscle tone by measuring static compliance of the tympanic membrane, and whether unilateral tight eyelid closure with contraction of the grimacing muscles changes static compliance. Unilateral tight eyelid closure and its subsequent change in the contralateral vertical medial eyebrow position revealed that motor neurons of the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles were innervated by the bilateral motor cortices with weak-to-strong contralateral dominance. The orbicularis oculi, corrugator supercilii, and stapedius muscles innervated by the bilateral motor cortices had increased muscle hyperactivity, which lowered the vertical medial eyebrow position and decreased the static compliance of the tympanic membrane more than those innervated by the unilateral motor cortex. Unilateral enhanced tight eyelid closure with contraction of the grimacing muscles in certain subjects ipsilaterally decreased the static compliance with increased contraction of the stapedius muscle, which probably occurs to immobilise the tympanic membrane and protect the inner ear from loud sound. Evaluation of unilateral tight eyelid closure and the subsequent change in the contralateral vertical medial eyebrow position as well as a measurement of the static compliance for the stapedius muscle tone has revealed muscle hyperactivity of grimacing muscles.

  18. Facial Pain Followed by Unilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Case Report with Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    GV, Sowmya; BS, Manjunatha; Goel, Saurabh; Singh, Mohit Pal; Astekar, Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy is the commonest cranial nerve motor neuropathy. The causes range from cerebrovascular accident to iatrogenic damage, but there are few reports of facial nerve paralysis attributable to odontogenic infections. In majority of the cases, recovery of facial muscle function begins within first three weeks after onset. This article reports a unique case of 32-year-old male patient who developed facial pain followed by unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogen...

  19. Use of gastrointestinal anastomosis stapler for harvest of gracilis muscle and securing it in the face for facial reanimation: a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Sachin M; Stapleton, Sahael M; Redett, Richard J; Magarakis, Michael; Rosson, Gedge D

    2010-04-08

    The primary objective of this study is to report a novel technique that uses the gastrointestinal anastomosis (GIA) stapler for harvesting and securing the gracilis muscle in facial reanimation surgery. We conducted a retrospective chart review with 18 consecutive patients who underwent gracilis muscle flap transfer with or without the use of a GIA stapler. Of 11 operations with the GIA stapler, one patient developed a hematoma (donor site) and another required drainage of an abscess (recipient site). Of 8 operations without the use of the stapler, one patient had total flap failure and three required drainage of an abscess (2 recipient sites and 1 donor site). These differences trended toward improvement but were not statistically different. The use of the GIA stapler is a fast, safe technique. Larger studies are, however, warranted to further examine this novel approach in order to test precisely what factors of increased efficiency occur, the amount of suture pull-through, and overall tension capable of being applied to the secured staple line.

  20. Muscle Weakness in the Empty and Full Can Tests Cannot Differentiate Rotator Cuff Tear from Cervical Spondylotic Amyotrophy: Pain Provocation is a Useful Finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Eiichiro; Shigematsu, Hideki; Inoue, Kazuya; Egawa, Takuya; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears and cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA) are often confused as the main symptom in those with difficulty in shoulder elevation. Empty and full can tests are frequently used for the clinical diagnosis of rotator cuff tears. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the empty and full can test results can help differentiate rotator cuff tears from CSA. Twenty-seven consecutive patients with rotator cuff tears and 25 with CSA were enrolled. We prospectively performed empty and full can tests in patients with rotator cuff tears and CSA. The following signs were considered positive: (a) muscle weakness during the empty can test, (b) muscle weakness during the full can test, (c) pain provocation during the empty can test, and (d) pain provocation during the full can test. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of rotator cuff tears for each positive finding. The sensitivity and specificity of each index were as follows (sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV): (a) 77.8%, 0%, 45.7%, 0%; (b) 66.7%, 4.0%, 42.9%, 10.0%; (c) 88.9%, 96.0%, 96.0%, 88.9%; and (d) 74.1%, 96.0%, 95.2%, 77.4%. There were significant differences for each index. Muscle weakness during the empty and full can tests was not useful in differentiating rotator cuff tears from CSA because of low specificity and PPV. However, pain provocation was useful in differentiating these two conditions because of high specificity and PPV.

  1. An in vivo analysis of facial muscle change treated with botulinum toxin type A using digital image speckle correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Palmaccio, Samantha Palmaccio; Bui, Duc; Dagum, Alexander; Rafailovich, Miriam

    Been famous for clinical use from early 1980s, the neuromuscular blocking agent Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A), has been used to reduce wrinkles for a long time. Only little research has been done to quantify the change of muscle contraction before and after injection and most research paper depend on subjective evaluation from both patients and surgeons. In our research, Digital Image Speckle Correlation (DISC) was employed to study the mechanical properties of skin, contraction mode of muscles (injected) and reaction of neighbor muscle group (un-injected).At the same time, displacement patterns (vector maps)generated by DISC can predict injection locus for surgeons who normally handle it depending only on visual observation.

  2. Recovery of whisking function promoted by manual stimulation of the vibrissal muscles after facial nerve injury requires insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryakova, S; Söhnchen, J; Grosheva, M; Schuetz, U; Marinova, Ts; Dzhupanova, R; Sinis, N; Hübbers, C U; Skouras, E; Ankerne, J; Fries, J W U; Irintchev, A; Dunlop, S A; Angelov, D N

    2010-04-01

    Recently, we showed that manual stimulation (MS) of denervated vibrissal muscles enhanced functional recovery following facial nerve cut and suture (FFA) by reducing poly-innervation at the neuro-muscular junctions (NMJ). Although the cellular correlates of poly-innervation are established, with terminal Schwann cells (TSC) processes attracting axon sprouts to "bridge" adjacent NMJ, molecular correlates are poorly understood. Since quantitative RT-PCR revealed a rapid increase of IGF-1 mRNA in denervated muscles, we examined the effect of daily MS for 2 months after FFA in IGF-1(+/-) heterozygous mice; controls were wild-type (WT) littermates including intact animals. We quantified vibrissal motor performance and the percentage of NMJ bridged by S100-positive TSC. There were no differences between intact WT and IGF-1(+/-) mice for vibrissal whisking amplitude (48 degrees and 49 degrees ) or the percentage of bridged NMJ (0%). After FFA and handling alone (i.e. no MS) in WT animals, vibrissal whisking amplitude was reduced (60% lower than intact) and the percentage of bridged NMJ increased (42% more than intact). MS improved both the amplitude of vibrissal whisking (not significantly different from intact) and the percentage of bridged NMJ (12% more than intact). After FFA and handling in IGF-1(+/-) mice, the pattern was similar (whisking amplitude 57% lower than intact; proportion of bridged NMJ 42% more than intact). However, MS did not improve outcome (whisking amplitude 47% lower than intact; proportion of bridged NMJ 40% more than intact). We conclude that IGF-I is required to mediate the effects of MS on target muscle reinnervation and recovery of whisking function. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  4. Contribution of direct actions of the oxime HI-6 in reversing soman-induced muscle weakness in the rat diaphragm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alder, M.; Maxwell, D.M.; Filbert, M.G.; Deshpande, S.S.

    1994-12-31

    The actions of the bispyridinium oxime HI-6 ((4-AMINOCARBONYL) PYRIDINO-methoxymethyl- 2-(HYDROXYIMINO)METHYL- pyridinium dichloride) were investigated in vitro on rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations. Isometric twitch and tetanic tensions were elicited at 37 deg C with supramaximal nerve stimulation at frequencies of 20 and 50 Hz. To approximate normal respiration patterns, trials consisting of 30 successive 0.55 5 trains were alternated with 1.25 5 rest periods. Under control conditions, the above stimulation pattern generated tensions that were well maintained at both frequencies. In contrast, a marked depression of muscle tension was observed in diaphragms removed from rats administered 339 ug/kg soman (3 LD50) and tested in vitro. Addition of HI-6, 4 h after soman exposure, led to a nearly complete recovery of muscle tension at 20 Hz. At 50 Hz, muscle tensions still declined especially when trains were elicited at 1.25 and 3 5 intervals. The recovery by HI-6 observed in this study appears to be mediated by mechanisms unrelated to acetylcholinesterase reactivation since no increase of enzymatic activity was detected and the effect was reversed by a brief washout in oxime-free physiological solution. The results suggest that the direct action of HI-6 may play a role in restoring soman-induced diaphragmatic failure but this effect would be significant primarily under low use conditions.

  5. Impaired Overt Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Sayaka; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Previous electromyographic studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibited atypical patterns of facial muscle activity in response to facial expression stimuli. However, whether such activity is expressed in visible facial mimicry remains unknown. To investigate this issue, we videotaped facial responses in…

  6. Assessment of the Sheffield Support Snood, an innovative cervical orthosis designed for people affected by neck muscle weakness

    OpenAIRE

    Pancani, Silvia; Rowson, Jennifer; Tindale, Wendy; Heron, Nicola; Langley, Joe; McCarthy, Avril D.; Quinn, Ann; Reed, Heath; Stanton, Andrew; Shaw, Pamela J.; McDermott, Christopher J.; Mazzà, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the biomechanical features of the Sheffield Support Snood (SSS), a cervical orthosis specifically designed for patients with neck weakness. The orthosis is designed to be adaptable to a patient’s level of functional limitation using adjustable removable supports, which contribute support and restrict movement only in desired anatomical planes. \\ud Methods: The SSS was evaluated along with two commercially available orthoses, the Vista and Headmaster. The ...

  7. Case Report: Clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis presenting acutely with isolated facial edema [version 2; referees: 2 approved

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    Efthymia Pappa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old Asian man presented with acute-onset periorbital and facial edema associated with pyrexia. Muscle weakness was absent. Initial laboratory investigations showed an inflammatory reaction, while screening for infections was negative. Serum muscle enzyme levels were normal. He was hospitalized and treated empirically with antibiotics and corticosteroids, pending the result of facial skin and muscle biopsy. He showed a good clinical and laboratory response but an attempt to discontinue corticosteroids led to a prompt relapse of facial edema and pyrexia, associated with rising laboratory indices of inflammation. Biopsy findings were typical of dermatomyositis. Reintroduction of corticosteroid treatment resulted in complete clinical and laboratory remission. Facial edema as the sole clinical manifestation of dermatomyositis is extremely rare. There have been no previous reports of isolated facial edema in the setting of acute, clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis in adults. A high level of suspicion is required to make the diagnosis in the absence of myopathy and the hallmark cutaneous manifestations of the disease (heliotrope rash, Gottron papules.

  8. Antagonism of botulinum toxin-induced muscle weakness by aminopyridines in rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, M.; Scovill, J.; Deshpande, S.S.

    1993-05-13

    The effects of the potassium channel inhibitor and putative botulinum toxin antagonists 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP) were investigated in vitro on the contractile and electrophysiological properties of rat diaphragm muscle. In the presence of 300 pM botulinum toxin A (BoTx A), twitches elicited by supramaximal nerve stimulation (0. 1 Hz) were reduced by over 80% in 3 hr. The time to block decreased with increases in temperature, toxin concentration and stimulation frequency. Addition of 4-AP or 3,4-DAP led to a prompt reversal of the BoTx A-induced depression of twitch tension. This reversal was concentration-dependent such that, in the presence of 1 mM 4-AP, reversal of the BoTx A-induced blockade was complete in 6.7 min. The beneficial effect of the APs were well maintained and persisted for up to 6 hr after addition. Application of 1 microns M neostigmine 1 hr after 3,4-DAP produced a further potentiation of twitch tensions, but this action lasted for < 5 min and led to the appearance of tetanic fade during repetitive stimulation. It is concluded that the APs are of benefit in antagonizing the muscle paralysis following exposure to botulinum toxin. Co-application of neostigmine, however, appears to confer no additional benefit.

  9. Avaliação eletromiográfica do músculo masseter em pessoas com paralisia facial periférica de longa duração Masseter muscle electromyographic assessment in subject with long lasting facial palsy

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    Adriana Rahal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a atividade elétrica do músculo masseter em pessoas com paralisia facial periférica de longa duração. MÉTODOS: participaram deste estudo seis sujeitos de ambos os sexos, com paralisia facial há pelo menos doze meses, sem queixas mastigatórias e sem disfunção temporomandibular e com pelo menos seis dentes em cada hemiarcada. Todos preencheram um questionário de anamnese e em seguida foram submetidos à eletromiografia de superfície dos masseteres de ambos os lados. As provas eletromiográficas foram: posição habitual com lábios fechados, apertamento dentário, mastigação habitual e unilateral à direita e à esquerda com uva passa. RESULTADOS: em todas as provas eletromiográficas não foram observadas diferenças significantes (p=0,05 entre os lados com e sem paralisia facial. CONCLUSÃO: observou-se com o presente estudo que a força do músculo masseter não sofre influência da paralisia facial de longa duração.PURPOSE: to check the masseter electrical activity in long lasting facial paralysis patients. METHODS: six subjects, with facial paralysis for over a period of twelve months, males and females, took part in this study. Patients should not show any masticatory complaints or have any diagnoses of temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction, having at least six teeth in each half dental ridge. All subjects filled out a questionnaire regarding oral habits and were assessed by surface electromyography of the masseter muscle of both sides. Electromyographic records were taken with lips closed at rest, teeth tightness, besides usual mastication, and unilateral mastication on both sides with raisins. RESULTS: in all electromyographic tests there were no statistically significant differences (p=0.05 between both sides, with and without facial paralysis. CONCLUSION: it was observed that the strength of the masseter muscle is not under the influence of long lasting facial paralysis.

  10. Tailored botulinum toxin type A injections in aesthetic medicine: consensus panel recommendations for treating the forehead based on individual facial anatomy and muscle tone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anido J

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Javier Anido,1 Daniel Arenas,2 Cristina Arruabarrena,3 Alfonso Domínguez-Gil,4 Carlos Fajardo,5 Mar Mira,6 Javier Murillo,7 Natalia Ribé,8 Helga Rivera,9 Sofia Ruiz del Cueto,6 Helder Silvestre,10 Marisa Tirado11 1A-Clinic, Madrid, 2Hospital Cruz Roja, Madrid, 3Clinic Cristina Arruabarrena, San Sebastiá, 4Salamanca University, Salamanca, 5Clinic Fajardo, Malaga, 6Clinic Mira+Cueto, Madrid, 7Clinic CIR, Seville, 8Institute Natalia Ribé, Barcelona, 9Clinic Helga Rivera, Vigo, Spain; 10Clinic Europa, Lisbon, Portugal; 11Clinic Derma Alemar, Castellón, Spain Background: Facial lines and wrinkles are strongly influenced by individual differences in anatomy and muscle activity and no single injection protocol will suit all patients. However, there is only limited information in the published literature on how to develop a tailored approach to botulinum toxin treatment.Methods: An expert panel of physicians was convened to establish a consensus on developing an individualized approach to treatment of the forehead with incobotulinumtoxinA. Separate treatment protocols were developed for men and women and subdivided by background level of muscle activity: kinetic, hyperkinetic, and hypertonic. Each muscle tone category was then further subdivided to take account of individual characteristics that can influence treatment.Results: Consensus members describe how to perform a dynamic assessment to optimize the dose and injection technique for each patient. A tailored treatment protocol is described for men and women with a wide range of forehead presentations. For each presentation, units of toxin as well as the precise location of injection points were defined by creating a 12-zone map of the forehead.Conclusion: These recommendations depart from traditional consensus documents by providing detailed incobotulinumtoxinA injection protocols for the forehead based on the major parameters that differ between patients, including muscular anatomy, size, and

  11. Facial EMG responses to dynamic emotional facial expressions in boys with disruptive behavior disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wied, de M.; Boxtel, van Anton; Zaalberg, R.; Goudena, P.P.; Matthys, W.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the assumption that facial mimicry is a key factor in emotional empathy, and clinical observations that children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are weak empathizers, the present study explored whether DBD boys are less facially responsive to facial expressions of emotions than

  12. Myopathy in Childhood Muscle-Specific Kinase Myasthenia Gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirzinger, Lukas; Khomenko, Andrei; Schulte-Mattler, Wilhelm; Backhaus, Roland; Platen, Sabine; Schalke, Berthold

    2016-12-01

    Adult and pediatric patients suffering from MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) -antibody positive myasthenia gravis exhibit similar features to individuals with acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies, but they differ in several characteristics such as a predominant bulbar, respiratory and neck weakness, a generally worse disease severity and a tendency to develop muscle atrophy. Muscle atrophy is a rare phenomenon that is usually restricted to the facial muscles. We describe a girl with MuSK-antibody positive myasthenia gravis who developed a myopathy with severe generalized muscular weakness, muscle atrophy, and myopathic changes on electromyography. This is the first published example of a generalized myopathic syndrome in myasthenia gravis. We review the relevant literature and discuss the hypothesis of a mitochondrial myopathy as a pathogenic mechanism in MuSK-antibody positive myasthenia gravis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intellectual disability, muscle weakness and characteristic face in three siblings: A newly described recessive syndrome mapping to 3p24.3-p25.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariminejad, Ariana; Nafissi, Shahriar; Nilipoor, Yalda; Tavasoli, Alireza; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Bonnard, Carine; Ng, Yeng Ting; Majoie, Charles B; Reversade, Bruno; Hennekam, Raoul C

    2015-11-01

    We report on a sister and two brothers born to healthy Iranian parents with mild intellectual disability, progressive muscle weakness, and characteristic facies. including highly arched eyebrows, down-slanting palpebral fissures, prominent nasal bridge, prominent nose, columella extending below alae nasi, narrow mouth, narrow palate, and dental caries, and in one of them an inability to abduct the left eye. Electrophysiological studies showed signs of myopathy, and muscle biopsies demonstrated only nonspecific signs. Brain MRIs in two of the sibs showed leukencephalopathy with delayed myelination, frontal and parietal hyperintensities, and hippocampal atrophy in one. We have been unable to find a description of this association of features in literature. Based on the occurrence in siblings, no significant difference in phenotype between the brothers and sister, absence of manifestations in parents, and a likely consanguinity between parents we performed a homozygosity mapping. A single identical-by-descent bloc encompassing 57 genes located at 3p24.3-p25.3 was found to segregate within the family with this phenotype. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Facial palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavoy, R

    2013-09-01

    Facial palsy is a daily challenge for the clinicians. Determining whether facial nerve palsy is peripheral or central is a key step in the diagnosis. Central nervous lesions can give facial palsy which may be easily differentiated from peripheral palsy. The next question is the peripheral facial paralysis idiopathic or symptomatic. A good knowledge of anatomy of facial nerve is helpful. A structure approach is given to identify additional features that distinguish symptomatic facial palsy from idiopathic one. The main cause of peripheral facial palsies is idiopathic one, or Bell's palsy, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The most common cause of symptomatic peripheral facial palsy is Ramsay-Hunt syndrome. Early identification of symptomatic facial palsy is important because of often worst outcome and different management. The prognosis of Bell's palsy is on the whole favorable and is improved with a prompt tapering course of prednisone. In Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, an antiviral therapy is added along with prednisone. We also discussed of current treatment recommendations. We will review short and long term complications of peripheral facial palsy.

  15. Facial Nerve Schwannoma Involving Middle Cranial Fossa: When the Unilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss Guide to the Correct Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    De Stefano, Alessandro; Dispenza, Francesco; Kulamarva, Gautham

    2011-01-01

    The Facial Nerve Schwannoma is a rare tumor and it seldom involved the middle cranial fossa. Facial nerve schwannoma has various manifestations, including facial palsy but unfortunately facial nerve is very resistant to compression and often facial nerve paralysis or a facial weakness are not present. We present a case of giant facial nerve schwannoma involved the middle cranial fossa without facial nerve paralysis. In these cases the unilateral hearing loss (if present) guide to a correct di...

  16. The role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy in facial nerve damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Limei; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve is easy to be damaged, and there are many reconstructive methods for facial nerve reconstructive, such as facial nerve end to end anastomosis, the great auricular nerve graft, the sural nerve graft, or hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis. However, there is still little study about great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy and the mechanism. Rat models of facial nerve cut (FC), facial nerve end to end anastomosis (FF), facial-great auricular neurorrhaphy (FG), and control (Ctrl) were established. Apex nasi amesiality observation, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence assays were employed to investigate the function and mechanism. In apex nasi amesiality observation, it was found apex nasi amesiality of FG group was partly recovered. Additionally, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence assays revealed that facial-great auricular neurorrhaphy could transfer nerve impulse and express AChR which was better than facial nerve cut and worse than facial nerve end to end anastomosis. The present study indicated that great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy is a substantial solution for facial lesion repair, as it is efficiently preventing facial muscles atrophy by generating neurotransmitter like ACh.

  17. Facial trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxillofacial injury; Midface trauma; Facial injury; LeFort injuries ... Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  18. Facial Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Sophie; Gill, Hameet S; Fialkov, Jeffery A; Matic, Damir B; Antonyshyn, Oleh M

    2016-02-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Demonstrate an understanding of some of the changes in aspects of facial fracture management. 2. Assess a patient presenting with facial fractures. 3. Understand indications and timing of surgery. 4. Recognize exposures of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton. 5. Identify methods for repair of typical facial fracture patterns. 6. Discuss the common complications seen with facial fractures. Restoration of the facial skeleton and associated soft tissues after trauma involves accurate clinical and radiologic assessment to effectively plan a management approach for these injuries. When surgical intervention is necessary, timing, exposure, sequencing, and execution of repair are all integral to achieving the best long-term outcomes for these patients.

  19. Do hip muscle weakness and dynamic knee valgus matter for the clinical evaluation and decision-making process in patients with patellofemoral pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Nayra Deise Dos Anjos; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia

    Patellofemoral pain is a very common musculoskeletal condition. In the last years, evidence regarding this disease increased exponentially. Although widely investigated, this problem still frustrates patients and clinicians for having an unfavorable prognosis. Some gaps still exist in the understanding and managing of patellofemoral pain. Numerous cross-sectional association studies show an association between gluteus muscular strength and dynamic knee valgus in patients with patellofemoral pain. In spite of this biological plausibility, many evidences challenge the direct relationship between these factors. Recent studies have concluded that women with patellofemoral pain show muscular weakness of the hip based on the cross-sectional studies, however prospective studies indicate that hip weakness cannot be considered a risk for development of patellofemoral pain. In addition, some clinical trials have demonstrated that strength training of the gluteal muscles promotes significant improvement in symptoms but not alter the kinematics of the patients with patellofemoral pain. These findings cast doubt on whether the cause of this condition is really being treated, whether all individuals suffering from patellofemoral pain present dynamic knee valgus or if this is a disturbance present in only a subgroup of patients and whether the strengthening of the hip musculature is an option to consider for prevention of patellofemoral pain. Certainly, more studies should be conducted to clarify the influence of mechanical patterns on this condition, but with the existing evidence so far, the importance given to these issues in the evaluation and clinical decision on treatment of these patients seems questionable. Therefore, this masterclass explores the understanding about patellofemoral pain, highlighting mainly the importance of muscular strength and dynamic knee valgus, as well as other possible factors that must be consider during the evaluation and the decision making in

  20. Analysis of Facial Expression by Taste Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobitani, Kensuke; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    In this study, we focused on the basic taste stimulation for the analysis of real facial expressions. We considered that the expressions caused by taste stimulation were unaffected by individuality or emotion, that is, such expressions were involuntary. We analyzed the movement of facial muscles by taste stimulation and compared real expressions with artificial expressions. From the result, we identified an obvious difference between real and artificial expressions. Thus, our method would be a new approach for facial expression recognition.

  1. Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

    Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

  2. Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico com fraqueza muscular por Miastenia Gravis Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with muscle weakness due to Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Araújo de Sousa Studart

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico (LES e a Miastenia Gravis (MG são doenças autoimunes cuja associação em um mesmo paciente é raramente descrita. Essas patologias compartilham algumas características como acometimento de mulheres jovens, positividade para anticorpos antinucleares, evolução em períodos de exacerbações e remissões. O presente relato de caso analisa as possíveis hipóteses diagnósticas para um quadro clínico de ptose palpebral e fraqueza muscular proximal em uma paciente portadora de lúpus recente que evoluiu com MG associada.Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and myasthenia gravis (MG are autoimmune diseases, whose association in the same patient is rarely reported. Both pathologies share the following characteristics: affect mainly young women; alternate exacerbation and remission periods; and have positive antinuclear antibody (ANA test. This case report assesses possible diagnostic hypotheses for the clinical findings of eyelid ptosis and proximal muscle weakness in a female patient recently diagnosed with SLE, who evolved with associated MG.

  3. Fully Automatic Recognition of the Temporal Phases of Facial Actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valstar, M.F.; Pantic, Maja

    Past work on automatic analysis of facial expressions has focused mostly on detecting prototypic expressions of basic emotions like happiness and anger. The method proposed here enables the detection of a much larger range of facial behavior by recognizing facial muscle actions [action units (AUs)

  4. Facial Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rajarshi; Gopalkrishnan, Kulandaswamy

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the incidence of facial fractures along with age, gender predilection, etiology, commonest site, associated dental injuries, and any complications of patients operated in Craniofacial Unit of SDM College of Dental Sciences and Hospital. This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of OMFS, SDM College of Dental Sciences, Dharwad from January 2003 to December 2013. Data were recorded for the cause of injury, age and gender distribution, frequency and type of injury, localization and frequency of soft tissue injuries, dentoalveolar trauma, facial bone fractures, complications, concomitant injuries, and different treatment protocols.All the data were analyzed using statistical analysis that is chi-squared test. A total of 1146 patients reported at our unit with facial fractures during these 10 years. Males accounted for a higher frequency of facial fractures (88.8%). Mandible was the commonest bone to be fractured among all the facial bones (71.2%). Maxillary central incisors were the most common teeth to be injured (33.8%) and avulsion was the most common type of injury (44.6%). Commonest postoperative complication was plate infection (11%) leading to plate removal. Other injuries associated with facial fractures were rib fractures, head injuries, upper and lower limb fractures, etc., among these rib fractures were seen most frequently (21.6%). This study was performed to compare the different etiologic factors leading to diverse facial fracture patterns. By statistical analysis of this record the authors come to know about the relationship of facial fractures with gender, age, associated comorbidities, etc.

  5. Operant conditioning of facial displays of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Miriam; Rainville, Pierre; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2011-06-01

    The operant model of chronic pain posits that nonverbal pain behavior, such as facial expressions, is sensitive to reinforcement, but experimental evidence supporting this assumption is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate in a healthy population a) whether facial pain behavior can indeed be operantly conditioned using a discriminative reinforcement schedule to increase and decrease facial pain behavior and b) to what extent these changes affect pain experience indexed by self-ratings. In the experimental group (n = 29), the participants were reinforced every time that they showed pain-indicative facial behavior (up-conditioning) or a neutral expression (down-conditioning) in response to painful heat stimulation. Once facial pain behavior was successfully up- or down-conditioned, respectively (which occurred in 72% of participants), facial pain displays and self-report ratings were assessed. In addition, a control group (n = 11) was used that was yoked to the reinforcement plans of the experimental group. During the conditioning phases, reinforcement led to significant changes in facial pain behavior in the majority of the experimental group (p .136). Fine-grained analyses of facial muscle movements revealed a similar picture. Furthermore, the decline in facial pain displays (as observed during down-conditioning) strongly predicted changes in pain ratings (R(2) = 0.329). These results suggest that a) facial pain displays are sensitive to reinforcement and b) that changes in facial pain displays can affect self-report ratings.

  6. Association between muscle atrophy/weakness and health care costs and utilization among patients receiving total knee replacement surgery: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen SY

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Yin Chen,1 Ning Wu,1 Yuan-Chi Lee,1 Yang Zhao21Health Economics and Epidemiology, Evidera, Lexington, Massachusetts, 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, New Jersey, USAPurpose: The aim of the study reported here was to examine health care resource utilization, costs, and risk of rehospitalization for total knee replacement (TKR patients with and without muscle atrophy/weakness (MAW.Patients and methods: Individuals aged 50–64 years with commercial insurance or 65+ years with Medicare Supplemental Insurance (Medicare who had a hospitalization for TKR between January 1, 2006 and September 30, 2009 were identified from a large US claims database. First hospitalization for TKR was defined as the index stay. All patients were classified into three cohorts according to when MAW was diagnosed relative to TKR: pre-MAW, post-MAW, and no MAW. The association between MAW and health care costs over the 12-month post-index period and the probability of rehospitalization were assessed via multivariate regressions.Results: The study sample included 53,696 Medicare and 46,058 commercial insurance TKR patients. Controlling for cross-cohort differences, both the pre- and post-MAW cohorts had significantly higher total health care costs (Medicare US$4,201 and US$9,404 higher, commercial insurance US$2,737 and US$6,640 higher, respectively than the no MAW cohort (all P < 0.05. The post-MAW cohort in both populations was also more likely to have any all-cause or replacement-related rehospitalization compared with the no MAW cohort.Conclusion: Among US patients undergoing TKR, those with MAW had higher health care utilization and costs than patients without MAW.Keywords: rehospitalization, resource utilization, Medicare, health insurance, USA

  7. Severe metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, and respiratory acidosis induced by the Chinese herbal medicine yokukansan in an elderly patient with muscle weakness and drowsiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Tokumoto, Masanori; Kansui, Yasuo; Wakisaka, Yoshinobu; Uchizono, Yuji; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Ooboshi, Hiroaki

    2013-05-01

    Yokukansan is a Chinese herbal medicine containing licorice that has been shown to alleviate the behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, with few adverse effects. Increasing numbers of patients with Alzheimer's disease in Japan are now being treated with this drug. However, yokukansan should be used with caution because of its potential to induce pseudoaldosteronism through the inhibition of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, which metabolizes cortisol into cortisone. We present the case of an 88-year-old woman with a history of Alzheimer's disease who was transferred to our emergency department because of drowsiness, anorexia, and muscle weakness. Her blood pressure was 168/90 mmHg. Laboratory data showed serum potassium of 1.9 mmol/l, metabolic alkalosis (pH 7.54; HCO 3 - , 50.5 mmol/l; chloride, 81 mmol/l; sodium, 140 mmol/l), and respiratory disorders (pCO 2 , 60.5 mmHg; pO 2 , 63.8 mmHg). Plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration were suppressed, and urinary potassium excretion was 22 mmol/l (calculated transtubular potassium gradient 12.9). An electrocardiogram showed flat T-waves and U-waves with ventricular premature contractions. Echocardiography denied volume depletion. Medical interview disclosed that she had been treated with a Chinese herbal medicine (yokukansan) containing licorice. The final diagnosis was pseudoaldosteronism and respiratory acidosis induced by licorice. Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and respiratory acidosis all subsided shortly after the discontinuation of yokukansan and initiation of intravenous potassium replacement. This case highlights the need for nephrologists to consider the possible involvement of Chinese herbal medicines, including yokukansan, when they encounter hypokalemia in elderly patients.

  8. Facial Nerve Trauma: Evaluation and Considerations in Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gordin, Eli; Lee, Thomas S.; Ducic, Yadranko; Arnaoutakis, Demetri

    2014-01-01

    The management of facial paralysis continues to evolve. Understanding the facial nerve anatomy and the different methods of evaluating the degree of facial nerve injury are crucial for successful management. When the facial nerve is transected, direct coaptation leads to the best outcome, followed by interpositional nerve grafting. In cases where motor end plates are still intact but a primary repair or graft is not feasible, a nerve transfer should be employed. When complete muscle atrophy h...

  9. Temporalis muscle hypertrophy and reduced skull eccentricity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straathof, C S M; Doorenweerd, N; Wokke, B H A; Dumas, E M; van den Bergen, J C; van Buchem, M A; Hendriksen, J G M; Verschuuren, J J G M; Kan, H E

    2014-10-01

    Muscle hypertrophy and muscle weakness are well known in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Decreased muscle force can have secondary effects on skeletal growth and development such as facial and dental morphology changes. In this study, we quantified temporal muscle thickness, circumference, and eccentricity of the skull and the head on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the head of 15 Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and 15 controls. Average temporal muscle thickness was significantly increased in patients (12.9 ± 5.2 mm) compared to controls (6.8 ± 1.4 mm) (P muscle thickness and skull eccentricity were significantly negatively correlated in patients, and positively in controls. Hypertrophy of the temporal muscles and changes in skull eccentricity appear to occur early in the course of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Further studies in younger patients are needed to confirm a causal relationship. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  11. Facial Cosmetic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ...

  12. Facial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, N; Lemkens, P; Leach, R; Gemels B; Schepers, S; Lemmens, W

    Facial trauma. Patients with facial trauma must be assessed in a systematic way so as to avoid missing any injury. Severe and disfiguring facial injuries can be distracting. However, clinicians must first focus on the basics of trauma care, following the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) system of care. Maxillofacial trauma occurs in a significant number of severely injured patients. Life- and sight-threatening injuries must be excluded during the primary and secondary surveys. Special attention must be paid to sight-threatening injuries in stabilized patients through early referral to an appropriate specialist or the early initiation of emergency care treatment. The gold standard for the radiographic evaluation of facial injuries is computed tomography (CT) imaging. Nasal fractures are the most frequent isolated facial fractures. Isolated nasal fractures are principally diagnosed through history and clinical examination. Closed reduction is the most frequently performed treatment for isolated nasal fractures, with a fractured nasal septum as a predictor of failure. Ear, nose and throat surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons and ophthalmologists must all develop an adequate treatment plan for patients with complex maxillofacial trauma.

  13. Looking with different eyes: The psychological meaning of categorisation goals moderates facial reactivity to facial expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dillen, L.F.; Harris, L.T.; van Dijk, W.W.; Rotteveel, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present research we examined whether the psychological meaning of people's categorisation goals affects facial muscle activity in response to facial expressions of emotion. We had participants associate eye colour (blue, brown) with either a personality trait (extraversion) or a physical

  14. Reconstruction of facial nerve injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Adel; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ron M

    2011-05-01

    Facial nerve trauma is uncommon in children, and many spontaneously recover some function; nonetheless, loss of facial nerve activity leads to functional impairment of ocular and oral sphincters and nasal orifice. In many cases, the impediment posed by facial asymmetry and reduced mimetic function more significantly affects the child's psychosocial interactions. As such, reconstruction of the facial nerve affords great benefits in quality of life. The therapeutic strategy is dependent on numerous factors, including the cause of facial nerve injury, the deficit, the prognosis for recovery, and the time elapsed since the injury. The options for treatment include a diverse range of surgical techniques including static lifts and slings, nerve repairs, nerve grafts and nerve transfers, regional, and microvascular free muscle transfer. We review our strategies for addressing facial nerve injuries in children.

  15. Novel excitation-contraction coupling related genes reveal aspects of muscle weakness beyond atrophy—new hopes for treatment of musculoskeletal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manring, Heather; Abreu, Eduardo; Brotto, Leticia; Weisleder, Noah; Brotto, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Research over the last decade strengthened the understanding that skeletal muscles are not only the major tissue in the body from a volume point of view but also function as a master regulator contributing to optimal organismal health. These new contributions to the available body of knowledge triggered great interest in the roles of skeletal muscle beyond contraction. The World Health Organization, through its Global Burden of Disease (GBD) report, recently raised further awareness about the key importance of skeletal muscles as the GDB reported musculoskeletal (MSK) diseases have become the second greatest cause of disability, with more than 1.7 billion people in the globe affected by a diversity of MSK conditions. Besides their role in MSK disorders, skeletal muscles are also seen as principal metabolic organs with essential contributions to metabolic disorders, especially those linked to physical inactivity. In this review, we have focused on the unique function of new genes/proteins (i.e., MTMR14, MG29, sarcalumenin, KLF15) that during the last few years have helped provide novel insights about muscle function in health and disease, muscle fatigue, muscle metabolism, and muscle aging. Next, we provide an in depth discussion of how these genes/proteins converge into a common function of acting as regulators of intracellular calcium homeostasis. A clear link between dysfunctional calcium homeostasis is established and the special role of store-operated calcium entry is analyzed. The new knowledge that has been generated by the understanding of the roles of previously unknown modulatory genes of the skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) process brings exciting new possibilities for treatment of MSK diseases, muscle regeneration, and skeletal muscle tissue engineering. The next decade of skeletal muscle and MSK research is bound to bring to fruition applied knowledge that will hopefully offset the current heavy and sad burden of MSK diseases on the

  16. Rejuvenecimiento facial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Daniel Jacubovsky, Dr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento facial es un proceso único y particular a cada individuo y está regido en especial por su carga genética. El lifting facial es una compleja técnica desarrollada en nuestra especialidad desde principios de siglo, para revertir los principales signos de este proceso. Los factores secundarios que gravitan en el envejecimiento facial son múltiples y por ello las ritidectomías o lifting cérvico faciales descritas han buscado corregir los cambios fisonómicos del envejecimiento excursionando, como se describe, en todos los planos tisulares involucrados. Esta cirugía por lo tanto, exige conocimiento cabal de la anatomía quirúrgica, pericia y experiencia para reducir las complicaciones, estigmas quirúrgicos y revisiones secundarias. La ridectomía facial ha evolucionado hacia un procedimiento más simple, de incisiones más cortas y disecciones menos extensas. Las suspensiones musculares han variado en su ejecución y los vectores de montaje y resección cutánea son cruciales en los resultados estéticos de la cirugía cérvico facial. Hoy estos vectores son de tracción más vertical. La corrección de la flaccidez va acompañada de un interés en reponer el volumen de la superficie del rostro, en especial el tercio medio. Las técnicas quirúrgicas de rejuvenecimiento, en especial el lifting facial, exigen una planificación para cada paciente. Las técnicas adjuntas al lifting, como blefaroplastias, mentoplastía, lipoaspiración de cuello, implantes faciales y otras, también han tenido una positiva evolución hacia la reducción de riesgos y mejor éxito estético.

  17. Reconocimiento facial

    OpenAIRE

    Urtiaga Abad, Juan Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    El presente proyecto trata sobre uno de los campos más problemáticos de la inteligencia artificial, el reconocimiento facial. Algo tan sencillo para las personas como es reconocer una cara conocida se traduce en complejos algoritmos y miles de datos procesados en cuestión de segundos. El proyecto comienza con un estudio del estado del arte de las diversas técnicas de reconocimiento facial, desde las más utilizadas y probadas como el PCA y el LDA, hasta técnicas experimentales que utilizan ...

  18. FACIAL PAIN·

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -As the conditions which cause pain in the facial structures are many and varied, the ... involvement of the auriculo-temporal nerve and is usually relieved by avulsion of that .... of its effects. If it is uspected that a lesion in the po terior fossa ma ...

  19. Evoked electromyography to rocuronium in orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius in facial nerve injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yian; Chen, Lianhua; Li, Shitong

    2013-11-01

    Muscles innervated by the facial nerve show different sensitivities to muscle relaxants than muscles innervated by somatic nerves, especially in the presence of facial nerve injury. We compared the evoked electromyography (EEMG) response of orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius in with and without a non-depolarizing muscle relaxant in a rabbit model of graded facial nerve injury. Differences in EEMG response and inhibition by rocuronium were measured in the orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius muscles 7 to 42 d after different levels of facial nerve crush injuries in adult rabbits. Baseline EEMG of orbicularis oris was significantly smaller than those of the gastrocnemius. Gastrocnemius was more sensitive to rocuronium than the facial muscles (P rocuronium was negatively correlated with the magnitude of facial nerve injury but the sensitivity to rocuronium was not. No significant difference was found in the onset time and the recovery time of rocuronium among gastrocnemius and normal or damaged facial muscles. Muscles innervated by somatic nerves are more sensitive to rocuronium than those innervated by the facial nerve, but while facial nerve injury reduced EEMG responses, the sensitivity to rocuronium is not altered. Partial neuromuscular blockade may be a suitable technique for conducting anesthesia and surgery safely when EEMG monitoring is needed to preserve and protect the facial nerve. Additional caution should be used if there is a risk of preexisting facial nerve injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr

  1. Variant facial artery in the submandibular region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadgaonkar, Rajanigandha; Rai, Rajalakshmi; Prabhu, Latha V; Bv, Murlimanju; Samapriya, Neha

    2012-07-01

    Facial artery has been considered to be the most important vascular pedicle in facial rejuvenation procedures and submandibular gland (SMG) resection. It usually arises from the external carotid artery and passes from the carotid to digastric triangle, deep to the posterior belly of digastric muscle, and lodges in a groove at the posterior end of the SMG. It then passes between SMG and the mandible to reach the face after winding around the base of the mandible. During a routine dissection, in a 62-year-old female cadaver, in Kasturba Medical College Mangalore, an unusual pattern in the cervical course of facial artery was revealed. The right facial artery was found to pierce the whole substance of the SMG before winding around the lower border of the mandible to enter the facial region. Awareness of existence of such a variant and its comparison to the normal anatomy will be useful to oral and maxillofacial surgeons.

  2. [The history of facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicenstein, J

    2015-10-01

    Facial paralysis has been a recognized condition since Antiquity, and was mentionned by Hippocratus. In the 17th century, in 1687, the Dutch physician Stalpart Van der Wiel rendered a detailed observation. It was, however, Charles Bell who, in 1821, provided the description that specified the role of the facial nerve. Facial nerve surgery began at the end of the 19th century. Three different techniques were used successively: nerve anastomosis, (XI-VII Balance 1895, XII-VII, Korte 1903), myoplasties (Lexer 1908), and suspensions (Stein 1913). Bunnell successfully accomplished the first direct facial nerve repair in the temporal bone, in 1927, and in 1932 Balance and Duel experimented with nerve grafts. Thanks to progress in microsurgical techniques, the first faciofacial anastomosis was realized in 1970 (Smith, Scaramella), and an account of the first microneurovascular muscle transfer published in 1976 by Harii. Treatment of the eyelid paralysis was at the origin of numerous operations beginning in the 1960s; including palpebral spring (Morel Fatio 1962) silicone sling (Arion 1972), upperlid loading with gold plate (Illig 1968), magnets (Muhlbauer 1973) and transfacial nerve grafts (Anderl 1973). By the end of the 20th century, surgeons had at their disposal a wide range of valid techniques for facial nerve surgery, including modernized versions of older techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Weak decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1978-11-01

    Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references

  4. The effect of facial expressions on respirators contact pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mang; Shen, Shengnan; Li, Hui

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of four typical facial expressions (calmness, happiness, sadness and surprise) on contact characteristics between an N95 filtering facepiece respirator and a headform. The respirator model comprised two layers (an inner layer and an outer layer) and a nose clip. The headform model was comprised of a skin layer, a fatty tissue layer embedded with eight muscles, and a skull layer. Four typical facial expressions were generated by the coordinated contraction of four facial muscles. After that, the distribution of the contact pressure on the headform, as well as the contact area, were calculated. Results demonstrated that the nasal clip could help make the respirator move closer to the nose bridge while causing facial discomfort. Moreover, contact areas varied with different facial expressions, and facial expressions significantly altered contact pressures at different key areas, which may result in leakage.

  5. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogava, S.; Savada, S.; Nakagava, M.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the use of weak interaction laws to study models of elementary particles is discussed. The most typical examples of weak interaction is beta-decay of nucleons and muons. Beta-interaction is presented by quark currents in the form of universal interaction of the V-A type. Universality of weak interactions is well confirmed using as examples e- and μ-channels of pion decay. Hypothesis on partial preservation of axial current is applicable to the analysis of processes with pion participation. In the framework of the model with four flavours lepton decays of hadrons are considered. Weak interaction without lepton participation are also considered. Properties of neutral currents are described briefly

  6. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanda, R.

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental evidences to form a basis for Lagrangian Quantum field theory for Weak Interactions are discussed. In this context, gauge invariance aspects of such interactions are showed. (L.C.) [pt

  7. Reproducibility of the dynamics of facial expressions in unilateral facial palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagha, M A; Ju, X; Morley, S; Ayoub, A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of non-verbal facial expressions in unilateral facial paralysis using dynamic four-dimensional (4D) imaging. The Di4D system was used to record five facial expressions of 20 adult patients. The system captured 60 three-dimensional (3D) images per second; each facial expression took 3-4seconds which was recorded in real time. Thus a set of 180 3D facial images was generated for each expression. The procedure was repeated after 30min to assess the reproducibility of the expressions. A mathematical facial mesh consisting of thousands of quasi-point 'vertices' was conformed to the face in order to determine the morphological characteristics in a comprehensive manner. The vertices were tracked throughout the sequence of the 180 images. Five key 3D facial frames from each sequence of images were analyzed. Comparisons were made between the first and second capture of each facial expression to assess the reproducibility of facial movements. Corresponding images were aligned using partial Procrustes analysis, and the root mean square distance between them was calculated and analyzed statistically (paired Student t-test, PFacial expressions of lip purse, cheek puff, and raising of eyebrows were reproducible. Facial expressions of maximum smile and forceful eye closure were not reproducible. The limited coordination of various groups of facial muscles contributed to the lack of reproducibility of these facial expressions. 4D imaging is a useful clinical tool for the assessment of facial expressions. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Facial Expression Recognition for Traumatic Brain Injured Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilyas, Chaudhary Muhammad Aqdus; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the issues associated with facial expression recognition of Traumatic Brain Insured (TBI) patients in a realistic scenario. These patients have restricted or limited muscle movements with reduced facial expressions along with non-cooperative behavior, impaired reason...

  9. Acute muscular weakness in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pablo Javier Erazo Torricelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute muscle weakness in children is a pediatric emergency. During the diagnostic approach, it is crucial to obtain a detailed case history, including: onset of weakness, history of associated febrile states, ingestion of toxic substances/toxins, immunizations, and family history. Neurological examination must be meticulous as well. In this review, we describe the most common diseases related to acute muscle weakness, grouped into the site of origin (from the upper motor neuron to the motor unit. Early detection of hyperCKemia may lead to a myositis diagnosis, and hypokalemia points to the diagnosis of periodic paralysis. Ophthalmoparesis, ptosis and bulbar signs are suggestive of myasthenia gravis or botulism. Distal weakness and hyporeflexia are clinical features of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most frequent cause of acute muscle weakness. If all studies are normal, a psychogenic cause should be considered. Finding the etiology of acute muscle weakness is essential to execute treatment in a timely manner, improving the prognosis of affected children.

  10. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Weak interactions are studied from a phenomenological point of view, by using a minimal number of theoretical hypotheses. Charged-current phenomenology, and then neutral-current phenomenology are discussed. This all is described in terms of a global SU(2) symmetry plus an electromagnetic correction. The intermediate-boson hypothesis is introduced and lower bounds on the range of the weak force are inferred. This phenomenology does not yet reconstruct all the predictions of the conventional SU(2)xU(1) gauge theory. To do that requires an additional assumption of restoration of SU(2) symmetry at asymptotic energies

  11. Joint Facial Action Unit Detection and Feature Fusion: A Multi-Conditional Learning Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eleftheriadis, Stefanos; Rudovic, Ognjen; Pantic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Automated analysis of facial expressions can benefit many domains, from marketing to clinical diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Facial expressions are typically encoded as a combination of facial muscle activations, i.e., action units. Depending on context, these action units co-occur in

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial nerve schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew L; Aviv, Richard I; Chen, Joseph M; Nedzelski, Julian M; Yuen, Heng-Wai; Fox, Allan J; Bharatha, Aditya; Bartlett, Eric S; Symons, Sean P

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes the magnetic resonance (MR) appearances of facial nerve schwannoma (FNS). We hypothesize that the extent of FNS demonstrated on MR will be greater compared to prior computed tomography studies, that geniculate involvement will be most common, and that cerebellar pontine angle (CPA) and internal auditory canal (IAC) involvement will more frequently result in sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Retrospective study. Clinical, pathologic, and enhanced MR imaging records of 30 patients with FNS were analyzed. Morphologic characteristics and extent of segmental facial nerve involvement were documented. Median age at initial imaging was 51 years (range, 28-76 years). Pathologic confirmation was obtained in 14 patients (47%), and the diagnosis reached in the remainder by identification of a mass, thickening, and enhancement along the course of the facial nerve. All 30 lesions involved two or more contiguous segments of the facial nerve, with 28 (93%) involving three or more segments. The median segments involved per lesion was 4, mean of 3.83. Geniculate involvement was most common, in 29 patients (97%). CPA (P = .001) and IAC (P = .02) involvement was significantly related to SNHL. Seventeen patients (57%) presented with facial nerve dysfunction, manifesting in 12 patients as facial nerve weakness or paralysis, and/or in eight with involuntary movements of the facial musculature. This study highlights the morphologic heterogeneity and typical multisegment involvement of FNS. Enhanced MR is the imaging modality of choice for FNS. The neuroradiologist must accurately diagnose and characterize this lesion, and thus facilitate optimal preoperative planning and counseling.

  13. [Muscle and function management by the physiotherapist in orthodontic and orthodonto-surgical treatment. Oral myofunctional rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Marion; Leroux, Claire

    2015-03-01

    Can we hope to dispense with muscle and function management in orthodontic and orthodonto-surgical treatment plans? How can the specialized physiotherapist assist, facilitate and stabilize the work done by the orthodontist and maxillo-facial surgeon and help avoid relapses? Treatment aims to achieve dental alignment and occlusal balance in direct association with balance of the tongue muscles, cutaneous muscles, masticatory and postural muscles and functions in the orofacial region. Restoration of balance between agonist and antagonist muscles is achieved by relaxing contracted muscles and by gradually building up weak muscle tone. If effective and lasting treatment results are to be obtained, active patient participation is mandatory during rehabilitation of oro-maxillo-facial disorders and must encompass the tongue, lips, cheeks, masticatory system, ventilation and general posture as well as management of the parafunctions. These procedures are essential in dentofacial orthopedic treatment of both children and adults. Practical cases will be used to demonstrate the contribution that myofunctional rehabilitation can make. Regarding natural functions, very satisfactory results are obtained provided patients do daily muscle exercises and day-long training in the correct postures and practical drills they have been taught over a period of at least six months and under the supervision of the physiotherapist. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2015.

  14. Does Facial Amimia Impact the Recognition of Facial Emotions? An EMG Study in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argaud, Soizic; Delplanque, Sylvain; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Auffret, Manon; Duprez, Joan; Vérin, Marc; Grandjean, Didier; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-01-01

    According to embodied simulation theory, understanding other people’s emotions is fostered by facial mimicry. However, studies assessing the effect of facial mimicry on the recognition of emotion are still controversial. In Parkinson’s disease (PD), one of the most distinctive clinical features is facial amimia, a reduction in facial expressiveness, but patients also show emotional disturbances. The present study used the pathological model of PD to examine the role of facial mimicry on emotion recognition by investigating EMG responses in PD patients during a facial emotion recognition task (anger, joy, neutral). Our results evidenced a significant decrease in facial mimicry for joy in PD, essentially linked to the absence of reaction of the zygomaticus major and the orbicularis oculi muscles in response to happy avatars, whereas facial mimicry for expressions of anger was relatively preserved. We also confirmed that PD patients were less accurate in recognizing positive and neutral facial expressions and highlighted a beneficial effect of facial mimicry on the recognition of emotion. We thus provide additional arguments for embodied simulation theory suggesting that facial mimicry is a potential lever for therapeutic actions in PD even if it seems not to be necessarily required in recognizing emotion as such. PMID:27467393

  15. Outcome of a graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation in patients with facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtmann, Laura C; Eckstein, Anja; Stähr, Kerstin; Xing, Minzhi; Lang, Stephan; Mattheis, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Peripheral paralysis of the facial nerve is the most frequent of all cranial nerve disorders. Despite advances in facial surgery, the functional and aesthetic reconstruction of a paralyzed face remains a challenge. Graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation is based on a modular principle. According to the patients' needs, precondition, and expectations, the following modules can be performed: temporalis muscle transposition and facelift, nasal valve suspension, endoscopic brow lift, and eyelid reconstruction. Applying a concept of a graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation may help minimize surgical trauma and reduce morbidity. Twenty patients underwent a graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation. A retrospective chart review was performed with a follow-up examination between 1 and 8 months after surgery. The FACEgram software was used to calculate pre- and postoperative eyelid closure, the level of brows, nasal, and philtral symmetry as well as oral commissure position at rest and oral commissure excursion with smile. As a patient-oriented outcome parameter, the Glasgow Benefit Inventory questionnaire was applied. There was a statistically significant improvement in the postoperative score of eyelid closure, brow asymmetry, nasal asymmetry, philtral asymmetry as well as oral commissure symmetry at rest (p facial nerve repair or microneurovascular tissue transfer cannot be applied, graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation is a promising option to restore facial function and symmetry at rest.

  16. Facial nerve conduction after sclerotherapy in children with facial lymphatic malformations: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Jung; Guo, Yuh-Cherng; Lin, Jan-You; Chang, Yu-Tang

    2007-04-01

    Surgical excision is thought to be the standard treatment of choice for lymphatic malformations. However, when the lesions are limited to the face only, surgical scar and facial nerve injury may impair cosmetics and facial expression. Sclerotherapy, an injection of a sclerosing agent directly through the skin into a lesion, is an alternative method. By evaluating facial nerve conduction, we observed the long-term effect of facial lymphatic malformations after intralesional injection of OK-432 and correlated the findings with anatomic outcomes. One 12-year-old boy with a lesion over the right-side preauricular area adjacent to the main trunk of facial nerve and the other 5-year-old boy with a lesion in the left-sided cheek involving the buccinator muscle were enrolled. The follow-up data of more than one year, including clinical appearance, computed tomography (CT) scan and facial nerve evaluation were collected. The facial nerve conduction study was normal in both cases. Blink reflex in both children revealed normal results as well. Complete resolution was noted on outward appearance and CT scan. The neurophysiologic data were compatible with good anatomic and functional outcomes. Our report suggests that the inflammatory reaction of OK-432 did not interfere with adjacent facial nerve conduction.

  17. [Neurological disease and facial recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko

    2012-07-01

    To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system.

  18. Weak relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.

  19. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the patient has HIV or hepatitis. Facial Fractures Sports injuries can cause potentially serious broken bones or fractures of the face. Common symptoms of facial fractures include: swelling and bruising, ...

  20. Artificial muscle: the human chimera is the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, P

    2011-12-14

    Severe heart failure and cerebral stroke are broadly associated with the impairment of muscular function that conventional treatments struggle to restore. New technologies enable the construction of "smart" materials that could be of great help in treating diseases where the main problem is muscle weakness. These materials "behave" similarly to biological systems, because the material directly converts energy, for example electrical energy into movement. The extension and contraction occur silently like in natural muscles. The real challenge is to transfer this amazing technology into devices that restore or replace the mechanical function of failing muscle. Cardiac assist devices based on artificial muscle technology could envelope a weak heart and temporarily improve its systolic function, or, if placed on top of the atrium, restore the atrial kick in chronic atrial fibrillation. Artificial sphincters could be used to treat urinary incontinence after prostatectomy or faecal incontinence associated with stomas. Artificial muscles can restore the ability of patients with facial paralysis due to stroke or nerve injury to blink. Smart materials could be used to construct an artificial oesophagus including peristaltic movement and lower oesophageal sphincter function to replace the diseased oesophagus thereby avoiding the need for laparotomy to mobilise stomach or intestine. In conclusion, in the near future, smart devices will integrate with the human body to fill functional gaps due to organ failure, and so create a human chimera.

  1. A rare case of concomitant sicca keratopathy and ipsilateral central facial palsy in Wallenberg’s dorsolateral medullary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bruyn, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe a patient with a right-sided supranuclear facial palsy and concomitant sicca keratopathy of the right eye following right-sided dorsolateral medullary infarction. Methods: Our patient underwent a complete ophthalmologic and neurologic examination including biomicroscopy, fundus examination, cranial nerve examination, Shirmer I test, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain.Results: A 61-year-old woman presented in emergency with a central facial nerve palsy on the right side and truncal ataxia. Neurologic assessment revealed a concurrent dysphagia, dysarthria, hypoesthesia of the right face, and weakness of the right upper limb. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed an old left-sided cerebellar infarction, but a recent ischemic infarction at the level of the right dorsolateral medulla oblongata was the cause of our patient’s current problems. One month after diagnosis of the right-sided dorsolateral medullary syndrome, there were complaints of ocular irritation and a diminished visual acuity in the right eye. Biomicroscopy showed a sicca keratopathy with nearly complete absence of tear secretion on the Shirmer I test, but with normal eye closure and preserved corneal reflexes and sensitivity.Conclusion: A dorsolateral medullary syndrome can have a variable expression in symptomatology. Our case is special because of the combination of an ipsilateral supranuclear facial palsy with normal upper facial muscle function together with an ipsilateral sicca keratopathy as a result of a nearly absent tear secretion. We hypothesized that the mechanism underlying the patient’s sicca keratopathy ipsilateral to the supranuclear facial palsy involved the superior salivatory nucleus, which is situated in the caudal pons inferiorly of the motor facial nucleus and is most probably affected by a superior extension of the infarcted area in the right medulla oblongata.

  2. Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial

  3. Do Dynamic Compared to Static Facial Expressions of Happiness and Anger Reveal Enhanced Facial Mimicry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Rymarczyk

    Full Text Available Facial mimicry is the spontaneous response to others' facial expressions by mirroring or matching the interaction partner. Recent evidence suggested that mimicry may not be only an automatic reaction but could be dependent on many factors, including social context, type of task in which the participant is engaged, or stimulus properties (dynamic vs static presentation. In the present study, we investigated the impact of dynamic facial expression and sex differences on facial mimicry and judgment of emotional intensity. Electromyography recordings were recorded from the corrugator supercilii, zygomaticus major, and orbicularis oculi muscles during passive observation of static and dynamic images of happiness and anger. The ratings of the emotional intensity of facial expressions were also analysed. As predicted, dynamic expressions were rated as more intense than static ones. Compared to static images, dynamic displays of happiness also evoked stronger activity in the zygomaticus major and orbicularis oculi, suggesting that subjects experienced positive emotion. No muscles showed mimicry activity in response to angry faces. Moreover, we found that women exhibited greater zygomaticus major muscle activity in response to dynamic happiness stimuli than static stimuli. Our data support the hypothesis that people mimic positive emotions and confirm the importance of dynamic stimuli in some emotional processing.

  4. Electrical and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve: diagnostic relevance in acute isolated facial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happe, Svenja; Bunten, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral facial weakness is common. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows identification of a conduction failure at the level of the canalicular portion of the facial nerve and may help to confirm the diagnosis. We retrospectively analyzed 216 patients with the diagnosis of peripheral facial palsy. The electrophysiological investigations included the blink reflex, preauricular electrical stimulation and the response to TMS at the labyrinthine part of the canalicular proportion of the facial nerve within 3 days after symptom onset. A similar reduction or loss of the TMS amplitude (p facial palsy without being specific for Bell's palsy. These data shed light on the TMS-based diagnosis of peripheral facial palsy, an ability to localize the site of lesion within the Fallopian channel regardless of the underlying pathology. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Positive facial expressions during retrieval of self-defining memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolphe, Marie Charlotte; Nandrino, Jean Louis; Delelis, Gérald; Ducro, Claire; Lavallee, Audrey; Saloppe, Xavier; Moustafa, Ahmed A; El Haj, Mohamad

    2017-11-14

    In this study, we investigated, for the first time, facial expressions during the retrieval of Self-defining memories (i.e., those vivid and emotionally intense memories of enduring concerns or unresolved conflicts). Participants self-rated the emotional valence of their Self-defining memories and autobiographical retrieval was analyzed with a facial analysis software. This software (Facereader) synthesizes the facial expression information (i.e., cheek, lips, muscles, eyebrow muscles) to describe and categorize facial expressions (i.e., neutral, happy, sad, surprised, angry, scared, and disgusted facial expressions). We found that participants showed more emotional than neutral facial expressions during the retrieval of Self-defining memories. We also found that participants showed more positive than negative facial expressions during the retrieval of Self-defining memories. Interestingly, participants attributed positive valence to the retrieved memories. These findings are the first to demonstrate the consistency between facial expressions and the emotional subjective experience of Self-defining memories. These findings provide valuable physiological information about the emotional experience of the past.

  6. Effect of rocuronium on the level and mode of pre-synaptic acetylcholine release by facial and somatic nerves, and changes following facial nerve injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jinghua; Xu, Jing; Xing, Yian; Chen, Lianhua; Li, Shitong

    2015-01-01

    Muscles innervated by the facial nerve show differential sensitivities to muscle relaxants than muscles innervated by somatic nerves. The evoked electromyography (EEMG) response is also proportionally reduced after facial nerve injury. This forms the theoretical basis for proper utilization of muscle relaxants to balance EEMG monitoring and immobility under general anesthesia. (1) To observe the relationships between the level and mode of acetylcholine (ACh) release and the duration of facial nerve injury, and the influence of rocuronium in an in vitro rabbit model. (2) To explore the pre-synaptic mechanisms of discrepant responses to a muscle relaxant. Quantal and non-quantal ACh release were measured by using intracellular microelectrode recording in the orbicularis oris 1 to 42 days after graded facial nerve injury and in the gastrocnemius with/without rocuronium. Quantal ACh release was significantly decreased by rocuronium in the orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius, but significantly more so in gastrocnemius. Quantal release was reduced after facial nerve injury, which was significantly correlated with the severity of nerve injury in the absence but not in the presence of rocuronium. Non-quantal ACh release was reduced after facial nerve injury, with many relationships observed depending on the extent of the injury. The extent of inhibition of non-quantal release by rocuronium correlated with the grade of facial nerve injury. These findings may explain why EEMG amplitude might be diminished after acute facial nerve injury but relatively preserved after chronic injury and differential responses in sensitivity to rocuronium.

  7. Facial responsiveness of psychopaths to the emotional expressions of others.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Künecke

    Full Text Available Psychopathic individuals show selfish, manipulative, and antisocial behavior in addition to emotional detachment and reduced empathy. Their empathic deficits are thought to be associated with a reduced responsiveness to emotional stimuli. Immediate facial muscle responses to the emotional expressions of others reflect the expressive part of emotional responsiveness and are positively related to trait empathy. Empirical evidence for reduced facial muscle responses in adult psychopathic individuals to the emotional expressions of others is rare. In the present study, 261 male criminal offenders and non-offenders categorized dynamically presented facial emotion expressions (angry, happy, sad, and neutral during facial electromyography recording of their corrugator muscle activity. We replicated a measurement model of facial muscle activity, which controls for general facial responsiveness to face stimuli, and modeled three correlated emotion-specific factors (i.e., anger, happiness, and sadness representing emotion specific activity. In a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, we compared the means of the anger, happiness, and sadness latent factors between three groups: 1 non-offenders, 2 low, and 3 high psychopathic offenders. There were no significant mean differences between groups. Our results challenge current theories that focus on deficits in emotional responsiveness as leading to the development of psychopathy and encourage further theoretical development on deviant emotional processes in psychopathic individuals.

  8. EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Wathan

    Full Text Available Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS and consistently code behavioural sequences was high--and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats. EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices.

  9. Unspoken vowel recognition using facial electromyogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K; Yau, Wai C; Weghorn, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The paper aims to identify speech using the facial muscle activity without the audio signals. The paper presents an effective technique that measures the relative muscle activity of the articulatory muscles. Five English vowels were used as recognition variables. This paper reports using moving root mean square (RMS) of surface electromyogram (SEMG) of four facial muscles to segment the signal and identify the start and end of the utterance. The RMS of the signal between the start and end markers was integrated and normalised. This represented the relative muscle activity of the four muscles. These were classified using back propagation neural network to identify the speech. The technique was successfully used to classify 5 vowels into three classes and was not sensitive to the variation in speed and the style of speaking of the different subjects. The results also show that this technique was suitable for classifying the 5 vowels into 5 classes when trained for each of the subjects. It is suggested that such a technology may be used for the user to give simple unvoiced commands when trained for the specific user.

  10. The history of facial palsy and spasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Mohamad-Reza M.; Tabatabaie, Seyed Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Although Sir Charles Bell was the first to provide the anatomic basis for the condition that bears his name, in recent years researchers have shown that other European physicians provided earlier clinical descriptions of peripheral cranial nerve 7 palsy. In this article, we describe the history of facial distortion by Greek, Roman, and Persian physicians, culminating in Razi's detailed description in al-Hawi. Razi distinguished facial muscle spasm from paralysis, distinguished central from peripheral lesions, gave the earliest description of loss of forehead wrinkling, and gave the earliest known description of bilateral facial palsy. In doing so, he accurately described the clinical hallmarks of a condition that we recognize as Bell palsy. PMID:21747074

  11. Facial Nerve Trauma: Evaluation and Considerations in Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, Eli; Lee, Thomas S.; Ducic, Yadranko; Arnaoutakis, Demetri

    2014-01-01

    The management of facial paralysis continues to evolve. Understanding the facial nerve anatomy and the different methods of evaluating the degree of facial nerve injury are crucial for successful management. When the facial nerve is transected, direct coaptation leads to the best outcome, followed by interpositional nerve grafting. In cases where motor end plates are still intact but a primary repair or graft is not feasible, a nerve transfer should be employed. When complete muscle atrophy has occurred, regional muscle transfer or free flap reconstruction is an option. When dynamic reanimation cannot be undertaken, static procedures offer some benefit. Adjunctive tools such as botulinum toxin injection and biofeedback can be helpful. Several new treatment modalities lie on the horizon which hold potential to alter the current treatment algorithm. PMID:25709748

  12. Facial Transplantation Surgery Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Eun, Seok-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Severely disfiguring facial injuries can have a devastating impact on the patient's quality of life. During the past decade, vascularized facial allotransplantation has progressed from an experimental possibility to a clinical reality in the fields of disease, trauma, and congenital malformations. This technique may now be considered a viable option for repairing complex craniofacial defects for which the results of autologous reconstruction remain suboptimal. Vascularized facial allotranspla...

  13. [Facial tics and spasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R E; van Dijk, J Marc C; Elting, Jan Willem J; de Koning-Tijssen, Marina A J

    2014-01-01

    Facial tics and spasms are socially incapacitating, but effective treatment is often available. The clinical picture is sufficient for distinguishing between the different diseases that cause this affliction.We describe three cases of patients with facial tics or spasms: one case of tics, which are familiar to many physicians; one case of blepharospasms; and one case of hemifacial spasms. We discuss the differential diagnosis and the treatment possibilities for facial tics and spasms. Early diagnosis and treatment is important, because of the associated social incapacitation. Botulin toxin should be considered as a treatment option for facial tics and a curative neurosurgical intervention should be considered for hemifacial spasms.

  14. [Treatment of idiopathic peripheral facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Martin Willy; Hahn, Christoffer Holst

    2013-01-28

    Bell's palsy is defined as an idiopathic peripheral facial nerve paralysis of sudden onset. It affects 11-40 persons per 100,000 per annum. Many patients recover without intervention; however, up to 30% have poor recovery of facial muscle control and experience facial disfigurement. The aim of this study was to make an overview of which pharmacological treatments have been used to improve outcomes. The available evidence from randomized controlled trials shows significant benefit from treating Bell's palsy with corticosteroids but shows no benefit from antivirals.

  15. The not face: A grammaticalization of facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Quiroz, C Fabian; Wilbur, Ronnie B; Martinez, Aleix M

    2016-05-01

    Facial expressions of emotion are thought to have evolved from the development of facial muscles used in sensory regulation and later adapted to express moral judgment. Negative moral judgment includes the expressions of anger, disgust and contempt. Here, we study the hypothesis that these facial expressions of negative moral judgment have further evolved into a facial expression of negation regularly used as a grammatical marker in human language. Specifically, we show that people from different cultures expressing negation use the same facial muscles as those employed to express negative moral judgment. We then show that this nonverbal signal is used as a co-articulator in speech and that, in American Sign Language, it has been grammaticalized as a non-manual marker. Furthermore, this facial expression of negation exhibits the theta oscillation (3-8 Hz) universally seen in syllable and mouthing production in speech and signing. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that some components of human language have evolved from facial expressions of emotion, and suggest an evolutionary route for the emergence of grammatical markers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Facial reactions to violent and comedy films: Association with callous-unemotional traits and impulsive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A; Kyranides, Melina Nicole; Panayiotou, Georgia

    2017-02-01

    The current study adds to prior research by investigating specific (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger and fear) and general (corrugator and zygomatic muscle activity) facial reactions to violent and comedy films among individuals with varying levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits and impulsive aggression (IA). Participants at differential risk of CU traits and IA were selected from a sample of 1225 young adults. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 82) facial expressions were recorded while they watched violent and comedy films. Video footage of participants' facial expressions was analysed using FaceReader, a facial coding software that classifies facial reactions. Findings suggested that individuals with elevated CU traits showed reduced facial reactions of sadness and disgust to violent films, indicating low empathic concern in response to victims' distress. In contrast, impulsive aggressors produced specifically more angry facial expressions when viewing violent and comedy films. In Experiment 2 (N = 86), facial reactions were measured by monitoring facial electromyography activity. FaceReader findings were verified by the reduced facial electromyography at the corrugator, but not the zygomatic, muscle in response to violent films shown by individuals high in CU traits. Additional analysis suggested that sympathy to victims explained the association between CU traits and reduced facial reactions to violent films.

  17. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles Crotoxina em humanos: estudo da ação em músculos extraoculares e faciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. METHODS: Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U, each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. RESULTS: No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD. When the dose was 4U (2 applications the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.OBJETIVO: A crotoxina é a principal neurotoxina da cascavel sul-americana Crotalus durissus terrificus e sua ação neurotóxica caracteriza-se por um bloqueio pr

  18. Face to face: blocking facial mimicry can selectively impair recognition of emotional expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Lindsay M; Winkielman, Piotr; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2007-01-01

    People spontaneously mimic a variety of behaviors, including emotional facial expressions. Embodied cognition theories suggest that mimicry reflects internal simulation of perceived emotion in order to facilitate its understanding. If so, blocking facial mimicry should impair recognition of expressions, especially of emotions that are simulated using facial musculature. The current research tested this hypothesis using four expressions (happy, disgust, fear, and sad) and two mimicry-interfering manipulations (1) biting on a pen and (2) chewing gum, as well as two control conditions. Experiment 1 used electromyography over cheek, mouth, and nose regions. The bite manipulation consistently activated assessed muscles, whereas the chew manipulation activated muscles only intermittently. Further, expressing happiness generated most facial action. Experiment 2 found that the bite manipulation interfered most with recognition of happiness. These findings suggest that facial mimicry differentially contributes to recognition of specific facial expressions, thus allowing for more refined predictions from embodied cognition theories.

  19. Facial talon cusps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, T

    1997-12-01

    This is a report of two patients with isolated facial talon cusps. One occurred on a permanent mandibular central incisor; the other on a permanent maxillary canine. The locations of these talon cusps suggests that the definition of a talon cusp include teeth in addition to the incisor group and be extended to include the facial aspect of teeth.

  20. A facial marker in facial wasting rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauso, Raffaele; Tartaro, Gianpaolo; Freda, Nicola; Rusciani, Antonio; Curinga, Giuseppe

    2012-02-01

    Facial lipoatrophy is one of the most distressing manifestation for HIV patients. It can be stigmatizing, severely affecting quality of life and self-esteem, and it may result in reduced antiretroviral adherence. Several filling techniques have been proposed in facial wasting restoration, with different outcomes. The aim of this study is to present a triangular area that is useful to fill in facial wasting rehabilitation. Twenty-eight HIV patients rehabilitated for facial wasting were enrolled in this study. Sixteen were rehabilitated with a non-resorbable filler and twelve with structural fat graft harvested from lipohypertrophied areas. A photographic pre-operative and post-operative evaluation was performed by the patients and by two plastic surgeons who were "blinded." The filled area, in both patients rehabilitated with structural fat grafts or non-resorbable filler, was a triangular area of depression identified between the nasolabial fold, the malar arch, and the line that connects these two anatomical landmarks. The cosmetic result was evaluated after three months after the last filling procedure in the non-resorbable filler group and after three months post-surgery in the structural fat graft group. The mean patient satisfaction score was 8.7 as assessed with a visual analogue scale. The mean score for blinded evaluators was 7.6. In this study the authors describe a triangular area of the face, between the nasolabial fold, the malar arch, and the line that connects these two anatomical landmarks, where a good aesthetic facial restoration in HIV patients with facial wasting may be achieved regardless of which filling technique is used.

  1. [Lengthening temporalis myoplasty in treatment of chronic facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Alexander; Wolthers, Mette Stueland

    2017-11-06

    Introducing the lengthening temporalis myoplasty (LTM), a newly implemented surgical treatment of chronic facial paralysis. LTM is a single-stage operation where the temporalis muscle is transposed for dynamic smile reconstruction, hereby serving as an alternative to the more complex two-stage microvascular functional muscle transplantation. This case report demonstrates how LTM can be used to treat patients, who are not motivated or suitable for extensive surgery. The introduction of this technique aims to help a larger number of patients with chronic facial paralysis.

  2. [Facial nerve neurinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowski, Jacek; Bartoszewicz, Robert; Morawski, Krzysztof; Jamróz, Barbara; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of diagnostic, surgical technique, treatment results facial nerve neurinomas and its comparison with literature was the main purpose of this study. Seven cases of patients (2005-2011) with facial nerve schwannomas were included to retrospective analysis in the Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw. All patients were assessed with history of the disease, physical examination, hearing tests, computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging, electronystagmography. Cases were observed in the direction of potential complications and recurrences. Neurinoma of the facial nerve occurred in the vertical segment (n=2), facial nerve geniculum (n=1) and the internal auditory canal (n=4). The symptoms observed in patients were analyzed: facial nerve paresis (n=3), hearing loss (n=2), dizziness (n=1). Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography allowed to confirm the presence of the tumor and to assess its staging. Schwannoma of the facial nerve has been surgically removed using the middle fossa approach (n=5) and by antromastoidectomy (n=2). Anatomical continuity of the facial nerve was achieved in 3 cases. In the twelve months after surgery, facial nerve paresis was rated at level II-III° HB. There was no recurrence of the tumor in radiological observation. Facial nerve neurinoma is a rare tumor. Currently surgical techniques allow in most cases, the radical removing of the lesion and reconstruction of the VII nerve function. The rate of recurrence is low. A tumor of the facial nerve should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nerve VII paresis. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Reconstructing weak values without weak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Lars M.

    2007-01-01

    I propose a scheme for reconstructing the weak value of an observable without the need for weak measurements. The post-selection in weak measurements is replaced by an initial projector measurement. The observable can be measured using any form of interaction, including projective measurements. The reconstruction is effected by measuring the change in the expectation value of the observable due to the projector measurement. The weak value may take nonclassical values if the projector measurement disturbs the expectation value of the observable

  4. Electrical stimulation treatment for facial palsy after revision pleomorphic adenoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Simon; Sandeman, Jack; Cole, Richard; Dennis, Simon; Swain, Ian

    2016-04-22

    Surgery for pleomorphic adenoma recurrence presents a significant risk of facial nerve damage that can result in facial weakness effecting patients' ability to communicate, mental health and self-image. We report two case studies that had marked facial weakness after resection of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma and their progress with electrical stimulation. Subjects received electrical stimulation twice daily for 24 weeks during which photographs of expressions, facial measurements and Sunnybrook scores were recorded. Both subjects recovered good facial function demonstrating Sunnybrook scores of 54 and 64 that improved to 88 and 96, respectively. Neither subjects demonstrated adverse effects of treatment. We conclude that electrical stimulation is a safe treatment and may improve facial palsy in patients after resection of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Larger studies would be difficult to pursue due to the low incidence of cases. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016.

  5. Small vestibular schwannomas presenting with facial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espahbodi, Mana; Carlson, Matthew L; Fang, Te-Yung; Thompson, Reid C; Haynes, David S

    2014-06-01

    To describe the surgical management and convalescence of two patients presenting with severe facial nerve weakness associated with small intracanalicular vestibular schwannomas (VS). Retrospective review. Two adult female patients presenting with audiovestibular symptoms and subacute facial nerve paralysis (House-Brackmann Grade IV and V). In both cases, post-contrast T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enhancing lesion within the internal auditory canal without lateral extension beyond the fundus. Translabyrinthine exploration demonstrated vestibular nerve origin of tumor, extrinsic to the facial nerve, and frozen section pathology confirmed schwannoma. Gross total tumor resection with VIIth cranial nerve preservation and decompression of the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was performed. Both patients recovered full motor function between 6 and 8 months after surgery. Although rare, small VS may cause severe facial neuropathy, mimicking the presentation of facial nerve schwannomas and other less common pathologies. In the absence of labyrinthine extension on MRI, surgical exploration is the only reliable means of establishing a diagnosis. In the case of confirmed VS, early gross total resection with facial nerve preservation and labyrinthine segment decompression may afford full motor recovery-an outcome that cannot be achieved with facial nerve grafting.

  6. Toward a universal, automated facial measurement tool in facial reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlock, Tessa A; Urban, Luke S

    2012-01-01

    To describe a highly quantitative facial function-measuring tool that yields accurate, objective measures of facial position in significantly less time than existing methods. Facial Assessment by Computer Evaluation (FACE) software was designed for facial analysis. Outputs report the static facial landmark positions and dynamic facial movements relevant in facial reanimation. Fifty individuals underwent facial movement analysis using Photoshop-based measurements and the new software; comparisons of agreement and efficiency were made. Comparisons were made between individuals with normal facial animation and patients with paralysis to gauge sensitivity to abnormal movements. Facial measurements were matched using FACE software and Photoshop-based measures at rest and during expressions. The automated assessments required significantly less time than Photoshop-based assessments.FACE measurements easily revealed differences between individuals with normal facial animation and patients with facial paralysis. FACE software produces accurate measurements of facial landmarks and facial movements and is sensitive to paralysis. Given its efficiency, it serves as a useful tool in the clinical setting for zonal facial movement analysis in comprehensive facial nerve rehabilitation programs.

  7. [Dynamics of lagophthalmos depending on facial nerve repair and its intraoperative monitoring in neurosurgical patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnikova, T V; Serova, N K; Shimansky, V N

    2014-01-01

    Over 200 patients with acoustic neuromas and over 100 patients with posterior cranial fossa meningiomas are annually operated on at the N.N. Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute. Intraoperative monitoring of the facial nerve function is used in most patients with tumors of the posterior cranial fossa to identify the facial nerve in the surgical wound. If the anatomical integrity of the facial nerve in the cranial cavity cannot be retained, facial nerve repair is performed to restore the facial muscle function. Intraoperative electrical stimulation of the facial nerve has a great prognostic significance to evaluate the dynamics of lagophthalmos in the late postoperative period and to select the proper method for lagophthalmos correction. When the facial nerve was reinnervated by the descending branch or trunk of the hypoglossal nerve, sufficient eyelid closure was observed only in 3 patients out of 17.

  8. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep the head elevated when lying down, to use cold compresses to reduce swelling, and to avoid any activity that places undue stress on the area of the incision. Depending on the surgery performed and the site of the scar, the facial plastic surgeon will explain the types of activities to ...

  9. Nuclear Positioning in Muscle Development and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Eric eFolker; Mary eBaylies

    2013-01-01

    Muscle disease as a group is characterized by muscle weakness, muscle loss, and impaired muscle function. Although the phenotype is the same, the underlying cellular pathologies, and the molecular causes of these pathologies, are diverse. One common feature of many muscle disorders is the mispositioning of myonuclei. In unaffected individuals myonuclei are spaced throughout the periphery of the muscle fiber such that the distance between nuclei is maximized. However, in diseased muscles, th...

  10. Muscular subunits transplantation for facial reanimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazan André Salo Buslik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To present an alternative technique for reconstruction of musculocutaneous damages in the face transferring innervated subsegments(subunits of the latissimus dorsi flap for replacement of various facial mimetic muscles. METHODS: One clinical case of trauma with skin and mimetic muscles damage is described as an example of the technique. The treatment was performed with microsurgical transfer of latissimus dorsi muscle subunits. Each subunit present shape and dimensions of the respective mimetic muscles replaced. The origin, insertions and force vectors for the mimicmuscle lost were considered. Each subsegment has its own arterial and venous supply with a motor nerve component for the muscular unit. RESULTS: Pre and one year postoperative photos registration of static and dynamic mimic aspects, as well as digital electromyography digital data of the patients were compared. The transplanted muscular units presented myoeletric activity, fulfilling both the functional and cosmetic aspect. CONCLUSION: This technique seems to be a promising way to deal with the complex musculocutaneous losses of the face as well as facial palsy.

  11. Hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-side neurorrhaphy for facial paralysis resulting from closed temporal bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Diya; Li, Dezhi; Wang, Shiwei; Qiao, Hui; Li, Ping; Wang, Binbin; Wan, Hong; Schumacher, Michael; Liu, Song

    2018-06-06

    Closed temporal bone fractures due to cranial trauma often result in facial nerve injury, frequently inducing incomplete facial paralysis. Conventional hypoglossal-facial nerve end-to-end neurorrhaphy may not be suitable for these injuries because sacrifice of the lesioned facial nerve for neurorrhaphy destroys the remnant axons and/or potential spontaneous innervation. we modified the classical method by hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-side neurorrhaphy using an interpositional predegenerated nerve graft to treat these injuries. Five patients who experienced facial paralysis resulting from closed temporal bone fractures due to cranial trauma were treated with the "side"-to-side neurorrhaphy. An additional 4 patients did not receive the neurorrhaphy and served as controls. Before treatment, all patients had suffered House-Brackmann (H-B) grade V or VI facial paralysis for a mean of 5 months. During the 12-30 months of follow-up period, no further detectable deficits were observed, but an improvement in facial nerve function was evidenced over time in the 5 neurorrhaphy-treated patients. At the end of follow-up, the improved facial function reached H-B grade II in 3, grade III in 1 and grade IV in 1 of the 5 patients, consistent with the electrophysiological examinations. In the control group, two patients showed slightly spontaneous innervation with facial function improved from H-B grade VI to V, and the other patients remained unchanged at H-B grade V or VI. We concluded that the hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-side neurorrhaphy can preserve the injured facial nerve and is suitable for treating significant incomplete facial paralysis resulting from closed temporal bone fractures, providing an evident beneficial effect. Moreover, this treatment may be performed earlier after the onset of facial paralysis in order to reduce the unfavorable changes to the injured facial nerve and atrophy of its target muscles due to long-term denervation and allow axonal

  12. IncobotulinumtoxinA treatment of facial nerve palsy after neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulov, Mihail A; Orlova, Ol'ga R; Orlova, Aleksandra S; Usachev, Dmitrij J; Shimansky, Vadim N; Tanjashin, Sergey V; Khatkova, Svetlana E; Yunosha-Shanyavskaya, Anna V

    2017-10-15

    This study evaluates the effect of incobotulinumtoxinA in the acute and chronic phases of facial nerve palsy after neurosurgical interventions. Patients received incobotulinumtoxinA injections (active treatment group) or standard rehabilitation treatment (control group). Functional efficacy was assessed using House-Brackmann, Yanagihara System and Sunnybrook Facial Grading scales, and Facial Disability Index self-assessment. Significant improvements on all scales were seen after 1month of incobotulinumtoxinA treatment (active treatment group, р<0.05), but only after 3months of rehabilitation treatment (control group, р<0.05). At 1 and 2years post-surgery, the prevalence of synkinesis was significantly higher in patients in the control group compared with those receiving incobotulinumtoxinA treatment (р<0.05 and р<0.001, respectively). IncobotulinumtoxinA treatment resulted in significant improvements in facial symmetry in patients with facial nerve injury following neurosurgical interventions. Treatment was effective for the correction of the compensatory hyperactivity of mimic muscles on the unaffected side that develops in the acute period of facial nerve palsy, and for the correction of synkinesis in the affected side that develops in the long-term period. Appropriate dosing and patient education to perform exercises to restore mimic muscle function should be considered in multimodal treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pediatric facial injuries: It's management

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Geeta; Mohammad, Shadab; Pal, U. S.; Hariram,; Malkunje, Laxman R.; Singh, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    Background: Facial injuries in children always present a challenge in respect of their diagnosis and management. Since these children are of a growing age every care should be taken so that later the overall growth pattern of the facial skeleton in these children is not jeopardized. Purpose: To access the most feasible method for the management of facial injuries in children without hampering the facial growth. Materials and Methods: Sixty child patients with facial trauma were selected rando...

  14. Emulating facial biomechanics using multivariate partial least squares surrogate models

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Harald; Wu, Tim; Hunter, Peter; Mithraratne, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This is the author’s final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article. Locked until 2015-05-06 A detailed biomechanical model of the human face driven by a network of muscles is a useful tool in relating the muscle activities to facial deformations. However, lengthy computational times often hinder its applications in practical settings. The objective of this study is to replace precise but computationally demanding biomechanical model by a much faster multivariate meta-mode...

  15. Persistent facial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Persistent facial pains, especially temporomandibular disorders (TMD), are common conditions. As dentists are responsible for the treatment of most of these disorders, up-to date knowledge on the latest advances in the field is essential for successful diagnosis and management. The review covers...... TMD, and different neuropathic or putative neuropathic facial pains such as persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia, trigeminal neuralgia and painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy. The article presents an overview of TMD pain as a biopsychosocial condition, its prevalence......, clinical features, consequences, central and peripheral mechanisms, diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD), and principles of management. For each of the neuropathic facial pain entities, the definitions, prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostics are described. The current understanding of the pathophysiology...

  16. [Motor nerves of the face. Surgical and radiologic anatomy of facial paralysis and their surgical repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher, C; Cyna-Gorse, F

    2015-10-01

    Motor innervation of the face depends on the facial nerve for the mobility of the face, on the mandibular nerve, third branch of the trigeminal nerve, which gives the motor innervation of the masticator muscles, and the hypoglossal nerve for the tongue. In case of facial paralysis, the most common palliative surgical techniques are the lengthening temporalis myoplasty (the temporal is innervated by the mandibular nerve) and the hypoglossal-facial anastomosis. The aim of this work is to describe the surgical anatomy of these three nerves and the radiologic anatomy of the facial nerve inside the temporal bone. Then the facial nerve penetrates inside the parotid gland giving a plexus. Four branches of the facial nerve leave the parotid gland: they are called temporal, zygomatic, buccal and marginal which give innervation to the cutaneous muscles of the face. Mandibular nerve gives three branches to the temporal muscles: the anterior, intermediate and posterior deep temporal nerves which penetrate inside the deep aspect of the temporal muscle in front of the infratemporal line. The hypoglossal nerve is only the motor nerve to the tongue. The ansa cervicalis, which is coming from the superficial cervical plexus and joins the hypoglossal nerve in the submandibular area is giving the motor innervation to subhyoid muscles and to the geniohyoid muscle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The face of pain--a pilot study to validate the measurement of facial pain expression with an improved electromyogram method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Karsten; Raedler, Thomas; Henke, Kai; Kiefer, Falk; Mass, Reinhard; Quante, Markus; Wiedemann, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to establish the validity of an improved facial electromyogram (EMG) method for the measurement of facial pain expression. Darwin defined pain in connection with fear as a simultaneous occurrence of eye staring, brow contraction and teeth chattering. Prkachin was the first to use the video-based Facial Action Coding System to measure facial expressions while using four different types of pain triggers, identifying a group of facial muscles around the eyes. The activity of nine facial muscles in 10 healthy male subjects was analyzed. Pain was induced through a laser system with a randomized sequence of different intensities. Muscle activity was measured with a new, highly sensitive and selective facial EMG. The results indicate two groups of muscles as key for pain expression. These results are in concordance with Darwin's definition. As in Prkachin's findings, one muscle group is assembled around the orbicularis oculi muscle, initiating eye staring. The second group consists of the mentalis and depressor anguli oris muscles, which trigger mouth movements. The results demonstrate the validity of the facial EMG method for measuring facial pain expression. Further studies with psychometric measurements, a larger sample size and a female test group should be conducted.

  18. Traumatic facial nerve neuroma with facial palsy presenting in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Burger, Peter C; Boahene, Derek Kofi; Niparko, John K

    2010-07-01

    To describe the management of traumatic neuroma of the facial nerve in a child and literature review. Sixteen-month-old male subject. Radiological imaging and surgery. Facial nerve function. The patient presented at 16 months with a right facial palsy and was found to have a right facial nerve traumatic neuroma. A transmastoid, middle fossa resection of the right facial nerve lesion was undertaken with a successful facial nerve-to-hypoglossal nerve anastomosis. The facial palsy improved postoperatively. A traumatic neuroma should be considered in an infant who presents with facial palsy, even in the absence of an obvious history of trauma. The treatment of such lesion is complex in any age group but especially in young children. Symptoms, age, lesion size, growth rate, and facial nerve function determine the appropriate management.

  19. Facial colliculus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupinderjeet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient presented with horizontal diplopia and conjugate gaze palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed acute infarct in right facial colliculus which is an anatomical elevation on the dorsal aspect of Pons. This elevation is due the 6th cranial nerve nucleus and the motor fibres of facial nerve which loop dorsal to this nucleus. Anatomical correlation of the clinical symptoms is also depicted in this report.

  20. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haloi, A.K.; Ditchfield, M.; Pennington, A.; Philips, R.

    2006-01-01

    Although there are multiple case reports and small series concerning facial infiltrative lipomatosis, there is no composite radiological description of the condition. Radiological evaluation of facial infiltrative lipomatosis using plain film, sonography, CT and MRI. We radiologically evaluated four patients with facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Initial plain radiographs of the face were acquired in all patients. Three children had an initial sonographic examination to evaluate the condition, followed by MRI. One child had a CT and then MRI. One child had abnormalities on plain radiographs. Sonographically, the lesions were seen as ill-defined heterogeneously hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins. On CT images, the lesions did not have a homogeneous fat density but showed some relatively more dense areas in deeper parts of the lesions. MRI provided better delineation of the exact extent of the process and characterization of facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of vascular or lymphatic malformation when a child presents with unilateral facial swelling. MRI is the most useful single imaging modality to evaluate the condition, as it provides the best delineation of the exact extent of the process. (orig.)

  1. [Experimental studies for the improvement of facial nerve regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntinas-Lichius, O; Angelov, D N

    2008-02-01

    Using a combination of the following, it is possible to investigate procedures to improve the morphological and functional regeneration of the facial nerve in animal models: 1) retrograde fluorescence tracing to analyse collateral axonal sprouting and the selectivity of reinnervation of the mimic musculature, 2) immunohistochemistry to analyse both the terminal axonal sprouting in the muscles and the axon reaction within the nucleus of the facial nerve, the peripheral nerve, and its environment, and 3) digital motion analysis of the muscles. To obtain good functional facial nerve regeneration, a reduction of terminal sprouting in the mimic musculature seems to be more important than a reduction of collateral sprouting at the lesion site. Promising strategies include acceleration of nerve regeneration, forced induced use of the paralysed face, mechanical stimulation of the face, and transplantation of nerve-growth-promoting olfactory epithelium at the lesion site.

  2. A glasses-type wearable device for monitoring the patterns of food intake and facial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jungman; Chung, Jungmin; Oh, Wonjun; Yoo, Yongkyu; Lee, Won Gu; Bang, Hyunwoo

    2017-01-01

    Here we present a new method for automatic and objective monitoring of ingestive behaviors in comparison with other facial activities through load cells embedded in a pair of glasses, named GlasSense. Typically, activated by subtle contraction and relaxation of a temporalis muscle, there is a cyclic movement of the temporomandibular joint during mastication. However, such muscular signals are, in general, too weak to sense without amplification or an electromyographic analysis. To detect these oscillatory facial signals without any use of obtrusive device, we incorporated a load cell into each hinge which was used as a lever mechanism on both sides of the glasses. Thus, the signal measured at the load cells can detect the force amplified mechanically by the hinge. We demonstrated a proof-of-concept validation of the amplification by differentiating the force signals between the hinge and the temple. A pattern recognition was applied to extract statistical features and classify featured behavioral patterns, such as natural head movement, chewing, talking, and wink. The overall results showed that the average F1 score of the classification was about 94.0% and the accuracy above 89%. We believe this approach will be helpful for designing a non-intrusive and un-obtrusive eyewear-based ingestive behavior monitoring system.

  3. What do facial expressions of emotion express in young children? The relationship between facial display and EMG measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Balconi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explored the relationship between emotional facial response and electromyographic modulation in children when they observe facial expression of emotions. Facial responsiveness (evaluated by arousal and valence ratings and psychophysiological correlates (facial electromyography, EMG were analyzed when children looked at six facial expressions of emotions (happiness, anger, fear, sadness, surprise and disgust. About EMG measure, corrugator and zygomatic muscle activity was monitored in response to different emotional types. ANOVAs showed differences for both EMG and facial response across the subjects, as a function of different emotions. Specifically, some emotions were well expressed by all the subjects (such as happiness, anger and fear in terms of high arousal, whereas some others were less level arousal (such as sadness. Zygomatic activity was increased mainly for happiness, from one hand, corrugator activity was increased mainly for anger, fear and surprise, from the other hand. More generally, EMG and facial behavior were highly correlated each other, showing a “mirror” effect with respect of the observed faces.

  4. Robust facial landmark detection based on initializing multiple poses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For robot systems, robust facial landmark detection is the first and critical step for face-based human identification and facial expression recognition. In recent years, the cascaded-regression-based method has achieved excellent performance in facial landmark detection. Nevertheless, it still has certain weakness, such as high sensitivity to the initialization. To address this problem, regression based on multiple initializations is established in a unified model; face shapes are then estimated independently according to these initializations. With a ranking strategy, the best estimate is selected as the final output. Moreover, a face shape model based on restricted Boltzmann machines is built as a constraint to improve the robustness of ranking. Experiments on three challenging datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed facial landmark detection method against state-of-the-art methods.

  5. Empathy, but not mimicry restriction, influences the recognition of change in emotional facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosonogov, Vladimir; Titova, Alisa; Vorobyeva, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The current study addressed the hypothesis that empathy and the restriction of facial muscles of observers can influence recognition of emotional facial expressions. A sample of 74 participants recognized the subjective onset of emotional facial expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise, and neutral) in a series of morphed face photographs showing a gradual change (frame by frame) from one expression to another. The high-empathy (as measured by the Empathy Quotient) participants recognized emotional facial expressions at earlier photographs from the series than did low-empathy ones, but there was no difference in the exploration time. Restriction of facial muscles of observers (with plasters and a stick in mouth) did not influence the responses. We discuss these findings in the context of the embodied simulation theory and previous data on empathy.

  6. Muscle strength in myasthenia gravis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cejvanovic, S; Vissing, J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is characterized by fatigue and fluctuating muscle weakness as a result of impaired neuromuscular transmission (NMT). Although MG is a prototypic fatiguing disorder, little is known about how the condition affects fixed weakness, and if present, whether weakness...

  7. Facial dynamics and emotional expressions in facial aging treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Thierry; Gassia, Véronique; Belhaouari, Lakhdar

    2015-03-01

    Facial expressions convey emotions that form the foundation of interpersonal relationships, and many of these emotions promote and regulate our social linkages. Hence, the facial aging symptomatological analysis and the treatment plan must of necessity include knowledge of the facial dynamics and the emotional expressions of the face. This approach aims to more closely meet patients' expectations of natural-looking results, by correcting age-related negative expressions while observing the emotional language of the face. This article will successively describe patients' expectations, the role of facial expressions in relational dynamics, the relationship between facial structures and facial expressions, and the way facial aging mimics negative expressions. Eventually, therapeutic implications for facial aging treatment will be addressed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Do autistics perceive facial expressions in a piecemeal fashion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.W.C.J.; Benson, P.J.; Jonkers, M.; Rietberg, S.

    2002-01-01

    Whilst people with autism process many types of visual information at a level commensurate with their age, studies have shown that they have difficulty interpreting facial expressions. One of the reasons could be that autistics suffer from weak central coherence, ie a failure to integrate parts of

  9. Facial transplantation surgery introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Seok-Chan

    2015-06-01

    Severely disfiguring facial injuries can have a devastating impact on the patient's quality of life. During the past decade, vascularized facial allotransplantation has progressed from an experimental possibility to a clinical reality in the fields of disease, trauma, and congenital malformations. This technique may now be considered a viable option for repairing complex craniofacial defects for which the results of autologous reconstruction remain suboptimal. Vascularized facial allotransplantation permits optimal anatomical reconstruction and provides desired functional, esthetic, and psychosocial benefits that are far superior to those achieved with conventional methods. Along with dramatic improvements in their functional statuses, patients regain the ability to make facial expressions such as smiling and to perform various functions such as smelling, eating, drinking, and speaking. The ideas in the 1997 movie "Face/Off" have now been realized in the clinical field. The objective of this article is to introduce this new surgical field, provide a basis for examining the status of the field of face transplantation, and stimulate and enhance facial transplantation studies in Korea.

  10. Caricaturing facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, A J; Rowland, D; Young, A W; Nimmo-Smith, I; Keane, J; Perrett, D I

    2000-08-14

    The physical differences between facial expressions (e.g. fear) and a reference norm (e.g. a neutral expression) were altered to produce photographic-quality caricatures. In Experiment 1, participants rated caricatures of fear, happiness and sadness for their intensity of these three emotions; a second group of participants rated how 'face-like' the caricatures appeared. With increasing levels of exaggeration the caricatures were rated as more emotionally intense, but less 'face-like'. Experiment 2 demonstrated a similar relationship between emotional intensity and level of caricature for six different facial expressions. Experiments 3 and 4 compared intensity ratings of facial expression caricatures prepared relative to a selection of reference norms - a neutral expression, an average expression, or a different facial expression (e.g. anger caricatured relative to fear). Each norm produced a linear relationship between caricature and rated intensity of emotion; this finding is inconsistent with two-dimensional models of the perceptual representation of facial expression. An exemplar-based multidimensional model is proposed as an alternative account.

  11. The influence of different facial components on facial aesthetics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faure, J.C.; Rieffe, C.; Maltha, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Facial aesthetics have an important influence on social behaviour and perception in our society. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of facial symmetry and inter-ocular distance on the assessment of facial aesthetics, factors that are often suggested as major contributors to

  12. Computer facial animation

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Frederic I

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive work provides the fundamentals of computer facial animation and brings into sharper focus techniques that are becoming mainstream in the industry. Over the past decade, since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant developments by academic research groups and in the film and games industries leading to the development of morphable face models, performance driven animation, as well as increasingly detailed lip-synchronization and hair modeling techniques. These topics are described in the context of existing facial animation principles. The second ed

  13. Computational Simulation on Facial Expressions and Experimental Tensile Strength for Silicone Rubber as Artificial Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amijoyo Mochtar, Andi

    2018-02-01

    Applications of robotics have become important for human life in recent years. There are many specification of robots that have been improved and encriched with the technology advances. One of them are humanoid robot with facial expression which closer with the human facial expression naturally. The purpose of this research is to make computation on facial expressions and conduct the tensile strength for silicone rubber as artificial skin. Facial expressions were calculated by determining dimension, material properties, number of node elements, boundary condition, force condition, and analysis type. A Facial expression robot is determined by the direction and the magnitude external force on the driven point. The expression face of robot is identical with the human facial expression where the muscle structure in face according to the human face anatomy. For developing facial expression robots, facial action coding system (FACS) in approached due to follow expression human. The tensile strength is conducting due to check the proportional force of artificial skin that can be applied on the future of robot facial expression. Combining of calculated and experimental results can generate reliable and sustainable robot facial expression that using silicone rubber as artificial skin.

  14. Computed tomography in facial trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilkha, A.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT), plain radiography, and conventional tomography were performed on 30 patients with facial trauma. CT demonstrated bone and soft-tissue involvement. In all cases, CT was superior to tomography in the assessment of facial injury. It is suggested that CT follow plain radiography in the evaluation of facial trauma

  15. Generating Facial Expressions Using an Anatomically Accurate Biomechanical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tim; Hung, Alice; Mithraratne, Kumar

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a computational framework for modelling the biomechanics of human facial expressions. A detailed high-order (Cubic-Hermite) finite element model of the human head was constructed using anatomical data segmented from magnetic resonance images. The model includes a superficial soft-tissue continuum consisting of skin, the subcutaneous layer and the superficial Musculo-Aponeurotic system. Embedded within this continuum mesh, are 20 pairs of facial muscles which drive facial expressions. These muscles were treated as transversely-isotropic and their anatomical geometries and fibre orientations were accurately depicted. In order to capture the relative composition of muscles and fat, material heterogeneity was also introduced into the model. Complex contact interactions between the lips, eyelids, and between superficial soft tissue continuum and deep rigid skeletal bones were also computed. In addition, this paper investigates the impact of incorporating material heterogeneity and contact interactions, which are often neglected in similar studies. Four facial expressions were simulated using the developed model and the results were compared with surface data obtained from a 3D structured-light scanner. Predicted expressions showed good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Paradigm to Identify Distinct Cortical Areas of Facial Function : A Reliable Localizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeo, Marco; Vizioli, Luca; Breukink, Myrte; Aganloo, Kiomars; Lao, Junpeng; Cotrufo, Stefano; Caldara, Roberto; Morley, Stephen

    Background: Irreversible facial paralysis can be surgically treated by importing both a new neural and a new motor muscle supply. Various donor nerves can be used. If a nerve supply other than the facial nerve is used, the patient has to adapt to generate a smile. If branches of the fifth cranial

  17. Paralisia facial bilateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.

  18. Diplegia facial traumatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de paralisia facial bilateral, incompleta, associada a hipoacusia esquerda, após traumatismo cranioencefálico, com fraturas evidenciadas radiológicamente. Algumas considerações são formuladas tentando relacionar ditas manifestações com fraturas do osso temporal.

  19. Recognizing Facial Slivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad-Gutnick, Sharon; Harmatz, Elia Samuel; Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Yovel, Galit; Sinha, Pawan

    2018-07-01

    We report here an unexpectedly robust ability of healthy human individuals ( n = 40) to recognize extremely distorted needle-like facial images, challenging the well-entrenched notion that veridical spatial configuration is necessary for extracting facial identity. In face identification tasks of parametrically compressed internal and external features, we found that the sum of performances on each cue falls significantly short of performance on full faces, despite the equal visual information available from both measures (with full faces essentially being a superposition of internal and external features). We hypothesize that this large deficit stems from the use of positional information about how the internal features are positioned relative to the external features. To test this, we systematically changed the relations between internal and external features and found preferential encoding of vertical but not horizontal spatial relationships in facial representations ( n = 20). Finally, we employ magnetoencephalography imaging ( n = 20) to demonstrate a close mapping between the behavioral psychometric curve and the amplitude of the M250 face familiarity, but not M170 face-sensitive evoked response field component, providing evidence that the M250 can be modulated by faces that are perceptually identifiable, irrespective of extreme distortions to the face's veridical configuration. We theorize that the tolerance to compressive distortions has evolved from the need to recognize faces across varying viewpoints. Our findings help clarify the important, but poorly defined, concept of facial configuration and also enable an association between behavioral performance and previously reported neural correlates of face perception.

  20. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Mohd Noor, Nor Farid; Basri, Rehana; Yew, Tan Fo; Wen, Tay Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian), with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18-25). Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects' evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI), Malaysian Chinese (MC) and Malaysian Malay (MM) were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; Pmean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts. 1) Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%); 2) Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3) Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4) All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5) No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population.

  1. Weakly clopen functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Mi Jung; Park, Jin Han; Lim, Ki Moon

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a new class of functions called weakly clopen function which includes the class of almost clopen functions due to Ekici [Ekici E. Generalization of perfectly continuous, regular set-connected and clopen functions. Acta Math Hungar 2005;107:193-206] and is included in the class of weakly continuous functions due to Levine [Levine N. A decomposition of continuity in topological spaces. Am Math Mon 1961;68:44-6]. Some characterizations and several properties concerning weakly clopenness are obtained. Furthermore, relationships among weak clopenness, almost clopenness, clopenness and weak continuity are investigated

  2. Weak value controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidman, L.

    2017-10-01

    Recent controversy regarding the meaning and usefulness of weak values is reviewed. It is argued that in spite of recent statistical arguments by Ferrie and Combes, experiments with anomalous weak values provide useful amplification techniques for precision measurements of small effects in many realistic situations. The statistical nature of weak values is questioned. Although measuring weak values requires an ensemble, it is argued that the weak value, similarly to an eigenvalue, is a property of a single pre- and post-selected quantum system. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  3. Quantitative anatomical analysis of facial expression using a 3D motion capture system: Application to cosmetic surgery and facial recognition technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Gi; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Hyung-Jin; Seo, Jung-Hyuk; Choi, You-Jin; Bae, Hyun-Sook; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2015-09-01

    The topography of the facial muscles differs between males and females and among individuals of the same gender. To explain the unique expressions that people can make, it is important to define the shapes of the muscle, their associations with the skin, and their relative functions. Three-dimensional (3D) motion-capture analysis, often used to study facial expression, was used in this study to identify characteristic skin movements in males and females when they made six representative basic expressions. The movements of 44 reflective markers (RMs) positioned on anatomical landmarks were measured. Their mean displacement was large in males [ranging from 14.31 mm (fear) to 41.15 mm (anger)], and 3.35-4.76 mm smaller in females [ranging from 9.55 mm (fear) to 37.80 mm (anger)]. The percentages of RMs involved in the ten highest mean maximum displacement values in making at least one expression were 47.6% in males and 61.9% in females. The movements of the RMs were larger in males than females but were more limited. Expanding our understanding of facial expression requires morphological studies of facial muscles and studies of related complex functionality. Conducting these together with quantitative analyses, as in the present study, will yield data valuable for medicine, dentistry, and engineering, for example, for surgical operations on facial regions, software for predicting changes in facial features and expressions after corrective surgery, and the development of face-mimicking robots. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Massive Cerebral Infarction Following Facial Fat Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao; Li, Qi; Zhang, Hengshu

    2016-10-01

    Autologous facial fat injection is becoming popular around the world. Semiliquid fat grafts are used for correction of deformities or aesthetic purposes. Fat transfer is a mini-invasive surgical procedure, but causes severe complications occasionally. A 30-year-old female patient presented to our hospital with sudden unconsciousness and left limb weakness 8 h after facial fat injection. Brain arteriography (CTA) and venography were performed immediately after her admission. Frontal temporoparietal decompressive craniectomy plus multiple treatments was scheduled for the patient. The patient was diagnosed with extensive cerebral infarction of the right hemisphere. CTA showed that both external and internal carotid arteries were obstructed. A sectional filling defect could be seen at the telecentric segment of the right carotid artery. No development was observed during the full course of the treatment at the carotid bifurcation, external carotid artery, or internal carotid artery. Routine cosmetic procedures of facial fat injections could cause devastating and even fatal complications to patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the A5 online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  5. When is facial paralysis Bell palsy? Current diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Anwar

    2005-05-01

    Bell palsy is largely a diagnosis of exclusion, but certain features in the history and physical examination help distinguish it from facial paralysis due to other conditions: eg, abrupt onset with complete, unilateral facial weakness at 24 to 72 hours, and, on the affected side, numbness or pain around the ear, a reduction in taste, and hypersensitivity to sounds. Corticosteroids and antivirals given within 10 days of onset have been shown to help. But Bell palsy resolves spontaneously without treatment in most patients within 6 months.

  6. A Virtual Environment to Improve the Detection of Oral-Facial Malfunction in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    María-Luisa Martín-Ruiz; Nuria Máximo-Bocanegra; Laura Luna-Oliva

    2016-01-01

    The importance of an early rehabilitation process in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is widely recognized. On the one hand, new and useful treatment tools such as rehabilitation systems based on interactive technologies have appeared for rehabilitation of gross motor movements. On the other hand, from the therapeutic point of view, performing rehabilitation exercises with the facial muscles can improve the swallowing process, the facial expression through the management of muscles in the fa...

  7. Outcome of different facial nerve reconstruction techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Aboshanif; Omi, Eigo; Honda, Kohei; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Ishikawa, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: There is no technique of facial nerve reconstruction that guarantees facial function recovery up to grade III. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of different facial nerve reconstruction techniques. Methods: Facial nerve reconstruction was performed in 22 patients (facial nerve interpositional graft in 11 patients and hypoglossal-facial nerve transfer in another 11 patients). All patients had facial function House-Brackmann (HB) grade VI, either caused by...

  8. Trigeminal neuralgia and facial nerve paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [IPOFG, Department of Radiology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. The facial nerve is the cranial nerve with the longest extracranial course, and its main functions include motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, sensory control of lacrimation and salivation, control of the stapedial reflex and to carry taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. In order to be able adequately to image and follow the course of these cranial nerves and their main branches, a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy is required. As we are dealing with very small anatomic structures, high resolution dedicated imaging studies are required to pick up normal and pathologic nerves. Whereas CT is best suited to demonstrate bony neurovascular foramina and canals, MRI is preferred to directly visualize the nerve. It is also the single technique able to detect pathologic processes afflicting the nerve without causing considerable expansion such as is usually the case in certain inflammatory/infectious conditions, perineural spread of malignancies and in very small intrinsic tumours. Because a long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches is seen, it is useful to subdivide the nerve in several segments and then tailor the imaging modality and the imaging study to that specific segment. This is particularly true in cases where topographic diagnosis can be used to locate a lesion in the course of these nerves. (orig.)

  9. Trigeminal neuralgia and facial nerve paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. The facial nerve is the cranial nerve with the longest extracranial course, and its main functions include motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, sensory control of lacrimation and salivation, control of the stapedial reflex and to carry taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. In order to be able adequately to image and follow the course of these cranial nerves and their main branches, a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy is required. As we are dealing with very small anatomic structures, high resolution dedicated imaging studies are required to pick up normal and pathologic nerves. Whereas CT is best suited to demonstrate bony neurovascular foramina and canals, MRI is preferred to directly visualize the nerve. It is also the single technique able to detect pathologic processes afflicting the nerve without causing considerable expansion such as is usually the case in certain inflammatory/infectious conditions, perineural spread of malignancies and in very small intrinsic tumours. Because a long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches is seen, it is useful to subdivide the nerve in several segments and then tailor the imaging modality and the imaging study to that specific segment. This is particularly true in cases where topographic diagnosis can be used to locate a lesion in the course of these nerves. (orig.)

  10. Sex Differences in Affective Facial Reactions Are Present in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cattaneo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults exposed to affective facial displays produce specific rapid facial reactions (RFRs which are of lower intensity in males compared to females. We investigated such sex difference in a population of 60 primary school children (30 F; 30 M, aged 7–10 years. We recorded the surface electromyographic (EMG signal from the corrugator supercilii and the zygomatici muscles, while children watched affective facial displays. Results showed the expected smiling RFR to smiling faces and the expected frowning RFR to sad faces. A systematic difference between male and female participants was observed, with boys showing less ample EMG responses than age-matched girls. We demonstrate that sex differences in the somatic component of affective motor patterns are present also in childhood.

  11. Scattered Data Processing Approach Based on Optical Facial Motion Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, animation reconstruction of facial expressions has become a popular research field in computer science and motion capture-based facial expression reconstruction is now emerging in this field. Based on the facial motion data obtained using a passive optical motion capture system, we propose a scattered data processing approach, which aims to solve the common problems of missing data and noise. To recover missing data, given the nonlinear relationships among neighbors with the current missing marker, we propose an improved version of a previous method, where we use the motion of three muscles rather than one to recover the missing data. To reduce the noise, we initially apply preprocessing to eliminate impulsive noise, before our proposed three-order quasi-uniform B-spline-based fitting method is used to reduce the remaining noise. Our experiments showed that the principles that underlie this method are simple and straightforward, and it delivered acceptable precision during reconstruction.

  12. Retrieval-based Face Annotation by Weak Label Regularized Local Coordinate Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayong; Hoi, Steven C H; He, Ying; Zhu, Jianke; Mei, Tao; Luo, Jiebo

    2013-08-02

    Retrieval-based face annotation is a promising paradigm of mining massive web facial images for automated face annotation. This paper addresses a critical problem of such paradigm, i.e., how to effectively perform annotation by exploiting the similar facial images and their weak labels which are often noisy and incomplete. In particular, we propose an effective Weak Label Regularized Local Coordinate Coding (WLRLCC) technique, which exploits the principle of local coordinate coding in learning sparse features, and employs the idea of graph-based weak label regularization to enhance the weak labels of the similar facial images. We present an efficient optimization algorithm to solve the WLRLCC task. We conduct extensive empirical studies on two large-scale web facial image databases: (i) a Western celebrity database with a total of $6,025$ persons and $714,454$ web facial images, and (ii)an Asian celebrity database with $1,200$ persons and $126,070$ web facial images. The encouraging results validate the efficacy of the proposed WLRLCC algorithm. To further improve the efficiency and scalability, we also propose a PCA-based approximation scheme and an offline approximation scheme (AWLRLCC), which generally maintains comparable results but significantly saves much time cost. Finally, we show that WLRLCC can also tackle two existing face annotation tasks with promising performance.

  13. Facial Asymmetry-Based Age Group Estimation: Role in Recognizing Age-Separated Face Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Taj, Imtiaz Ahmad; Bajwa, Usama Ijaz; Ratyal, Naeem Iqbal

    2018-04-23

    Face recognition aims to establish the identity of a person based on facial characteristics. On the other hand, age group estimation is the automatic calculation of an individual's age range based on facial features. Recognizing age-separated face images is still a challenging research problem due to complex aging processes involving different types of facial tissues, skin, fat, muscles, and bones. Certain holistic and local facial features are used to recognize age-separated face images. However, most of the existing methods recognize face images without incorporating the knowledge learned from age group estimation. In this paper, we propose an age-assisted face recognition approach to handle aging variations. Inspired by the observation that facial asymmetry is an age-dependent intrinsic facial feature, we first use asymmetric facial dimensions to estimate the age group of a given face image. Deeply learned asymmetric facial features are then extracted for face recognition using a deep convolutional neural network (dCNN). Finally, we integrate the knowledge learned from the age group estimation into the face recognition algorithm using the same dCNN. This integration results in a significant improvement in the overall performance compared to using the face recognition algorithm alone. The experimental results on two large facial aging datasets, the MORPH and FERET sets, show that the proposed age group estimation based on the face recognition approach yields superior performance compared to some existing state-of-the-art methods. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in a case of facial myokymia with multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Shigeyuki; Yagishita, Toshiyuki; Kita, Kohei; Hirayama, Keizo; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Nobuo; Tateno, Yukio.

    1985-01-01

    A 59-year-old female of facial myokymia with multiple sclerosis was reported. In this case, facial myokymia appeared at the same time as the first attack of multiple sclerosis, in association with paroxysmal pain and desesthesia of the neck, painful tonic seizures of the right upper and lower extremities and cervical transverse myelopathy. The facial myokymia consisted of grossly visible, continuous, fine and worm-like movement, which often began in the area of the left orbicularis oculi and spread to the other facial muscles on one side. Electromyographic studies revealed grouping of motor units and continuous spontaneous rhythmic discharges in the left orbicularis oris suggesting facial myokymia, but there were no abnormalities on voluntary contraction. Sometimes doublet or multiplet patterns occurred while at other times the bursts were of single motor potential. The respective frequencies were 3-4/sec and 40-50/sec. There was no evidence of fibrillation. The facial myokymia disappeared after 4-8 weeks of administration of prednisolone and did not recur. In the remission stage after disappearance of the facial myokymia, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging by the inversion recovery method demonstrated low intensity demyelinated plaque in the left lateral tegmentum of the inferior pons, which was responsible for the facial myokymia, but X-ray computed tomography revealed no pathological findings. The demyelinated plaque demonstrated by NMR imaging seemed to be located in the infranuclear area of the facial nerve nucleus and to involve the intramedurally root. (J.P.N.)

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in a case of facial myokymia with multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Shigeyuki; Yagishita, Toshiyuki; Kita, Kohei; Hirayama, Keizo; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Nobuo; Tateno, Yukio

    1985-06-01

    A 59-year-old female of facial myokymia with multiple sclerosis was reported. In this case, facial myokymia appeared at the same time as the first attack of multiple sclerosis, in association with paroxysmal pain and desesthesia of the neck, painful tonic seizures of the right upper and lower extremities and cervical transverse myelopathy. The facial myokymia consisted of grossly visible, continuous, fine and worm-like movement, which often began in the area of the left orbicularis oculi and spread to the other facial muscles on one side. Electromyographic studies revealed grouping of motor units and continuous spontaneous rhythmic discharges in the left orbicularis oris suggesting facial myokymia, but there were no abnormalities on voluntary contraction. Sometimes doublet or multiplet patterns occurred while at other times the bursts were of single motor potential. The respective frequencies were 3-4/sec and 40-50/sec. There was no evidence of fibrillation. The facial myokymia disappeared after 4-8 weeks of administration of prednisolone and did not recur. In the remission stage after disappearance of the facial myokymia, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging by the inversion recovery method demonstrated low intensity demyelinated plaque in the left lateral segmentum of the inferior pons, which was responsible for the facial myokymia, but X-ray computed tomography revealed no pathological findings. The demyelinated plaque demonstrated by NMR imaging seemed to be located in the infranuclear area of the facial nerve nucleus and to involve the intramedurally root.

  16. Anatomia del nervo faciale

    OpenAIRE

    Barbut , J.; Tankere , F.; Bernat , I.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Il nervo faciale è al centro della pratica quotidiana in oto-rino-laringoiatria. La sua singolare fisiologia e la sua patologia fanno di questo paio di nervi cranici un soggetto appassionante in cui alcuni si sono specializzati. La precisa conoscenza della sua anatomia, il cui percorso è tortuoso e presenta molte relazioni con altri elementi nobili, è un prerequisito indispensabile per il suo approccio, sia in chirurgia cervicale che in quella otologica che in quella n...

  17. Proximal Limb Weakness Reverting After CSF Diversion In Intracranial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report about two young girls who developed progressive visual failure secondary to increased intracranial pressure and had significant proximal muscle weakness of limbs. Patients with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP may present with "false localizing signs", besides having headache, vomiting and papilledema. Radicular pain as a manifestation of raised ICP is rare and motor weakness attributable to polyradiculopathy is exceptional. Two patients with increased intracranial pressure without lateralizing signs′ had singnificant muscle weakness. Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests did not disclose any other cause for weakness. Following theco-peritoneal shunt, in both patients, there was variable recovery of vision but the proximal weakness and symptoms of elevated ICP improved rapidly. Recognition of this uncommon manifestation of raised ICP may obviate the need for unnecessary investigation and reduce morbidity due to weakness by CSF diversion procedure.

  18. Facial Symmetry: An Illusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Reddy Admala

    2013-01-01

    Materials and methods: A sample of 120 patients (60 males and 60 females; mean age, 15 years; range, 16-22 years who had received orthodontic clinical examination at AME′s Dental College and Hospital were selected. Selection was made in such a way that following malocclusions with equal sexual distribution was possible from the patient database. Patients selected were classified into skeletal Class I (25 males and 25 females, Class II (25 males and 25 females and Class III (10 males and 10 females based on ANB angle. The number was predecided to be the same and also was based on the number of patients with following malocclusions reported to the department. Differences in length between distances from the points at which ear rods were inserted to the facial midline and the perpendicular distance from the softtissue menton to the facial midline were measured on a frontofacial photograph. Subjects with a discrepancy of more than three standard deviations of the measurement error were categorized as having left- or right-sided laterality. Results: Of subjects with facial asymmetry, 74.1% had a wider right hemiface, and 51.6% of those with chin deviation had left-sided laterality. These tendencies were independent of sex or skeletal jaw relationships. Conclusion: These results suggest that laterality in the normal asymmetry of the face, which is consistently found in humans, is likely to be a hereditary rather than an acquired trait.

  19. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khursheed Alam

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian, with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18-25. Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects' evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI, Malaysian Chinese (MC and Malaysian Malay (MM were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; P<0.05 but no significant difference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1% were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5% short and 81 (28.3% long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts.1 Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%; 2 Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3 Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4 All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5 No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population.

  20. The asymmetric facial skin perfusion distribution of Bell's palsy discovered by laser speckle imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Han; Chen, Yi; Zhong, Weizheng; Yu, Haibo; Li, Zhifeng; He, Yuhai; Yu, Wenlong; Jin, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Bell's palsy is a kind of peripheral neural disease that cause abrupt onset of unilateral facial weakness. In the pathologic study, it was evidenced that ischemia of facial nerve at the affected side of face existed in Bell's palsy patients. Since the direction of facial nerve blood flow is primarily proximal to distal, facial skin microcirculation would also be affected after the onset of Bell's palsy. Therefore, monitoring the full area of facial skin microcirculation would help to identify the condition of Bell's palsy patients. In this study, a non-invasive, real time and full field imaging technology - laser speckle imaging (LSI) technology was applied for measuring facial skin blood perfusion distribution of Bell's palsy patients. 85 participants with different stage of Bell's palsy were included. Results showed that Bell's palsy patients' facial skin perfusion of affected side was lower than that of the normal side at the region of eyelid, and that the asymmetric distribution of the facial skin perfusion between two sides of eyelid is positively related to the stage of the disease (P Bell's palsy patients, and we discovered that the facial skin blood perfusion could reflect the stage of Bell's palsy, which suggested that microcirculation should be investigated in patients with this neurological deficit. It was also suggested LSI as potential diagnostic tool for Bell's palsy.

  1. Second class weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.

    1978-01-01

    The definition and general properties of weak second class currents are recalled and various detection possibilities briefly reviewed. It is shown that the existing data on nuclear beta decay can be consistently analysed in terms of a phenomenological model. Their implication on the fundamental structure of weak interactions is discussed [fr

  2. Weak C* Hopf Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Rehren, K. -H.

    1996-01-01

    Weak C* Hopf algebras can act as global symmetries in low-dimensional quantum field theories, when braid group statistics prevents group symmetries. Possibilities to construct field algebras with weak C* Hopf symmetry from a given theory of local observables are discussed.

  3. Bagging Weak Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Manuel; Hillebrand, Eric

    Relations between economic variables can often not be exploited for forecasting, suggesting that predictors are weak in the sense that estimation uncertainty is larger than bias from ignoring the relation. In this paper, we propose a novel bagging predictor designed for such weak predictor variab...

  4. Transient facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy) following administration of hepatitis B recombinant vaccine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, R; Stassen, L F A

    2014-01-01

    Bell's palsy is the sudden onset of unilateral transient paralysis of facial muscles resulting from dysfunction of the seventh cranial nerve. Presented here is a 26-year-old female patient with right lower motor neurone facial palsy following hepatitis B vaccination. Readers' attention is drawn to an uncommon cause of Bell's palsy, as a possible rare complication of hepatitis B vaccination, and steps taken to manage such a presentation.

  5. Nerve crush but not displacement-induced stretch of the intra-arachnoidal facial nerve promotes facial palsy after cerebellopontine angle surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendella, Habib; Brackmann, Derald E; Goldbrunner, Roland; Angelov, Doychin N

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the reasons for occurrence of facial nerve palsy after removal of cerebellopontine angle tumors. Since the intra-arachnoidal portion of the facial nerve is considered to be so vulnerable that even the slightest tension or pinch may result in ruptured axons, we tested whether a graded stretch or controlled crush would affect the postoperative motor performance of the facial (vibrissal) muscle in rats. Thirty Wistar rats, divided into five groups (one with intact controls and four with facial nerve lesions), were used. Under inhalation anesthesia, the occipital squama was opened, the cerebellum gently retracted to the left, and the intra-arachnoidal segment of the right facial nerve exposed. A mechanical displacement of the brainstem with 1 or 3 mm toward the midline or an electromagnet-controlled crush of the facial nerve with a tweezers at a closure velocity of 50 and 100 mm/s was applied. On the next day, whisking motor performance was determined by video-based motion analysis. Even the larger (with 3 mm) mechanical displacement of the brainstem had no harmful effect: The amplitude of the vibrissal whisks was in the normal range of 50°-60°. On the other hand, even the light nerve crush (50 mm/s) injured the facial nerve and resulted in paralyzed vibrissal muscles (amplitude of 10°-15°). We conclude that, contrary to the generally acknowledged assumptions, it is the nerve crush but not the displacement-induced stretching of the intra-arachnoidal facial trunk that promotes facial palsy after cerebellopontine angle surgery in rats.

  6. Emulating facial biomechanics using multivariate partial least squares surrogate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tim; Martens, Harald; Hunter, Peter; Mithraratne, Kumar

    2014-11-01

    A detailed biomechanical model of the human face driven by a network of muscles is a useful tool in relating the muscle activities to facial deformations. However, lengthy computational times often hinder its applications in practical settings. The objective of this study is to replace precise but computationally demanding biomechanical model by a much faster multivariate meta-model (surrogate model), such that a significant speedup (to real-time interactive speed) can be achieved. Using a multilevel fractional factorial design, the parameter space of the biomechanical system was probed from a set of sample points chosen to satisfy maximal rank optimality and volume filling. The input-output relationship at these sampled points was then statistically emulated using linear and nonlinear, cross-validated, partial least squares regression models. It was demonstrated that these surrogate models can mimic facial biomechanics efficiently and reliably in real-time. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.

  8. Effect of Facial Cosmetic Acupuncture on Facial Elasticity: An Open-Label, Single-Arm Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghee Yun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of acupuncture for cosmetic purposes has gained popularity worldwide. Facial cosmetic acupuncture (FCA is applied to the head, face, and neck. However, little evidence supports the efficacy and safety of FCA. We hypothesized that FCA affects facial elasticity by restoring resting mimetic muscle tone through the insertion of needles into the muscles of the head, face, and neck. Methods. This open-label, single-arm pilot study was implemented at Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong from August through September 2011. Participants were women aged 40 to 59 years with a Glogau photoaging scale III. Participants received five treatment sessions over three weeks. Participants were measured before and after FCA. The primary outcome was the Moire topography criteria. The secondary outcome was a patient-oriented self-assessment scale of facial elasticity. Results. Among 50 women screened, 28 were eligible and 27 completed the five FCA treatment sessions. A significant improvement after FCA treatment was evident according to mean change in Moire topography criteria (from 1.70 ± 0.724 to 2.26 ± 1.059, P<0.0001. The most common adverse event was mild bruising at the needle site. Conclusions. In this pilot study, FCA showed promising results as a therapy for facial elasticity. However, further large-scale trials with a controlled design and objective measurements are needed.

  9. NMR examinations of the facial skeleton. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodd, W.; Lenz, M.; Baumann, R.; Schroth, G.

    1984-01-01

    The resolution of NMR and CT was compared using axial sections of the normal anatomic structures of the facial skeleton. Is was shown that NMR was superior in differentiating muscles, tonsils, mucosa, lymph nodes and blood vessels. The demonstration of bone and its differentiation from air-containing spaces is often difficult. Metallic, non-ferromagnetic dental fillings, which cause serious artefacts on CT, do not after NMR. (orig.) [de

  10. Pretreatment Hematologic Findings as Novel Predictive Markers for Facial Palsy Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasano, Koichiro; Kawasaki, Taiji; Yamamoto, Sayuri; Tomisato, Shuta; Shinden, Seiichi; Ishikawa, Toru; Minami, Shujiro; Wakabayashi, Takeshi; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2016-10-01

    To examine the relationship between prognosis of 2 different facial palsies and pretreatment hematologic laboratory values. Multicenter case series with chart review. Three tertiary care hospitals. We examined the clinical records of 468 facial palsy patients who were treated with an antiviral drug in combination with either oral or intravenous corticosteroids in participating hospitals between 2010 and 2014. Patients were divided into a Bell's palsy group or a Hunt's palsy group. We used the Yanagihara facial nerve grading system to grade the severity of facial palsy. "Recovery" from facial palsy was defined as achieving a Yanagihara score ≥36 points within 6 months of onset and having no accompanying facial contracture or synkinesis. We collected information about pretreatment hematologic findings, demographic data, and electrophysiologic test results of the Bell and Hunt group patients who recovered and those who did not. We then compared these data across the 2 palsy groups. In the Bell's palsy group, recovered and unrecovered patients differed significantly in age, sex, electroneuronography score, stapedial muscle reflex, neutrophil rate, lymphocyte rate, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and initial Yanagihara score. In the Hunt's palsy group, recovered and unrecovered patients differed in age, electroneuronography score, stapedial muscle reflex, monocyte rate, platelet count, mean corpuscular volume, and initial Yanagihara score. Pretreatment hematologic findings, which reflect the severity of inflammation and bone marrow dysfunction caused by a virus infection, are useful for predicting the prognosis of facial palsy. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  11. Electro-weak theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.

    1980-01-01

    By electro-weak theory is meant the unified field theory that describes both weak and electro-magnetic interactions. The development of a unified electro-weak theory is certainly the most dramatic achievement in theoretical physics to occur in the second half of this century. It puts weak interactions on the same sound theoretical footing as quantum elecrodynamics. Many theorists have contributed to this development, which culminated in the works of Glashow, Weinberg and Salam, who were jointly awarded the 1979 Nobel Prize in physics. Some of the important ideas that contributed to this development are the theory of beta decay formulated by Fermi, Parity violation suggested by Lee and Yang, and incorporated into immensely successful V-A theory of weak interactions by Sudarshan and Marshak. At the same time ideas of gauge invariance were applied to weak interaction by Schwinger, Bludman and Glashow. Weinberg and Salam then went one step further and wrote a theory that is renormalizable, i.e., all higher order corrections are finite, no mean feat for a quantum field theory. The theory had to await the development of the quark model of hadrons for its completion. A description of the electro-weak theory is given

  12. Facial soft tissue analysis among various vertical facial patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeelani, W.; Fida, M.; Shaikh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The emergence of soft tissue paradigm in orthodontics has made various soft tissue parameters an integral part of the orthodontic problem list. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare various facial soft tissue parameters on lateral cephalograms among patients with short, average and long facial patterns. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on the lateral cephalograms of 180 adult subjects divided into three equal groups, i.e., short, average and long face according to the vertical facial pattern. Incisal display at rest, nose height, upper and lower lip lengths, degree of lip procumbency and the nasolabial angle were measured for each individual. The gender differences for these soft tissue parameters were determined using Mann-Whitney U test while the comparison among different facial patterns was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Significant differences in the incisal display at rest, total nasal height, lip procumbency, the nasolabial angle and the upper and lower lip lengths were found among the three vertical facial patterns. A significant positive correlation of nose and lip dimensions was found with the underlying skeletal pattern. Similarly, the incisal display at rest, upper and lower lip procumbency and the nasolabial angle were significantly correlated with the lower anterior facial height. Conclusion: Short facial pattern is associated with minimal incisal display, recumbent upper and lower lips and acute nasolabial angle while the long facial pattern is associated with excessive incisal display, procumbent upper and lower lips and obtuse nasolabial angle. (author)

  13. Weak interactions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclei provide systems where the strong, electomagnetic, and weak interactions are all present. The current picture of the strong interactions is based on quarks and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The symmetry structure of this theory is SU(3)/sub C/ x SU(2)/sub W/ x U(1)/sub W/. The electroweak interactions in nuclei can be used to probe this structure. Semileptonic weak interactions are considered. The processes under consideration include beta decay, neutrino scattering and weak neutral-current interactions. The starting point in the analysis is the effective Lagrangian of the Standard Model

  14. Neural Correlates of Facial Mimicry: Simultaneous Measurements of EMG and BOLD Responses during Perception of Dynamic Compared to Static Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Szatkowska, Iwona

    2018-01-01

    Facial mimicry (FM) is an automatic response to imitate the facial expressions of others. However, neural correlates of the phenomenon are as yet not well established. We investigated this issue using simultaneously recorded EMG and BOLD signals during perception of dynamic and static emotional facial expressions of happiness and anger. During display presentations, BOLD signals and zygomaticus major (ZM), corrugator supercilii (CS) and orbicularis oculi (OO) EMG responses were recorded simultaneously from 46 healthy individuals. Subjects reacted spontaneously to happy facial expressions with increased EMG activity in ZM and OO muscles and decreased CS activity, which was interpreted as FM. Facial muscle responses correlated with BOLD activity in regions associated with motor simulation of facial expressions [i.e., inferior frontal gyrus, a classical Mirror Neuron System (MNS)]. Further, we also found correlations for regions associated with emotional processing (i.e., insula, part of the extended MNS). It is concluded that FM involves both motor and emotional brain structures, especially during perception of natural emotional expressions. PMID:29467691

  15. History of Weak Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. D.

    1970-07-01

    While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.

  16. Hunting the weak bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of the production of weak bosons in the proton-antiproton colliding beam facilities which are currently being developed, is discussed. The production, decay and predicted properties of these particles are described. (W.D.L.).

  17. Diaphragm muscle fiber dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: toward a pathophysiological concept.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenheijm, C.A.C.; Heunks, L.M.A.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2007-01-01

    Inspiratory muscle weakness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is of major clinical relevance; maximum inspiratory pressure generation is an independent determinant of survival in severe COPD. Traditionally, inspiratory muscle weakness has been ascribed to

  18. Impaired recognition of facial emotions from low-spatial frequencies in Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätsyri, Jari; Saalasti, Satu; Tiippana, Kaisa; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko

    2008-01-01

    The theory of 'weak central coherence' [Happe, F., & Frith, U. (2006). The weak coherence account: Detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(1), 5-25] implies that persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a perceptual bias for local but not for global stimulus features. The recognition of emotional facial expressions representing various different levels of detail has not been studied previously in ASDs. We analyzed the recognition of four basic emotional facial expressions (anger, disgust, fear and happiness) from low-spatial frequencies (overall global shapes without local features) in adults with an ASD. A group of 20 participants with Asperger syndrome (AS) was compared to a group of non-autistic age- and sex-matched controls. Emotion recognition was tested from static and dynamic facial expressions whose spatial frequency contents had been manipulated by low-pass filtering at two levels. The two groups recognized emotions similarly from non-filtered faces and from dynamic vs. static facial expressions. In contrast, the participants with AS were less accurate than controls in recognizing facial emotions from very low-spatial frequencies. The results suggest intact recognition of basic facial emotions and dynamic facial information, but impaired visual processing of global features in ASDs.

  19. Charged weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turlay, R.

    1979-01-01

    In this review of charged weak currents I shall concentrate on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. There are surely still things to learn from the low energy weak interaction but I will not discuss it here. Furthermore B. Tallini will discuss the hadronic final state of neutrino interactions. Since the Tokyo conference a few experimental results have appeared on charged current interaction, I will present them and will also comment on important topics which have been published during the last past year. (orig.)

  20. Weakly oval electron lense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daumenov, T.D.; Alizarovskaya, I.M.; Khizirova, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The method of the weakly oval electrical field getting generated by the axially-symmetrical field is shown. Such system may be designed with help of the cylindric form coaxial electrodes with the built-in quadrupole duplet. The singularity of the indicated weakly oval lense consists of that it provides the conducting both mechanical and electronic adjustment. Such lense can be useful for elimination of the near-axis astigmatism in the electron-optical system

  1. Magnetically retained silicone facial prosthesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-09

    Jun 9, 2013 ... Prosthetic camouflaging of facial defects and use of silicone maxillofacial material are the alternatives to the surgical retreatment. Silicone elastomers provide more options to clinician for customization of the facial prosthesis which is simple, esthetically good when coupled with bio magnets for retention.

  2. [Multidisciplinary approach of facial injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, L.; Schreurs, R.; Lapid, O.; Saeed, P.; Adriaensen, G.F.; Hoefnagels, F.M.; Jong, V.M. de

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately one quarter of polytrauma patients has facial injuries, which usually lead to loss of form and function. Several specialties are involved in the acute and reconstructive phases of facial injuries, such as oral and maxillofacial surgery, otorhinolaryngology, plastic surgery,

  3. Immunosenescence of the CD8(+) T cell compartment is associated with HIV-infection, but only weakly reflects age-related processes of adipose tissue, metabolism, and muscle in antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-infected patients and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavenier, Juliette; Langkilde, Anne; Haupt, Thomas Huneck

    2015-01-01

    of immunosenescence is not well established. Studying immunosenescence in HIV-infection could give insight into its role in ageing processes. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to investigate whether ART-treated HIV-infected patients exhibit immunosenescence; and whether immunosenescence is associated with age......BACKGROUND: Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-infected patients exhibit systemic inflammation, early onset of age-related diseases, and features of immunosenescence. The role of inflammation in the development of age-related diseases is widely recognized. However, the role......-related processes of inflammation, metabolism, adipose tissue, and muscle. T cell immunosenescence and exhaustion were assessed by flow cytometry analysis of CD8 (+) cells from 43 ART-treated HIV-infected patients (HIV(+)) and ten Controls using markers of differentiation: CD27/CD28; maturation: CD27/CD45RA...

  4. Details from dignity to decay: facial expression lines in visual arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Marc

    2003-10-01

    A number of dermatologic procedures are intended to reduce facial wrinkles. This article is about wrinkles as a statement of art. This article explores how frown lines and other facial wrinkles are used in visual art to feature personal peculiarities and accentuate specific feelings or moods. Facial lines as an artistic element emerged with advanced painting techniques evolving during the Renaissance and following periods. The skill to paint fine details, the use of light and shadow, and the understanding of space that allowed for a three-dimensional presentation of the human face were essential prerequisites. Painters used facial lines to emphasize respected values such as dignity, determination, diligence, and experience. Facial lines, however, were often accentuated to portrait negative features such as anger, fear, aggression, sadness, exhaustion, and decay. This has reinforced a cultural stigma of facial wrinkles expressing not only age but also misfortune, dismay, or even tragedy. Removing wrinkles by dermatologic procedures may not only aim to make people look younger but also to liberate them from unwelcome negative connotations. On the other hand, consideration and care must be taken-especially when interfering with facial muscles-to preserve a natural balance of emotional facial expressions.

  5. Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the critical role of oral-facial growth: evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eGuilleminault

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Review of evidence in support of an oral-facial growth impairment in the development of pediatric sleep apnea in non-obese childrenMethod: Review of experimental data from infant monkeys with experimentally induced nasal resistance. Review of early historical data in the orthodontic literature indicating the abnormal oral-facial development associated with mouth breathing and nasal resistance. Review of the progressive demonstration of sleep disordered breathing in children who underwent incomplete treatment of OSA with adenotonsillectomy, and demonstration of abnormal oral-facial anatomy that must often to be treated in order for the resolution of OSA. Review of long term recurrence data on OSA and indication of oral-facial myofunctional dysfunction in association with the recurrence of OSA. Results: Presentation of prospective data on premature infants and sleep-disordered-breathing (SDB-treated children, supporting the concept of oral-facial hypotonia. Presentation of evidence supporting hypotonia as a primary element in the development of oral-facial anatomic abnormalities leading to abnormal breathing during sleep. Continuous interaction between oral facial muscle tone, maxillary-mandibular growth and development of SDB. Role of myofunctional re-education with orthodontics and elimination of upper airway soft tissue in the treatment of non-obese SDB children. Conclusion: Pediatric OSA in non-obese children is a disorder of oral facial growth.

  6. Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hazim Alkawaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry and blushing (anger and happiness is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  7. Serial neurophysiological and neurophysiological examinations for delayed facial nerve palsy in a patient with Fisher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umekawa, Motoyuki; Hatano, Keiko; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Takahiro; Hashida, Hideji

    2017-05-27

    The patient was a 47-year-old man who presented with diplopia and gait instability with a gradual onset over the course of three days. Neurological examinations showed ophthalmoplegia, diminished tendon reflexes, and truncal ataxia. Tests for anti-GQ1b antibodies and several other antibodies to ganglioside complex were positive. We made a diagnosis of Fisher syndrome. After administration of intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient's symptoms gradually improved. However, bilateral facial palsy appeared during the recovery phase. Brain MRI showed intensive contrast enhancement of bilateral facial nerves. During the onset phase of facial palsy, the amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in the facial nerves was preserved. During the peak phase, the facial CMAP amplitude was within the lower limit of normal values, or mildly decreased. During the recovery phase, the CMAP amplitude was normalized, and the R1 and R2 responses of the blink reflex were prolonged. The delayed facial nerve palsy improved spontaneously, and the enhancement on brain MRI disappeared. Serial neurophysiological and neuroradiological examinations suggested that the main lesions existed in the proximal part of the facial nerves and the mild lesions existed in the facial nerve terminals, probably due to reversible conduction failure.

  8. Realistic facial expression of virtual human based on color, sweat, and tears effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  9. Compound facial expressions of emotion: from basic research to clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shichuan; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2015-01-01

    Emotions are sometimes revealed through facial expressions. When these natural facial articulations involve the contraction of the same muscle groups in people of distinct cultural upbringings, this is taken as evidence of a biological origin of these emotions. While past research had identified facial expressions associated with a single internally felt category (eg, the facial expression of happiness when we feel joyful), we have recently studied facial expressions observed when people experience compound emotions (eg, the facial expression of happy surprise when we feel joyful in a surprised way, as, for example, at a surprise birthday party). Our research has identified 17 compound expressions consistently produced across cultures, suggesting that the number of facial expressions of emotion of biological origin is much larger than previously believed. The present paper provides an overview of these findings and shows evidence supporting the view that spontaneous expressions are produced using the same facial articulations previously identified in laboratory experiments. We also discuss the implications of our results in the study of psychopathologies, and consider several open research questions. PMID:26869845

  10. Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea and the critical role of oral-facial growth: evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Shu; Guilleminault, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Review of evidence in support of an oral-facial growth impairment in the development of pediatric sleep apnea in non-obese children. Review of experimental data from infant monkeys with experimentally induced nasal resistance. Review of early historical data in the orthodontic literature indicating the abnormal oral-facial development associated with mouth breathing and nasal resistance. Review of the progressive demonstration of sleep-disordered-breathing (SDB) in children who underwent incomplete treatment of OSA with adenotonsillectomy, and demonstration of abnormal oral-facial anatomy that must often be treated in order for the resolution of OSA. Review of data of long-term recurrence of OSA and indication of oral-facial myofunctional dysfunction in association with the recurrence of OSA. Presentation of prospective data on premature infants and SDB-treated children, supporting the concept of oral-facial hypotonia. Presentation of evidence supporting hypotonia as a primary element in the development of oral-facial anatomic abnormalities leading to abnormal breathing during sleep. Continuous interaction between oral-facial muscle tone, maxillary-mandibular growth and development of SDB. Role of myofunctional reeducation with orthodontics and elimination of upper airway soft tissue in the treatment of non-obese SDB children. Pediatric OSA in non-obese children is a disorder of oral-facial growth.

  11. Compound facial expressions of emotion: from basic research to clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shichuan; Martinez, Aleix M

    2015-12-01

    Emotions are sometimes revealed through facial expressions. When these natural facial articulations involve the contraction of the same muscle groups in people of distinct cultural upbringings, this is taken as evidence of a biological origin of these emotions. While past research had identified facial expressions associated with a single internally felt category (eg, the facial expression of happiness when we feel joyful), we have recently studied facial expressions observed when people experience compound emotions (eg, the facial expression of happy surprise when we feel joyful in a surprised way, as, for example, at a surprise birthday party). Our research has identified 17 compound expressions consistently produced across cultures, suggesting that the number of facial expressions of emotion of biological origin is much larger than previously believed. The present paper provides an overview of these findings and shows evidence supporting the view that spontaneous expressions are produced using the same facial articulations previously identified in laboratory experiments. We also discuss the implications of our results in the study of psychopathologies, and consider several open research questions.

  12. A neurophysiological study of facial numbness in multiple sclerosis: Integration with clinical data and imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsis, Georgios; Kokotis, Panagiotis; Papagianni, Aikaterini E; Evangelopoulos, Maria-Eleftheria; Kilidireas, Constantinos; Karandreas, Nikolaos

    2016-09-01

    To integrate neurophysiological findings with clinical and imaging data in a consecutive series of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients developing facial numbness during the course of an MS attack. Nine consecutive patients with MS and recent-onset facial numbness were studied clinically, imaged with routine MRI, and assessed neurophysiologically with trigeminal somatosensory evoked potential (TSEP), blink reflex (BR), masseter reflex (MR), facial nerve conduction, facial muscle and masseter EMG studies. All patients had unilateral facial hypoesthesia on examination and lesions in the ipsilateral pontine tegmentum on MRI. All patients had abnormal TSEPs upon stimulation of the affected side, excepting one that was tested following remission of numbness. BR was the second most sensitive neurophysiological method with 6/9 examinations exhibiting an abnormal R1 component. The MR was abnormal in 3/6 patients, always on the affected side. Facial conduction and EMG studies were normal in all patients but one. Facial numbness was always related to abnormal TSEPs. A concomitant R1 abnormality on BR allowed localization of the responsible pontine lesion, which closely corresponded with MRI findings. We conclude that neurophysiological assessment of MS patients with facial numbness is a sensitive tool, which complements MRI, and can improve lesion localization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Positive Facial Affect – An fMRI Study on the Involvement of Insula and Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Anna; Anders, Silke; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Mathiak, Klaus; Kircher, Tilo

    2013-01-01

    Imitation of facial expressions engages the putative human mirror neuron system as well as the insula and the amygdala as part of the limbic system. The specific function of the latter two regions during emotional actions is still under debate. The current study investigated brain responses during imitation of positive in comparison to non-emotional facial expressions. Differences in brain activation of the amygdala and insula were additionally examined during observation and execution of facial expressions. Participants imitated, executed and observed happy and non-emotional facial expressions, as well as neutral faces. During imitation, higher right hemispheric activation emerged in the happy compared to the non-emotional condition in the right anterior insula and the right amygdala, in addition to the pre-supplementary motor area, middle temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus. Region-of-interest analyses revealed that the right insula was more strongly recruited by (i) imitation and execution than by observation of facial expressions, that (ii) the insula was significantly stronger activated by happy than by non-emotional facial expressions during observation and imitation and that (iii) the activation differences in the right amygdala between happy and non-emotional facial expressions were increased during imitation and execution, in comparison to sole observation. We suggest that the insula and the amygdala contribute specifically to the happy emotional connotation of the facial expressions depending on the task. The pattern of the insula activity might reflect increased bodily awareness during active execution compared to passive observation and during visual processing of the happy compared to non-emotional facial expressions. The activation specific for the happy facial expression of the amygdala during motor tasks, but not in the observation condition, might reflect increased autonomic activity or feedback from facial muscles to the amygdala. PMID

  14. Positive facial affect - an fMRI study on the involvement of insula and amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pohl

    Full Text Available Imitation of facial expressions engages the putative human mirror neuron system as well as the insula and the amygdala as part of the limbic system. The specific function of the latter two regions during emotional actions is still under debate. The current study investigated brain responses during imitation of positive in comparison to non-emotional facial expressions. Differences in brain activation of the amygdala and insula were additionally examined during observation and execution of facial expressions. Participants imitated, executed and observed happy and non-emotional facial expressions, as well as neutral faces. During imitation, higher right hemispheric activation emerged in the happy compared to the non-emotional condition in the right anterior insula and the right amygdala, in addition to the pre-supplementary motor area, middle temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus. Region-of-interest analyses revealed that the right insula was more strongly recruited by (i imitation and execution than by observation of facial expressions, that (ii the insula was significantly stronger activated by happy than by non-emotional facial expressions during observation and imitation and that (iii the activation differences in the right amygdala between happy and non-emotional facial expressions were increased during imitation and execution, in comparison to sole observation. We suggest that the insula and the amygdala contribute specifically to the happy emotional connotation of the facial expressions depending on the task. The pattern of the insula activity might reflect increased bodily awareness during active execution compared to passive observation and during visual processing of the happy compared to non-emotional facial expressions. The activation specific for the happy facial expression of the amygdala during motor tasks, but not in the observation condition, might reflect increased autonomic activity or feedback from facial muscles to the

  15. Colesteatoma causando paralisia facial Cholesteatoma causing facial paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gurgel Testa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A paralisia facial causada pelo colesteatoma é pouco freqüente. As porções do nervo mais acometidas são a timpânica e a região do 2º joelho. Nos casos de disseminação da lesão colesteatomatosa para o epitímpano anterior, o gânglio geniculado é o segmento do nervo facial mais sujeito à injúria. A etiopatogenia pode estar ligada à compressão do nervo pelo colesteatoma seguida de diminuição do seu suprimento vascular como também pela possível ação de substâncias neurotóxicas produzidas pela matriz do tumor ou pelas bactérias nele contidas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, as características clínicas e o tratamento da paralisia facial decorrente da lesão colesteatomatosa. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo dez casos de paralisia facial por colesteatoma selecionados através de levantamento de 206 descompressões do nervo facial com diferentes etiologias, realizadas na UNIFESP-EPM nos últimos dez anos. RESULTADOS: A incidência de paralisia facial por colesteatoma neste estudo foi de 4,85%,com predominância do sexo feminino (60%. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 39 anos. A duração e o grau da paralisia (inicial juntamente com a extensão da lesão foram importantes em relação à recuperação funcional do nervo facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico precoce é fundamental para que ocorra um resultado funcional mais adequado. Nos casos de ruptura ou intensa fibrose do tecido nervoso, o enxerto de nervo (auricular magno/sural e/ou a anastomose hipoglosso-facial podem ser sugeridas.Facial paralysis caused by cholesteatoma is uncommon. The portions most frequently involved are horizontal (tympanic and second genu segments. When cholesteatomas extend over the anterior epitympanic space, the facial nerve is placed in jeopardy in the region of the geniculate ganglion. The aetiology can be related to compression of the nerve followed by impairment of its

  16. MRI of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saatci, I.; Sahintuerk, F.; Sennaroglu, L.; Boyvat, F.; Guersel, B.; Besim, A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to define the enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell's palsy) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with routine doses of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). Using 0.5 T imager, 24 patients were examined with a mean interval time of 13.7 days between the onset of symptoms and the MR examination. Contralateral asymptomatic facial nerves constituted the control group and five of the normal facial nerves (20.8%) showed enhancement confined to the geniculate ganglion. Hence, contrast enhancement limited to the geniculate ganglion in the abnormal facial nerve (3 of 24) was referred to a equivocal. Not encountered in any of the normal facial nerves, enhancement of other segments alone or associated with geniculate ganglion enhancement was considered to be abnormal and noted in 70.8% of the symptomatic facial nerves. The most frequently enhancing segments were the geniculate ganglion and the distal intracanalicular segment. (orig.)

  17. MRI of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saatci, I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sahintuerk, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sennaroglu, L. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Boyvat, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Guersel, B. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Besim, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to define the enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell`s palsy) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with routine doses of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). Using 0.5 T imager, 24 patients were examined with a mean interval time of 13.7 days between the onset of symptoms and the MR examination. Contralateral asymptomatic facial nerves constituted the control group and five of the normal facial nerves (20.8%) showed enhancement confined to the geniculate ganglion. Hence, contrast enhancement limited to the geniculate ganglion in the abnormal facial nerve (3 of 24) was referred to a equivocal. Not encountered in any of the normal facial nerves, enhancement of other segments alone or associated with geniculate ganglion enhancement was considered to be abnormal and noted in 70.8% of the symptomatic facial nerves. The most frequently enhancing segments were the geniculate ganglion and the distal intracanalicular segment. (orig.)

  18. Judgments of subtle facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Hwang, Hyisung C

    2014-04-01

    Most studies on judgments of facial expressions of emotion have primarily utilized prototypical, high-intensity expressions. This paper examines judgments of subtle facial expressions of emotion, including not only low-intensity versions of full-face prototypes but also variants of those prototypes. A dynamic paradigm was used in which observers were shown a neutral expression followed by the target expression to judge, and then the neutral expression again, allowing for a simulation of the emergence of the expression from and then return to a baseline. We also examined how signal and intensity clarities of the expressions (explained more fully in the Introduction) were associated with judgment agreement levels. Low-intensity, full-face prototypical expressions of emotion were judged as the intended emotion at rates significantly greater than chance. A number of the proposed variants were also judged as the intended emotions. Both signal and intensity clarities were individually associated with agreement rates; when their interrelationships were taken into account, signal clarity independently predicted agreement rates but intensity clarity did not. The presence or absence of specific muscles appeared to be more important to agreement rates than their intensity levels, with the exception of the intensity of zygomatic major, which was positively correlated with agreement rates for judgments of joy.

  19. Role of electrical stimulation added to conventional therapy in patients with idiopathic facial (Bell) palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Figen; Borman, Pinar; Taşer, Burcu; Ünlü, İlhan; Samim, Erdal

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of electrical stimulation when added to conventional physical therapy with regard to clinical and neurophysiologic changes in patients with Bell palsy. This was a randomized controlled trial. Sixty patients diagnosed with Bell palsy (39 right sided, 21 left sided) were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two therapy groups. Group 1 received physical therapy applying hot pack, facial expression exercises, and massage to the facial muscles, whereas group 2 received electrical stimulation treatment in addition to the physical therapy, 5 days per week for a period of 3 wks. Patients were evaluated clinically and electrophysiologically before treatment (at the fourth week of the palsy) and again 3 mos later. Outcome measures included the House-Brackmann scale and Facial Disability Index scores, as well as facial nerve latencies and amplitudes of compound muscle action potentials derived from the frontalis and orbicularis oris muscles. Twenty-nine men (48.3%) and 31 women (51.7%) with Bell palsy were included in the study. In group 1, 16 (57.1%) patients had no axonal degeneration and 12 (42.9%) had axonal degeneration, compared with 17 (53.1%) and 15 (46.9%) patients in group 2, respectively. The baseline House-Brackmann and Facial Disability Index scores were similar between the groups. At 3 mos after onset, the Facial Disability Index scores were improved similarly in both groups. The classification of patients according to House-Brackmann scale revealed greater improvement in group 2 than in group 1. The mean motor nerve latencies and compound muscle action potential amplitudes of both facial muscles were statistically shorter in group 2, whereas only the mean motor latency of the frontalis muscle decreased in group 1. The addition of 3 wks of daily electrical stimulation shortly after facial palsy onset (4 wks), improved functional facial movements and electrophysiologic outcome measures at

  20. Diplegia facial traumatica Traumatic facial diplegia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de paralisia facial bilateral, incompleta, associada a hipoacusia esquerda, após traumatismo cranioencefálico, com fraturas evidenciadas radiológicamente. Algumas considerações são formuladas tentando relacionar ditas manifestações com fraturas do osso temporal.A case of traumatic facial diplegia with left partial loss of hearing following head injury is reported. X-rays showed fractures on the occipital and left temporal bones. A review of traumatic facial paralysis is made.

  1. Effects of oblique muscle surgery on the rectus muscle pulley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okanobu, Hirotaka; Kono, Reika; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the position of rectus muscle pulleys in Japanese eyes and to evaluate the effect of oblique muscle surgery on rectus muscle pulleys. Quasi-coronal plane MRI was used to determine area centroids of the 4 rectus muscles. The area centroids of the rectus muscles were transformed to 2-dimensional coordinates to represent pulley positions. The effects of oblique muscle surgery on the rectus muscle pulley positions in the coronal plane were evaluated in 10 subjects with cyclovertical strabismus and, as a control, pulley locations in 7 normal Japanese subjects were calculated. The mean positions of the rectus muscle pulleys in the coronal plane did not significantly differ from previous reports on normal populations, including Caucasians. There were significant positional shifts of the individual horizontal and vertical rectus muscle pulleys in 3 (100%) patients with inferior oblique advancement, but not in eyes with inferior oblique recession and superior oblique tendon advancement surgery. The surgical cyclorotatory effect was significantly correlated with the change in the angle of inclination formed by the line connecting the vertical rectus muscles (p=0.0234), but weakly correlated with that of the horizontal rectus muscles. The most important factor that affects the pulley position is the amount of ocular torsion, not the difference in surgical procedure induced by oblique muscle surgery. (author)

  2. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  3. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  4. [Facial diplegia with atypical paresthesia. A variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Verme, Agustín; Acosta, Paula; Margan, Mercedes; Pagnini, Cecilia; Dellepiane, Eugenia; Peralta, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is an acute demyelinating disease which presents in a classic form with muscular weakness and the lack of reflexes. There are multiple variations and atypical forms of the disease, being facial diplegia with paresthesia one of them. Also, the absence of reflexes in this syndrome is typical but not constant, since 10% of patients present reflexes. We describe a case of atypical presentation with bilateral facial palsy, paresthesia, brisk reflexes and weakness in the lower limbs in a 33 year old woman.

  5. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to your provider about the risks and benefits of medicines. How can I prevent muscle cramps? To prevent muscle cramps, you can Stretch your muscles, especially before exercising. If you often get leg cramps at night, ...

  6. Weak radiative hyperon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.L.; Booth, E.C.; Gall, K.P.; McIntyre, E.K.; Miller, J.P.; Whitehouse, D.A.; Bassalleck, B.; Hall, J.R.; Larson, K.D.; Wolfe, D.M.; Fickinger, W.J.; Robinson, D.K.; Hallin, A.L.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Measday, D.F.; Noble, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Hessey, N.P.; Lowe, J.; Horvath, D.; Salomon, M.

    1990-01-01

    New measurements of the Σ + and Λ weak radiative decays are discussed. The hyperons were produced at rest by the reaction K - p → Yπ where Y = Σ + or Λ. The monoenergetic pion was used to tag the hyperon production, and the branching ratios were determined from the relative amplitudes of Σ + → pγ to Σ + → pπ 0 and Λ → nγ to Λ → nπ 0 . The photons from weak radiative decays and from π 0 decays were detected with modular NaI arrays. (orig.)

  7. Facial Action Units Recognition: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Wiggers, P.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Shan, C.

    2011-01-01

    Many approaches to facial expression recognition focus on assessing the six basic emotions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, sadness, and surprise). Real-life situations proved to produce many more subtle facial expressions. A reliable way of analyzing the facial behavior is the Facial Action Coding

  8. Microbial biofilms on silicone facial prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariani, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Facial disfigurements can result from oncologic surgery, trauma and congenital deformities. These disfigurements can be rehabilitated with facial prostheses. Facial prostheses are usually made of silicones. A problem of facial prostheses is that microorganisms can colonize their surface. It is hard

  9. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... An infant's facial nerve is also called the seventh cranial nerve. It can be damaged just before or at the time of delivery. ...

  10. Facial transplantation for massive traumatic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Daniel S; Chi, John J

    2013-10-01

    This article describes the challenges of facial reconstruction and the role of facial transplantation in certain facial defects and injuries. This information is of value to surgeons assessing facial injuries with massive soft tissue loss or injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Persistent idiopathic facial pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine; Wolfram, Frauke; Heinskou, Tone Bruvik

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP) is a poorly understood chronic orofacial pain disorder and a differential diagnosis to trigeminal neuralgia. To address the lack of systematic studies in PIFP we here report clinical characteristics and neuroimaging findings in PIFP. Methods...... pain 7 (13%), hypoesthesia 23 (48%), depression 16 (30%) and other chronic pain conditions 17 (32%) and a low prevalence of stabbing pain 21 (40%), touch-evoked pain 14 (26%) and remission periods 10 (19%). The odds ratio between neurovascular contact and the painful side was 1.4 (95% Cl 0.4–4.4, p = 0.......565) and the odds ratio between neurovascular contact with displacement of the trigeminal nerve and the painful side was 0.2 (95% Cl 0.0–2.1, p = 0.195). Conclusion: PIFP is separated from trigeminal neuralgia both with respect to the clinical characteristics and neuroimaging findings, as NVC was not associated...

  12. Less Empathic and More Reactive: The Different Impact of Childhood Maltreatment on Facial Mimicry and Vagal Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ardizzi

    Full Text Available Facial mimicry and vagal regulation represent two crucial physiological responses to others' facial expressions of emotions. Facial mimicry, defined as the automatic, rapid and congruent electromyographic activation to others' facial expressions, is implicated in empathy, emotional reciprocity and emotions recognition. Vagal regulation, quantified by the computation of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA, exemplifies the autonomic adaptation to contingent social cues. Although it has been demonstrated that childhood maltreatment induces alterations in the processing of the facial expression of emotions, both at an explicit and implicit level, the effects of maltreatment on children's facial mimicry and vagal regulation in response to facial expressions of emotions remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to fill this gap, involving 24 street-children (maltreated group and 20 age-matched controls (control group. We recorded their spontaneous facial electromyographic activations of corrugator and zygomaticus muscles and RSA responses during the visualization of the facial expressions of anger, fear, joy and sadness. Results demonstrated a different impact of childhood maltreatment on facial mimicry and vagal regulation. Maltreated children did not show the typical positive-negative modulation of corrugator mimicry. Furthermore, when only negative facial expressions were considered, maltreated children demonstrated lower corrugator mimicry than controls. With respect to vagal regulation, whereas maltreated children manifested the expected and functional inverse correlation between RSA value at rest and RSA response to angry facial expressions, controls did not. These results describe an early and divergent functional adaptation to hostile environment of the two investigated physiological mechanisms. On the one side, maltreatment leads to the suppression of the spontaneous facial mimicry normally concurring to empathic understanding of

  13. Facial recognition in education system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krithika, L. B.; Venkatesh, K.; Rathore, S.; Kumar, M. Harish

    2017-11-01

    Human beings exploit emotions comprehensively for conveying messages and their resolution. Emotion detection and face recognition can provide an interface between the individuals and technologies. The most successful applications of recognition analysis are recognition of faces. Many different techniques have been used to recognize the facial expressions and emotion detection handle varying poses. In this paper, we approach an efficient method to recognize the facial expressions to track face points and distances. This can automatically identify observer face movements and face expression in image. This can capture different aspects of emotion and facial expressions.

  14. [Presurgical orthodontics for facial asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarrère, H

    2003-03-01

    As with the treatment of all facial deformities, orthodontic pre-surgical preparation for facial asymmetry should aim at correcting severe occlusal discrepancies not solely on the basis of a narrow occlusal analysis but also in a way that will not disturb the proposed surgical protocol. In addition, facial asymmetries require specific adjustments, difficult to derive and to apply because of their inherent atypical morphological orientation of both alveolar and basal bony support. Three treated cases illustrate different solutions to problems posed by pathological torque: this torque must be considered with respect to proposed surgical changes, within the framework of their limitations and their possible contra-indications.

  15. Disease-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, Scott K.; Lynch, Gordon S.; Murphy, Kate T.; Reid, Michael B.; Zijdewind, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Numerous health problems including acute critical illness, cancer, diseases associated with chronic inflammation, and neurological disorders often result in skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue. Disease-related muscle atrophy and fatigue is an important clinical problem because acquired skeletal

  16. Inter- and intrapatient variability of facial nerve response areas in the floor of the fourth ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertalanffy, Helmut; Tissira, Nadir; Krayenbühl, Niklaus; Bozinov, Oliver; Sarnthein, Johannes

    2011-03-01

    Surgical exposure of intrinsic brainstem lesions through the floor of the 4th ventricle requires precise identification of facial nerve (CN VII) fibers to avoid damage. To assess the shape, size, and variability of the area where the facial nerve can be stimulated electrophysiologically on the surface of the rhomboid fossa. Over a period of 18 months, 20 patients were operated on for various brainstem and/or cerebellar lesions. Facial nerve fibers were stimulated to yield compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) in the target muscles. Using the sites of CMAP yield, a detailed functional map of the rhomboid fossa was constructed for each patient. Lesions resected included 14 gliomas, 5 cavernomas, and 1 epidermoid cyst. Of 40 response areas mapped, 19 reached the median sulcus. The distance from the obex to the caudal border of the response area ranged from 8 to 27 mm (median, 17 mm). The rostrocaudal length of the response area ranged from 2 to 15 mm (median, 5 mm). Facial nerve response areas showed large variability in size and position, even in patients with significant distance between the facial colliculus and underlying pathological lesion. Lesions located close to the facial colliculus markedly distorted the response area. This is the first documentation of variability in the CN VII response area in the rhomboid fossa. Knowledge of this remarkable variability may facilitate the assessment of safe entry zones to the brainstem and may contribute to improved outcome following neurosurgical interventions within this sensitive area of the brain.

  17. [Changes in facial nerve function, morphology and neurotrophic factor III expression following three types of facial nerve injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Wang, Haibo; Fan, Zhaomin; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Haiyan

    2011-01-01

    To study the changes in facial nerve function, morphology and neurotrophic factor III (NT-3) expression following three types of facial nerve injury. Changes in facial nerve function (in terms of blink reflex (BF), vibrissae movement (VM) and position of nasal tip) were assessed in 45 rats in response to three types of facial nerve injury: partial section of the extratemporal segment (group one), partial section of the facial canal segment (group two) and complete transection of the facial canal segment lesion (group three). All facial nerves specimen were then cut into two parts at the site of the lesion after being taken from the lesion site on 1st, 7th, 21st post-surgery-days (PSD). Changes of morphology and NT-3 expression were evaluated using the improved trichrome stain and immunohistochemistry techniques ,respectively. Changes in facial nerve function: In group 1, all animals had no blink reflex (BF) and weak vibrissae movement (VM) at the 1st PSD; The blink reflex in 80% of the rats recovered partly and the vibrissae movement in 40% of the rats returned to normal at the 7th PSD; The facial nerve function in 600 of the rats was almost normal at the 21st PSD. In group 2, all left facial nerve paralyzed at the 1st PSD; The blink reflex partly recovered in 40% of the rats and the vibrissae movement was weak in 80% of the rats at the 7th PSD; 8000 of the rats'BF were almost normal and 40% of the rats' VM completely recovered at the 21st PSD. In group 3, The recovery couldn't happen at anytime. Changes in morphology: In group 1, the size of nerve fiber differed in facial canal segment and some of myelin sheath and axons degenerated at the 7th PSD; The fibres' degeneration turned into regeneration at the 21st PSD; In group 2, the morphologic changes in this group were familiar with the group 1 while the degenerated fibers were more and dispersed in transection at the 7th PSD; Regeneration of nerve fibers happened at the 21st PSD. In group 3, most of the fibers

  18. Startpoints via weak contractions

    OpenAIRE

    Agyingi, Collins Amburo; Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Startpoints (resp. endpoints) can be defined as "oriented fixed points". They arise naturally in the study of fixed for multi-valued maps defined on quasi-metric spaces. In this article, we give a new result in the startpoint theory for quasi-pseudometric spaces. The result we present is obtained via a generalized weakly contractive set-valued map.

  19. Weakly Coretractable Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Inaam M. A.; Al-aeashi, Shukur N.

    2018-05-01

    If R is a ring with identity and M is a unitary right R-module. Here we introduce the class of weakly coretractable module. Some basic properties are investigated and some relationships between these modules and other related one are introduced.

  20. Facial exercises for facial rejuvenation: a control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Marie-Camille; Van den Brande, Helen; Boone, Barbara; Van Borsel, John

    2013-01-01

    Facial exercises are a noninvasive alternative to medical approaches to facial rejuvenation. Logopedists could be involved in providing these exercises. Little research has been conducted, however, on the effectiveness of exercises for facial rejuvenation. This study assessed the effectiveness of 4 exercises purportedly reducing wrinkles and sagging of the facial skin. A control group study was conducted with 18 participants, 9 of whom (the experimental group) underwent daily training for 7 weeks. Pictures taken before and after 7 weeks of 5 facial areas (forehead, nasolabial folds, area above the upper lip, jawline and area under the chin) were evaluated by a panel of laypersons. In addition, the participants of the experimental group evaluated their own pictures. Evaluation included the pairwise presentation of pictures before and after 7 weeks and scoring of the same pictures by means of visual analogue scales in a random presentation. Only one significant difference was found between the control and experimental group. In the experimental group, the picture after therapy of the upper lip was more frequently chosen to be the younger-looking one by the panel. It cannot be concluded that facial exercises are effective. More systematic research is needed. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Eficácia de duas técnicas fonoaudiológicas da estética facial no músculo orbicular dos olhos: estudo piloto Efficacy of two techniques of speech-language pathologists of facial esthetic in the orbicular oculi muscle: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Lana e Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a eficácia de duas técnicas fonoaudiológicas utilizadas no músculo orbicular dos olhos. MÉTODOS: foi realizado um estudo piloto com quatro pacientes, com idades entre 40 e 51 anos. As mesmas foram submetidas a um exercício miofuncional na hemiface esquerda e à massagem na hemiface direita, por um período de 20 dias. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de protocolos de anamnese, avaliação e reavaliação aplicados por uma dermatologista e por um cirurgião plástico, e pela avaliação de fotos realizada por 10 fonoaudiólogas especializandas em Motricidade Orofacial. RESULTADOS: foi constatado que não houve diferença nos resultados em relação às técnicas utilizadas no tratamento. Para a dermatologista e o cirurgião plástico todas as pacientes obtiveram melhora, sendo esta mais evidente na paciente 2 para a dermatologista e na paciente 4 para o cirurgião plástico. De acordo com as fonoaudiólogas houve melhora em todas as pacientes, sendo que a paciente 1 apresentou melhor resultado na hemiface esquerda e as demais mantiveram equilíbrio entre as hemifaces. CONCLUSÃO: com a realização deste estudo constatou-se que, na amostra avaliada, houve melhora nas rugas de expressão do músculo orbicular dos olhos sem diferenças entre as técnicas estudadas.PURPOSE: to compare the efficacy of two techniques speech-language pathologists used in the orbicular oculi muscle. METHODS: we conducted a pilot study with four patients, aged between 40 and 51 years. They were submitted to a myofunctional exercise in the left hemiface and to a massage in the right hemiface for a period of 20 days. Data collection was performed followed by historical protocols, then evaluation and review applied by dermatologist and plastic surgeon and by photos evaluation made by 10 speech therapist specializing in orofacial myology. RESULTS: it revealed that there were no differences on the results related to the techniques used during

  2. Pseudohypertrophy of the calf muscles in a patient with diabetic neuropathy: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Lee, Young Hwan; Jung, Kyung Jae; Park, Young Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Ok Dong

    2007-01-01

    Partial or complete loss of innervation of skeletal muscle leads to muscle weakness and atrophic changes, resulting in decreased muscle volume with fatty replacement. Rarely, enlargement of the affected muscle may occur, related to two processes: true hypertrophy and pseudohypertrophy. We report CT and MR findings of the pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles, especially the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, in a patient with diabetic neuropathy that showed increased muscle volume with diffuse fatty replacement and the presence of scanty muscle fibers

  3. Pseudohypertrophy of the calf muscles in a patient with diabetic neuropathy: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Lee, Young Hwan; Jung, Kyung Jae; Park, Young Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Ok Dong [School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Partial or complete loss of innervation of skeletal muscle leads to muscle weakness and atrophic changes, resulting in decreased muscle volume with fatty replacement. Rarely, enlargement of the affected muscle may occur, related to two processes: true hypertrophy and pseudohypertrophy. We report CT and MR findings of the pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles, especially the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, in a patient with diabetic neuropathy that showed increased muscle volume with diffuse fatty replacement and the presence of scanty muscle fibers.

  4. THE MAKE BREAK TEST AS A DIAGNOSTIC-TOOL IN FUNCTIONAL WEAKNESS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERPLOEG, RJO; OOSTERHUIS, HJGH

    Strength was measured in four major muscle groups with a hand-held dynamometer. The "make" and "break" technique was used with and without encouragement, and fatiguability was tested in patients with organic weakness and patients with functional weakness. Patients with functional weakness could be

  5. Partial muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, N.S.; Hoppel, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    After initiation of ibuprofen therapy, a 45-year-old woman developed muscle weakness and tenderness with rhabdomyolysis, culminating in respiratory failure. A muscle biopsy specimen showed a vacuolar myopathy, and markedly decreased muscle carnitine content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Following recovery, muscle carnitine content was normal but carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was still abnormally low. The ratio of palmitoyl-coenzyme A plus carnitine to palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by muscle mitochondria isolated from the patient was markedly decreased. The authors conclude that transiently decreased muscle carnitine content interacted with partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A to produce rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure and that ibuprofen may have precipitated the clinical event

  6. Partial muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, N.S.; Hoppel, C.L.

    1987-01-02

    After initiation of ibuprofen therapy, a 45-year-old woman developed muscle weakness and tenderness with rhabdomyolysis, culminating in respiratory failure. A muscle biopsy specimen showed a vacuolar myopathy, and markedly decreased muscle carnitine content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Following recovery, muscle carnitine content was normal but carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was still abnormally low. The ratio of palmitoyl-coenzyme A plus carnitine to palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by muscle mitochondria isolated from the patient was markedly decreased. The authors conclude that transiently decreased muscle carnitine content interacted with partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A to produce rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure and that ibuprofen may have precipitated the clinical event.

  7. Facial nerve paralysis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology. PMID:26677445

  8. Sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter Bjørn; Pilegaard, Hans K; Ladegaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background. Facial blushing is one of the most peculiar of human expressions. The pathophysiology is unclear, and the prevalence is unknown. Thoracoscopic sympathectomy may cure the symptom and is increasingly used in patients with isolated facial blushing. The evidence base for the optimal level...... of targeting the sympathetic chain is limited to retrospective case studies. We present a randomized clinical trial. Methods. 100 patients were randomized (web-based, single-blinded) to rib-oriented (R2 or R2-R3) sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing at two university hospitals during a 6-year period...... between R2 and R2-R3 sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing. Both were effective, and QOL increased significantly. Despite very frequent side effects, the vast majority of patients were satisfied. Surprisingly, many patients experienced mild recurrent symptoms within the first year; this should...

  9. Measuring facial expression of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Karsten

    2015-12-01

    Research into emotions has increased in recent decades, especially on the subject of recognition of emotions. However, studies of the facial expressions of emotion were compromised by technical problems with visible video analysis and electromyography in experimental settings. These have only recently been overcome. There have been new developments in the field of automated computerized facial recognition; allowing real-time identification of facial expression in social environments. This review addresses three approaches to measuring facial expression of emotion and describes their specific contributions to understanding emotion in the healthy population and in persons with mental illness. Despite recent progress, studies on human emotions have been hindered by the lack of consensus on an emotion theory suited to examining the dynamic aspects of emotion and its expression. Studying expression of emotion in patients with mental health conditions for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes will profit from theoretical and methodological progress.

  10. Imaging of the facial nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veillon, F. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)], E-mail: Francis.Veillon@chru-strasbourg.fr; Ramos-Taboada, L.; Abu-Eid, M. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Charpiot, A. [Service d' ORL, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Riehm, S. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

    2010-05-15

    The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve.

  11. Nuclear Positioning in Muscle Development and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eFolker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Muscle disease as a group is characterized by muscle weakness, muscle loss, and impaired muscle function. Although the phenotype is the same, the underlying cellular pathologies, and the molecular causes of these pathologies, are diverse. One common feature of many muscle disorders is the mispositioning of myonuclei. In unaffected individuals myonuclei are spaced throughout the periphery of the muscle fiber such that the distance between nuclei is maximized. However, in diseased muscles, the nuclei are often clustered within the center of the muscle cell. Although this phenotype has been acknowledged for several decades, it is often ignored as a contributor to muscle weakness. Rather, these nuclei are taken only as a sign of muscle repair. Here we review the evidence that mispositioned myonuclei are not merely a symptom of muscle disease but also a cause. Additionally, we review the working models for how myonuclei move from two different perspectives, from that of the nucleus and from that of the cytoskeleton. We further compare and contrast these mechanisms with the mechanisms of nuclear movement in other cell types both to draw general themes for nuclear movement and to identify muscle-specific considerations. Finally, we focus on factors that can be linked to muscle disease and find that genes that regulate myonuclear movement and positioning have been linked to muscular dystrophy. Although the cause-effect relationship is largely speculative, recent data indicate that the position of nuclei should no longer be considered only a means to diagnose muscle disease.

  12. Representing affective facial expressions for robots and embodied conversational agents by facial landmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.; Ham, J.R.C.; Postma, E.O.; Midden, C.J.H.; Joosten, B.; Goudbeek, M.

    2013-01-01

    Affective robots and embodied conversational agents require convincing facial expressions to make them socially acceptable. To be able to virtually generate facial expressions, we need to investigate the relationship between technology and human perception of affective and social signals. Facial

  13. Pediatric facial injuries: It's management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Geeta; Mohammad, Shadab; Pal, U S; Hariram; Malkunje, Laxman R; Singh, Nimisha

    2011-07-01

    Facial injuries in children always present a challenge in respect of their diagnosis and management. Since these children are of a growing age every care should be taken so that later the overall growth pattern of the facial skeleton in these children is not jeopardized. To access the most feasible method for the management of facial injuries in children without hampering the facial growth. Sixty child patients with facial trauma were selected randomly for this study. On the basis of examination and investigations a suitable management approach involving rest and observation, open or closed reduction and immobilization, trans-osseous (TO) wiring, mini bone plate fixation, splinting and replantation, elevation and fixation of zygoma, etc. were carried out. In our study fall was the predominant cause for most of the facial injuries in children. There was a 1.09% incidence of facial injuries in children up to 16 years of age amongst the total patients. The age-wise distribution of the fracture amongst groups (I, II and III) was found to be 26.67%, 51.67% and 21.67% respectively. Male to female patient ratio was 3:1. The majority of the cases of facial injuries were seen in Group II patients (6-11 years) i.e. 51.67%. The mandibular fracture was found to be the most common fracture (0.60%) followed by dentoalveolar (0.27%), mandibular + midface (0.07) and midface (0.02%) fractures. Most of the mandibular fractures were found in the parasymphysis region. Simple fracture seems to be commonest in the mandible. Most of the mandibular and midface fractures in children were amenable to conservative therapies except a few which required surgical intervention.

  14. Muscle MRI findings in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerevini, Simonetta; Caliendo, Giandomenico; Falini, Andrea [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Neuroradiology Unit, Head and Neck Department, Milan (Italy); Scarlato, Marina; Previtali, Stefano Carlo [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Neurology, INSPE and Division of Neuroscience, Milan (Italy); Maggi, Lorenzo; Pasanisi, Barbara; Morandi, Lucia [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico ' ' Carlo Besta' ' , Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology Unit, Milan (Italy); Cava, Mariangela [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Radiology and Center for Experimental Imaging, Milan (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is characterized by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Clinical and genetic determination can be difficult, as molecular analysis is not always definitive, and other similar muscle disorders may have overlapping clinical manifestations. Whole-body muscle MRI examination for fat infiltration, atrophy and oedema was performed to identify specific patterns of muscle involvement in FSHD patients (30 subjects), and compared to a group of control patients (23) affected by other myopathies (NFSHD). In FSHD patients, we detected a specific pattern of muscle fatty replacement and atrophy, particularly in upper girdle muscles. The most frequently affected muscles, including paucisymptomatic and severely affected FSHD patients, were trapezius, teres major and serratus anterior. Moreover, asymmetric muscle involvement was significantly higher in FSHD as compared to NFSHD patients. In conclusion, muscle MRI is very sensitive for identifying a specific pattern of involvement in FSHD patients and in detecting selective muscle involvement of non-clinically testable muscles. Muscle MRI constitutes a reliable tool for differentiating FSHD from other muscular dystrophies to direct diagnostic molecular analysis, as well as to investigate FSHD natural history and follow-up of the disease. (orig.)

  15. The amygdalo-motor pathway and the control of facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin M Gothard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions reflect decisions about the perceived meaning of social stimuli emitted by others and the expected socio-emotional outcome of the reciprocating expression. The decision to produce a facial expression emerges from the joint activity of a network of structures that include the amygdala and multiple, interconnected cortical and subcortical motor areas. Reciprocal transformations between sensory and motor signals give rise to distinct brain states that promote, or impede the production of facial expressions. The muscles of the upper and lower face are controlled by anatomically distinct motor areas and thus require distinct patterns of motor commands. Concomitantly multiple areas, including the amygdala, monitor the ongoing overt behavior (the expression of self and the covert, autonomic responses that accompany emotional expressions. Interoceptive signals and visceral states, therefore, should be incorporated into the formalisms of decision making in order account for decisions that govern the receiving-emitting cycle of facial expressions.

  16. Automated Analysis of Facial Cues from Videos as a Potential Method for Differentiating Stress and Boredom of Players in Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bevilacqua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial analysis is a promising approach to detect emotions of players unobtrusively; however approaches are commonly evaluated in contexts not related to games or facial cues are derived from models not designed for analysis of emotions during interactions with games. We present a method for automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential tool for detecting stress and boredom of players behaving naturally while playing games. Computer vision is used to automatically and unobtrusively extract 7 facial features aimed at detecting the activity of a set of facial muscles. Features are mainly based on the Euclidean distance of facial landmarks and do not rely on predefined facial expressions, training of a model, or the use of facial standards. An empirical evaluation was conducted on video recordings of an experiment involving games as emotion elicitation sources. Results show statistically significant differences in the values of facial features during boring and stressful periods of gameplay for 5 of the 7 features. We believe our approach is more user-tailored, convenient, and better suited for contexts involving games.

  17. Peripheral facial palsy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Yılmaz, Tuba Sevim; Akıncı, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. The role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy in facial nerve damage

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Limei; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Facial nerve is easy to be damaged, and there are many reconstructive methods for facial nerve reconstructive, such as facial nerve end to end anastomosis, the great auricular nerve graft, the sural nerve graft, or hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis. However, there is still little study about great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy and the mechanism. Methods: Rat models of facia...

  19. The localization of facial motor impairment in sporadic Möbius syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, L; Chierici, E; Bianchi, B; Sesenna, E; Pavesi, G

    2006-06-27

    To investigate the neurophysiologic aspects of facial motor control in patients with sporadic Möbius syndrome defined as nonprogressive congenital facial and abducens palsy. The authors assessed 24 patients with sporadic Möbius syndrome by performing a complete clinical examination and neurophysiologic tests including facial nerve conduction studies, needle electromyography examination of facial muscles, and recording of the blink reflex and of the trigeminofacial inhibitory reflex. Two distinct groups of patients were identified according to neurophysiologic testing. The first group was characterized by increased facial distal motor latencies (DMLs) and poor recruitment of small and polyphasic motor unit action potentials (MUAPs). The second group was characterized by normal facial DMLs and neuropathic MUAPs. It is hypothesized that in the first group, the disorder is due to a rhombencephalic maldevelopment with selective sparing of small-size MUs, and in the second group, the disorder is related to an acquired nervous injury during intrauterine life, with subsequent neurogenic remodeling of MUs. The trigeminofacial reflexes showed that in most subjects of both groups, the functional impairment of facial movements was caused by a nuclear or peripheral site of lesion, with little evidence of brainstem interneuronal involvement. Two different neurophysiologically defined phenotypes can be distinguished in sporadic Möbius syndrome, with different pathogenetic implications.

  20. Management of Facial Synkinesis with a Combination of BTX-A and Biofeedback: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmomeny, Abbas Ali; Asadi, Sahar; Cheatsaz, Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Synkinesis and facial asymmetry due to facial nerve palsy are distressing conditions that affect quality of life. Unfortunately, these sequelae of facial nerve palsy are unresolved. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a combination of biofeedback therapy and botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection for the management of synkinesis and asymmetry of facial muscles. Among referrals from three university hospitals, 34 patients with facial synkinesis were divided randomly into two groups. All participants were evaluated using Photoshop software, videotape, and facial grading system (FGS). The first group received a single dose of BTX-A at the start of treatment, while the second group received normal saline as a control. Both groups received electromyography (EMG) biofeedback three times a week for 4 months. The mean FGS values for the BTX group before and after treatment were 55.17 and 74.17, respectively, and those for the biofeedback group were 66.31 and 81.37, respectively. Moreover, it was shown that in both groups oral-ocular and oculo-oral synkinesis decreased significantly after treatment compared with before treatment (PPhotoshop and videotape, these differences were even greater. Despite the decrease in synkinesis in both groups after treatment, there were no significant differences between the two treatment groups (P>0.05). Biofeedback therapy is as effective as the combination of biofeedback and BTX in reducing synkinesis and recovery of facial symmetry in Bell's palsy.

  1. Introduction to weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    An account is first given of the electromagnetic interactions of complex, scalar, vector and spinor fields. It is shown that the electromagnetic field may be considered as a gauge field. Yang-Mills fields and the field theory invariant with respect to the non-Abelian gauge transformation group are then described. The construction, owing to this invariance principle, of conserved isospin currents associated with gauge fields is also demonstrated. This is followed by a historical survey of the development of the weak interaction theory, established at first to describe beta disintegration processes by analogy with electrodynamics. The various stages are mentioned from the discovery of principles and rules and violation of principles, such as those of invariance with respect to spatial reflection and charge conjugation to the formulation of the effective current-current Lagrangian and research on the structure of weak currents [fr

  2. Weak states and security

    OpenAIRE

    Rakipi, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Although the weak 1 failing states have often been deseribed as the single most important problem for the international order s ince the en d of Cold W ar (F .Fukuyaına 2004:92) several dimensions of this phenomenon still remain unexplored. While this phenomenon has been present in the international politics even earlier, only the post Cold W ar period accentuated its relationship with security issues. Following the Cold W ar' s "peacef...

  3. Composite weak bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.

    1988-04-01

    Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

  4. Generation of facial expressions from emotion using a fuzzy rule based system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, T.D.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Stumptner, Markus; Corbett, Dan; Brooks, Mike

    2001-01-01

    We propose a fuzzy rule-based system to map representations of the emotional state of an animated agent onto muscle contraction values for the appropriate facial expressions. Our implementation pays special attention to the way in which continuous changes in the intensity of emotions can be

  5. Thixotropy of levator palpebrae as the cause of lagophthalmos after peripheral facial nerve palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramideh, M.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; Devriese, P. P.; Speelman, J. D.; Ongerboer de Visser, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    Patients with facial nerve palsy are at risk of developing corneal ulceration because of lagophthalmos (incomplete closure of the affected eyelid). Lagophthalmos could result from thixotropy of the levator palpebrae muscle-that is, the formation of tight crossbridges between the actin and myosin

  6. Survival and weak chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Sean

    2018-05-01

    Survival analysis in biology and reliability theory in engineering concern the dynamical functioning of bio/electro/mechanical units. Here we incorporate effects of chaotic dynamics into the classical theory. Dynamical systems theory now distinguishes strong and weak chaos. Strong chaos generates Type II survivorship curves entirely as a result of the internal operation of the system, without any age-independent, external, random forces of mortality. Weak chaos exhibits (a) intermittency and (b) Type III survivorship, defined as a decreasing per capita mortality rate: engineering explicitly defines this pattern of decreasing hazard as 'infant mortality'. Weak chaos generates two phenomena from the normal functioning of the same system. First, infant mortality- sensu engineering-without any external explanatory factors, such as manufacturing defects, which is followed by increased average longevity of survivors. Second, sudden failure of units during their normal period of operation, before the onset of age-dependent mortality arising from senescence. The relevance of these phenomena encompasses, for example: no-fault-found failure of electronic devices; high rates of human early spontaneous miscarriage/abortion; runaway pacemakers; sudden cardiac death in young adults; bipolar disorder; and epilepsy.

  7. Cross-face nerve grafting for reanimation of incomplete facial paralysis: quantitative outcomes using the FACIAL CLIMA system and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego; Cabello, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Although in most cases Bell palsy resolves spontaneously, approximately one-third of patients will present sequela including facial synkinesis and paresis. Currently, the techniques available for reanimation of these patients include hypoglossal nerve transposition, free muscle transfer, and cross-face nerve grafting (CFNG). Between December 2008 and March 2012, eight patients with incomplete unilateral facial paralysis were reanimated with two-stage CFNG. Gender, age at surgery, etiology of paralysis denervation time, donor and recipient nerves, presence of facial synkinesis, and follow-up were registered. Commissural excursion and velocity and patient satisfaction were evaluated with the FACIAL CLIMA and a questionnaire, respectively. Mean age at surgery was 33.8 ± 11.5 years; mean time of denervation was 96.6 ± 109.8 months. No complications requiring surgery were registered. Follow-up period ranged from 7 to 33 months with a mean of 19 ± 9.7 months. FACIAL CLIMA showed improvement of both commissural excursion and velocity greater than 75% in 4 patients, greater than 50% in 2 patients, and less than 50% in the remaining two patients. Qualitative evaluation revealed a high grade of satisfaction in six patients (75%). Two-stage CFNG is a reliable technique for reanimation of incomplete facial paralysis with a high grade of patient satisfaction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Deficient functional recovery after facial nerve crush in rats is associated with restricted rearrangements of synaptic terminals in the facial nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundeshagen, G; Szameit, K; Thieme, H; Finkensieper, M; Angelov, D N; Guntinas-Lichius, O; Irintchev, A

    2013-09-17

    Crush injuries of peripheral nerves typically lead to axonotmesis, axonal damage without disruption of connective tissue sheaths. Generally, human patients and experimental animals recover well after axonotmesis and the favorable outcome has been attributed to precise axonal reinnervation of the original peripheral targets. Here we assessed functionally and morphologically the long-term consequences of facial nerve axonotmesis in rats. Expectedly, we found that 5 months after crush or cryogenic nerve lesion, the numbers of motoneurons with regenerated axons and their projection pattern into the main branches of the facial nerve were similar to those in control animals suggesting precise target reinnervation. Unexpectedly, however, we found that functional recovery, estimated by vibrissal motion analysis, was incomplete at 2 months after injury and did not improve thereafter. The maximum amplitude of whisking remained substantially, by more than 30% lower than control values even 5 months after axonotmesis. Morphological analyses showed that the facial motoneurons ipsilateral to injury were innervated by lower numbers of glutamatergic terminals (-15%) and cholinergic perisomatic boutons (-26%) compared with the contralateral non-injured motoneurons. The structural deficits were correlated with functional performance of individual animals and associated with microgliosis in the facial nucleus but not with polyinnervation of muscle fibers. These results support the idea that restricted CNS plasticity and insufficient afferent inputs to motoneurons may substantially contribute to functional deficits after facial nerve injuries, possibly including pathologic conditions in humans like axonotmesis in idiopathic facial nerve (Bell's) palsy. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Finger extension weakness and downbeat nystagmus motor neuron disease syndrome: A novel motor neuron disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, Aline; Thakore, Nimish; Pioro, Erik P; Poesen, Koen; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Meijer, Inge A; Rucker, Janet C; Kissel, John T; Van Damme, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Disturbances of eye movements are infrequently encountered in motor neuron diseases (MNDs) or motor neuropathies, and there is no known syndrome that combines progressive muscle weakness with downbeat nystagmus. To describe the core clinical features of a syndrome of MND associated with downbeat nystagmus, clinical features were collected from 6 patients. All patients had slowly progressive muscle weakness and wasting in combination with downbeat nystagmus, which was clinically most obvious in downward and lateral gaze. Onset was in the second to fourth decade with finger extension weakness, progressing to other distal and sometimes more proximal muscles. Visual complaints were not always present. Electrodiagnostic testing showed signs of regional motor axonal loss in all patients. The etiology of this syndrome remains elusive. Because finger extension weakness and downbeat nystagmus are the discriminating clinical features of this MND, we propose the name FEWDON-MND syndrome. Muscle Nerve 56: 1164-1168, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Muscle & Nerve Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Remembering facial configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, V; Doyle, T; Dench, N; Burton, M

    1991-02-01

    Eight experiments are reported showing that subjects can remember rather subtle aspects of the configuration of facial features to which they have earlier been exposed. Subjects saw several slightly different configurations (formed by altering the relative placement of internal features of the face) of each of ten different faces, and they were asked to rate the apparent age and masculinity-femininity of each. Afterwards, subjects were asked to select from pairs of faces the configuration which was identical to one previously rated. Subjects responded strongly to the central or "prototypical" configuration of each studied face where this was included as one member of each test pair, whether or not it had been studied (Experiments 1, 2 and 4). Subjects were also quite accurate at recognizing one of the previously encountered extremes of the series of configurations that had been rated (Experiment 3), but when unseen prototypes were paired with seen exemplars subjects' performance was at chance (Experiment 5). Prototype learning of face patterns was shown to be stronger than that for house patterns, though both classes of patterns were affected equally by inversion (Experiment 6). The final two experiments demonstrated that preferences for the prototype could be affected by instructions at study and by whether different exemplars of the same face were shown consecutively or distributed through the study series. The discussion examines the implications of these results for theories of the representation of faces and for instance-based models of memory.

  11. Evaluation of a physiotherapeutic treatment intervention in "Bell's" facial palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederwall, Elisabet; Olsén, Monika Fagevik; Hanner, Per; Fogdestam, Ingemar

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a physiotherapeutic treatment intervention in Bell's palsy. A consecutive series of nine patients with Bell's palsy participated in the study. The subjects were enrolled 4-21 weeks after the onset of facial paralysis. The study had a single subject experimental design with a baseline period of 2-6 weeks and a treatment period of 26-42 weeks. The patients were evaluated using a facial grading score, a paresis index and a written questionnaire created for this study. Every patient was taught to perform an exercise program twice daily, including movements of the muscles surrounding the mouth, nose, eyes and forehead. All the patients improved in terms of symmetry at rest, movement and function. In conclusion, patients with remaining symptoms of Bell's palsy appear to experience positive effects from a specific training program. A larger study, however, is needed to fully evaluate the treatment.

  12. [Summary of professor YANG Jun's experience for intractable facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Li, Zaiyuan; Ge, Tingqiu; Zhang, Man; Yuan, Aihong; Yang, Jun

    2017-06-12

    Professor YANG Jun 's experience of diagnosis and treatment for intractable facial paralysis is introduced. Professor YANG focuses on the thinking model that combines TCM, western medicine and acupuncture, and adopts the differentiation system that combines disease differentiation, syndrome differentiation and meridian differentiation; he adopts the treatment integrates etiological treatment, overall regulation, symptomatic treatment as well as acupuncture, moxibustion, medication and flash cupping. The acupoints of yangming meridians are mostly selected, and acupoints of governor vessel such as Dazhui (GV 14) and Jinsuo (GV 8) are highly valued. The multiple-needles shallow-penetration-insertion twirling lifting and thrusting technique are mostly adopted to achieve slow and mild acupuncture sensation; in addition, the facial muscles are pulled up with mechanics action. The intensive stimulation with electroacupuncture is recommended at Qianzheng (Extra), Yifeng (TE 17) and Yangbai (GB 14), which is given two or three treatments per week.

  13. Outcomes of Buccinator Treatment With Botulinum Toxin in Facial Synkinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priyesh N; Owen, Scott R; Norton, Cathey P; Emerson, Brandon T; Bronaugh, Andrea B; Ries, William R; Stephan, Scott J

    2018-05-01

    The buccinator, despite being a prominent midface muscle, has been previously overlooked as a target in the treatment of facial synkinesis with botulinum toxin. To evaluate outcomes of patients treated with botulinum toxin to the buccinator muscle in the setting of facial synkinesis. Prospective cohort study of patients who underwent treatment for facial synkinesis with botulinum toxin over multiple treatment cycles during a 1-year period was carried out in a tertiary referral center. Botulinum toxin treatment of facial musculature, including treatment cycles with and without buccinator injections. Subjective outcomes were evaluated using the Synkinesis Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ) prior to injection of botulinum toxin and 2 weeks after treatment. Outcomes of SAQ preinjection and postinjection scores were compared in patients who had at least 1 treatment cycle with and without buccinator injections. Subanalysis was performed on SAQ questions specific to buccinator function (facial tightness and lip movement). Of 84 patients who received botulinum toxin injections for facial synkinesis, 33 received injections into the buccinator muscle. Of the 33, 23 met inclusion criteria (19 [82.6%] women; mean [SD] age, 46 [10] years). These patients presented for 82 treatment visits, of which 44 (53.6%) involved buccinator injections and 38 (46.4%) were without buccinator injections. The most common etiology of facial paralysis included vestibular schwannoma (10 [43.5%] participants) and Bell Palsy (9 [39.1%] participants). All patients had improved posttreatment SAQ scores compared with prebotulinum scores regardless of buccinator treatment. Compared with treatment cycles in which the buccinator was not addressed, buccinator injections resulted in lower total postinjection SAQ scores (45.9; 95% CI, 38.8-46.8; vs 42.8; 95% CI, 41.3-50.4; P = .43) and greater differences in prebotox and postbotox injection outcomes (18; 95% CI, 16.2-21.8; vs 19; 95% CI, 14.2-21.8; P

  14. [Contribution of botulinum toxin to maxillo-facial surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batifol, D; de Boutray, M; Goudot, P; Lorenzo, S

    2013-04-01

    Botulinum toxin has a wide range of use in maxillo-facial surgery due to its action on muscles, on the glandular system, and against pain. It already has been given several market authorizations as indicated for: blepharospasm, spasmodic stiff neck, and glabellar lines. Furthermore, several studies are ongoing to prove its effectiveness and usefulness for many other pathologies: treatment of pain following cervical spine surgery; action on salivary glands after trauma, hypertrophy, or hyper-salivation; analgesic action (acknowledged but still being experimented) on neuralgia, articular pain, and keloids scars due to its anti-inflammatory properties. Botulinum toxin injections in the cervico-facial area are more and more used and should be to be correctly assessed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome increases immobility-induced neuromuscular weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Heidrun; Helming, Marc; Unterbuchner, Christoph; Lenz, Andrea; Neff, Frauke; Martyn, J A Jeevendra; Blobner, Manfred

    2008-03-01

    Inflammation and immobility are comorbid etiological factors inducing muscle weakness in critically ill patients. This study establishes a rat model to examine the effect of inflammation and immobilization alone and in combination on muscle contraction, histology, and acetylcholine receptor regulation. Prospective, randomized, experimental study. Animal laboratory of a university hospital. Sprague-Dawley rats. To produce systemic inflammation, rats (n = 34) received three consecutive intravenous injections of Corynebacterium parvum on days 0, 4, and 8. Control rats (n = 21) received saline. Both groups were further divided to have one hind limb either immobilized by pinning of knee and ankle joints or sham-immobilized (surgical leg). The contralateral nonsurgical leg of each animal served as control (nonsurgical leg). After 12 days, body weight and muscle mass were significantly reduced in all C. parvum animals compared with saline-injected rats. Immobilization led to local muscle atrophy. Normalized to muscle mass, tetanic contraction was reduced in the surgical leg after immobilization (7.64 +/- 1.91 N/g) and after inflammation (8.71 +/- 2.0 N/g; both p < .05 vs. sham immobilization and saline injection, 11.03 +/- 2.26 N/g). Histology showed an increase in inflammatory cells in all C. parvum-injected animals. Immobilization in combination with C. parvum injection had an additive effect on inflammation. Acetylcholine receptors were increased in immobilized muscles and in all muscles of C. parvum-injected animals. The muscle weakness in critically ill patients can be replicated in our novel rat model. Inflammation and immobilization independently lead to muscle weakness.

  16. [Application of a mathematical algorithm for the detection of electroneuromyographic results in the pathogenesis study of facial dyskinesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribova, N P; Iudel'son, Ia B; Golubev, V L; Abramenkova, I V

    2003-01-01

    To carry out a differential diagnosis of two facial dyskinesia (FD) models--facial hemispasm (FH) and facial paraspasm (FP), a combined program of electroneuromyographic (ENMG) examination has been created, using statistical analyses, including that for objects identification based on hybrid neural network with the application of adaptive fuzzy logic method and standard statistics programs (Wilcoxon, Student statistics). In FH, a lesion of peripheral facial neuromotor apparatus with augmentation of functions of inter-neurons in segmental and upper segmental stem levels predominated. In FP, primary afferent strengthening in mimic muscles was accompanied by increased motor neurons activity and reciprocal augmentation of inter-neurons, inhibiting motor portion of V pair. Mathematical algorithm for ENMG results recognition worked out in the study provides a precise differentiation of two FD models and opens possibilities for differential diagnosis of other facial motor disorders.

  17. Serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphism affects detection of facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Koizumi

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR affects the recognition of facial expressions and attention to them. However, the relationship between 5-HTTLPR and the perceptual detection of others' facial expressions, the process which takes place prior to emotional labeling (i.e., recognition, is not clear. To examine whether the perceptual detection of emotional facial expressions is influenced by the allelic variation (short/long of 5-HTTLPR, happy and sad facial expressions were presented at weak and mid intensities (25% and 50%. Ninety-eight participants, genotyped for 5-HTTLPR, judged whether emotion in images of faces was present. Participants with short alleles showed higher sensitivity (d' to happy than to sad expressions, while participants with long allele(s showed no such positivity advantage. This effect of 5-HTTLPR was found at different facial expression intensities among males and females. The results suggest that at the perceptual stage, a short allele enhances the processing of positive facial expressions rather than that of negative facial expressions.

  18. Enhancing facial features by using clear facial features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofoo, Fanar Fareed Hanna

    2017-09-01

    The similarity of features between individuals of same ethnicity motivated the idea of this project. The idea of this project is to extract features of clear facial image and impose them on blurred facial image of same ethnic origin as an approach to enhance a blurred facial image. A database of clear images containing 30 individuals equally divided to five different ethnicities which were Arab, African, Chines, European and Indian. Software was built to perform pre-processing on images in order to align the features of clear and blurred images. And the idea was to extract features of clear facial image or template built from clear facial images using wavelet transformation to impose them on blurred image by using reverse wavelet. The results of this approach did not come well as all the features did not align together as in most cases the eyes were aligned but the nose or mouth were not aligned. Then we decided in the next approach to deal with features separately but in the result in some cases a blocky effect was present on features due to not having close matching features. In general the available small database did not help to achieve the goal results, because of the number of available individuals. The color information and features similarity could be more investigated to achieve better results by having larger database as well as improving the process of enhancement by the availability of closer matches in each ethnicity.

  19. [Idiopathic facial paralysis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, I; Chakroun, A; Ayedi, S; Ben Rhaiem, Z; Mnejja, M; Charfeddine, I; Hammami, B; Ghorbel, A

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic facial palsy is the most common cause of facial nerve palsy in children. Controversy exists regarding treatment options. The objectives of this study were to review the epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as the outcome of idiopathic facial palsy in children to suggest appropriate treatment. A retrospective study was conducted on children with a diagnosis of idiopathic facial palsy from 2007 to 2012. A total of 37 cases (13 males, 24 females) with a mean age of 13.9 years were included in this analysis. The mean duration between onset of Bell's palsy and consultation was 3 days. Of these patients, 78.3% had moderately severe (grade IV) or severe paralysis (grade V on the House and Brackmann grading). Twenty-seven patients were treated in an outpatient context, three patients were hospitalized, and seven patients were treated as outpatients and subsequently hospitalized. All patients received corticosteroids. Eight of them also received antiviral treatment. The complete recovery rate was 94.6% (35/37). The duration of complete recovery was 7.4 weeks. Children with idiopathic facial palsy have a very good prognosis. The complete recovery rate exceeds 90%. However, controversy exists regarding treatment options. High-quality studies have been conducted on adult populations. Medical treatment based on corticosteroids alone or combined with antiviral treatment is certainly effective in improving facial function outcomes in adults. In children, the recommendation for prescription of steroids and antiviral drugs based on adult treatment appears to be justified. Randomized controlled trials in the pediatric population are recommended to define a strategy for management of idiopathic facial paralysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Computer Aided Facial Prosthetics Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial deformities can impose burden to the patient. There are many solutions for facial deformities such as plastic surgery and facial prosthetics. However, current fabrication method of facial prosthetics is high-cost and time consuming. This study aimed to identify a new method to construct a customized facial prosthetic. A 3D scanner, computer software and 3D printer were used in this study. Results showed that the new developed method can be used to produce a customized facial prosthetics. The advantages of the developed method over the conventional process are low cost, reduce waste of material and pollution in order to meet the green concept.

  1. Hypernuclear weak decay puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, C.; Horvat, D.; Narancic, Z.; Krmpotic, F.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Tadic, D.

    2002-01-01

    A general shell model formalism for the nonmesonic weak decay of the hypernuclei has been developed. It involves a partial wave expansion of the emitted nucleon waves, preserves naturally the antisymmetrization between the escaping particles and the residual core, and contains as a particular case the weak Λ-core coupling formalism. The extreme particle-hole model and the quasiparticle Tamm-Dancoff approximation are explicitly worked out. It is shown that the nuclear structure manifests itself basically through the Pauli principle, and a very simple expression is derived for the neutron- and proton-induced decays rates Γ n and Γ p , which does not involve the spectroscopic factors. We use the standard strangeness-changing weak ΛN→NN transition potential which comprises the exchange of the complete pseudoscalar and vector meson octets (π,η,K,ρ,ω,K * ), taking into account some important parity-violating transition operators that are systematically omitted in the literature. The interplay between different mesons in the decay of Λ 12 C is carefully analyzed. With the commonly used parametrization in the one-meson-exchange model (OMEM), the calculated rate Γ NM =Γ n +Γ p is of the order of the free Λ decay rate Γ 0 (Γ NM th congruent with Γ 0 ) and is consistent with experiments. Yet the measurements of Γ n/p =Γ n /Γ p and of Γ p are not well accounted for by the theory (Γ n/p th p th > or approx. 0.60Γ 0 ). It is suggested that, unless additional degrees of freedom are incorporated, the OMEM parameters should be radically modified

  2. Atypical presentation of GNE myopathy with asymmetric hand weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, John Karl L.; Shrader, Joseph A.; Joe, Galen O.; McClean, Jeffrey C.; Williams, Kayla; Evers, Robert; Malicdan, May Christine V.; Ciccone, Carla; Mankodi, Ami; Huizing, Marjan; McKew, John C.; Bluemke, David A.; Gahl, William A.; Carrillo-Carrasco, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    GNE myopathy is a rare autosomal recessive muscle disease caused by mutations in GNE, the gene encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in sialic acid biosynthesis. GNE myopathy usually manifests in early adulthood with distal myopathy that progresses slowly and symmetrically, first involving distal muscles of the lower extremities, followed by proximal muscles with relative sparing of the quadriceps. Upper extremities are typically affected later in the disease. We report a patient with GNE myopathy who presented with asymmetric hand weakness. He had considerably decreased left grip strength, atrophy of the left anterior forearm and fibro-fatty tissue replacement of left forearm flexor muscles on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was an endoscopist and thus the asymmetric hand involvement may be associated with left hand overuse in daily repetitive pinching and gripping movements, highlighting the possible impact of environmental factors on the progression of genetic muscle conditions. PMID:25182749

  3. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  4. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within...... the framework of Bishop-style mathematics (which has been open for about 20 years). The underivability even holds if the ine.ective schema of full comprehension (in all types) for negated formulas (in particular for -free formulas) is added, which allows one to derive the law of excluded middle...

  5. Weak interaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarbaker, E.

    1995-01-01

    I review available techniques for extraction of weak interaction rates in nuclei. The case for using hadron charge exchange reactions to estimate such rates is presented and contrasted with alternate methods. Limitations of the (p,n) reaction as a probe of Gamow-Teller strength are considered. Review of recent comparisons between beta-decay studies and (p,n) is made, leading to cautious optimism regarding the final usefulness of (p,n)- derived GT strengths to the field of astrophysics. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  6. Outcome of different facial nerve reconstruction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Aboshanif; Omi, Eigo; Honda, Kohei; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Ishikawa, Kazuo

    There is no technique of facial nerve reconstruction that guarantees facial function recovery up to grade III. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of different facial nerve reconstruction techniques. Facial nerve reconstruction was performed in 22 patients (facial nerve interpositional graft in 11 patients and hypoglossal-facial nerve transfer in another 11 patients). All patients had facial function House-Brackmann (HB) grade VI, either caused by trauma or after resection of a tumor. All patients were submitted to a primary nerve reconstruction except 7 patients, where late reconstruction was performed two weeks to four months after the initial surgery. The follow-up period was at least two years. For facial nerve interpositional graft technique, we achieved facial function HB grade III in eight patients and grade IV in three patients. Synkinesis was found in eight patients, and facial contracture with synkinesis was found in two patients. In regards to hypoglossal-facial nerve transfer using different modifications, we achieved facial function HB grade III in nine patients and grade IV in two patients. Facial contracture, synkinesis and tongue atrophy were found in three patients, and synkinesis was found in five patients. However, those who had primary direct facial-hypoglossal end-to-side anastomosis showed the best result without any neurological deficit. Among various reanimation techniques, when indicated, direct end-to-side facial-hypoglossal anastomosis through epineural suturing is the most effective technique with excellent outcomes for facial reanimation and preservation of tongue movement, particularly when performed as a primary technique. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Weakly Supervised Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zeyu; Raich, Raviv; Fern, Xiaoli Z.; Kim, Jinsub

    2018-05-01

    We present a probabilistic modeling and inference framework for discriminative analysis dictionary learning under a weak supervision setting. Dictionary learning approaches have been widely used for tasks such as low-level signal denoising and restoration as well as high-level classification tasks, which can be applied to audio and image analysis. Synthesis dictionary learning aims at jointly learning a dictionary and corresponding sparse coefficients to provide accurate data representation. This approach is useful for denoising and signal restoration, but may lead to sub-optimal classification performance. By contrast, analysis dictionary learning provides a transform that maps data to a sparse discriminative representation suitable for classification. We consider the problem of analysis dictionary learning for time-series data under a weak supervision setting in which signals are assigned with a global label instead of an instantaneous label signal. We propose a discriminative probabilistic model that incorporates both label information and sparsity constraints on the underlying latent instantaneous label signal using cardinality control. We present the expectation maximization (EM) procedure for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of the proposed model. To facilitate a computationally efficient E-step, we propose both a chain and a novel tree graph reformulation of the graphical model. The performance of the proposed model is demonstrated on both synthetic and real-world data.

  8. Ethanol Exposure Causes Muscle Degeneration in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Coffey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic myopathies are characterized by neuromusculoskeletal symptoms such as compromised movement and weakness. Although these symptoms have been attributed to neurological damage, EtOH may also target skeletal muscle. EtOH exposure during zebrafish primary muscle development or adulthood results in smaller muscle fibers. However, the effects of EtOH exposure on skeletal muscle during the growth period that follows primary muscle development are not well understood. We determined the effects of EtOH exposure on muscle during this phase of development. Strikingly, muscle fibers at this stage are acutely sensitive to EtOH treatment: EtOH induces muscle degeneration. The severity of EtOH-induced muscle damage varies but muscle becomes more refractory to EtOH as muscle develops. NF-kB induction in muscle indicates that EtOH triggers a pro-inflammatory response. EtOH-induced muscle damage is p53-independent. Uptake of Evans blue dye shows that EtOH treatment causes sarcolemmal instability before muscle fiber detachment. Dystrophin-null sapje mutant zebrafish also exhibit sarcolemmal instability. We tested whether Trichostatin A (TSA, which reduces muscle degeneration in sapje mutants, would affect EtOH-treated zebrafish. We found that TSA and EtOH are a lethal combination. EtOH does, however, exacerbate muscle degeneration in sapje mutants. EtOH also disrupts adhesion of muscle fibers to their extracellular matrix at the myotendinous junction: some detached muscle fibers retain beta-Dystroglycan indicating failure of muscle end attachments. Overexpression of Paxillin, which reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish deficient for beta-Dystroglycan, is not sufficient to rescue degeneration. Taken together, our results suggest that EtOH exposure has pleiotropic deleterious effects on skeletal muscle.

  9. Muscle histochemistry in chronic alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Ferraz

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two chronic acoholic patients were assessed by neurologic examination and muscle biopsy. The patients manifested proximal muscular weakness to a variable extent. One case presented as an acute bout of myopathy, according to the Manual Muscle Test, MMT. The most prominent histologic feature observed was muscle atrophy (95.3% better evidenced through the ATPase stain with the predominance of type II A fibers (71.4%. Lack of the mosaic pattern (type grouping seen in 76% of the cases and an important mitochondrial proliferation with intrasarcoplasmatic lipid accumulation in 63% of the patients. In case of acute presentation of muscle weakness the. pathological substrate is quite different, i.e. presence of myositis mainly interstitial characterized by lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate and several spots of necrosis like Zencker degeneration. Based on histologic criteria, our data suggest that: the main determinant of muscle weakness seen in chronic alcoholic patients is neurogenic in origin (alcoholic polineuropathy; the direct toxic action of ethanol under the skeletal muscle is closely related to the mitochondrial metabolism; the so-called acute alcoholic myopathy has probably viral etiology.

  10. A muscle model for hybrid muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klauer Christian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To develop model-based control strategies for Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES in order to support weak voluntary muscle contractions, a hybrid model for describing joint motions induced by concurrent voluntary-and FES induced muscle activation is proposed. It is based on a Hammerstein model – as commonly used in feedback controlled FES – and exemplarily applied to describe the shoulder abduction joint angle. Main component of a Hammerstein muscle model is usually a static input nonlinearity depending on the stimulation intensity. To additionally incorporate voluntary contributions, we extended the static non-linearity by a second input describing the intensity of the voluntary contribution that is estimated by electromyography (EMG measurements – even during active FES. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used to describe the static input non-linearity. The output of the ANN drives a second-order linear dynamical system that describes the combined muscle activation and joint angle dynamics. The tunable parameters are adapted to the individual subject by a system identification approach using previously recorded I/O-data. The model has been validated in two healthy subjects yielding RMS values for the joint angle error of 3.56° and 3.44°, respectively.

  11. Nablus mask-like facial syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allanson, Judith; Smith, Amanda; Hare, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) has many distinctive phenotypic features, particularly tight glistening skin with reduced facial expression, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, bulky nasal tip, abnormal external ear architecture, upswept frontal hairline, and sparse eyebrows. Over the last few...

  12. A comprehensive approach to long-standing facial paralysis based on lengthening temporalis myoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbè, D; Bussu, F; Iodice, A

    2012-06-01

    Long-standing peripheral monolateral facial paralysis in the adult has challenged otolaryngologists, neurologists and plastic surgeons for centuries. Notwithstanding, the ultimate goal of normality of the paralyzed hemi-face with symmetry at rest, and the achievement of a spontaneous symmetrical smile with corneal protection, has not been fully reached. At the beginning of the 20(th) century, the main options were neural reconstructions including accessory to facial nerve transfer and hypoglossal to facial nerve crossover. In the first half of the 20(th) century, various techniques for static correction with autologous temporalis muscle and fascia grafts were proposed as the techniques of Gillies (1934) and McLaughlin (1949). Cross-facial nerve grafts have been performed since the beginning of the 1970s often with the attempt to transplant free-muscle to restore active movements. However, these transplants were non-vascularized, and further evaluations revealed central fibrosis and minimal return of function. A major step was taken in the second half of the 1970s, with the introduction of microneurovascular muscle transfer in facial reanimation, which, often combined in two steps with a cross-facial nerve graft, has become the most popular option for the comprehensive treatment of long-standing facial paralysis. In the second half of the 1990s in France, a regional muscle transfer technique with the definite advantages of being one-step, technically easier and relatively fast, namely lengthening temporalis myoplasty, acquired popularity and consensus among surgeons treating facial paralysis. A total of 111 patients with facial paralysis were treated in Caen between 1997 and 2005 by a single surgeon who developed 2 variants of the technique (V1, V2), each with its advantages and disadvantages, but both based on the same anatomo-functional background and aim, which is transfer of the temporalis muscle tendon on the coronoid process to the lips. For a comprehensive

  13. Facial EMG responses to emotional expressions are related to emotion perception ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Künecke

    Full Text Available Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a "reactivation" of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG--in response to emotional facial expressions. N° = °269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N° = °110 in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective.

  14. Facial EMG responses to emotional expressions are related to emotion perception ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künecke, Janina; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a "reactivation" of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG)--in response to emotional facial expressions. N° = °269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N° = °110) in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective.

  15. Virtual facial expressions of emotions: An initial concomitant and construct validity study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eJoyal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Background. Facial expressions of emotions represent classic stimuli for the study of social cognition. Developing virtual dynamic facial expressions of emotions, however, would open-up possibilities, both for fundamental and clinical research. For instance, virtual faces allow real-time Human-Computer retroactions between physiological measures and the virtual agent. Objectives. The goal of this study was to initially assess concomitant and construct validity of a newly developed set of virtual faces expressing 6 fundamental emotions (happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, or disgust. Recognition rates, facial electromyography (zygomatic major and corrugator supercilii muscles, and regional gaze fixation latencies (eyes and mouth regions were compared in 41 adult volunteers (20 ♂, 21 ♀ during the presentation of video clips depicting real vs. virtual adults expressing emotions. Results. Emotions expressed by each sets of stimuli were similarly recognized, both by men and women. Accordingly, both sets of stimuli elicited similar activation of facial muscles and similar ocular fixation times in eye regions from man and woman participants. Conclusion. Further validation studies can be performed with these virtual faces among clinical populations known to present social cognition difficulties. Brain-Computer Interface studies with feedback-feed forward interactions based on facial emotion expressions can also be conducted with these stimuli.

  16. Outcome of different facial nerve reconstruction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboshanif Mohamed

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: There is no technique of facial nerve reconstruction that guarantees facial function recovery up to grade III. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of different facial nerve reconstruction techniques. Methods: Facial nerve reconstruction was performed in 22 patients (facial nerve interpositional graft in 11 patients and hypoglossal-facial nerve transfer in another 11 patients. All patients had facial function House-Brackmann (HB grade VI, either caused by trauma or after resection of a tumor. All patients were submitted to a primary nerve reconstruction except 7 patients, where late reconstruction was performed two weeks to four months after the initial surgery. The follow-up period was at least two years. Results: For facial nerve interpositional graft technique, we achieved facial function HB grade III in eight patients and grade IV in three patients. Synkinesis was found in eight patients, and facial contracture with synkinesis was found in two patients. In regards to hypoglossal-facial nerve transfer using different modifications, we achieved facial function HB grade III in nine patients and grade IV in two patients. Facial contracture, synkinesis and tongue atrophy were found in three patients, and synkinesis was found in five patients. However, those who had primary direct facial-hypoglossal end-to-side anastomosis showed the best result without any neurological deficit. Conclusion: Among various reanimation techniques, when indicated, direct end-to-side facial-hypoglossal anastomosis through epineural suturing is the most effective technique with excellent outcomes for facial reanimation and preservation of tongue movement, particularly when performed as a primary technique.

  17. Dermal fillers for facial soft tissue augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastoor, Sarosh F; Misch, Carl E; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, patients are demanding not only enhancement to their dental (micro) esthetics, but also their overall facial (macro) esthetics. Soft tissue augmentation via dermal filling agents may be used to correct facial defects such as wrinkles caused by age, gravity, and trauma; thin lips; asymmetrical facial appearances; buccal fold depressions; and others. This article will review the pathogenesis of facial wrinkles, history, techniques, materials, complications, and clinical controversies regarding dermal fillers for soft tissue augmentation.

  18. Facial skin care products and cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2014-01-01

    Facial skin care products and cosmetics can both aid or incite facial dermatoses. Properly selected skin care can create an environment for barrier repair aiding in the re-establishment of a healing biofilm and diminution of facial redness; however, skin care products that aggressively remove intercellular lipids or cause irritation must be eliminated before the red face will resolve. Cosmetics are an additive variable either aiding or challenging facial skin health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Facial aging: A clinical classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiffman Melvin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this classification of facial aging is to have a simple clinical method to determine the severity of the aging process in the face. This allows a quick estimate as to the types of procedures that the patient would need to have the best results. Procedures that are presently used for facial rejuvenation include laser, chemical peels, suture lifts, fillers, modified facelift and full facelift. The physician is already using his best judgment to determine which procedure would be best for any particular patient. This classification may help to refine these decisions.

  20. Facial Baroparesis Caused by Scuba Diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kamide

    2012-01-01

    tympanic membrane and right facial palsy without other neurological findings. But facial palsy was disappeared immediately after myringotomy. We considered that the etiology of this case was neuropraxia of facial nerve in middle ear caused by over pressure of middle ear.

  1. Control de accesos mediante reconocimiento facial

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    En esta memoria expone el trabajo que se ha llevado a cabo para intentar crear un sistema de reconocimiento facial. This paper outlines the work carried out in the attempt of creating a facial recognition system. En aquesta memòria exposa el treball que s'ha dut a terme en l'intent de crear un sistema de reconeixement facial.

  2. Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles Sections Botulinum Toxin (Botox) ... Facial Wrinkles How Does Botulinum Toxin (Botox) Work? Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles Leer en Español: La ...

  3. Muscle channelopathies and electrophysiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian Ajith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic syndromes and periodic paralyses are rare disorders of skeletal muscle characterized mainly by muscle stiffness or episodic attacks of weakness. Familial forms are caused by mutation in genes coding for skeletal muscle voltage ionic channels. Familial periodic paralysis and nondystrophic myotonias are disorders of skeletal muscle excitability caused by mutations in genes coding for voltage-gated ion channels. These diseases are characterized by episodic failure of motor activity due to muscle weakness (paralysis or stiffness (myotonia. Clinical studies have identified two forms of periodic paralyses: hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoKPP and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (hyperKPP, based on changes in serum potassium levels during the attacks, and three distinct forms of myotonias: paramyotonia congenita (PC, potassium-aggravated myotonia (PAM, and myotonia congenita (MC. PC and PAM have been linked to missense mutations in the SCN4A gene, which encodes α subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, whereas MC is caused by mutations in the chloride channel gene (CLCN1. Exercise is known to trigger, aggravate, or relieve symptoms. Therefore, exercise can be used as a functional test in electromyography to improve the diagnosis of these muscle disorders. Abnormal changes in the compound muscle action potential can be disclosed using different exercise tests. Five electromyographic (EMG patterns (I-V that may be used in clinical practice as guides for molecular diagnosis are discussed.

  4. Facial expressions and pair bonds in hylobatids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkiewicz, Brittany; Skollar, Gabriella; Reichard, Ulrich H

    2018-06-06

    Facial expressions are an important component of primate communication that functions to transmit social information and modulate intentions and motivations. Chimpanzees and macaques, for example, produce a variety of facial expressions when communicating with conspecifics. Hylobatids also produce various facial expressions; however, the origin and function of these facial expressions are still largely unclear. It has been suggested that larger facial expression repertoires may have evolved in the context of social complexity, but this link has yet to be tested at a broader empirical basis. The social complexity hypothesis offers a possible explanation for the evolution of complex communicative signals such as facial expressions, because as the complexity of an individual's social environment increases so does the need for communicative signals. We used an intraspecies, pair-focused study design to test the link between facial expressions and sociality within hylobatids, specifically the strength of pair-bonds. The current study compared 206 hr of video and 103 hr of focal animal data for ten hylobatid pairs from three genera (Nomascus, Hoolock, and Hylobates) living at the Gibbon Conservation Center. Using video footage, we explored 5,969 facial expressions along three dimensions: repertoire use, repertoire breadth, and facial expression synchrony [FES]. We then used focal animal data to compare dimensions of facial expressiveness to pair bond strength and behavioral synchrony. Hylobatids in our study overlapped in only half of their facial expressions (50%) with the only other detailed, quantitative study of hylobatid facial expressions, while 27 facial expressions were uniquely observed in our study animals. Taken together, hylobatids have a large facial expression repertoire of at least 80 unique facial expressions. Contrary to our prediction, facial repertoire composition was not significantly correlated with pair bond strength, rates of territorial synchrony

  5. Disección anatómica de la musculatura mímica facial: revisión iconográfica de apoyo a los tratamientos complementarios en rejuvenecimiento facial Anatomical dissection of the mimic facial musculature: iconographic review as a support to the complementary treatments in facial rejuvenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Casado Sánchez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A la hora de valorar las múltiples técnicas empleadas en el rejuvenecimiento facial y centrándonos de manera particular en aquellos procedimientos mínimamente invasivos complementarios a las intervenciones habituales en Cirugía Plástica-Estética, cobra especial relevancia el conocimiento exhaustivo de las estructuras musculares implicadas en la mímica facial. A tal efecto, se ha realizado un estudio anatómico en cadáveres frescos, en los que se han disecado las principales estructuras referidas. Se presenta un resumen iconográfico de los músculos faciales implicados, haciendo hincapié en su anatomía descriptiva y funcional, así como un recuerdo de las principales áreas problemáticas por alguna circunstancia especial (presencia de un nervio sensitivo o motor.To value the multiple technologies involved in facial rejuvenation and focusing in those minimally invasive complementary procedures to the usual Plastic and Aesthetic Surgeries, it´s very important the exhaustive knowledge of the muscular structures involved in the facial movements. To such an effect, an anatomical study has been realized in fresh corpses, dissecting the principal above-mentioned structures. We present an iconographic summary of the facial implied muscles, emphasizing in his descriptive and functional anatomy, as well as a recollection of the principal problematic areas for some special circumstance (presence of a sensory or motor nerve.

  6. Intact Rapid Facial Mimicry as well as Generally Reduced Mimic Responses in Stable Schizophrenia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechko, Natalya; Pagel, Alena; Otte, Ellen; Koch, Iring; Habel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous emotional expressions (rapid facial mimicry) perform both emotional and social functions. In the current study, we sought to test whether there were deficits in automatic mimic responses to emotional facial expressions in patients (15 of them) with stable schizophrenia compared to 15 controls. In a perception-action interference paradigm (the Simon task; first experiment), and in the context of a dual-task paradigm (second experiment), the task-relevant stimulus feature was the gender of a face, which, however, displayed a smiling or frowning expression (task-irrelevant stimulus feature). We measured the electromyographical activity in the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscle regions in response to either compatible or incompatible stimuli (i.e., when the required response did or did not correspond to the depicted facial expression). The compatibility effect based on interactions between the implicit processing of a task-irrelevant emotional facial expression and the conscious production of an emotional facial expression did not differ between the groups. In stable patients (in spite of a reduced mimic reaction), we observed an intact capacity to respond spontaneously to facial emotional stimuli. PMID:27303335

  7. Perceptual integration of kinematic components in the recognition of emotional facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiovetto, Enrico; Curio, Cristóbal; Endres, Dominik; Giese, Martin

    2018-04-01

    According to a long-standing hypothesis in motor control, complex body motion is organized in terms of movement primitives, reducing massively the dimensionality of the underlying control problems. For body movements, this low-dimensional organization has been convincingly demonstrated by the learning of low-dimensional representations from kinematic and EMG data. In contrast, the effective dimensionality of dynamic facial expressions is unknown, and dominant analysis approaches have been based on heuristically defined facial "action units," which reflect contributions of individual face muscles. We determined the effective dimensionality of dynamic facial expressions by learning of a low-dimensional model from 11 facial expressions. We found an amazingly low dimensionality with only two movement primitives being sufficient to simulate these dynamic expressions with high accuracy. This low dimensionality is confirmed statistically, by Bayesian model comparison of models with different numbers of primitives, and by a psychophysical experiment that demonstrates that expressions, simulated with only two primitives, are indistinguishable from natural ones. In addition, we find statistically optimal integration of the emotion information specified by these primitives in visual perception. Taken together, our results indicate that facial expressions might be controlled by a very small number of independent control units, permitting very low-dimensional parametrization of the associated facial expression.

  8. Validation of the facial dysfunction domain of the Penn Acoustic Neuroma Quality-of-Life (PANQOL) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, Wouter L; Adan, Guleed H; Chean, Chung S; Lesser, Tristram H; Leong, Samuel C

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the strength of content validity within the facial dysfunction domain of the Penn Acoustic Neuroma Quality-of-Life (PANQOL) Scale and to compare how it correlates with a facial dysfunction-specific QOL instrument (Facial Clinimetric Evaluation, FaCE). The study design is online questionnaire survey. Members of the British Acoustic Neuroma Association received both PANQOL questionnaires and the FaCE scale. 158 respondents with self-identified facial paralysis or dysfunction had completed PANQOL and FaCE data sets for analysis. The mean composite PANQOL score was 53.5 (range 19.2-93.5), whilst the mean total FaCE score was 50.9 (range 10-95). The total scores of the PANQOL and FaCE correlated moderate (r = 0.48). Strong correlation (r = 0.63) was observed between the PANQOL's facial dysfunction domain and the FaCE total score. Of all the FaCE domains, social function was strongly correlated with the PANQOL facial dysfunction domain (r = 0.66), whilst there was very weak-to-moderate correlation (range 0.01-0.43) to the other FaCE domains. The current study has demonstrated a strong correlation between the facial dysfunction domains of PANQOL with a facial paralysis-specific QOL instrument.

  9. A successful double-layer facial nerve repair: A case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Dadaci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The best method to repair the facial nerve is to perform the primary repair soon after the injury, without any tension in the nerve ends. We present a case of patient who had a full-thickness facial nerve cut at two different levels. The patient underwent primary repair, recovered almost completely in the fourth postoperative month, and had full movement in mimic muscles. Despite lower success rates in double-level cuts, performing appropriate primary repair at an appropriate time can reverse functional losses at early stages, and lead to recovery without any complications. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(1.000: 24-27

  10. Face it a visual reference for multi-ethnic facial modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann Wells, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Face It  presents practical hands-on techniques, 3D modeling and sculpting tools with Maya and ZBrush production pipelines, uniquely focused on the facial modeling of 7 ethnicity models, featuring over 100 different models ranging in age from newborn to elderly characters. Face It is a resource for academic and professionals alike. Explore the modeling possibilities beyond the digital reference galleries online. No more having to adapt medical anatomy texts to your own models! Explore the finite details of facial anatomy with focus on skull development, muscle structure, e

  11. Pain Recognition using Spatiotemporal Oriented Energy of Facial Muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irani, Ramin; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a critical sign in many medical situations and its automatic detection and recognition using computer vision techniques is of great importance. Utilizes this fact that pain is a spatiotemporal process, the proposed system in this paper employs steerable and separable filters to measures e...

  12. Fraqueza muscular esquelética e intolerância ao exercício em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica Skeletal muscle weakness and exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KR Silva

    2008-06-01

    21cmH2O, p<0.05, palm grip strength (38±6 versus 47±5kg, p<0.05, peak torque (103±21 versus 138±18Nm, p<0.05 and total work of the quadriceps femoris (1570±395 versus 2333±568J, p<0.05 when compared with the control group (independent Student’s t test. There was no correlation between FEV1 and the variables studied, while the FFM correlated with the total work of the quadriceps (Pearson, r=0.6290, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that patients with COPD show weakness of the inspiratory and quadriceps muscles and lower functional capacity, when compared with a healthy group. Moreover, they suggest that the degree of airflow obstruction is not a good predictor for quantifying the nutritional and muscle impairments in patients with COPD.

  13. Eagle's syndrome with facial palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Hashim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eagle's syndrome (ES is a rare disease in which the styloid process is elongated and compressing adjacent structures. We describe a rare presentation of ES in which the patient presented with facial palsy. Facial palsy as a presentation of ES is very rare. A review of the English literature revealed only one previously reported case. Our case is a 39-year-old male who presented with left facial palsy. He also reported a 9-year history of the classical symptoms of ES. A computed tomography scan with three-dimensional reconstruction confirmed the diagnoses. He was started on conservative management but without significant improvement. Surgical intervention was offered, but the patient refused. It is important for otolaryngologists, dentists, and other specialists who deal with head and neck problems to be able to recognize ES despite its rarity. Although the patient responded to a treatment similar to that of Bell's palsy because of the clinical features and imaging, ES was most likely the cause of his facial palsy.

  14. Facial sculpting and tissue augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Jean D A; Carruthers, Alastair

    2005-11-01

    Until recently, deep facial sculpting was exclusively the domain of surgical interventions. Recent advances in the available array of dermal and subdermal fillers combined with an esthetic appreciation by both surgeons and nonsurgeons alike of the positive effect of filling the volume-depleted face have led to an expansion in the indications for the use of soft tissue augmenting agents. Subdermal support of the lateral two-thirds of the brow, the nasojugal fold, the malar and buccal fat pads, the lateral lip commissures, and the perioral region, including the pre-jowl sulcus, all restore youthful facial contour and harmony. An important advance in technique is the subdermal rather than the intradermal injection plane. "Instant" facial sculpting giving a brow-lift, cheek-lift, lip expansion, and perioral augmentation is possible using modern soft tissue augmenting agents. The softer, more relaxed appearance contrasts to the somewhat "pulled" appearance of subjects who have had surgical overcorrections. Treatments can be combined with botulinum toxin and other procedures if required. Newer advances in the use of fillers include the use of fillers injected in the subdermal plane for "lunchtime" facial sculpting. Using the modern esthetic filler compounds, which are biodegradable but longer lasting, subjects can have a "rehearsal" treatment or make it ongoing. Some individuals, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related lipoatrophy or those who desire to obtain a longer-lasting effect, may elect to use a nonbiodegradable filling agent.

  15. Asyndromic Bilateral Transverse Facial Cleft

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-23

    of this atypical cleft is unknown although the frequency ... on Tuesday, April 23, 2013, IP: 41.132.185.55] || Click here to download free Android application for this journal ... Facial cleft remains a source of social anxiety and in the past has lead ...

  16. Genetic determinants of facial clefting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Shi, Min; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Facial clefts are common birth defects with a strong genetic component. To identify fetal genetic risk factors for clefting, 1536 SNPs in 357 candidate genes were genotyped in two population-based samples from Scandinavia (Norway: 562 case-parent and 592 control-parent triads; Denmark...

  17. Complex Odontome Causing Facial Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeya Patil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common non-cystic odontogenic lesions representing 70% of all odontogenic tumors. Often small and asymptomatic, they are detected on routine radiographs. Occasionally they become large and produce expansion of bone with consequent facial asymmetry. We report a case of such a lesion causing expansion of the mandible in an otherwise asymptomatic patient.

  18. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  19. Facial Prototype Formation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inn, Donald; And Others

    This study examined memory representation as it is exhibited in young children's formation of facial prototypes. In the first part of the study, researchers constructed images of faces using an Identikit that provided the features of hair, eyes, mouth, nose, and chin. Images were varied systematically. A series of these images, called exemplar…

  20. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  1. Pseudotumoural hypertrophic neuritis of the facial nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Zanoletti, E; Mazzoni, A; Barbò, R

    2008-01-01

    In a retrospective study of our cases of recurrent paralysis of the facial nerve of tumoural and non-tumoural origin, a tumour-like lesion of the intra-temporal course of the facial nerve, mimicking facial nerve schwannoma, was found and investigated in 4 cases. This was defined as, pseudotumoral hypertrophic neuritis of the facial nerve. The picture was one of recurrent acute facial palsy with incomplete recovery and imaging of a benign tumour. It was different from the well-known recurrent ...

  2. Possibilities of pfysiotherapy in facial nerve paresis

    OpenAIRE

    ZIFČÁKOVÁ, Šárka

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor thesis addresses paresis of the facial nerve. The facial nerve paresis is a rather common illness, which cannot be often cured without consequences despite all the modern treatments. The paresis of the facial nerve occurs in two forms, central and peripheral. A central paresis is a result of a lesion located above the motor nucleus of the facial nerve. A peripheral paresis is caused by a lesion located either in the location of the motor nucleus or in the course of the facial ner...

  3. Impaired social brain network for processing dynamic facial expressions in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Wataru

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impairment of social interaction via facial expressions represents a core clinical feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. However, the neural correlates of this dysfunction remain unidentified. Because this dysfunction is manifested in real-life situations, we hypothesized that the observation of dynamic, compared with static, facial expressions would reveal abnormal brain functioning in individuals with ASD. We presented dynamic and static facial expressions of fear and happiness to individuals with high-functioning ASD and to age- and sex-matched typically developing controls and recorded their brain activities using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Result Regional analysis revealed reduced activation of several brain regions in the ASD group compared with controls in response to dynamic versus static facial expressions, including the middle temporal gyrus (MTG, fusiform gyrus, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG. Dynamic causal modeling analyses revealed that bi-directional effective connectivity involving the primary visual cortex–MTG–IFG circuit was enhanced in response to dynamic as compared with static facial expressions in the control group. Group comparisons revealed that all these modulatory effects were weaker in the ASD group than in the control group. Conclusions These results suggest that weak activity and connectivity of the social brain network underlie the impairment in social interaction involving dynamic facial expressions in individuals with ASD.

  4. Presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome with a homozygous sequence variant in LAMA5 combines myopia, facial tics, and failure of neuromuscular transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Ricardo A; Arredondo, Juan; Vázquez, Jessica; Chong, Jessica X; Bamshad, Michael J; Nickerson, Deborah A; Lara, Marian; Ng, Fiona; Lo, Victoria L; Pytel, Peter; McDonald, Craig M

    2017-08-01

    Defects in genes encoding the isoforms of the laminin alpha subunit have been linked to various phenotypic manifestations, including brain malformations, muscular dystrophy, ocular defects, cardiomyopathy, and skin abnormalities. We report here a severe defect of neuromuscular transmission in a consanguineous patient with a homozygous variant in the laminin alpha-5 subunit gene (LAMA5). The variant c.8046C>T (p.Arg2659Trp) is rare and has a predicted deleterious effect. The affected individual, who also carries a rare homozygous sequence variant in LAMA1, had muscle weakness, myopia, and facial tics. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed mild volume loss and periventricular T2 prolongation. Repetitive nerve stimulation revealed 50% decrement of compound muscle action potential amplitudes and 250% facilitation immediately after exercise, Endplate studies identified a profound reduction of the endplate potential quantal content and endplates with normal postsynaptic folding that were denuded or partially occupied by small nerve terminals. Expression studies revealed that p.Arg2659Trp caused decreased binding of laminin alpha-5 to SV2A and impaired laminin-521 cell-adhesion and cell projection support in primary neuronal cultures. In summary, this report describing severe neuromuscular transmission failure in a patient with a LAMA5 mutation expands the list of phenotypes associated with defects in genes encoding alpha-laminins. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  6. Imaging the Facial Nerve: A Contemporary Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Roehm, P.C.; Mends, F.; Hagiwara, M.; Fatterpekar, G.

    2013-01-01

    Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively. Ultrasound of the facial nerve has been used to predict functional outcomes in patients with Bell’s palsy. More recently, diffusion tensor tractography has appeared as a new modality which allows three-dimensional display of facial nerve fibers

  7. Facial Displays Are Tools for Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelli, Carlos; Fridlund, Alan J

    2018-05-01

    Based on modern theories of signal evolution and animal communication, the behavioral ecology view of facial displays (BECV) reconceives our 'facial expressions of emotion' as social tools that serve as lead signs to contingent action in social negotiation. BECV offers an externalist, functionalist view of facial displays that is not bound to Western conceptions about either expressions or emotions. It easily accommodates recent findings of diversity in facial displays, their public context-dependency, and the curious but common occurrence of solitary facial behavior. Finally, BECV restores continuity of human facial behavior research with modern functional accounts of non-human communication, and provides a non-mentalistic account of facial displays well-suited to new developments in artificial intelligence and social robotics. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuura Naomi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. Methods We tested 24 male adolescent/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control participants. Using standard photographs of facial expressions illustrating six basic emotions, participants matched each emotional facial expression with an appropriate verbal label. Results Delinquents were less accurate in the recognition of facial expressions that conveyed disgust than were control participants. The delinquents misrecognized the facial expressions of disgust as anger more frequently than did controls. Conclusion These results suggest that one of the underpinnings of delinquency might be impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions, with a specific bias toward interpreting disgusted expressions as hostile angry expressions.

  9. How much muscle strength is required to walk in a crouch gait?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steele, K.M.; van der Krogt, M.M.; Schwartz, M.H.; Delp, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Muscle weakness is commonly cited as a cause of crouch gait in individuals with cerebral palsy; however, outcomes after strength training are variable and mechanisms by which muscle weakness may contribute to crouch gait are unclear. Understanding how much muscle strength is required to walk in a

  10. Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma" "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Ramírez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Las técnicas subperiósticas descritas por Tessier revolucionaron el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial, recomendando esta vía para tratar los signos tempranos del envejecimiento en pacientes jóvenes y de mediana edad. Psillakis refinó la técnica y Ramírez describió un método más seguro y eficaz de lifting subperióstico, demostrando que la técnica subperióstica de rejuveneciento facial se puede aplicar en el amplio espectro del envejecimiento facial. La introducción del endoscopio en el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial ha abierto una nueva era en la Cirugía Estética. Hoy la disección subperióstica asistida endocópicamente del tercio superior, medio e inferior de la cara, proporciona un medio eficaz para la reposición de los tejidos blandos, con posibilidad de aumento del esqueleto óseo craneofacial, menor edema facial postoperatorio, mínima lesión de las ramas del nervio facial y mejor tratamiento de las mejillas. Este abordaje, desarrollado y refinado durante la última década, se conoce como "Ritidectomía en Doble Sigma". El Arco Veneciano en doble sigma, bien conocido en Arquitectura desde la antigüedad, se caracteriza por ser un trazo armónico de curva convexa y a continuación curva cóncava. Cuando se observa una cara joven, desde un ángulo oblicuo, presenta una distribución característica de los tejidos, previamente descrita para el tercio medio como un arco ojival arquitectónico o una curva en forma de "S". Sin embargo, en un examen más detallado de la cara joven, en la vista de tres cuartos, el perfil completo revela una "arco ojival doble" o una sigma "S" doble. Para ver este recíproco y multicurvilíneo trazo de la belleza, debemos ver la cara en posición oblicua y así poder ver ambos cantos mediales. En esta posición, la cara joven presenta una convexidad característica de la cola de la ceja que confluye en la concavidad de la pared orbitaria lateral formando así el primer arco (superior

  11. Lifting the nebula: novel insights into skeletal muscle contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenheijm, Coen A C; Granzier, Henk

    2010-10-01

    Nebulin is a giant protein and a constituent of the skeletal muscle sarcomere. The name of this protein refers to its unknown (i.e., nebulous) function. However, recent rapid advances reveal that nebulin plays important roles in the regulation of muscle contraction. When these functions of nebulin are compromised, muscle weakness ensues, as is the case in patients with nemaline myopathy.

  12. Corticosteroids for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhok, Vishnu B; Gagyor, Ildiko; Daly, Fergus; Somasundara, Dhruvashree; Sullivan, Michael; Gammie, Fiona; Sullivan, Frank

    2016-07-18

    Inflammation and oedema of the facial nerve are implicated in causing Bell's palsy. Corticosteroids have a potent anti-inflammatory action that should minimise nerve damage. This is an update of a review first published in 2002 and last updated in 2010. To determine the effectiveness and safety of corticosteroid therapy in people with Bell's palsy. On 4 March 2016, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS. We reviewed the bibliographies of the randomised trials and contacted known experts in the field to identify additional published or unpublished trials. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing trials. Randomised trials and quasi-randomised trials comparing different routes of administration and dosage schemes of corticosteroid or adrenocorticotrophic hormone therapy versus a control group receiving no therapy considered effective for this condition, unless the same therapy was given in a similar way to the experimental group. We used standard Cochrane methodology. The main outcome of interest was incomplete recovery of facial motor function (i.e. residual facial weakness). Secondary outcomes were cosmetically disabling persistent sequelae, development of motor synkinesis or autonomic dysfunction (i.e. hemifacial spasm, crocodile tears) and adverse effects of corticosteroid therapy manifested during follow-up. We identified seven trials, with 895 evaluable participants for this review. All provided data suitable for the primary outcome meta-analysis. One of the trials was new since the last version of this Cochrane systematic review. Risk of bias in the older, smaller studies included some unclear- or high-risk assessments, whereas we deemed the larger studies at low risk of bias. Overall, 79/452 (17%) participants allocated to corticosteroids had incomplete recovery of facial motor function six months or more after randomisation

  13. The effect of unilateral partial edentulism to muscle thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koca-Ceylan, Golzem; Guler, Ahmet U.; Taskay-Yelmir, Nergiz; Lutfi, Incesu; Aksoz, Tolga

    2003-01-01

    Teeth and muscle play a very important role for occlusal equilibrium and function.when tooth loss begins ,it may also effect the function of muscle tissues. The thickness of masseter and anterior temporalis muscles were measured bilaterally in 30 healthy fully dentate adults and in 30 unilateral edentulous patients by using ultrasonographic imaging. All scans were carried out by the same radiologist to eliminate the inter-observer difference, using a real time scanner (Toshiba SSA -270A,Japan). A 7.5 MHz linear transducer was used. The effect of age, sex, duration of partial edentulism, unilateral chewing habits of the individuals to the muscle thickness were also evaluated. In all subjects,facial proportion index was also determined. Main purpose of this study was to compare and establish the differences of muscle thickness between dentate and edentulous side in unilateral partial edentulous patients with ultrasonography and to test whether the variation in the thickness of the muscle is related to the variation in the facial and morphology. Ultrasonography revealed a large variation in the thickness of the masseter and temporolis muscles in experimental and controlled groups ,both relaxed and contracted conditions.The thickness of muscles in females was less in both conditions.In experimental group, a high negative correlation was found between the thickness of the masseter muscle and Facial Proportion Index ( FPI) in the females ,however, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference in the males. Also a high negative correlation was found in female control group. There was no statistically significant relationship between unilateral chewing habits and muscle thickness .In this study the duration of partial edentulism did not affect the thickness of the muscle.Further research is required to study muscular atrophy for comparison with total edentulism. (author)

  14. Facial Expression at Retrieval Affects Recognition of Facial Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng eChen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that memory can be modulated by emotional stimuli at the time of encoding and consolidation. For example, happy faces create better identity recognition than faces with certain other expressions. However, the influence of facial expression at the time of retrieval remains unknown in the literature. To separate the potential influence of expression at retrieval from its effects at earlier stages, we had participants learn neutral faces but manipulated facial expression at the time of memory retrieval in a standard old/new recognition task. The results showed a clear effect of facial expression, where happy test faces were identified more successfully than angry test faces. This effect is unlikely due to greater image similarity between the neutral learning face and the happy test face, because image analysis showed that the happy test faces are in fact less similar to the neutral learning faces relative to the angry test faces. In the second experiment, we investigated whether this emotional effect is influenced by the expression at the time of learning. We employed angry or happy faces as learning stimuli, and angry, happy, and neutral faces as test stimuli. The results showed that the emotional effect at retrieval is robust across different encoding conditions with happy or angry expressions. These findings indicate that emotional expressions affect the retrieval process in identity recognition, and identity recognition does not rely on emotional association between learning and test faces.

  15. Standard and Null Weak Values

    OpenAIRE

    Zilberberg, Oded; Romito, Alessandro; Gefen, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Weak value (WV) is a quantum mechanical measurement protocol, proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman. It consists of a weak measurement, which is weighed in, conditional on the outcome of a later, strong measurement. Here we define another two-step measurement protocol, null weak value (NVW), and point out its advantages as compared to WV. We present two alternative derivations of NWVs and compare them to the corresponding derivations of WVs.

  16. [Surgical treatment in otogenic facial nerve palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo-Dong; Gao, Zhi-Qiang; Zhai, Meng-Yao; Lü, Wei; Qi, Fang; Jiang, Hong; Zha, Yang; Shen, Peng

    2008-06-01

    To study the character of facial nerve palsy due to four different auris diseases including chronic otitis media, Hunt syndrome, tumor and physical or chemical factors, and to discuss the principles of the surgical management of otogenic facial nerve palsy. The clinical characters of 24 patients with otogenic facial nerve palsy because of the four different auris diseases were retrospectively analyzed, all the cases were performed surgical management from October 1991 to March 2007. Facial nerve function was evaluated with House-Brackmann (HB) grading system. The 24 patients including 10 males and 14 females were analysis, of whom 12 cases due to cholesteatoma, 3 cases due to chronic otitis media, 3 cases due to Hunt syndrome, 2 cases resulted from acute otitis media, 2 cases due to physical or chemical factors and 2 cases due to tumor. All cases were treated with operations included facial nerve decompression, lesion resection with facial nerve decompression and lesion resection without facial nerve decompression, 1 patient's facial nerve was resected because of the tumor. According to HB grade system, I degree recovery was attained in 4 cases, while II degree in 10 cases, III degree in 6 cases, IV degree in 2 cases, V degree in 2 cases and VI degree in 1 case. Removing the lesions completely was the basic factor to the surgery of otogenic facial palsy, moreover, it was important to have facial nerve decompression soon after lesion removal.

  17. Are facial expressions of emotion produced by categorical affect programs or dynamically driven by appraisal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Klaus R; Ellgring, Heiner

    2007-02-01

    The different assumptions made by discrete and componential emotion theories about the nature of the facial expression of emotion and the underlying mechanisms are reviewed. Explicit and implicit predictions are derived from each model. It is argued that experimental expression-production paradigms rather than recognition studies are required to critically test these differential predictions. Data from a large-scale actor portrayal study are reported to demonstrate the utility of this approach. The frequencies with which 12 professional actors use major facial muscle actions individually and in combination to express 14 major emotions show little evidence for emotion-specific prototypical affect programs. Rather, the results encourage empirical investigation of componential emotion model predictions of dynamic configurations of appraisal-driven adaptive facial actions. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Weak openness and almost openness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Rose

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak openness and almost openness for arbitrary functions between topological spaces are defined as duals to the weak continuity of Levine and the almost continuity of Husain respectively. Independence of these two openness conditions is noted and comparison is made between these and the almost openness of Singal and Singal. Some results dual to those known for weak continuity and almost continuity are obtained. Nearly almost openness is defined and used to obtain an improved link from weak continuity to almost continuity.

  19. Weak measurements and quantum weak values for NOON states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Zárate, L.; Opanchuk, B.; Reid, M. D.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum weak values arise when the mean outcome of a weak measurement made on certain preselected and postselected quantum systems goes beyond the eigenvalue range for a quantum observable. Here, we propose how to determine quantum weak values for superpositions of states with a macroscopically or mesoscopically distinct mode number, that might be realized as two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate or photonic NOON states. Specifically, we give a model for a weak measurement of the Schwinger spin of a two-mode NOON state, for arbitrary N . The weak measurement arises from a nondestructive measurement of the two-mode occupation number difference, which for atomic NOON states might be realized via phase contrast imaging and the ac Stark effect using an optical meter prepared in a coherent state. The meter-system coupling results in an entangled cat-state. By subsequently evolving the system under the action of a nonlinear Josephson Hamiltonian, we show how postselection leads to quantum weak values, for arbitrary N . Since the weak measurement can be shown to be minimally invasive, the weak values provide a useful strategy for a Leggett-Garg test of N -scopic realism.

  20. Perineural extension of facial melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalina, Peter [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Bevilacqua, Paula

    2005-05-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with a pigmented cutaneous lesion on the right side of his face along with right facial numbness. Histological examination revealed malignant melanoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed perineural extension along the entire course of the maxillary division of the right trigeminal nerve. This is a rare but important manifestation of the spread of head and neck malignancy. (orig.)

  1. Tactile Stimulation of the Face and the Production of Facial Expressions Activate Neurons in the Primate Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Clayton P; Zimmerman, Prisca E; Fuglevand, Andrew J; Gothard, Katalin M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of neurophysiological studies that have explored the role of the primate amygdala in the evaluation of social signals have relied on visual stimuli such as images of facial expressions. Vision, however, is not the only sensory modality that carries social signals. Both humans and nonhuman primates exchange emotionally meaningful social signals through touch. Indeed, social grooming in nonhuman primates and caressing touch in humans is critical for building lasting and reassuring social bonds. To determine the role of the amygdala in processing touch, we recorded the responses of single neurons in the macaque amygdala while we applied tactile stimuli to the face. We found that one-third of the recorded neurons responded to tactile stimulation. Although we recorded exclusively from the right amygdala, the receptive fields of 98% of the neurons were bilateral. A fraction of these tactile neurons were monitored during the production of facial expressions and during facial movements elicited occasionally by touch stimuli. Firing rates arising during the production of facial expressions were similar to those elicited by tactile stimulation. In a subset of cells, combining tactile stimulation with facial movement further augmented the firing rates. This suggests that tactile neurons in the amygdala receive input from skin mechanoceptors that are activated by touch and by compressions and stretches of the facial skin during the contraction of the underlying muscles. Tactile neurons in the amygdala may play a role in extracting the valence of touch stimuli and/or monitoring the facial expressions of self during social interactions.

  2. A forgotten facial nerve tumour: granular cell tumour of the parotid and its implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerut, B; Vosbeck, J; Linder, T E

    2011-04-01

    We present a rare case of a facial nerve granular cell tumour in the right parotid gland, in a 10-year-old boy. A parotid or neurogenic tumour was suspected, based on magnetic resonance imaging. Intra-operatively, strong adhesions to surrounding structures were found, and a midfacial nerve branch had to be sacrificed for complete tumour removal. Recent reports verify that granular cell tumours arise from Schwann cells of peripheral nerve branches. The rarity of this tumour within the parotid gland, its origin from peripheral nerves, its sometimes misleading imaging characteristics, and its rare presentation with facial weakness and pain all have considerable implications on the surgical strategy and pre-operative counselling. Fine needle aspiration cytology may confirm the neurogenic origin of this lesion. When resecting the tumour, the surgeon must anticipate strong adherence to the facial nerve and be prepared to graft, or sacrifice, certain branches of this nerve.

  3. Your Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up ... body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable ...

  4. Síndrome de dolor facial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. F. Eugenio Tenhamm

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El dolor o algia facial constituye un síndrome doloroso de las estructuras cráneo faciales bajo el cual se agrupan un gran número de enfermedades. La mejor manera de abordar el diagnóstico diferencial de las entidades que causan el dolor facial es usando un algoritmo que identifica cuatro síndromes dolorosos principales que son: las neuralgias faciales, los dolores faciales con síntomas y signos neurológicos, las cefaleas autonómicas trigeminales y los dolores faciales sin síntomas ni signos neurológicos. Una evaluación clínica detallada de los pacientes, permite una aproximación etiológica lo que orienta el estudio diagnóstico y permite ofrecer una terapia específica a la mayoría de los casos

  5. Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kenichi; Masuda, Takahiko; Li, Liman Man Wai

    2013-06-01

    Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed.

  6. Facial neuroma masquerading as acoustic neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Eli T; Kaur, Gurvinder; Ivan, Michael E; Bloch, Orin; Cheung, Steven W; Parsa, Andrew T

    2014-10-01

    Facial nerve neuromas are rare benign tumors that may be initially misdiagnosed as acoustic neuromas when situated near the auditory apparatus. We describe a patient with a large cystic tumor with associated trigeminal, facial, audiovestibular, and brainstem dysfunction, which was suspicious for acoustic neuroma on preoperative neuroimaging. Intraoperative investigation revealed a facial nerve neuroma located in the cerebellopontine angle and internal acoustic canal. Gross total resection of the tumor via retrosigmoid craniotomy was curative. Transection of the facial nerve necessitated facial reanimation 4 months later via hypoglossal-facial cross-anastomosis. Clinicians should recognize the natural history, diagnostic approach, and management of this unusual and mimetic lesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise-induced muscle modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerviler, E. de; Willig, A.L.; Jehenson, P.; Duboc, D.; Syrota, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper compares changes in muscle proton T2 after exercise in normal subjects and in patients with muscular glycogenoses. Four patients suffering from muscular glycogenosis and eight normal volunteers were studied. Muscle T2s were measured in forearm muscles at rest and after exercise, with a 0.5-T imager. The exercise was performed with handgrips and was evaluated by P-31 spectroscopy (end-exercise decrease in pH and phosphocreatine) performed with a 2-T magnet. In normal subjects, a relative T2 increase, ranging from 14% to 44%, was observed in the exercised muscles. In the patients, who cannot produce lactate during exercise, weak pH variation occurred, and only a slight T2 increase (7% - 9%) was observed

  8. Weak decays of stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1988-09-01

    In this article we review recent advances in the field of weak decays and consider their implications for quantum chromodynamics (the theory of strong interactions) and electroweak theory (the combined theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions), which together form the ''Standard Model'' of elementary particles. (author)

  9. Contractures and muscle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R Jon

    2016-08-01

    Contractures are one of a handful of signs in muscle disease, besides weakness and its distribution, whose presence can help guide us diagnostically, a welcome star on the horizon. Contractures are associated with several myopathies, some with important cardiac manifestations, and consequently are important to recognise; their presence may also provide us with a potential satisfying 'penny dropping' diagnostic moment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Facial transplantation: an anatomic and surgical analysis of the periorbital functional unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilic, Dalibor; Barker, John H; Blagg, Ross; Whitaker, Iain; Kon, Moshe; Gossman, M Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Complete loss of eyelid pair is associated with chronic discomfort, corneal ulceration, and visual impairment. Contemporary reconstructive techniques rarely provide functionally acceptable results. Composite tissue allotransplantation may provide a viable alternative. This study reports on neurovascular anatomy and technical details of harvesting an isolated periorbital unit and discusses its functional potential. Twenty-four hemifaces (12 fresh cadavers) were dissected to study surgically relevant neurovascular structures and to develop an efficient harvest method. Angiographic analysis was performed in seven hemifaces following harvest. The superficial temporal and facial vessels demonstrated consistent location and diameters. Anatomic variability was characterized by the absence of the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery or facial-to-angular artery continuation, but never of both vessels in the same hemiface. Angiographic analysis demonstrated filling of the eyelid arcades, provided the anastomoses between the internal and external carotid branches were preserved. The facial nerve exhibited consistent planar arrangement and diameters in the intraparotid and proximal extraparotid regions, but less so in the distal nerve course. The inferior zygomatic and buccal branches frequently coinnervated the orbicularis oculi and lower facial muscles with an unpredictable intermuscular course. Based on the foregoing, an effective surgical harvest of the periorbital composite was developed. Surgical harvest of a functional periorbital allotransplant is technically feasible. Revascularization of the isolated periorbital unit is influenced by variations in regional anatomy and cannot be guaranteed by a single vascular pedicle. The orbicularis oculi muscle and its innervation can be preserved, and recovery, albeit without the certainty of reflexive blinking, is expected.

  11. Electromagnetic current in weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, E.

    1983-01-01

    In gauge models which unify weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current. The exact nature of such a component can be explored using e + e - experimental data. In recent years, the existence of a new component of the weak interaction has become firmly established, i.e., the neutral-current interaction. As such, it competes with the electromagnetic interaction whenever the particles involved are also charged, but at a very much lower rate because its effective strength is so small. Hence neutrino processes are best for the detection of the neutral-current interaction. However, in any gauge model which unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current

  12. Weak values in collision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Leonardo Andreta; Brasil, Carlos Alexandre; Napolitano, Reginaldo de Jesus

    2018-05-01

    Weak measurements have an increasing number of applications in contemporary quantum mechanics. They were originally described as a weak interaction that slightly entangled the translational degrees of freedom of a particle to its spin, yielding surprising results after post-selection. That description often ignores the kinetic energy of the particle and its movement in three dimensions. Here, we include these elements and re-obtain the weak values within the context of collision theory by two different approaches, and prove that the results are compatible with each other and with the results from the traditional approach. To provide a more complete description, we generalize weak values into weak tensors and use them to provide a more realistic description of the Stern-Gerlach apparatus.

  13. Influence of gravity upon some facial signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, F; Bazin, R; Piot, B

    2015-06-01

    Facial clinical signs and their integration are the basis of perception than others could have from ourselves, noticeably the age they imagine we are. Facial modifications in motion and their objective measurements before and after application of skin regimen are essential to go further in evaluation capacities to describe efficacy in facial dynamics. Quantification of facial modifications vis à vis gravity will allow us to answer about 'control' of facial shape in daily activities. Standardized photographs of the faces of 30 Caucasian female subjects of various ages (24-73 year) were successively taken at upright and supine positions within a short time interval. All these pictures were therefore reframed - any bias due to facial features was avoided when evaluating one single sign - for clinical quotation by trained experts of several facial signs regarding published standardized photographic scales. For all subjects, the supine position increased facial width but not height, giving a more fuller appearance to the face. More importantly, the supine position changed the severity of facial ageing features (e.g. wrinkles) compared to an upright position and whether these features were attenuated or exacerbated depended on their facial location. Supine station mostly modifies signs of the lower half of the face whereas those of the upper half appear unchanged or slightly accentuated. These changes appear much more marked in the older groups, where some deep labial folds almost vanish. These alterations decreased the perceived ages of the subjects by an average of 3.8 years. Although preliminary, this study suggests that a 90° rotation of the facial skin vis à vis gravity induces rapid rearrangements among which changes in tensional forces within and across the face, motility of interstitial free water among underlying skin tissue and/or alterations of facial Langer lines, likely play a significant role. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Fran

  14. Association between statin-associated myopathy and skeletal muscle damage.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohaupt Markus G; Karas Richard H; Babiychuk Eduard B; Sanchez-Freire Verónica; Monastyrskaya Katia; Iyer Lakshmanan; Hoppeler Hans; Breil Fabio; Draeger Annette

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many patients taking statins often complain of muscle pain and weakness. The extent to which muscle pain reflects muscle injury is unknown. METHODS We obtained biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis muscle of 83 patients. Of the 44 patients with clinically diagnosed statin associated myopathy 29 were currently taking a statin and 15 had discontinued statin therapy before the biopsy (minimal duration of discontinuation 3 weeks). We also included 19 patients who were taking stat...

  15. The neurosurgical treatment of neuropathic facial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey A

    2014-04-01

    This article reviews the definition, etiology and evaluation, and medical and neurosurgical treatment of neuropathic facial pain. A neuropathic origin for facial pain should be considered when evaluating a patient for rhinologic surgery because of complaints of facial pain. Neuropathic facial pain is caused by vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve in the prepontine cistern and is characterized by an intermittent prickling or stabbing component or a constant burning, searing pain. Medical treatment consists of anticonvulsant medication. Neurosurgical treatment may require microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Predicting facial characteristics from complex polygenic variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Wolffhechel, Karin Marie Brandt; Pers, Tune

    2015-01-01

    Research into the importance of the human genome in the context of facial appearance is receiving increasing attention and has led to the detection of several Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of importance. In this work we attempt a holistic approach predicting facial characteristics from...... genetic principal components across a population of 1,266 individuals. For this we perform a genome-wide association analysis to select a large number of SNPs linked to specific facial traits, recode these to genetic principal components and then use these principal components as predictors for facial...

  17. Desarrollo de un sistema de reconocimiento facial

    OpenAIRE

    Vivas Imparato, Abdón Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo principal alrededor del cual se desenvuelve este proyecto es el desarrollo de un sistema de reconocimiento facial. Entre sus objetivos específicos se encuentran: realizar una primera aproximación sobre las técnicas de reconocimiento facial existentes en la actualidad, elegir una aplicación donde pueda ser útil el reconocimiento facial, diseñar y desarrollar un programa en MATLAB que lleve a cabo la función de reconocimiento facial, y evaluar el funcionamiento del sistema desarroll...

  18. Social Use of Facial Expressions in Hylobatids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheider, Linda; Waller, Bridget M.; Oña, Leonardo; Burrows, Anne M.; Liebal, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates use various communicative means in interactions with others. While primate gestures are commonly considered to be intentionally and flexibly used signals, facial expressions are often referred to as inflexible, automatic expressions of affective internal states. To explore whether and how non-human primates use facial expressions in specific communicative interactions, we studied five species of small apes (gibbons) by employing a newly established Facial Action Coding System for hylobatid species (GibbonFACS). We found that, despite individuals often being in close proximity to each other, in social (as opposed to non-social contexts) the duration of facial expressions was significantly longer when gibbons were facing another individual compared to non-facing situations. Social contexts included grooming, agonistic interactions and play, whereas non-social contexts included resting and self-grooming. Additionally, gibbons used facial expressions while facing another individual more often in social contexts than non-social contexts where facial expressions were produced regardless of the attentional state of the partner. Also, facial expressions were more likely ‘responded to’ by the partner’s facial expressions when facing another individual than non-facing. Taken together, our results indicate that gibbons use their facial expressions differentially depending on the social context and are able to use them in a directed way in communicative interactions with other conspecifics. PMID:26978660

  19. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V.; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people’s perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects’ personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs’ emotional facial expressions. PMID:28114335

  20. The Influence of Facial Signals on the Automatic Imitation of Hand Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Emily E; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and facial signals are fundamental social cues that guide interactions with others, but little is known regarding the relationship between these behaviors. It is clear that during expression detection, we imitate observed expressions by engaging similar facial muscles. It is proposed that a cognitive system, which matches observed and performed actions, controls imitation and contributes to emotion understanding. However, there is little known regarding the consequences of recognizing affective states for other forms of imitation, which are not inherently tied to the observed emotion. The current study investigated the hypothesis that facial cue valence would modulate automatic imitation of hand actions. To test this hypothesis, we paired different types of facial cue with an automatic imitation task. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that a smile prompted greater automatic imitation than angry and neutral expressions. Additionally, a meta-analysis of this and previous studies suggests that both happy and angry expressions increase imitation compared to neutral expressions. By contrast, Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated that invariant facial cues, which signal trait-levels of agreeableness, had no impact on imitation. Despite readily identifying trait-based facial signals, levels of agreeableness did not differentially modulate automatic imitation. Further, a Bayesian analysis showed that the null effect was between 2 and 5 times more likely than the experimental effect. Therefore, we show that imitation systems are more sensitive to prosocial facial signals that indicate "in the moment" states than enduring traits. These data support the view that a smile primes multiple forms of imitation including the copying actions that are not inherently affective. The influence of expression detection on wider forms of imitation may contribute to facilitating interactions between individuals, such as building rapport and affiliation.

  1. The Anatomy of the Facial Vein: Implications for Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotofana, Sebastian; Steinke, Hanno; Schlattau, Alexander; Schlager, Markus; Sykes, Jonathan M; Roth, Malcolm Z; Gaggl, Alexander; Giunta, Riccardo E; Gotkin, Robert H; Schenck, Thilo L

    2017-06-01

    Anatomical knowledge of the facial vasculature is crucial for successful plastic, reconstructive, and minimally invasive procedures of the face. Whereas the majority of previous investigations focused on facial arteries, the precise course, variability, and relationship with adjacent structures of the facial vein have been widely neglected. Seventy-two fresh frozen human cephalic cadavers (32 male and 40 female cadavers; mean age, 75.2 ± 10.9 years; mean body mass index, 24.2 ± 6.6 kg/m; 99 percent Caucasian ethnicity) were investigated by means of layer-by-layer anatomical dissection. In addition, 10 cephalic specimens were investigated using contrast agent-enhanced computed tomographic imaging. The facial vein displayed a constant course in relation to the adjacent anatomical structures. The vein was identified posterior to the facial artery, anterior to the parotid duct, and deep to the zygomaticus major muscle. The angular vein formed the lateral boundary of the deep medial cheek fat and the premaxillary space, and the medial boundary of the deep lateral cheek fat and the sub-orbicularis oculi fat. The mean distance of the inferior and superior labial veins, of the deep facial vein, and of the angular vein from the inferior orbital margin was 51.6 ± 3.1, 42.6 ± 2.3, 27.4 ± 3.0, and 4.2 ± 0.7 mm, respectively. This work provides detailed information on the course of the facial vein in relation to neighboring structures. The presented clinically relevant anatomical observations and descriptions of landmarks will serve as helpful information for plastic, reconstructive, and aesthetic surgeons.

  2. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miiamaaria V Kujala

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people's perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects' personality (the Big Five Inventory, empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs' emotional facial expressions.

  3. When the mask falls: the role of facial motor resonance in memory for emotional language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Jenny-Charlotte; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida; Foroni, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    The recognition and interpretation of emotional information (e.g., about happiness) has been shown to elicit, amongst other bodily reactions, spontaneous facial expressions occurring in accordance to the relevant emotion (e.g. a smile). Theories of embodied cognition act on the assumption that such embodied simulations are not only an accessorial, but a crucial factor in the processing of emotional information. While several studies have confirmed the importance of facial motor resonance during the initial recognition of emotional information, its role at later stages of processing, such as during memory for emotional content, remains unexplored. The present study bridges this gap by exploring the impact of facial motor resonance on the retrieval of emotional stimuli. In a novel approach, the specific effects of embodied simulations were investigated at different stages of emotional memory processing (during encoding and/or retrieval). Eighty participants underwent a memory task involving emotional and neutral words consisting of an encoding and retrieval phase. Depending on the experimental condition, facial muscles were blocked by a hardening facial mask either during encoding, during retrieval, during both encoding and retrieval, or were left free to resonate (control). The results demonstrate that not only initial recognition but also memory of emotional items benefits from embodied simulations occurring during their encoding and retrieval. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Joint Facial Action Unit Detection and Feature Fusion: A Multi-conditional Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, Stefanos; Rudovic, Ognjen; Pantic, Maja

    2016-10-05

    Automated analysis of facial expressions can benefit many domains, from marketing to clinical diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Facial expressions are typically encoded as a combination of facial muscle activations, i.e., action units. Depending on context, these action units co-occur in specific patterns, and rarely in isolation. Yet, most existing methods for automatic action unit detection fail to exploit dependencies among them, and the corresponding facial features. To address this, we propose a novel multi-conditional latent variable model for simultaneous fusion of facial features and joint action unit detection. Specifically, the proposed model performs feature fusion in a generative fashion via a low-dimensional shared subspace, while simultaneously performing action unit detection using a discriminative classification approach. We show that by combining the merits of both approaches, the proposed methodology outperforms existing purely discriminative/generative methods for the target task. To reduce the number of parameters, and avoid overfitting, a novel Bayesian learning approach based on Monte Carlo sampling is proposed, to integrate out the shared subspace. We validate the proposed method on posed and spontaneous data from three publicly available datasets (CK+, DISFA and Shoulder-pain), and show that both feature fusion and joint learning of action units leads to improved performance compared to the state-of-the-art methods for the task.

  5. Dimensional Information-Theoretic Measurement of Facial Emotion Expressions in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihun Hamm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered facial expressions of emotions are characteristic impairments in schizophrenia. Ratings of affect have traditionally been limited to clinical rating scales and facial muscle movement analysis, which require extensive training and have limitations based on methodology and ecological validity. To improve reliable assessment of dynamic facial expression changes, we have developed automated measurements of facial emotion expressions based on information-theoretic measures of expressivity of ambiguity and distinctiveness of facial expressions. These measures were examined in matched groups of persons with schizophrenia (n=28 and healthy controls (n=26 who underwent video acquisition to assess expressivity of basic emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust in evoked conditions. Persons with schizophrenia scored higher on ambiguity, the measure of conditional entropy within the expression of a single emotion, and they scored lower on distinctiveness, the measure of mutual information across expressions of different emotions. The automated measures compared favorably with observer-based ratings. This method can be applied for delineating dynamic emotional expressivity in healthy and clinical populations.

  6. Muscle Sensor Model Using Small Scale Optical Device for Pattern Recognitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreangsak Tamee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new sensor system for measuring contraction and relaxation of muscles by using a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. The small scale optical device is designed and configured to perform the coupling effects between the changes in optical device phase shift and human facial muscle movement, which can be used to form the relationship between optical phase shift and muscle movement. By using the Optiwave and MATLAB programs, the results obtained have shown that the measurement of the contraction and relaxation of muscles can be obtained after the muscle movements, in which the unique pattern of individual muscle movement from facial expression can be established. The obtained simulation results, that is, interference signal patterns, can be used to form the various pattern recognitions, which are useful for the human machine interface and the human computer interface application and discussed in detail.

  7. [Special penetration needling for refractory peripheral facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rongjuan; Qiu, Xiaohu; Xie, Xiaokun

    2018-03-12

    To observe the clinical effect difference between special penetration needling and conventional penetration needling for the refractory peripheral facial paralysis. A total of 97 patients with intractable facial paralysis were randomized into an observation group (49 cases and 2 dropping) and a control group (48 cases and 4 dropping). In the observation group, special penetration needling at an angle about 45° between the penetration needle and paralysis muscle bundle was used, Yangbai (GB 14) through Touwei (ST 8), Yangbai (GB 14) through Shangxing (GV 23), Sizhukong (TE 23) through Yuyao (EX-HN 4), Qianzhen (Extra) through Yingxiang (LI 20), mutual penetration between Yingxiang (LI 20) and Jiache (ST 6). Conventional penetration needling was applied in the control group, Yangbai (GB 14) through Yuyao (EX-HN 4), Cuanzhu (BL 2) through Yuyao (EX-HN 4), mutual penetration between Dicang (ST 4) and Jiache (ST 6), Qianzheng (Extra) through Dicang (ST 4), Sibai (ST 2) through Yingxiang (LI 20). Three groups of electroacupuncture (discontinuous wave, 1 Hz) with tolerance were connected respectively in the two groups, Yangbai (GB 14) and Sizhukong (TE 23), Yangbai (GB 14) and Qianzheng (Extra), Yingxiang (LI 20) and Jiache (ST 6) in the observation group, Yangbai (GB 14) and Cuanzhu (BL 2), Dicang (ST 4) and Jiache (ST 6), Qianzheng (Extra) and Sibai (ST 2) in the control group. TDP was applied in the two groups at the affected Yifeng (TE 17), Jiache (ST 6) and Qianzheng (Extra), which were around the ear. Perpendicular insertion was used at Yifeng (TE 17) at the affected side and Hegu (LI 4) at the healthy side and bilateral Zusanli (ST 36). The needles were retained for 30 min. The treatment was given for 3 courses, once a day and 10 days as a course, 5 days at the interval. House-Brackmann (H-B) facial nerve grading score was recorded before and after treatment. The clinical effects were compared. The H-B scores after treatment in the two groups were higher than

  8. Recovery of Facial Nerve Paralysis After Temporal Nerve Reconstruction: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Emamhadi; Mahmoudi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Facial paralysis is common following accidents, trauma, viral infection or tumors. Case Presentation A 24-year-old male patient was referred to us with a history of sharp penetrating trauma to the right temporal region causing unilateral paralysis of the muscles of the right forehead. He was unable to scowl or elevate his right eyebrow and there were no folds on his right forehead. Anastomosis of branches of the tempo...

  9. Hartman effect and weak measurements that are not really weak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolovski, D.; Akhmatskaya, E.

    2011-01-01

    We show that in wave packet tunneling, localization of the transmitted particle amounts to a quantum measurement of the delay it experiences in the barrier. With no external degree of freedom involved, the envelope of the wave packet plays the role of the initial pointer state. Under tunneling conditions such ''self-measurement'' is necessarily weak, and the Hartman effect just reflects the general tendency of weak values to diverge, as postselection in the final state becomes improbable. We also demonstrate that it is a good precision, or a 'not really weak' quantum measurement: no matter how wide the barrier d, it is possible to transmit a wave packet with a width σ small compared to the observed advancement. As is the case with all weak measurements, the probability of transmission rapidly decreases with the ratio σ/d.

  10. Nine-year-old children use norm-based coding to visually represent facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Nichola; Jeffery, Linda; Skinner, Andrew L; Benton, Christopher P; Rhodes, Gillian

    2013-10-01

    Children are less skilled than adults at making judgments about facial expression. This could be because they have not yet developed adult-like mechanisms for visually representing faces. Adults are thought to represent faces in a multidimensional face-space, and have been shown to code the expression of a face relative to the norm or average face in face-space. Norm-based coding is economical and adaptive, and may be what makes adults more sensitive to facial expression than children. This study investigated the coding system that children use to represent facial expression. An adaptation aftereffect paradigm was used to test 24 adults and 18 children (9 years 2 months to 9 years 11 months old). Participants adapted to weak and strong antiexpressions. They then judged the expression of an average expression. Adaptation created aftereffects that made the test face look like the expression opposite that of the adaptor. Consistent with the predictions of norm-based but not exemplar-based coding, aftereffects were larger for strong than weak adaptors for both age groups. Results indicate that, like adults, children's coding of facial expressions is norm-based. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Epidemiologic Overview of Synkinesis in 353 Patients with Longstanding Facial Paralysis under Treatment with Botulinum Toxin for 11 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Alessandra Grassi; da Costa, Eduardo Fernandes; Ferreira, Marcus Castro; Remigio, Adelina Fatima do Nascimento; Moraes, Luciana Borsoi; Gemperli, Rolf

    2015-12-01

    Patients with longstanding facial paralysis often exhibit synkinesis. Few reports describe the prevalence and factors related to the development of synkinesis after facial paralysis. Botulinum toxin type A injection is an important adjunct treatment for facial paralysis-induced asymmetry and synkinesis. The authors assessed the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients with sequelae of facial paralysis treated with botulinum toxin type A injections to evaluate the prevalence of synkinesis and related factors. A total of 353 patients (age, 4 to 84 years; 245 female patients) with longstanding facial paralysis underwent 2312 botulinum toxin type A injections during an 11-year follow-up. Doses used over the years, previous treatments (electrical stimulation, operations), and how they correlated to postparalysis and postreanimation synkinesis were analyzed. There was a significant association between cause and surgery. Most patients with facial paralysis caused by a congenital defect, trauma, or a tumor underwent reanimation. There were no sex- or synkinesis-related differences in the doses used, but the doses were higher in the reanimation group than in the no-surgery group. Synkinesis was found in 196 patients; 148 (41.9 percent) presented with postparalysis synkinesis (oro-ocular, oculo-oral) and 58 (16.4 percent) presented with postreanimation synkinesis. Ten patients presented with both types. This study determined the high prevalence (55.5 percent) of synkinesis in patients with longstanding facial paralysis. Postparalysis synkinesis was positively associated with infectious and idiopathic causes, electrical stimulation, facial nerve decompression, and no requirement for surgery. Postreanimation synkinesis was present in 28.2 percent of reanimated patients and was significantly associated with microsurgical flaps, transfacial nerve grafting, masseteric-facial anastomosis, and temporalis muscle transfers.

  12. Enhanced MRI in patients with facial palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Masahiro; Kato, Tsutomu; Ushiro, Koichi; Kitajiri, Masanori; Yamashita, Toshio; Kumazawa, Tadami; Tanaka, Yoshimasa

    1991-01-01

    We performed Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations at several stages in 40 patients with peripheral facial nerve palsy (Bell's palsy and Ramsay-Hunt syndrome). In 38 of the 40 patients, one and more enhanced region could be seen in certain portion of the facial nerve in the temporal bone on the affected side, whereas no enhanced regions were seen on the intact side. Correlations between the timing of the MRI examination and the location of the enhanced regions were analysed. In all 6 patients examined by MRI within 5 days after the onset of facial nerve palsy, enhanced regions were present in the meatal portion. In 3 of the 8 patients (38%) examined by MRI 6 to 10 days after the onset of facial palsy, enhanced areas were seen in both the meatal and labyrinthine portions. In 8 of the 9 patients (89%) tested 11 to 20 days after the onset of palsy, the vertical portion was enhanced. In the 12 patients examined by MRI 21 to 40 days after the onset of facial nerve palsy, the meatal portion was not enhanced while the labyrinthine portion, the horizontal portion and the vertical portion were enhanced in 5 (42%), 8 (67%) and 11 (92%), respectively. Enhancement in the vertical portion was observed in all 5 patients examined more than 41 days after the onset of facial palsy. These results suggest that the central portion of the facial nerve in the temporal bone tends to be enhanced in the early stage of facial nerve palsy, while the peripheral portion is enhanced in the late stage. These changes of Gd-DTPA enhanced regions in the facial nerve may suggest dromic degeneration of the facial nerve in peripheral facial nerve palsy. (author)

  13. Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

  14. Branches of the Facial Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Geun In; Park, Hye Jin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to review the name of the branches, to review the classification of the branching pattern, and to clarify a presence percentage of each branch of the facial artery, systematically. In a PubMed search, the search terms "facial," AND "artery," AND "classification OR variant OR pattern" were used. The IBM SPSS Statistics 20 system was used for statistical analysis. Among the 500 titles, 18 articles were selected and reviewed systematically. Most of the articles focused on "classification" according to the "terminal branch." Several authors classified the facial artery according to their terminal branches. Most of them, however, did not describe the definition of "terminal branch." There were confusions within the classifications. When the inferior labial artery was absent, 3 different types were used. The "alar branch" or "nasal branch" was used instead of the "lateral nasal branch." The angular branch was used to refer to several different branches. The presence as a percentage of each branch according to the branches in Gray's Anatomy (premasseteric, inferior labial, superior labial, lateral nasal, and angular) varied. No branch was used with 100% consistency. The superior labial branch was most frequently cited (95.7%, 382 arteries in 399 hemifaces). The angular branch (53.9%, 219 arteries in 406 hemifaces) and the premasseteric branch were least frequently cited (53.8%, 43 arteries in 80 hemifaces). There were significant differences among each of the 5 branches (P < 0.05) except between the angular branch and the premasseteric branch and between the superior labial branch and the inferior labial branch. The authors believe identifying the presence percentage of each branch will be helpful for surgical procedures.

  15. Conduction velocity of the rabbit facial nerve: a noninvasive functional evaluation Velocidade de condução no nervo facial do coelho: uma avaliação funcional não invasiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmiro Cavalcanti do Egito Vasconcelos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate standardized conduction velocity data for uninjured facial nerve and facial nerve repaired with autologous graft nerves and synthetic materials. An evaluation was made measuring the preoperative differences in the facial nerve conduction velocities on either side, and ascertaining the existence of a positive correlation between facial nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons regenerated postoperatively. In 17 rabbits, bilateral facial nerve motor action potentials were recorded pre- and postoperatively. The stimulation surface electrodes were placed on the auricular pavilion (facial nerve trunk and the recording surface electrodes were placed on the quadratus labii inferior muscle. The facial nerves were isolated, transected and separated 10 mm apart. The gap between the two nerve ends was repaired with autologous nerve grafts and PTFE-e (polytetrafluoroethylene or collagen tubes. The mean of maximal conduction velocity of the facial nerve was 41.10 m/s. After 15 days no nerve conduction was evoked in the evaluated group. For the period of 2 and 4 months the mean conduction velocity was approximately 50% of the normal value in the subgroups assessed. A significant correlation was observed between the conduction velocity and the number of regenerated axons. Noninvasive functional evaluation with surface electrodes can be useful for stimulating and recording muscle action potentials and for assessing the functional state of the facial nerve.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os dados padronizados de velocidade de condução para o nervo facial não lesado e o nervo facial reparado com enxerto autógeno e com materiais sintéticos. Na avaliação foram medidas as diferenças pré-operatórias de velocidade de condução do nervo facial em cada lado e verificada a existência de uma correlação positiva entre a velocidade de condução do nervo facial e o número de axônios regenerados no p

  16. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the mastoid facial nerve canal mimicking a facial nerve schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew L; Bharatha, Aditya; Aviv, Richard I; Nedzelski, Julian; Chen, Joseph; Bilbao, Juan M; Wong, John; Saad, Reda; Symons, Sean P

    2009-07-01

    Chondromyxoid fibroma of the skull base is a rare entity. Involvement of the temporal bone is particularly rare. We present an unusual case of progressive facial nerve paralysis with imaging and clinical findings most suggestive of a facial nerve schwannoma. The lesion was tubular in appearance, expanded the mastoid facial nerve canal, protruded out of the stylomastoid foramen, and enhanced homogeneously. The only unusual imaging feature was minor calcification within the tumor. Surgery revealed an irregular, cystic lesion. Pathology diagnosed a chondromyxoid fibroma involving the mastoid portion of the facial nerve canal, destroying the facial nerve.

  17. Facial image identification using Photomodeler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Andersen, Marie; Lauritsen, Helle Petri

    2003-01-01

    consist of many images of the same person taken from different angles. We wanted to see if it was possible to combine such a suite of images in useful 3-D renderings of facial proportions.Fifteen male adults were photographed from four different angles. Based on these photographs, a 3-D wireframe model......We present the results of a preliminary study on the use of 3-D software (Photomodeler) for identification purposes. Perpetrators may be photographed or filmed by surveillance systems. The police may wish to have these images compared to photographs of suspects. The surveillance imagery will often...

  18. Botulinum Toxin and Muscle Atrophy: A Wanted or Unwanted Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Paul D; Couto, Rafael A; Isakov, Raymond; Yoo, Donald B; Azizzadeh, Babak; Guyuron, Bahman; Zins, James E

    2016-04-01

    While the facial rejuvenating effect of botulinum toxin type A is well known and widespread, its use in body and facial contouring is less common. We first describe its use for deliberate muscle volume reduction, and then document instances of unanticipated and undesirable muscle atrophy. Finally, we investigate the potential long-term adverse effects of botulinum toxin-induced muscle atrophy. Although the use of botulinum toxin type A in the cosmetic patient has been extensively studied, there are several questions yet to be addressed. Does prolonged botulinum toxin treatment increase its duration of action? What is the mechanism of muscle atrophy and what is the cause of its reversibility once treatment has stopped? We proceed to examine how prolonged chemodenervation with botulinum toxin can increase its duration of effect and potentially contribute to muscle atrophy. Instances of inadvertent botulinum toxin-induced atrophy are also described. These include the "hourglass deformity" secondary to botulinum toxin type A treatment for migraine headaches, and a patient with atrophy of multiple facial muscles from injections for hemifacial spasm. Numerous reports demonstrate that muscle atrophy after botulinum toxin type A treatment occurs and is both reversible and temporary, with current literature supporting the notion that repeated chemodenervation with botulinum toxin likely responsible for both therapeutic and incidental temporary muscle atrophy. Furthermore, duration of response may be increased with subsequent treatments, thus minimizing frequency of reinjection. Practitioners should be aware of the temporary and reversible effect of botulinum toxin-induced muscle atrophy and be prepared to reassure patients on this matter. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Weak Measurement and Quantum Correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Kumar Pati

    Entanglement: Two quantum systems can be in a strongly correlated state even if .... These are resources which can be used to design quantum computer, quantum ...... Weak measurements have found numerous applications starting from the ...

  20. Weakly infinite-dimensional spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorchuk, Vitalii V

    2007-01-01

    In this survey article two new classes of spaces are considered: m-C-spaces and w-m-C-spaces, m=2,3,...,∞. They are intermediate between the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces in the Alexandroff sense and the class of C-spaces. The classes of 2-C-spaces and w-2-C-spaces coincide with the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, while the compact ∞-C-spaces are exactly the C-compact spaces of Haver. The main results of the theory of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, including classification via transfinite Lebesgue dimensions and Luzin-Sierpinsky indices, extend to these new classes of spaces. Weak m-C-spaces are characterised by means of essential maps to Henderson's m-compacta. The existence of hereditarily m-strongly infinite-dimensional spaces is proved.

  1. Weak interactions and presupernova evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufderheide, M.B.; State Univ. of New York

    1991-01-01

    The role of weak interactions, particularly electron capture and β - decay, in presupernova evolution is discussed. The present uncertainty in these rates is examined and the possibility of improving the situation is addressed. 12 refs., 4 figs

  2. [Bilateral facial nerve palsy associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in a 3-year-old boy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassin, M; Rolland, A; Leboucq, N; Roubertie, A; Rivier, F; Meyer, P

    2017-06-01

    Bilateral facial nerve palsy is a rare and sometimes difficult diagnosis. We describe a case of bilateral simultaneous facial nerve palsy associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in a 3-year-old boy. Several symptoms led to the diagnosis of EBV infection: the clinical situation (fever, stomachache, and throat infection), white blood cell count (5300/mm 3 with 70% lymphocyte count), seroconversion with EBV-specific antibodies, lymphocytic meningitis, and a positive blood EBV polymerase chain reaction (9.3×10 3 copies of EBV-DNA). An MRI brain scan showed bilateral gadolinium enhancement of the facial nerve. A treatment plan with IV antibiotics (ceftriaxone) and corticosteroids was implemented. Antibiotics were stopped after the diagnosis of Lyme disease was ruled out. The patient's facial weakness improved within a few weeks. Bilateral facial nerve palsy is rare and, unlike unilateral facial palsy, it is idiopathic in only 20% of cases. Therefore, it requires further investigation and examination to search for the underlying etiology. Lyme disease is the first infectious disease that should be considered in children, especially in endemic areas. An antibiotic treatment effective against Borrelia burgdorferi should be set up until the diagnosis is negated or confirmed. Further examination should include a blood test (such as immunologic testing, and serologic testing for viruses and bacterium with neurological tropism), a cerebrospinal fluid test, and an MRI brain scan to exclude any serious or curable underlying etiology. Facial bilateral nerve palsy associated with EBV is rarely described in children. Neurological complications have been reported in 7% of all EBV infections. The facial nerve is the most frequently affected of all cranial nerves. Facial palsy described in EBV infections is bilateral in 35% of all cases. The physiopathology is currently unknown. Prognosis is good most of the time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  4. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People who cannot actively move one or more joints can do exercises using braces or splints . When ... A.M. Editorial team. Muscle Disorders Read more Neuromuscular Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  5. Reinnervation of Paralyzed Muscle by Nerve-Muscle-Endplate Band Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Antoniadis G, Braun V, Rath SA, Richter HP. Evaluation of iatrogenic lesions in 722 surgically treated cases of peripheral nerve trauma. J Neurosurg...achieved by end-to-end approximation: review of 2,181 nerve lesions . Microsurgery. 1993;14(4):244- 246. 18 25. McAllister RM, Gilbert SE, Calder JS...innervation through irreparable damage to its nerve . DNI has been used for selective reinnervation of paralyzed laryngeal and facial muscles [15,16] as well

  6. Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2006-01-01

    We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities

  7. Weakly compact operators and interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Maligranda, Lech

    1992-01-01

    The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. In this survey, we have collected and ordered some of this (partly very new) knowledge. We have also included some comments, remarks and examples. The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. I...

  8. Facial Affect Displays during Tutoring Sessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghijsen, M.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.

    2005-01-01

    An emotionally intelligent tutoring system should be able to provide feedback to students, taking into account relevant aspects of the mental state of the student. Facial expressions, put in context, might provide some cues with respect to this state. We discuss the analysis of the facial expression

  9. Case Report: Magnetically retained silicone facial prosthesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prosthetic camouflaging of facial defects and use of silicone maxillofacial material are the alternatives to the surgical retreatment. Silicone elastomers provide more options to clinician for customization of the facial prosthesis which is simple, esthetically good when coupled with bio magnets for retention. Key words: Magnet ...

  10. Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stel, Marielle; van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals…

  11. Some Aspects of Facial Nerve Paralysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973-01-20

    Jan 20, 1973 ... the facial nerve has tremendous regenerative ability. The paretic, or flaccid, ... fresh axoplasm moving into it from the cell-body. Only when the axon .... tivity of the ear to sound, homolateral to the facial paralysis. The cause is ...

  12. [Facial rejuvenation and concentric malar lift: the FACE RECURVE concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Louarn, C; Buthiau, D; Buis, J

    2006-04-01

    Cell ageing is responsible for the increasingly creased appearance of our skin. The ageing of the structures of the face is attributed primarily to the effect of gravity on the tissues. The theory expounded below sets out to prove that the main and initial cause of this ageing is the repeated contractions of the mimic muscles. This concept attributes only a secondary role to gravity in the ageing process, which is initially brought about by muscular contractions. An MRI study recently made it possible to demonstrate the anterior convexity curve of the mimic muscles in the young subject. This curve is due to the existence at the back of these muscles of a deep fat pad. In the young subject, the extent of its convexity and its location give a specific, youthful character to the movements, in terms of direction and amplitude, of the facial muscles. With age, the muscle gradually straightens and shortens due to the repeated contractions that expel the underlying fat and increase the tonus at rest. The application of these new findings to the ageing of the face gives rise to new technical possibilities both in the field of medicine and aesthetic surgery. These new techniques have the same targets: segments of the mimic muscles (maintain over time a good muscular curve and a low tonus at rest) and the underlying fatty convexities. As far as medicine is concerned, the combination of botulinum toxin and filling has proved its worth. But two technical elements are new: the filling products must, at several points, be injected primarily behind the muscle to treat the depressions naturally and restore the initial curve of the overlying muscle. A very low number of units (a quarter to one unit) of botulinum toxin must be injected into certain muscles to diminish the tonus at rest of these muscles without diminishing their strength in maximum contraction. In surgery, new possibilities to treat premature ageing include procedures that combine segmentary muscular weakening, micro

  13. A Virtual Environment to Improve the Detection of Oral-Facial Malfunction in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ruiz, María-Luisa; Máximo-Bocanegra, Nuria; Luna-Oliva, Laura

    2016-03-26

    The importance of an early rehabilitation process in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is widely recognized. On the one hand, new and useful treatment tools such as rehabilitation systems based on interactive technologies have appeared for rehabilitation of gross motor movements. On the other hand, from the therapeutic point of view, performing rehabilitation exercises with the facial muscles can improve the swallowing process, the facial expression through the management of muscles in the face, and even the speech of children with cerebral palsy. However, it is difficult to find interactive games to improve the detection and evaluation of oral-facial musculature dysfunctions in children with CP. This paper describes a framework based on strategies developed for interactive serious games that is created both for typically developed children and children with disabilities. Four interactive games are the core of a Virtual Environment called SONRIE. This paper demonstrates the benefits of SONRIE to monitor children's oral-facial difficulties. The next steps will focus on the validation of SONRIE to carry out the rehabilitation process of oral-facial musculature in children with cerebral palsy.

  14. A Virtual Environment to Improve the Detection of Oral-Facial Malfunction in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Luisa Martín-Ruiz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of an early rehabilitation process in children with cerebral palsy (CP is widely recognized. On the one hand, new and useful treatment tools such as rehabilitation systems based on interactive technologies have appeared for rehabilitation of gross motor movements. On the other hand, from the therapeutic point of view, performing rehabilitation exercises with the facial muscles can improve the swallowing process, the facial expression through the management of muscles in the face, and even the speech of children with cerebral palsy. However, it is difficult to find interactive games to improve the detection and evaluation of oral-facial musculature dysfunctions in children with CP. This paper describes a framework based on strategies developed for interactive serious games that is created both for typically developed children and children with disabilities. Four interactive games are the core of a Virtual Environment called SONRIE. This paper demonstrates the benefits of SONRIE to monitor children’s oral-facial difficulties. The next steps will focus on the validation of SONRIE to carry out the rehabilitation process of oral-facial musculature in children with cerebral palsy.

  15. The Prevalence of Cosmetic Facial Plastic Procedures among Facial Plastic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayer, Roxana; Sand, Jordan P; Han, Albert; Nabili, Vishad; Keller, Gregory S

    2018-04-01

    This is the first study to report on the prevalence of cosmetic facial plastic surgery use among facial plastic surgeons. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency with which facial plastic surgeons have cosmetic procedures themselves. A secondary aim is to determine whether trends in usage of cosmetic facial procedures among facial plastic surgeons are similar to that of nonsurgeons. The study design was an anonymous, five-question, Internet survey distributed via email set in a single academic institution. Board-certified members of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) were included in this study. Self-reported history of cosmetic facial plastic surgery or minimally invasive procedures were recorded. The survey also queried participants for demographic data. A total of 216 members of the AAFPRS responded to the questionnaire. Ninety percent of respondents were male ( n  = 192) and 10.3% were female ( n  = 22). Thirty-three percent of respondents were aged 31 to 40 years ( n  = 70), 25% were aged 41 to 50 years ( n  = 53), 21.4% were aged 51 to 60 years ( n  = 46), and 20.5% were older than 60 years ( n  = 44). Thirty-six percent of respondents had a surgical cosmetic facial procedure and 75% has at least one minimally invasive cosmetic facial procedure. Facial plastic surgeons are frequent users of cosmetic facial plastic surgery. This finding may be due to access, knowledge base, values, or attitudes. By better understanding surgeon attitudes toward facial plastic surgery, we can improve communication with patients and delivery of care. This study is a first step in understanding use of facial plastic procedures among facial plastic surgeons. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Development of the Korean Facial Emotion Stimuli: Korea University Facial Expression Collection 2nd Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Min Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing valid emotional facial stimuli for specific ethnicities creates ample opportunities to investigate both the nature of emotional facial information processing in general and clinical populations as well as the underlying mechanisms of facial emotion processing within and across cultures. Given that most entries in emotional facial stimuli databases were developed with western samples, and given that very few of the eastern emotional facial stimuli sets were based strictly on the Ekman’s Facial Action Coding System, developing valid emotional facial stimuli of eastern samples remains a high priority.Aims: To develop and examine the psychometric properties of six basic emotional facial stimuli recruiting professional Korean actors and actresses based on the Ekman’s Facial Action Coding System for the Korea University Facial Expression Collection-Second Edition (KUFEC-II.Materials And Methods: Stimulus selection was done in two phases. First, researchers evaluated the clarity and intensity of each stimulus developed based on the Facial Action Coding System. Second, researchers selected a total of 399 stimuli from a total of 57 actors and actresses, which were then rated on accuracy, intensity, valence, and arousal by 75 independent raters.Conclusion: The hit rates between the targeted and rated expressions of the KUFEC-II were all above 80%, except for fear (50% and disgust (63%. The KUFEC-II appears to be a valid emotional facial stimuli database, providing the largest set of emotional facial stimuli. The mean intensity score was 5.63 (out of 7, suggesting that the stimuli delivered the targeted emotions with great intensity. All positive expressions were rated as having a high positive valence, whereas all negative expressions were rated as having a high negative valence. The KUFEC II is expected to be widely used in various psychological studies on emotional facial expression. KUFEC-II stimuli can be obtained through

  17. Catechins activate muscle stem cells by Myf5 induction and stimulate muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A Rum; Kim, Kyung Min; Byun, Mi Ran; Hwang, Jun-Ha; Park, Jung Il; Oh, Ho Taek; Kim, Hyo Kyeong; Jeong, Mi Gyeong; Hwang, Eun Sook; Hong, Jeong-Ho

    2017-07-22

    Muscle weakness is one of the most common symptoms in aged individuals and increases risk of mortality. Thus, maintenance of muscle mass is important for inhibiting aging. In this study, we investigated the effect of catechins, polyphenol compounds in green tea, on muscle regeneration. We found that (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) activate satellite cells by induction of Myf5 transcription factors. For satellite cell activation, Akt kinase was significantly induced after ECG treatment and ECG-induced satellite cell activation was blocked in the presence of Akt inhibitor. ECG also promotes myogenic differentiation through the induction of myogenic markers, including Myogenin and Muscle creatine kinase (MCK), in satellite and C2C12 myoblast cells. Finally, EGCG administration to mice significantly increased muscle fiber size for regeneration. Taken together, the results suggest that catechins stimulate muscle stem cell activation and differentiation for muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. MR imaging of the intraparotid facial nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Hiroaki; Iwasawa, Tae; Yoshida, Tetsuo; Furukawa, Masaki

    1996-01-01

    Using a 1.5T MR imaging system, seven normal volunteers and 6 patients with parotid tumors were studied and their intraparotid facial nerves were directly imaged. The findings were evaluated by T1-weighted axial, sagittal and oblique images. The facial nerve appeared to be relatively hypointensive within the highsignal parotid parenchyma, and the main trunks of the facial nerves were observed directly in all the cases examined. Their main divisions were detected in all the volunteers and 5 of 6 patients were imaged obliquely. The facial nerves run in various fashions and so the oblique scan planes were determined individually to detect this running figure directly. To verify our observations, surgical findings of the facial nerve were compared with the MR images or results. (author)

  19. Facial Animations: Future Research Directions & Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.

  20. Preoperative embolization of facial angiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causmano, F.; Bruschi, G.; De Donatis, M.; Piazza, P.; Bassi, P.

    1988-01-01

    Preoperative embolization was performed on 27 patients with facial angiomas supplied by the external carotid branches. Sixteen were males and 11 females; 13 of these angiomas were high-flow arterio-venous (A-V), 14 were low-flow capillary malformations. Fourteen patients underwent surgical removal after preoperative embolization; in this group embolization was carried out with Spongel in 3 cases and with Lyodura in 11 cases. In 12 of these patients the last angiographic examination was performed 3-6 years later: angiography evidenced no recurrence in 8 cases (67%), while in 3 cases (25%) there was capillary residual angioma of negligible size. Treatment was unsuccessful in one patient only, due to the large recurrent A-V angioma. Thirteen patients underwent embolization only, which was carried out with Lyodura in 10 cases, and with Ivalon in 3 cases. On 12 of these patients the last angiographic study was performed 2-14 months later: there was recurrent A-V angioma in 5 patients (42%), who underwent a subsequent embolization; angiography evidenced no recurrence in the other 7 patients (58%). In both series, the best results were obtained in the patients with low-flow capillary angiomas. Embolization and subsequent surgical removal are the treatment of choice for facial angiomas; embolization alone is useful in the management of surgically inacessible vascular malformations, and it can be the only treatment in patients with small low-flow angiomas when distal occlusion of the feeding vessel with Lyodura or Ivalon particles is performed