WorldWideScience

Sample records for facial bony lamella

  1. Reconstruction of facial defects after combat wounding using vascularized pedicled galeal and parietal bony grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Combat wounds are basically extensive and destructive. Such injuries cause defects of soft and bone structures of the face and neck. During primary surgical management of maxillofacial combat wounds the principle of minimal bone and soft tissue debridement was respected. Definitive reconstruction of the defect was performed after two or three months, when infection was cured and adjacent tissues were restituted. Each combat wound leaves behind fibrous changes in surrounding tissues. Success of the reconstructive procedures is more certain if flaps with its own blood supply are used, either arterial or vascularized grafts from the other parts of body (by microvascular technique. This paper presents our experiences with galeal flap in reconstruction of facial soft tissue defects, as well as galea, together with external table of parietal bone in reconstruction of soft and bony tissues of maxillofacial region in 15 patients.

  2. Lamella settler crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, Arturo

    1990-01-01

    A crystallizer which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as well as in other electrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities.

  3. [Bony Bankart lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegl, U J; Braun, S; Euler, S A; Warth, R J; Millett, P J

    2014-12-01

    Fractures of the anteroinferior glenoid rim, termed bony Bankart lesions, have been reported to occur in up to 22% of first time anterior shoulder dislocations. The primary goal of treatment is to create a stable glenohumeral joint and a good shoulder function. Options for therapeutic intervention are largely dependent on the chronicity of the lesion, the activity level of the patient and postreduction fracture characteristics, such as the size, location and number of fracture fragments. Non-operative treatment can be successful for small, acute fractures, which are anatomically reduced after shoulder reduction. However, in patients with a high risk profile for recurrent instability initial Bankart repair is recommended. Additionally, bony fixation is recommended for acute fractures that involve more than 15-20% of the inferior glenoid diameter. On the other hand chronic fractures are generally managed on a case-by-case basis depending on the amount of fragment resorption and bony erosion of the anterior glenoid with high recurrence rates under conservative therapy. When significant bone loss of the anterior glenoid is present, anatomical (e.g. iliac crest bone graft and osteoarticular allograft) or non-anatomical (e.g. Latarjet and Bristow) reconstruction of the anterior glenoid is often indicated.

  4. Models for metallic foam lamellae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Michael B.; Davis, Stephen H.

    2010-11-01

    We consider a pure liquid film with two liquid-gas interfaces --- a free film --- in two dimensions. Assuming that the aspect ratio of the film thickness to the arc length of the center-line is small, we develop a set of models using lubrication theory for the evolution of the film including the effects of different gas pressures above and below the liquid as well as strong surface tension. These models show a separation of timescales between center-line relaxation, thickness averaging, and drainage due to an applied pressure gradient along the film. Interpreted in the case of surfactant-free foams, these results show that the lamella separating two bubbles in an unstable foam will quickly assume a center-line that is an arc of a circle. Thereafter, the film will become uniform in thickness and drain due to capillary suction from adjoining Plateau borders.

  5. Arthroscopic Transosseous Bony Bankart Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Matthew D.; Burns, Joseph P.; Snyder, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of glenoid bony integrity is critical to minimizing the risk of recurrence and re-creating normal kinematics in the setting of anterior glenohumeral instability. We present an arthroscopic suture anchor–based technique for treating large bony Bankart fractures in which the fragment is secured to the intact glenoid using mattress sutures placed through the bony fragment and augmented with soft-tissue repair proximal and distal to the bony lesion. This straightforward technique has led to excellent fragment reduction and good outcomes in our experience. PMID:25973373

  6. Bony anomaly of Meckel's cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Salter, E George; Oakes, W Jerry

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the seemingly rare occurrence of bone formation within the proximal superior aspect of Meckel's cave thus forming a bony foramen for the proximal trigeminal nerve to traverse. The anatomy of Meckel's cave is reviewed and the clinical potential for nerve compression from this bony anomaly discussed.

  7. Facial porokeratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Dafnis C; Haley, Jennifer C; Chiu, Melvin

    2008-01-01

    A 34-year-old man from El Salvador was referred to our clinic with a 10-year history of a pruritic erythematous facial eruption. He reported increased pruritus and scaling of lesions when exposed to the sun. He worked as a construction worker and admitted to frequent sun exposure. Physical examination revealed well-circumscribed erythematous to violaceous papules with raised borders and atrophic centers localized to the nose (Figure 1). He did not have lesions on the arms or legs. He did not report a family history of similar lesions. A biopsy specimen was obtained from the edge of a lesion on the right ala. Histologic examination of the biopsy specimen showed acanthosis of the epidermis with focal invagination of the corneal layer and a homogeneous column of parakeratosis in the center of that layer consistent with a cornoid lamella (Figure 2). Furthermore, the granular layer was absent at the cornoid lamella base. The superficial dermis contained a sparse, perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. No evidence of dysplasia or malignancy was seen. These findings supported a diagnosis of porokeratosis. The patient underwent a trial of cryotherapy with moderate improvement of the facial lesions.

  8. Bony instability of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Brandon D; Creighton, R Alexander; Herring, Marion M

    2008-09-01

    Instability of the shoulder is a common problem treated by many orthopaedists. Instability can result from baseline intrinsic ligamentous laxity or a traumatic event-often a dislocation that injures the stabilizing structures of the glenohumeral joint. Many cases involve soft-tissue injury only and can be treated successfully with repair of the labrum and ligamentous tissues. Both open and arthroscopic approaches have been well described, with recent studies of arthroscopic soft-tissue techniques reporting results equal to those of the more traditional open techniques. Over the last decade, attention has focused on the concept of instability of the shoulder mediated by bony pathology such as a large bony Bankart lesion or an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion. Recent literature has identified unrecognized large bony lesions as a primary cause of failure of arthroscopic reconstruction for instability, a major cause of recurrent instability, and a difficult diagnosis to make. Thus, although such bony lesions may be relatively rare compared with soft-tissue pathology, they constitute a critically important entity in the management of shoulder instability. Smaller bony lesions may be amenable to arthroscopic treatment, but larger lesions often require open surgery to prevent recurrent instability. This article reviews recent developments in the diagnosis and treatment of bony instability.

  9. Electrochemical system including lamella settler crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, Arturo

    1988-01-01

    A crystallizer which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as will as in other elecrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities.

  10. Primitive Form of Bony Fish Unveiled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ With over 50,000 species,Osteichthyans, or bony fish, accounts for 98% of the present-day vertebrates. Bony fish falls into two groups: actinopterygians, meaning ray-finned bony fish, and sarcopterygians,meaning lobe-finned bony fish. The huge morphotype difference of the two catagories cast doubts on research into the origin and evolution of bony fish. The recent discovery of a primitive fish species by CAS researchers and their overseas colleagues provides a missing link between the two lineages, unveiling unique features for understanding primitive bony vertebrates.

  11. Acute bony bankart lesion and surgical fixation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenthal, Michael D; Provencher, Matthew T

    2009-01-01

    ... therapist for evaluation. Anterior-posterior, scapular outlet, and axillary radiographic views demonstrated a bony glenoid lesion consistent with a bony Bankart lesion, which was best seen on the scapular outlet view...

  12. Bony sequestrum: A radiologic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennin, Felicie; Bousson, Valerie; Parlier, Caroline; Jomaah, Nabil; Khanine, Vanessa; Laredo, Jean-Denis [Lariboisiere Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2011-08-15

    According to a pathological definition, a bony sequestrum is defined as a piece of devitalized bone that has been separated from the surrounding bone during the process of necrosis. However, the radiological definition of a sequestrum is different and refers to an image of calcification visible within a lucent lesion, completely separated from the surrounding bone, without referring to the vascular status and histological nature of the calcified tissue. The term ''button sequestrum'' has been used in calvarial lesions. The prototype conditions that may present with a bony sequestrum are osteomyelitis and skeletal tuberculosis. Other conditions such as radiation necrosis, eosinophilic granuloma, metastatic carcinoma, primary lymphoma of bone, aggressive fibrous tumors may also manifest as osteolytic lesions containing a sequestrum. In addition, some primary bone tumors produce a matrix that may mineralize and sometimes simulate a bone sequestrum. These include osteoid tumors (osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma), cartilaginous tumors (chondroma and chondroblastoma), lipomatous tumors (lipoma), and benign fibrous tumors (fibromyxoma, myxoma, and desmoplastic fibroma). Therefore, various conditions may present at imaging as a small area of osteolysis containing central calcifications. However, a careful analysis of the sequestrum as well as the associated clinical and radiological findings often enables to point toward a limited number of conditions. (orig.)

  13. ORV Arthroscopic Transosseous Bony Bankart Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Daniel M; Caldwell, Paul E

    2012-12-01

    The arthroscopic treatment of the "bony Bankart lesion" continues to evolve. We present a novel technique that we developed at Orthopaedic Research of Virginia, the "transosseous bony Bankart repair," which incorporates several essential concepts to provide for optimal healing and rehabilitation. We promote arthroscopic repair emphasizing bone preservation, a fracture interface without interposing sutures, the ability to reduce capsular volume, and multiple points of stable glenolabral fixation. Our technique positions suture anchors within the subchondral bone of the intact glenoid to allow for an anatomic reduction of the bony fragment. By use of an arthroscopic drill, spinal needle, and nitinol suture passing wire, the sutures are passed in a retrograde fashion through the bony Bankart fragment and anterior capsule in a mattress configuration. Additional inferior and superior anchors are placed to further provide stability and reduce capsular volume. While maximizing fracture surface area and optimizing bony healing, the end result is an anatomic reduction of the bony fragment and the glenoid articular surface.

  14. Bony ankylosis following thermal and electrical injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balen, P.F.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Objective. Bony ankylosis has been described following trauma, paralysis, psoriasis, Reiter's syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile chronic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Reports of bony ankylosis following thermal and electrical injury are limited.Design and patients. Thirteen cases of burn-related joint ankylosis in four patients are presented.Conclusion. Patients with burns from thermal or electrical injury may develop bony ankylosis among other radiographic manifestations. This bony ankylosis may result either from bridging extra-articular heterotopic ossification with preservation of the underlying joint or from intra-articular fusion due to joint destruction. (orig.)

  15. Bony ankylosis of temporomandibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeong Do; Yoon, Young Nam; Um, Ki Doo; Ra, Jong Ill; Lee, Wan [School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    Ankylosis of joint is defined as limited movement due to infection, trauma, or surgical procedure. A 59-year-old female with a chief complaint of limited movements during mouth opening had a positive history of trauma to her right TMJ area about 5 years ago. From that time, progressive mouth opening limitation and intermittent pain have occurred. At the time of admission the patient showed mandibular deviation to the right side during mouth opening, with a maximum opening limited to 5 mm. On plain radiographs, right condylar enlargement and joint space reduction by newly formed bony tissues were observed. CT scans showed right condylar enlargement, cortical sclerosis, and thickening of the condyle, articular fossa and articular eminence.

  16. The Dehiscent Facial Nerve Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Yetiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental injury to the facial nerve where the bony canal defects are present may result with facial nerve dysfunction during otological surgery. Therefore, it is critical to know the incidence and the type of facial nerve dehiscences in the presence of normal development of the facial canal. The aim of this study is to review the site and the type of such bony defects in 144 patients operated for facial paralysis, myringoplasty, stapedotomy, middle ear exploration for sudden hearing loss, and so forth, other than chronic suppurative otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, middle ear tumors, and anomaly. Correlation of intraoperative findings with preoperative computerized tomography was also analyzed in 35 patients. Conclusively, one out of every 10 surgical cases may have dehiscence of the facial canal which has to be always borne in mind during surgical manipulation of the middle ear. Computerized tomography has some limitations to evaluate the dehiscent facial canal due to high false negative and positive rates.

  17. Post Pelvic Radiotherapy Bony Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Seung Jae [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    There has been recent interest in radiation-induced bone injury in clinical conditions, especially for pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF). A PIF is caused by the effect of normal or physiological stress on bone with demineralization and decreased elastic resistance. Pelvic radiotherapy (RT) can also contribute to the development of a PIF. A PIF has been regarded as a rare complication with the use of megavoltage equipment. However, recent studies have reported the incidence of PIFs as 8.2{approx}20% after pelvic RT in gynecological patients, an incidence that was higher than previously believed. The importance of understanding a PIF lies in the potential for misdiagnosis as a bony metastasis. If patients complain of pelvic pain after whole-pelvis radiation therapy, the presence of a PIF must be considered in the differential diagnosis. The use of multibeam arrangements and conformal RT to reduce the volume and dose of irradiated pelvic bone can be helpful to minimize the risk of fracture. In addition to a PIF, osteonecrosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral head can develop after radiation therapy. Osteoradionecrosis of the pelvic bone is a clinical diagnostic challenge that must be differentiated from an osseous metastasis. A post-radiation bone sarcoma can result as a long-term sequela of pelvic irradiation for uterine cervical cancer.

  18. The role of facial skeletal augmentation and dental restoration in facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, J W; Elia, J P

    1994-01-01

    Facial aging is almost exclusively a result of soft tissue changes in patients with full dentition. Loss of teeth can hasten facial aging and make aging more pronounced as a result of bony erosion of the alveolar ridges. This article describes these changes and demonstrates that properly selected oral implants and precisely placed hydroxyapatite implants can integrate with facelifts to produce superior facial rejuvenation in edentulous patients.

  19. [Buccal bony exostoses induced by free gingival grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H; Slutzkey, S

    2011-01-01

    Buccal Bony Exostoses (BBE) is a local benign osseous overgrowth continuous with the facial aspect of the jaw. Post operative BBE may be the result of dermal grafts used to restore the buccal vestibulum, of connective tissue graft placement, and of Free Gingival Grafts (FGG) procedures. In 46 patients in whom 72 FGG procedures were performed by the senior author (HT) over the past 12 years, BBE was clinically and radiographically diagnosed. In one case the tumor was surgically removed. The etiology, pathogenesis and frequency of BBE following FGG procedures was reviewed and discussed. We suggest that the BBE may develop owing to periosteal surgical trauma during FGG procedures, and suggest that this phenomenon receives further attention.

  20. Acute bony bankart lesion and surgical fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Michael D; Provencher, Matthew T

    2009-10-01

    The patient was a 25-year-old man who sustained a traumatic left anterior shoulder dislocation. After self-reducing the first time, as well as in subsequent repeated dislocations over the following 2-day period, the patient reported his injury to the medical staff, who sent him to the physical therapist for evaluation. Anterior-posterior, scapular outlet, and axillary radiographic views demonstrated a bony glenoid lesion consistent with a bony Bankart lesion, which was best seen on the scapular outlet view. A 3-dimensional computed tomography scan was performed to assess the size and displacement of the bony Bankart lesion. Six days following injury, the patient underwent operative fixation of the bony Bankart lesion. Following surgery, the patient completed 5 months of physical therapy and subsequently returned to high-demand upper body activities. At 3 years following surgery, the patient reported full functional ability without shoulder instability or pain.

  1. Modelling the acoustical response of lossy lamella-crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Johan; Mortensen, N. Asger; Willatzen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The sound propagation properties of lossy lamella-crystals are analysed theoretically utilizing a rig- orous wave expansion formalism and an effective medium approach. We investigate both sup- ported and free-standing crystal slab structures and predict high absorption for a broad range of freque......The sound propagation properties of lossy lamella-crystals are analysed theoretically utilizing a rig- orous wave expansion formalism and an effective medium approach. We investigate both sup- ported and free-standing crystal slab structures and predict high absorption for a broad range...

  2. [Ethmoidal mucocele after transpalpebral bony orbital decompression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gire, J; Facon, F; Guigou, S; Fauquier, S; Malet, T

    2012-10-01

    We report a case of a late ethmoidal mucocele occurring after transpalpebral bony orbital decompression. A 39-year-old man presented with a recurrence of a right-sided proptosis without signs of orbital inflammation. The patient had undergone bilateral transpalpebral bony orbital decompression for dysthyroid orbitopathy 2 years prior. Orbital CT scan showed a large mucocele in the supero-lateral right ethmoidal sinus with lateral extension to the medial rectus. The patient was therefore referred to an ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgeon, who performed an anterior ethmoidectomy with marsupialization and drainage of the mucocele via an endoscopic approach. A complete postoperative resolution of proptosis was observed without recurrence of the mucocele to date, approximately 6 months postoperative. Sinus complications occurring after orbital decompression may include sinusitis, hematoma, imploding antrum syndrome and mucoceles. Recurrent proptosis secondary to an ethmoidal mucocele is a rare event after bony orbital decompression surgery, with only two cases reported in the international literature. Management requires ophthalmologic diagnosis and collaboration between the ophthalmologist and otorhinolaryngologist. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Pearlitic Lamellae Spheroidisation During Austenitization and Subsequent Temperature Hold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauserova D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Typical processing routes for bearing steels include a soft annealing stage. The purpose of this procedure is to obtain a microstructure containing globular carbides in ferritic matrix. A newly developed process called ASR (Accelerated Spheroidisation and Refinement cuts the carbide spheroidisation times several fold, producing considerably finer globular carbides than conventional soft annealing. Finer microstructure also leads to more homogeneous and finer structure after final hardening process. The present paper explores process of the accelerated spheroidisation (ASR in steel 100CrMnSi6-4 with initial pearlitic structure. Cementite lamellae morphology was observed in different stages of austenitization. The heat treatment was performed using induction heating in quenching dilatometer. There was analysed influence of austenitization temperature and austenitization time on spheroidisation. Hardness and carbide morphology was observed. Deep etching was used to reveal evolution of cementitic lamellae fragmentation. It is favourable process especially in induction treatment of small parts.

  4. Extraordinary absorption of sound in porous lamella-crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Johan; Romero-García, V.; R. Picó; Cebrecos, A.; de Abajo, F. J. García; Mortensen, N. Asger; Willatzen, Morten; Sánchez-Morcillo, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the design of a structured material supporting complete absorption of sound with a broadband response and functional for any direction of incident radiation. The structure which is fabricated out of porous lamellas is arranged into a low-density crystal and backed by a reflecting support. Experimental measurements show that strong all-angle sound absorption with almost zero reflectance takes place for a frequency range exceeding two octaves. We demonstrate that lowering the crystal...

  5. Macroscopic lamellae orientations of diblock copolymer induced by dynamic shear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红东; 杨玉良

    1997-01-01

    Computer simulation based on the coupled map lattices has been carried out for morphologies of the diblock copolymeric system under applied periodic shear deformation.The main effort is concentrated on the influence of pre-annenling history on the lamellae orientations in dynamically sheared diblock copolymers.It is found that whatever the quenching temperature is,the perpendicular orientation (i.e.the lamellae normal is parallel to the vorticity axis) is always observed if the dynamic shear deformation with shear amplitude F=1.0 and reduced shear frequency=0.005 is applied during annealing.In contrast to that,the parallel orientation (i.e.the lamellae normal is parallel to the velocity gradient direction) is observed if the dynamic shear with the same amplitude and frequency is applied to a thoroughly annealed (with the annealing time t>4 000) diblock copolymer.Therefore,it is pointed out that the selection of lamellar orientations in dynamically sheared diblock copolymers is not solely dependent on th

  6. Bony fusion of the maxilla and mandible as a sequelae of noma: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagewadi, Shivanand B; Awasthi, Ujjwala Rastogi; Mody, Bharat M; Suma, Gundareddy N; Garg, Shruti

    2015-09-01

    Noma is a gangrenous disease of the orofacial region that leads to severe facial tissue destruction and is a significant cause of death among children. With the advent of modern antibiotics and improved nutrition, children with noma may survive into adulthood, but must face the challenge of undergoing repair of the sequelae of noma. This report describes a case of bony fusion of the maxilla and mandible in a 28-year-old female patient, which was a sequelae of a childhood case of noma.

  7. Bony fusion of the maxilla and mandible as a sequelae of noma: A rare case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagewadi, Shivanand B.; Awasthi, Ujjwala Rastogi; Mody, Bharat M.; Suma, Gundareddy N.; Garg, Shruti [Dept. of Medicine and Radiology, ITS Center for Dental Studies and Research, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Noma is a gangrenous disease of the orofacial region that leads to severe facial tissue destruction and is a significant cause of death among children. With the advent of modern antibiotics and improved nutrition, children with noma may survive into adulthood, but must face the challenge of undergoing repair of the sequelae of noma. This report describes a case of bony fusion of the maxilla and mandible in a 28-year-old female patient, which was a sequelae of a childhood case of noma.

  8. Facial paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003028.htm Facial paralysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Facial paralysis occurs when a person is no longer able ...

  9. Endogamy among the Dogon of Boni, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazes, M H

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines factors influencing endogamy in a Dogon population in Mali. Situated in Boni district, this population of about 5000 individuals is distributed over fifteen villages located on four independent massifs. This population is strongly endogamous (only 4% of all marriages are contracted with neighbouring ethnic groups), and each massif shows high endogamy. The roles of lineage, residence in the same village, and geographical distance in mating choice are examined. These different factors are successively analysed using log-linear statistical models and the results offer a more precise interpretation of endogamy in this population.

  10. Cavernous Hemangioma of the Bony Orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Yan; Yu Cai; Zhongyao Wu; Ji Han; Youjian Pang

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study the clinical features, diagnosis and management of intraosseous cavernous hemangioma of the orbit.Methods: Five cases of intraosseous cavernous hemangioma seen in our hospital from Jan 1, 1986 to Dec 31, 2000 were reviewed.Results: Among all five cases, two were male and three were female. The mean age was 47.6 years old, ranging from 39.0 to 55.0 years. The left orbit was affected in 4 cases and the right one in 1 case. The bony involvement occurred in frontal bone (two cases),zygomatic bone (two cases) and sphenoid bone (one case). A painless, slowly enlarging hard bony mass fixed to the bone with no pulsations was the main clinical sign. The x-ray and CT appearance of intraosseous cavernous hemangioma of the orbit were characteristic and usually diagnostic. The differential diagnosis of it included fibrous dysplasia,eosinophilic granuloma, multiple myeloma and metastatic carcinoma. Treatment is local removal of the bone containing the tumor.Conclusions: Intraosseous cavernous hemangioma is a rare tumor of the orbit and usually has good surgical result.

  11. Facial orientation and facial shape in extant great apes: a geometric morphometric analysis of covariation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Neaux

    Full Text Available The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hypotheses in a sample of adult specimens belonging to three extant hominid genera (Homo, Pan and Gorilla. Intraspecific variation and covariation patterns are analyzed using geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics, such as partial least squared on three-dimensional landmarks coordinates. Our results indicate significant intraspecific covariation between facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. Hominids share similar characteristics in the relationship between anterior facial shape and facial block orientation. Modern humans exhibit a specific pattern in the covariation between anterior facial shape and basicranial flexion. This peculiar feature underscores the role of modern humans' highly-flexed basicranium in the overall integration of the cranium. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the reduction of the value of the cranial base angle and a downward rotation of the facial block in modern humans, and to a lesser extent in chimpanzees.

  12. Extraordinary absorption of sound in porous lamella-crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Johan; Romero-García, V.; Picó, R.;

    2014-01-01

    We present the design of a structured material supporting complete absorption of sound with a broadband response and functional for any direction of incident radiation. The structure which is fabricated out of porous lamellas is arranged into a low-density crystal and backed by a reflecting support....... Experimental measurements show that strong all-angle sound absorption with almost zero reflectance takes place for a frequency range exceeding two octaves. We demonstrate that lowering the crystal filling fraction increases the wave interaction time and is responsible for the enhancement of intrinsic material...... dissipation, making the system more absorptive with less material....

  13. Kinetics of the Bicelle to Lamellae Transition in Phospholipid Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Howard; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Hobbie, Erik K.; Glinka, Charles J.; Katsaras, John

    2002-03-01

    The kinetics of the bicelle to lamellae transition in phospholipid mixtures of DMPC/DHPC is investigated using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering. The data suggest that ordering in these mixtures is a multi-stage process, initiated by the coalescence of bicelles into stacked membrane layers, and limited at late time by the coarsening and swelling of stacks and pinning due to defects. The time evolution of the ordering process is quantified via structural scaling of the non-equilibrium structure factor.

  14. Extraordinary absorption of sound in porous lamella-crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J.; Romero-García, V.; Picó, R.; Cebrecos, A.; de Abajo, F. J. García; Mortensen, N. A.; Willatzen, M.; Sánchez-Morcillo, V. J.

    2014-04-01

    We present the design of a structured material supporting complete absorption of sound with a broadband response and functional for any direction of incident radiation. The structure which is fabricated out of porous lamellas is arranged into a low-density crystal and backed by a reflecting support. Experimental measurements show that strong all-angle sound absorption with almost zero reflectance takes place for a frequency range exceeding two octaves. We demonstrate that lowering the crystal filling fraction increases the wave interaction time and is responsible for the enhancement of intrinsic material dissipation, making the system more absorptive with less material.

  15. Extraordinary absorption of sound in porous lamella-crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J; Romero-García, V; Picó, R; Cebrecos, A; de Abajo, F J García; Mortensen, N A; Willatzen, M; Sánchez-Morcillo, V J

    2014-04-14

    We present the design of a structured material supporting complete absorption of sound with a broadband response and functional for any direction of incident radiation. The structure which is fabricated out of porous lamellas is arranged into a low-density crystal and backed by a reflecting support. Experimental measurements show that strong all-angle sound absorption with almost zero reflectance takes place for a frequency range exceeding two octaves. We demonstrate that lowering the crystal filling fraction increases the wave interaction time and is responsible for the enhancement of intrinsic material dissipation, making the system more absorptive with less material.

  16. [Facial palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavoy, R

    2013-09-01

    Facial palsy is a daily challenge for the clinicians. Determining whether facial nerve palsy is peripheral or central is a key step in the diagnosis. Central nervous lesions can give facial palsy which may be easily differentiated from peripheral palsy. The next question is the peripheral facial paralysis idiopathic or symptomatic. A good knowledge of anatomy of facial nerve is helpful. A structure approach is given to identify additional features that distinguish symptomatic facial palsy from idiopathic one. The main cause of peripheral facial palsies is idiopathic one, or Bell's palsy, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The most common cause of symptomatic peripheral facial palsy is Ramsay-Hunt syndrome. Early identification of symptomatic facial palsy is important because of often worst outcome and different management. The prognosis of Bell's palsy is on the whole favorable and is improved with a prompt tapering course of prednisone. In Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, an antiviral therapy is added along with prednisone. We also discussed of current treatment recommendations. We will review short and long term complications of peripheral facial palsy.

  17. Traumatic facial nerve palsy: CT patterns of facial nerve canal fracture and correlation with clinical severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Cheol; Kim, Sang Joon; Park, Hyun Min; Lee, Young Suk; Lee, Jee Young [College of Medicine, Dankook Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    To analyse the patterns of facial nerve canal injury seen at temporal bone computed tomography (CT) in patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy and to correlate these with clinical manifestations and outcome. Thirty cases of temporal bone CT in 29 patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy were analyzed with regard to the patterns of facial nerve canal involvement. The patterns were correlated with clinical grade, the electroneurographic (ENoG) findings, and clinical outcome. For clinical grading, the House-Brackmann scale was used, as follows:grade I-IV, partial palsy group; grade V-VI, complete palsy group. The electroneuronographic findings were categorized as mild to moderate (below 90%) or severe (90% and over) degeneration. In 25 cases, the bony wall of the facial nerve canals was involved directly (direct finding): discontinuity of the bony wall was onted in 22 cases, bony spicules in ten, and bony wall displacement in five. Indirect findings were canal widening in nine cases and adjacent bone fracture in two. In one case, there were no direct or indirect findings. All cases in which there was complete palsy (n=8) showed one or more direct findings including spicules in six, while in the incomplete palsy group (n=22), 17 cases showed direct findings. In the severe degeneration group (n=13), on ENog, 12 cases demonstrated direct findings, including spicules in nine cases. In 24 patients, symptoms of facial palsy showed improvement at follow up evaluation. Four of the five patients in whom symptoms did not improve had spicules. Among ten patients with spicules, five underwent surgery and symptoms improved in four of these; among the five patients not operated on , symptoms did not improve in three. In most patients with facial palsy after temporal bone injury, temporal bone CT revealed direct or indirect facial nerve canal involvement, and in complete palsy or severe degeneration groups, there were direct findings in most cases. We believe that meticulous

  18. Importance of bony analysis for interpreting ear CT scans: part three; ORL - tomodensitometrie de l'oreille. Interet de l'analyse osseuse dans l'interpretation des scanners de l'oreille (troisieme partie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serhal, M.; Dordea, M.; Cymbalista, M. [Hopital de Montfermeil, Service de Radiologie, 93 - Montfermeil (France); Halimi, P. [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France); Iffenecker, C. [Clinique Radiologique, 62 - Boulogne sur Mer (France); Bensimon, J.L

    2003-02-01

    The accurate description of bony changes in ear CT scans has a great diagnostic and therapeutic impact. The third part shows the way to analyze bone remodeling when CT scan is performed for tumors in the vicinity of the temporal bone, for intra temporal lesions of the facial nerve and for external auditory canal malformations. It demonstrates how bony analysis should be included in postoperative report of ear CT scan. The importance of bony signs in tumors and pseudo tumors of the inner ear are outlined. (authors)

  19. Facial swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help reduce facial swelling. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if you have: Sudden, painful, or severe facial ... or if you have breathing problems. The health care provider will ask about your medical and personal history. This helps determine treatment or ...

  20. Comparison of outcome of microvascular bony head and neck reconstructions using the fibular free flap and the iliac crest flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mücke, Thomas; Loeffelbein, Denys J; Kolk, Andreas; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Kanatas, Anastasios; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Mitchell, David A; Kesting, Marco R

    2013-09-01

    Several microvascular free flaps are available for reconstruction of the osseous components after resections for head and neck cancer. We have prospectively evaluated patients treated by bony microsurgical reconstruction to identify predictors of adverse outcomes for delayed wound healing and failure of free flaps. All patients from July 2007 to June 2011 who had reconstructions with microvascular fibular or iliac crest flaps immediately after resection of the tumour were evaluated. There were a total of 156 bony free flaps: 120 (77%) fibular and 36 (23%) iliac crest flaps. A total of 133 (85%) were successful. Delayed wound healing was more common with the iliac crest flap (p=0.01) at the intraoral site (p=0.04). Significantly more iliac crest free flaps failed (p=0.02). Anastomosis to the facial artery (p=0.05) and facial vein (p=0.04), and duration of overall operating time were associated with a significantly higher risk of failure of the flap. Patients with cancer of the head and neck who require microsurgical bony reconstruction are at increased risk of postoperative complications. Significantly more complications were found with the iliac crest flap, whereas the fibular flap was associated with a significantly longer operating time.

  1. Congenital bony fusion (absence) of the knee: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi, F; Kahlaee, A H; Sarmadi, A; Madadi, Fi; Sadeghian, R; Emami, T M M; Abbasian, M R

    2010-12-01

    Congenital knee ankylosis is a rare condition which might be accompanied with other abnormalities or not. To our knowledge, there is no report on true bony ankylosis of the knee. The only ones in the literature include fibrous knee ankylosis. Thus this seems to be the first presentation of true congenital bony fusion of the knee joint.

  2. Long segment composite split cord malformation with double bony spur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Anand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A composite type of SCM is very rare and only a few cases have been reported until today. The frequency of composite- type SCM is lower than 1% in the literature. In this report, we presented an unusual case of long segment composite type split cord malformation with double level bony spur with multiple associated bony anomalies.

  3. Intratemporal and extratemporal facial nerve schwannoma: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keum Won [Pohang Medical Center, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Kyu; Shin, Ji Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Hae Kwan [Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    To analyze the characteristics of CT and MRI findings of facial nerve schwannoma in ten patients. Ten patients with pathologically confirmed facial nerve schwannoma, underwent physical and radilolgic examination. The latter involved MRI in all ten and CT scanning in six. We analyzed the location (epicenter), extent and number of involved segments of tumors, tuumor morphology, and changes in adjacent bony structures. The major symptoms of facial nerve schwannoma were facial nerve paralysis in seven cases and hearing loss in six. Epicenters were detected at the intraparotid portion in five cases, the intracanalicular portion in two, the cisternal portion in one, and the intratemporal portion in two. The segment most frequently involved was the mastoid (n=6), followed by the parotid (n=5), intracanalicular (n=4), cisternal (n=2), the labyrinthine/geniculate ganglion (n=2) and the tympanic segment (n=1). Tumors affected two segments of the facial nerve in eight cases, only one segment in one, and four continuous segments in one. Morphologically, tumors were ice-cream cone shaped in the cisternal segment tumor (1/1), cone shaped in intracanalicular tumors (2/2), oval shaped in geniculate ganglion tumors (1/1), club shaped in intraparotid tumors (5/5) and bead shaped in the diffuse-type tumor (1/1). Changes in adjacent bony structures involved widening of the stylomastoid foramen in intraparotid tumors (5/5), widening of the internal auditary canal in intracanalicular and cisternal tumors (3/3), bony erosion of the geniculate fossa in geniculate ganglion tumors (2/2), and widening of the facial nerve canal in intratemporal and intraparotid tumors (6/6). The characteristic location, shape and change in adjacent bony structures revealed by facial schwannomas on CT and MR examination lead to correct diagnosis.

  4. Evaporation-driven clustering of microscale pillars and lamellae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae-Hong; Kim, Jungchul; Kim, Ho-Young, E-mail: hyk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    As a liquid film covering an array of micro- or nanoscale pillars or lamellae evaporates, its meniscus pulls the elastic patterns together because of capillary effects, leading to clustering of the slender microstructures. While this elastocapillary coalescence may imply various useful applications, it is detrimental to a semiconductor manufacturing process called the spin drying, where a liquid film rinses patterned wafers until drying. To understand the transient mechanism underlying such self-organization during and after liquid evaporation, we visualize the clustering dynamics of polymer micropatterns. Our visualization experiments reveal that the patterns clumped during liquid evaporation can be re-separated when completely dried in some cases. This restoration behavior is explained by considering adhesion energy of the patterns as well as capillary forces, which leads to a regime map to predict whether permanent stiction would occur. This work does not only extend our understanding of micropattern stiction, but also suggests a novel path to control and prevent pattern clustering.

  5. Lamellae orientation in dynamically sheared diblock copolymer melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppi, Kurt A.; Tirrell, Matthew; Bates, Frank S.; Almdal, Kristoffer; Colby, Ralph H.

    1992-11-01

    Two distinct lamellae orientaitons have been identified by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) in dynamically sheared poly(ethylene-propylene)-poly(ethylethylene) (PEP-PEE) diblock copolymer melts. Near the order-disorder transition temperature, Tto T_ODT, and at low shear frequencies, the lamellae arrange with unit normal perpendicular to the flow direction and parallel to the velocity gradient direction (parallel orientation). Higher frequency processing leads to lamellae with unit normal permendicular to both the flow and velocity gradient directions (perpendicular orientation). The crossover from low to high frequency behavior occurs at ω≈tau^{-1} where tau is the relaxation time for local domain deformations. At temperatures further from the ODT, Torientation is obtained at all shearing frequencies. Based on dynamic and steady shear rheological measurements we propose two mechanisms to account for these results. The perpendicular orientation is proposed to arise from shear-induced disordering, followed by reordering in the perpendicular direction due to the effect of vorticity. Parallel lamellae are believed to be a manifestation of defect mediated stress relaxation. These findings are supported by additional experiments on various other shear-oriented polyolefin diblock copolymers. Nous avons identifié, par diffusion de neutrons aux petits angles, deux orientation différentes des lamelles dans des échantillons de copolymères séquencés poly(éthylène-propylène)- poly(éthylétylène) (PEP-PEE) qui ont été cisaillés dynamiquement. A des températures proches de la transition ordre-désordre et aux fréquences de cisaillement faibles, la normale aux couches est perpendiculaire à la direction d'écoulement et parallèle au gradient de vitesse (orientation parllèle). Aux fréquences plus élevées, la normale est perpendiculaire à la direction d'écoulement et au gradient de vitesse (orientation perpendiculaire). Le changement d

  6. Evaporation-driven clustering of microscale pillars and lamellae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hong; Kim, Jungchul; Kim, Ho-Young

    2016-02-01

    As a liquid film covering an array of micro- or nanoscale pillars or lamellae evaporates, its meniscus pulls the elastic patterns together because of capillary effects, leading to clustering of the slender microstructures. While this elastocapillary coalescence may imply various useful applications, it is detrimental to a semiconductor manufacturing process called the spin drying, where a liquid film rinses patterned wafers until drying. To understand the transient mechanism underlying such self-organization during and after liquid evaporation, we visualize the clustering dynamics of polymer micropatterns. Our visualization experiments reveal that the patterns clumped during liquid evaporation can be re-separated when completely dried in some cases. This restoration behavior is explained by considering adhesion energy of the patterns as well as capillary forces, which leads to a regime map to predict whether permanent stiction would occur. This work does not only extend our understanding of micropattern stiction, but also suggests a novel path to control and prevent pattern clustering.

  7. The "bony Bankart bridge" procedure: a new arthroscopic technique for reduction and internal fixation of a bony Bankart lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Peter J; Braun, Sepp

    2009-01-01

    Arthroscopic treatment of bony Bankart lesions can be challenging. We present a new easy and reproducible technique for arthroscopic reduction and suture anchor fixation of bony Bankart fragments. A suture anchor is placed medially to the fracture on the glenoid neck, and its sutures are passed around the bony fragment through the soft tissue including the inferior glenohumeral ligament complex. The sutures of this anchor are loaded in a second anchor that is placed on the glenoid face. This creates a nontilting 2-point fixation that compresses the fragment into its bed. By use of the standard technique, additional suture anchors are used superiorly and inferiorly to the bony Bankart piece to repair the labrum and shift the joint capsule. We call this the "bony Bankart bridge" procedure.

  8. Femtosecond laser cutting of multiple thin corneal stromal lamellae for endothelial bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aurélien; He, Zhiguo; Forest, Fabien; Gauthier, Anne-Sophie; Peocʼh, Michel; Dumollard, Jean-Marc; Acquart, Sophie; Montard, Romain; Delbosc, Bernard; Gain, Philippe; Thuret, Gilles

    2015-02-01

    To assess the feasibility of cutting multiple thin stromal lamellae in human donor corneas using a commercial femtosecond laser (FSL) to provide cell carriers for future endothelial graft bioengineering. Eight edematous organ-cultured corneas not suitable for grafting for endothelial reasons were mounted on a Ziemer anterior chamber and cut with a Z6 FSL with 6 successive parallel cuts, from depth to surface. Target thickness of each lamella ranged from 100 to 150 μm depending on initial corneal thickness. Thickness was measured using anterior segment optical coherence tomography before and after cutting on mounted corneas, and on each stromal lamella after detachment. Scanning electron microscopy observation was performed on 4 lamellae and histological cross sections on 1 cornea before detachment. A median of 5 (minimum 3, maximum 7) lamellae was obtained per cornea. All lamellae still attached were the most posterior ones, suggesting that FSL was less efficient because of light scattering by edematous stroma. Cut precision and postdetachment swelling were correlated with anterior-posterior position within the cornea. Median lamella thickness was 127 μm (56-222 μm) before detachment and 196 μm (80-304 μm) after detachment. Surface state was consistent with previously reported FSL lamellar cuts during Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. Up to 7 thin lamellae can be cut in stored corneas with an FSL. This method, once optimized primarily by using deswelled, more transparent corneas, could prove effective for recycling unsuitable donor corneas in corneal bioengineering processes.

  9. Incidental bony pathology when reporting trauma orthopantomograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macanovic, M., E-mail: mladenmaca@gmail.co [Derriford Hospital NHS Trust, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Gangidi, S.; Porter, G.; Brown, S.; Courtney, D. [Derriford Hospital NHS Trust, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Porter, J. [Community Dental Service, Plymouth Primary Care Trust, Plymouth, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Radiologists frequently report orthopantomograms (OPTs) and other views of the mandible, most often in patients who have suffered facial trauma. These examinations may reveal incidental pathology. It is important that radiologists are aware of the radiological appearances and the clinical significance of these lesions. In this review we will present examples of the more common odontogenic lesions including: radicular cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, and also examples of non-odontogenic pathology: bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) and chronic osteomyelitis. Although some of the lesions will require computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for further lesion characterization and evaluation of the surrounding tissues, we are going to focus on the plain film appearances. We will also briefly discuss the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and treatment of these lesions.

  10. Facial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery.

  11. Facial tics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tic - facial; Mimic spasm ... Tics may involve repeated, uncontrolled spasm-like muscle movements, such as: Eye blinking Grimacing Mouth twitching Nose wrinkling Squinting Repeated throat clearing or grunting may also be ...

  12. Facial Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mihalache Sergiu; Stoica Mihaela-Zoica

    2014-01-01

    .... From birth, faces are important in the individual's social interaction. Face perceptions are very complex as the recognition of facial expressions involves extensive and diverse areas in the brain...

  13. Patterns of chemical diversity in the Mediterranean sponge Spongia lamella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyer, Charlotte; Thomas, Olivier P; Becerro, Mikel A

    2011-01-01

    The intra-specific diversity in secondary metabolites can provide crucial information for understanding species ecology and evolution but has received limited attention in marine chemical ecology. The complex nature of diversity is partially responsible for the lack of studies, which often target a narrow number of major compounds. Here, we investigated the intra-specific chemical diversity of the Mediterranean sponge Spongia lamella. The chemical profiles of seven populations spreading over 1200 km in the Western Mediterranean were obtained by a straightforward SPE-HPLC-DAD-ELSD process whereas the identity of compounds was assessed by comparison between HPLC-MS spectra and literature data. Chemical diversity calculated by richness and Shannon indexes differed significantly between sponge populations but not at a larger regional scale. We used factor analysis, analysis of variance, and regression analysis to examine the chemical variability of this sponge at local and regional scales, to establish general patterns of variation in chemical diversity. The abundance of some metabolites varied significantly between sponge populations. Despite these significant differences between populations, we found a clear pattern of increasing chemical dissimilarity with increasing geographic distance. Additional large spatial scale studies on the chemical diversity of marine organisms will validate the universality or exclusivity of this pattern.

  14. Patterns of chemical diversity in the Mediterranean sponge Spongia lamella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Noyer

    Full Text Available The intra-specific diversity in secondary metabolites can provide crucial information for understanding species ecology and evolution but has received limited attention in marine chemical ecology. The complex nature of diversity is partially responsible for the lack of studies, which often target a narrow number of major compounds. Here, we investigated the intra-specific chemical diversity of the Mediterranean sponge Spongia lamella. The chemical profiles of seven populations spreading over 1200 km in the Western Mediterranean were obtained by a straightforward SPE-HPLC-DAD-ELSD process whereas the identity of compounds was assessed by comparison between HPLC-MS spectra and literature data. Chemical diversity calculated by richness and Shannon indexes differed significantly between sponge populations but not at a larger regional scale. We used factor analysis, analysis of variance, and regression analysis to examine the chemical variability of this sponge at local and regional scales, to establish general patterns of variation in chemical diversity. The abundance of some metabolites varied significantly between sponge populations. Despite these significant differences between populations, we found a clear pattern of increasing chemical dissimilarity with increasing geographic distance. Additional large spatial scale studies on the chemical diversity of marine organisms will validate the universality or exclusivity of this pattern.

  15. Arthroscopic Repair of Posterior Bony Bankart Lesion and Subscapularis Remplissage

    OpenAIRE

    Luedke, Colten; Tolan, Stefan J.; Tokish, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Posterior shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss has only a fraction of the prevalence of anterior instability. Unlike the latter, there is a paucity of literature regarding the treatment of posterior bony Bankart lesions and even less with concomitant reverse Hill-Sachs lesions. This combination of pathology leads to a difficult situation regarding treatment options. We present our technique for arthroscopic repair of a posterior bony Bankart lesion and reverse Hill-Sachs lesion. The im...

  16. Ringwoodite lamellae in olivine: Clues to olivine–ringwoodite phase transition mechanisms in shocked meteorites and subducting slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ming; Goresy, Ahmed El; Gillet, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The first natural occurrence of ringwoodite lamellae was found in the olivine grains inside and in areas adjacent to the shock veins of a chondritic meteorite, and these lamellae show distinct growth mechanism. Inside the veins where pressure and temperature were higher than elsewhere, ringwoodite lamellae formed parallel to the {101} planes of olivine, whereas outside they lie parallel to the (100) plane of olivine. The lamellae replaced the host olivine from a few percent to complete. Forma...

  17. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News media interested in ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports injuries ...

  18. Children and Facial Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Children and Facial Trauma Children and Facial Trauma Patient Health Information News ... staff at newsroom@entnet.org . What is facial trauma? The term facial trauma means any injury to ...

  19. Facial Cosmetic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ...

  20. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision Understanding Facial Scar Treatment When the skin is injured from a cut or tear the body heals by forming scar tissue. The appearance of the scar can range from ...

  1. Basal lamella relaxing incision improves endoscopic middle meatal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Anne E; Hwang, Peter H

    2013-03-01

    Lateralization of the middle turbinate is a commonly cited factor leading to failure of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Inadequate medialization during FESS may require repeat intraoperative attempts, and may lead to destabilization and mucosal trauma. A novel technique is described that increases middle meatal area and provides more definitive medialization at the outset of FESS. Twenty-nine middle turbinate medializations were prospectively evaluated in 18 consecutive patients undergoing primary ESS. Three intraoperative images of the middle meatus were obtained in the native position, after Freer medialization, and after basal lamella relaxing incision (BLRI). Measurements of middle meatal area were then calculated in a blinded and randomized fashion. Distances measured from the middle turbinate to the lateral nasal wall for each position ranged from 0 to 8 mm (median = 3.00 mm) for the native position, 0.5 to 10 mm (median = 5.00 mm) for standard Freer medialization, and 3 to 21 mm (median = 10.00 mm) for BLRI. Friedman's analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was significant difference between the 3 measurements, and the post hoc Wilcoxon signed ranks tests showed that BLRI distance (median = 10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7-11.2) was significantly larger than both standard Freer (median = 5; 95% CI, 4-6.2) and native (median = 3; 95% CI, 2-3) and that standard Freer was significantly larger than native (all p values BLRI is a safe, controlled technique that provides significantly greater medialization of the middle turbinate compared to standard medialization techniques. BLRI significantly enhances the operative space within the middle meatus. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  2. Facial blindsight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eSolcà

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Blindsight denotes unconscious residual visual capacities in the context of an inability to consciously recollect or identify visual information. It has been described for color and shape discrimination, movement or facial emotion recognition. The present study investigates a patient suffering from cortical blindness whilst maintaining select residual abilities in face detection. Our patient presented the capacity to distinguish between jumbled/normal faces, known/unknown faces or famous people’s categories although he failed to explicitly recognize or describe them. Conversely, performance was at chance level when asked to categorize non-facial stimuli. Our results provide clinical evidence for the notion that some aspects of facial processing can occur without perceptual awareness, possibly using direct tracts from the thalamus to associative visual cortex, bypassing the primary visual cortex.

  3. Rejuvenecimiento facial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Daniel Jacubovsky, Dr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento facial es un proceso único y particular a cada individuo y está regido en especial por su carga genética. El lifting facial es una compleja técnica desarrollada en nuestra especialidad desde principios de siglo, para revertir los principales signos de este proceso. Los factores secundarios que gravitan en el envejecimiento facial son múltiples y por ello las ritidectomías o lifting cérvico faciales descritas han buscado corregir los cambios fisonómicos del envejecimiento excursionando, como se describe, en todos los planos tisulares involucrados. Esta cirugía por lo tanto, exige conocimiento cabal de la anatomía quirúrgica, pericia y experiencia para reducir las complicaciones, estigmas quirúrgicos y revisiones secundarias. La ridectomía facial ha evolucionado hacia un procedimiento más simple, de incisiones más cortas y disecciones menos extensas. Las suspensiones musculares han variado en su ejecución y los vectores de montaje y resección cutánea son cruciales en los resultados estéticos de la cirugía cérvico facial. Hoy estos vectores son de tracción más vertical. La corrección de la flaccidez va acompañada de un interés en reponer el volumen de la superficie del rostro, en especial el tercio medio. Las técnicas quirúrgicas de rejuvenecimiento, en especial el lifting facial, exigen una planificación para cada paciente. Las técnicas adjuntas al lifting, como blefaroplastias, mentoplastía, lipoaspiración de cuello, implantes faciales y otras, también han tenido una positiva evolución hacia la reducción de riesgos y mejor éxito estético.

  4. Avoiding Facial Incisions with Midface Free Tissue Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Mark W.; Sosin, Michael; Urbinelli, Leo J.; Mayo, James L.; Dorafshar, Amir H.; Hilaire, Hugo St.; Borsuk, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We have adopted an intraoral microsurgical anastomosis to the facial vessels to eliminate the need for any visible facial incisions. Methods: Cadaveric dissection was used to demonstrate accessibility of the facial artery and vein through an intraoral approach. Additionally, 5 patients underwent free tissue transfer for reconstruction of major defects of the midface through an intraoral, transmucosal approach, obviating the need for visible skin incisions. Results: The pathology included palatal defects due to mucoepidermoid carcinoma and ischemic necrosis from cocaine abuse, maxillary defects secondary to fibrous dysplasia and avascular necrosis from traumatic blast injury, and a residual posttraumatic bony deformity of the zygoma. Reconstructions were performed with a free ulnar forearm flap, a free vastus lateralis muscle flap, a deep circumflex iliac artery myoosseous flap, a free fibula flap, and a deep circumflex iliac artery osseous flap, respectively. The facial artery and vein were used as recipient vessels for microvascular anastomosis for all cases. Mean follow-up was 12.2 months. All free tissue transfers were successful, and each patient had a satisfactory aesthetic outcome with no associated facial scars. Conclusion: This technique can be employed during reconstruction of an array of bony or soft-tissue midface deficits with minimal morbidity. This small series effectively demonstrates the varied pathologies and tissue deficiencies that can be successfully reconstructed with free tissue transfer using an entirely intraoral approach to the recipient facial vessels, resulting in no visible scars on the face and an improvement in the overall aesthetic outcome. PMID:28280662

  5. ANNULATE LAMELLAE AND "YOLK NUCLEI" IN OOCYTES OF THE DRAGONFLY, LIBELLULA PULCHELLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, R. G.; Beams, H. W.

    1969-01-01

    Annulated membranes in the form of single and short lamellae are present adjacent to and parallel to the nuclear envelope in oogonia and early oocyte (synaptene) stages of the dragonfly, Libellula pulchella. These solitary and short annulate lamellae are usually continuous with long, part rough- and part smooth-surfaced cisternae which extend into more distal areas of the oogonial ooplasm. These particular annulate lamellae then either disappear or decrease in number to be replaced by a much more extensive system of annulate lamellae in the cortical ooplasm of previtellogenic oocytes. The differentiation of extensive stacks of annulate lamellae is consistently observed to be restricted to large cytoplasmic areas of considerable electron density. These cytoplasmic regions consist of material which stains basophilic and contains RNA but differs structurally from the large number of ribosomes which surround the dense masses. The cytoplasmic dense masses, in terms of their formation and staining reactions, are comparable to the "yolk nuclei" or "Balbiani bodies" described in insect oocytes in earlier studies. The results of the present study thus provide evidence that the appearance of cortical ooplasmic stacks of annulate lamellae in the dragonfly oocyte is specifically limited to cytoplasmic areas of high electron density which contain RNA but which do not have a ribosomal morphology. PMID:5786982

  6. Arthroscopic Repair of a Posterior Bony Bankart Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehling-Monaghan, Kirsten L; Krych, Aaron J; Dahm, Diane L

    2015-12-01

    Posterior bony defects of the glenoid rim, particularly those associated with instability, are often a frustrating challenge for arthroscopists because of the defects' inaccessibility from standard portals. This challenge is enhanced when the lesion is chronic and fibrous malunion of the fragment makes mobilization difficult. We present our technique for arthroscopic repair of the relatively uncommon chronic posterior bony Bankart lesion. By use of lateral positioning and a standard anterior viewing portal and posterior working portal, as well as a strategically placed posterolateral accessory portal, the lesion is first freed from its malreduced position and ultimately repaired using suture anchor fixation of the bony fragment along with its associated labrum directly to the remaining glenoid rim. This technique, facilitated by precise portal placement, results in satisfactory fragment reduction, appropriate capsular tension, and restoration of anatomy.

  7. A pulled sutures technique for bony Bankart lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Ill; Choi, Hyung Suk; Min, Kyung Dae; Kwon, Sai Won; Kim, Jun Bum; Kim, Yong-Beom; Chun, Dong-Il

    2014-05-01

    In an attempt to present a new surgical technique for arthroscopic bony Bankart fixation, the authors developed the pulled sutures technique. In executing the new method, the authors first passed several non-absorbable sutures through labroligamentous tissue with displaced articular fragment by mimicking transglenoid suture technique. Aimed at achieving a safe and stable fixation, using a knotless anchor rather than transglenoid suture, was deployed. Overall, this pulled sutures technique was shown to be effective with the result of direct reduction, stable, and safe fixation for bony Bankart's lesion.

  8. The surgical anatomy of the cervical distribution of the facial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziarah, H A; Atkinson, M E

    1981-09-01

    In an attempt to improve the safety of the submandibular approach to the mandible and submandibular anatomical dissections of 100 facial halves were undertaken. Observations were made on the course of the cervical branch of the facial nerve in relation to bony and soft tissue landmarks and fascial planes. The course of the nerve and its relation to the platysma muscle and investing fascia dictate the placement and depth of incision used for the submandibular approach.

  9. First Trimester Abortion: A Rare Cause of Intrauterine Bony Spicules

    OpenAIRE

    Anshuja Singla; Bindiya Gupta; Kiran Guleria

    2012-01-01

    Bony fragments in the uterus occur after second trimester termination of pregnancy following retained fetal bones. Very rarely, they can form following first trimester loss. Clinical symptoms range from pain, menstrual symptoms, and infertility. Ultrasound shows a hyperechoic shadow, and treatment is by curettage or hysteroscopic removal.

  10. First Trimester Abortion: A Rare Cause of Intrauterine Bony Spicules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuja Singla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bony fragments in the uterus occur after second trimester termination of pregnancy following retained fetal bones. Very rarely, they can form following first trimester loss. Clinical symptoms range from pain, menstrual symptoms, and infertility. Ultrasound shows a hyperechoic shadow, and treatment is by curettage or hysteroscopic removal.

  11. Bony exostosis of the atlas with resultant cranial nerve palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavotinek, J.P.; Sage, M.R. (Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park (Australia). Dept. of Radiology); Brophy, B.P. (Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park (Australia). Dept. of Neurosurgery)

    1991-10-01

    A case of tenth and twelfth nerve compression secondary to a bony exostosis of the first cervical vertebra is described. This uncommon phenomenon serves to outline the importance of imaging the course of a cranial nerve when no intracranial abnormality is demonstrable on CT or MRI. The radiologic features of spinal osteochondromas are reviewed. (orig.).

  12. Arthroscopic treatment of bony loose bodies in the subacromial space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The mechanism of formation of bony loose bodies is not clear, may be associated with synovial cartilage metaplasia. Arthroscopic removal of loose bodies and bursa debridement is a good option for treatment of the loose body in the subacromial space, which can receive good function.

  13. Self-assembly of lamella-forming diblock copolymers confined in nanochannels: Effect of confinement geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Deng, Jian-Hua; Wang, Zheng; Li, Bao-Hui; Shi, An-Chang

    2015-04-01

    The self-assembly of symmetric diblock copolymers confined in the channels of variously shaped cross sections (regular triangles, squares, and ellipses) is investigated using a simulated annealing technique. In the bulk, the studied symmetric diblock copolymers form a lamellar structure with period LL. The geometry and surface property of the confining channels have a large effect on the self-assembled structures and the orientation of the lamellar structures. Stacked perpendicular lamellae with period LL are observed for neutral surfaces regardless of the channel shape and size, but each lamella is in the shape of the corresponding channel's cross section. In the case of triangle-shaped cross sections, stacked parallel lamellae are the majority morphologies for weakly selective surfaces, while morphologies including a triangular-prism-shaped B-cylinder and multiple tridentate lamellae are obtained for strongly selective surfaces. In the cases of square-shaped and ellipse-shaped cross sections, concentric lamellae are the signature morphology for strongly selective surfaces, whereas for weakly selective surfaces, stacked parallel lamellae, and several types of folding lamellae are obtained in the case of square-shaped cross sections, and stacked parallel lamellae are the majority morphologies in the case of ellipse-shaped cross sections when the length of the minor axis is commensurate with the bulk lamellar period. The mean-square end-to-end distance, the average contact number between different species and the surface concentration of the A-monomers are computed to elucidate the mechanisms of the formation of the different morphologies. It is found that the resulting morphology is a consequence of competition among the chain stretching, interfacial energy, and surface energy. Our results suggest that the self-assembled morphology and the orientation of lamellae can be manipulated by the shape, the size, and the surface property of the confining channels. Project

  14. Molecular requirements for actin-based lamella formation in Drosophila S2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephen L; Wiedemann, Ursula; Stuurman, Nico; Vale, Ronald D

    2003-09-15

    Cell migration occurs through the protrusion of the actin-enriched lamella. Here, we investigated the effects of RNAi depletion of approximately 90 proteins implicated in actin function on lamella formation in Drosophila S2 cells. Similar to in vitro reconstitution studies of actin-based Listeria movement, we find that lamellae formation requires a relatively small set of proteins that participate in actin nucleation (Arp2/3 and SCAR), barbed end capping (capping protein), filament depolymerization (cofilin and Aip1), and actin monomer binding (profilin and cyclase-associated protein). Lamellae are initiated by parallel and partially redundant signaling pathways involving Rac GTPases and the adaptor protein Nck, which stimulate SCAR, an Arp2/3 activator. We also show that RNAi of three proteins (kette, Abi, and Sra-1) known to copurify with and inhibit SCAR in vitro leads to SCAR degradation, revealing a novel function of this protein complex in SCAR stability. Our results have identified an essential set of proteins involved in actin dynamics during lamella formation in Drosophila S2 cells.

  15. A nano lamella NbTi–NiTi composite with high strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jiang; Jiang, Daqiang; Hao, Shijie; Yu, Cun; Zhang, Junsong; Ren, Yang; Lu, Deping; Xie, Shifang; Cui, Lishan

    2015-05-01

    A hypereutectic Nb60Ti24Ni16 (at%) alloy was prepared by vacuum induction melting, and a nano lamellae NbTi-NiTi composite was obtained by hot-forging and wire-drawing of the ingot Microscopic analysis showed that NbTi and NiTi nano lamellae distributed alternatively in the composite, and aligned along the wire axial direction, with a high volume fraction (similar to 70%) of NbTi nano lamellae. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that stress induced martensitic transformation occurred upon loading, which would effectively weaken the stress concentration at the interface and avoid the introduction of defects into the nano reinforced phase. Then the embedded NbTi nano lamellae exhibited a high elastic strain up to 2.72%, 1.5 times as high as that of the Nb nanowires embedded in a conventional plastic matrix, and the corresponding stress carried by NbTi was evaluated as 2.53 GPa. The high volume fraction of NbTi nano lamellae improved the translation of high strength from the nano reinforced phase into bulk properties of the composite, with a platform stress of similar to 1.7 GPa and a fracture strength of similar to 1.9 GPa. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A nano lamella NbTi–NiTi composite with high strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jiang [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Copper and Tungsten Materials, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Institute of Applied Physics of Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing and Department of Materials Science and engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Jiang, Daqiang [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing and Department of Materials Science and engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, WA 6009 (Australia); Hao, Shijie; Yu, Cun; Zhang, Junsong [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing and Department of Materials Science and engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Ren, Yang [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Lu, Deping; Xie, Shifang [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Copper and Tungsten Materials, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Institute of Applied Physics of Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Cui, Lishan, E-mail: lishancui63@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing and Department of Materials Science and engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China)

    2015-05-01

    A hypereutectic Nb{sub 60}Ti{sub 24}Ni{sub 16} (at%) alloy was prepared by vacuum induction melting, and a nano lamellae NbTi–NiTi composite was obtained by hot-forging and wire-drawing of the ingot. Microscopic analysis showed that NbTi and NiTi nano lamellae distributed alternatively in the composite, and aligned along the wire axial direction, with a high volume fraction (~70%) of NbTi nano lamellae. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that stress induced martensitic transformation occurred upon loading, which would effectively weaken the stress concentration at the interface and avoid the introduction of defects into the nano reinforced phase. Then the embedded NbTi nano lamellae exhibited a high elastic strain up to 2.72%, 1.5 times as high as that of the Nb nanowires embedded in a conventional plastic matrix, and the corresponding stress carried by NbTi was evaluated as 2.53 GPa. The high volume fraction of NbTi nano lamellae improved the translation of high strength from the nano reinforced phase into bulk properties of the composite, with a platform stress of ~1.7 GPa and a fracture strength of ~1.9 GPa.

  17. Pediatric facial nerve rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Caroline A; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-11-01

    Facial paralysis is a rare but severe condition in the pediatric population. Impaired facial movement has multiple causes and varied presentations, therefore individualized treatment plans are essential for optimal results. Advances in facial reanimation over the past 4 decades have given rise to new treatments designed to restore balance and function in pediatric patients with facial paralysis. This article provides a comprehensive review of pediatric facial rehabilitation and describes a zone-based approach to assessment and treatment of impaired facial movement.

  18. The bony labyrinth of the middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    We performed 3D virtual reconstructions based on CT scans to study the bony labyrinth morphology in 14 individuals from the large middle Pleistocene hominin sample from the site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins represent early members of the Neandertal clade and provide an opportunity to compare the data with the later in time Neandertals, as well as Pleistocene and recent humans more broadly. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins do not differ from the Neandertals in any of the variables related to the absolute and relative sizes and shape of the semicircular canals. Indeed, the entire Neandertal clade seems to be characterized by a derived pattern of canal proportions, including a relatively small posterior canal and a relatively large lateral canal. In contrast, one of the most distinctive features observed in Neandertals, the low placement of the posterior canal (i.e., high sagittal labyrinthine index), is generally not present in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins. This low placement is considered a derived feature in Neandertals and is correlated with a more vertical orientation of the ampullar line (LSCm  PPp), and third part of the facial canal (LSCm < FC3). Some variation is present within the Atapuerca (SH) sample, however, with a few individuals approaching the Neandertal condition more closely. In addition, the cochlear shape index in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins is low, indicating a reduction in the height of the cochlea. Although the phylogenetic polarity of this feature is less clear, the low shape index in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins may be a derived feature. Regardless, cochlear height subsequently increased in Neandertals. In contrast to previous suggestions, the expanded data in the present study indicate no difference across the genus Homo in the angle of inclination of the cochlear basal turn (COs < LSCm). Principal components analysis largely confirms these observations. While not

  19. The FEM Simulation Of Cementite Lamellas Deformation In Pearlitic Colony During Drawing Of High Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenin, Andriy; Muskalski, Z.

    2007-05-01

    In paper the wire drawing processes was investigated in two levels — steady-state solve using the 2-dimensional rigid-plastic finite element method (macro-level) and modeling of a microstructure change (micro-level). In macro level the joint deformation-temperature problem was considered. In micro-level the process of deformation of representative volume element — RVE was considered. The pearlitic colony deformation and orientation of cementite lamellas change in RVE was modeled with help of a FEM. The micro-level model to rigid-plastic finite element code was implemented. The experimental data of microstructure and orientation of cementite lamellas change was compared with results of a simulations. The influence of multi-pass drawing parameters (as friction, drawing schedule) on orientation of cementite lamellas was investigated.

  20. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more to fully heal and achieve maximum improved appearance. Facial plastic surgery makes it possible to correct facial flaws that can undermine self-confidence. Changing how your scar looks can help change ...

  1. Facial attractiveness: General patterns of facial preferences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    This review covers universal patterns in facial preferences. Facial attractiveness has fascinated thinkers since antiquity, but has been the subject of intense scientific study for only the last quarter of a century...

  2. [Surgical facial reanimation after persisting facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    Facial reanimation following persistent facial paralysis can be managed with surgical procedures of varying complexity. The choice of the technique is mainly determined by the cause of facial paralysis, the age and desires of the patient. The techniques most commonly used are the nerve grafts (VII-VII, XII-VII, cross facial graft), dynamic muscle transfers (temporal myoplasty, free muscle transfert) and static suspensions. An intensive rehabilitation through specific exercises after all procedures is essential to archieve good results.

  3. Bony tumour in an unusual location on the mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashish Sasidharan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomas are benign osteogenic tumors that are seen in the facial bones, but uncommonly in the mandible. In the facial bones, both central and peripheral osteomas have been described. Peripheral osteomas have been described to occur in the frontal, ethmoid, and maxillary sinuses but are not common in jawbones. When in the mandible, they are usually found over the angle and inferior border of the mandible. We report on a solitary peripheral osteoma located unusually in the sigmoid notch of the left mandible causing facial asymmetry.

  4. Imaging of the hip and bony pelvis. Techniques and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, A.M. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom). MRI Centre; Johnson, K.J. [Princess of Wales Birmingham Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom); Whitehouse, R.W. (eds.) [Manchester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Radiology

    2006-07-01

    This is a comprehensive textbook on imaging of the bony pelvis and hip joint that provides a detailed description of the techniques and imaging findings relevant to this complex anatomical region. In the first part of the book, the various techniques and procedures employed for imaging the pelvis and hip are discussed in detail. The second part of the book documents the application of these techniques to the diverse clinical problems and diseases encountered. Among the many topics addressed are congenital and developmental disorders including developmental dysplasia of the hip, irritable hip and septic arthritis, Perthes' disease and avascular necrosis, slipped upper femoral epiphysis, bony and soft tissue trauma, arthritis, tumours and hip prostheses. Each chapter is written by an acknowledged expert in the field, and a wealth of illustrative material is included. This book will be of great value to musculoskeletal and general radiologists, orthopaedic surgeons and rheumatologists. (orig.)

  5. Percutaneous embolization of bony pelvic neoplasms with tissue adhesive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, F.S.; Rosch, J.; Bird, C.B.

    1983-04-01

    Eight patients with tumors of the bony pelvis underwent embolization with isobutyl-2-cyanoacrylate (IBCA). Five patients had primary bone tumors, of which 2 were malignant and 3 were benign; 3 patients had metastases to the bony pelvis from the thyroid gland, kidney, and femur, respectively. Embolization was performed to minimize blood loss during resection of a giant-cell tumor in one patient and insertion of a hip prosthesis in another who had metastatic renal carcinoma. It was also done prior to scheduled surgery in one of the patients with aneurysmal bone cyst, but healing was sufficient to cancel the operation; in the other patient, embolization was the only therapy. Palliative embolization was performed in 4 patients with malignant tumors after other means failed to control pain or slow progression. IBCA appears to be an efficient means of occluding the vessels feeding selected primary bone tumors and metastases.

  6. Arthroscopic Bony Bankart Repair Using Double-Threaded Headless Screw: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Takeshi Kokubu; Issei Nagura; Yutaka Mifune; Masahiro Kurosaka

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of arthroscopic fixation for bony Bankart lesion using a double-threaded cannulated screw. A 39-year-old man sustained a left shoulder injury from a motorcycle accident. Radiographs showed bony Bankart lesion and CT revealed 40% defect of glenoid articular surface. Arthroscopic fixation was performed using double-threaded cannulated screw after the bony fragment was reduced by suturing the labrum at the edge with a suture anchor. Arthroscopic bony Bankart repair using double...

  7. Measuring Facial Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  8. Facial Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalache Sergiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During their lifetime, people learn to recognize thousands of faces that they interact with. Face perception refers to an individual's understanding and interpretation of the face, particularly the human face, especially in relation to the associated information processing in the brain. The proportions and expressions of the human face are important to identify origin, emotional tendencies, health qualities, and some social information. From birth, faces are important in the individual's social interaction. Face perceptions are very complex as the recognition of facial expressions involves extensive and diverse areas in the brain. Our main goal is to put emphasis on presenting human faces specialized studies, and also to highlight the importance of attractiviness in their retention. We will see that there are many factors that influence face recognition.

  9. Arthroscopic Repair of Posterior Bony Bankart Lesion and Subscapularis Remplissage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, Colten; Tolan, Stefan J; Tokish, John M

    2017-06-01

    Posterior shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss has only a fraction of the prevalence of anterior instability. Unlike the latter, there is a paucity of literature regarding the treatment of posterior bony Bankart lesions and even less with concomitant reverse Hill-Sachs lesions. This combination of pathology leads to a difficult situation regarding treatment options. We present our technique for arthroscopic repair of a posterior bony Bankart lesion and reverse Hill-Sachs lesion. The importance of proper portal placement cannot be overstated. By use of the lateral position and strategically placed portals, the posterior bony Bankart lesion and attached labral complex were appropriately mobilized. We reduced the glenoid bone, with the attached capsulolabral complex, to the glenoid rim and performed fixation using a knotless suture anchor. We then placed 2 double-loaded suture anchors into the reverse Hill-Sachs lesion. The sutures were passed creating horizontal mattress configurations that were tied at the end of the procedure, effectively externalizing the humeral head defect. Our technique results in satisfactory fragment reduction, as well as appropriate capsular tension, and effectively prevents the reverse Hill-Sachs lesion from engaging.

  10. [Peripheral facial nerve palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Y; Ukkola-Pons, E; Ballivet de Régloix, S; Champagne, C; Raynal, M; Lepage, P; Kossowski, M

    2013-06-01

    Facial palsy can be defined as a decrease in function of the facial nerve, the primary motor nerve of the facial muscles. When the facial palsy is peripheral, it affects both the superior and inferior areas of the face as opposed to central palsies, which affect only the inferior portion. The main cause of peripheral facial palsies is Bell's palsy, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The prognosis is good in most cases. In cases with significant cosmetic sequelae, a variety of surgical procedures are available (such as hypoglossal-facial anastomosis, temporalis myoplasty and Tenzel external canthopexy) to rehabilitate facial aesthetics and function.

  11. Variations of mechanical property of out circumferential lamellae in cortical bone along the radial by nanoindentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingdong Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Because the out circumferential lamellae have a special protective effect on the cortical bone, it is very important to understand the variations of the mechanical property of the out circumferential lamellae in cortical bone. For the purpose, the elasticity modulus and hardness of out circumferential lamellae in cortical bone were investigated in two orthogonal planes by nanoindentation, and the comparisons were made for both elasticity modulus and hardness between the two orthogonal planes. From the experiments, the decreasing trend was discovered for elasticity modulus from inside to outside in the transverse plane and ruleless variations tendency was presented in the longitudinal plane. The hardness presented the same variations in two orthogonal planes with elasticity modulus in respective plane. In the same layer, the elasticity modulus in the transverse plane was higher than that in the longitudinal plane, and the difference values between them turned to be smaller. In contrast, the hardness in the longitudinal plane was higher than that in the transverse plane in all the layers. From the heterogeneity and the microstructure of the material, the influence factors were discussed. A soft to hard structure model was put forward, and the coordinating protection mechanism of buffer and support was described. Investigation of variations of mechanical properties of out circumferential lamellae in cortical bone can provide some new understanding in researches of fracture of bone, interface load effect and design of bone graft.

  12. Molecular characterization of Myxoboluscatmrigalae (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) infecting the gill lamellae of carp Cirrhinusmrigala (Hamilton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sayani; Patra, Avijit; Mondal, Anjan; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Ramudu, Kurva Raghu; Dash, Gadadhar; Joardar, Siddhartha Narayan; Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar

    2017-03-01

    The present study attempted sequencing the 18S rRNA gene of Myxoboluscatmrigalae infecting the gill lamellae of carp, Cirrhinusmrigala and compared its genetic homology and phylogenetic characteristics with 18S rRNA genes of other Myxobolus spp. The infected fish had up to 3 small, creamy white plasmodia per gill filament with 30-50 spores each. The spore size was 17.90 ± 0.70 × 7.40 ± 0.40 μm. The sporoplasm contained two large nuclei of size 0.57 ± 0.09 μm and no iodinophilous vacuole. The DNA sequence of M.catmrigalae was clustered phylogenetically with other Myxobolus spp. infecting the gills of cyprinids available in GenBank, which showed 77-87 % homogeneity. On the phylogenetic tree, M.catmrigalae (KC933944) was clustered with M.pavlovskii (HM991164) infecting the gill lamellae of silver carp, Hypophthalmichthysmolitrix. The species most closely related to M.catmrigalae in GenBank was M.pavlovskii (AF507973) infecting the gill lamellae of big head carp, Aristichthysnobilis with 87 % homogeneity. This is the first report on molecular characterization of gill lamellae infecting M. catmrigalae.

  13. David Lynchi lamella / Slavoj Žižek ; tõlkinud Hasso Krull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Žižek, Slavoj, 1949-

    1996-01-01

    Režissöör ja tema filmide psühhoanalüütiline analüüs, tõlge kogumikust "Reading Seminar XI. Lacan's Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis", 1995. Lisad : tõlkija seletab sõna "lamella" tähenduse, Aare Ermeli koostatud režissööri filmograafia (mittetäielik)

  14. David Lynchi lamella / Slavoj Žižek ; tõlkinud Hasso Krull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Žižek, Slavoj, 1949-

    1996-01-01

    Režissöör ja tema filmide psühhoanalüütiline analüüs, tõlge kogumikust "Reading Seminar XI. Lacan's Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis", 1995. Lisad : tõlkija seletab sõna "lamella" tähenduse, Aare Ermeli koostatud režissööri filmograafia (mittetäielik)

  15. CT study on bony interface after Le Fort I osteotomy; Examination of bony interface in maxillary advancement and impaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Satoshi; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Motegi, Katsutoshi (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1994-04-01

    Bony contact after the maxilla had been mobilized by Le Fort I osteotomy was evaluated by computed tomographic examination of 52 Japanese dry skulls. The lateral piriform wall and the base of the zygomatic process of the maxilla which consist of thick bone are important areas to achieve good stability. Some cases of maxillary advancement and/or impaction lacked an osseous interface at the posterior wall. Preoperative CT along the osteotomy-line is recommended to achieve better postoperative stability. (author).

  16. Design and fabrication of thin microvascularised polymer matrices inspired from secondary lamellae of fish gills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prasoon; Gandhi, Prasanna S.; Majumder, Mainak

    2016-04-01

    Gills are one of the most primitive gas, solute exchange organs available in fishes. They facilitate exchange of gases, solutes and ions with a surrounding water medium through their functional unit called secondary lamella. These lamellae through their extraordinary morphometric features and peculiar arrangement in gills, achieve remarkable mass transport properties. Therefore, in the current study, modeling and simulation of convection-diffusion transport through a two dimensional model of secondary lamella and theoretical analysis of morphometric features of fish gills were carried out. Such study suggested an evolutionary conservation of parametric ratios across fishes of different weights. Further, we have also fabricated a thin microvascularised PDMS matrices mimicking secondary lamella by use of micro-technologies like electrospinning. In addition, we have also demonstrated the fluid flow by capillary action through these thin microvascularised PDMS matrices. Eventually, we also illustrated the application of these thin microvascularied PDMS matrices in solute exchange process under capillary flow conditions. Thus, our study suggested that fish gills have optimized parameteric ratios, at multiple length scale, throughout an evolution to achieve an organ with enhanced mass transport capabilities. Thus, these defined parametric ratios could be exploited to design and develop efficient, scaled-up gas/solute exchange microdevices. We also proposed an inexpensive and scalable method of fabrication of thin microvascularised polymer matrices and demonstrated its solute exchange capabilities under capillary flow conditions. Thus, mimicking the microstructures of secondary lamella will enable fabrication of microvascularised thin polymer systems through micro manufacturing technologies for potential applications in filtration, self-healing/cooling materials and bioengineering.

  17. Arthroscopic Bony Bankart Repair Using Double-Threaded Headless Screw: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kokubu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of arthroscopic fixation for bony Bankart lesion using a double-threaded cannulated screw. A 39-year-old man sustained a left shoulder injury from a motorcycle accident. Radiographs showed bony Bankart lesion and CT revealed 40% defect of glenoid articular surface. Arthroscopic fixation was performed using double-threaded cannulated screw after the bony fragment was reduced by suturing the labrum at the edge with a suture anchor. Arthroscopic bony Bankart repair using double-threaded cannulated screw fixation is effective because compression force could be applied between bony fragments and the screw head is not exposed in the glenohumeral joint.

  18. Surgical-Allogeneic Facial Reconstruction: Facial Transplants

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Coelho Goiato; Daniela Micheline Dos Santos; Lisiane Cristina Bannwart; Marcela Filié Haddad; Leonardo Viana Pereira; Aljomar José Vechiato Filho

    2014-01-01

    Several factors including cancer, malformations and traumas may cause large facial mutilation. These functional and aesthetic deformities negatively affect the psychological perspectives and quality of life of the mutilated patient. Conventional treatments are prone to fail aesthetically and functionally. The recent introduction of the composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA), which uses transplanted facial tissues of healthy donors to recover the damaged or non-existent facial tissue of mu...

  19. Impact of Bony Stress Injuries on Professional Basketball Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Moin; Madden, Kim; Rogowski, Joseph P.; Stotts, Jeff; Burrus, Matthew Tyrrell; Samani, Marisa; Sikka, Robby Singh; Bedi, Asheesh

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) subject their lower extremities to significant repetitive loading during the season as well as during off-season training. Little is known about the incidence and impact of lower extremity bony stress injuries in these athletes. Methods: Using the player injury database maintained by the NBA Players’ Association, all bony stress injuries from 1992 to May 2016 were identified. Those not involving the lower extremity were excluded from the study. Stress fractures and stress reactions were grouped together. Number of games missed due to the injury as well as player statistics including points per game (ppg), assists per game (apg), steals per game (spg), and blocks per game (bpg) were collected from two years prior to the injury to two years after the injury. Results: 76 lower extremity bony stress injuries were identified involving 75 different NBA players with an average player age of 25.4 ± 4.1 years. 55.3% (42/76) involved the foot, 21.1% (16/76) involved the ankle or fibula, 17.1% (13/76) involved the tibia, and 6.6% (5/76) involved either the knee or patella. The majority of injuries occurred in season 82.9% (63/76) with half of the injuries occurring within the first 6 weeks of the season. 38.2% (29/76) of these injuries were managed surgically. An average of 25.1 ± 21.3 games were missed. 19.7% (15/76) of patients who sustained a stress fracture also had a subsequent injury. 29.2% (21/76) of players were not able to return to professional basketball after the season in which the injury was sustained; however, those who were able to return to the same level of play did not see a significant change in performance as measured by ppg, apg, spg, or bpg when comparing the season prior to the injury and either one or two years after the injury. Stress injuries to the foot carried the worst prognosis, 57.1% (12/21) of those unable to return to professional basketball sustained such an injury

  20. Subcellular tension fields and mechanical resistance of the lamella front related to the direction of locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereiter-Hahn, J; Lüers, H

    1998-01-01

    Keratocytes derived from the epidermis of aquatic vertebrates are now widely used for investigation of the mechanism of cell locomotion. One of the main topics under discussion is the question of driving force development and concomitantly subcellular force distribution. Do cells move by actin polymerization-driven extension of the lamella, or is the lamella edge extended at regions of weakness by a flow of cytoplasm generated by hydrostatic pressure? Thus, elasticity changes were followed and the stiffness of the leading front of the lamella was manipulated by local application of phalloidin and cytochalasin D (CD). In scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), elasticity is revealed from the propagation velocity of longitudinal sound waves (1 GHz). The lateral resolution of SAM is in the micrometer range. Using this method, subcellular tension fields with different stiffnesses (elasticity) can be determined. A typical pattern of subcellular stiffness distribution is related to the direction of migration. Cells forced to change their direction of movement by exposure to DC electric fields of varying polarity alter their pattern of subcellular stiffness in relationship to the new direction. The cells spread into the direction of low stiffness and retract at zones of high stiffness. The pattern of subcellular stiffness distribution reveals force distribution in migrating cells; i.e., if a cell moves exactly in a direction perpendicular to its long axis, then the contractile forces are largest along the long axis and decrease toward the short axis. Locomotion in any angle oblique to this axis requires an asymmetric stiffness distribution. Inhibition of actomyosin contractions by La3+ (2 mM), which inhibits Ca2+ influx, reduces cytoplasmic stiffness accompanied by an immediate cessation of locomotion and a change of cell shape. Local release of CD in front of a progressing lamella activates a cell to follow the CD gradient: The lamella thickens locally and is extended toward

  1. Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma" "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation

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    O. M. Ramírez

    2007-03-01

    facial nerve branches and improved aesthetic correction of the sagging cheek structures. This approach, refined over the past decade, has come to be known as the "Double Ogee" rhytidectomy technique. The ogee arch is well-known in architecture from the antiquity and is characterized for being a harmonic line convex curve and later curved concave. The youthful face, when viewed at an oblique angle, maintains a characteristic distribution of tissues, previously described in the midface by an architectural ogee or single S-shaped curve. However, on more precise examination, the entire contour the youthful face generates follows a "double ogee" or double sigma when analyzed in three-quarter view. To view this reciprocal multi-curvilinear line of beauty, the face must be viewed in an oblique position that allows visualization of both medial canthi. In this position, the youthful face demonstrates a characteristic convexity of the tail of the brow that flows into a concavity of the lateral orbital wall (the upper ogee. This is joined by the convexity of the upper midface that flows into the concavity of the lower midface (the lower ogee. Patients with considerable aging and ptosis of the central facial structures can benefit most from our endoscopic approach. The eyebrows, eyelid commisures, nasoglabellar soft tissues, nose, nasolabial folds, cheeks, angle of the mouth and jowls are effectively treated with this approach. Tear through deformities, as well as deep infraorbital hollows can be corrected too. Additionally is quite effective for patients undergoing secondary or tertiary facelift procedures, those requiring immediate skin resurfacing, and those requiring soft tissue augmentation. Patients who demostrate skeletal and soft tissue desproportion can benefit from endoscopic lifting techniques. The exposed bony structures can be augmented or reduced as needed. The authors recommend this approach in patients with alloplastic facial implants that require removal or exchange

  2. Analysis of low-energy and high-frequency femtosecond laser for the construction of deep anterior donor corneal lamellae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Victor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and reliability of a low-energy femtosecond laser with a high repetition rate for construction of deep anterior donor corneal lamellae. Methods: This was a prospective laboratory investigation. Twenty-five human corneal buttons were femtosecond laser cut to create thick anterior lamellae (diameter, 10mm; thickness, 500µm. The laser cuts were made using an LDV® femtosecond laser in a Ziemer® anterior chamber. To obtain a better edge, the lamellae were trephined with an 8mm trephine (Katena®. The central corneal thickness and the anterior lamellae were measured using a Mitutoyo® thickness gauge with an accuracy of 0.001mm. Results: The central thickness of the 25 corneas ranged from 500 to 705µm (mean, 584 ± 51µm. The thickness of the anterior lamellae ranged from 420 to 480µm (mean, 455 ± 12.7µm. The anterior lamellae diameters were 7.90 ± 0.1mm, and all laser cuts were round. The lamellar interfaces appeared regular by surgical microscopy. There were no cases of inter-lamellar adhesion. Conclusion: The LDV® femtosecond laser appears to be a safe and reliable instrument for cutting deep anterior lamellae from donor corneoscleral buttons. Minimal variation in donor lamellar depth with the laser will be useful for creating donor corneal tissue for deeper anterior lamellar keratoplasty or endothelial keratoplasty surgery or both from a single donor cornea.

  3. Ringwoodite lamellae in olivine: Clues to olivine-ringwoodite phase transition mechanisms in shocked meteorites and subducting slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; El Goresy, Ahmed; Gillet, Philippe

    2004-10-19

    The first natural occurrence of ringwoodite lamellae was found in the olivine grains inside and in areas adjacent to the shock veins of a chondritic meteorite, and these lamellae show distinct growth mechanism. Inside the veins where pressure and temperature were higher than elsewhere, ringwoodite lamellae formed parallel to the [101] planes of olivine, whereas outside they lie parallel to the (100) plane of olivine. The lamellae replaced the host olivine from a few percent to complete. Formation of these lamellae relates to a diffusion-controlled growth of ringwoodite along shear-induced planar defects in olivine. The planar defects and ringwoodite lamellae parallel to the [101] planes of olivine should have been produced in higher shear stress and temperature region than that parallel to the (100) plane of olivine. This study suggests that the time duration of high pressure and temperature for the growth of ringwoodite lamellae might have lasted at least for several seconds, and that an intracrystalline transformation mechanism of ringwoodite in olivine could favorably operate in the subducting lithospheric slabs in the deep Earth.

  4. Lamellar Diblock Copolymer Thin Films during Solvent Vapor Annealing Studied by GISAXS: Different Behavior of Parallel and Perpendicular Lamellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqi; Posselt, Dorthe; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Perlich, Jan; Kyriakos, Konstantinos; Jaksch, Sebastian; Papadakis, Christine M

    2014-08-26

    The reorientation of lamellae and the dependence of the lamellar spacing, Dlam, on polymer volume fraction, ϕP, Dlam ∝ ϕP(-β), in diblock copolymer thin films during solvent vapor annealing (SVA) are examined by combining white light interferometry (WLI) and grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). A thin film of lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b-butadiene) prepared by spin-coating features lamellae of different orientations with the lamellar spacing depending on orientation. During annealing with ethyl acetate (EAC) vapor, it is found that perpendicular lamellae behave differently from parallel ones, which is due to the fact that their initial lamellar thicknesses differ strongly. Quantitatively, the swelling process is composed of three regimes and the drying process of two regimes. The first two regimes of swelling are associated with a significant structural rearrangement of the lamellae; i.e., the lamellae first become thicker, and then perpendicular and randomly oriented lamellae vanish, which results in a purely parallel orientation at the end of the swelling process. The rearrangement is attributed to the increase of mobility of the polymer chains imparted by the solvent and to a decrease of total free energy of the thin film. In the third regime of swelling, the scaling exponent is found to be β = -0.32. During drying, the deswelling is nonaffine which may be a consequence of the increase of nonfavorable segmental interactions as the solvent is removed.

  5. Change in condylar position in posterior bending osteotomy minimizing condylar torque in BSSRO for facial asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hoon Joo; Hwang, Soon Jung

    2014-06-01

    During the correction of an asymmetric mandible with sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO), bony interference between the proximal and distal segments inevitably occurs. This results in positional change of the condyle. In order to avoid this, a posterior bending osteotomy (PBO) has been introduced. This is an additional vertical osteotomy posterior to the second molar after SSRO. To investigate the change in condylar position after SSRO with PBO, 22 patients with facial asymmetry were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the surgical method used to remove the bony interference after SSRO: PBO (n = 13) and the grinding method (n = 9). Each group was subdivided into large and small bony interference groups by estimating the volume of bony interference with simulation surgery. Condylar displacement was evaluated by three-dimensional superimposition and the amount of condylar displacement was calculated. The positional changes of the condyles were variable in each patient. When comparing patients with large bony interference in the PBO and grinding groups, the condyles were significantly inwardly rotated in the grinding group (p condylar torque. However, PBO would be beneficial in correcting large bony interferences while minimizing condylar torque.

  6. Self-assembly of lamella-forming diblock copolymers confined in nanochannels:Effect of confinement geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于彬; 邓建华; 王铮; 李宝会; 史安昌

    2015-01-01

    The self-assembly of symmetric diblock copolymers confined in the channels of variously shaped cross sections (regu-lar triangles, squares, and ellipses) is investigated using a simulated annealing technique. In the bulk, the studied symmetric diblock copolymers form a lamellar structure with period LL. The geometry and surface property of the confining channels have a large effect on the self-assembled structures and the orientation of the lamellar structures. Stacked perpendicular lamellae with period LL are observed for neutral surfaces regardless of the channel shape and size, but each lamella is in the shape of the corresponding channel’s cross section. In the case of triangle-shaped cross sections, stacked parallel lamel-lae are the majority morphologies for weakly selective surfaces, while morphologies including a triangular-prism-shaped B-cylinder and multiple tridentate lamellae are obtained for strongly selective surfaces. In the cases of square-shaped and ellipse-shaped cross sections, concentric lamellae are the signature morphology for strongly selective surfaces, whereas for weakly selective surfaces, stacked parallel lamellae, and several types of folding lamellae are obtained in the case of square-shaped cross sections, and stacked parallel lamellae are the majority morphologies in the case of ellipse-shaped cross sections when the length of the minor axis is commensurate with the bulk lamellar period. The mean-square end-to-end distance, the average contact number between different species and the surface concentration of the A-monomers are computed to elucidate the mechanisms of the formation of the different morphologies. It is found that the resulting morphology is a consequence of competition among the chain stretching, interfacial energy, and surface energy. Our results suggest that the self-assembled morphology and the orientation of lamellae can be manipulated by the shape, the size, and the surface property of the confining channels.

  7. Lithographically-generated 3D lamella layers and their structural color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sichao; Chen, Yifang; Lu, Bingrui; Liu, Jianpeng; Shao, Jinhai; Xu, Chen

    2016-04-01

    Inspired by the structural color from the multilayer nanophotonic structures in Morpho butterfly wing scales, 3D lamellae layers in dielectric polymers (polymethyl methacrylate, PMMA) with n ~ 1.5 were designed and fabricated by standard top-down electron beam lithography with one-step exposure followed by an alternating development/dissolution process of PMMA/LOR (lift-off resist) multilayers. This work offers direct proof of the structural blue/green color via lithographically-replicated PMMA/air multilayers, analogous to those in real Morpho butterfly wings. The success of nanolithography in this work for the 3D lamellae structures in dielectric polymers not only enables us to gain deeper insight into the mysterious blue color of the Morpho butterfly wings, but also breaks through the bottleneck in technical development toward broad applications in gas/liquid sensors, 3D meta-materials, coloring media, and infrared imaging devices, etc.

  8. Design of a lamella settler for biomass recycling in continuous ethanol fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabera, J; Iznaola, M A

    1989-04-20

    The design and application of a settler to a continuous fermentation process with yeast recycle were studied. The compact lamella-type settler was chosen to avoid large volumes associated with conventional settling tanks. A rationale of the design method is covered. The sedimentation area was determined by classical batch settling rate tests and sedimentation capacity calculation. Limitations on the residence time of the microorganisms in the settler, rather than sludge thickening considerations, was the approach employed for volume calculation. Fermentation rate tests with yeast after different sedimentation periods were carried out to define a suitable residence time. Continuous cell recycle fermentation runs, performed with the old and new sedimentation devices, show that lamella settler improves biomass recycling efficiency, being the process able to operate at higher sugar concentrations and faster dilution rates.

  9. Facial Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...

  10. Radiographic Study of Bony Changes of the Mandibular Condyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Institute of Oral Bio Science, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare radiographic techniques for the diagnostic accuracy in the detection of osteophytes of the mandibular condyle. A series of bone chips were placed at four locations on the condylar head of a dried human skull. Eight radiographic techniques such as panoramic, transcranial, infracranial, transorbital, reverse-Towne's, submentovertex, multidirectional tomographic and computed tomographic techniques were compared. Three oral radiologists were asked to rate the lesions by four stage score. The statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA test. For the detection of lateral osteophyte, transcranial, infracranial, transorbital and reverse-Towne's views showed superiority. Also, transcranial and infracranial views showed superiority for medial osteophyte. While for the detection of superior and anterior osteophyte, panoramic, transcranial, infracranial, transorbital views showed superiority. Lateral tomograph showed superiority for the detection of superior and anterior osteophyte, but it showed inferiority for lateral and medial osteophte. And antero-posterior tomograph showed superiority for the detection of all osteophytes. Axial computed tomograph showed superiority for the detection of all osteophytes, and coronal computed tomograph showed superiority for lateral, medial and superior osteophytes. While reconstructed sagittal computed tomograph showed relatively superiority for the detection of anterior and superior osteophytes. The conventional radiographs can be used for the detection of bony changes of the mandibular condyle, and tomograph or computed tomograph can be used additionally when it is difficult to detect bony changes on conventional radiographs.

  11. Allergenicity of bony and cartilaginous fish - molecular and immunological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, J N; Sharp, M F; Ruethers, T; Taki, A; Campbell, D E; Lopata, A L

    2017-03-01

    Allergy to bony fish is common and probably increasing world-wide. The major heat-stable pan-fish allergen, parvalbumin (PV), has been identified and characterized for numerous fish species. In contrast, there are very few reports of allergic reactions to cartilaginous fish despite widespread consumption. The molecular basis for this seemingly low clinical cross-reactivity between these two fish groups has not been elucidated. PV consists of two distinct protein lineages, α and β. The α-lineage of this protein is predominant in muscle tissue of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), while β-PV is abundant in muscle tissue of bony fish (Osteichthyes). The low incidence of allergic reactions to ingested rays and sharks is likely due to the lack of molecular similarity, resulting in reduced immunological cross-reactivity between the two PV lineages. Structurally and physiologically, both protein lineages are very similar; however, the amino acid homology is very low with 47-54%. Furthermore, PV from ancient fish species such as the coelacanth demonstrates 62% sequence homology to leopard shark α-PV and 70% to carp β-PV. This indicates the extent of conservation of the PV isoforms lineages across millennia. This review highlights prevalence data on fish allergy and sensitization to fish, and details the molecular diversity of the two protein lineages of the major fish allergen PV among different fish groups, emphasizing the immunological and clinical differences in allergenicity.

  12. Computed tomographic Assessment of Lateral Lamella of Cribiform Plate and Comparison of Depth of Olfactory Fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bista

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic sinus surgery is an upcoming branch in rhinological practice but with some major risks since it has to play around the skull base area. Lateral lamella of cribriform plate is the thinnest area of the skull base. Thus this study is undertaken to evaluate the height of lateral lamella of cribriform plate and the depth of olfactory fossae by the help of computed tomographic images. METHODS: Computed tomographic study of 50 patients was done in Advanced Imaging and Diagnostic center, Kathmandu Medical College. Coronal sections at the centre of infra-orbital foramina were taken as reference slide. The height of cribriform plate point was subtracted from the height of medial ethmoidal roof point to measure the length of lateral lamella of cribriform plates on both sides. RESULTS: The median height of LLCP in 100 slides was 2.8 mm. LLCP height was 0 to 3.9 mm in 86 slides, 4 to 7 mm in 12 slides and greater than 7mm in 2 slides. The LLCP length was greater in right side in 28 (56% patients and was greater in left side in 19 (38% patients. It was equal in both sides in only three patients (6%. CONCLUSIONS: As regards the length of LLCP; 0 to 3.9 mm length was most common. The olfactory fossa depth was more in the right side compared to the left side. Thus, right side is more vulnerable to injury during surgery. Thus adequate caution has to be exercised by the rhinological surgeon during endoscopic sinus surgery. Keywords: lateral lamella of Cribriform plate, medical ethmoidal roof, olfactory fossa.

  13. Cutting and Decellularization of Multiple Corneal Stromal Lamellae for the Bioengineering of Endothelial Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiguo; Forest, Fabien; Bernard, Aurélien; Gauthier, Anne-Sophie; Montard, Romain; Peoc'h, Michel; Jumelle, Clotilde; Courrier, Emilie; Perrache, Chantal; Gain, Philippe; Thuret, Gilles

    2016-12-01

    Engineered corneal endothelial grafts able to provide numerous functional endothelial cells for the restoration of corneal transparency would be a worthwhile way of replacing donor tissue, which is extremely scarce. The grafts are simply constructed: a biocompatible thin and transparent carrier colonized by a monolayer of cultured endothelial cells (ECs). Here we describe a process able to obtain appropriate carriers by recycling human corneas unsuitable for graft in their original state, but liable to provide multiple thin lamellae when cut with a femtosecond laser as used in refractive surgery. We selected a robust method of stromal decellularization. To demonstrate that neither this process nor long-term storage hindered cell adherence, lamellae were endothelialized with an EC line. The constructs achieved up to very high EC density (the main quality criterion for regular donor corneas) while remaining transparent and thin. We verified that they could be inserted in the anterior chamber of a human eye, like a conventional endothelial graft. Human decellularized cornea will likely be directly compatible with the recipient cornea and comply with the requirements of health regulatory authorities. This study demonstrates that thin human corneal lamellae could have high potential as carriers in next-generation therapy for endothelial dysfunctions.

  14. Facial Expression Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial compon

  15. Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial

  16. Facial paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sashank; Redett, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Facial paralysis can have devastating physical and psychosocial consequences. These are particularly severe in children in whom loss of emotional expressiveness can impair social development and integration. The etiologies of facial paralysis, prospects for spontaneous recovery, and functions requiring restoration differ in children as compared with adults. Here we review contemporary management of facial paralysis with a focus on special considerations for pediatric patients.

  17. Surgical-allogeneic facial reconstruction: facial transplants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho Goiato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several factors including cancer, malformations and traumas may cause large facial mutilation. These functional and aesthetic deformities negatively affect the psychological perspectives and quality of life of the mutilated patient. Conventional treatments are prone to fail aesthetically and functionally. The recent introduction of the composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA, which uses transplanted facial tissues of healthy donors to recover the damaged or non-existent facial tissue of mutilated patients, resulted in greater clinical results. Therefore, the present study aims to conduct a literature review on the relevance and effectiveness of facial transplants in mutilated subjects. It was observed that the facial transplants recovered both the aesthetics and function of these patients and consequently improved their quality of life.

  18. Do reduction and healing of the bony fragment really matter in arthroscopic bony Bankart reconstruction?: a prospective study with clinical and computed tomography evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-Yan; Zhu, Yi-Ming; Liu, Xin; Li, Feng-Long; Lu, Yi; Wu, Guan

    2013-11-01

    Bony Bankart lesions can be treated with arthroscopic repair. However, few studies have evaluated the importance of bony fragment reduction and healing to stability of the glenohumeral joint after arthroscopic bony Bankart repair. To evaluate functional results after surgery and determine the correlation between reduction and healing of the fracture and postoperative stability of the glenohumeral joint. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 50 patients (47 men, 3 women; average age, 27.6 years; range, 16.5-50.1 years) with bony Bankart lesions and recurrent anterior shoulder dislocations were treated with arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation with suture anchors. The average follow-up period was 32.5 months (range, 24.3-61.2 months). Preoperative and postoperative range of motion and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Constant-Murley, and Rowe scores were compared to evaluate the results of the surgeries. Sequential 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) scans were available for 37 patients and were analyzed to investigate the effect of the bony defect of the glenoid and the correlation between the success of the surgery and reduction and healing of the bony fragment. After surgery, active forward elevation was significantly improved (P 80% in all of the successful cases. Arthroscopic reduction and fixation of a bony Bankart lesion can achieve good results in selected cases. The size of the reconstructed glenoid is crucial to the success of the surgery.

  19. Chlorophyll composition and photochemical activity of photosystems detached from chloroplast grana and stroma lamellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasanov, R A; French, C S

    1973-07-01

    A stroma fraction that has photosystem 1 activity and grana lamellae fractions that have activities for both photosystems were isolated by differential centrifugation of a needle valve homogenate. Subsequent fractions, corresponding to photosystems 1 (F-1D) and 2 (F-2D) were isolated by digitonin treatment of the grana lamellae (P-10K) and compared with respect to their chlorophyll composition and electron transport activities.Fraction F-2D from grana lamellae having photosystem 2 activity is primarily active in photosystem 2 and contains only the four major forms of chlorophyll a with a predominance of chlorophyll a 677 nm. This fraction differs from the original grana membranes in the absence of the longwavelength form of chlorophyll a and in the widening of the absorption band of chlorophyll a 682 nm from 10.9 to 15.6 nm.Photosystem 1 particles from grana and stroma both have high photosystem 1 activity but differ from each other in the proportions of the four major forms of chlorophyll a. The short-wavelength forms of chlorophyll a and also chlorophyll b 650 nm in particles from grana lamellae comprise relatively more total area than these same forms in the particles from stroma. In addition, the fraction corresponding to photosystem 1 from grana lamellae is not shifted to the long-wavelength side of the main absorption maximum, as compared to the photosystem 2 particles from grana and the original grana membrane fraction; this is usually observed in fractions that have photosystem 1 activity. Furthermore, the longest wavelength form of chlorophyll a in the photosystem 1 particles from grana is at 700 nm, while in the same fraction from stroma, it is at 706 nm.The half-width of the four main forms of chlorophyll a and both forms of chlorophyll b in the photosystem 1 fraction from grana is narrower than that of the corresponding forms in the same fraction from stroma. This may indicate a different packing of pigment molecules that are aggregated on the surface

  20. A new "double-pulley" dual-row technique for arthroscopic fixation of bony Bankart lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Jiang, Chunyan

    2011-09-01

    The double-row technique is a new concept for arthroscopic treatment of bony Bankart lesion in shoulder instability. It presents a new and reproducible technique for arthroscopic fixation of bony Bankart fragments with suture anchors. This technique creates double-mattress sutures which compress the fragment against its bone bed and restores better bony anatomy of the anterior glenoid rim with stable and non-tilting fixation that may improve healing.

  1. The significance of a hypoplastic bony canal for the cochlear nerve in patients with sensorineural hearing loss: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Park, Sang Yoo; Kim, Myung Soon; Sung, Ki Jun [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the significance of the hypoplastic canal for the cochlear nerve in patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and the relationship between the hypoplastic bony canal and aplasia or hypoplasia of the cochlear nerve. A retrospective review of high resolution temporal CT(HRCT) and MRI findings was conducted. The narrow bony canal of the cochlear nerve and the relative size of the internal auditory canal were correlated with the cochlear nerve deficiency on MRI. The comparative size of the component nerves (facial, cochlear, superior vestibular, inferior vestibular nerve), and the relative size of the internal auditory canal and the bony canal of the cochlear nerve were measured. The clinical history and the results of the clinical examination were reviewed for each patient. High resolution MRI showed aplasia of the common vestibulocochlear nerve in one patient and a deficiency of the cochlear nerve in 9 patients. These abnormalities occurred in association with a prominent narrowing of the canal for the cochlear nerve and a stenosis of the internal auditory canal, which was observed on temporal bone CT in 9 patients with congenital SNHL. Three patients had normal IAC, despite the presence of a hypoplastic cochlear nerve on the side on which they had SNHL. In one patient, the narrowing of the canal for the cochlear nerve and internal auditory canal were not found to be associated with acquired SNHL. The hypoplastic bony canal for the cochlear nerve might be more highly indicative of congenital cochlear nerve deficiency than that of the narrow internal auditory canal, and the position of the crista falciformis should also be carefully.

  2. A sliding technique to load thin endothelial donor lamella onto Busin glide for Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Akira Kobayashi, Hideaki Yokogawa, Kazuhisa SugiyamaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, JapanAbstract: We describe a modified technique for loading donor corneal endothelial lamella onto a Busin glide® without causing wrinkles, as part of the procedure of Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. Briefly, after punching out a composite of the donor-endothelial lamella and a microkeratome-dissected cap, several drops of dispersive ophthalmic viscosurgical device are placed onto the endothelial surface. The Busin glide surface is then wetted with several drops of balanced salt solution. After the composite is transferred onto the Busin glide, hydrodissection of the potential space between the donor-endothelial lamella and the microkeratome-dissected cap is carefully performed to enable smooth detachment of these two lamellae. Whereas simply dragging the donor-endothelial lamella directly onto the glide can cause wrinkling or folding of the donor lamella, this technique enables smooth detachment of the composite without wrinkle or fold formation, and results in less endothelial cell damage.Keywords: DSAEK, Busin glide, endothelial keratoplasty

  3. Cost-effective upgrading of a biological wastewater treatment plant by using lamella separators with bypass operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, N; Rath, L; Schönfeld, A; Grünebaum, T

    2008-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive cost analysis for the expansion of the Finnentrop WWTP, integration of lamella separators in the biological treatment stage was given priority as optimal solution to increase the solids concentration. The overall expansion project included the reconstruction of the former primary clarifier into a primary settling tank with short retention times and the use of the remaining volume for pre-denitrification. Four lamella separators were positioned in the existing carousel-type activated sludge tank. With the lamella assemblies ensuring it was possible to continue operation of the existing secondary settling tanks. To control an adequate solids concentration in the activated sludge tank and to avoid any overloading of the secondary settling tank, a newly developed bypass strategy was applied. With a controlled mixing of direct effluent from the lamella separators and the contents of the activated sludge tank, the solids concentration of the influent to the secondary settling tank could be maintained at a value of 2.2 kg/m(3). The lamella separator concept did not account for any significant changes in the sludge characteristics, and the overall elimination of nutrients and organic carbon was found to be excellent upon optimisation of the operational lamella strategy.

  4. Surgical treatment of facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ritvik P

    2009-03-01

    The management of facial paralysis is one of the most complex areas of reconstructive surgery. Given the wide variety of functional and cosmetic deficits in the facial paralysis patient, the reconstructive surgeon requires a thorough understanding of the surgical techniques available to treat this condition. This review article will focus on surgical management of facial paralysis and the treatment options available for acute facial paralysis (facial paralysis (3 weeks to 2 yr) and chronic facial paralysis (>2 yr). For acute facial paralysis, the main surgical therapies are facial nerve decompression and facial nerve repair. For facial paralysis of intermediate duration, nerve transfer procedures are appropriate. For chronic facial paralysis, treatment typically requires regional or free muscle transfer. Static techniques of facial reanimation can be used for acute, intermediate, or chronic facial paralysis as these techniques are often important adjuncts to the overall management strategy.

  5. The truth is in the water: metastatic prostate cancer presenting as an intermittent facial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooles, N; Gupta, S; Wilkin-Crowe, H; Juratli, A

    2015-04-24

    An elderly man presented to the acute ear, nose and throat (ENT) services with a history of intermittent, self-limiting facial nerve palsy. Full ENT examination was normal, with all cranial nerves and peripheral neurology intact. Multiple imaging modalities suggested an aggressive bony lesion, secondary to locally advanced prostate malignancy with extensive metastatic infiltration. Prostate cancer is known to preferentially metastasise to bone and has been known to cause multiple cranial nerve palsies and ophthalmoplegia. This is the first case described in the literature of metastatic prostate cancer presenting with intermittent facial nerve palsy.

  6. Contemporary facial reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhama, Prabhat K; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-04-01

    The facial nerve is the most commonly paralyzed nerve in the human body. Facial paralysis affects aesthetic appearance, and it has a profound effect on function and quality of life. Management of patients with facial paralysis requires a multidisciplinary approach, including otolaryngologists, plastic surgeons, ophthalmologists, and physical therapists. Regardless of etiology, patients with facial paralysis should be evaluated systematically, with initial efforts focused upon establishing proper diagnosis. Management should proceed with attention to facial zones, including the brow and periocular region, the midface and oral commissure, the lower lip and chin, and the neck. To effectively compare contemporary facial reanimation strategies, it is essential to employ objective intake assessment methods, and standard reassessment schemas during the entire management period.

  7. Intratemporal facial nerve neuromas and their mimics: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Kyung Hwan; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Chong Sun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Joon [Chungang Gil General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    CT and MR findings of nine cases with intra temporal facial nerve neuromas were described and compared with CT findings of 3 cases with facial nerve palsy and facial nerve canal erosion which may mimic facial nerve neuroma. The tympanic segment of the facial nerve was involved in 8 cases, mastoid segment in 7 cases and labyrinthine segment in 5 cases. The lesions were easily diagnosed with high resolution CT with bone algorithms by showing the expansion of bony structures along the course of the facial nerves. In 4 cases with large vertical segment tumors, extensive destruction of mastoid air cells and external auditory canals posed difficulty in making a diagnosis. Two out of 5 cases with labyrinthine segment involvement were presented as middle cranial fossa masses. MRI with enhancement was performed in 4 cases and was useful in characterizing the lesion as a tumor with its superior sensitivity to enhancement. Three cases of facial neuroma-mimicking lesion including post-inflammatory peri neural thickening, peri neural extension from parotid adenoid cystic carcinoma, and congenita; cholesteatoma showed irregular erosion or mild expansion of the facial nerve canal which may be helpful for differential diagnosis from neuromas.

  8. Bony fish and their contribution to marine inorganic carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael; Perry, Chris; Wilson, Rod; Harborne, Alistair

    2016-04-01

    Conventional understanding of the marine inorganic carbon cycle holds that CaCO3 (mostly as low Mg-calcite and aragonite) precipitates in the upper reaches of the ocean and sinks to a point where it either dissolves or is deposited as sediment. Thus, it plays a key role controlling the distribution of DIC in the oceans and in regulating their capacity to absorb atmospheric CO2. However, several aspects of this cycle remain poorly understood and have long perplexed oceanographers, such as the positive alkalinity anomaly observed in the upper water column of many of the world's oceans, above the aragonite and calcite saturation horizons. This anomaly would be explained by extensive dissolution of a carbonate phase more soluble than low Mg-calcite or aragonite, but major sources for such phases remain elusive. Here we highlight marine bony fish as a potentially important primary source of this 'missing' high-solubility CaCO3. Precipitation of CaCO3 takes place within the intestines of all marine bony fish as part of their normal physiological functioning, and global production models suggest it could account for up to 45 % of total new marine CaCO3 production. Moreover, high Mg-calcite containing >25 % mol% MgCO3 - a more soluble phase than aragonite - is a major component of these precipitates. Thus, fish CaCO3 may at least partially explain the alkalinity anomaly in the upper water column. However, the issue is complicated by the fact that carbonate mineralogy actually varies among fish species, with high Mg-calcite (HMC), low Mg-calcite (LMC), aragonite, and amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) all being common products. Using data from 22 Caribbean fish species, we have generated a novel production model that resolves phase proportions. We evaluate the preservation/dissolution potential of these phases and consider potential implications for marine inorganic carbon cycling. In addition, we consider the dramatic changes in fish biomass structure that have resulted

  9. Bony Calvarium as the Sole Site ofMetastases in Squamous Cell Carcinomaof the Uterine Cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadianpanah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Isolated skeletal metastasis to the bony calvarium is extremely rare in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. We describe the clinical and imaging findings in a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix with metastases tothe bony calvarium as the sole site of metastasis. The patient was a 65-year-old woman with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, FIGO stage IIIb, whose initial treatement was chemoradiation therapy. After 22 sessions of external-beam radiation,she developed headaches. On physical examination she had skull bone tenderness. On plain skull X-ray, there were osteolytic bony lesions. Brain MRI showed multiple enhancing skull bone metatstses. Eventually, a whole body bone scintigraphy revealed isolated diffuse increased activity in the bony calvarium. In the literature review, wefound only three similar cases of cervical cancer with scalp metastases and involvement of the bony calvarium.

  10. Facial Reconstruction and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Genther, Dane J; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Extracranial infiltration of the facial nerve by salivary gland tumors is the most frequent cause of facial palsy secondary to malignancy. Nevertheless, facial palsy related to salivary gland cancer is uncommon. Therefore, reconstructive facial reanimation surgery is not a routine undertaking for most head and neck surgeons. The primary aims of facial reanimation are to restore tone, symmetry, and movement to the paralyzed face. Such restoration should improve the patient's objective motor function and subjective quality of life. The surgical procedures for facial reanimation rely heavily on long-established techniques, but many advances and improvements have been made in recent years. In the past, published experiences on strategies for optimizing functional outcomes in facial paralysis patients were primarily based on small case series and described a wide variety of surgical techniques. However, in the recent years, larger series have been published from high-volume centers with significant and specialized experience in surgical and nonsurgical reanimation of the paralyzed face that have informed modern treatment. This chapter reviews the most important diagnostic methods used for the evaluation of facial paralysis to optimize the planning of each individual's treatment and discusses surgical and nonsurgical techniques for facial rehabilitation based on the contemporary literature.

  11. [Facial tics and spasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R E; van Dijk, J Marc C; Elting, Jan Willem J; de Koning-Tijssen, Marina A J

    2014-01-01

    Facial tics and spasms are socially incapacitating, but effective treatment is often available. The clinical picture is sufficient for distinguishing between the different diseases that cause this affliction.We describe three cases of patients with facial tics or spasms: one case of tics, which are familiar to many physicians; one case of blepharospasms; and one case of hemifacial spasms. We discuss the differential diagnosis and the treatment possibilities for facial tics and spasms. Early diagnosis and treatment is important, because of the associated social incapacitation. Botulin toxin should be considered as a treatment option for facial tics and a curative neurosurgical intervention should be considered for hemifacial spasms.

  12. Trigeminal neuralgia and facial nerve paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [IPOFG, Department of Radiology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. The facial nerve is the cranial nerve with the longest extracranial course, and its main functions include motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, sensory control of lacrimation and salivation, control of the stapedial reflex and to carry taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. In order to be able adequately to image and follow the course of these cranial nerves and their main branches, a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy is required. As we are dealing with very small anatomic structures, high resolution dedicated imaging studies are required to pick up normal and pathologic nerves. Whereas CT is best suited to demonstrate bony neurovascular foramina and canals, MRI is preferred to directly visualize the nerve. It is also the single technique able to detect pathologic processes afflicting the nerve without causing considerable expansion such as is usually the case in certain inflammatory/infectious conditions, perineural spread of malignancies and in very small intrinsic tumours. Because a long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches is seen, it is useful to subdivide the nerve in several segments and then tailor the imaging modality and the imaging study to that specific segment. This is particularly true in cases where topographic diagnosis can be used to locate a lesion in the course of these nerves. (orig.)

  13. History of facial pain diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M; Jensen, Troels S

    2017-01-01

    Premise Facial pain refers to a heterogeneous group of clinically and etiologically different conditions with the common clinical feature of pain in the facial area. Among these conditions, trigeminal neuralgia (TN), persistent idiopathic facial pain, temporomandibular joint pain, and trigeminal...

  14. Uncompacted Myelin Lamellae and Nodal Ion Channel Disruption in POEMS Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Rina; Koike, Haruki; Takahashi, Mie; Ohyama, Ken; Kawagashira, Yuichi; Iijima, Masahiro; Sobue, Gen

    2015-12-01

    To elucidate the significance of uncompacted myelin lamellae (UML) and ion channel disruption at the nodes of Ranvier in the polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome, we evaluated sural nerve biopsy specimens from 33 patients with POEMS syndrome and from 7 control patients. Uncompacted myelin lamellae distribution was assessed by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy. In the POEMS patient biopsies, UML were seen more frequently in small versus large myelinated fibers. Paranodes and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, where normal physiologic UM is located, were frequently associated with UM. Widening of the nodes of Ranvier (i.e. segmental demyelination) was not associated with UML. There was axonal hollowing with neurofilament condensation at Schmidt-Lanterman incisures with abnormal UML, suggesting axonal damage at those sites in the POEMS patient biopsies. Myelin sheath irregularity was conspicuous in large myelinated fibers and was associated with abnormally widened bizarrely shaped Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. Indirect immunofluorescent studies revealed abnormalities of sodium (pan sodium) and potassium (KCNQ2) channels, even at nonwidened nodes of Ranvier. Thus, UML was not apparently associated with segmental demyelination but seemed to be associated with axonal damage. These observations suggest that nodal ion channel disruption may be associated with functional deficits in POEMS syndrome patient nerves.

  15. Facial expression and sarcasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, P

    2001-08-01

    This study examined facial expression in the presentation of sarcasm. 60 responses (sarcastic responses = 30, nonsarcastic responses = 30) from 40 different speakers were coded by two trained coders. Expressions in three facial areas--eyebrow, eyes, and mouth--were evaluated. Only movement in the mouth area significantly differentiated ratings of sarcasm from nonsarcasm.

  16. Holistic facial expression classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, John; McDonald, J.

    2005-06-01

    This paper details a procedure for classifying facial expressions. This is a growing and relatively new type of problem within computer vision. One of the fundamental problems when classifying facial expressions in previous approaches is the lack of a consistent method of measuring expression. This paper solves this problem by the computation of the Facial Expression Shape Model (FESM). This statistical model of facial expression is based on an anatomical analysis of facial expression called the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We use the term Action Unit (AU) to describe a movement of one or more muscles of the face and all expressions can be described using the AU's described by FACS. The shape model is calculated by marking the face with 122 landmark points. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to analyse how the landmark points move with respect to each other and to lower the dimensionality of the problem. Using the FESM in conjunction with Support Vector Machines (SVM) we classify facial expressions. SVMs are a powerful machine learning technique based on optimisation theory. This project is largely concerned with statistical models, machine learning techniques and psychological tools used in the classification of facial expression. This holistic approach to expression classification provides a means for a level of interaction with a computer that is a significant step forward in human-computer interaction.

  17. Facial talon cusps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, T

    1997-12-01

    This is a report of two patients with isolated facial talon cusps. One occurred on a permanent mandibular central incisor; the other on a permanent maxillary canine. The locations of these talon cusps suggests that the definition of a talon cusp include teeth in addition to the incisor group and be extended to include the facial aspect of teeth.

  18. The development of traumatic temporomandibular joint bony ankylosis: a course similar to the hypertrophic nonunion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying-Bin; Duan, Deng-Hui; Zhang, Yi; Gan, Ye-Hua

    2012-02-01

    The traumatic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) bony ankylosis has generated great interest in the cranio-maxillofacial surgeons yet remains an enigma, due to its unknown pathogenesis. Organization and ossification of hematoma is the classical hypothesis concerning the underlying pathophysiology, but it could not explain all the unique characters of TMJ bony ankylosis. The previous imaging descriptions about bony ankylosis tend to over-emphasize the obliteration of joint space and the overgrowth of new bone around the joint. Our recent study has found that the radiolucent zone in the bony fusion area indicating impaired bone healing is one of the most important imaging features of bony ankylosis, and this imaging feature is similar to that of hypertrophic nonunion of long bone. We also observe that there is close relationship between the mouth opening and the degree of calcification of radiolucent zone. Therefore, we hypothesize that the development of traumatic TMJ bony ankylosis may be the course of bone healing of two injured articular surfaces under the interference of opening movement, which is similar to the hypertrophic nonunion. Our hypothesis could help to explain some unintelligible characters of bony ankylosis, and deserves further studies.

  19. Genetic linkage map and expression analysis of genes expressed in the lamellae of the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Kyu; Peñas, María M; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G

    2006-05-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is an industrially cultivated basidiomycete with nutritional and environmental applications. Its genome contains 35 Mbp organized in 11 chromosomes. There is currently available a genetic linkage map based predominantly on anonymous molecular markers complemented with the mapping of QTLs controlling growth rate and industrial productivity. To increase the saturation of the existing linkage maps, we have identified and mapped 82 genes expressed in the lamellae. Their manual annotation revealed that 34.1% of the lamellae-expressed and 71.5% of the lamellae-specific genes correspond to previously unknown sequences or to hypothetical proteins without a clearly established function. Furthermore, the expression pattern of some genes provides an experimental basis for studying gene regulation during the change from vegetative to reproductive growth. Finally, the identification of various differentially regulated genes involved in protein metabolism suggests the relevance of these processes in fruit body formation and maturation.

  20. Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2007-01-01

    Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

  1. Sound-induced facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming-San; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.; Meek, Marcel F.

    2009-01-01

    Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve. Patients suffer from inappropriate and involuntary synchronous facial muscle contractions. Here we describe two

  2. Annulate lamellae in phloem cells of virus-infected Sonchus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, M P; Hoefert, L L

    1977-07-01

    The occurrence of annulate lamellae (AL) in differentiating phloem of Sonchus oleraceus (Compositae) singly infected with sowthistle yellow vein virus (SYVV) and doubly infected with a combination of SYVV and beet yellow stunt virus is documented by electron microscopy. Cell types in which AL were found were immature sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells. AL were found only in cells that also contained SYVV particles although a direct association between the virus and AL was not apparent. The substructure of the AL and the relationships between the AL and the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum are similar to those reported in other descriptions of this organelle in the literature. This report appears to be the first one concerning the association of AL with a plant virus disease.

  3. In situ X-ray polymerization: from swollen lamellae to polymer-surfactant complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agzenai, Yahya; Lindman, Björn; Alfredsson, Viveka; Topgaard, Daniel; Renamayor, Carmen S; Pacios, Isabel E

    2014-01-30

    The influence of the monomer diallyldimethylammonium chloride (D) on the lamellar liquid crystal formed by the anionic surfactant aerosol OT (AOT) and water is investigated, determining the lamellar spacings by SAXS and the quadrupolar splittings by deuterium NMR, as a function of the D or AOT concentrations. The cationic monomer D induces a destabilization of the AOT lamellar structure such that, at a critical concentration higher than 5 wt %, macroscopic phase separation takes place. When the monomer, which is dissolved in the AOT lamellae, is polymerized in situ by X-ray initiation, a new collapsed lamellar phase appears, corresponding to the complexation of the surfactant with the resulting polymer. A theoretical model is employed to analyze the variation of the interactions between the AOT bilayers and the stability of the lamellar structure.

  4. Environmental heterogeneity and microbial inheritance influence sponge-associated bacterial composition of Spongia lamella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyer, Charlotte; Casamayor, Emilio O; Becerro, Mikel A

    2014-10-01

    Sponges are important components of marine benthic communities. High microbial abundance sponges host a large diversity of associated microbial assemblages. However, the dynamics of such assemblages are still poorly known. In this study, we investigated whether bacterial assemblages present in Spongia lamella remained constant or changed as a function of the environment and life cycle. Sponges were collected in multiple locations and at different times of the year in the western Mediterranean Sea and in nearby Atlantic Ocean to cover heterogeneous environmental variability. Co-occurring adult sponges and offsprings were compared at two of the sites. To explore the composition and abundance of the main bacteria present in the sponge mesohyl, embryos, and larvae, we applied both 16S rRNA gene-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of excised DGGE bands and quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR). On average, the overall core bacterial assemblage showed over 60 % similarity. The associated bacterial assemblage fingerprints varied both within and between sponge populations, and the abundance of specific bacterial taxa assessed by qPCR significantly differed among sponge populations and between adult sponge and offsprings (higher proportions of Actinobacteria in the latter). Sequences showed between 92 and 100 % identity to sequences previously reported in GenBank, and all were affiliated with uncultured invertebrate bacterial symbionts (mainly sponges). Sequences were mainly related to Chloroflexi and Acidobacteria and a few to Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Additional populations may have been present under detection limits. Overall, these results support that both ecological and biological sponge features may shape the composition of endobiont bacterial communities in S. lamella.

  5. Live facial feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO JieYu

    2008-01-01

    Precise facial feature extraction is essential to the high-level face recognition and expression analysis. This paper presents a novel method for the real-time geomet-ric facial feature extraction from live video. In this paper, the input image is viewed as a weighted graph. The segmentation of the pixels corresponding to the edges of facial components of the mouth, eyes, brows, and nose is implemented by means of random walks on the weighted graph. The graph has an 8-connected lattice structure and the weight value associated with each edge reflects the likelihood that a random walker will cross that edge. The random walks simulate an anisot-ropic diffusion process that filters out the noise while preserving the facial expres-sion pixels. The seeds for the segmentation are obtained from a color and motion detector. The segmented facial pixels are represented with linked lists in the origi-nal geometric form and grouped into different parts corresponding to facial com-ponents. For the convenience of implementing high-level vision, the geometric description of facial component pixels is further decomposed into shape and reg-istration information. Shape is defined as the geometric information that is invari-ant under the registration transformation, such as translation, rotation, and iso-tropic scale. Statistical shape analysis is carried out to capture global facial fea-tures where the Procrustes shape distance measure is adopted. A Bayesian ap-proach is used to incorporate high-level prior knowledge of face structure. Ex-perimental results show that the proposed method is capable of real-time extraction of precise geometric facial features from live video. The feature extraction is robust against the illumination changes, scale variation, head rotations, and hand inter-ference.

  6. PCA facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

  7. Arthroscopic Repair of Chronic Bony Bankart Lesion Using a Low Anterior Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Jefferson C.; Westerberg, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We describe the repair of a chronic bony Bankart lesion in a case with recurrent instability using standard techniques and equipment for addressing anteroinferior glenohumeral instability. A 25-year-old man with recurrent instability and a chronic bony Bankart lesion with a Hill-Sachs lesion was treated. The inferior 2 sutures and knotless anchors are placed through a low anterior portal, which improves the angle of approach to the inferior portion of the glenoid that is fractured. The knotle...

  8. Locked bucket-handle type bony Bankart lesion resulting from manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yon Sik; Song, Hyun Seok

    2016-06-01

    A patient who underwent manipulation for stiffness accompanying a rotator cuff tear experienced a complication consisting of a bony Bankart lesion connected to the superior and inferior labrum. This lesion was displaced posteriorly, locked behind the humeral head and blocking the reduction. Attachment of the labrum to this fragment made reduction and fixation easier. This bony Bankart lesion was fixed successfully by arthroscopic placement of knotless suture anchors. Level of evidence Case report, Level IV.

  9. Bony labyrinth morphometry indicates locomotor adaptations in the squirrel-related clade (Rodentia, Mammalia)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The semicircular canals (SCs) of the inner ear detect angular acceleration and are located in the bony labyrinth of the petrosal bone. Based on high-resolution computed tomography, we created a size-independent database of the bony labyrinth of 50 mammalian species especially rodents of the squirrel-related clade comprising taxa with fossorial, arboreal and gliding adaptations. Our sampling also includes gliding marsupials, actively flying bats, the arboreal tree shrew and subterranean specie...

  10. Surgical Treatment of Facial Paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Ritvik P.

    2009-01-01

    The management of facial paralysis is one of the most complex areas of reconstructive surgery. Given the wide variety of functional and cosmetic deficits in the facial paralysis patient, the reconstructive surgeon requires a thorough understanding of the surgical techniques available to treat this condition. This review article will focus on surgical management of facial paralysis and the treatment options available for acute facial paralysis (2 yr). For acute facial paralysis, the main surgi...

  11. The paediatric wrist revisited - findings of bony depressions in healthy children on radiographs compared to MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avenarius, Derk M.F.; Eldevik, Petter [University Hospital North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie [University Hospital North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Owens, Catherine M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Rosendahl, Karen [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The presence of erosions is used for diagnosis and monitoring of disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Assessment of carpal bone erosions in children is challenging due to lack of normal references. To define normal appearances of bony depressions in the wrist on radiographs and MRI. MRI and radiography of the wrist were performed in 88 healthy children, 5-15 years of age. We assessed the number of bony depressions within the carpals/proximal metacarpals on both modalities, separately and combined. A total of 75 carpal depressions were identified on radiography compared to 715 on MRI. The number of bony depressions identified radiographically showed no statistically significant difference across age-groups. Within the metacarpals, there was no significant difference between bony depressions identified by MRI or radiography, except at the bases of the second metacarpal. Bony depressions that resemble erosions are normal findings in the wrist in children. MRI identifies more depressions than radiographs in the carpus. Some bony depressions occur at typical locations and should be accounted for when assessing the wrist in JIA to avoid overstaging. (orig.)

  12. Persistent facial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete

    2016-01-01

    , clinical features, consequences, central and peripheral mechanisms, diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD), and principles of management. For each of the neuropathic facial pain entities, the definitions, prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostics are described. The current understanding of the pathophysiology......Persistent facial pains, especially temporomandibular disorders (TMD), are common conditions. As dentists are responsible for the treatment of most of these disorders, up-to date knowledge on the latest advances in the field is essential for successful diagnosis and management. The review covers...... TMD, and different neuropathic or putative neuropathic facial pains such as persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia, trigeminal neuralgia and painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy. The article presents an overview of TMD pain as a biopsychosocial condition, its prevalence...

  13. Persistent facial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete

    2016-01-01

    TMD, and different neuropathic or putative neuropathic facial pains such as persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia, trigeminal neuralgia and painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy. The article presents an overview of TMD pain as a biopsychosocial condition, its prevalence......Persistent facial pains, especially temporomandibular disorders (TMD), are common conditions. As dentists are responsible for the treatment of most of these disorders, up-to date knowledge on the latest advances in the field is essential for successful diagnosis and management. The review covers......, clinical features, consequences, central and peripheral mechanisms, diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD), and principles of management. For each of the neuropathic facial pain entities, the definitions, prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostics are described. The current understanding of the pathophysiology...

  14. Persistent facial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete;

    2016-01-01

    , clinical features, consequences, central and peripheral mechanisms, diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD), and principles of management. For each of the neuropathic facial pain entities, the definitions, prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostics are described. The current understanding of the pathophysiology...

  15. A possible role for elastin ligands in the proteolytic degradation of arterial elastic lamellae in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, H M; Milbury, P E; Kramsch, D M

    1979-01-01

    Thoracic aortae of normal rabbits were perfused with pancreatic elastase in vitro at 37 degrees C and 70 mm Hg pressure in the presence or absence of elastin ligands previously shown to stimulate or inhibit the enzymatic degradation of elastin. Perfusion with elastase results in an average of 3.6 lamellae degraded, whereas addition of sodium linoleate before and during the perfusion with elastase increases this value to 7.9 (P less than 0.001). Conversely, perfusion with the cationic detergent, dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride, completely prevents the degradation of elastic lamellae by elastase. These effects do not reflect alterations of the intrinsic catalytic activity of elastase, but apparently indicate the formation of complexes between the elastin ligands and arterial elastic lamellae, as is consistent with prior studies indicating such interactions between fatty acids or detergents and purified elastin. These studies suggest that agents such as fatty acids may significantly alter the metabolic susceptibility of elastin in vivo and possibly contribute to the degradation of elastic lamellae seen in arteries with advanced atherosclerosis.

  16. Hornet cuticle - a composite structure comprised of a series of duplex lamellae attenuating toward the interior of the body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishay, JS; Kirshboim, S; Steinberg, D; Kalicharan, D; Jongebloed, WL

    1998-01-01

    Our study deals with the ultramicroscopic structure of the yellow pigmented cuticular stripes on the abdomen of the oriental hornet Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera, Vespinae). The abdominal cuticle is composed of numerous (more than 25) lamellae which progressively attenuate as one proceeds from the o

  17. A comparison between porcine, ovine, and bovine intervertebral disc anatomy and single lamella annulus fibrosus tensile properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Lauren A; DeWitte-Orr, Stephanie J; Gregory, Diane E

    2016-02-01

    This project aimed to compare gross anatomical measures and biomechanical properties of single lamellae from the annulus fibrosus of ovine and porcine lumbar vertebrae, and bovine tail vertebrae. The morphology of the vertebrae of these species differ significantly both from each other and from human, yet how these differences alter biomechanical properties is unknown. Geometric parameters measured in this study included: 1) absolute and relative intervertebral (IVD) and vertebral body height and 2) absolute and relative intervertebral disc (IVD) anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) widths. Single lamella tensile properties included toe-region stress and stretch ratio, stiffness, and tensile strength. As expected, the bovine tail IVD revealed a more circular shape compared with both the ovine and porcine lumbar IVD. The bovine tail also had the largest IVD to vertebral body height ratio (due to having the highest absolute IVD height). Bovine tail lamellae were also found to be strongest and stiffest (in tension) while ovine lumbar lamellae were weakest and most compliant. Histological analysis revealed the greatest proportion of collagen in the bovine corroborating findings of increased strength and stiffness. The observed differences in anatomical shape, connective tissue composition, and tensile properties need to be considered when choosing an appropriate model for IVD research.

  18. Stepwise Swelling of a Thin Film of Lamellae-Forming Poly(styrene-b-butadiene) in Cyclohexane Vapor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di, Zhenyu; Posselt, Dorthe; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the swelling of a thin film of lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b-butadiene) in cyclohexane vapor. The vapor pressure and thus the degree of swelling of the film are increased in a stepwise manner using a custom-built sample cell. The resulting structural changes during and after eac...

  19. Management of facial blushing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter B; Pilegaard, Hans K

    2008-01-01

    people. Side effects are frequent, but most patients are satisfied with the operation. In the short term, the key to success in sympathetic surgery for facial blushing lies in a meticulous and critical patient selection and in ensuring that the patient is thoroughly informed about the high risk of side...... effects. In the long term, the key to success in sympathetic surgery for facial blushing lies in more quality research comparing surgical, pharmacologic, and psychotherapeutic treatments....

  20. Simultaneous facial feature tracking and facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Shangfei; Zhao, Yongping; Ji, Qiang

    2013-07-01

    The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images or videos have attracted great attention in computer vision field. Facial activities are characterized by three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature points around each facial component, i.e., eyebrow, mouth, etc., capture the detailed face shape information. Second, in the middle level, facial action units, defined in the facial action coding system, represent the contraction of a specific set of facial muscles, i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc. Finally, in the top level, six prototypical facial expressions represent the global facial muscle movement and are commonly used to describe the human emotion states. In contrast to the mainstream approaches, which usually only focus on one or two levels of facial activities, and track (or recognize) them separately, this paper introduces a unified probabilistic framework based on the dynamic Bayesian network to simultaneously and coherently represent the facial evolvement in different levels, their interactions and their observations. Advanced machine learning methods are introduced to learn the model based on both training data and subjective prior knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, all three levels of facial activities are simultaneously recognized through a probabilistic inference. Extensive experiments are performed to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model on all three level facial activities.

  1. Classifying Facial Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  2. Origin of spinel lamella and/or inclusions in olivine of harzburgite form the Pauza ultramafic rocks from the Kurdistan region, northeastern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Y.; Maekawa, H.; Karim, K.

    2009-04-01

    Exsolution lamellae and octahedral inclusions of chromian spinel occur in olivine of harzburgite of the Pauza ultramafic rocks, Kurdistan region, northeastern Iraq. The lamella is up to 80μm long and up to 50 μm wide. The lamellae and octahedral inclusions of chromian spinel are distributed heterogeneously in the host olivine crystal. They are depleted in Al2O3 relative to the subhedral spinel grains in the matrix and spinel lamella in orthopyroxene. Olivine (Fo92 - 93) with spinel lamellae occurs as fine-grained crystals around orthopyroxene, whereas olivine (Fo90-91) free from spinel is found in matrix. Based on back-scattered images analyses, enrichments of both Cr # and Fe+3 in the chromian spinel lamella in olivine (replacive olivine) relative to that in adjacent orthopyroxene. As well as the compositions of chromian spinel lamellae host olivine are more Mg-rich than the matrix olivine. Furthermore the restriction of olivine with spinel lamellae and octahedral inclusions on around orthopyroxene, and the similarity of spinel lamella orientations in both olivine and adjacent orthopyroxene. This study concludes that the spinel inclusions in olivine are remnant (inherited from former orthopyroxene) spinel exsolution lamella in orthopyroxene, that has been formed in upper mantle conditions ( T = 1200 °C, P = 2.5 GPa ). Replacive olivine are formed by reaction of ascending silica poor melt and orthopyroxene in harzburgite as pressure decrease the solubility of silica-rich phase (orthopyroxene) in the system increase, therefore ascending melt dissolve pyroxene with spinel exsolution lamella and precipitate replacive olivine with spinel inclusions. We can conclude that the olivines with spinel lamella are not necessary to be original and presenting ultrahigh-pressure and/or ultra deep-mantle conditions as previously concluded. It has been formed by melting of orthopyroxene (orthopyroxene with spinel exsolution lamella = olivine with spinel lamellae and octahedral

  3. Follow-up computed tomography arthrographic evaluation of bony Bankart lesions after arthroscopic repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Seung-Jun; Lhee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2012-04-01

    The follow-up results of bony union after an arthroscopic bony Bankart repair have not been reported. We studied follow-up computed tomography (CT) arthrograms to evaluate radiographic healing of bony Bankart fragments. Among 41 patients who underwent arthroscopy for a bony Bankart lesion between July 2006 and May 2009, 31 cases in 30 patients who had undergone sequential follow-up CT arthrography preoperatively, at 3 months postoperatively, and at 1 year postoperatively were enrolled. Radiologic patterns of fracture healing were classified into bony healing and fibrous healing. The mean age was 23.4 years, and the mean follow-up was 30.5 months. The mean interval from the first trauma to surgery was 32.5 months, and the mean preoperative dislocation number was 12.1. The mean preoperative glenoid defect was 14.1%. The fracture healing patterns included 26 bony and 5 fibrous unions. There was a significant positive relation between the total dislocation number and the preoperative glenoid defect (P = .003). The proportion of the mean fragment dimension to a circle drawn through the outer cortex of the inferior glenoid was 8.4% preoperatively, 6.6% at 3 months postoperatively, and 6.2% at 1 year postoperatively. The fragment size decreased from that measured preoperatively to the size measured 3 months after surgery (P .05). The mean Rowe score at 1 year postoperatively was 97.2. Follow-up CT arthrographic evaluation showed that small bony Bankart fragments survived without resorption until 1 year postoperatively, even with fibrous union, and that reattached bone fragment fixation to the anatomic position with the labrum could survive. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Complicated Facial War Injury: Pitfalls and Mismanagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Sittah, Ghassan S; Baroud, Joe; Hakim, Christopher; Wakil, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to share the authors' experience in the management of complicated facial war injuries using free tissue transfer. A discussion on the most commonly encountered pitfalls in management during the acute and complicated settings is presented in an effort to raise insight on facial war wound complications. Two patients of complicated facial war injuries are presented to exemplify the pitfalls in acute and chronic management of the mandibular region in the first patient and the orbito-maxillary region in the second. The examples demonstrate free tissue transfer for early as well as late definitive reconstructions. A reconstruction algorithm or consensus regarding the optimal management plan of complicated facial war injuries is not attainable. The main principles of treatment, however, remain to decrease bacterial burden by adequate aggressive debridement followed by revisit sessions, remove of all infected hardware followed by replacement with external bony fixation if necessary and reviving the affected area by coverage with well-vascularized tissues and bone. The later is feasible via local, regional, or distant tissue transfer depending on the extent of injury, surgeon's experience, and time and personnel available. Free tissue transfer has revolutionized the management of complicated facial war injuries associated with soft tissue or bone loss as it has allowed the introduction of well-vascularized tissues into a hostile wound environment. The end result is a reduced infection rate, faster recovery time, and better functional outcome compared with when loco-regional soft tissue coverage or bone grafting is used. When soft tissue or bone loss is present, free tissue transfer should be the first management plan if time and personnel are available. The ultimate treatment of a complicated war wound remains prevention by accurate initial management.

  5. Nanofabrication and coloration study of artificial Morpho butterfly wings with aligned lamellae layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sichao; Chen, Yifang

    2015-11-18

    The bright and iridescent blue color from Morpho butterfly wings has attracted worldwide attentions to explore its mysterious nature for long time. Although the physics of structural color by the nanophotonic structures built on the wing scales has been well established, replications of the wing structure by standard top-down lithography still remains a challenge. This paper reports a technical breakthrough to mimic the blue color of Morpho butterfly wings, by developing a novel nanofabrication process, based on electron beam lithography combined with alternate PMMA/LOR development/dissolution, for photonic structures with aligned lamellae multilayers in colorless polymers. The relationship between the coloration and geometric dimensions as well as shapes is systematically analyzed by solving Maxwell's Equations with a finite domain time difference simulator. Careful characterization of the mimicked blue by spectral measurements under both normal and oblique angles are carried out. Structural color in blue reflected by the fabricated wing scales, is demonstrated and further extended to green as an application exercise of the new technique. The effects of the regularity in the replicas on coloration are analyzed. In principle, this approach establishes a starting point for mimicking structural colors beyond the blue in Morpho butterfly wings.

  6. Nanofabrication and coloration study of artificial Morpho butterfly wings with aligned lamellae layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sichao; Chen, Yifang

    2015-11-01

    The bright and iridescent blue color from Morpho butterfly wings has attracted worldwide attentions to explore its mysterious nature for long time. Although the physics of structural color by the nanophotonic structures built on the wing scales has been well established, replications of the wing structure by standard top-down lithography still remains a challenge. This paper reports a technical breakthrough to mimic the blue color of Morpho butterfly wings, by developing a novel nanofabrication process, based on electron beam lithography combined with alternate PMMA/LOR development/dissolution, for photonic structures with aligned lamellae multilayers in colorless polymers. The relationship between the coloration and geometric dimensions as well as shapes is systematically analyzed by solving Maxwell’s Equations with a finite domain time difference simulator. Careful characterization of the mimicked blue by spectral measurements under both normal and oblique angles are carried out. Structural color in blue reflected by the fabricated wing scales, is demonstrated and further extended to green as an application exercise of the new technique. The effects of the regularity in the replicas on coloration are analyzed. In principle, this approach establishes a starting point for mimicking structural colors beyond the blue in Morpho butterfly wings.

  7. The Limits of Lamellae-Forming PS-b-PMMA Block Copolymers for Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lei; Ruiz, Ricardo; Gao, He; Patel, Kanaiyalal C; Albrecht, Thomas R; Yin, Jian; Kim, Jihoon; Cao, Yi; Lin, Guanyang

    2015-07-28

    We explore the lithographic limits of lamellae-forming PS-b-PMMA block copolymers by performing directed self-assembly and pattern transfer on a range of PS-b-PMMA materials having a full pitch from 27 to 18.5 nm. While directed self-assembly on chemical contrast patterns was successful with all the materials used in this study, clean removal of PMMA domains and subsequent pattern transfer could only be sustained down to 22 nm full pitch. We attribute this limitation to the width of the interface, which may represent more than half of the domain width for materials with a critical dimension below 10 nm. With the limit of pattern transfer for PS-b-PMMA set at ∼11 nm, we propose an integration scheme suitable for bit patterned media for densities above 1.6 Tdot/in(2), which require features below this limit. Directed self-assembly was carried out on chemical contrast patterns made by a rotary e-beam lithography system, and pattern transfer was carried out to demonstrate fabrication of large area (up to 25 mm-wide annular band of circular tracks) nanoimprint templates for bit patterned media. We also demonstrate compatibility with hard disk drive architecture by fabricating patterns with skewed radial lines with constant angular pitch and with servo patterns that are needed in hard disk drives to generate a radial positional error signal (PES).

  8. Interdigitated lamella and bicontinuous cubic phases formation from natural cyclic surfactin and its linear derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Shintaro; Aburai, Kenichi; Taira, Toshiaki; Kitamoto, Dai

    2013-01-01

    The lyotropic phase behavior of the cyclic form surfactin (CS) produced by Bacillus subtilis and its linear derivative in aqueous solution was evaluated for the first time by using polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). By polarized light microscopy, the aqueous solutions of CS at the concentrations above 50 wt% were optically anisotropic and gave mosaic textures, suggesting the formation of lamella structures, while those of the linear surfactin (LS) were optically isotropic and no distinctive textures were observed. SAXS diffractograms of the CS solution above 50 wt% clearly gave the three peaks whose spacing ratio of 1: 2: 3, indicating the presence of the lamellar (L(α)) phase, while those of the LS solution gave multiple peaks whose spacing ratios of √2: √3: √4: √6: √8, confirming the bicontinuous cubic (V₂) phase of the symmetry Pn3m. It was also found that the lamellar phase with CS was composed of not ordinary bilayer but interdigitated bilayer with the unusual packing of the acyl chain region. These results clearly demonstrated that the cyclic peptide structure plays a key role in regulating their self-assembly, and naturally occurring CS is likely to form lamellar structure by balancing bulky peptide headgroups with interdigitated packing of their acyl chains.

  9. Adolescents with HIV and facial lipoatrophy: response to facial stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus Claudio Gabana-Silveira; Laura Davison Mangilli; Sassi, Fernanda C.; Arnaldo Feitosa Braga; Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of facial stimulation over the superficial muscles of the face in individuals with facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with no indication for treatment with polymethyl methacrylate. METHOD: The study sample comprised four adolescents of both genders ranging from 13 to 17 years in age. To participate in the study, the participants had to score six or less points on the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. The facial stim...

  10. Assessing Pain by Facial Expression: Facial Expression as Nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Prkachin, Kenneth M.

    2009-01-01

    The experience of pain is often represented by changes in facial expression. Evidence of pain that is available from facial expression has been the subject of considerable scientific investigation. The present paper reviews the history of pain assessment via facial expression in the context of a model of pain expression as a nexus connecting internal experience with social influence. Evidence about the structure of facial expressions of pain across the lifespan is reviewed. Applications of fa...

  11. Neuromuscular retraining for facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diels, H J; Combs, D

    1997-10-01

    Neuromuscular retraining is an effective method for rehabilitating facial musculature in patients with facial paralysis. This nonsurgical therapy has demonstrated improved functional outcomes and is an important adjunct to surgical treatment for restoring facial movement. Treatment begins with an intensive clinical evaluation and incorporates appropriate sensory feedback techniques into a patient-specific, comprehensive, home therapy program. This article discusses appropriate patients, timelines for referral, and basic treatment practices of facial neuromuscular retraining for restoring function and expression to the highest level possible.

  12. Computer facial animation

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Frederic I

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive work provides the fundamentals of computer facial animation and brings into sharper focus techniques that are becoming mainstream in the industry. Over the past decade, since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant developments by academic research groups and in the film and games industries leading to the development of morphable face models, performance driven animation, as well as increasingly detailed lip-synchronization and hair modeling techniques. These topics are described in the context of existing facial animation principles. The second ed

  13. Facial Data Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuliang; YUAN Hanning; CAO Baohua; WANG Dakui

    2015-01-01

    Expressional face recognition is a challenge in computer vision for complex expressions. Facial data field is proposed to recognize expression. Fundamentals are presented in the methodology of face recognition upon data field and subsequently, technical algorithms including normalizing faces, generating facial data field, extracting feature points in partitions, assigning weights and recog-nizing faces. A case is studied with JAFFE database for its verification. Result indicates that the proposed method is suitable and eff ective in expressional face recognition con-sidering the whole average recognition rate is up to 94.3%. In conclusion, data field is considered as a valuable alter-native to pattern recognition.

  14. Bilateral bony fusion around the supraspinatus muscle inducing muscle hypoplasia and shoulder pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, YeNa; Jin, Wook; Park, So Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Department of Radiology, 892, Dongnam-ro, Gangdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kyung Nam; Park, Ji Seon [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Department of Radiology, 23 Kyunghee-daero, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    We describe the case of a 30-year-old man who developed chronic bilateral shoulder pain that relapsed and remitted over the course of 1 year. The patient was diagnosed with congenital shoulder fusion anomalies. The right shoulder showed anomalous accessory articulation between the distal third of the clavicle and the acromion along with normal articulation of the shoulder on CT. At the left shoulder, bony fusions were present between the distal portion of the clavicle, the acromion, and the coracoid process, and between the coracoid process, upper portion of the glenoid, and upper body of the scapula, which formed a bony canal and was responsible for hypoplasia of the supraspinatus muscle on CT and MRI. To our knowledge, this is the first description of such congenital shoulder anomalies with extreme bony fusion and is an illustrative example of how imaging may be used to differentiate fusion from other congenital abnormalities of the shoulder to aid diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Epidermal cyst of the bony external auditory canal in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihshan Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To present a rare case of epidermal cyst of the bony external auditory canal (EAC in an adult. Epidermal cyst of the bony EAC, although very rare, should be kept in the list of differential diagnosis of a skin-lined mass of the EAC. Epidermal cyst is very rare in the EAC. Only two cases of epidermoid cyst arising from the bony EAC are reported previously in English, but both were in pediatric age group. Epidermal cyst in EAC in adult patients may be confused with masses that are commonly seen, and these include osteomas, exostosis, ear polyps, carcinomas, etc. Epidermal cyst should be included in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an ear mass.

  16. Severe bony ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint on one side and contralateral adhesion: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ji Young [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Gon; Choi, Hang Moon [School of Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Jung [Dept. of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Bony fusion between the mandibular condyle and skull base involves temporomandibular joint (TMJ) bony ankylosis. This condition might originate from trauma, infection, or systemic disease. TMJ adhesion can develop after synovial damage. Both TMJ ankylosis and adhesion lead to functional impairment and pain. Here, we present a case of a 50-year-old female who had bony ankylosis of the right TMJ and adhesion of the left TMJ. She had otitis media in the right ear. A large mass in the right TMJ was observed on computed tomograph. Magnetic resonance image showed a large fused bone mass with normal bone marrow in the right TMJ and flattening of the condyle with a thin disk in the left TMJ. Gap arthroplasty with temporal fascia was performed on the right TMJ, and discectomy, high condylectomy, and coronoidectomy were performed on the left TMJ. During a 2-year follow-up after surgery, the patient had no recurrence.

  17. Lamella formation and emigration from the water by a laboratory colony of Biomphalaria glabrata (SAY in flow-through system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo D. A. Dannemann

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Lamella formation and emigration from the water were investigated in juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata reared at two temperatures in aquaria with a constant water flow. Most snails (97.4% reared at the lower temperature (21- C formed lamella at the shell aperture and emigrated from the water, whereas only 10.1% did so at 25- C. Eighty percent of emigrations at 21- C occurred within a period of 15 days, 70-85 days after hatching. A comparison of the studies done so far indicates that the phenomenon may be affected by the ageing of snail colonies kept in the laboratory and their geographic origin, rather than the rearing conditions. This hypothesis, however, requires experimental confirmation.

  18. Femoral torsion assessment with MRI in children: Should we use the bony or cartilaginous contours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskopf, Andrea B; Agten, Christoph A; Ramseier, Leonhard E; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Buck, Florian M

    2017-07-01

    To assess whether the use of cartilaginous contours at the femoral condyles instead of bony contours significantly changes femoral torsion measurements in children. Femoral torsion was measured in 32 girls (mean age 10.1 years±2.3 standard deviation) and 42 boys (10.9 years±2.5) on axial magnetic resonance (MR) images by two independent readers (R1,R2). The femoral condyle angle was measured using each the cartilaginous and bony contours of the distal femur. Cartilage thickness at femoral condyles was assessed. Intraclass-correlation-coefficient (ICC) and Pearson's correlation were used for statistical analysis. Mean difference between cartilaginous and bony femoral torsion in girls was -1.1°±1.75 (range, -5.4° to 3.1°) for R1 and -1.64°±1.67 (-6.3° to 2.1°) for R2, in boys -1.5°±1.87 (-8.4° to 1.1°) for R1 and -2.28°±1.48 (-4.3° to 9.7°) for R2. Weak-to-moderate correlations between difference of cartilaginous-versus-bony measurements and cartilage thickness (r=-0.15 to -0.55, P<0.001-0.46) or age (r=-0.33 to 0.46, P<0.001-0.006) were found for both genders. Intermethod-ICC for cartilaginous versus bony femoral torsion measurements was 0.99/0.99 for R1/R2 in girls, and 0.99/0.98 in boys. There is only a small difference when measuring femoral torsion through cartilaginous versus bony contours, and no major difference in this between boys and girls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Arthroscopic repair of small and medium-sized bony Bankart lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyu; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Son, Won-Su; Moon, Sung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    There has been no study about treatment guidelines for arthroscopic repair according to the size of bony Bankart lesions of less than 25% of the glenoid width. To evaluate the results of arthroscopic repair for bony Bankart lesions managed with different repair techniques based on their size. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between March 2005 and February 2009, 44 of 52 consecutive patients with bony Bankart lesions with a size of less than 25% of the entire glenoid were managed with an arthroscopic approach. Of those patients, 34 (77%) were available for outcome analysis at a minimum 24 months' follow-up (mean, 34 months; range, 24-60 months). The size of the fragment was measured by computed tomography (CT) and classified as small (lesions were classified as small (small group), and 18 were classified as medium (medium group). For small lesions, capsulolabral repair using suture anchors without excision of the bony fragment was performed. For medium lesions, anatomic reduction and fixation using suture anchors was performed, and the adequacy of reduction was assessed by CT postoperatively. The visual analog scale (VAS) for pain score and modified Rowe score for bony Bankart repair were compared and the postoperative recurrence rate investigated. One patient from the small group (6.3%) and 1 patient without anatomic reduction of the bony fragment in the medium group (5.6%) experienced traumatic redislocations. The mean VAS score improved from 1.7 preoperatively to 0.5 at final follow-up, and the mean Rowe score improved from 59 to 91 (both P Bankart lesions, restoration of capsulolabral soft tissue tension alone may be enough, whereas in medium lesions, the osseous architecture of the glenoid should be reconstructed for more functional improvement and less pain.

  20. Facial palsy after blunt trauma and without facial bone fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltro, Pedro Soler; Goldenberg, Dov Charles; Aldunate, Johnny Leandro Conduta Borda; Alessi, Mariana Sisto; Chang, Alexandre Jin Bok Audi; Alonso, Nivaldo; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2010-07-01

    A 14-year-old patient had a low-energy facial blunt trauma that evolved to right facial paralysis caused by parotid hematoma with parotid salivary gland lesion. Computed tomography and angiography demonstrated intraparotid collection without pseudoaneurysm and without radiologic signs of fracture in the face. The patient was treated with serial punctures for hematoma deflation, resolving with regression and complete remission of facial paralysis, with no late sequela. The authors discuss the relationship between facial nerve traumatic injuries associated or not with the presence of facial fractures, emphasizing the importance of early recognition and appropriate treatment of such cases.

  1. Specific binding of avidin to biotin containing lipid lamella surfaces studied with monolayers and liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Qin, H; Xiao, C; Wen, C; Wang, S; Sui, S F

    1995-01-01

    The interaction of avidin (from egg white) with phospholipid (monolayer and bilayer) model membranes containing biotin-conjugated phospholipids has been studied. In the first part, using surface sensitive techniques (ellipsometry and surface plasmon resonance) we demonstrated that the nonspecific adsorption of avidin to phospholipid lamella could be abolished by adding an amount of Ca2+, Mg2+ or Ba2+ that led to an electrostatic interaction. The specific binding of avidin to lipid mixtures containing biotin-conjugated phospholipids was obviously composition dependent. The ratio 1:12 of a B-DPPE/DPPE mixture was found to be the optimum molar ratio. When we compared the results from the surface sensitive techniques with those from the electron micrographs of a two dimensional crystal of avidin (obtained in our laboratory), the optimum ratio was found to be determined by the effect of lateral steric hindrance. In the second part, we observed the pattern of the layers of fluorescently labeled phospholipid and adsorbed proteins with a home-made micro fluorescence film balance. The fluorescence images showed that avidin was preferentially bound to the receptors that were in the fluid domains. Further, with a sensitive fluorescence assay method, the effect of the phase behavior of liposomes on the specific binding of avidin was measured. This showed that avidin interacted with biotinlipid more weakly in the gel state liposome than in the liquid state liposome. The major conclusion was that the binding of avidin to a membrane bound model receptor was significantly restricted by two factors: one was the lateral steric hindrance and the other was the fluidity of the model membrane.

  2. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Mohd Noor, Nor Farid; Basri, Rehana; Yew, Tan Fo; Wen, Tay Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian), with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18-25). Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects' evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI), Malaysian Chinese (MC) and Malaysian Malay (MM) were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; Pmean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts. 1) Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%); 2) Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3) Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4) All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5) No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population.

  3. Diplegia facial traumatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de paralisia facial bilateral, incompleta, associada a hipoacusia esquerda, após traumatismo cranioencefálico, com fraturas evidenciadas radiológicamente. Algumas considerações são formuladas tentando relacionar ditas manifestações com fraturas do osso temporal.

  4. Management of facial blushing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter B; Pilegaard, Hans K

    2008-01-01

    an indication for treatment, facial blushing may be treated effectively by thoracoscopic sympathectomy. The type of blushing likely to benefit from sympathectomy is mediated by the sympathetic nerves and is the uncontrollable, rapidly developing blush typically elicited when one receives attention from other...

  5. Facial Paralysis Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razfar, Ali; Lee, Matthew K; Massry, Guy G; Azizzadeh, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Facial nerve paralysis is a devastating condition arising from several causes with severe functional and psychological consequences. Given the complexity of the disease process, management involves a multispecialty, team-oriented approach. This article provides a systematic approach in addressing each specific sequela of this complex problem.

  6. Paralisia facial bilateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.

  7. Novel Facial Features Segmentation Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for facial features extractions is proposed. The facial features we segment are the two eyes, nose and mouth. The algorithm is based on an improved Gabor wavelets edge detector, morphological approach to detect the face region and facial features regions, and an improved T-shape face mask to locate the extract location of facial features. The experimental results show that the proposed method is robust against facial expression, illumination, and can be also effective if the person wearing glasses, and so on.

  8. Non-invasive evaluation of facial crestal bone with ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinjab, Khaled; Chung, Ming-Pang; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Wang, Hom-Lay; Giannobile, William V.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Facial crestal bone level and dimension determine function and esthetics of dentition and dental implants. We have previously demonstrated that ultrasound can identify bony and soft tissue structures in the oral cavity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of using ultrasound to measure facial crestal bone level and thickness. Materials and methods A commercially available medical ultrasound scanner, paired with a 14 MHz imaging probe was used to scan dental and periodontal tissues at the mid-facial site of each tooth on 6 fresh cadavers. The alveolar crest level in relation to the cemento-enamel junction and its thickness on ultrasound images were measured and compared to those on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and/or direct measurements on a total of 144 teeth. Results The mean crestal bone level measured by means of ultrasound, CBCT and direct measures was 2.66 ± 0.86 mm, 2.51 ± 0.82 mm, and 2.71 ± 1.04 mm, respectively. The mean crestal bone thickness was 0.71 ± 0.44 mm and 0.74 ± 0.34 mm, measured by means of ultrasound and CBCT, respectively. The correlations of the ultrasound readings to the other two methods were between 0.78 and 0.88. The mean absolute differences in crestal bone height and thickness between ultrasound and CBCT were 0.09 mm (-1.20 to 1.00 mm, p = 0.06) and 0.03 mm (-0.48 to 0.54 mm, p = 0.03), respectively. Conclusion Ultrasound was as accurate in determining alveolar bone level and its thickness as CBCT and direct measurements. Clinical trials will be required to further validate this non-ionizing and non-invasive method for determining facial crestal bone position and dimension. PMID:28178323

  9. Nucleation and thickening of shear bands in nano-scale twin/matrix lamellae of a Cu-Al alloy processed by dynamic plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, C.S.; Tao, N.R.; Huang, Xiaoxu;

    2010-01-01

    to be a two-stage process, namely a nucleation stage resulting in a narrow band composed of nano-sized (sub)grains intersecting the T/M lamellae, followed by a thickening stage of the narrow band into adjacent T/M lamellae regions. The nucleation stage occurred within a narrow region of an almost constant...... thickness (100–200 nm thick, referred to as “core” region) and consisted of three steps: (1) initiation of localized deformation (bending, necking, and detwinning) against the T/M lamellae, (2) evolution of a dislocation structure within the detwinned band, and (3) transformation of the detwinned...... dislocation structure (DDS) into a nano-sized (sub)grain structure (NGS). On the two sides of a core region, two transition layers (TRLs) exist where the T/M lamellae experienced much less shear strain. The interface boundaries separating the core region and the TRLs are characterized by very large shear...

  10. Interaction between facial expression and color

    OpenAIRE

    Kae Nakajima; Tetsuto Minami; Shigeki Nakauchi

    2017-01-01

    Facial color varies depending on emotional state, and emotions are often described in relation to facial color. In this study, we investigated whether the recognition of facial expressions was affected by facial color and vice versa. In the facial expression task, expression morph continua were employed: fear-anger and sadness-happiness. The morphed faces were presented in three different facial colors (bluish, neutral, and reddish color). Participants identified a facial expression between t...

  11. Value of diffusion weighted MRI in differentiating benign from malignant bony tumors and tumor like lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Zaki Kotb

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: DWI has been proven to be highly useful in the differentiation of benign, malignant bone tumors and tumor like bony lesions. Measurement of ADC values improves the accuracy of the diagnosis of bone tumors and tumor like lesions. Moreover, measurement of ADC values can be used in the follow up of tumors and their response to therapy.

  12. Condylar bony changes in patients with temporomandibular disorders: a CBCT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Diagnosis of osteoarthritis most commonly depends on clinical and radiographic findings. The present study attempted to observe the bony changes in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) patients from all age groups. The first-visit clinical records and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data of 440 TMJs from 220 consecutive TMJ patients were reviewed retrospectively. The most frequent condylar bony change observed was sclerosis (133 joints, 30.2%) followed by surface erosion (129 joints, 29.3%), flattening of the articular surface (112 joints, 25.5%), and deviation in form (58 joints, 13.2%), which included 33 TMJs in a cane-shape, 16 with a lateral or medial pole depression, 6 with posterior condylar surface flattening, and 3 with a bifid-shaped condyle. Fifty-three joints (12.0%) showed hypoplastic condyles but only 1 joint showed hyperplasia. Osteophyte was found in 35 joints (8.0%) and subcortical cyst in 24 joints (5.5%), 5 of which had surface erosion as well. One hundred nineteen joints (27.0%) had only one kind of condylar bony change, 66 joints (15.0%) had two, 52 joints (11.8%) had three, 12 joints (5.0%) had four, and 6 joints (1.4%) had five kinds of condylar bony changes at the same time. Eighty-five (65.9%) of 129 joints with surface erosion had pain recorded at the chief complaint. With more widespread use of CBCT, more specific or detailed guidelines for osteoarthritis are needed.

  13. Bony defect of palate and vomer in submucous cleft palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, S; Ma, L; Zhou, X; Sun, Z

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to visualize bony defects of the palate and vomer in submucous cleft palate patients (SMCP) by three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) reconstruction and to classify the range of bony defects. Forty-eight consecutive non-operated SMCP patients were included. Diagnosis was based on the presence of at least one of three classical signs of SMCP: bifid uvula, a translucent zone in the midline of the soft palate, and a palpable 'V' notch on the posterior border of the bony palate. Patients were imaged using spiral CT. 3D reconstruction models were created of the palate and vomer. The sagittal extent of the bony cleft in SMCP was classified into four types: type I, no V-shaped hard palate cleft (8.3%); type II, cleft involving the partial palate (43.8%); type III, cleft involving the complete palate and extending to the incisive foramen (43.8%); type IV, cleft involving the complete palate and the alveolar bone (4.2%). The extent of the vomer defect was classified into three types: type A, vomer completely fused with the palate (8.3%); type B, vomer partially fused with the palate (43.8%); type C, vomer not fused with the palate up to the incisive foramen (47.9%). Significant variability in hard palate defects in SMCP is the rule rather than the exception. The association of velopharyngeal insufficiency with anatomical malformations may be complex.

  14. On the biology of the bony otic capsule and the pathogenesis of otosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sune Land

    2012-01-01

    In human otosclerosis, focal pathological bone remodeling occurs in significant amounts inside the normally anti-resorptive perilabyrinthine domain of the bony otic capsule. Otosclerosis causes hearing loss in 0.2-0.5% of the population by ankylosis of the footplate. The disease cannot be predicted...

  15. The Bony Obliteration Tympanoplasty in Pediatric Cholesteatoma: Long-term Safety and Hygienic Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinther, J.J.S. van; Vercruysse, J.Ph.LPW; Camp, S.; Foer, B. De; Casselman, J.; Somers, T.; Zarowski, A.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Offeciers, E.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present the safety and hygienic results of a 5-year longitudinal study in a pediatric population undergoing surgery for extensive cholesteatoma using a canal wall up approach with bony obliteration of the mastoid and epitympanic space. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective consecutive study. PAT

  16. Syngnathia-congenital unilateral bony fusion of the maxilla and mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Ramachandra Reddy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital disorders involving orofacial region represents approximately 20% of all birth defects. Out of these disorders, congenital bony fusion of the maxilla and mandible (syngnathia is rare. Usually syngnathia is associated with other anomalies and syndromes. This case report presents a unilateral fusion of maxilla and mandible with no other anomalies.

  17. Arthroscopic Double-Row Suture Anchor Repair of Acute Posterior Bony Bankart Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Justin A; Coleman, Erin M; Kropf, Eric J

    2016-08-01

    The treatment of anterior shoulder instability is well described with various techniques, including arthroscopic double-row repair, an alternative to open stabilization procedures in high-risk groups. The surgical management of posterior instability in high-risk and athletic populations is a less-explored entity. We describe our technique for an all arthroscopic double-row suture anchor repair of a large posterior bony Bankart lesion. We prefer this technique over percutaneous cannulated screw fixation because the double-row suture technique allows for incorporation of capsular plication with bony fixation in an effort to better restore normal anatomy for capsulolabral complex. Double-row repair capsulolabral repair or fixation of the bony Bankart is performed via a suture-bridge technique. Medial row anchors are placed down the glenoid neck and shuttled around the bony fragment and labrum. The lateral-row anchor is placed at the rim of the native glenoid. This repair technique has been shown to increase the surface area for healing and more closely reconstruct the native anatomic capsulolabral complex footprint, improve force distribution, and potentially impart enhanced posterior stability to the glenohumeral joint.

  18. 3D analysis of facial asymmetry in subjects with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Sune; Hermann, Nuno V.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2011-01-01

    of asymmetry were calculated for each of the three groups and compared.Results. Distinct patterns of asymmetry were found in Groups 1 and 2. With mean asymmetry values up to 3.5 mm, Group 1 exhibited a significantly greater amount of asymmetry in a broad band along the lower jaw extending from the region...... centre, leading to mandibular asymmetry with displacement of the bony chin. Facial asymmetry quantification was found to be an effective method for assessing both the amount and the localization and spatial extent of asymmetry in all 3Ds....

  19. Pseudoaneurysm of the facial artery following bilateral temporomandibular joint replacement: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanit Anand

    2017-03-01

    Case report: A 59-year-old male presented to our department with bony ankylosis of his temporomandibular joints bilaterally as a result of previous osteomyelitis. He underwent bilateral temperomandibular joint replacements in a two-stage procedure. Six weeks post discharge he presented to the emergency department in haemorrhagic shock, having lost significant blood volume from a pulsatile lesion over his right mandible. Computed tomography angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm of the right facial artery. He proceeded to emergent embolisation with resolution of the pseudoaneurysm.

  20. First record of eocene bony fishes and crocodyliforms from Canada's Western Arctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaelyn J Eberle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada's High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early - middle Eocene (∼53-50 Ma, despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada's easternmost Arctic - Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut. Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada's westernmost Arctic Island - Banks Island, Northwest Territories - they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus, esocid (pike, and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower - middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.. Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early - middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence

  1. Retinotopy of facial expression adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumiya, Kazumichi

    2014-01-01

    The face aftereffect (FAE; the illusion of faces after adaptation to a face) has been reported to occur without retinal overlap between adaptor and test, but recent studies revealed that the FAE is not constant across all test locations, which suggests that the FAE is also retinotopic. However, it remains unclear whether the characteristic of the retinotopy of the FAE for one facial aspect is the same as that of the FAE for another facial aspect. In the research reported here, an examination of the retinotopy of the FAE for facial expression indicated that the facial expression aftereffect occurs without retinal overlap between adaptor and test, and depends on the retinal distance between them. Furthermore, the results indicate that, although dependence of the FAE on adaptation-test distance is similar between facial expression and facial identity, the FAE for facial identity is larger than that for facial expression when a test face is presented in the opposite hemifield. On the basis of these results, I discuss adaptation mechanisms underlying facial expression processing and facial identity processing for the retinotopy of the FAE.

  2. Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

  3. Other facial neuralgias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Francis; Nurmikko, Turo; Sommer, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Premise In this article we review some lesser known cranial neuralgias that are distinct from trigeminal neuralgia, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, or trigeminal neuropathies. Included are occipital neuralgia, superior laryngeal neuralgia, auriculotemporal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal and nervus intermedius neuralgia, and pain from acute herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia of the trigeminal and intermedius nerves. Problem Facial neuralgias are rare and many physicians do not see such cases in their lifetime, so patients with a suspected diagnosis within this group should be referred to a specialized center where multidisciplinary team diagnosis may be available. Potential solution Each facial neuralgia can be identified on the basis of clinical presentation, allowing for precision diagnosis and planning of treatment. Treatment remains conservative with oral or topical medication recommended for neuropathic pain to be tried before more invasive procedures are undertaken. However, evidence for efficacy of current treatments remains weak.

  4. Facial resemblance enhances trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruine, Lisa M

    2002-07-07

    Organisms are expected to be sensitive to cues of genetic relatedness when making decisions about social behaviour. Relatedness can be assessed in several ways, one of which is phenotype matching: the assessment of similarity between others' traits and either one's own traits or those of known relatives. One candidate cue of relatedness in humans is facial resemblance. Here, I report the effects of an experimental manipulation of facial resemblance in a two-person sequential trust game. Subjects were shown faces of ostensible playing partners manipulated to resemble either themselves or an unknown person. Resemblance to the subject's own face raised the incidence of trusting a partner, but had no effect on the incidence of selfish betrayals of the partner's trust. Control subjects playing with identical pictures failed to show such an effect. In a second experiment, resemblance of the playing partner to a familiar (famous) person had no effect on either trusting or betrayals of trust.

  5. Congenital Facial Teratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Manjunath; Hegde, Padmaraj; Devaraju, Umesh M.

    2011-01-01

    Teratomas are neoplasm composed of three germinal layers of the embryo that form tissues not normally found in the organ in which they arise. These are most common in the sacrococcygeal region and are rare in the head and neck, which account for less than 6%. An unusual case of facial teratoma in a new born, managed successfully is described here with postoperative follow up of 2 years without any recurrence.

  6. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khursheed Alam

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian, with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18-25. Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects' evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI, Malaysian Chinese (MC and Malaysian Malay (MM were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; P<0.05 but no significant difference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1% were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5% short and 81 (28.3% long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts.1 Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%; 2 Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3 Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4 All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5 No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population.

  7. Facial pain and temporomandibular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of facial pain and the association of facial pain with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) as well as with other factors, in a geographically defined population-based sample consisting of subjects born in 1966 in northern Finland, and in a case-control study including subjects with facial pain and their healthy controls. In addition, the influence of conservative stomatognathic and necessary prosthetic treatme...

  8. Facile preparation of highly crystalline lamellae of (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan using an extract of Euglena gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yu; Noda, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Satoshi; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Wada, Masahisa

    2014-03-01

    In vitro synthesis of (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan was performed using laminaribiose phosphorylase obtained by an extraction of Euglena gracilis with sucrose phosphorylase. The synthetic product was a linear (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan with a narrow distribution of degree of polymerization (DP) centered on DP=30. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy revealed that the glucan molecules obtained were self-organized as highly crystalline hexagonal lamellae. This synthetic product has quite high structural homogeneity at every level from primary to higher-order structure, which is a great advantage for the detailed analyses of physiological functions of (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan.

  9. An observation of nanotwin lamellae in Cd 0.6Mn 0.4Te crystal by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M. A.; Azoulay, M.; Collins, W. E.; Burger, A.; Silberman, E.

    1993-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to examine the structure of freshly cleaved Cd 0.6Mn 0.4Te surfaces. The present report complements previous results obtained with X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy which showed the existence of microtwins. The AFM analysis was performed under ambient conditions and yielded nanometer scale resolution images of single twin lamellae that ranged between 20 and 100 nm in width. This is a first observation using AFM of such a substructure, which we interpret as evidence for the presence of nonotwins.

  10. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.

  11. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  12. History of facial pain diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Troels S

    2017-01-01

    Premise Facial pain refers to a heterogeneous group of clinically and etiologically different conditions with the common clinical feature of pain in the facial area. Among these conditions, trigeminal neuralgia (TN), persistent idiopathic facial pain, temporomandibular joint pain, and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TAC) are the most well described conditions. Conclusion TN has been known for centuries, and is recognised by its characteristic and almost pathognomonic clinical features. The other facial pain conditions are less well defined, and over the years there has been confusion about their classification. PMID:28181442

  13. Uitrasonographic evaluation of fetal facial anatomy (Ⅰ):ultrasonographic features of normal fetal face in vitro study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜利; 陈琮瑛; 刘菊玲; 欧阳淑媛

    2004-01-01

    Background Because of lacking skills in scanning the normal fetal facial structures and their corresponding ultrasonic features, misdiagnoses freguently occur. Therefore, we studied the appearance features and improved displaying skills of fetal facial anatomy in order to provide basis for prenatal diagnosis. Methods Twenty fetuses with normal facial anatomy from induced labor because of other malformations except facial anomalies were immersed in a water bath and then scanned ultrasonographically on coronal, sagittal and transverse planes to define the ultrasonic image features of normal anatomy. The coronal and sagittal planes obtained from the submandibular triangle were used for displaying the soft and hard palate in particular. Results Facial anatomic structures of the fetus can be clearly displayed through the three routine orthogonal planes. However, the soft and hard palate can be displayed on the planes obtained from the submandibular triangle only. Conclusions The superficial soft tissues and deep bony structures of the fetal face can be recognized and evaluated by routine ultrasonographic images, which is a reliable prenatal diagnostic technique to evaluate the fetal facial anatomy. The soft and hard palate can be well demonstrated by the submandibular triangle approach.

  14. Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles Sections Botulinum Toxin (Botox) ... Facial Wrinkles How Does Botulinum Toxin (Botox) Work? Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  15. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be seen ...

  16. Bony metastases from breast cancer - a study of foetal antigen 2 as a blood tumour marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iles Ray K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foetal antigen 2 (FA-2, first isolated in the amniotic fluid, was shown to be the circulating form of the aminopropeptide of the alpha 1 chain of procollagen type I. Serum concentrations of FA-2 appeared to be elevated in a number of disorders of bone metabolism. This paper is the first report of its role as a marker of bone metabolism in metastatic breast cancer. Methods Serum FA-2 concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in 153 women with different stages of breast cancer and in 34 normal controls. Results Serum FA-2 was significantly elevated in women with bony metastases (p Conclusions FA-2 is a promising blood marker of bone metabolism. Further studies to delineate its role in the diagnosis and management of bony metastases from breast cancer are required.

  17. iFace: Facial Expression Training System

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Kyoko; Kurose, Hiroyuki; Takami, Ai; Nishida, Shogo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a target facial expression selection interface for a facial expression training system and a facial expression training system were both proposed and developed. Twelve female dentists used the facial expression training system, and evaluations and opinions about the facial expression training system were obtained from these participants. In the future, we will attempt to improve both the target facial expression selection interface and the comparison of a current and a target f...

  18. Cephalometric soft tissue facial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R T

    1999-10-01

    My objective is to present a cephalometric-based facial analysis to correlate with an article that was published previously in the American Journal of Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopedics. Eighteen facial or soft tissue traits are discussed in this article. All of them are significant in successful orthodontic outcome, and none of them depend on skeletal landmarks for measurement. Orthodontic analysis most commonly relies on skeletal and dental measurement, placing far less emphasis on facial feature measurement, particularly their relationship to each other. Yet, a thorough examination of the face is critical for understanding the changes in facial appearance that result from orthodontic treatment. A cephalometric approach to facial examination can also benefit the diagnosis and treatment plan. Individual facial traits and their balance with one another should be identified before treatment. Relying solely on skeletal analysis, assuming that the face will balance if the skeletal/dental cephalometric values are normalized, may not yield the desired outcome. Good occlusion does not necessarily mean good facial balance. Orthodontic norms for facial traits can permit their measurement. Further, with a knowledge of standard facial traits and the patient's soft tissue features, an individualized norm can be established for each patient to optimize facial attractiveness. Four questions should be asked regarding each facial trait before treatment: (1) What is the quality and quantity of the trait? (2) How will future growth affect the trait? (3) How will orthodontic tooth movement affect the existing trait (positively or negatively)? (4) How will surgical bone movement to correct the bite affect the trait (positively or negatively)?

  19. Plastic Changes of Synapses and Excitatory Neurotransmitter Receptors in Facial Nucleus Following Facial-facial Anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei CHEN; Jun SONG; Linghui LUO; Shusheng GONG

    2008-01-01

    The remodeling process of synapses and eurotransmitter receptors of facial nucleus were observed. Models were set up by facial-facial anastomosis in rat. At post-surgery day (PSD) 0, 7, 21 and 60, synaptophysin (p38), NMDA receptor subunit 2A and AMPA receptor subunit 2 (GIuR2) were observed by immunohistochemical method and emi-quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Meanwhile, the synaptic structure of the facial motorneurons was observed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The intensity of p38 immunoreactivity was decreased, reaching the lowest value at PSD day 7, and then increased slightly at PSD 21. Ultrastructurally, the number of synapses in nucleus of the operational side decreased, which was consistent with the change in P38 immhnoreactivity. NMDAR2A mRNA was down-regulated significantly in facial nucleus after the operation (P000.05). The synapses innervation and the expression of NMDAR2A and AMPAR2 mRNA in facial nucleus might be modified to suit for the new motor tasks following facial-facial anastomosis, and influenced facial nerve regeneration and recovery.

  20. The Effects of Latarjet Reconstruction on Glenohumeral Instability in the Presence of Combined Bony Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ronak M.; Walia, Piyush; Gottschalk, Lionel; Jones, Morgan H.; Fening, Stephen D.; Miniaci, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Recurrent glenohumeral instability is often a result of underlying bony defects in the glenoid and/or humeral head. Anterior glenoid augmentation with a bone block (i.e. Latarjet) has been recommended for glenoid bone loss in the face of recurrent instability. However, no study has investigated the effect of Latarjet augmentation in the setting of both glenoid and humeral head defects (Hill-Sachs Defects (HSD)). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability achieved thro...

  1. Upper cervical spinal cord compression due to bony stenosis of the spinal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitah, S; Raftopoulos, C; Balériaux, D; Levivier, M; Dedeire, S

    1994-04-01

    Compression of the upper cervical spinal cord due to stenosis of the bony spinal canal is infrequent. In the first case reported here, stenosis was due to acquired extensive, unilateral osteophytes centered on the left apophyseal joints of C1-C2 in an elderly professional violinist. In the second case, stenosis was secondary to isolated congenital hypertrophy of the laminae of C1 and C2.

  2. The bony Bankart lesion : how to measure the glenoid bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Summary An osseous Bankart lesion is commonly seen in patients with an anterior shoulder dislocation. It is defined as a detachment of the anteroinferior labrum associated with a glenoid rim fracture. Radiological studies are crucial not only for detecting glenoid bone defects but also for measuring the amount of bone loss. The precise quantification of the bony defect is crucial for the therapeutic desicion-making and clinical outcomes. Although we know that major glenoid bone loss requires ...

  3. Coronectomy of lower third molars with and without guided bony regeneration: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yiu Yan

    2016-02-01

    This pilot study for a split-mouth, randomised, clinical trial compared the incidence of postoperative complications, root migration, and adjacent second molar periodontal attachment after coronectomy of the lower third molars with or without guided bony regeneration. Six patients (three men and three women, mean (range) age 27 (21-44) years), each with bilateral lower third molars in close proximity to the inferior alveolar nerve, were recruited. One third molar of each patient was randomised to be treated by coronectomy with guided bony regeneration, and the other side coronectomy alone. All subjects were reviewed for 12 months. No neurosensory deficit was noted in either group. We found no significant differences between the two groups in postoperative morbidity. Mean (SD) root migration after coronectomy with guided bony regeneration at postoperative 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months were 0.14 (0.34), 0.56 (0.68), 0.63 (0.83), and 0.63 (0.83) mm, respectively. These were significantly less than the results in the control group from postoperative 3 months onwards (3 months p=0.01, 6 months p=0.004, and 12 months p=0.003). There was a trend towards reduced periodontal depth at the adjacent second molar in the study group compared with that in the control group, but not significantly so. These results show that coronectomy of lower third molars with guided bony regeneration has low morbidity and seems to reduce root migration. A full-scale randomised clinical trial will show the effect on root migration and periodontal attachment of the adjacent second molar.

  4. Knee joint secondary motion accuracy improved by quaternion-based optimizer with bony landmark constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongsheng; Zheng, Naiqaun Nigel

    2010-12-01

    Skin marker-based motion analysis has been widely used in biomechanical studies and clinical applications. Unfortunately, the accuracy of knee joint secondary motions is largely limited by the nonrigidity nature of human body segments. Numerous studies have investigated the characteristics of soft tissue movement. Utilizing these characteristics, we may improve the accuracy of knee joint motion measurement. An optimizer was developed by incorporating the soft tissue movement patterns at special bony landmarks into constraint functions. Bony landmark constraints were assigned to the skin markers at femur epicondyles, tibial plateau edges, and tibial tuberosity in a motion analysis algorithm by limiting their allowed position space relative to the underlying bone. The rotation matrix was represented by quaternion, and the constrained optimization problem was solved by Fletcher's version of the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization technique. The algorithm was validated by using motion data from both skin-based markers and bone-mounted markers attached to fresh cadavers. By comparing the results with the ground truth bone motion generated from the bone-mounted markers, the new algorithm had a significantly higher accuracy (root-mean-square (RMS) error: 0.7 ± 0.1 deg in axial rotation and 0.4 ± 0.1 deg in varus-valgus) in estimating the knee joint secondary rotations than algorithms without bony landmark constraints (RMS error: 1.7 ± 0.4 deg in axial rotation and 0.7 ± 0.1 deg in varus-valgus). Also, it predicts a more accurate medial-lateral translation (RMS error: 0.4 ± 0.1 mm) than the conventional techniques (RMS error: 1.2 ± 0.2 mm). The new algorithm, using bony landmark constrains, estimates more accurate secondary rotations and medial-lateral translation of the underlying bone.

  5. The Effects of Latarjet Reconstruction on Glenohumeral Instability in the Presence of Combined Bony Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ronak M.; Walia, Piyush; Gottschalk, Lionel; Jones, Morgan H.; Fening, Stephen D.; Miniaci, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Recurrent glenohumeral instability is often a result of underlying bony defects in the glenoid and/or humeral head. Anterior glenoid augmentation with a bone block (i.e. Latarjet) has been recommended for glenoid bone loss in the face of recurrent instability. However, no study has investigated the effect of Latarjet augmentation in the setting of both glenoid and humeral head defects (Hill-Sachs Defects (HSD)). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability achieved thro...

  6. Children's Facial Trustworthiness Judgments: Agreement and Relationship with Facial Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2016-01-01

    This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness.

  7. The Effects of Cation Ratios on Root Lamella Suberization in Rice (Oryza sativa L. with Contrasting Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Momayezi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an important produced cereal in the world. We evaluated the effect of salt compositions including NaCl and Na2SO4 on suberin lamellae as a major barrier to radial ion and water movements in two rice genotypes representing contrasting salt tolerance levels under salinity stress. Two rice genotypes, Fajr as salt tolerant and Khazar as salt sensitive, were transplanted in sand culture under glasshouse condition. Rice seedlings were treated with five salt compositions including NaCl, Na2SO4, 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 molar ratios for 40 days. It was proven that suberin lamellae in endodermis of root cell wall were thickened with Na2SO4 treatment. The results demonstrated that the number of passage cells was higher in Fajr genotype than that in Khazar genotype under saline condition. Calcium concentration in root tissue decreased as the SO42- concentration in root media increased. It can be concluded that Fajr genotype is able to keep some passage cells open to maintain Ca2+ uptake. The Ca2+/Na+ ratio in shoot tissue can be also a reliable index for the early recognition of salt stress in these rice genotypes.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of Myxobolus orissae (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp Cirrhinus mrigala (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangapalam Abraham

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Myxosporeans are best known for the diseases they cause in commercially important fish species. Identification of myxosporeans at the species-level is mainly based on conventional methods. The 18S rRNA gene sequence of morphologically identified Myxobolus orissae infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp Cirrhinus mrigala was characterized in the present study. The plasmodia of M. orissae were small, elongated and white to pale in colour. Phylogenetically, the 18S rDNA nucleotide sequence of M. orissae was clustered with other gill-infecting Myxobolus spp. of cyprinids. The species closely related to M. orissae was M. koi (FJ841887 infecting the gill lamellae of Cyprinus carpio with 96% similarity. The carp fin-infecting Thelohanellus caudatus (KC865607 from India exhibited only 78% DNA sequence similarity with M. orissae. Low level of M. orissae infection on gill caused thickening of epithelial cells surrounding the plasmodium. Under stressful conditions, it is likely that such infection can easily spread in confined fish and may cause serious disease outbreaks and economical losses.

  9. mDia2 regulates actin and focal adhesion dynamics and organization in the lamella for efficient epithelial cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupton, Stephanie L; Eisenmann, Kathryn; Alberts, Arthur S; Waterman-Storer, Clare M

    2007-10-01

    Cell migration requires spatial and temporal regulation of filamentous actin (F-actin) dynamics. This regulation is achieved by distinct actin-associated proteins, which mediate polymerization, depolymerization, severing, contraction, bundling or engagement to the membrane. Mammalian Diaphanous-related (mDia) formins, which nucleate, processively elongate, and in some cases bundle actin filaments, have been extensively studied in vitro, but their function in the cell has been less well characterized. Here we study the role of mDia2 activity in the dynamic organization of F-actin in migrating epithelial cells. We find that mDia2 localizes in the lamella of migrating epithelial cells, where it is involved in the formation of a stable pool of cortical actin and in maintenance of polymerization-competent free filament barbed ends at focal adhesions. Specific inhibition of mDia2 alters focal adhesion turnover and reduces migration velocity. We suggest that the regulation of filament assembly dynamics at focal adhesions may be necessary for the formation of a stable pool of cortical lamella actin and the proper assembly and disassembly dynamics of focal adhesions, making mDia2 an important factor in epithelial cell migration.

  10. Stepwise swelling of a thin film of lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b- butadiene) in cyclohexane vapor

    KAUST Repository

    Di, Zhenyu

    2012-06-26

    We investigated the swelling of a thin film of lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b-butadiene) in cyclohexane vapor. The vapor pressure and thus the degree of swelling of the film are increased in a stepwise manner using a custom-built sample cell. The resulting structural changes during and after each step were followed in situ using time-resolved grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). During the first step, the lamellar thickness increases strongly, before it decreases again. At the same time, the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the diffuse Bragg reflection along the film normal has a sharp maximum. These observations point to the formation of new lamellae. During the subsequent swelling steps, the lamellar thickness overshoots only weakly. The behavior thus resembles qualitatively our previous results on a similar thin film during swelling in saturated vapor of cyclohexane; however, it deviates from earlier theoretical predictions. We propose a theory that is quantitatively correct for the description of the dependence of the lamellar thickness on the polymer volume fraction in the late stage of the swelling steps. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Molecular characterization of Myxobolus cuttacki (Myxozoa, Myxosporea, Bivalvulida infecting gill lamellae of minor carp Labeo bata (Ham.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandya Chinna Rajesh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As new pathogenic strains are emerging and threatening aquaculture development, myxosporeans (Myxozoa are receiving much attention in recent years. Myxosporean taxonomy is traditionally based on morphology of the myxospore stage. Molecular data on Indian myxosporeans are rare. In this report, the 18S rRNA gene sequence of Myxobolus cuttacki infecting gill lamellae of minor carp Labeo bata (Ham. and its phylogenetic relationship with other myxobolids are described for the first time. The plasmodia of M. cuttacki were 0.5-0.9 mm in size and whitish with a round to oval shape. The mean mature spore size was 16.10×7.05 μm. The 18S rRNA nucleotide sequence with 1703 bp of M. cuttacki (accession number KF465682 clustered phylogenetically with other Myxobolus spp. infecting cyprinid gills with 78-90% homogeneity. The gill lamellae infecting M. catmrigalae (KC933944 and M. orissae (KF448527 of Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala from India, exhibited 86% and 81% homogeneity with M. cuttacki, respectively. The infection rate was low to moderate on the gills which can have a negative impact on respiratory and physiological functions and subsequently on fish production.

  12. Molecular characterization of Myxobolus cuttacki (Myxozoa, Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) infecting gill lamellae of minor carp Labeo bata (Ham.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Sandya Chinna; Banerjee, Sayani; Patra, Avijit; Dash, Gadadhar; Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar

    2014-12-01

    As new pathogenic strains are emerging and threatening aquaculture development, myxosporeans (Myxozoa) are receiving much attention in recent years. Myxosporean taxonomy is traditionally based on morphology of the myxospore stage. Molecular data on Indian myxosporeans are rare. In this report, the 18S rRNA gene sequence of Myxobolus cuttacki infecting gill lamellae of minor carp Labeo bata (Ham.) and its phylogenetic relationship with other myxobolids are described for the first time. The plasmodia of M. cuttacki were 0.5-0.9 mm in size and whitish with a round to oval shape. The mean mature spore size was 16.10×7.05 μm. The 18S rRNA nucleotide sequence with 1703 bp of M. cuttacki (accession number KF465682) clustered phylogenetically with other Myxobolus spp. infecting cyprinid gills with 78-90% homogeneity. The gill lamellae infecting M. catmrigalae (KC933944) and M. orissae (KF448527) of Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala from India, exhibited 86% and 81% homogeneity with M. cuttacki, respectively. The infection rate was low to moderate on the gills which can have a negative impact on respiratory and physiological functions and subsequently on fish production.

  13. Molecular phylogeny of Myxobolus orissae (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp Cirrhinus mrigala (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar; Banerjee, Sayani; Patra, Avijit; Sarkar, Agniswar; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Dash, Gadadhar

    2015-01-01

    Myxosporeans are best known for the diseases they cause in commercially important fish species. Identification of myxosporeans at the species-level is mainly based on conventional methods. The 18S rRNA gene sequence of morphologically identified Myxobolus orissae infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp Cirrhinus mrigala was characterized in the present study. The plasmodia of M.orissae were small, elongated and white to pale in colour. Phylogenetically, the 18S rDNA nucleotide sequence of M.orissae was clustered with other gill-infecting Myxobolus spp. of cyprinids. The species closely related to M. orissae was M. koi (FJ841887) infecting the gill lamellae of Cyprinus carpio with 96% similarity. The carp fin-infecting Thelohanelluscaudatus (KC865607) from India exhibited only 78% DNA sequence similarity with M. orissae. Low level of M. orissae infection on gill caused thickening of epithelial cells surrounding the plasmodium. Under stressful conditions, it is likely that such infection can easily spread in confined fish and may cause serious disease outbreaks and economical losses.

  14. [Rehabilitation of facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F

    2015-10-01

    Rehabilitation takes an important part in the treatment of facial paralysis, especially when these are severe. It aims to lead the recovery of motor activity and prevent or reduce sequelae like synkinesis or spasms. It is preferable that it be proposed early in order to set up a treatment plan based on the results of the assessment, sometimes coupled with an electromyography. In case of surgery, preoperative work is recommended, especially in case of hypoglossofacial anastomosis or lengthening temporalis myoplasty (LTM). Our proposal is to present an original technique to enhance the sensorimotor loop and the cortical control of movement, especially when using botulinum toxin and after surgery.

  15. [Clinical results after all arthroscopic reduction and fixation of bony Bankart lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi-Ming; Jiang, Chun-Yan; Lu, Yi; Xue, Qing-Yun

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the shoulder function after arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation in patients with bony Bankart lesion. Between May 2004 and May 2008, 45 patients with bony Bankart lesion who were treated with all arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation with metal anchors were included in this study. Among them 40 patients were male and 5 patients were female. The average age at the surgery was 27.6 years (16.5 - 50.1 years). The average duration of follow-up was 29.7 months (24.8 - 49.0 months). A history of recurrent dislocation of affected shoulder was found in all patients. Metal anchors were used to fix the bony Bankart lesion during the surgery. Hill-Sachs remplissage technique was used to treat the Engaging Hill-Sachs lesion. The preoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score, Constant-Murley score, Rowe score and the VAS score for instability were 84 ± 14, 95.1 ± 4.6, 39.4 ± 2.9 and 5 ± 3 respectively. No significant change was found regarding active forward elevation, external rotation and internal rotation after the surgery. The ASES score, Constant-Murley score, Rowe score and the VAS score of stability were 95 ± 7, 98.3 ± 2.2, 84.5 ± 22.0 and 1 ± 2, improved significantly higher after the surgery (P Bankart lesion can achieve a good result.

  16. Arthroscopic repair of chronic bony bankart lesion using a low anterior portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jefferson C; Westerberg, Paul

    2012-12-01

    We describe the repair of a chronic bony Bankart lesion in a case with recurrent instability using standard techniques and equipment for addressing anteroinferior glenohumeral instability. A 25-year-old man with recurrent instability and a chronic bony Bankart lesion with a Hill-Sachs lesion was treated. The inferior 2 sutures and knotless anchors are placed through a low anterior portal, which improves the angle of approach to the inferior portion of the glenoid that is fractured. The knotless anchors are impacted through the low anterior portal, just superior to the level of the suture, as the fragment tends to retract medially and inferiorly, with the drill guide slightly on the face of the glenoid. The superior-anterior portal adjacent to the biceps tendon gives a better view of the glenoid articular cartilage position of the anchors required to restore the anatomic location of the fracture fragment. The low anterior portal improved and simplified the reduction of the fracture fragment to the glenoid neck by allowing access to the anterior-inferior bony Bankart lesion that was repairable with suture and knotless anchors using standardized techniques.

  17. Processing faces and facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posamentier, Mette T; Abdi, Hervé

    2003-09-01

    This paper reviews processing of facial identity and expressions. The issue of independence of these two systems for these tasks has been addressed from different approaches over the past 25 years. More recently, neuroimaging techniques have provided researchers with new tools to investigate how facial information is processed in the brain. First, findings from "traditional" approaches to identity and expression processing are summarized. The review then covers findings from neuroimaging studies on face perception, recognition, and encoding. Processing of the basic facial expressions is detailed in light of behavioral and neuroimaging data. Whereas data from experimental and neuropsychological studies support the existence of two systems, the neuroimaging literature yields a less clear picture because it shows considerable overlap in activation patterns in response to the different face-processing tasks. Further, activation patterns in response to facial expressions support the notion of involved neural substrates for processing different facial expressions.

  18. Tracking facial features with occlusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARKIN Evgeny; PRAKASH Edmond C.

    2006-01-01

    Facial expression recognition consists of determining what kind of emotional content is presented in a human face.The problem presents a complex area for exploration, since it encompasses face acquisition, facial feature tracking, facial expression classification. Facial feature tracking is of the most interest. Active Appearance Model (AAM) enables accurate tracking of facial features in real-time, but lacks occlusions and self-occlusions. In this paper we propose a solution to improve the accuracy of fitting technique. The idea is to include occluded images into AAM training data. We demonstrate the results by running ex periments using gradient descent algorithm for fitting the AAM. Our experiments show that using fitting algorithm with occluded training data improves the fitting quality of the algorithm.

  19. Facial Asymmetry and Emotional Expression

    CERN Document Server

    Pickin, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This report is about facial asymmetry, its connection to emotional expression, and methods of measuring facial asymmetry in videos of faces. The research was motivated by two factors: firstly, there was a real opportunity to develop a novel measure of asymmetry that required minimal human involvement and that improved on earlier measures in the literature; and secondly, the study of the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression is both interesting in its own right, and important because it can inform neuropsychological theory and answer open questions concerning emotional processing in the brain. The two aims of the research were: first, to develop an automatic frame-by-frame measure of facial asymmetry in videos of faces that improved on previous measures; and second, to use the measure to analyse the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression, and connect our findings with previous research of the relationship.

  20. Vascularization of the facial bones by facial artery: implications for full face allotransplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Rampazzo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background-The maxillary artery is recognized as the main vascular supply of the facial bones; nonetheless clinical evidence supports a co-dominant role for the facial artery. This study explores the extent of the facial skeleton within a facial allograft that can be harvested based on the facial artery. Methods-Twenty-three cadaver heads were used in this study. In 12 heads, the right facial, superficial temporal and maxillary arteries were injected. In 1 head, facial artery angiography w...

  1. Correction of facial and mandibular asymmetry using a computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing prefabricated titanium implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jason; Hatamleh, Muhanad; Alwahadni, Ahed; Srinivasan, Dilip

    2014-05-01

    Patients with significant craniofacial asymmetry may have functional problems associated with their occlusion and aesthetic concerns related to the imbalance in soft and hard tissue profiles. This report details a case of facial asymmetry secondary to left mandible angle deficiency due to undergoing previous radiotherapy. We describe the correction of the bony deformity using computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing custom-made titanium onlay using novel direct metal laser sintering. The direct metal laser sintering onlay proved a very accurate operative fit and showed a good aesthetic correction of the bony defect with no reported complications postoperatively. It is a useful low-morbidity technique, and there is no resorption or associated donor-site complications.

  2. Odontogenic Facial Cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordany Boza Mejias

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: odontogenic facial cellulitis is an acute inflammatory process manifested in very different ways, with a variable scale in clinical presentation ranging from harmless well defined processes, to diffuse and progressive that may develop complications leading the patient to a critical condition, even risking their lives. Objective: To characterize the behavior of odontogenic facial cellulitis. Methods: A descriptive case series study was conducted at the dental clinic of Aguada de Pasajeros, Cienfuegos, from September 2010 to March 2011. It included 56 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Variables analyzed included: sex, age, teeth and regions affected, causes of cellulite and prescribed treatment. Results: no sex predilection was observed, lower molars and submandibular anatomical region were the most affected (50% and 30 4% respectively being tooth decay the main cause for this condition (51, 7%. The opening access was not performed to all the patients in the emergency service. The causal tooth extraction was not commonly done early, according to the prescribed antibiotic group. Thermotherapy with warm fomentation and saline mouthwash was the most prescribed and the most widely used group of antibiotics was the penicillin. Conclusions: dental caries were the major cause of odontogenic cellulite. There are still difficulties with the implementation of opening access.

  3. Colesteatoma causando paralisia facial Cholesteatoma causing facial paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gurgel Testa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A paralisia facial causada pelo colesteatoma é pouco freqüente. As porções do nervo mais acometidas são a timpânica e a região do 2º joelho. Nos casos de disseminação da lesão colesteatomatosa para o epitímpano anterior, o gânglio geniculado é o segmento do nervo facial mais sujeito à injúria. A etiopatogenia pode estar ligada à compressão do nervo pelo colesteatoma seguida de diminuição do seu suprimento vascular como também pela possível ação de substâncias neurotóxicas produzidas pela matriz do tumor ou pelas bactérias nele contidas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, as características clínicas e o tratamento da paralisia facial decorrente da lesão colesteatomatosa. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo dez casos de paralisia facial por colesteatoma selecionados através de levantamento de 206 descompressões do nervo facial com diferentes etiologias, realizadas na UNIFESP-EPM nos últimos dez anos. RESULTADOS: A incidência de paralisia facial por colesteatoma neste estudo foi de 4,85%,com predominância do sexo feminino (60%. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 39 anos. A duração e o grau da paralisia (inicial juntamente com a extensão da lesão foram importantes em relação à recuperação funcional do nervo facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico precoce é fundamental para que ocorra um resultado funcional mais adequado. Nos casos de ruptura ou intensa fibrose do tecido nervoso, o enxerto de nervo (auricular magno/sural e/ou a anastomose hipoglosso-facial podem ser sugeridas.Facial paralysis caused by cholesteatoma is uncommon. The portions most frequently involved are horizontal (tympanic and second genu segments. When cholesteatomas extend over the anterior epitympanic space, the facial nerve is placed in jeopardy in the region of the geniculate ganglion. The aetiology can be related to compression of the nerve followed by impairment of its

  4. MRI of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saatci, I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sahintuerk, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sennaroglu, L. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Boyvat, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Guersel, B. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Besim, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to define the enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell`s palsy) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with routine doses of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). Using 0.5 T imager, 24 patients were examined with a mean interval time of 13.7 days between the onset of symptoms and the MR examination. Contralateral asymptomatic facial nerves constituted the control group and five of the normal facial nerves (20.8%) showed enhancement confined to the geniculate ganglion. Hence, contrast enhancement limited to the geniculate ganglion in the abnormal facial nerve (3 of 24) was referred to a equivocal. Not encountered in any of the normal facial nerves, enhancement of other segments alone or associated with geniculate ganglion enhancement was considered to be abnormal and noted in 70.8% of the symptomatic facial nerves. The most frequently enhancing segments were the geniculate ganglion and the distal intracanalicular segment. (orig.)

  5. The Facial Profile in the Context of Facial Aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppt, Werner J; Vent, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Beauty has been an intriguing issue since the evolving of a culture in mankind. Even the Neanderthals are believed to have applied makeover to enhance facial structures and thus underline beauty. The determinants of beauty and aesthetics have been defined by artists and scientists alike. This article will give an overview of the evolvement of a beauty concept and the significance of the facial profile. It aims at sharpening the senses of the facial plastic surgeon for analyzing the patient's face, consulting the patient on feasible options, planning, and conducting surgery in the most individualized way.

  6. Diplegia facial traumatica Traumatic facial diplegia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de paralisia facial bilateral, incompleta, associada a hipoacusia esquerda, após traumatismo cranioencefálico, com fraturas evidenciadas radiológicamente. Algumas considerações são formuladas tentando relacionar ditas manifestações com fraturas do osso temporal.A case of traumatic facial diplegia with left partial loss of hearing following head injury is reported. X-rays showed fractures on the occipital and left temporal bones. A review of traumatic facial paralysis is made.

  7. Paralisia facial bilateral Bilateral facial paralysis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.A case of bilateral facial paralysis following meningococcal meningitis and herpes simplex infection is reported. The author discusses the differential diagnosis of bilateral facial nerve paralysis which includes several diseases and syndromes and concludes by herpetic aetiology.

  8. Minimally Invasive Surgery Combined with Regenerative Biomaterials in Treating Intra-Bony Defects: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shan Liu; Bo Hu; Yuanyuan Zhang; Wenyang Li; Jinlin Song

    2016-01-01

    Background With the popularity of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in periodontics, numerous publications have evaluated the benefits of MIS with or without various regenerative biomaterials in the treatment of periodontal intra-bony defects. However, it is unclear if it is necessary to use biomaterials in MIS. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials in patients with intra-bony defects to compare the clinical outcomes of MIS with regenerative biomaterials for MIS alon...

  9. Correlation between pain and degenerative bony changes on cone-beam computed tomography images of temporomandibular joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, SunMee; Park, Moon-Soo; Han, Jin-Woo; Kim, Young-Jun

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess correlation between pain and degenerative bony changes on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of temporomandibular joints (TMJs). Two hundred eighty-three temporomandibular joints with degenerative bony changes were evaluated. Pain intensity (numeric rating scale, NRS) and pain duration in patients with degenerative joint disease (DJD) were also analyzed. We classified condylar bony changes on CBCT into five types: osteophyte (Osp), erosion (Ero), flattening (Fla), subchondral sclerosis (Scl), and pseudocyst (Pse). Degenerative bony changes were the most frequent in the age groups of 10~19, 20-29, and 50~59 years. The most frequent pain intensity was "none" (NRS 0, 34.6%) followed by "annoying" (NRS 3-5, 29.7%). The most frequent condylar bony change was Fla (219 joints, 77.4%) followed by Ero (169 joints, 59.7%). "Ero + Fla" was the most common combination of the bony changes (12.7%). The frequency of erosion was directly proportional to NRS, but the frequency of osteophyte was inversely proportional. The prevalence of Ero increased from onset until 2 years and gradually decreased thereafter. The prevalence of Osp, Ero, and Pse increased with age. Osp and Ero can be pain-related variables in degenerative joint disease (DJD) patients. "Six months to 2 years" may be a meaningful time point from the active, unstable phase to the stabilized late phase of DJD.

  10. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  11. Analysis methods for facial motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Mishima

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective techniques to evaluate a facial movement are indispensable for the contemporary treatment of patients with motor disorders such as facial paralysis, cleft lip, postoperative head and neck cancer, and so on. Recently, computer-assisted, video-based techniques have been devised and reported as measuring systems in which facial movements can be evaluated quantitatively. Commercially available motion analysis systems, in which a stereo-measuring technique with multiple cameras and markers to facilitate search of matching among images through all cameras, also are utilized, and are used in many measuring systems such as video-based systems. The key is how the problems of facial movement can be extracted precisely, and how useful information for the diagnosis and decision-making process can be derived from analyses of facial movement. Therefore, it is important to discuss which facial animations should be examined, and whether fixation of the head and markers attached to the face can hamper natural facial movement.

  12. Acupuncture Treatment of Facial Spasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Case History Ms. Zheng from Singapore, aged 51 years, paid her first visit on Aug.30, 2006, with the chief complaint of left facial paralysis accompanied with facial spasm for 5 years. The patient got left facial paralysis in 2001, which was not completely cured, and developed into facial spasm one year later. Although she had received various treatments including surgical operation, the disease was not cured. At the moment she had discomfort and dull sensation in the left facial area, mainly accompanied with twitching of the peripheral nerve of the eye. She was also accompanied with posterior auricular muscle tension and discomfort. She had fairly good sleep and appetite, but slightly quick temper. Physical examination at the moment showed that the patient had a slightly thin body figure, flushing face, and good mental state. The blood pressure was 110/75mmHg and the heart rate was 85 beats/min. No abnormal signs were found in the heart and lungs. The facial examination showed mild swelling of the left side of the face, incomplete closing of the eye lids, disappearance of wrinkles on the forehead, shallow nasolabial groove, and obvious muscle tension and tenderness in the left opisthotic region. Careful observation could find slight facial muscular twitching. The tongue proper was red with little coating, and the pulse thready-wiry.

  13. Facial Action Units Recognition: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Wiggers, P.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Shan, C.

    2011-01-01

    Many approaches to facial expression recognition focus on assessing the six basic emotions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, sadness, and surprise). Real-life situations proved to produce many more subtle facial expressions. A reliable way of analyzing the facial behavior is the Facial Action Coding

  14. Microbial biofilms on silicone facial prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariani, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Facial disfigurements can result from oncologic surgery, trauma and congenital deformities. These disfigurements can be rehabilitated with facial prostheses. Facial prostheses are usually made of silicones. A problem of facial prostheses is that microorganisms can colonize their surface. It is hard

  15. Improving outcomes in aesthetic facial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Stefan O P; Mureau, Marc A M

    2009-07-01

    Aesthetic facial reconstruction is a challenging art. Improving outcomes in aesthetic facial reconstruction requires a thorough understanding of the basic principles of the functional and aesthetic requirements for facial reconstruction. From there, further refinement and attention to detail can be provided. This paper discusses basic principles of aesthetic facial reconstruction.

  16. Facial Action Units Recognition: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Wiggers, P.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Shan, C.

    2011-01-01

    Many approaches to facial expression recognition focus on assessing the six basic emotions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, sadness, and surprise). Real-life situations proved to produce many more subtle facial expressions. A reliable way of analyzing the facial behavior is the Facial Action Coding

  17. Facial melanoses: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Khanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial melanoses (FM are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl′s melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP, erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl′s melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ, which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion.

  18. Simple technique for facial dimple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan El-Sabbagh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subjects seeking aesthetic surgery for facial dimples are increasing in number. Literature on dimple creation surgery are sparse. Various techniques have been used with their own merits and disadvantages. Materials and Methods: Facial dimples were created in 23 cases. All the subjects were females. Five cases were bilateral and the rest were unilateral. Results: Minor complications such as swelling and hematoma were observed in four cases. Infection occurred in two cases. Most of the subjects were satisfied with the results. Conclusions: Suturing technique is safe, reliable and an easily reproducible way to create facial dimple. Level of Evidence: IV: Case series.

  19. Sleep Wrinkles: Facial Aging and Facial Distortion During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Goesel; Kane, Michael A C; Lambros, Val

    2016-09-01

    Wrinkles are just one indicator of facial aging, but an indicator that is of prime importance in our world of facial aesthetics. Wrinkles occur where fault lines develop in aging skin. Those fault lines may be due to skin distortion resulting from facial expression or may be due to skin distortion from mechanical compression during sleep. Expression wrinkles and sleep wrinkles differ in etiology, location, and anatomical pattern. Compression, shear, and stress forces act on the face in lateral or prone sleep positions. We review the literature relating to the development of wrinkles and the biomechanical changes that occur in response to intrinsic and extrinsic influences. We explore the possibility that compression during sleep not only results in wrinkles but may also contribute to facial skin expansion.

  20. Nanostructured Mesoporous Silica Wires with Intrawire Lamellae via Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly in Space-Confined Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Z. Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA of silica sol-gel ethanol-water solution mixtures with block-copolymer were studied inside uniform micro/nano-channels. Nanostructured mesoporous silica wires, with various intrawire self-assembly structures including lamellae, were prepared via EISA process but in space-confined channels with the diameter ranging from 50 nm to 200 nm. Membranes made of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO and track-etched polycarbonate (EPC were utilized as the arrays of space-confined channels (i.e., 50, 100, and 200 nm EPC and 200 nm AAO for infiltration and drying of mixture solutions; these substrate membranes were submerged in mixture solutions consisting of a silica precursor, a structure-directing agent, ethanol, and water. After the substrate channels were filled with the solution under vacuum impregnation, the membrane was removed from the solution and dried in air. The silica precursor used was tetraethyl othosilicate (TEOS, and the structure-directing agent employed was triblock copolymer Pluronic-123 (P123. It was found that the formation of the mesoporous nanostructures in silica wires within uniform channels were significantly affected by the synthesis conditions including (1 preassemble TEOS aging time, (2 the evaporation rate during the vacuum impregnation, and (3 the air-dry temperature. The obtained intrawire structures, including 2D hexagonal rods and lamellae, were studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM. A steric hindrance effect seems to explain well the observed polymer-silica mesophase formation tailored by TEOS aging time. The evaporation effect, air-drying effect, and AAO versus EPC substrate effect on the mesoporous structure of the formed silica wires were also presented and discussed.

  1. Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergal Coulter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patient’s paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film actuators. Thedevelopment of this facial prosthetic device focused onrecreating a varying intensity smile, with emphasis ontiming, displacement and the appearance of the wrinklesand folds that commonly appear around the nose and eyesduring the expression.An animatronic face was constructed with actuations beingmade to a silicone representation musculature, usingmultiple shape-memory alloy cascades. Alongside theartificial muscle physical prototype, a facial expressionrecognition software system was constructed. This formsthe basis of an automated calibration and reconfigurationsystem for the artificial muscles following implantation, soas to suit the implantee’s unique physiognomy.ResultsAn animatronic model face with silicone musculature wasdesigned and built to evaluate the performance of ShapeMemory Alloy artificial muscles, their power controlcircuitry and software control systems. A dual facial motionsensing system was designed to allow real time control overmodel – a piezoresistive flex sensor to measure physicalmotion, and a computer vision system to evaluate real toartificial muscle performance.Analysis of various facial expressions in real subjects wasmade, which give useful data upon which to base thesystems parameter limits.ConclusionThe system performed well, and the various strengths andshortcomings of the materials and methods are reviewedand considered for the next research phase, when newpolymer based artificial muscles are constructed

  2. Comparative Anatomy of the Bony Labyrinth (Inner Ear of Placental Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G Ekdale

    Full Text Available Variation is a naturally occurring phenomenon that is observable at all levels of morphology, from anatomical variations of DNA molecules to gross variations between whole organisms. The structure of the otic region is no exception. The present paper documents the broad morphological diversity exhibited by the inner ear region of placental mammals using digital endocasts constructed from high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT. Descriptions cover the major placental clades, and linear, angular, and volumetric dimensions are reported.The size of the labyrinth is correlated to the overall body mass of individuals, such that large bodied mammals have absolutely larger labyrinths. The ratio between the average arc radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals and body mass of aquatic species is substantially lower than the ratios of related terrestrial taxa, and the volume percentage of the vestibular apparatus of aquatic mammals tends to be less than that calculated for terrestrial species. Aspects of the bony labyrinth are phylogenetically informative, including vestibular reduction in Cetacea, a tall cochlear spiral in caviomorph rodents, a low position of the plane of the lateral semicircular canal compared to the posterior canal in Cetacea and Carnivora, and a low cochlear aspect ratio in Primatomorpha.The morphological descriptions that are presented add a broad baseline of anatomy of the inner ear across many placental mammal clades, for many of which the structure of the bony labyrinth is largely unknown. The data included here complement the growing body of literature on the physiological and phylogenetic significance of bony labyrinth structures in mammals, and they serve as a source of data for future studies on the evolution and function of the vertebrate ear.

  3. Pattern of bony injuries among civilian gunshot victims at tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Mustafa Kaim Khani; Syed Mujahid Humail; Kamran Hafeez; Naveed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:Firearm injuries impose a continuous economic burden on society and hospital resources.The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of bony injuries among victims of gunshots.Methods:A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Orthopedics,Dow University of Health Sciences and Civil Hospital Karachi from January 2011 to December 2012.Patients with isolated bony injuries were included while patients with other systemic injuries were excluded.Results:There were 90 cases and the majority of them were male (84.4%).Mean age was (32,52 ± 10.27) years.Most of the patients (72.2%) belong to the younger age group.A low velocity weapon was used in 61 (67.8%) cases and a high velocity weapon was used in 29 (32.2%) cases.Armed robbery (64.4%) was the cause of conflict in more than half of the cases.Lower limb was involved in 72.2%.Fifty eight (64.4%) patients remained hospitalized for 15-20 days and others for more than 20 days.Internal fixation with intramedullary nailing was done in 35 patients while K-wire was used in 5 patients.Fifty patients were managed with external fixation,either uniplanar or multiplanar ilizarov.Deep wound infection and nonunion were observed more often in high velocity injuries.Conclusion:Armed robbery was the leading cause of gunshot bony injuries in our hospital.Young males were victimized in a majority of cases.High velocity injuries were associated with more complications.

  4. Pediatric facial burns: Is facial transplantation the new reconstructive psychosurgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark D; Zuker, Ronald M; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Current pediatric burn care has resulted in survival being the expectation for most children. Composite tissue allotransplantation in the form of face or hand transplantation may present opportunities for reconstructive surgery of patients with burns. The present paper addresses the question “Could facial transplantation be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of pediatric burns associated with facial disfigurement?” METHODS: Therapeutic benefit of facial transplantation was defined in terms of psychiatric adjustment and quality of life (QOL). To ascertain therapeutic benefit, studies of pediatric burn injury and associated psychiatric adjustment and QOL in children, adolescents and adults with pediatric burns, were reviewed. RESULTS: Pediatric burn injury is associated with anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and depressive disorders. Many patients with pediatric burns do not routinely access psychiatric care for these disorders, including those for psychiatric assessment of suicidal risk. A range of QOL outcomes were reported; four were predominantly satisfactory and one was predominantly unsatisfactory. DISCUSSION: Facial transplantation may reduce the risk of depressive and anxiety disorders other than post-traumatic stress disorder. Facial transplantation promises to be the new reconstructive psychosurgery, because it may be a surgical intervention with the potential to reduce the psychiatric suffering associated with pediatric burns. Furthermore, patients with pediatric burns may experience the stigma of disfigurement and psychiatric conditions. The potential for improved appearance with facial transplantation may reduce this ‘dual stigmata’. Studies combining surgical and psychiatric research are warranted. PMID:19949498

  5. Nablus mask-like facial syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allanson, Judith; Smith, Amanda; Hare, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) has many distinctive phenotypic features, particularly tight glistening skin with reduced facial expression, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, bulky nasal tip, abnormal external ear architecture, upswept frontal hairline, and sparse eyebrows. Over the last few...... heterozygous deletions significantly overlapping the region associated with NMLFS. Notably, while one mother and child were said to have mild tightening of facial skin, none of these individuals exhibited reduced facial expression or the classical facial phenotype of NMLFS. These findings indicate...

  6. Facial Expression Recognition Using SVM Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Facial feature tracking and facial actions recognition from image sequence attracted great attention in computer vision field. Computational facial expression analysis is a challenging research topic in computer vision. It is required by many applications such as human-computer interaction, computer graphic animation and automatic facial expression recognition. In recent years, plenty of computer vision techniques have been developed to track or recognize the facial activities in three levels...

  7. The Effects of Latarjet Reconstruction on Glenohumeral Instability in the Presence of Combined Bony Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak Maneklal; Walia, Piyush; Gottschalk, Lionel; Jones, Morgan H.; Fening, Stephen D.; Miniaci, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Recurrent glenohumeral instability is often as a result of underlying bony defects in the glenoid and/or humeral head. Anterior glenoid augmentation with a bone block (i.e. Latarjet) has been recommended for glenoid bone loss in the face of recurrent instability. However, no study has investigated the effect of Latarjet augmentation in the setting of both glenoid and humeral head defects (Hill-Sachs Defects (HSD)). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability achieved through a Latarjet procedure in the presence of combined bony defects. Methods: Eighteen fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens were tested at all combinations of glenohumeral abduction (ABD) angles of 20°, 40°, and 60° and three external rotation (ER) levels (0°, 40°, and 80°). Each experiment comprised of anterior dislocation by translating the glenoid under a 50N medial load applied on the humerus, simulating the static load of soft tissues. Translational distance and medial-lateral displacement of the humeral head, along with horizontal reaction forces were recorded for every trial. Specimens were tested in an intact condition (no defect), different combinations of defects, and with Latarjet augmentation. The Latarjet was performed for 20% and 30% glenoid defects by transferring the specimen's coracoid process anterior to the glenoid flush with the articulating surface. Four different humeral head defects were created of sizes 6%, 19%, 31%, and 44% of humeral diameter. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with statistical significance set at p Latarjet augmentation (Fig. 1A). However, at an arm position of 60° ABD and 80° ER increasing HSD size led to a decrease in stability for both the defect state and post-Latarjet trials (Fig. 1B). Nevertheless, Latarjet augmentation helped in regaining stability for every combination of bony defects. With a HSD size of 44% the defect state had 0% intact translation for all 18 specimens. Conclusion: Clinically

  8. Epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma in nasal cavity with bony destruction: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ho Jin; Lee, Byung Hoon; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Kim, Su Young [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University School of Medicine, Goyang , (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a rare tumor that commonly involves the salivary glands. EMC arising from the nasal cavity is one of the most unusual cases. We describe a case of a 48-year-old patient who is presented with bilateral nasal obstruction for several months. Multidetector computed tomography reveals expansile, well-defined, heterogeneous enhancing soft tissue masses filling the nasal cavity with bony destruction of hard palate and maxillary alveolar ridge. The carcinoma was histologically characterized by a mixture of trabecular structure with myoepithelial cells and ductal cells, which are confirmed by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry.

  9. On the biology of the bony otic capsule and the pathogenesis of otosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sune Land

    2012-01-01

    osteocytes. When bone remodeling is low, the average age of the bone matrix and osteocytes increases. We detected a high fetal density of labyrinthine osteocytes, which may secure a life-long anatomical route for inner ear OPG despite accumulation of non-viable osteocytes. Moreover, 3-D reconstructions......In human otosclerosis, focal pathological bone remodeling occurs in significant amounts inside the normally anti-resorptive perilabyrinthine domain of the bony otic capsule. Otosclerosis causes hearing loss in 0.2-0.5% of the population by ankylosis of the footplate. The disease cannot be predicted...

  10. Sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter Bjørn; Pilegaard, Hans K; Ladegaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background. Facial blushing is one of the most peculiar of human expressions. The pathophysiology is unclear, and the prevalence is unknown. Thoracoscopic sympathectomy may cure the symptom and is increasingly used in patients with isolated facial blushing. The evidence base for the optimal level...... of targeting the sympathetic chain is limited to retrospective case studies. We present a randomized clinical trial. Methods. 100 patients were randomized (web-based, single-blinded) to rib-oriented (R2 or R2-R3) sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing at two university hospitals during a 6-year period...... in all social and mental domains in both groups. Overall, 85% of the patients had an excellent or satisfactory result, with no significant difference between the R2 procedure and the R2-R3 procedure. Mild recurrence of facial blushing occurred in 30% of patients within the first year. One patient...

  11. Facial nerve paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-12-16

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology.

  12. Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Zeng

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Change in a speaker’s emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI. Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description and are expensive to model, we treat emotional facial expression detection as a one- class classification problem, which is to describe target objects (i.e., emotional facial expressions and distinguish them from outliers (i.e., non-emotional ones. Our preliminary experiments on AAI data suggest that one-class classification methods can reach a good balance between cost (labeling and computing and recognition performance by avoiding non-emotional expression labeling and modeling.

  13. Imaging of the facial nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veillon, F. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)], E-mail: Francis.Veillon@chru-strasbourg.fr; Ramos-Taboada, L.; Abu-Eid, M. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Charpiot, A. [Service d' ORL, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Riehm, S. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

    2010-05-15

    The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve.

  14. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  15. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  16. A REVIEW ON FACIAL NEURALGIAS

    OpenAIRE

    Solanki, Gaurav

    2010-01-01

    Facial neuralgias are produced by a change in neurological structure or function. This type of neuropathic pain affects the mental health as well as quality of life of patients. There are different types of neuralgias affecting the oral and maxillofacial region. These unusual pains are linked to some possible mechanisms. Various diagnostic tests are done to diagnose the proper cause of facial neuralgia and according to it the medical and surgical treatment is done to provide relief to patient.

  17. Animating facial images with drawings

    OpenAIRE

    Tunali, Gamze Dilek

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent Univ., 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 54-56. The work presented here describes the power of 2D animation with texture mai^ping controlled by line drawings. Animation is specifically intended for facial animation and not restricted by the human face. We initially have a sequence of facial images which are taken from a video sequence of the same face and an image of another face to be animated...

  18. Pediatric facial injuries: It's management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Geeta; Mohammad, Shadab; Pal, U. S.; Hariram; Malkunje, Laxman R.; Singh, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    Background: Facial injuries in children always present a challenge in respect of their diagnosis and management. Since these children are of a growing age every care should be taken so that later the overall growth pattern of the facial skeleton in these children is not jeopardized. Purpose: To access the most feasible method for the management of facial injuries in children without hampering the facial growth. Materials and Methods: Sixty child patients with facial trauma were selected randomly for this study. On the basis of examination and investigations a suitable management approach involving rest and observation, open or closed reduction and immobilization, trans-osseous (TO) wiring, mini bone plate fixation, splinting and replantation, elevation and fixation of zygoma, etc. were carried out. Results and Conclusion: In our study fall was the predominant cause for most of the facial injuries in children. There was a 1.09% incidence of facial injuries in children up to 16 years of age amongst the total patients. The age-wise distribution of the fracture amongst groups (I, II and III) was found to be 26.67%, 51.67% and 21.67% respectively. Male to female patient ratio was 3:1. The majority of the cases of facial injuries were seen in Group II patients (6-11 years) i.e. 51.67%. The mandibular fracture was found to be the most common fracture (0.60%) followed by dentoalveolar (0.27%), mandibular + midface (0.07) and midface (0.02%) fractures. Most of the mandibular fractures were found in the parasymphysis region. Simple fracture seems to be commonest in the mandible. Most of the mandibular and midface fractures in children were amenable to conservative therapies except a few which required surgical intervention. PMID:22639504

  19. Developmental facial paralysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Julia K; Anesti, Katerina

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the confusing nomenclature and pathogenesis of Developmental Facial Paralysis, and how it can be differentiated from other causes of facial paralysis present at birth. Differentiating developmental from traumatic facial paralysis noted at birth is important for determining prognosis, but also for medicolegal reasons. Given the dramatic presentation of this condition, accurate and reliable guidelines are necessary in order to facilitate early diagnosis and initiate appropriate therapy, while providing support and counselling to the family. The 30 years experience of our center in the management of developmental facial paralysis is dependent upon a thorough understanding of facial nerve embryology, anatomy, nerve physiology, and an appreciation of well-recognized mishaps during fetal development. It is hoped that a better understanding of this condition will in the future lead to early targeted screening, accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment in this population of facially disfigured patients, which will facilitate their emotional and social rehabilitation, and their reintegration among their peers.

  20. Small-angle neutron scattering study of the ultrastructure of chloroplast thylakoid membranes - Periodicity and structural flexibility of the stroma lamellae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posselt, Dorthe; Nagy, Gergely; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J. K.

    2012-01-01

    The multilamellar organization of freshly isolated spinach and pea chloroplast thylakoid membranes was studied using small-angle neutron scattering. A broad peak at similar to 0.02 angstrom(-1) is ascribed to diffraction from domains of ordered, unappressed stroma lamellae, revealing a repeat dis...

  1. Defect Recovery in Severely Deformed Ferrite Lamellae During Annealing and Its Impact on the Softening of Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. Z.; Csiszár, G.; Cizek, J.; Shi, X. H.; Borchers, C.; Li, Y. J.; Liu, F.; Kirchheim, R.

    2016-02-01

    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires with a drawing true strain of 3 were annealed at temperatures ( T ann) ranging from 423 K to 723 K (150 °C to 450 °C) with an interval of 50 K. Recovery of the lattice defects in the severely deformed ferrite lamellae were characterized by means of high-energy X-ray diffraction and positron annihilation techniques (including positron annihilation spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy). Accordingly, the impact of defect recovery on the softening of the annealed wires was investigated. It is found that at low temperatures [ T ann ≤ 523 K (250 °C)], the recovery of the lattice defects in ferrite lamellae is dominated by the agglomeration and annihilation of vacancy clusters, while at T ann > 523 K (250 °C), the recovery process is controlled by the annihilation of dislocations. Further analyses on the softening of the annealed wires indicate that the evolutions of dislocation density and concentration of vacancy clusters, and the strain age hardening in ferrite lamellae play important roles in changing the strength of the wires. The strain aging hardening leads to a maximum strength at 473 K (150 °C). Above 523 K (250 °C), the annihilations of vacancy clusters and dislocations in ferrite lamellae cause a continuous softening of the wires, where the decrease in dislocation density plays a major role.

  2. Electrosensory ampullary organs are lateral line placode-derived in bony fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrell, Melinda S.; Bemis, William E.; Northcutt, R. Glenn; Davis, Marcus C.; Baker, Clare V. H.

    2014-01-01

    Electroreception is an ancient subdivision of the lateral line sensory system, found in all major vertebrate groups (though lost in frogs, amniotes, and most ray-finned fishes). Electroreception is mediated by “hair cells” in ampullary organs, distributed in fields flanking lines of mechanosensory hair cell-containing neuromasts that detect local water movement. Neuromasts, and afferent neurons for both neuromasts and ampullary organs, develop from lateral line placodes. Although ampullary organs in the axolotl (a representative of the lobe-finned clade of bony fishes) are lateral line placode-derived, non-placodal origins have been proposed for electroreceptors in other taxa. Here we show morphological and molecular data describing lateral line system development in the basal ray-finned fish Polyodon spathula, and present fate-mapping data that conclusively demonstrate a lateral line placode origin for ampullary organs and neuromasts. Together with the axolotl data, this confirms that ampullary organs are ancestrally lateral line placode-derived in bony fishes. PMID:21988912

  3. Electrosensory ampullary organs are derived from lateral line placodes in bony fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrell, Melinda S; Bemis, William E; Northcutt, R Glenn; Davis, Marcus C; Baker, Clare V H

    2011-10-11

    Electroreception is an ancient subdivision of the lateral line sensory system, found in all major vertebrate groups (though lost in frogs, amniotes and most ray-finned fishes). Electroreception is mediated by 'hair cells' in ampullary organs, distributed in fields flanking lines of mechanosensory hair cell-containing neuromasts that detect local water movement. Neuromasts, and afferent neurons for both neuromasts and ampullary organs, develop from lateral line placodes. Although ampullary organs in the axolotl (a representative of the lobe-finned clade of bony fishes) are lateral line placode-derived, non-placodal origins have been proposed for electroreceptors in other taxa. Here we show morphological and molecular data describing lateral line system development in the basal ray-finned fish Polyodon spathula, and present fate-mapping data that conclusively demonstrate a lateral line placode origin for ampullary organs and neuromasts. Together with the axolotl data, this confirms that ampullary organs are ancestrally lateral line placode-derived in bony fishes.

  4. Bony manifestation of rickets in a sunny city - a case report from Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadhosain Afrand

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rickets is disease that occurs in growing bones in which defective mineralization occurs in both the bone and the cartilage of the epiphyseal growth plate, resulting in the retardation of growth and skeletal deformities. Rickets is more common in areas with less sunlight. However, this case report presents a case of the bony manifestation of rickets with the intake of vitamin D supplements in Yazd, a city in central Iran that has sunshine almost every day. A patient was referred to an out-patient general pediatric clinic for deformities of the legs and growth disturbance, with his height far below the normal range. The changes that were most evident in his X-rays were the bowing of the long bones of the legs and forearms and the cupping of the wrist metaphyseal region. In summary, we present a patient with bony manifestation of rickets despite living in a sunny area and taking vitamin D supplements. Thus, it is important to remember that rickets is still a common disease among children in Iran. More studies of this issue should be conducted, including the identification of abnormal cases and rescheduling vitamin D supplementation programs

  5. Bony manifestation of rickets in a sunny city - a case report from Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadhosain Afrand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickets is disease that occurs in growing bones in which defective mineralization occurs in both the bone and the cartilage of the epiphyseal growth plate, resulting in the retardation of growth and skeletal deformities. Rickets is more common in areas with less sunlight. However, this case report presents a case of the bony manifestation of rickets with the intake of vitamin D supplements in Yazd, a city in central Iran that has sunshine almost every day. A patient was referred to an out-patient general pediatric clinic for deformities of the legs and growth disturbance, with his height far below the normal range. The changes that were most evident in his X-rays were the bowing of the long bones of the legs and forearms and the cupping of the wrist metaphyseal region. In summary, we present a patient with bony manifestation of rickets despite living in a sunny area and taking vitamin D supplements. Thus, it is important to remember that rickets is still a common disease among children in Iran. More studies of this issue should be conducted, including the identification of abnormal cases and rescheduling vitamin D supplementation programs.

  6. Selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests, bony orbit anatomy, and ocular histology in sambar deer (Rusa unicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriá, Arianne P; Gomes Junior, Deusdete C; Oliveira, Alberto Vinícius D; Curvelo, Victor P; Estrela-Lima, Alessandra; Pinna, Melissa H; Meneses, Íris D S; Filho, Emanoel F M; Ofri, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for diagnostic ophthalmic tests in sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) as well as to describe the most relevant features of the bony orbital anatomy and ocular histology. Twenty healthy animals, free living in a forest reserve, that were captured for clinical evaluation as part of a health survey were evaluated. Schirmer tear test-1 (STT1), conjunctival microbiota, intraocular pressure (IOP), conjunctival cytology, anatomy of the bony orbit, and ocular histology were studied. Mean ± SD STT1 and IOP values were 18.8 ± 4.7 mm and 11.4 ± 2.8 mmHg, respectively. IOP was significantly higher in adult (4-8 years) animals (P = 0.04). Bacterial growth was present in 100% of the samples, with a prevalence for Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp. The conjunctival cytology revealed predominance of columnar epithelial cells with mild pigmentation. The sambar deer orbit is completely encompassed by bone. The ocular histology was very similar to most mammalians. The findings in this study will be useful in the diagnosis of ocular diseases in Rusa unicolor. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. An alternative treatment option for a bony defect from large odontoma using recycled demineralization at chairside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuHyon; Lee, Eun-Young; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Eun-Suk

    2015-04-01

    Odontoma is the most common odontogenic benign tumor, and the treatment of choice is generally surgical removal. After excision, bone grafts may be necessary depending on the need for further treatment, or the size and location of the odontoma. Although the osteogenic capacity of a demineralized tooth was verified as early as 1967 by Urist and many other investigators, the cumbersome procedure, including a long demineralization time, may be less than comfortable for clinicians. A modified ultrasonic technology, with periodic negative pressure and temperature control, facilitated rapid and aseptic preparation of demineralized teeth for bone grafts. This approach reduces the demineralization time dramatically (≤80 minutes), so that the graft material can be prepared chairside on the same day as the extraction. The purpose of this article is to describe two cases of large compound odonotomas used as graft material prepared chairside for enucleation-induced bony defects. These two clinical cases showed favorable wound healing without complications, and good bony support for future dental implants or orthodontic treatment. Finally, this report will suggest the possibility of recycling the benign pathologic hard tissue as an alternative treatment option for conventional bone grafts in clinics.

  8. Bony labyrinth morphometry indicates locomotor adaptations in the squirrel-related clade (Rodentia, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Cathrin; Martin, Thomas; Ruf, Irina

    2015-06-22

    The semicircular canals (SCs) of the inner ear detect angular acceleration and are located in the bony labyrinth of the petrosal bone. Based on high-resolution computed tomography, we created a size-independent database of the bony labyrinth of 50 mammalian species especially rodents of the squirrel-related clade comprising taxa with fossorial, arboreal and gliding adaptations. Our sampling also includes gliding marsupials, actively flying bats, the arboreal tree shrew and subterranean species. The morphometric anatomy of the SCs was correlated to the locomotion mode. Even if the phylogenetic signal cannot entirely be excluded, the main significance for functional morphological studies has been found in the diameter of the SCs, whereas the radius of curvature is of minor interest. Additionally, we found clear differences in the bias angle of the canals between subterranean and gliding taxa, but also between sciurids and glirids. The sensitivity of the inner ear correlates with the locomotion mode, with a higher sensitivity of the SCs in fossorial species than in flying taxa. We conclude that the inner ear of flying and gliding mammals is less sensitive due to the large information flow into this sense organ during locomotion.

  9. The facial expression of schizophrenic patients applied with infrared thermal facial image sequence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bo-Lin Jian; Chieh-Li Chen; Wen-Lin Chu; Min-Wei Huang

    2017-01-01

    .... Thus, this study used non-contact infrared thermal facial images (ITFIs) to analyze facial temperature changes evoked by different emotions in moderately and markedly ill schizophrenia patients...

  10. The Effects of Latarjet Reconstruction on Glenohumeral Instability in the Presence of Combined Bony Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak M.; Walia, Piyush; Gottschalk, Lionel; Jones, Morgan H.; Fening, Stephen D.; Miniaci, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Recurrent glenohumeral instability is often a result of underlying bony defects in the glenoid and/or humeral head. Anterior glenoid augmentation with a bone block (i.e. Latarjet) has been recommended for glenoid bone loss in the face of recurrent instability. However, no study has investigated the effect of Latarjet augmentation in the setting of both glenoid and humeral head defects (Hill-Sachs Defects (HSD)). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability achieved through a Latarjet procedure in the presence of combined bony defects. Our hypothesis was that Latarjet augmentation would increase shoulder stability for glenoid defects with small HSD, but have limited success in cases with large concomitant HSD. Methods: Eighteen fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens were tested at combinations of glenohumeral abduction (ABD) angles of 20°, 40°, and 60° and external rotation (ER) angles of 0°, 40°, and 80°. Each experiment applied a 50N medial load on the humerus to replicate the static load of soft tissues, and then simulated anterior dislocation by translating the glenoid in an anterior direction. Translational distance and medial-lateral displacement of the humeral head, along with horizontal reaction forces, were recorded for every trial. Specimens were tested in an intact condition (no defect), different combinations of defects, and with Latarjet augmentation. The Latarjet was performed for 20% and 30% glenoid defects by transferring the specimen’s coracoid process anterior to the glenoid flush with the articulating surface. Results: Results are summarized in Fig. 1. The vertical axis represents the normalized distance to dislocation with respect to the values of the intact joint. The horizontal axis represents the varying sizes and combinations of bony defects. Latarjet augmentation improved stability for every combination of bony defects. At 20° ABD, 0°ER, and 20% glenoid defect size, the percentage of intact translation did not

  11. 重症监护病房非骨隆突部位压疮原因分析和护理策略%Causes analysis and nursing strategy on pressure ulcer of non-bony eminence sites in the intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗茜

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the causes and nursing strategy on pressure ulcer of non-bony eminence sites in the intensive care unit.Methods:The clinical data of 109 cases of patients with pressure ulcer of non-bony eminence sites in the intensive care unit was analyzed retrospectively.Results:19 cases had facial ulcers;40 cases suffered from back pressure ulcer;30 cases had hip pressure ulcers;20 cases had upper extremity ulcers.Conclusion:Pressure ulcer of non-bony eminence sites reduced the quality of life of patients in the intensive care unit and influenced the treatment effect.%目的:分析重症监护病房非骨隆突部位压疮的原因及护理策略。方法:回顾性分析重症监护病房非骨隆突部位压疮患者109例的临床资料。结果:面部压疮19例,胸腰背部压疮40例,臀部压疮30例,上肢压疮20例。结论:非骨隆突部位压疮降低了重症监护病房患者生存质量,影响治疗效果。

  12. Effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics: changes in facial content and frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2012-11-01

    Aesthetic units of the face can be divided into facial content (FC; eyes, nose, lips, and mouth), anterior facial frame (AFF; a contour line from the trichion, the temporal line of the frontal bone, the lateral orbital rim, the most lateral line of the anterior part of the zygomatic body, the anterior border of the masseter muscle, to the inferior border of the chin), and posterior facial frame (PFF; a contour line from the hairline, the zygomatic arch, to the ramus and gonial angle area of the mandible). The size and shape of each FC and the balance and proportion between FCs create a unique appearance for each person. The facial form can be determined through the combination of AFF and PFF. In the Asian population, clinicians frequently encounter problems of FC (eg, acute nasolabial angle, protrusive and everted lips, nonconsonant lip line, or lip canting), AFF (eg, midface hypoplasia, protrusive and asymmetric chin, vertical deficiency/excess of the anterior maxilla and symphysis, or prominent zygoma), and PFF (eg, square mandibular angle). These problems can be efficiently and effectively corrected through the combination of hard tissue surgery such as anterior segmental osteotomy, genioplasty, mandibular angle reduction, malarplasty, and orthognathic surgery. Therefore, the purposes of this article were to introduce the concepts of FC, AFF, and PFF, and to explain the effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics.

  13. A Contemporary Approach to Facial Reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowett, Nate; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2015-01-01

    The management of acute facial nerve insult may entail medical therapy, surgical exploration, decompression, or repair depending on the etiology. When recovery is not complete, facial mimetic function lies on a spectrum ranging from flaccid paralysis to hyperkinesis resulting in facial immobility. Through systematic assessment of the face at rest and with movement, one may tailor the management to the particular pattern of dysfunction. Interventions for long-standing facial palsy include physical therapy, injectables, and surgical reanimation procedures. The goal of the management is to restore facial balance and movement. This article summarizes a contemporary approach to the management of facial nerve insults.

  14. Computer Aided Facial Prosthetics Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial deformities can impose burden to the patient. There are many solutions for facial deformities such as plastic surgery and facial prosthetics. However, current fabrication method of facial prosthetics is high-cost and time consuming. This study aimed to identify a new method to construct a customized facial prosthetic. A 3D scanner, computer software and 3D printer were used in this study. Results showed that the new developed method can be used to produce a customized facial prosthetics. The advantages of the developed method over the conventional process are low cost, reduce waste of material and pollution in order to meet the green concept.

  15. Short-range ordered photonic structures of lamellae-forming diblock copolymers for excitation-regulated fluorescence enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Hee; Kim, Ki-Se; Char, Kookheon; Yoo, Seong Il; Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok

    2016-05-01

    Photonic crystals can be represented by periodic nanostructures with alternating refractive indices, which create artificial stop bands with the appearance of colors. In this regard, nanodomains of block copolymers and the corresponding structural colors have been intensively studied in the past. However, the practical application of photonic crystals of block copolymers has been limited to a large degree because of the presence of large defects and grain boundaries in the nanodomains of block copolymers. The present study focuses on the alternative opportunity of short-range ordered nanodomains of block copolymers for fluorescence enhancement, which also has a direct relevance to the development of fluorescence sensors or detectors. The enhancement mechanism was found to be interconnected with the excitation process rather than the alternation of the decay kinetics. In particular, we demonstrate that randomly oriented, but regular grains of lamellae of polystyrene-block-polyisoprene, PS-b-PI, diblock copolymers and their blend with PS homopolymers can behave as Bragg mirrors to induce multiple reflections of the excitation source inside the photonic structures. This process in turn significantly increases the effective absorption of the given fluorophores inside the polymeric photonic structures to amplify the fluorescence signal.Photonic crystals can be represented by periodic nanostructures with alternating refractive indices, which create artificial stop bands with the appearance of colors. In this regard, nanodomains of block copolymers and the corresponding structural colors have been intensively studied in the past. However, the practical application of photonic crystals of block copolymers has been limited to a large degree because of the presence of large defects and grain boundaries in the nanodomains of block copolymers. The present study focuses on the alternative opportunity of short-range ordered nanodomains of block copolymers for fluorescence

  16. Facial Soft Tissue Measurement in Microgravity-induces Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshburn, Thomas; Cole, Richard; Pavela, James; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot

    2014-01-01

    Fluid shifts are a well-known phenomenon in microgravity, and one result is facial edema. Objective measurement of tissue thickness in a standardized location could provide a correlate with the severity of the fluid shift. Previous studies of forehead tissue thickness (TTf) suggest that when exposed to environments that cause fluid shifts, including hypergravity, head-down tilt, and high-altitude/lowpressure, TTf changes in a consistent and measurable fashion. However, the technique in past studies is not well described or standardized. The International Space Station (ISS) houses an ultrasound (US) system capable of accurate sub-millimeter measurements of TTf. We undertook to measure TTf during long-duration space flight using a new accurate, repeatable and transferable technique. Methods: In-flight and post-flight B-mode ultrasound images of a single astronaut's facial soft tissues were obtained using a Vivid-q US system with a 12L-RS high-frequency linear array probe (General Electric, USA). Strictly mid-sagittal images were obtained involving the lower frontal bone, the nasofrontal angle, and the osseo-cartilaginous junction below. Single images were chosen for comparison that contained identical views of the bony landmarks and identical acoustical interface between the probe and skin. Using Gingko CADx DICOM viewing software, soft tissue thickness was measured at a right angle to the most prominent point of the inferior frontal bone to the epidermis. Four independent thickness measurements were made. Conclusions: Forehead tissue thickness measurement by ultrasound in microgravity is feasible, and our data suggest a decrease in tissue thickness upon return from microgravity environment, which is likely related to the cessation of fluid shifts. Further study is warranted to standardize the technique with regard to the individual variability of the local anatomy in this area.

  17. Anterior Shoulder Instability Is Associated With an Underlying Deficiency of the Bony Glenoid Concavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroder, Philipp; Ernstbrunner, Lukas; Pomwenger, Werner; Oberhauser, Florian; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Tauber, Mark; Resch, Herbert; Moroder, Rudi

    2015-07-01

    To determine whether anterior shoulder instability is associated with an inherent deficiency of the bony glenoid concavity, which results in a reduced bony shoulder stability ratio (BSSR). In this case-control study, we searched the institutional database for patients treated for unilateral recurrent anterior shoulder instability. We included 30 consecutive patients with atraumatic instability, 30 consecutive patients with traumatic instability, and 36 matched healthy controls, for a total of 96 shoulders. Computed tomography images of the unaffected shoulders of the instability patients were compared with images of the ipsilateral shoulders of age- and sex-matched healthy controls for differences in glenoid morphology. By use of a mathematical formula based on Pythagorean trigonometric identities, the mean BSSRs of the different groups were calculated and compared. Validation of the formula was accomplished by finite element analysis. The mean BSSR of atraumatic instability patients was 17.9% ± 8.5% and therefore significantly lower than the mean BSSR of 31.1% ± 7.5% of the control group (13.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1% to 17.4%; P < .001). The mean BSSR of the traumatic instability group was higher, at 23.9% ± 8.5% (P = .007), but still showed a deficit of 7.2% (95% CI, 2.8% to 11.7%; P = .002) compared with controls. The atraumatic instability group showed a mean reduction of 0.9 mm (95% CI, 0.6 to 1.1 mm; P < .001) in concavity depth and a decrease of 2.9° (95% CI, 0.4° to 5.3°; P = .021) in concavity retroversion, whereas the traumatic instability patients had a reduction of 0.4 mm (95% CI, 0.1 to 0.8 mm; P = .006) in concavity depth. Neither of the instability groups differed significantly from their respective controls in terms of glenoid concavity diameter, head radius, or glenoid vault morphology. Anterior shoulder instability is associated with an inherent flattening of the bony glenoid concavity, which significantly decreases the

  18. Biomechanical Comparison of Arthroscopic Single- and Double-Row Repair Techniques for Acute Bony Bankart Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegl, Ulrich J; Smith, Sean D; Todd, Jocelyn N; Coatney, Garrett A; Wijdicks, Coen A; Millett, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Single- and double-row arthroscopic reconstruction techniques for acute bony Bankart lesions have been described in the literature. The double-row fixation technique would provide superior reduction and stability of a simulated bony Bankart lesion at time zero in a cadaveric model compared with the single-row technique. Controlled laboratory study. Testing was performed on 14 matched pairs of glenoids with simulated bony Bankart fractures with a defect width of 25% of the glenoid diameter. Half of the fractures were repaired with a double-row technique, while the contralateral glenoids were repaired with a single-row technique. The quality of fracture reduction was measured with a coordinate measuring machine. To determine the biomechanical stability of the repairs, specimens were preconditioned with 10 sinusoidal cycles between 5 and 25 N at 0.1 Hz and then pulled to failure in the anteromedial direction at a rate of 5 mm/min. Loads at 1 mm and 2 mm of fracture displacement were determined. The double-row technique required significantly higher forces to achieve fracture displacements of 1 mm (mean, 60.6 N; range, 39.0-93.3 N; P = .001) and 2 mm (mean, 94.4 N; range, 43.4-151.2 N; P = .004) than the single-row technique (1 mm: mean, 30.2 N; range, 14.0-54.1 N and 2 mm: mean, 63.7 N; range, 26.6-118.8 N). Significantly reduced fracture displacement was seen after double-row repair for both the unloaded condition (mean, 1.1 mm; range, 0.3-2.4 mm; P = .005) and in response to a 10-N anterior force applied to the defect (mean, 1.6 mm; range, 0.5-2.7 mm; P = .001) compared with single-row repair (unloaded: mean, 2.1 mm; range, 1.3-3.4 mm and loaded: mean, 3.4 mm; range, 1.9-4.7 mm). The double-row fixation technique resulted in improved fracture reduction and superior stability at time zero in this cadaveric model. This information may influence the surgical technique used to treat large osseous Bankart fractures and the postoperative rehabilitation protocols

  19. Female Facial Appearance and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan W. Gray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study addressed whether rated femininity, attractiveness, and health in female faces are associated with numerous indices of self-reported health history (number of colds/stomach bugs/frequency of antibiotic use in a sample of 105 females. It was predicted that all three rating variables would correlate negatively with bouts of illness (with the exception of rates of stomach infections, on the assumption that aspects of facial appearance signal mate quality. The results showed partial support for this prediction, in that there was a general trend for both facial femininity and attractiveness to correlate negatively with the reported number of colds in the preceding twelve months and with the frequency of antibiotic use in the last three years and the last twelve months. Rated facial femininity (as documented in September was also associated with days of flu experienced in the period spanning the November-December months. However, rated health did not correlate with any of the health indices (albeit one marginal result with antibiotic use in the last twelve months. The results lend support to previous findings linking facial femininity to health and suggest that facial femininity may be linked to some aspects of disease resistance but not others.

  20. Cortical control of facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müri, René M

    2016-06-01

    The present Review deals with the motor control of facial expressions in humans. Facial expressions are a central part of human communication. Emotional face expressions have a crucial role in human nonverbal behavior, allowing a rapid transfer of information between individuals. Facial expressions can be either voluntarily or emotionally controlled. Recent studies in nonhuman primates and humans have revealed that the motor control of facial expressions has a distributed neural representation. At least five cortical regions on the medial and lateral aspects of each hemisphere are involved: the primary motor cortex, the ventral lateral premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area on the medial wall, and the rostral and caudal cingulate cortex. The results of studies in humans and nonhuman primates suggest that the innervation of the face is bilaterally controlled for the upper part and mainly contralaterally controlled for the lower part. Furthermore, the primary motor cortex, the ventral lateral premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area are essential for the voluntary control of facial expressions. In contrast, the cingulate cortical areas are important for emotional expression, because they receive input from different structures of the limbic system.

  1. Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basić-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanović; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

    2013-06-01

    Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients.

  2. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another.

  3. [The history of facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicenstein, J

    2015-10-01

    Facial paralysis has been a recognized condition since Antiquity, and was mentionned by Hippocratus. In the 17th century, in 1687, the Dutch physician Stalpart Van der Wiel rendered a detailed observation. It was, however, Charles Bell who, in 1821, provided the description that specified the role of the facial nerve. Facial nerve surgery began at the end of the 19th century. Three different techniques were used successively: nerve anastomosis, (XI-VII Balance 1895, XII-VII, Korte 1903), myoplasties (Lexer 1908), and suspensions (Stein 1913). Bunnell successfully accomplished the first direct facial nerve repair in the temporal bone, in 1927, and in 1932 Balance and Duel experimented with nerve grafts. Thanks to progress in microsurgical techniques, the first faciofacial anastomosis was realized in 1970 (Smith, Scaramella), and an account of the first microneurovascular muscle transfer published in 1976 by Harii. Treatment of the eyelid paralysis was at the origin of numerous operations beginning in the 1960s; including palpebral spring (Morel Fatio 1962) silicone sling (Arion 1972), upperlid loading with gold plate (Illig 1968), magnets (Muhlbauer 1973) and transfacial nerve grafts (Anderl 1973). By the end of the 20th century, surgeons had at their disposal a wide range of valid techniques for facial nerve surgery, including modernized versions of older techniques.

  4. Slowing down facial movements and vocal sounds enhances facial expression recognition and facial-vocal imitation in children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Tardif, Carole; Lainé, France; Rodriguez, Mélissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on CD-Rom, under audio or silent conditions, and under dynamic visual conditions (slowly, very slowly, at normal speed) plus a st...

  5. PrimaryiIntraosseousm meningioma in the orbital bony wall: A case report and review of the literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Jae; Ryu, Ji Hwa; Kim, Hong Dae; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Baek, Hye Jin; Kim, Ok Hwa; Yoon, Jung Hee; Kim, Ji Yeon [Dept. of Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Mi; Kim, Dong Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Meningiomas arising outside the intracranial compartment are known as extradural meningiomas. Extradural meningiomas are rare conditions, accounting for less than 2% of all meningiomas. Primary intraosseous meningioma is used to describe a subset of extradural meningiomas arising from bone. A 46-year-old woman presented with left exophthalmos. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images revealed an expansile bony lesion in the orbital lateral wall of the left sphenoid bone. The patient underwent craniotomy for excision of the bony lesion. Pathologic examination revealed an intraosseous meningioma.

  6. Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum of the Bony External Auditory Canal: A Rare Tumor in a Rare Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasija Arechvo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors originating from ceruminous glands are rare lesions of the external auditory canal. The lack of specific clinical and radiological signs makes their diagnosis challenging. We report the case of an exceptionally rare benign tumor, a syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP, in an atypical location in the bony segment of the external auditory canal with uncommon clinical signs. The special traits of the case included the following: the most lateral component of the tumor was macroscopically cystic and a granular myringitis with an obstructing keratin mass plug was observed behind the mass. The clinical, audiological, radiological, and histological characteristics of the neoplasm are consequently presented. Intraoperative diagnosis of the epidermal cyst was proposed. The final diagnosis of SCAP was determined only by histological analysis after the surgical excision. The educational aspects of the case are critically discussed.

  7. A rare combination of fractures around the elbow: Bony variant of terrible triad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishal Kumar; Avinash Kumar; Sameer Aggarwal

    2015-01-01

    Radial head and coronoid fractures without posterior dislocation of the elbow have not been recorded in the literature.There is no literature documenting the combined fractures of the radial head, capitellum and coronoid process together in the same elbow.This is a case report highlighting this combination of fractures in a 30 year old patient treated with open reduction and internal fixation of all three fractures.The patient was followed up for 28 months and had a good range of motion of the elbow without any instability.Thus such a triad with no ligamentous injuries could depict a bony variant of terrible triad and a mechanism for such an injury has also been explained.

  8. The transconjunctival approach for orbital bony surgery: in which cases should it be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Hirotaka; Sugawara, Yasushi; Uda, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Naotaka

    2004-05-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the transconjunctival approach were examined to determine its indication for orbital bony surgery. The transconjunctival approach was used in 22 patients. The average follow-up was 13 months. Two patients had an intraoperative lower eyelid laceration because of excessive traction. Lower eyelid retraction occurred in 5 patients after surgery, although only 1 of them required surgical repair. With a transconjunctival approach alone, the exposure of the orbital lateral wall is limited and incorporation of a lateral incision has been found to be necessary. Postoperative eyelid retraction seems to occur even in the transconjunctival approach. The transconjunctival approach is best indicated in cases with an orbital medial wall fracture because it provides much easier access than any cutaneous approach.

  9. A tomographic study of positional and bony changes in the temporomandibular joint following orthognathic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Nam Kyu; Kim Min Suk; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonpook National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to aid in the evaluation of prognosis of temporomandibular joint following orthognathic surgery. For this study, 20 patients (40 TMJ) who undergone orthognathic surgery were examined. Preoperative and postoperative tomograms of TMJ were taken. And the subjects were divided into 3 groups according to postoperative periods. The obtained results were as follows : 1. There were no significant differences between preoperative and postoperative changes in joint spaces in each group and between groups (P<0.05). 2. There were no significant differences between preoperative and postoperative ratio of joint spaces (P<0.05).3. There were no significant differences between preoperative and postoperative changes in the range of motion of condylar head (P<0.05). 4. The bony changes of condylar head were observed in 14 (35%) condyles (6 erosion, 2 flattening, 5 double contour, 1 osteophyte).

  10. Bony cranial ornamentation linked to rapid evolution of gigantic theropod dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Terry A.; Organ, Chris; Zanno, Lindsay E.

    2016-09-01

    Exaggerated cranial structures such as crests and horns, hereafter referred to collectively as ornaments, are pervasive across animal species. These structures perform vital roles in visual communication and physical interactions within and between species. Yet the origin and influence of ornamentation on speciation and ecology across macroevolutionary time scales remains poorly understood for virtually all animals. Here, we explore correlative evolution of osseous cranial ornaments with large body size in theropod dinosaurs using a phylogenetic comparative framework. We find that body size evolved directionally toward phyletic giantism an order of magnitude faster in theropod species possessing ornaments compared with unadorned lineages. In addition, we find a body mass threshold below which bony cranial ornaments do not originate. Maniraptoriform dinosaurs generally lack osseous cranial ornaments despite repeatedly crossing this body size threshold. Our study provides novel, quantitative support for a shift in selective pressures on socio-sexual display mechanisms in theropods coincident with the evolution of pennaceous feathers.

  11. Check-list of bony fish collected from the Upper Halda River, Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Alam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Halda River of Bangladesh gains its importance as natural spawning ground of major carpfishes. A check-list of bony fish in the Halda River was carried out. It appeared that the fish fauna in thisriver is dominated by the family of Cyprinidae (28.57 % represented by 18 species, followed byGobiidae (9.52 % represented by 6 species and Schibeidae (7.94 % with 5 species, than Bagridae andChannidae (6.35 % with 4 species each, Siluridae (4.76 % with 3 species. Among the listed families,there are 14 families represented by a single species and 4 families by 2 species. The total number ofspecies is 63 belonging to 51 genera pertaining to 24 families and 9 orders. The present study reported 5migrant species from the Bay of Bengal and 3 species as exotic species.

  12. A primary spinal extradural atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the cervical spine with bony involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Bin; Shen, Jingtao; Tian, Chuanshuai; Fan, Xiangshan; Liu, Bao-rui

    2014-05-01

    Primary spinal atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors are extremely rare and most commonly occur as intramedural or extramedural intradural. The location of extradural type is rarely reported. A 10-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of nape pain. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an extradural tumor from C2-C5 with bony destruction of the C3 vertebral body. Subtotal removal of the tumor was performed and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor was proven histologically. But 2 months after surgery, the neck pain became worse. There were metastasic lesions in bilateral lung fields and multiple enlarged lymph nodes around the carotid sheath. She died 8 months after the initial symptoms. The present case is the third detailed report of spinal extradural. We describe the CT and MRI findings of this case and review the literature describing this rare disease.

  13. SAPHO syndrome with a tumour-like bony proliferative lesion in distal femur. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Munenori; Hatori, Masahito; Kokubun, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    SAPHO syndrome is a group of bone and joint abnormalities associated with skin lesions. A 29-year-old male presented with severe acne on his trunk and anterior chest wall, right knee and foot pain. Radiographs and magnetic resonance images showed hyperostosis in the sternocostoclavicular region, sclerosis of one-third of the right distal 5th metatarsal bone and bony outgrowth from the medial condyle of the right femur. The histological findings of the biopsy specimen were consistent with-those of old osteomyelitis. All fungal and microbacterial cultures were negative. Pain and swelling of the right knee and foot repeated remission and aggravation. There were no radiological changes of the above-mentioned lesions noted within 4-years follow-up.

  14. STEM investigation of exsolution lamellae and "c" reflections in Ca-rich dolomite from the Platteville Formation, western Wisconsin

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Zhizhang; Brown, Philip E; Xu, Huifang

    2016-01-01

    Dolomite crystals in partially dolomitized limestone from the Platteville Formation are both compositionally and microstructurally heterogeneous. A single dolomite crystal usually contains three phases: the host Ca-rich dolomite [Ca1.14Mg0.86(CO3)2], an Fe-bearing dolomite [Ca1.06Mg0.80Fe0.14(CO3)2], and calcite inclusions. These three phases show similar orientations. The Ca-rich dolomite exhibits modulated microstructures with wavelength ranging from 7 to 30 nm. The modulated microstructures are not evident in Fe-bearing dolomite. Modulations in the Ca-rich dolomite have three predominant orientation ranges in the studied sample: from (205) to (104), from (001) to (-101), and ~(110), which are consistent with previous studies. Bright-field (BF) and high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) images confirm that these modulations are due to chemical variation rather than strain or diffraction contrast. The Ca-rich lamellae are Mg-rich calcite with compositions ranging from Ca0.85Mg0.15CO3 to Ca0.70Mg0.30CO3. The o...

  15. Overview of facial paralysis: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Thuy-Anh N; Limb, Charles J

    2008-05-01

    Facial paralysis represents the end result of a wide array of disorders and heterogeneous etiologies, including congenital, traumatic, infectious, neoplastic, and metabolic causes. Thus, facial palsy has a diverse range of presentations, from transient unilateral paresis to devastating permanent bilateral paralysis. Although not life-threatening, facial paralysis remains relatively common and can have truly severe effects on one's quality of life, with important ramifications in terms of psychological impact and physiologic burden. Prognosis and outcomes for patients with facial paralysis are highly dependent on the etiologic nature of the weakness as well as the treatment offered to the patient. Facial plastic surgeons are often asked to manage the sequelae of long-standing facial paralysis. It is important, however, for any practitioner who assists this population to have a sophisticated understanding of the common etiologies and initial management of facial paralysis. This article reviews the more common causes of facial paralysis and discusses relevant early treatment strategies.

  16. Automatic Facial Expression Analysis A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Sumathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Automatic Facial Expression Recognition has been one of the latest research topic since1990’s.There have been recent advances in detecting face, facial expression recognition andclassification. There are multiple methods devised for facial feature extraction which helps in identifyingface and facial expressions. This paper surveys some of the published work since 2003 till date. Variousmethods are analysed to identify the Facial expression. The Paper also discusses about the facialparameterization using Facial Action Coding System(FACS action units and the methods whichrecognizes the action units parameters using facial expression data that are extracted. Various kinds offacial expressions are present in human face which can be identified based on their geometric features,appearance features and hybrid features . The two basic concepts of extracting features are based onfacial deformation and facial motion. This article also identifies the techniques based on thecharacteristics of expressions and classifies the suitable methods that can be implemented.

  17. [Therapy for atypical facial pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Satoshi; Kimura, Hiroko

    2009-09-01

    Atypical facial pain is a pain in the head, neck and the face, without organic causes. It is treated at departments of physical medicine, such as dental, oral and maxillofacial surgery, otolaryngology, cerebral surgery, or head and neck surgery. In primary care, it is considered to be a medically unexplained symptom (MUS), or a somatoform disorder, such as somatization caused by a functional somatic syndrome (FSS) by psychiatrists. Usually, patients consult departments of physical medicine complaining of physical pain. Therefore physicians in these departments should examine the patients from the holistic perspective, and identify organic diseases. As atypical facial pain becomes chronic, other complications, including psychiatric complaints other than physical pain, such as depression may develop. Moreover, physical, psychological, and social factors affect the symptoms by interacting with one another. Therefore, in examining atypical facial pain, doctors specializing in dental, oral and maxillofacial medicine are required to provide psychosomatic treatment that is based on integrated knowledge.

  18. Perception of facial expression and facial identity in subjects with social developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefter, Rebecca L; Manoach, Dara S; Barton, Jason J S

    2005-11-22

    It has been hypothesized that the social dysfunction in social developmental disorders (SDDs), such as autism, Asperger disorder, and the socioemotional processing disorder, impairs the acquisition of normal face-processing skills. The authors investigated whether this purported perceptual deficit was generalized to both facial expression and facial identity or whether these different types of facial perception were dissociated in SDDs. They studied 26 adults with a variety of SDD diagnoses, assessing their ability to discriminate famous from anonymous faces, their perception of emotional expression from facial and nonfacial cues, and the relationship between these abilities. They also compared the performance of two defined subgroups of subjects with SDDs on expression analysis: one with normal and one with impaired recognition of facial identity. While perception of facial expression was related to the perception of nonfacial expression, the perception of facial identity was not related to either facial or nonfacial expression. Likewise, subjects with SDDs with impaired facial identity processing perceived facial expression as well as those with normal facial identity processing. The processing of facial identity and that of facial expression are dissociable in social developmental disorders. Deficits in perceiving facial expression may be related to emotional processing more than face processing. Dissociations between the perception of facial identity and facial emotion are consistent with current cognitive models of face processing. The results argue against hypotheses that the social dysfunction in social developmental disorder causes a generalized failure to acquire face-processing skills.

  19. The Evolution of Bony Vertebrate Enhancers at Odds with Their Coding Sequence Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Aisha; Sohail Raza, Muhammad; Ali Abbasi, Amir

    2015-08-06

    Enhancers lie at the heart of transcriptional and developmental gene regulation. Therefore, changes in enhancer sequences usually disrupt the target gene expression and result in disease phenotypes. Despite the well-established role of enhancers in development and disease, evolutionary sequence studies are lacking. The current study attempts to unravel the puzzle of bony vertebrates' conserved noncoding elements (CNE) enhancer evolution. Bayesian phylogenetics of enhancer sequences spotlights promising interordinal relationships among placental mammals, proposing a closer relationship between humans and laurasiatherians while placing rodents at the basal position. Clock-based estimates of enhancer evolution provided a dynamic picture of interspecific rate changes across the bony vertebrate lineage. Moreover, coelacanth in the study augmented our appreciation of the vertebrate cis-regulatory evolution during water-land transition. Intriguingly, we observed a pronounced upsurge in enhancer evolution in land-dwelling vertebrates. These novel findings triggered us to further investigate the evolutionary trend of coding as well as CNE nonenhancer repertoires, to highlight the relative evolutionary dynamics of diverse genomic landscapes. Surprisingly, the evolutionary rates of enhancer sequences were clearly at odds with those of the coding and the CNE nonenhancer sequences during vertebrate adaptation to land, with land vertebrates exhibiting significantly reduced rates of coding sequence evolution in comparison to their fast evolving regulatory landscape. The observed variation in tetrapod cis-regulatory elements caused the fine-tuning of associated gene regulatory networks. Therefore, the increased evolutionary rate of tetrapods' enhancer sequences might be responsible for the variation in developmental regulatory circuits during the process of vertebrate adaptation to land. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  20. STUDY OF ACQUIRED FACIAL HYPERPIGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunjumani Sobhanakumari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Facial hypermelanosis is a clinical feature of a diverse group of disorders most commonly in middle-aged females who are exposed to sunlight. There is a considerable overlap in clinical features among the clinical entities of facial hypermelanosis. Aetiology in most of facial melanosis is unknown, but some factors like UV radiation in melasma and exposure to allergens in Riehl’s melanosis could be implicated. Histopathology is an accurate diagnostic tool. The benefit of histopathology is not only to confirm diagnosis, but also to exclude related disorders. Among the hyperpigmented conditions, melasma, Riehl’s melanosis, Acanthosis Nigricans (AN and Lichen Planus Pigmentosus (LPP are the common causes of facial hypermelanosis - most common being melasma. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of hundred consenting patients who attended the outpatient wing of Dermatology Department of Government Medical College, Kottayam. They were included only after getting the written informed consent. RESULTS Maximum number of patients were in the 5 th decade. 65% were females. Homemakers/housewives constituted the main study group (34%.55% of patients had duration of pigmentation between 1 to 5 years. Among these, melasma and acanthosis nigricans had the longest duration of disease. 69% of patients were symptomatic. Most common clinical diagnosis was melasma (45 followed by acanthosis nigricans (17, Riehl’s melanosis (15 and lichen planus pigmentosus (14. One case each of exogenous ochronosis and Addison’s disease and remaining were post inflammatory. Histopathologically, 63% of patients had histological features suggestive of melasma, which evolved as the most common cause of facial melanosis, next common being acanthosis nigricans and Riehl’s melanosis. CONCLUSION Clinical and histopathological examination is must to confirm the definite diagnosis of facial hyper-pigmentation. Skin is said to be the window to

  1. Facial Expression Synthesis Based on Imitation

    OpenAIRE

    Yihjia Tsai; Hwei Jen Lin; Fu Wen Yang

    2012-01-01

    It is an interesting and challenging problem to synthesise vivid facial expression images. In this paper, we propose a facial expression synthesis system which imitates a reference facial expression image according to the difference between shape feature vectors of the neutral image and expression image. To improve the result, two stages of postprocessing are involved. We focus on the facial expressions of happiness, sadness, and surprise. Experimental results show vivid and flexible results.

  2. Facial skin care products and cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2014-01-01

    Facial skin care products and cosmetics can both aid or incite facial dermatoses. Properly selected skin care can create an environment for barrier repair aiding in the re-establishment of a healing biofilm and diminution of facial redness; however, skin care products that aggressively remove intercellular lipids or cause irritation must be eliminated before the red face will resolve. Cosmetics are an additive variable either aiding or challenging facial skin health.

  3. Facial aging: A clinical classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiffman Melvin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this classification of facial aging is to have a simple clinical method to determine the severity of the aging process in the face. This allows a quick estimate as to the types of procedures that the patient would need to have the best results. Procedures that are presently used for facial rejuvenation include laser, chemical peels, suture lifts, fillers, modified facelift and full facelift. The physician is already using his best judgment to determine which procedure would be best for any particular patient. This classification may help to refine these decisions.

  4. The Epidemiology of Facial Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Koopman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Assuming that the average age of the readership of this thesis is 35 years, and that 49% is male, given the number of theses printed (n=500) and the average life expectancy (78 years for men, 82.3 years for women), nine [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 8 - 10] readers (1.8%) will get a form of facial pain as studied in this thesis. Despite its low frequency the severity and debilitating nature of certain facial pain conditions is an important motivator for scien...

  5. Darwin, deception, and facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Paul

    2003-12-01

    Darwin did not focus on deception. Only a few sentences in his book mentioned the issue. One of them raised the very interesting question of whether it is difficult to voluntarily inhibit the emotional expressions that are most difficult to voluntarily fabricate. Another suggestion was that it would be possible to unmask a fabricated expression by the absence of the difficult-to-voluntarily-generate facial actions. Still another was that during emotion body movements could be more easily suppressed than facial expression. Research relevant to each of Darwin's suggestions is reviewed, as is other research on deception that Darwin did not foresee.

  6. Connections between the facial and trigeminal nerves: Anatomical basis for facial muscle proprioception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Cobo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Proprioception is a quality of sensibility that originates in specialized sensory organs (proprioceptors that inform the central nervous system about static and dynamic conditions of muscles and joints. The facial muscles are innervated by efferent motor nerve fibers and typically lack proprioceptors. However, facial proprioception plays a key role in the regulation and coordination of the facial musculature and diverse reflexes. Thus, facial muscles must be necessarily supplied also for afferent sensory nerve fibers provided by other cranial nerves, especially the trigeminal nerve. Importantly, neuroanatomical studies have demonstrated that facial proprioceptive impulses are conveyed through branches of the trigeminal nerve to the central nervous system. The multiple communications between the facial and the trigeminal nerves are at the basis of these functional characteristics. Here we review the literature regarding the facial (superficial communications between the facial and the trigeminal nerves, update the current knowledge about proprioception in the facial muscles, and hypothesize future research in facial proprioception.

  7. Facial Specialty. Teacher Edition. Cosmetology Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is one of a series of curriculum guides designed to direct and support instruction in vocational cosmetology programs in the State of Oklahoma. It contains seven units for the facial specialty: identifying enemies of the skin, using aromatherapy on the skin, giving facials without the aid of machines, giving facials with the aid…

  8. Exploiting facial expressions for affective video summarisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joho, H.; Jose, J.M.; Valenti, R.; Sebe, N.; Marchand-Maillet, S.; Kompatsiaris, I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to affective video summarisation based on the facial expressions (FX) of viewers. A facial expression recognition system was deployed to capture a viewer's face and his/her expressions. The user's facial expressions were analysed to infer personalised affective scenes

  9. Personalised modelling of facial action unit intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Shuang; Rudovic, Ognjen; Pavlovic, Vladimir; Pantic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions depend greatly on facial morphology and expressiveness of the observed person. Recent studies have shown great improvement of the personalized over non-personalized models in variety of facial expression related tasks, such as face and emotion recognition. However, in the context

  10. Facial Baroparesis Caused by Scuba Diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kamide

    2012-01-01

    tympanic membrane and right facial palsy without other neurological findings. But facial palsy was disappeared immediately after myringotomy. We considered that the etiology of this case was neuropraxia of facial nerve in middle ear caused by over pressure of middle ear.

  11. Facial Nerve Palsy In Secondary Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuria B.L

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of secondary syphilis with right facial nerve palsy is reported. A 28 year old unmarried male presented with diffuse maculopapular rash and facial nerve palsy. He had elevated while cells and protein in cerebrospinal fluid. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for VDRL and TPHA tests. Facial nerve palsy and maculopapular rash improved with penicillin therapy.

  12. High superionic conduction arising from aligned large lamellae and large figure of merit in bulk Cu1.94Al0.02Se

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bin; Zhang, Yong; Li, Weiqian; Chen, Zhenrui; Cui, Jingying; Li, Wei; Xie, Yuandong; Hao, Qing; He, Qinyu

    2014-09-01

    Good thermoelectric materials should have low thermal conductivity, high electrical conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient, which cannot be easily balanced in bulk materials. Exceptionally, the super-ionics in β-Cu2Se can favorably contribute large ionic electrical conductivity and a liquid-like thermal conductivity by Cu+ ions. In the previous work, the superionic mechanism was found to be enhanced by small and randomly orientated lamellae with alternating ordered Se ion monolayer and disordered Cu ion bilayers. Here, we further enhance the superionic mechanism by increasing and better aligning lamellae in bulk Cu1.94Al0.02Se, resulting in a large thermoelectric figure of merit of 2.62 at 756 °C.

  13. Arthroscopic autologous bone graft with arthroscopic Bankart repair for a large bony defect lesion caused by recurrent shoulder dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yu; Hachisuka, Hiroki; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Oomae, Hiromichi; Yokoya, Shin; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2007-06-01

    Many clinicians believe that a large bony defect of the glenoid must be treated with bone grafting when a Bankart procedure is performed. Various types of bone graft, such as open bone graft, Eden-Hybinnette, J-bone graft, coracoid transfer, and Latarjet, have been used. These require open procedures that are difficult to perform arthroscopically. We performed an arthroscopic autologous bone graft and an arthroscopic Bankart repair at the same time to treat a patient with recurrent dislocation of the shoulder joint and a large bony Bankart lesion. We harvested from the lateral site of the acromion 2 bones that were 2.7 mm in cylindrical diameter. We transplanted these bones to the large bony defect of the anteroinferior area of the glenoid and placed anchors between the 2 plugs. During the 30 months since the surgery was performed, the patient has not experienced dislocation or apprehension about the shoulder. A 3-dimensional computed tomography scan showed enlargement of the glenoid surface. Our surgical procedure offers promise for treatment of patients with recurrent dislocation of the shoulder joint and a large bony Bankart lesion because it allows the surgeon to alter the size and the grafted site of the cylindrical bone according to the size of the defect.

  14. Free flap transfer for closure and interposition-arthroplasty in noma defects of the lateral face associated with bony ankylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessler, Goetz A; Schmidt, Andreas B; Deubel, Ute; Cornelius, C-Peter

    2004-09-01

    Noma defects of the anterolateral face are often associated with fibrous or bony ankylosis fusing the mandibula to the skull base. According to the extent of the ankylosis, the temporomandibular joint mobility can be restricted or even completely frozen. In third world conditions the surgical approach to severe forms of bony ankylosis consists of a single linear opening osteotomy (trismus release) and the closure of the noma defect with locoregional flaps. Relapse of jaw immobility is common and may be caused by minor bone resection, the lack of adequate postoperative physiotherapy, or even the scarring of the defect coverage. In 4 years the authors have gained increasing experience with folded free flaps for simultaneous closure of outer and inner lining of large noma defects and the maintenance and training of re-established jaw function by the use of a dynamic external distractor fixed between the zygoma and the mandibular body. The authors report the bony reankylosis can be reduced by extended wedge osteotomies of the bony bridge and tip-like shaping of the ascending mandibular ramus. To preclude the reossification of the osteotomy site and fibrous scar formation, a dermofatty or muscular tail of the free flap is interposed into the bone gap. Two cases were treated according to this concept with a free parascapular and a latissimus dorsi flap in combination with simultaneous arthroplasty. During a 6-month follow-up period, no signs of a recurrent reduction of mandibular movement were noted in either case.

  15. Immediate Single-Tooth Implant Placement in Bony Defects in the Esthetic Zone : A 1-Year Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, Kirsten W.; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aims to assess, with regard to marginal bone level (MBL), whether the outcome of immediate implant placement in bony defects in the esthetic zone was non-inferior to delayed implant placement after 1 year. Methods: Forty patients with a failing tooth in the esthetic zone and a

  16. Facial Phenotyping by Quantitative Photography Reflects Craniofacial Morphology Measured on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Icelandic Sleep Apnea Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kate; Schwab, Richard J.; Maislin, Greg; Lee, Richard W.W.; Benedikstdsottir, Bryndis; Pack, Allan I.; Gislason, Thorarinn; Juliusson, Sigurdur; Cistulli, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: (1) To determine whether facial phenotype, measured by quantitative photography, relates to underlying craniofacial obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk factors, measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); (2) To assess whether these associations are independent of body size and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional cohort. Setting: Landspitali, The National University Hospital, Iceland. Participants: One hundred forty patients (87.1% male) from the Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort who had both calibrated frontal and profile craniofacial photographs and upper airway MRI. Mean ± standard deviation age 56.1 ± 10.4 y, body mass index 33.5 ± 5.05 kg/m2, with on-average severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index 45.4 ± 19.7 h-1). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Relationships between surface facial dimensions (photos) and facial bony dimensions and upper airway soft-tissue volumes (MRI) was assessed using canonical correlation analysis. Photo and MRI craniofacial datasets related in four significant canonical correlations, primarily driven by measurements of (1) maxillary-mandibular relationship (r = 0.8, P photography and MRI. This study confirms that facial photographic phenotype reflects underlying aspects of craniofacial skeletal abnormalities associated with OSA. Therefore, facial photographic phenotyping may be a useful tool to assess intermediate phenotypes for OSA, particularly in large-scale studies. Citation: Sutherland K, Schwab RJ, Maislin G, Lee RW, Benedikstdsottir B, Pack AI, Gislason T, Juliusson S, Cistulli PA. Facial phenotyping by quantitative photography reflects craniofacial morphology measured on magnetic resonance imaging in icelandic sleep apnea patients. SLEEP 2014;37(5):959-968. PMID:24790275

  17. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  18. Facial three-dimensional morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Poggio, C E; Serrao, G

    1996-01-01

    Three-dimensional facial morphometry was investigated in a sample of 40 men and 40 women, with a new noninvasive computerized method. Subjects ranged in age between 19 and 32 years, had sound dentitions, and no craniocervical disorders. For each subject, 16 cutaneous facial landmarks were automatically collected by a system consisting of two infrared camera coupled device (CCD) cameras, real time hardware for the recognition of markers, and software for the three-dimensional reconstruction of landmarks' x, y, z coordinates. From these landmarks, 15 linear and 10 angular measurements, and four linear distance ratios were computed and averaged for sex. For all angular values, both samples showed a narrow variability and no significant gender differences were demonstrated. Conversely, all the linear measurements were significantly higher in men than in women. The highest intersample variability was observed for the measurements of facial height (prevalent vertical dimension), and the lowest for the measurements of facial depth (prevalent horizontal dimension). The proportions of upper and lower face height relative to the anterior face height showed a significant sex difference. Mean values were in good agreement with literature data collected with traditional methods. The described method allowed the direct and noninvasive calculation of three-dimensional linear and angular measurements that would be usefully applied in clinics as a supplement to the classic x-ray cephalometric analyses.

  19. Genetic determinants of facial clefting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Shi, Min; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Facial clefts are common birth defects with a strong genetic component. To identify fetal genetic risk factors for clefting, 1536 SNPs in 357 candidate genes were genotyped in two population-based samples from Scandinavia (Norway: 562 case-parent and 592 control-parent triads; Denmark...

  20. Topical management of facial burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Villapalos, Jorge; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N

    2008-11-01

    The face is the central point of the physical features of the human being. It transmits expressions and emotions, communicates feelings and allows for individual identity. It contains complex musculature and a pliable and unique skin envelope that reacts to the environment through a vast network of nerve endings. The face hosts vital areas that make phonation, feeding, and vision possible. Facial burns disrupt these anatomical and functional structures creating pain, deformity, swelling, and contractures that may lead to lasting physical and psychological sequelae. The management of facial burns may include operative and non-operative treatment or both, depending on the depth and extent of the burn. This paper intends to provide a review of the available options for topical management of facial burns. Topical agents will be defined as any agent applied to the surface of the skin that alters the outcome of the facial burn. Therefore, the classic concept of topical therapy will be expanded and developed within two major stages: acute and rehabilitation. Comparison of the effectiveness of the different treatments and relevant literature will be discussed.

  1. Constraint-based facial animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.M. Ruttkay

    1999-01-01

    textabstractConstraints have been traditionally used for computer animation applications to define side conditions for generating synthesized motion according to a standard, usually physically realistic, set of motion equations. The case of facial animation is very different, as no set of motion equ

  2. Guide to Understanding Facial Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a significant loss of tone in the tissues and considerable facial sagging. One of the most important functions of ... involve proce- dures in which a patient’s own tissue is used to ele- vate the sagging portions of the face. These slings may be applied to the portion ...

  3. Constraint-based facial animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.M. Ruttkay

    1999-01-01

    textabstractConstraints have been traditionally used for computer animation applications to define side conditions for generating synthesized motion according to a standard, usually physically realistic, set of motion equations. The case of facial animation is very different, as no set of motion

  4. The strawberry (Fragariaxananassa) fruit-specific rhamnogalacturonate lyase 1 (FaRGLyase1) gene encodes an enzyme involved in the degradation of cell-wall middle lamellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco J; Franco, Antonio R; Villatoro, Carmen; Medina-Puche, Laura; Mercado, José A; Hidalgo, Miguel A; Monfort, Amparo; Caballero, José Luis; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Blanco-Portales, Rosario

    2013-04-01

    Pectins are essential components of primary plant cell walls and middle lamellae, and are related to the consistency of the fruit and its textural changes during ripening. In fact, strawberries become soft as the middle lamellae of cortical parenchyma cells are extensively degraded during ripening, leading to the observed short post-harvest shelf life. Using a custom-made oligonucleotide-based strawberry microarray platform, a putative rhamnogalacturonate lyase gene (FaRGlyase1) was identified. Bioinformatic analysis of the FaRGlyase1 sequence allowed the identification of a conserved rhamnogalacturonate lyase domain, which was also present in other putative RGlyase sequences deposited in the databases. Expression of FaRGlyase1 occurred mainly in the receptacle, concurrently with ripening, and it was positively regulated by abscisic acid and negatively by auxins. FaRGLyase1 gene expression was transiently silenced by injecting live Agrobacterium cells harbouring RNA interference constructs into fruit receptacles. Light and electron microscopy analyses of these transiently silenced fruits revealed that this gene is involved in the degradation of pectins present in the middle lamella region between parenchymatic cells. In addition, genetic linkage association analyses in a strawberry-segregating population showed that FaRGLyase1 is linked to a quantitative trait loci linkage group related to fruit hardness and firmness. The results showed that FaRGlyase1 could play an important role in the fruit ripening-related softening process that reduces strawberry firmness and post-harvest life.

  5. [Neurological disease and facial recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko

    2012-07-01

    To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system.

  6. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  7. Clinical trial and in-vitro study comparing the efficacy of treating bony lesions with allografts versus synthetic or highly-processed xenogeneic bone grafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubosch, Eva Johanna; Bernstein, Anke; Wolf, Laura;

    2016-01-01

    on age, ASA risk classification, BMI, smoking behavior or type of insurance. However, those factors did significantly influence the bony healing rate (p gender and the filling substances employed within the different locations...... without bony healing 3.6 %; neither outcome parameter differed comparing the intervention groups. Failed consolidation correlated with an increase in complications (p 

  8. Quantitative computed tomography as a test of endurance for evaluation of bony plates; Utilizacao da tomografia computadorizada quantitativa como teste de resistencia para avaliacao de placas osseas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo Filho, E.V.; Costa, L.A.V.S.; Oliveira, D.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Freitas, P.M.C. [Escola de Veterinaria - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, M.W.; Costa, F.S. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco - Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    Quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the radiodensity of bony plates. The CT scans provided information regarding radiodensity of bony plates and allowed to verify the uniformity of bone mineral density in their scope. The proposed methodology should be considered as another tool for determining the resistance of these biomaterials. (author)

  9. Sacro-Iliac Joint Sensory Block and Radiofrequency Ablation: Assessment of Bony Landmarks Relevant for Image-Guided Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Shannon L.; Burnham, Robert S.; Loh, Eldon; Agur, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided sensory block and radiofrequency ablation of the nerves innervating the sacro-iliac joint require readily identifiable bony landmarks for accurate needle/electrode placement. Understanding the relative locations of the transverse sacral tubercles along the lateral sacral crest is important for ultrasound guidance, as they demarcate the position of the posterior sacral network (S1–S3 ± L5/S4) innervating the posterior sacro-iliac joint. No studies were found that investigated the spatial relationships of these bony landmarks. The purpose of this study was to visualize and quantify the interrelationships of the transverse sacral tubercles and posterior sacral foramina to inform image-guided block and radiofrequency ablation of the sacro-iliac joint. The posterior and lateral surfaces of 30 dry sacra (15 M/15 F) were digitized and modeled in 3D and the distances between bony landmarks quantified. The relationships of bony landmarks (S1–S4) were not uniform. The mean intertubercular and interforaminal distances decreased from S1 to S4, whereas the distance from the lateral margin of the posterior sacral foramina to the transverse sacral tubercles increased from S1 to S3. The mean intertubercular distance from S1 to S3 was significantly (p < 0.05) larger in males. The interrelationships of the sacral bony landmarks should be taken into consideration when estimating the site and length of an image-guided strip lesion targeting the posterior sacral network. PMID:27747222

  10. The relationship between the lizard eye and associated bony features: a cautionary note for interpreting fossil activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Margaret I

    2009-06-01

    Activity pattern, the time of day when an animal is active, is associated with ecology. There are two major activity patterns: diurnal (awake during the day in a photopic environment) and nocturnal (awake at night in a scotopic environment). Lizards exhibit characteristic eye shapes associated with activity pattern, with scotopic-adapted lizard eyes optimized for visual sensitivity with large corneal diameters relative to their eye axial lengths, and photopic-adapted lizards optimized for visual acuity, with larger axial lengths of the eye relative to their corneal diameters. This study: (1) quantifies the relationship between the lizard eye and its associated bony anatomy (the orbit, sclerotic ring, and associated skull widths); (2) investigates how activity pattern is reflected in that bony anatomy; and (3) determines if it is possible to reliably interpret activity pattern for a lizard that does not have the soft tissue available for study, specifically, for a fossil. Knowledge of extinct lizards' activity patterns would be useful in making paleoecological interpretations. Here, 96 scotopic- and photopic-adapted lizard species are analyzed in a phylogenetic context. Although there is a close relationship between the lepidosaur eye and associated bony anatomy, based on these data activity pattern cannot be reliably interpreted for bony-only specimens, such as a fossil, possibly because of the limited ossification of the lepidosaur skull. Caution should be exercised when utilizing lizard bony anatomy to interpret light-level adaptation, either for a fossil lizard or as part of an extant phylogenetic bracket to interpret other extinct animals with sclerotic rings, such as dinosaurs.

  11. Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuura Naomi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. Methods We tested 24 male adolescent/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control participants. Using standard photographs of facial expressions illustrating six basic emotions, participants matched each emotional facial expression with an appropriate verbal label. Results Delinquents were less accurate in the recognition of facial expressions that conveyed disgust than were control participants. The delinquents misrecognized the facial expressions of disgust as anger more frequently than did controls. Conclusion These results suggest that one of the underpinnings of delinquency might be impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions, with a specific bias toward interpreting disgusted expressions as hostile angry expressions.

  12. Parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Tani, Akiko; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Omori, Koichi

    2014-10-01

    Parotid lymphangioma is a relatively rare disease that is usually detected in infancy or early childhood, and which has typical features. Clinical reports of facial nerve paralysis caused by lymphangioma, however, are very rare. Usually, facial nerve paralysis in a child suggests malignancy. Here we report a very rare case of parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis. A 7-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a rapidly enlarging mass in the left parotid region. Left peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis was also noted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging also revealed multiple cystic lesions. Open biopsy was undertaken in order to investigate the cause of the facial nerve paralysis. The histopathological findings of the excised tumor were consistent with lymphangioma. Prednisone (40 mg/day) was given in a tapering dose schedule. Facial nerve paralysis was completely cured 1 month after treatment. There has been no recurrent facial nerve paralysis for eight years.

  13. Man-machine collaboration using facial expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying; Katahera, S.; Cai, D.

    2002-09-01

    For realizing the flexible man-machine collaboration, understanding of facial expressions and gestures is not negligible. In our method, we proposed a hierarchical recognition approach, for the understanding of human emotions. According to this method, the facial AFs (action features) were firstly extracted and recognized by using histograms of optical flow. Then, based on the facial AFs, facial expressions were classified into two calsses, one of which presents the positive emotions, and the other of which does the negative ones. Accordingly, the facial expressions belonged to the positive class, or the ones belonged to the negative class, were classified into more complex emotions, which were revealed by the corresponding facial expressions. Finally, the system architecture how to coordinate in recognizing facil action features and facial expressions for man-machine collaboration was proposed.

  14. Sea Unsea - Lamella Flock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin; Riiber, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Multi-agent systems have been attracting increasing interest over the past few years. In architecture and many other disciplines these systems are beginning to play an important role in engaging with complex phenomena. But whereas in other disciplines they have been used primarily as a mode of si...

  15. Genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity decrease facial attractiveness of female relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2014-02-01

    For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework.

  16. [Demographic and evolutionary dynamics of an isolate: the Dogon of Boni].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazes, M H

    1991-01-01

    The principal results are presented of demographic and genetic studies among the Dogon of the mountains of Boni. The Dogon of Boni are a culturally homogeneous population who have retained their own identity. Their villages were hidden in the rocks and thus protected from the recurring attacks and pillagings of passing nomadic tribes. The attacks ceased after several generation, and the Dogon have spread out beyond their original settlements. The dogon 1st inhabited the area in the early 18th century, arriving in successive waves from the Mande country. The topography of a plain intersected by mountains and plateaus has resulted in division of the Dogon population into isolates. The Dogon currently live in some 15 villages. They are sedentary and practice subsistence agriculture. The climate is Sahelian and life is difficult under the best of circumstances. The persistent aggravation of the drought since the 1970s has caused growing concern and may prompt the population to resettle elsewhere. Women have 7.2 live births on average, with very high fertility rates between 20-40 years. High rates of remarriage and polygamy appear to increase fertility. The life expectancy at birth of 31-37 years depending on the year and the sex of the child is among the lowest in Mali. 40% or more of newborns die before the 5th birthday. Some 18 years of life expectancy are added once the 5th birthday is passed. Except in years of crisis resulting from drought and famine, cholera epidemics, or measles which strikes virulently every 3 or 4 years, most deaths are caused by malaria and fever or diarrhea and intestinal parasites. A health center opened in 1979 in the largest town of Tabi may have had some affect on mortality despite its precarious functioning and lack of support. The average age at 1st marriage is 18.2 for women and 23.9 for men. Almost everyone marries and successive divorces and remarriages are common. Polygamy rates vary in the different mountain areas. Only about 4

  17. Is radiographic measurement of bony landmarks reliable for lateral meniscal sizing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-Ro; Kim, Taik-Seon; Lim, Hong-Chul; Lim, Hyung-Tae; Yang, Jae-Hyuk

    2011-03-01

    The accuracy of meniscal measurement methods is still in debate. The authors' protocol for radiologic measurements will provide reproducible bony landmarks, and this measurement method of the lateral tibial plateau will correlate with the actual anatomic value. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-five samples of fresh lateral meniscus with attached proximal tibia were obtained during total knee arthroplasty. Each sample was obtained without damage to the meniscus and bony attachment sites. The inclusion criterion was mild to moderate osteoarthritis in patients with mechanical axis deviation of less than 15°. Knees with lateral compartment osteoarthritic change or injured or degenerated menisci were excluded. For the lateral tibial plateau length measurements, the radiographic beam was angled 10° caudally at neutral rotation, which allowed differentiation of the lateral plateau cortical margins from the medial plateau. The transition points were identified and used for length measurement. The values of length were then compared with the conventional Pollard method and the anatomic values. The width measurement was done according to Pollard's protocol. For each knee, the percentage deviation from the anatomic dimension was recorded. Intraobserver error and interobserver error were calculated. The deviation of the authors' radiographic length measurements from anatomic dimensions was 1.4 ± 1.1 mm. The deviation of Pollard's radiographic length measurements was 4.1 ± 2.0 mm. With respect to accuracy-which represents the frequency of measurements that fall within 10% of measurements-the accuracy of authors' length was 98%, whereas for Pollard's method it was 40%. There was a good correlation between anatomic meniscal dimensions and each radiologic plateau dimensions for lateral meniscal width (R(2) = .790) and the authors' lateral meniscal length (R(2) = .823) and fair correlation for Pollard's lateral meniscal length (R(2) = .660). The reliability of each

  18. Efecto de laminillas protectoras de polietileno sobre la productividad de banano sin desflora de frutos Polyethylene protective lamella effect on banana productivity without fruit deflowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Vargas-Calvo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dos experimentos fueron realizados en el Caribe de Costa Rica, tanto en época climática favorable (experimento 1 como adversa (experimento 2. Los tratamientos y el nuevo tipo de laminilla de espuma de polietileno (bajo espesor y celda cerrada fueron: 1 sin laminillas entre manos o entre filas de cada mano (testigo; 2 con laminillas solo entre manos; 3 con laminillas solo entre filas de cada mano; y 4 con laminillas entre manos y entre filas de cada mano. Las variables medidas fueron: peso del racimo (kg, grosor (treintaidosavos de pulgada y largo (cm de pulpa a punta del fruto central de la fila externa de la segunda, cuarta y sexta mano y número de días de la colocación de las laminillas a la cosecha. Adicionalmente se determinaron los factores de rechazo y el número de cajas por racimo (ratio. El peso del racimo (experimento 1: p= 0.9571 y experimento 2: p= 0.5662, el grosor y la longitud de los frutos centrales de la fila externa de la segunda, cuarta y sexta mano (experimento 1: p> 0.2378; experimento 2: p> 0.1137, así como los días de la colocación de las laminillas a la cosecha (experimento 1: p= 0.5169 y experimento 2: p= 0.6916 no difirieron entre tratamientos. Independientemente de los tratamientos se observó una mayor cantidad de frutos rechazados por racimo en la época climática favorable (64.5 a 86.5 frutos con respecto a la adversa (9.6 a 16.4 frutos. La colocación de laminillas no influyó sobre la expresión del rechazo por cicatriz de crecimiento de frutos sin desflora en el campo y no mejoró, en comparación con el testigo, la relación cajas por racimo.Two experiments were conducted in Costa Rica Caribbean, both in favorable climatic period (experiment 1 and unfavorable (experiment 2. Treatments and the new type of polyethylene foam slide (low thickness and closed cell were: 1 without lamellae between hands or between rows of each hand (control; 2 with lamellae just between hands; 3 with lamellae between rows of

  19. Facial Expression at Retrieval Affects Recognition of Facial Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng eChen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that memory can be modulated by emotional stimuli at the time of encoding and consolidation. For example, happy faces create better identity recognition than faces with certain other expressions. However, the influence of facial expression at the time of retrieval remains unknown in the literature. To separate the potential influence of expression at retrieval from its effects at earlier stages, we had participants learn neutral faces but manipulated facial expression at the time of memory retrieval in a standard old/new recognition task. The results showed a clear effect of facial expression, where happy test faces were identified more successfully than angry test faces. This effect is unlikely due to greater image similarity between the neutral learning face and the happy test face, because image analysis showed that the happy test faces are in fact less similar to the neutral learning faces relative to the angry test faces. In the second experiment, we investigated whether this emotional effect is influenced by the expression at the time of learning. We employed angry or happy faces as learning stimuli, and angry, happy, and neutral faces as test stimuli. The results showed that the emotional effect at retrieval is robust across different encoding conditions with happy or angry expressions. These findings indicate that emotional expressions affect the retrieval process in identity recognition, and identity recognition does not rely on emotional association between learning and test faces.

  20. Facial and Dental Injuries Facial and Dental Injuries in Karate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovic-Stesevic, Vesna; Verna, Carlalberta; Krastl, Gabriel; Kuhl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Karate is a martial art that carries a high trauma risk. Trauma-related Swiss and European karate data are currently unavailable. This survey seeks to increase knowledge of the incidence of traumatic facial and dental injuries, their emergency management, awareness of tooth rescue boxes, the use of mouthguards and their modifications. Interviews were conducted with 420 karate fighters from 43 European countries using a standardized questionnaire. All the participants were semi-professionals. The data were evaluated with respect to gender, kumite level (where a karate practitioner trains against an adversary), and country. Of the 420 fighters interviewed, 213 had experienced facial trauma and 44 had already had dental trauma. A total of 192 athletes had hurt their opponent by inflicting a facial or dental injury, and 290 knew about the possibility of tooth replantation following an avulsion. Only 50 interviewees knew about tooth rescue boxes. Nearly all the individuals interviewed wore a mouthguard (n = 412), and 178 of them had made their own modifications to the guard. The results of the present survey suggest that more information and education in wearing protective gear are required to reduce the incidence of dental injuries in karate.

  1. Correction of bony deformities around knee by hemicallotasis using an innovative apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundu Z

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Valgus and varus deformities around the knee are common. Various osteotomies and apparatuses have been described to correct these deformities. Methods: Bony deformities around knee joint in thirty patients (36 joints were corrected by osteotomy in upper tibia or lower femur which was stabilized and distracted with innovatively designed and locally fabricated T-shaped external fixator-cum-distractor. The age of the patients ranged from 5 to 48 years. The causes of deformities were post-traumatic (18, rickets (5, tibia vara (3, idiopathic (3 and Ollier′s disease (1. The deformity was in lower femur in 14 cases and upper tibia in 16 cases. Sixteen patients had genu varum, 13 genu valgum and one patient had post traumatic tackle (wind-sweep deformity i.e. genu varum one side and valgum on the opposite. Results: Good results were achieved in 27 cases (32 joints as deformity was fully corrected with full range of painless post-operative movement (follow up 2-8 yrs. Superficial pin-tract infection was the main but temporary complication particularly in summer and rainy season. Conclusion: The apparatus was found quite useful in stabilizing as well as differentially distracting the osteotomy i.e. hemicallotasis to achieve desirable amount of correction of deformities.

  2. Orbital Tumors Excision without Bony Marginotomy under Local and General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Goldberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To present our experience of removing middle to deep orbital tumors using a combination of minimally invasive soft tissue approaches, sometimes under local anesthesia. Methods. In this retrospective case series, 30 patients (13 males and 17 females underwent tumor removal through eyelid crease (17 eyes, conjunctival (nine eyes, lateral canthal (two eyes, and transcaruncular (two eyes approaches. All tumors were located in the posterior half of the orbit. Six cases were removed under monitored anesthesia care with local block, and 24 were under general anesthesia. Results. The median (range age and follow-up duration were 48.5 (31–87 years old and 24.5 (4–375 weeks, respectively. Visual acuity and ocular motility showed improvement or no significant change in all but one patient at the latest followup. Confirmed pathologies revealed cavernous hemangioma (15 cases, pleomorphic adenoma (5 cases, solitary fibrous tumor (4 cases, neurofibroma (2 cases, schwannoma (2 cases, and orbital varix (1 case. None of the patients experienced recurrence. Conclusions. Creating a bony marginotomy increases intraoperative exposure of the deep orbit but adds substantial time and morbidity. Benign orbital tumors can often be removed safely through small soft-tissue incisions, without bone removal and under local anesthesia.

  3. Radiotherapy for bony manifestations of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis. Review and proposal for an international registry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olschewski, T.; Seegenschmiedt, M.H. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus, Essen (Germany)

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: to examine the role of radiotherapy (RT) in adult Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) for osseous manifestations, to define open questions regarding RT, and to develop recommendations for the clinical decision-making and problem-solving process. Material and methods: a literature review using different medical databases was conducted including the last 3 decades, and resulting questions regarding the use of ionizing radiation were systematically compiled. Results: the literature review revealed a local control rate of 96% (93% complete remissions) in patients with osseous single-system disease and of 92% (76% complete remissions) in patients with bony involvement in multi-system disease. To increase our knowledge, a prospective registry has been developed to allow a differentiated analysis of RT outcome and definition of potential prognostic factors. Conclusion: ionizing radiation can be successfully applied as a single treatment or in combination with other therapies for osseous manifestations of LCH. It leads to high remission and local control rates. Nevertheless, many open questions still exist. A prospective clinical registry is proposed to define the exact role of RT in this disease and to develop future interdisciplinary treatment guidelines. (orig.)

  4. The Bony Bankart Lesion: How to Measure the Glenoid Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupiński, Jarosław; Piechota, Małgorzata Zofia; Wawrzynek, Wojciech; Maczuch, Jarosław; Babińska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    An osseous Bankart lesion is commonly seen in patients with an anterior shoulder dislocation. It is defined as a detachment of the anteroinferior labrum associated with a glenoid rim fracture. Radiological studies are crucial not only for detecting glenoid bone defects but also for measuring the amount of bone loss. The precise quantification of the bony defect is crucial for the therapeutic desicion-making and clinical outcomes. Although we know that major glenoid bone loss requires surgical intervention, none of the studies performed so far answered the question what size of the defect should be an indication for open surgery procedures. Moreover, there is still no consensus on the exact percentage of glenoid loss that results in a higher risk of re-dislocations. In our opinion, there is a strong need for a consensus on universally accepted measuring techniques of the glenoid defect as well as on algorithms with validated glenoid bone loss threshold values for therapeutic decision-making. In this study, we review the techniques described so far in the literature and try to assess if any of these techniques should be treated as a leading method of detecting and quantifying osseous glenoid lesions.

  5. Recognizing Action Units for Facial Expression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ying-Li; Kanade, Takeo; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2001-02-01

    Most automatic expression analysis systems attempt to recognize a small set of prototypic expressions, such as happiness, anger, surprise, and fear. Such prototypic expressions, however, occur rather infrequently. Human emotions and intentions are more often communicated by changes in one or a few discrete facial features. In this paper, we develop an Automatic Face Analysis (AFA) system to analyze facial expressions based on both permanent facial features (brows, eyes, mouth) and transient facial features (deepening of facial furrows) in a nearly frontal-view face image sequence. The AFA system recognizes fine-grained changes in facial expression into action units (AUs) of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), instead of a few prototypic expressions. Multistate face and facial component models are proposed for tracking and modeling the various facial features, including lips, eyes, brows, cheeks, and furrows. During tracking, detailed parametric descriptions of the facial features are extracted. With these parameters as the inputs, a group of action units (neutral expression, six upper face AUs and 10 lower face AUs) are recognized whether they occur alone or in combinations. The system has achieved average recognition rates of 96.4 percent (95.4 percent if neutral expressions are excluded) for upper face AUs and 96.7 percent (95.6 percent with neutral expressions excluded) for lower face AUs. The generalizability of the system has been tested by using independent image databases collected and FACS-coded for ground-truth by different research teams.

  6. Treatments for unwanted facial hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, J; Lui, H

    Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal.

  7. Facial cystic lymphangioma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasotto, Matteo; Clozza, Emanuele; Tirelli, Giancarlo

    2012-07-01

    Lymphangiomas are uncommon congenital malformations of the lymphatic system, generally diagnosed during childhood. These malformations are rarely seen in adults, and the literature provides poor guidelines for treatment options that must be carefully applied to the facial region. Diagnosis in adult subjects is difficult to achieve, and also management of these conditions is still challenging because they tend to infiltrate adjacent tissues, causing frequent relapses. Radical surgery is the main form of treatment, avoiding the sacrifice of function or aesthetics of the patient. Two cases of cystic lymphangioma of the facial region found in adults are described from a clinical and pathologic point of view. The aim of this article was to point out that an early recognition of cystic lymphangioma is a crucial goal to initiate a prompt treatment avoiding serious complication.

  8. Asymmetry of Facial Mimicry and Emotion Perception in Patients With Unilateral Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Sebastian; Wood, Adrienne; Banks, Caroline A; Agoulnik, Dasha; Hadlock, Tessa A; Niedenthal, Paula M

    2016-05-01

    The ability of patients with unilateral facial paralysis to recognize and appropriately judge facial expressions remains underexplored. To test the effects of unilateral facial paralysis on the recognition of and judgments about facial expressions of emotion and to evaluate the asymmetry of facial mimicry. Patients with left or right unilateral facial paralysis at a university facial plastic surgery unit completed 2 computer tasks involving video facial expression recognition. Side of facial paralysis was used as a between-participant factor. Facial function and symmetry were verified electronically with the eFACE facial function scale. Across 2 tasks, short videos were shown on which facial expressions of happiness and anger unfolded earlier on one side of the face or morphed into each other. Patients indicated the moment or side of change between facial expressions and judged their authenticity. Type, time, and accuracy of responses on a keyboard were analyzed. A total of 57 participants (36 women and 21 men) aged 20 to 76 years (mean age, 50.2 years) and with mild left or right unilateral facial paralysis were included in the study. Patients with right facial paralysis were faster (by about 150 milliseconds) and more accurate (mean number of errors, 1.9 vs 2.5) to detect expression onsets on the left side of the stimulus face, suggesting anatomical asymmetry of facial mimicry. Patients with left paralysis, however, showed more anomalous responses, which partly differed by emotion. The findings favor the hypothesis of an anatomical asymmetry of facial mimicry and suggest that patients with a left hemiparalysis could be more at risk of developing a cluster of disabilities and psychological conditions including emotion-recognition impairments. 3.

  9. Familial congenital peripheral facial paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Portillo Vallenas, Roberto; Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, EsSalud, Lima, Perú; Aldave, Raquel; Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, EsSalud, Lima, Perú; Reyes, Juan; Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, EsSalud, Lima, Perú; Castañeda, César; Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, EsSalud, Lima, Perú; VERA, JOSÉ; Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, Servicio de Neurología. Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study 29 individuals belonging to four familiar generations in whom 9 cases of facial paralysis was found in 2 generations. Setting: Neurophysiology Service, Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen National Hospital. Material and Methods: Neurological exam and electrophysiologic (EMG and VCN), otorrhinolaryngologic, radiologic, electroencephalographic, dermatoglyphic and laboratory studies were performed in 7 of the 9 patients (5 men and 2 women). Results: One case of right peripheral facia...

  10. Giant sialocele following facial trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros Júnior,Rui; Rocha Neto,Alípio Miguel da; Queiroz, Isaac Vieira; Cauby,Antônio de Figueiredo; Gueiros,Luiz Alcino Monteiro; Leão,Jair Carneiro

    2012-01-01

    Injuries in the parotid and masseter region can cause serious impairment secondary to damage of important anatomical structures. Sialocele is observed as facial swelling associated with parotid duct rupture due to trauma. The aim of this paper is to report a case of a giant traumatic sialocele in the parotid gland, secondary to a knife lesion in a 40-year-old woman. Conservative measures could not promote clinical resolution and a surgical intervention for the placement of a vacuum drain was ...

  11. Removal of unwanted facial hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenenberger, Donald W; Utecht, Lynn M

    2002-11-15

    Unwanted facial hair is a common problem that is seldom discussed in the primary care setting. Although men occasionally request removal of unwanted facial hair, women most often seek help with this condition. Physicians generally neglect to address the problem if the patient does not first request help. The condition may be caused by androgen overproduction, increased sensitivity to circulating androgens, or other metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be properly evaluated. Options for hair removal vary in efficacy, degree of discomfort, and cost. Clinical studies on the efficacy of many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is electrolysis. However, the practice of electrolysis lacks standardization, and regulation of the procedure varies from state to state. Shaving, epilation, and depilation are the most commonly attempted initial options for facial hair removal. Although these methods are less expensive, they are only temporary. Laser hair removal, although better studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, has yet to be proved permanent in all patients. Eflornithine, a topical treatment, is simple to apply and has minimal side effects. By the time most patients consult a physician, they have tried several methods of hair removal. Family physicians can properly educate patients and recommend treatment for this common condition if they are armed with basic knowledge about the treatment options.

  12. Identification based on facial parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanov Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two opposing views dominate face identification literature, one suggesting that the face is processed as a whole and another suggesting analysis based on parts. Our research tried to establish which of these two is the dominant strategy and our results fell in the direction of analysis based on parts. The faces were covered with a mask and the participants were uncovering different parts, one at the time, in an attempt to identify a person. Already at the level of a single facial feature, such as mouth or eye and top of the nose, some observers were capable to establish the identity of a familiar face. Identification is exceptionally successful when a small assembly of facial parts is visible, such as eye, eyebrow and the top of the nose. Some facial parts are not very informative on their own but do enhance recognition when given as a part of such an assembly. Novel finding here is importance of the top of the nose for the face identification. Additionally observers have a preference toward the left side of the face. Typically subjects view the elements in the following order: left eye, left eyebrow, right eye, lips, region between the eyes, right eyebrow, region between the eyebrows, left check, right cheek. When observers are not in a position to see eyes, eyebrows or top of the nose, they go for lips first and then region between the eyebrows, region between the eyes, left check, right cheek and finally chin.

  13. Three-Dimensional Accuracy of Facial Scan for Facial Deformities in Clinics: A New Evaluation Method for Facial Scanner Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yi-jiao; Xiong, Yu-xue; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the practical accuracy (PA) of optical facial scanners for facial deformity patients in oral clinic was evaluated. Ten patients with a variety of facial deformities from oral clinical were included in the study. For each patient, a three-dimensional (3D) face model was acquired, via a high-accuracy industrial “line-laser” scanner (Faro), as the reference model and two test models were obtained, via a “stereophotography” (3dMD) and a “structured light” facial scanner (FaceScan) ...

  14. Three-Dimensional Accuracy of Facial Scan for Facial Deformities in Clinics: A New Evaluation Method for Facial Scanner Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Jiao; Xiong, Yu-Xue; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the practical accuracy (PA) of optical facial scanners for facial deformity patients in oral clinic was evaluated. Ten patients with a variety of facial deformities from oral clinical were included in the study. For each patient, a three-dimensional (3D) face model was acquired, via a high-accuracy industrial "line-laser" scanner (Faro), as the reference model and two test models were obtained, via a "stereophotography" (3dMD) and a "structured light" facial scanner (FaceScan) separately. Registration based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm was executed to overlap the test models to reference models, and "3D error" as a new measurement indicator calculated by reverse engineering software (Geomagic Studio) was used to evaluate the 3D global and partial (upper, middle, and lower parts of face) PA of each facial scanner. The respective 3D accuracy of stereophotography and structured light facial scanners obtained for facial deformities was 0.58±0.11 mm and 0.57±0.07 mm. The 3D accuracy of different facial partitions was inconsistent; the middle face had the best performance. Although the PA of two facial scanners was lower than their nominal accuracy (NA), they all met the requirement for oral clinic use.

  15. Three-Dimensional Accuracy of Facial Scan for Facial Deformities in Clinics: A New Evaluation Method for Facial Scanner Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-jiao; Xiong, Yu-xue; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the practical accuracy (PA) of optical facial scanners for facial deformity patients in oral clinic was evaluated. Ten patients with a variety of facial deformities from oral clinical were included in the study. For each patient, a three-dimensional (3D) face model was acquired, via a high-accuracy industrial “line-laser” scanner (Faro), as the reference model and two test models were obtained, via a “stereophotography” (3dMD) and a “structured light” facial scanner (FaceScan) separately. Registration based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm was executed to overlap the test models to reference models, and “3D error” as a new measurement indicator calculated by reverse engineering software (Geomagic Studio) was used to evaluate the 3D global and partial (upper, middle, and lower parts of face) PA of each facial scanner. The respective 3D accuracy of stereophotography and structured light facial scanners obtained for facial deformities was 0.58±0.11 mm and 0.57±0.07 mm. The 3D accuracy of different facial partitions was inconsistent; the middle face had the best performance. Although the PA of two facial scanners was lower than their nominal accuracy (NA), they all met the requirement for oral clinic use. PMID:28056044

  16. Is high T-1 slope a significant risk factor for developing interlaminar bony fusion after cervical laminoplasty? A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oichi, Takeshi; Oshima, Yasushi; Oka, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Yuki; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Matsubayashi, Yoshitaka; Takeshita, Katsushi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2017-09-15

    OBJECTIVE Several investigators have reported the occurrence of interlaminar bony fusion after cervical laminoplasty, which is reportedly associated with reduced postoperative cervical range of motion (ROM). However, to the authors' knowledge, no previous study has investigated the characteristics of patients who were likely to develop interlaminar bony fusion after cervical laminoplasty. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors for interlaminar bony fusion in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) following cervical laminoplasty and to investigate the effect of interlaminar bony fusion on surgical outcomes. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed data from 92 patients with CSM (63 men and 29 women) after cervical laminoplasty. The presence of interlaminar bony fusion was evaluated by functional radiographs 2 years after surgery. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of postoperative interlaminar bony fusion: a fusion group (at least 1 new postoperative interlaminar bony fusion) and a nonfusion group (no new interlaminar bony fusion). Potential risk factors for postoperative interlaminar bony fusion were assessed, including diabetes mellitus, smoking status, whether the C-2 lamina was included in the surgical treatment, C2-7 Cobb angle in each cervical position, preoperative cervical ROM, and T-1 slope. The differences in each variable were compared between the fusion and nonfusion groups. Thereafter, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for postoperative interlaminar bony fusion. For surgical outcomes, the recovery rate based on Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores and the reduction rate of cervical ROM were evaluated 2 years after surgery. RESULTS Interlaminar bony fusion was observed in 60 cases, 52 of which were observed at the C2-3 level. Patients in the fusion group were significantly older, had a significantly larger C2-7 angle

  17. Does Facial Amimia Impact the Recognition of Facial Emotions? An EMG Study in Parkinson's Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Argaud, Soizic; Delplanque, Sylvain; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Auffret, Manon; Duprez, Joan; Vérin, Marc; Grandjean, Didier; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-01-01

    .... The present study used the pathological model of PD to examine the role of facial mimicry on emotion recognition by investigating EMG responses in PD patients during a facial emotion recognition task (anger, joy, neutral...

  18. Mind-Refreshing Acupuncture Therapy for Facial Spasm,Trigeminal Neuralgia and Stubborn Facial Paralysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正; 方桂梅

    2004-01-01

    @@ Facial spasm, trigeminal neuralgia and stubborn facial paralysis are commonly seen in clinic. The authors have obtained quite good therapeutic results for the above diseases by using the mind-refreshing acupuncture therapy. These are introduced in the following.

  19. Freestyle Local Perforator Flaps for Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the successful reconstruction of facial defects, various perforator flaps have been used in single-stage surgery, where tissues are moved to adjacent defect sites. Our group successfully performed perforator flap surgery on 17 patients with small to moderate facial defects that affected the functional and aesthetic features of their faces. Of four complicated cases, three developed venous congestion, which resolved in the subacute postoperative period, and one patient with partial necrosis underwent minor revision. We reviewed the literature on freestyle perforator flaps for facial defect reconstruction and focused on English articles published in the last five years. With the advance of knowledge regarding the vascular anatomy of pedicled perforator flaps in the face, we found that some perforator flaps can improve functional and aesthetic reconstruction for the facial defects. We suggest that freestyle facial perforator flaps can serve as alternative, safe, and versatile treatment modalities for covering small to moderate facial defects.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrugia, M.E. [Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.e.farrugia@doctors.org.uk; Bydder, G.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92103-8226 (United States); Francis, J.M.; Robson, M.D. [OCMR, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders.

  1. Freestyle Local Perforator Flaps for Facial Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Ji Min; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No; Shim, Hyung Sup; Kim, Sang Wha

    2015-01-01

    For the successful reconstruction of facial defects, various perforator flaps have been used in single-stage surgery, where tissues are moved to adjacent defect sites. Our group successfully performed perforator flap surgery on 17 patients with small to moderate facial defects that affected the functional and aesthetic features of their faces. Of four complicated cases, three developed venous congestion, which resolved in the subacute postoperative period, and one patient with partial necrosis underwent minor revision. We reviewed the literature on freestyle perforator flaps for facial defect reconstruction and focused on English articles published in the last five years. With the advance of knowledge regarding the vascular anatomy of pedicled perforator flaps in the face, we found that some perforator flaps can improve functional and aesthetic reconstruction for the facial defects. We suggest that freestyle facial perforator flaps can serve as alternative, safe, and versatile treatment modalities for covering small to moderate facial defects.

  2. Síndrome de dolor facial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. F. Eugenio Tenhamm

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El dolor o algia facial constituye un síndrome doloroso de las estructuras cráneo faciales bajo el cual se agrupan un gran número de enfermedades. La mejor manera de abordar el diagnóstico diferencial de las entidades que causan el dolor facial es usando un algoritmo que identifica cuatro síndromes dolorosos principales que son: las neuralgias faciales, los dolores faciales con síntomas y signos neurológicos, las cefaleas autonómicas trigeminales y los dolores faciales sin síntomas ni signos neurológicos. Una evaluación clínica detallada de los pacientes, permite una aproximación etiológica lo que orienta el estudio diagnóstico y permite ofrecer una terapia específica a la mayoría de los casos

  3. A Review of Facial Nerve Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    An intimate knowledge of facial nerve anatomy is critical to avoid its inadvertent injury during rhytidectomy, parotidectomy, maxillofacial fracture reduction, and almost any surgery of the head and neck. Injury to the frontal and marginal mandibular branches of the facial nerve in particular can lead to obvious clinical deficits, and areas where these nerves are particularly susceptible to injury have been designated danger zones by previous authors. Assessment of facial nerve function is no...

  4. Influence of gravity upon some facial signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, F; Bazin, R; Piot, B

    2015-06-01

    Facial clinical signs and their integration are the basis of perception than others could have from ourselves, noticeably the age they imagine we are. Facial modifications in motion and their objective measurements before and after application of skin regimen are essential to go further in evaluation capacities to describe efficacy in facial dynamics. Quantification of facial modifications vis à vis gravity will allow us to answer about 'control' of facial shape in daily activities. Standardized photographs of the faces of 30 Caucasian female subjects of various ages (24-73 year) were successively taken at upright and supine positions within a short time interval. All these pictures were therefore reframed - any bias due to facial features was avoided when evaluating one single sign - for clinical quotation by trained experts of several facial signs regarding published standardized photographic scales. For all subjects, the supine position increased facial width but not height, giving a more fuller appearance to the face. More importantly, the supine position changed the severity of facial ageing features (e.g. wrinkles) compared to an upright position and whether these features were attenuated or exacerbated depended on their facial location. Supine station mostly modifies signs of the lower half of the face whereas those of the upper half appear unchanged or slightly accentuated. These changes appear much more marked in the older groups, where some deep labial folds almost vanish. These alterations decreased the perceived ages of the subjects by an average of 3.8 years. Although preliminary, this study suggests that a 90° rotation of the facial skin vis à vis gravity induces rapid rearrangements among which changes in tensional forces within and across the face, motility of interstitial free water among underlying skin tissue and/or alterations of facial Langer lines, likely play a significant role. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Fran

  5. Facial nerve schwannoma in revision stapedotomy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerber, Sébastien; Lavieille, Jean-Pierre

    2004-05-01

    We describe a male patient who presented a progressive conductive unilateral hearing loss 20 years after otosclerosis surgery. Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings suggested a facial schwannoma in its tympanic segment. At the time of revision surgery, a facial schwannoma was found to originate at the tympanic segment, pushing the prosthesis out of the oval window fenestration. The Teflon-piston was repositioned with difficulties in the central platinotomy, and the facial schwannoma was left intact.

  6. [Peripheral paralysis of facial nerve in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steczkowska-Klucznik, Małgorzata; Kaciński, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Peripheral facial paresis is one of the most common diagnosed neuropathies in adults and also in children. Many factors can trigger facial paresis and most frequent are infectious, carcinoma and demyelinisation diseases. Very important and interesting problem is an idiopathic facial paresis (Bell's palsy). Actually the main target of scientific research is to assess the etiology (infectious, genetic, immunologic) and to find the most appropriate treatment.

  7. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippl, Martin; Karim, Ahmed A; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al., 2002). The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs) and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1). Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser), AU4 (brow lowerer), AU12 (lip corner puller) and AU24 (lip presser), each in alternation with a resting phase. Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g., M1, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, putamen), as well as in the thalamus, insula, and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the "like attracts like" principle (Donoghue et al., 1992). AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.

  8. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eKrippl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS,Ekman et al., 2002. The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1. Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser, AU4 (brow lowerer, AU12 (lip corner puller and AU24 (lip presser, each in alternation with a resting phase.Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g. M1, premotor cortex, SMA, putamen, as well as in the thalamus, insula and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU 4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the like attracts like principle (Donoghue et al., 1992 . AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.

  9. Neuroticism delays detection of facial expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    The rapid detection of emotional signals from facial expressions is fundamental for human social interaction. The personality factor of neuroticism modulates the processing of various types of emotional facial expressions; however, its effect on the detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. In this study, participants with high- and low-neuroticism scores performed a visual search task to detect normal expressions of anger and happiness, and their anti-expressions within a cr...

  10. The Science and Theory behind Facial Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan P. Farkas, MD; Joel E. Pessa, MD; Bradley Hubbard, MD; Rod J. Rohrich, MD, FACS

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The etiology of age-related facial changes has many layers. Multiple theories have been presented over the past 50–100 years with an evolution of understanding regarding facial changes related to skin, soft tissue, muscle, and bone. This special topic will provide an overview of the current literature and evidence and theories of facial changes of the skeleton, soft tissues, and skin over time.

  11. Concerning the etiology of bony bridges along the sides of the terminal phalanx of the great toe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.

    1987-06-01

    Besides in acromegaly bony bridges at the terminal phalanx of the great toe occur in one third of cases with peripheral signs of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, systemic diseases as rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis with chronic inflammation of the interphalangeal joint of the great toe respectively extraarticular osseous changes in the terminal phalanx of the great toe do not influence the development of such bridges.

  12. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Bony Nasolacrimal Canal by Automated Segmentation of Computed Tomography Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Jañez-Garcia

    Full Text Available To apply a fully automated method to quantify the 3D structure of the bony nasolacrimal canal (NLC from CT scans whereby the size and main morphometric characteristics of the canal can be determined.Cross-sectional study.36 eyes of 18 healthy individuals.Using software designed to detect the boundaries of the NLC on CT images, 36 NLC reconstructions were prepared. These reconstructions were then used to calculate NLC volume. The NLC axis in each case was determined according to a polygonal model and to 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree polynomials. From these models, NLC sectional areas and length were determined. For each variable, descriptive statistics and normality tests (Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk were established.Time for segmentation, NLC volume, axis, sectional areas and length.Mean processing time was around 30 seconds for segmenting each canal. All the variables generated were normally distributed. Measurements obtained using the four models polygonal, 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree polynomial, respectively, were: mean canal length 14.74, 14.3, 14.80, and 15.03 mm; mean sectional area 15.15, 11.77, 11.43, and 11.56 mm2; minimum sectional area 8.69, 7.62, 7.40, and 7.19 mm2; and mean depth of minimum sectional area (craniocaudal 7.85, 7.71, 8.19, and 8.08 mm.The method proposed automatically reconstructs the NLC on CT scans. Using these reconstructions, morphometric measurements can be calculated from NLC axis estimates based on polygonal and 2nd, 3rd and 4th polynomial models.

  13. Selective pressures in the human bony pelvis: Decoupling sexual dimorphism in the anterior and posterior spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirsten M

    2015-07-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the human bony pelvis is commonly assumed to be related to the intensity of obstetrical selective pressures. With intense obstetrical selective pressures, there should be greater shape dimorphism; with minimal obstetrical selective pressures, there should be reduced shape dimorphism. This pattern is seen in the nondimorphic anterior spaces and highly dimorphic posterior spaces. Decoupling sexual dimorphism in these spaces may in turn be related to the differential influence of other selective pressures, such as biomechanical ones. The relationship between sexual dimorphism and selective pressures in the human pelvis was examined using five skeletal samples (total female n = 101; male n = 103). Pelvic shape was quantified by collecting landmark coordinate data on articulated pelves. Euclidean distance matrix analysis was used to extract the distances that defined the anterior and posterior pelvic spaces. Sex and body mass were used as proxies for obstetrical and biomechanical selective pressures, respectively. MANCOVA analyses demonstrate significant effects of sex and body mass on distances in both the anterior and the posterior spaces. A comparison of the relative contribution of shape variance attributed to each of these factors suggests that the posterior space is more influenced by sex, and obstetrics by proxy, whereas the anterior space is more influenced by body mass, and biomechanics by proxy. Although the overall shape of the pelvis has been influenced by obstetrical and biomechanical selective pressures, there is a differential response within the pelvis to these factors. These results provide new insight into the ongoing debate on the obstetrical dilemma hypothesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Morphoscopic analysis of experimentally produced bony wounds from low-velocity ballistic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Jules A; Tahere, Joy; Agnew, Caitlin; Kieser, David C; Duncan, Warwick; Swain, Michael V; Reeves, Matthew T

    2011-12-01

    Understanding how bone behaves when subjected to ballistic impact is of critical importance for forensic questions, such as the reconstruction of shooting events. Yet the literature addressing microscopic anatomical features of gunshot wounds to different types of bone is sparse. Moreover, a biomechanical framework for describing how the complex architecture of bone affects its failure during such impact is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the morphological features associated with experimental gunshot wounds in slaughtered pig ribs. We shot the 4th rib of 12 adult pigs with .22 mm subsonic bullets at close range (5 cm) and examined resultant wounds under the light microscope, scanning electron microscope SEM and micro tomograph μCT. In all cases there was a narrow shot channel followed by spall region, with evidence of plastic deformation with burnishing of the surface bone in the former, and brittle fracture around and through individual Haversian systems in the latter. In all but one case, the entrance wounds were characterized by superficially fractured cortical bone in the form of a well-defined collar, while the exit wounds showed delamination of the periosteum. Inorganic residue was evident in all cases, with electron energy dispersive spectroscopy EDS confirming the presence of carbon, phosphate, lead and calcium. This material appeared to be especially concentrated within the fractured bony collar at the entrance. We conclude that gunshot wounds in flat bones may be morphologically divided into a thin burnished zone at the entry site, and a fracture zone at the exit.

  15. Targeting P38 Pathway Regulates Bony Formation via MSC Recruitment during Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zi-hui; Wu, Bao-lei; Ye, Chen; Jia, Sen; Yang, Xin-jie; Hou, Rui; Lei, De-lin; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a widely used self-tissue engineering. However, complications and discomfort due to the long treatment period are still the bottleneck of DO. Novel strategies to accelerate bone formation in DO are still needed. P38 is capable of regulating the osteogenic differentiation of both mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and osteoblasts, which are crucial to bone regeneration. However, it is not clear whether targeting p38 could regulate bony formation in DO. The purpose of the current work was to investigate the effects of local application of either p38 agonist anisomycin or p38 inhibitor SB203580 in a rat model of DO. 30 adult rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: (A) rats injected with DMSO served as the control group; (B) rats injected with p38 agonist anisomycin; (C) rats injected with p38 inhibitor SB203580. All the rats were subjected to mandibular distraction and the injection was performed daily during this period. The distracted mandibles were harvested on days 15 and 30 after surgery and subjected to the following analysis. Micro-computed tomography and histological evaluation results showed that local application of p38 agonist anisomycin increased new bone formation in DO, whereas p38 inhibitor SB203580 decreased it. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested that anisomycin promoted MSC recruitment in the distraction gap. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that local application of p38 agonist anisomycin can increase new bone formation during DO. This study may lead to a novel cell-based strategy for the improvement of bone regeneration. PMID:27766028

  16. Endocrine and Local IGF-I in the Bony Fish Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Constance Franz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A role for GH and IGF-I in the modulation of the immune system has been under discussion for decades. Generally, GH is considered a stimulator of innate immune parameters in mammals and teleost fish. The stimulatory effects in humans as well as in bony fish often appear to be correlated with elevated endocrine IGF-I (liver-derived, which has also been shown to be suppressed during infection in some studies. Nevertheless, data are still fragmentary. Some studies point to an important role of GH and IGF-I particularly during immune organ development and constitution. Even less is known about the potential relevance of local (autocrine/paracrine IGF-I within adult and developing immune organs, and the distinct localization of IGF-I in immune cells and tissues of mammals and fish has not been systematically defined. Thus far, IGF-I has been localized in different mammalian immune cell types, particularly macrophages and granulocytes, and in supporting cells, but not in T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we detected IGF-I in phagocytic cells isolated from rainbow trout head kidney and, in contrast to some findings in mammals, in T-cells of a channel catfish cell line. Thus, although numerous analogies among mammals and teleosts exist not only for the GH/IGF-system, but also for the immune system, there are differences that should be further investigated. For instance, it is unclear whether the primarily reported role of GH/IGF-I in the innate immune response is due to the lack of studies focusing on the adaptive immune system, or whether it truly preferentially concerns innate immune parameters. Infectious challenges in combination with GH/IGF-I manipulations are another important topic that has not been sufficiently addressed to date, particularly with respect to developmental and environmental influences on fish growth and health.

  17. Anatomical considerations to prevent facial nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaeian, Jason; Rohrich, Rod J; Stuzin, James M

    2015-05-01

    Injury to the facial nerve during a face lift is a relatively rare but serious complication. A large body of literature has been dedicated toward bettering the understanding of the anatomical course of the facial nerve and the relative danger zones. Most of these prior reports, however, have focused on identifying the location of facial nerve branches based on their trajectory mostly in two dimensions and rarely in three dimensions. Unfortunately, the exact location of the facial nerve relative to palpable or visible facial landmarks is quite variable. Although the precise location of facial nerve branches is variable, its relationship to soft-tissue planes is relatively constant. The focus of this report is to improve understanding of facial soft-tissue anatomy so that safe planes of dissection during surgical undermining may be identified for each branch of the facial nerve. Certain anatomical locations more prone to injury and high-risk patient parameters are further emphasized to help minimize the risk of facial nerve injury during rhytidectomy.

  18. Facial expression recognition using thermal image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guotai; Song, Xuemin; Zheng, Fuhui; Wang, Peipei; Omer, Ashgan

    2005-01-01

    Facial expression recognition will be studied in this paper using mathematics morphology, through drawing and analyzing the whole geometry characteristics and some geometry characteristics of the interesting area of Infrared Thermal Imaging (IRTI). The results show that geometry characteristic in the interesting region of different expression are obviously different; Facial temperature changes almost with the expression at the same time. Studies have shown feasibility of facial expression recognition on the basis of IRTI. This method can be used to monitor the facial expression in real time, which can be used in auxiliary diagnosis and medical on disease.

  19. Social Use of Facial Expressions in Hylobatids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Scheider

    Full Text Available Non-human primates use various communicative means in interactions with others. While primate gestures are commonly considered to be intentionally and flexibly used signals, facial expressions are often referred to as inflexible, automatic expressions of affective internal states. To explore whether and how non-human primates use facial expressions in specific communicative interactions, we studied five species of small apes (gibbons by employing a newly established Facial Action Coding System for hylobatid species (GibbonFACS. We found that, despite individuals often being in close proximity to each other, in social (as opposed to non-social contexts the duration of facial expressions was significantly longer when gibbons were facing another individual compared to non-facing situations. Social contexts included grooming, agonistic interactions and play, whereas non-social contexts included resting and self-grooming. Additionally, gibbons used facial expressions while facing another individual more often in social contexts than non-social contexts where facial expressions were produced regardless of the attentional state of the partner. Also, facial expressions were more likely 'responded to' by the partner's facial expressions when facing another individual than non-facing. Taken together, our results indicate that gibbons use their facial expressions differentially depending on the social context and are able to use them in a directed way in communicative interactions with other conspecifics.

  20. Neuroticism Delays Detection of Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    The rapid detection of emotional signals from facial expressions is fundamental for human social interaction. The personality factor of neuroticism modulates the processing of various types of emotional facial expressions; however, its effect on the detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. In this study, participants with high- and low-neuroticism scores performed a visual search task to detect normal expressions of anger and happiness, and their anti-expressions within a crowd of neutral expressions. Anti-expressions contained an amount of visual changes equivalent to those found in normal expressions compared to neutral expressions, but they were usually recognized as neutral expressions. Subjective emotional ratings in response to each facial expression stimulus were also obtained. Participants with high-neuroticism showed an overall delay in the detection of target facial expressions compared to participants with low-neuroticism. Additionally, the high-neuroticism group showed higher levels of arousal to facial expressions compared to the low-neuroticism group. These data suggest that neuroticism modulates the detection of emotional facial expressions in healthy participants; high levels of neuroticism delay overall detection of facial expressions and enhance emotional arousal in response to facial expressions.

  1. Periocular Reconstruction in Patients with Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shannon S; Joseph, Andrew W; Douglas, Raymond S; Massry, Guy G

    2016-04-01

    Facial paralysis can result in serious ocular consequences. All patients with orbicularis oculi weakness in the setting of facial nerve injury should undergo a thorough ophthalmologic evaluation. The main goal of management in these patients is to protect the ocular surface and preserve visual function. Patients with expected recovery of facial nerve function may only require temporary and conservative measures to protect the ocular surface. Patients with prolonged or unlikely recovery of facial nerve function benefit from surgical rehabilitation of the periorbital complex. Current reconstructive procedures are most commonly intended to improve coverage of the eye but cannot restore blink.

  2. Reflectance confocal microscopy features of facial angiofibromas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán-Cayetano, José-Francisco; Yélamos, Oriol; Rossi, Anthony M.; Marchetti, Michael A.; Jain, Manu

    2017-01-01

    Facial angiofibromas are benign tumors presenting as firm, dome-shaped, flesh-colored to pink papules, typically on the nose and adjoining central face. Clinically and dermoscopically they can mimic melanocytic nevi or basal cell carcinomas (BCC). Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a noninvasive imaging tool that is useful in diagnosing melanocytic and non-melanocytic facial lesions. To date no studies have described the RCM features of facial angiofibromas. Herein, we present two cases of facial angiofibromas that were imaged with RCM and revealed tumor island-like structures that mimicked BCC, leading to skin biopsy.

  3. The neurosurgical treatment of neuropathic facial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey A

    2014-04-01

    This article reviews the definition, etiology and evaluation, and medical and neurosurgical treatment of neuropathic facial pain. A neuropathic origin for facial pain should be considered when evaluating a patient for rhinologic surgery because of complaints of facial pain. Neuropathic facial pain is caused by vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve in the prepontine cistern and is characterized by an intermittent prickling or stabbing component or a constant burning, searing pain. Medical treatment consists of anticonvulsant medication. Neurosurgical treatment may require microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Relationships between Processing Facial Identity, Emotional Expression, Facial Speech, and Gaze Direction during Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Sibylle M.; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Korell, Monika; Maier-Karius, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with 5- to 11-year-olds and adults to investigate whether facial identity, facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction are processed independently of or in interaction with one another. In a computer-based, speeded sorting task, participants sorted faces according to facial identity while disregarding…

  5. Allometry of facial mobility in anthropoid primates: implications for the evolution of facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Seth D

    2009-01-01

    Body size may be an important factor influencing the evolution of facial expression in anthropoid primates due to allometric constraints on the perception of facial movements. Given this hypothesis, I tested the prediction that observed facial mobility is positively correlated with body size in a comparative sample of nonhuman anthropoids. Facial mobility, or the variety of facial movements a species can produce, was estimated using a novel application of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). I used FACS to estimate facial mobility in 12 nonhuman anthropoid species, based on video recordings of facial activity in zoo animals. Body mass data were taken from the literature. I used phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) to perform a multiple regression analysis with facial mobility as the dependent variable and two independent variables: log body mass and dummy-coded infraorder. Together, body mass and infraorder explain 92% of the variance in facial mobility. However, the partial effect of body mass is much stronger than for infraorder. The results of my study suggest that allometry is an important constraint on the evolution of facial mobility, which may limit the complexity of facial expression in smaller species. More work is needed to clarify the perceptual bases of this allometric pattern.

  6. Ectopic Acromegaly Arising from a Pituitary Adenoma within the Bony Intersphenoid Septum of a Patient with Empty Sella Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzamendi, Audrey E.; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Latchaw, Richard E.; Lechpammer, Mirna; Arzumanyan, Hasmik

    2016-01-01

    Objective  To describe the work-up and treatment of rare ectopic acromegaly caused by a biopsy-proven somatotroph pituitary adenoma located within the bony intersphenoid septum of a patient with empty sella syndrome (ESS). Methods  We report the presentation, clinical course, diagnostic work-up, and lesion localization and treatment challenges encountered in a 55-year-old patient, with a brief review of relevant literature. Results  A 55-year-old African-American man presented with acromegaly and ESS. Attempts to definitively localize the causative tumor were unsuccessful, though petrosal sinus sampling supported central growth hormone production and imaging suggested bone-enclosed subsellar pituitary tissue. Endoscopic endonasal transphenoidal exploration was undertaken with resection of a somatotroph pituitary microadenoma, and subsequent clinical improvement and biochemical remission. Retrospective review revealed the patient's pituitary to have been located ectopically within a unique bony intersphenoid septum. Conclusion  This report describes the first known case of an ectopic pituitary adenoma located within the midline bony intersphenoid septum, which we postulate to have resulted from anomalous embryological pituitary migration. Intra-intersphenoid septal tumors should be considered in cases of apparent central acromegaly with ESS or absence of tumor tissue within the paranasal sinuses or other peripheral locations. Indexing  Acromegaly, ESS, pituitary adenoma, sphenoid sinus septum. PMID:27468406

  7. American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the world's largest specialty association for facial plastic surgery. It represents more than 2,700 facial plastic ... the American Board of Otolaryngology , which includes facial plastic surgery. Others are certified in plastic surgery, ophthalmology, and ...

  8. A CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT FOR FACIAL PARALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TOH Foh Fook

    2002-01-01

    @@ Peripheral facial paralysis is a common disease with manifestation of facial paralysis. The author's clinical observation on 50 cases of facial paralysis treated mainly with acupuncture showed an effeclive rate of 98%, and the remarkable effectiveness was reported as follow.

  9. Lamellar magnetism and exchange bias in billion-year-old titanohematite with nanoscale ilmenite exsolution lamellae: I. Mineral and magnetic characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnroe, Suzanne A.; Robinson, Peter; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Fabian, Karl; Dyar, Darby; Sklute, Elizabeth

    2016-07-01

    Recent high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys in South Norway have revealed numerous remanent anomalies over Mesoproterozoic metamorphic rocks. Studies on the nature of the minerals that are the remanent carriers has led to discoveries of titanohematite samples with unusual magnetic properties caused by nanoscale exsolution lamellae with their related lamellar magnetism. Here we focus on a rock unit dominated by quartz-plagioclase-biotite granulite containing titanohematite grains with a strong lattice-preferred orientation parallel to regional foliation. When samples with their natural remanent magnetization (NRM), acquired nearly 1 billion years ago, are cooled to 10 K and hysteresis loops measured, these loops show bi-modal exchange bias caused by the magnetism induced within the ilmenite by antiferromagnetic coupling with the adjacent lamellar NRM. By contrast when the samples are cooled in a strong magnetic field (1.5 Tesla), this results in unimodal lamellar magnetism, and, below the TN of ilmenite it adopts a consistent negative orientation, giving rise to unimodal negative exchange bias of >500 mT. The results presented here cover the chemical and magnetic properties, Mossbauer results and transmission electron microscopy of the titanohematite and ilmenite lamellae. Initial magnetic experiments indicated the shifts found in the exchange-bias experiments were directly related to the orientation of the sample to the applied field and the initial state of the NRM. In most samples with these unusual magnetic properties, ilmenite lamellae could not be seen in an optical or a scanning electron microscope. However magnetic experiments gave proof of the presence of ilmenite, later confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Several attempts were made to identify ilmenite in TEM studies, finally successful in showing ilmenite lamellae parallel to (001) of hematite with thicknesses ˜1.2 to 1.7 nm and aspect ratios 7-13. Here we compare new TEM images and the magnetic

  10. Application of Corrugated Lamella in Settler of Waterworks%波纹型斜板在水厂沉淀池改造中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钟珮

    2009-01-01

    在水厂沉淀池前部沿池宽方向增设侧向流不锈钢波纹斜板组,可在占地受限的情况下,有效改善现有水厂絮凝沉淀池的沉淀条件,达到进一步提高水质的目的.%A side-flow stainless steel corrugated lamella unit was additionally installed foreside a-long the width direction of settler in waterworks. In the case of limited land, it can improve the settling condition of flocculation settler, achieving the goal of further improving water quality.

  11. Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

  12. Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

  13. Lateral facial cleft associated with accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and peripheral facial weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçelik, D; Toplu, G; Türkseven, A; Senses, D A; Yiğit, B

    2014-07-01

    Transverse facial cleft is a very rare malformation. The Tessier no. 7 cleft is a lateral facial cleft which emanates from oral cavity and extends towards the tragus, involving both soft tissue and skeletal components. Here, we present a case having transverse facial cleft, accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and ipsilateral peripheral facial nerve weakness. After surgical repair of the cleft in 2-month of age, improvement of the facial nerve function was detected in 3-year of age. Resection of the accessory mandible was planned in 5-6 years of age.

  14. Facial image identification using Photomodeler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Andersen, Marie; Lauritsen, Helle Petri

    2003-01-01

    consist of many images of the same person taken from different angles. We wanted to see if it was possible to combine such a suite of images in useful 3-D renderings of facial proportions.Fifteen male adults were photographed from four different angles. Based on these photographs, a 3-D wireframe model......We present the results of a preliminary study on the use of 3-D software (Photomodeler) for identification purposes. Perpetrators may be photographed or filmed by surveillance systems. The police may wish to have these images compared to photographs of suspects. The surveillance imagery will often...

  15. Early Observations on Facial Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2015-01-01

    Before Charles Bell's eponymous account of facial palsy, physicians of the Graeco-Roman era had chronicled the condition. The later neglected accounts of the Persian physicians Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari and Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi ("Rhazes") and Avicenna in the first millennium are presented here as major descriptive works preceding the later description by Stalpart van der Wiel in the seventeenth century and those of Friedreich and Bell at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries.

  16. The relationships between processing facial identity, emotional expression, facial speech, and gaze direction during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Sibylle M; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Korell, Monika; Maier-Karius, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with 5- to 11-year-olds and adults to investigate whether facial identity, facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction are processed independently of or in interaction with one another. In a computer-based, speeded sorting task, participants sorted faces according to facial identity while disregarding facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction or, alternatively, according to facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction while disregarding facial identity. Reaction times showed that children and adults were able to direct their attention selectively to facial identity despite variations of other kinds of face information, but when sorting according to facial speech and emotional expression, they were unable to ignore facial identity. In contrast, gaze direction could be processed independently of facial identity in all age groups. Apart from shorter reaction times and fewer classification errors, no substantial change in processing facial information was found to be correlated with age. We conclude that adult-like face processing routes are employed from 5 years of age onward.

  17. Guiding atypical facial growth back to normal. Part 1: Understanding facial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galella, Steve; Chow, Daniel; Jones, Earl; Enlow, Donald; Masters, Ari

    2011-01-01

    Many practitioners find the complexity of facial growth overwhelming and thus merely observe and accept the clinical features of atypical growth and do not comprehend the long-term consequences. Facial growth and development is a strictly controlled biological process. Normal growth involves ongoing bone remodeling and positional displacement. Atypical growth begins when this biological balance is disturbed With the understanding of these processes, clinicians can adequately assess patients and determine the causes of these atypical facial growth patterns and design effective treatment plans. This is the first of a series of articles which addresses normal facial growth, atypical facial growth, patient assessment, causes of atypical facial growth, and guiding facial growth back to normal.

  18. Fast Facial Detection by Depth Map Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Shieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain correct facial recognition results, one needs to adopt appropriate facial detection techniques. Moreover, the effects of facial detection are usually affected by the environmental conditions such as background, illumination, and complexity of objectives. In this paper, the proposed facial detection scheme, which is based on depth map analysis, aims to improve the effectiveness of facial detection and recognition under different environmental illumination conditions. The proposed procedures consist of scene depth determination, outline analysis, Haar-like classification, and related image processing operations. Since infrared light sources can be used to increase dark visibility, the active infrared visual images captured by a structured light sensory device such as Kinect will be less influenced by environmental lights. It benefits the accuracy of the facial detection. Therefore, the proposed system will detect the objective human and face firstly and obtain the relative position by structured light analysis. Next, the face can be determined by image processing operations. From the experimental results, it demonstrates that the proposed scheme not only improves facial detection under varying light conditions but also benefits facial recognition.

  19. Predicting facial characteristics from complex polygenic variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Wolffhechel, Karin Marie Brandt; Pers, Tune

    2015-01-01

    genetic principal components across a population of 1,266 individuals. For this we perform a genome-wide association analysis to select a large number of SNPs linked to specific facial traits, recode these to genetic principal components and then use these principal components as predictors for facial...

  20. Facial Mimicry in its Social Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate eSeibt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In interpersonal encounters, individuals often exhibit changes in their own facial expressions in response to emotional expressions of another person. Such changes are often called facial mimicry. While this tendency first appeared to be an automatic tendency of the perceiver to show the same emotional expression as the sender, evidence is now accumulating that situation, person, and relationship jointly determine whether and for which emotions such congruent facial behavior is shown. We review the evidence regarding the moderating influence of such factors on facial mimicry with a focus on understanding the meaning of facial responses to emotional expressions in a particular constellation. From this, we derive recommendations for a research agenda with a stronger focus on the most common forms of encounters, actual interactions with known others, and on assessing potential mediators of facial mimicry. We conclude that facial mimicry is modulated by many factors: attention deployment and sensitivity, detection of valence, emotional feelings, and social motivations. We posit that these are the more proximal causes of changes in facial mimicry due to changes in its social setting.

  1. Large destructive facial hemangioma in PHACE syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagdeve N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an infant who presented with large facial hemangioma associated with Dandy-Walker cyst and atrial septal defect. This case is peculiar in that the large facial hemangioma in posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, coarctation of aorta and other cardiac defects (PHACE syndrome resulted in massive tissue destruction.

  2. Immunobiology of Facial Nerve Repair and Regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Shi-ming; GAO Zhi-qiang

    2006-01-01

    Immunobiological study is a key to revealing the important basis of facial nerve repair and regeneration for both research and development of clinic treatments. The microenvironmental changes around an injuried facial motoneuron, i.e., the aggregation and expression of various types of immune cells and molecules in a dynamic equilibrium, impenetrate from the start to the end of the repair of an injured facial nerve. The concept of "immune microenvironment for facial nerve repair and regeneration", mainly concerns with the dynamic exchange between expression and regulation networks and a variaty of immune cells and immune molecules in the process of facial nerve repair and regeneration for the maintenance of a immune microenvironment favorable for nerve repair.Investigation on microglial activation and recruitment, T cell behavior, cytokine networks, and immunological cellular and molecular signaling pathways in facial nerve repair and regeneration are the current hot spots in the research on immunobiology of facial nerve injury. The current paper provides a comprehensive review of the above mentioned issues. Research of these issues will eventually make immunological interventions practicable treatments for facial nerve injury in the clinic.

  3. The Facial Adipose Tissue: A Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglikov, Ilja; Trujillo, Oscar; Kristen, Quick; Isac, Kerelos; Zorko, Julia; Fam, Maria; Okonkwo, Kasie; Mian, Asima; Thanh, Hyunh; Koban, Konstantin; Sclafani, Anthony P; Steinke, Hanno; Cotofana, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Recent advantages in the anatomical understanding of the face have turned the focus toward the subcutaneous and deep facial fat compartments. During facial aging, these fat-filled compartments undergo substantial changes along with other structures in the face. Soft tissue filler and fat grafting are valid methods to fight the signs of facial aging, but little is known about their precise effect on the facial fat. This narrative review summarizes the current knowledge about the facial fat compartments in terms of anatomical location, histologic appearance, immune-histochemical characteristics, cellular interactions, and therapeutic options. Three different types of facial adipose tissue can be identified, which are located either superficially (dermal white adipose tissue) or deep (subcutaneous white adipose tissue): fibrous (perioral locations), structural (major parts of the midface), and deposit (buccal fat pad and deep temporal fat pad). These various fat types differ in the size of the adipocytes and the collagenous composition of their extracellular matrix and thus in their mechanical properties. Minimal invasive (e.g., soft tissue fillers or fat grafting) and surgical interventions aiming to restore the youthful face have to account for the different fat properties in various facial areas. However, little is known about the macro- and microscopic characteristics of the facial fat tissue in different compartments and future studies are needed to reveal new insights to better understand the process of aging and how to fight its signs best.

  4. Facial nerve palsy and hemifacial spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Solé, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Facial nerve lesions are usually benign conditions even though patients may present with emotional distress. Facial palsy usually resolves in 3-6 weeks, but if axonal degeneration takes place, it is likely that the patient will end up with a postparalytic facial syndrome featuring synkinesis, myokymic discharges, and hemifacial mass contractions after abnormal reinnervation. Essential hemifacial spasm is one form of facial hyperactivity that must be distinguished from synkinesis after facial palsy and also from other forms of facial dyskinesias. In this condition, there can be ectopic discharges, ephaptic transmission, and lateral spread of excitation among nerve fibers, giving rise to involuntary muscle twitching and spasms. Electrodiagnostic assessment is of relevance for the diagnosis and prognosis of peripheral facial palsy and hemifacial spasm. In this chapter the most relevant clinical and electrodiagnostic aspects of the two disorders are reviewed, with emphasis on the various stages of facial palsy after axonal degeneration, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the various features of hemifacial spasm, and the cues for differential diagnosis between the two entities.

  5. Detection of hypoplasia of bony cochlear nerve canal by virtual endoscopy: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan Yong; Wu Lebin; Gong Wuxian; Gong Ruozhen (Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong Univeristy, Jinan, Shandong (China)), email: grzh99@yahoo.com.cn; Zu Zushan (Dept. of Radiology, Wendeng Central Hospital, Weifang Medical College, Weihai (China))

    2011-09-15

    Background: Dimensions of the bony cochlear nerve canal (BCNC) have been proposed as a potential diagnostic standard for hypoplasia of BCNC, but the standard remains inconsistent. We have previously found that a helix-like shape appears in normal BCNCs at VE images, whereas, the sign does not appear in some hypoplastic BCNCs. Purpose: To retrospectively examine the feasibility of computed tomographic (CT) virtual endoscopy (VE) in the evaluation of hypoplasia of BCNC on the basis of absence of a helix-like shape. Material and Methods: Twenty ears in 14 consecutive patients (mean age 5.5 years, range 1-15 years, 6 boys, 8 girls) diagnosed with hypoplasia of BCNC were included in this work. One hundred ears in 50 gender- and age-matched individuals (mean age 6.6 years, range 1-15 years, 29 boys, 21 girls) without inner ear disease and internal auditory canal (IAC) malformations served as controls. The presence or absence of a helix-like shape was evaluated by two independent reviewers. The value of VE for the diagnosis of hypoplasia of BCNC was assessed with clinical results and routine radiologic evaluation as the reference standard. Inter-observer agreement was calculated. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were selected to test the diagnostic ability of the VE. Results: Absence of a helix-like shape was found in the cochlear area of 17 of 20 ears in patients with hypoplasia of BCNC but in none of the control subjects. Inter-observer agreement was substantial (? = 0.773). The diagnostic rates of absence of a helix-like shape for hypoplasia of BCNC in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 85%, 100%, and 98%, respectively. There were significant differences between the two groups with respect to VE findings for absence of a helix-like shape (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The absence of a helix-like shape at VE images may be used as a potentially useful sign in the diagnosis of hypoplasia of BCNC

  6. Permian-Triassic Osteichthyes (bony fishes): diversity dynamics and body size evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Carlo; Koot, Martha B; Kogan, Ilja; Brayard, Arnaud; Minikh, Alla V; Brinkmann, Winand; Bucher, Hugo; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    The Permian and Triassic were key time intervals in the history of life on Earth. Both periods are marked by a series of biotic crises including the most catastrophic of such events, the end-Permian mass extinction, which eventually led to a major turnover from typical Palaeozoic faunas and floras to those that are emblematic for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Here we review patterns in Permian-Triassic bony fishes, a group whose evolutionary dynamics are understudied. Based on data from primary literature, we analyse changes in their taxonomic diversity and body size (as a proxy for trophic position) and explore their response to Permian-Triassic events. Diversity and body size are investigated separately for different groups of Osteichthyes (Dipnoi, Actinistia, 'Palaeopterygii', 'Subholostei', Holostei, Teleosteomorpha), within the marine and freshwater realms and on a global scale (total diversity) as well as across palaeolatitudinal belts. Diversity is also measured for different palaeogeographical provinces. Our results suggest a general trend from low osteichthyan diversity in the Permian to higher levels in the Triassic. Diversity dynamics in the Permian are marked by a decline in freshwater taxa during the Cisuralian. An extinction event during the end-Guadalupian crisis is not evident from our data, but 'palaeopterygians' experienced a significant body size increase across the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary and these fishes upheld their position as large, top predators from the Late Permian to the Late Triassic. Elevated turnover rates are documented at the Permian-Triassic boundary, and two distinct diversification events are noted in the wake of this biotic crisis, a first one during the Early Triassic (dipnoans, actinistians, 'palaeopterygians', 'subholosteans') and a second one during the Middle Triassic ('subholosteans', neopterygians). The origination of new, small taxa predominantly among these groups during the Middle Triassic event caused a

  7. Reconstruction of a bony bankart lesion: best fit based on radius of curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaan, Alexander; Munch, Jacqueline; Durkan, Michael; Yoo, Jung; Crawford, Dennis

    2013-05-01

    The inferior coracoid process has traditionally been considered to be the gold standard for glenoid augmentation after anteroinferior bone loss. Other autograft sites, and more recently, osteochondral allograft sites, have been described as potential donor sources. Potential autograft and osteochondral allograft sites were compared to identify the graft source that would provide the best fit for glenoid augmentation. Controlled laboratory study. Mose circles, a geometric tool found on a standard goniometer, were used to make radius of curvature measurements of 10 anatomic locations in 17 cadaveric specimens. The bony surface of the glenoid, measured from superior to inferior (G-SI) and from anterior to posterior (G-AP), was used as the standard for comparison. Autograft sites were the inferior coracoid, lateral coracoid, and inner table of the iliac crest. Potential osteochondral allograft sites were the radial head, scaphoid fossa of the distal radius (S-DR), lunate fossa of the distal radius (L-DR), medial tibial plateau, and lateral distal tibia. An acceptable match for autograft sites was based on a paired analysis and defined as a radius of curvature within 5 mm of the G-SI or the G-AP of the same cadaveric specimen. Allograft sites were evaluated using an unpaired analysis in which an ideal fit was defined as a radius of curvature of 25 to 30 mm, based on the interquartile range of the G-SI and G-AP. The median (interquartile range) radii of curvature for the G-SI and G-AP were 30 mm (range, 25-30 mm) and 25 mm (range, 25-25 mm), respectively. The inferior coracoid was within 5 mm of the G-SI 59% of the time and the G-AP 94% of the time; no measurements from the lateral coracoid or iliac crest were within the range of the glenoid radius of curvature. Analysis of the allograft sites demonstrated an acceptable fit for 94% of the distal tibia, 68% of the medial tibial plateau, 12% of the S-DR, and 0% of the L-DR and the radial head specimens. An autograft of the

  8. Hydrothermal treatment and iodine binding provide insights into the organization of glucan chains within the semi-crystalline lamellae of corn starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamadevan, Varatharajan; Hoover, Ratnajothi; Bertoft, Eric; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2014-08-01

    The importance of glucan chains that pass through both the amorphous and crystalline lamellae (tie chains) in the organization of corn starch granules was studied using heat-moisture treatment (HMT), annealing (ANN), and iodine binding. Molecular structural analysis showed that hylon starches (HV, HVII, and HVIII) contained higher proportion of intermediate glucan chains (HVIII > HVII > HV) than normal corn (CN) starch. Wide angle X-ray scattering revealed that on HMT, the extent of polymorphic transition in hylon starches decreased with increasing proportion of intermediate and long chains. Iodine treated hylon starches exhibited increased order in the V-type polymorphism as evidenced by the intense peak at 20° 2θ and the strong reflection intensity at 7.5° 2θ and the extent of the change depended on the type of hylon starch. DSC results showed that the gelatinization enthalpy of CN and waxy corn starch (CW) remained unchanged after ANN. However, hylon starches showed a significant increase in enthalpy with more distinct endotherms after ANN. It can be concluded that tie chains influence the organization of crystalline lamellae in amylose extender mutant starches.

  9. The phylogenetic position of Myxobolus carnaticus (Myxozoa, Myxosporea, Bivalvulida infecting gill lamellae of Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822 based on 18S rRNA sequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayani Banerjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Myxozoans are an economically important group of microscopic parasites best known for the diseases they cause in commercially important fish hosts. The classification of myxosporeans is generally based on the morphology of their myxospores. Without molecular data, it is very difficult to identify new or existing species. DNA sequence information is therefore, a prerequisite to taxonomic and phylogenic studies of myxosporeans. In the present study, a myxozoan parasite, Myxobolus carnaticus,infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp, Cirrhinus mrigala,was characterized by the 18S rRNA gene sequence. The DNA sequence of M. carnaticus clustered phylogenetically with other gill infecting Myxobolus spp. of freshwater clades, forming a dichotomy with closely related M. pavlovskii (HM991164 that infects the gill lamellae epithelium of silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix with 95% similarity. Evolutionary pair-wise distances among M. carnaticus and other species of myxosporeans indicated high genetic diversity among myxosporeans. The present study demonstrated that tissue tropism, host specificity and habitat play important roles in phylogenetic relationships among myxozoan species.

  10. The phylogenetic position of Myxoboluscarnaticus (Myxozoa, Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) infecting gill lamellae of Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822) based on 18S rRNA sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sayani; Patra, Avijit; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Mondal, Anjan; Jawahar Abraham, Thangapalam

    2015-09-01

    Myxozoans are an economically important group of microscopic parasites best known for the diseases they cause in commercially important fish hosts. The classification of myxosporeans is generally based on the morphology of their myxospores. Without molecular data, it is very difficult to identify new or existing species. DNA sequence information is therefore, a prerequisite to taxonomic and phylogenic studies of myxosporeans. In the present study, a myxozoan parasite, Myxobolus carnaticus, infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp, Cirrhinus mrigala, was characterized by the 18S rRNA gene sequence. The DNA sequence of M. carnaticus clustered phylogenetically with other gill infecting Myxobolus spp. of freshwater clades, forming a dichotomy with closely related M. pavlovskii (HM991164) that infects the gill lamellae epithelium of silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix with 95% similarity. Evolutionary pair-wise distances among M. carnaticus and other species of myxosporeans indicated high genetic diversity among myxosporeans. The present study demonstrated that tissue tropism, host specificity and habitat play important roles in phylogenetic relationships among myxozoan species.

  11. Low-Energy Amorphization of Ti1Sb2Te5 Phase Change Alloy Induced by TiTe2 Nano-Lamellae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Keyuan; Rao, Feng; Lv, Shilong; Cheng, Yan; Wu, Liangcai; Song, Zhitang

    2016-07-01

    Increasing SET operation speed and reducing RESET operation energy have always been the innovation direction of phase change memory (PCM) technology. Here, we demonstrate that ∼87% and ∼42% reductions of RESET operation energy can be achieved on PCM cell based on stoichiometric Ti1Sb2Te5 alloy, compared with Ge2Sb2Te5 and non-stoichiometric Ti0.4Sb2Te3 based PCM cells at the same size, respectively. The Ti1Sb2Te5 based PCM cell also shows one order of magnitude faster SET operation speed compared to that of the Ge2Sb2Te5 based one. The enhancements may be caused by substantially increased concentration of TiTe2 nano-lamellae in crystalline Ti1Sb2Te5 phase. The highly electrical conduction and lowly thermal dissipation of the TiTe2 nano-lamellae play a major role in enhancing the thermal efficiency of the amorphization, prompting the low-energy RESET operation. Our work may inspire the interests to more thorough understanding and tailoring of the nature of the (TiTe2)n(Sb2Te3)m pseudobinary system which will be advantageous to realize high-speed and low-energy PCM applications.

  12. Effects of Film Elasticity and Surface Forces on the Stability of Foams and Lamellae Films in the Presence of Non-ionic Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liguang; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the basic factors affecting the stability of the foam films produced in the presence of nonionic surfactants such as n-pentanol, n-octanol, methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC), and polypropylene glycol (PPG). We used a model developed by Wang and Yoon (Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 282-283, 84-91 (2006)) to calculate the Gibbs elasticity of the lamellae films. In addition, we used the thin film pressure balance (TFPB) technique to measure film thicknesses. The results were used to determine the disjoining pressures in the thin lamellae (foam) films formed between air bubbles, which are relevant forces governing the final drainage stage of foam films before reaching either equilibrium or rupture. The film elasticity and surface forces data were then compared with the foam stabilities measured in the present work in the presence of the various surfactants. It was found that foam stabilities are controlled both by film elasticity and by surface forces, the relative contributions of each changing with surfactant type and concentration. In general, surface forces play a more important role at relatively low surfactant concentrations, while elasticity plays a more important role at higher concentrations. At the surfactant additions usually employed in the mining industry, MIBC stabilizes foams by increasing disjoining pressures, while PPG-400 stabilizes foams by increasing film elasticity.

  13. A review of facial nerve anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myckatyn, Terence M; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2004-02-01

    An intimate knowledge of facial nerve anatomy is critical to avoid its inadvertent injury during rhytidectomy, parotidectomy, maxillofacial fracture reduction, and almost any surgery of the head and neck. Injury to the frontal and marginal mandibular branches of the facial nerve in particular can lead to obvious clinical deficits, and areas where these nerves are particularly susceptible to injury have been designated danger zones by previous authors. Assessment of facial nerve function is not limited to its extratemporal anatomy, however, as many clinical deficits originate within its intratemporal and intracranial components. Similarly, the facial nerve cannot be considered an exclusively motor nerve given its contributions to taste, auricular sensation, sympathetic input to the middle meningeal artery, and parasympathetic innervation to the lacrimal, submandibular, and sublingual glands. The constellation of deficits resulting from facial nerve injury is correlated with its complex anatomy to help establish the level of injury, predict recovery, and guide surgical management.

  14. Mutual information-based facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

  15. Robust facial expression recognition via compressive sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiqing; Zhao, Xiaoming; Lei, Bicheng

    2012-01-01

    Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC). The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP), are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN), linear support vector machines (SVM) and the nearest subspace (NS), experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks.

  16. Warfare facial trauma: who will treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, D K

    1996-09-01

    Most of the facial trauma in the United States is treated in trauma centers in large urban or university medical centers, with limited trauma care taking place in our military medical treatment facilities. In many cases, active duty facial trauma surgeons may lack the current experience necessary for the optimal care of facial wounds of our inquired military personnel in the early stages of the conflict. Consequently, the skills of the reservist trauma surgeons who staff our civilian trauma centers and who care for facial trauma victims daily will be critical in caring for our wounded. These "trauma-current" reservists may act as a cadre of practiced surgeons to aid those with less experience. A plan for refresher training of active duty facial trauma surgeons is presented.

  17. 面瘫动物模型的研究现状%Research status of animal model of acute peripheral facial paralysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昕蓉; 张勤修

    2012-01-01

    Acute peripheral facial paralysis is a disease with acute palsy flaccid of mimic muscles due to the damages to facial nerve either at facial nerve nucleus or beyond it. Because facial nerve is the longest cranial nerve which traverses in the bony fallopian canal, any lesion of the facial nerve could cause paralysis of the ipsilateral face. Acute peripheral dysfunction of the facial nerve becomes one of the most common otology diseases. It is hard to locate the lesion of facial nerve and to choose proper therapeutic regiment as soon as possible because of the complexity of the anatomy of facial nerve. So it is necessary to establish acute facial paralysis animal model to prompt further study of this disease. This article approached the methods to found acute facial paralysis animal models, analyzed the deficiencies existing in the models and suggested the new thread of this research.%急性周围性面瘫是面神经核及其以下面神经损伤导致的急性面部表情肌的迟缓性麻痹.因面神经是在骨管内行程最长的颅神经,易受外界因素影响、侵犯,所以急性周围性面瘫是耳科疾病中的常见病.且因面神经行程复杂,增大了面瘫定位和选择治疗方案的难度.急性周围性面瘫动物模型的建立为深入研究面瘫提供了一个手段.本文从面瘫动物造模机制、特点、适用范围及效度、目前存在的问题等方面对现常用的面瘫动物模型的研究现状进行综述.

  18. Acro-cardio-facial syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallapiccola Bruno

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acro-cardio-facial syndrome (ACFS is a rare genetic disorder characterized by split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM, facial anomalies, cleft lip/palate, congenital heart defect (CHD, genital anomalies, and mental retardation. Up to now, 9 patients have been described, and most of the reported cases were not surviving the first days or months of age. The spectrum of defects occurring in ACFS is wide, and both interindividual variability and clinical differences among sibs have been reported. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, since the genetic mechanism underlying ACFS is still unknown. The differential diagnosis includes other disorders with ectrodactyly, and clefting conditions associated with genital anomalies and heart defects. An autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance has been suggested, based on parental consanguinity and disease's recurrence in sibs in some families. The more appropriate recurrence risk of transmitting the disease for the parents of an affected child seems to be up to one in four. Management of affected patients includes treatment of cardiac, respiratory, and feeding problems by neonatal pediatricians and other specialists. Prognosis of ACFS is poor.

  19. The use of a polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffold for bone regeneration of tooth socket facial wall defects and simultaneous immediate dental implant placement in Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Bee Tin; Chanchareonsook, Nattharee; Tideman, Henk; Teoh, Swee Hin; Chow, James Kwok Fai; Jansen, John A

    2014-05-01

    Bone regeneration and aesthetic outcomes may be compromised when immediate implants are placed at extraction sites with dehiscence defects. The aim of this study was to compare, in a monkey model, peri-implant bone regeneration and implant stability after immediate implant placement into tooth sockets with facial wall defects in two treatment groups. In eight control monkeys, the bony defect was reconstructed with autogenous particulate bone, whereas in 10 test monkeys a polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) scaffold was used. The monkeys were sacrificed after 6 months and the specimens were analyzed by histology and histomorphometry. Better maintenance of facial bone contour was noted in the test group; however, bone regeneration was seen only at areas adjacent to a bony wall of the defect. The mean bone-to-implant contact was 27.6 ± 19.1% (control group) versus 6.8 ± 7.9% (test group). The mean bone area percentage was 11.8 ± 10.1% (control group) versus 6.8 ± 6.9% (test group). Implant survival was 100% at 6 months for both the groups. It was concluded that although the use of a PCL-TCP scaffold showed better maintenance of the alveolar contour as compared to autogenous particulate bone at 6 months, there was minimal bone regeneration within the defect.

  20. Automated Facial Action Coding System for dynamic analysis of facial expressions in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jihun; Kohler, Christian G; Gur, Ruben C; Verma, Ragini

    2011-09-15

    Facial expression is widely used to evaluate emotional impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Ekman and Friesen's Facial Action Coding System (FACS) encodes movements of individual facial muscles from distinct momentary changes in facial appearance. Unlike facial expression ratings based on categorization of expressions into prototypical emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, etc.), FACS can encode ambiguous and subtle expressions, and therefore is potentially more suitable for analyzing the small differences in facial affect. However, FACS rating requires extensive training, and is time consuming and subjective thus prone to bias. To overcome these limitations, we developed an automated FACS based on advanced computer science technology. The system automatically tracks faces in a video, extracts geometric and texture features, and produces temporal profiles of each facial muscle movement. These profiles are quantified to compute frequencies of single and combined Action Units (AUs) in videos, and they can facilitate a statistical study of large populations in disorders known to impact facial expression. We derived quantitative measures of flat and inappropriate facial affect automatically from temporal AU profiles. Applicability of the automated FACS was illustrated in a pilot study, by applying it to data of videos from eight schizophrenia patients and controls. We created temporal AU profiles that provided rich information on the dynamics of facial muscle movements for each subject. The quantitative measures of flatness and inappropriateness showed clear differences between patients and the controls, highlighting their potential in automatic and objective quantification of symptom severity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Facial Expression Spacial Charts for Describing Dynamic Diversity of Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Madokoro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new framework to describe individual facial expression spaces, particularly addressing the dynamic diversity of facial expressions that appear as an exclamation or emotion, to create a unique space for each person. We name this framework Facial Expression Spatial Charts (FESCs. The FESCs are created using Self– Organizing Maps (SOMs and Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART of unsupervised neural networks. For facial images with emphasized sparse representations using Gabor wavelet filters, SOMs extract topological information in facial expression images and classify them as categories in the fixed space that are decided by the number of units on the mapping layer. Subsequently, Fuzzy ART integrates categories classified by SOMs using adaptive learning functions under fixed granularity that is controlled by the vigilance parameter. The categories integrated by Fuzzy ART are matched to Expression Levels (ELs for quantifying facial expression intensity based on the arrangement of facial expressions on Russell’s circumplex model. We designate the category that contains neutral facial expression as the basis category. Actually, FESCs can visualize and represent dynamic diversity of facial expressions consisting of ELs extracted from facial expressions. In the experiment, we created an original facial expression dataset consisting of three facial expressions—happiness, anger, and sadness— obtained from 10 subjects during 7–20 weeks at one-week intervals. Results show that the method can adequately display the dynamic diversity of facial expressions between subjects, in addition to temporal changes in each subject. Moreover, we used stress measurement sheets to obtain temporal changes of stress for analyzing psychological effects of the stress that subjects feel. We estimated stress levels of four grades using Support Vector Machines (SVMs. The mean estimation rates for all 10 subjects and for 5 subjects over more than

  2. Minimally Invasive Surgery Combined with Regenerative Biomaterials in Treating Intra-Bony Defects: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Liu

    Full Text Available With the popularity of minimally invasive surgery (MIS in periodontics, numerous publications have evaluated the benefits of MIS with or without various regenerative biomaterials in the treatment of periodontal intra-bony defects. However, it is unclear if it is necessary to use biomaterials in MIS. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials in patients with intra-bony defects to compare the clinical outcomes of MIS with regenerative biomaterials for MIS alone.The authors retrieved English publications on relevant studies from Cochrane CENTRAL, PubMed, Medline, Embase, Clinical Evidence, and ClinicalTrials.gov (up to June 30, 2015. The main clinical outcomes were the reduction of probing pocket depths (PPDs, gain of clinical attachment level (CAL, recession of gingival margin (REC and radiographic bone fill. Review Manager 5.2 (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, England was used to calculate the heterogeneity and mean differences of the main clinical outcomes.In total, 464 studies in the literature were identified but only four were ultimately feasible. The results showed no significant difference regarding CAL gain (P = 0.32 and PPD reduction (P = 0.40 as well as REC increase (P = 0.81 and radiographic bone fill (P = 0.64 between the MIS plus biomaterials group and the MIS alone group.The meta-analysis suggested no significant difference in treatment of intra-bony defects between the MIS plus biomaterials group and the MIS alone group, indicating that it is important to take costs and benefits into consideration when a decision is made about a therapeutic approach. There needs to be an in-depth exploration of the induction of intrinsic tissue healing of MIS without biomaterials to achieve optimal outcomes.

  3. SU-E-J-94: Positioning Errors Resulting From Using Bony Anatomy Alignment for Treating SBRT Lung Tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, C; Ding, G [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify patient setups errors based on bony anatomy registration rather than 3D tumor alignment for SBRT lung treatments. Method: A retrospective study was performed for patients treated with lung SBRT and imaged with kV cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) image-guidance. Daily CBCT images were registered to treatment planning CTs based on bony anatomy alignment and then inter-fraction tumor movement was evaluated by comparing shift in the tumor center in the medial-lateral, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions. The PTV V100% was evaluated for each patient based on the average daily tumor displacement to assess the impact of the positioning error on the target coverage when the registrations were based on bony anatomy. Of the 35 patients studied, 15 were free-breathing treatments, 10 used abdominal compression with a stereotactic body frame, and the remaining 10 were performed with BodyFIX vacuum bags. Results: For free-breathing treatments, the range of tumor displacement error is between 1–6 mm in the medial-lateral, 1–13 mm in the anterior-posterior, and 1–7 mm in the superior-inferior directions. These positioning errors lead to 6–22% underdose coverage for PTV - V100% . Patients treated with abdominal compression immobilization showed positional errors of 0–4mm mediallaterally, 0–3mm anterior-posteriorly, and 0–2 mm inferior-superiorly with PTV - V100% underdose ranging between 6–17%. For patients immobilized with the vacuum bags, the positional errors were found to be 0–1 mm medial-laterally, 0–1mm anterior-posteriorly, and 0–2 mm inferior-superiorly with PTV - V100% under dose ranging between 5–6% only. Conclusion: It is necessary to align the tumor target by using 3D image guidance to ensure adequate tumor coverage before performing SBRT lung treatments. The BodyFIX vacuum bag immobilization method has the least positioning errors among the three methods studied when bony anatomy is used for

  4. A biomechanical analysis of a single-row suture anchor fixation of a large bony bankart lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyskin, Evgeny; Marzo, John M; Howard, Craig; Ehrensberger, Mark

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess whether a single-row suture anchor repair of a bony Bankart lesion comprising 19% of the glenoid length restores peak translational force and glenoid depth compared with the intact shoulder. Nine thawed adult cadaveric shoulders were dissected and mounted in 45° of abduction and 30° of external rotation. A bony Bankart lesion was simulated with an anterior longitudinal osteotomy, parallel to the superoinferior axis of the glenoid, equivalent to 19% of the glenoid length. The humeral head was displaced 10 mm anteriorly at a speed of 2 mm/s with a 50-N compressive load applied. Testing was performed with the glenoid intact, a simulated lesion, and the lesion repaired with 3 single-row suture anchors. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) peak translational force and glenoid depth were reported. The Friedman test and post hoc comparisons with the Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for between-group analyses. Peak translational force decreased after osteotomy (13.7 N; IQR, 9.6 to 15.5 N; P = .01) and increased after the repair (18.3 N; IQR, 18.3 to 20.6 N; P = .01) compared with the intact shoulder (23.7 N; IQR, 16.4 to 29.9 N). Glenoid depth significantly decreased after the osteotomy (0.2 mm; IQR, -0.6 to 0.7 mm) compared with baseline (1.7 mm; IQR, 1.3 to 2.0 mm; P = .01) and increased after repair (0.8 mm; IQR, 0.1 to 1.0 mm; P = .03) compared with the osteotomized shoulder. The glenoid depth of the repair was less than the baseline value (P = .01). Repair of an anterior bony Bankart lesion equivalent to 19% of the glenoid length with 3 suture anchors restored the peak translational force needed to anteriorly displace the humerus relative to the glenoid; however, this technique failed to restore the natural glenoid depth in a laboratory setting. Our findings describe the inability of a single-row suture anchor repair to provide anatomic fixation of the bony Bankart lesion equivalent to 19% of the glenoid length

  5. SU-E-J-33: Comparison Between Soft Tissue Alignment and Bony Alignment for Pancreatic Cancer Radiotherapy

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    Suh, Y; Crane, C; Krishnan, S; Das, P; Koay, E; Beddar, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose An IGRT modality for pancreatic cancer treatment with dose escalation at our institution is in-room daily CT imaging. The purpose of this study is to assess the difference between soft tissue alignment and bony alignment for pancreatic tumor localization. Methods Eighteen patients with pancreatic tumors who underwent IMRT treatment with an inspiration breath-hold technique between July 2012 and February 2015 are included in this study. Prior to each treatment, a CT scan was acquired. The CT image guidance started with auto-alignment to either the bony anatomy (vertebral bodies) or fiducials (for the six patients with the stent in/near the tumor) and then, when necessary, manual adjustments were made based on soft tissue alignment using clinical software (CT-Assisted Targeting system). The difference between soft tissue alignment and bony/fiducial alignment was evaluated. Results Of all 380 treatments, manual adjustment was made in 225 treatments, ranging from 11% (3 treatments out of 28) to 96% (27 treatments out of 28) per patient. The mean of the difference between soft tissue alignment and bony/fiducial alignment per patient ranged from −3.6 to 0.3 mm, −1.5 to 2.8 mm, and −3.3 to 3.4 mm in the AP, SI, and RL directions, respectively. The maximum difference over all treatments was −9.5, −14.6, and −14.6 mm in the AP, SI, and RL directions, respectively. Conclusion About 60% of the time, manual adjustment based on soft tissue alignment was required. The extent of manual adjustment was usually small but varied significantly from patient to patient. The ultimate goal of the IGRT modality using daily CT imaging is not to fully cover the target but to spare organs-at-risk as much as possible to avoid them moving into higher dose gradients than accepted in the treatment plan. To this end, manual adjustment based on soft tissue alignment is critically important.

  6. Does bony hip morphology affect the outcome of treatment for patients with adductor-related groin pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian; Nyvold, Per

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adductor-related groin pain and bony morphology such as femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) or hip dysplasia can coexist clinically. A previous randomised controlled trial in which athletes with adductor-related groin pain underwent either passive treatment (PT) or active treatment (AT...... was assessed by a standardised clinical outcome combining patient-reported activity, symptoms and physical examination. Anterioposterior pelvic radiographs were obtained and the centre-edge angle of Wiberg, α angle, presence of a crossover sign and Tönnis grade of osteoarthritis were assessed by a blinded...

  7. Facial Beautification Method Based on Age Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan; DING Shou-hong; HU Gan-le; MA Li-zhuang

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new facial beautification method using facial rejuvenation based on the age evolution. Traditional facial beautification methods only focus on the color of skin and deformation and do the transformation based on an experimental standard of beauty. Our method achieves the beauty effect by making facial image looks younger, which is different from traditional methods and is more reasonable than them. Firstly, we decompose the image into different layers and get a detail layer. Secondly, we get an age-related parameter:the standard deviation of the Gaussian distribution that the detail layer follows, and the support vector machine (SVM) regression is used to fit a function about the age and the standard deviation. Thirdly, we use this function to estimate the age of input image and generate a new detail layer with a new standard deviation which is calculated by decreasing the age. Lastly, we combine the original layers and the new detail layer to get a new face image. Experimental results show that this algo-rithm can make facial image become more beautiful by facial rejuvenation. The proposed method opens up a new way about facial beautification, and there are great potentials for applications.

  8. Amblyopia Associated with Congenital Facial Nerve Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Hitoshi; Kondo, Kenji; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Baba, Shintaro; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    The association between congenital facial paralysis and visual development has not been thoroughly studied. Of 27 pediatric cases of congenital facial paralysis, we identified 3 patients who developed amblyopia, a visual acuity decrease caused by abnormal visual development, as comorbidity. These 3 patients had facial paralysis in the periocular region and developed amblyopia on the paralyzed side. They started treatment by wearing an eye patch immediately after diagnosis and before the critical visual developmental period; all patients responded to the treatment. Our findings suggest that the incidence of amblyopia in the cases of congenital facial paralysis, particularly the paralysis in the periocular region, is higher than that in the general pediatric population. Interestingly, 2 of the 3 patients developed anisometropic amblyopia due to the hyperopia of the affected eye, implying that the periocular facial paralysis may have affected the refraction of the eye through yet unspecified mechanisms. Therefore, the physicians who manage facial paralysis should keep this pathology in mind, and when they see pediatric patients with congenital facial paralysis involving the periocular region, they should consult an ophthalmologist as soon as possible. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Deep plane facelifting for facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Neil; Adam, Stewart

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the facial plastic surgeon with anatomical and embryologic evidence to support the use of the deep plane technique for optimal treatment of facial aging. A detailed description of the procedure is provided to allow safe and consistent performance. Insights into anatomical landmarks, technical nuances, and alternative approaches for facial variations are presented. The following points will be further elucidated in the article. The platysma muscle/submuscular aponeurotic system/galea are the continuous superficial cervical fascia encompassing the majority of facial fat, and this superficial soft tissue envelope is poorly anchored to the face. The deep cervical fascia binds the structural aspects of the face and covers the facial nerve and buccal fat pad. Facial aging is mainly due to gravity's long-term effects on the superficial soft tissue envelope, with more subtle effects on the deeper structural compartments. The deep plane is the embryologic cleavage plane between these fascial layers, and is the logical place for facial dissection. The deep plane allows access to the buccal fat pad for treatment of jowling. Soft tissue mobilization is maximized in deep plane dissections and requires careful hairline planning. Flap advancement creates tension only at the fascia level allowing natural, tension-free skin closure, and long-lasting outcomes. The deep plane advancement flap is well vascularized and resistant to complications.

  10. Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Milutinovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of a patient’s facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP. Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions.

  11. The identification of unfolding facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Schmidt, Susanna; Viviani, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    We asked whether the identification of emotional facial expressions (FEs) involves the simultaneous perception of the facial configuration or the detection of emotion-specific diagnostic cues. We recorded at high speed (500 frames s-1) the unfolding of the FE in five actors, each expressing six emotions (anger, surprise, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness). Recordings were coded every 10 frames (20 ms of real time) with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al 2002, Salt Lake City, UT: Research Nexus eBook) to identify the facial actions contributing to each expression, and their intensity changes over time. Recordings were shown in slow motion (1/20 of recording speed) to one hundred observers in a forced-choice identification task. Participants were asked to identify the emotion during the presentation as soon as they felt confident to do so. Responses were recorded along with the associated response times (RTs). The RT probability density functions for both correct and incorrect responses were correlated with the facial activity during the presentation. There were systematic correlations between facial activities, response probabilities, and RT peaks, and significant differences in RT distributions for correct and incorrect answers. The results show that a reliable response is possible long before the full FE configuration is reached. This suggests that identification is reached by integrating in time individual diagnostic facial actions, and does not require perceiving the full apex configuration.

  12. A comparison of facial expression properties in five hylobatid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheider, Linda; Liebal, Katja; Oña, Leonardo; Burrows, Anne; Waller, Bridget

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about facial communication of lesser apes (family Hylobatidae) and how their facial expressions (and use of) relate to social organization. We investigated facial expressions (defined as combinations of facial movements) in social interactions of mated pairs in five different hylobat

  13. A dynamic appearance descriptor approach to facial actions temporal modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Bihan; Valstar, Michel; Martinez, Brais; Pantic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Both the configuration and the dynamics of facial expressions are crucial for the interpretation of human facial behavior. Yet to date, the vast majority of reported efforts in the field either do not take the dynamics of facial expressions into account, or focus only on prototypic facial expression

  14. Facial Grading System: Physical and Psychological Impairments to Be Considered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Meng-yao; FENG Guo-dong; GAO Zhi-qiang

    2008-01-01

    In the past half century, more than twenty facial grading systems have been developed to assess the facial nerve function after the onset of facial nerve paralysis and during rehabilitation. Patients' selfevaluation on disability caused by facial paralysis and its impact on quality of life are also useful information in planning treatment strategies and defining outcomes.

  15. Giant sialocele following facial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros Júnior, Rui; Rocha Neto, Alípio Miguel da; Queiroz, Isaac Vieira; Cauby, Antônio de Figueiredo; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino Monteiro; Leão, Jair Carneiro

    2012-01-01

    Injuries in the parotid and masseter region can cause serious impairment secondary to damage of important anatomical structures. Sialocele is observed as facial swelling associated with parotid duct rupture due to trauma. The aim of this paper is to report a case of a giant traumatic sialocele in the parotid gland, secondary to a knife lesion in a 40-year-old woman. Conservative measures could not promote clinical resolution and a surgical intervention for the placement of a vacuum drain was selected. Under local anesthesia, a small incision was performed adjacent to parotid duct papilla, followed by muscular divulsion and draining of significant amount of saliva. An active vacuum suction drain was placed for 15 days, aiming to form a new salivary duct. This technique was shown to be a safe, effective and low-cost option, leading to complete resolution and no recurrence after 28 months of follow up.

  16. Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    The face is a vital component of one’s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecting social life and general quality of life are vital and the plastic surgeon should be aware of such issues and competent to deal with them in patients and families. PMID:21217982

  17. Fusing Facial Features for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Ahmad Dargham

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is an important biometric method because of its potential applications in many fields, such as access control, surveillance, and human-computer interaction. In this paper, a face recognition system that fuses the outputs of three face recognition systems based on Gabor jets is presented. The first system uses the magnitude, the second uses the phase, and the third uses the phase-weighted magnitude of the jets. The jets are generated from facial landmarks selected using three selection methods. It was found out that fusing the facial features gives better recognition rate than either facial feature used individually regardless of the landmark selection method.

  18. Razi's description and treatment of facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmood; Kalantar Hormozi, Abdoljalil; Asadi, Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    In the modern medical era, facial paralysis is linked with the name of Charles Bell. This disease, which is usually unilateral and is a peripheral facial palsy, causes facial muscle weakness in the affected side. Bell gave a complete description of the disease; but historically other physicians had described it several hundred years prior although it had been ignored for different reasons, such as the difficulty of the original text language. The first and the most famous of these physicians who described this disease was Mohammad Ibn Zakaryya Razi (Rhazes). In this article, we discuss his opinion.

  19. Bullous leukemia cutis mimicking facial cellulitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldato, Luciana de Sales; Britto, Juliana de Sousa; Niero-Melo, Ligia; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2016-01-01

    Bullous leukemia cutis is an uncommon clinical manifestation of cutaneous infiltration by leukemic cells, from B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We present the case of a 67-year-old, female, chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient. She was taking chlorambucil and developed facial edema with erythema and warmth, misjudged as facial cellulitis. Two days later, she developed bullous lesions in the arms, legs, neck and face. The histopathology of facial and bullous lesions confirmed leukemia cutis. All lesions disappeared following the administration of rituximab combined with cycles of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide. Although soft tissue infections are common complications in patients undergoing chemotherapy, leukemia cutis can also resemble cellulitis. PMID:27192532

  20. Intratemporal Hemangiomas Involving the Facial Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sanjaya; Karmarkar, Sandeep; Calabrese, V.; Landolfi, Mauro; Taibah, Abdelkader; Russo, Alessandra; Mazzoni, Antonio; Sanna, Mario

    1995-01-01

    Intratemporal vascular tumors involving the facial nerve are rare benign lesions. Because of their variable clinical features, they are often misdiagnosed preoperatively. This study presents a series of 21 patients with such lesions managed from 1977 to 1994. Facial nerve dysfunction was the most common complaint, present in 60% of the cases, followed by hearing loss, present in 40% of cases. High-resolution computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium, and a high index of clinical suspicion is required for preoperative diagnosis of these lesions. Early surgical resection of these tumors permits acceptable return of facial nerve function in many patients. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:17170963

  1. Valid facial cues to cooperation and trust: male facial width and trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirrat, M; Perrett, D I

    2010-03-01

    Decisions about whom to trust are biased by stable facial traits such as attractiveness, similarity to kin, and perceived trustworthiness. Research addressing the validity of facial trustworthiness or its basis in facial features is scarce, and the results have been inconsistent. We measured male trustworthiness operationally in trust games in which participants had options to collaborate for mutual financial gain or to exploit for greater personal gain. We also measured facial (bizygomatic) width (scaled for face height) because this is a sexually dimorphic, testosterone-linked trait predictive of male aggression. We found that men with greater facial width were more likely to exploit the trust of others and that other players were less likely to trust male counterparts with wide rather than narrow faces (independent of their attractiveness). Moreover, manipulating this facial-width ratio with computer graphics controlled attributions of trustworthiness, particularly for subordinate female evaluators.

  2. Impaired Overt Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Sayaka; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Previous electromyographic studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibited atypical patterns of facial muscle activity in response to facial expression stimuli. However, whether such activity is expressed in visible facial mimicry remains unknown. To investigate this issue, we videotaped facial responses in…

  3. [Summery and recommendations for acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Qiang; Yu, Su; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2011-12-01

    Articles on acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were picked up from CNKI database. The retrieved original studies were evaluated and summarized. The problems of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were analyzed, and concrete solutions were proposed. Problems that differential diagnosis, prognosis, treatment of severe facial paralysis, and identification of sequelae and compliation were not embasized in clinical treatment of facial paralysis. Consequently, the effectiveness of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis will be improved by sloving above problems.

  4. Bony outgrowths on the jaws of an extinct sperm whale support macroraptorial feeding in several stem physeteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Olivier; Bianucci, Giovanni; Beatty, Brian L.

    2014-06-01

    Several extinct sperm whales (stem Physeteroidea) were recently proposed to differ markedly in their feeding ecology from the suction-feeding modern sperm whales Kogia and Physeter. Based on cranial, mandibular, and dental morphology, these Miocene forms were tentatively identified as macroraptorial feeders, able to consume proportionally large prey using their massive teeth and robust jaws. However, until now, no corroborating evidence for the use of teeth during predation was available. We report on a new specimen of the stem physeteroid Acrophyseter, from the late middle to early late Miocene of Peru, displaying unusual bony outgrowths along some of the upper alveoli. Considering their position and outer shape, these are identified as buccal maxillary exostoses. More developed along posterior teeth and in tight contact with the high portion of the dental root outside the bony alveoli, the exostoses are hypothesized to have developed during powerful bites; they may have worked as buttresses, strengthening the teeth when facing intense occlusal forces. These buccal exostoses further support a raptorial feeding technique for Acrophyseter and, indirectly, for other extinct sperm whales with a similar oral apparatus ( Brygmophyseter, Livyatan, Zygophyseter). With a wide size range, these Miocene stem physeteroids were major marine macropredators, occupying ecological niches nowadays mostly taken by killer whales.

  5. Comparison of the bony remodelling of two synthetic biomaterials: aragonite 55% and aragonite 55% with active substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudadesse, H [Universite de Rennes1, UMR-CNRS 6226, campus de beaulieu, 263 av. General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes (France); Derrien, A C [Universite de Rennes1, UMR-CNRS 6226, campus de beaulieu, 263 av. General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes (France); Martin, S [Universite de Rennes1, UMR-CNRS 6226, UFR Odontologie, 2 ave. du Pr. Leon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Lucas-Girot, A [Universite de Rennes1, UMR-CNRS 6226, campus de beaulieu, 263 av. General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes (France); Cathelineau, G [Universite de Rennes1, UMR-CNRS 6226, UFR Odontologie, 2 ave. du Pr. Leon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)

    2007-03-01

    In this work, the in vivo behaviour of pure aragonite and vectabone, which is an association of aragonite and an active substance such as gentamicin, was studied to highlight the kinetic resorption of these two biomaterials with 55% of porosity destined for the filling or replacement of bony defects. The synthesis conditions and parameters we used permit us to obtain a biomaterial without a sintering stage. These conditions allow introducing of active substances at the first stage of the elaboration. In this work, the gentamycin antibiotic was associated with calcium carbonate (aragonite 55% with gentamycin) to deliver this active substance on the surgical site for local treatment. The tricalcium phosphate biomaterial was used as the control because of its high biocompatibility. The bony remodelling of these three biomaterials was studied by in vivo experiments. This study was ensured with neutron activation analysis (NAA). The resorption kinetic was elaborated and comparisons of the remodelling biomaterials CaCO{sub 3} 55% and CaCO{sub 3} 55% with gentamicin (vectabone) and tricalcium phosphate were carried out. The obtained results show that, 6 months after implantation, the mineral composition of vectabone and tricalcium phosphate becomes close to that of young bone. Twelve months after implantation, it becomes similar to that of mature bone.

  6. Bisphosphonate associated osteomyelitis of the jaw in patients with bony exposure: prevention, a new way of thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezo TARDAST

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective There is strong evidence of a link between the use of systemic bisphosphonates (BPs and osteonecrosis of the jaw, especially in cancer patients. Among risk factors for BRONJ, tooth extraction and immune suppressive drugs seem to have significant role on bone healing. Therefore, the importance of these parameters in development of BRONJ was reviewed in this retrospective study in two maxillofacial surgery units. Material and Methods From 2007 to 2012, 46 patients on bisphosphonate who had developed oral bony lesions participated in this study. The pharmacological exposure, comorbidities, maxillofacial findings, types of treatment and outcome data were collected from clinical and radiological records. Results The most frequently used BP was alendronate (67%. Tooth extraction was reported in 61% of patients with BRONJ. Systemic corticosteroids were prescribed in 35 cases (76% as an adjuvant for BP. Patients on corticosteroids had a lower probability of bony lesion healing (p<0.05 than patients without corticosteroids. Of the 46 patients who underwent conservative treatments, only ten were completely healed (21%. Conclusions Beside tooth extraction, corticosteroids were shown to be an implant risk factor for low rate of bone healing and hence the development of BRONJ. The outcome of conservative treatment was uncertain and this emphasizes the importance of prevention.

  7. Ancient earthen constructions and antiseismic dwellings: Boni's project after the earthquake of 13th January 1915 (Avezzano, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Beranger

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available After the earthquake of 13th January 1915, the archaeologist Giacomo Boni (1859-1925, inspired by ancient building techniques. proposed the reconstruction of Marsica and the Middle Liri Valley with earthen dwellings. With the cooperation of the Italian Ministry of Agriculture, he organized an exhibition where he collected samples of vegetal trellises which were an essential support to implement these techniques. Furthermore, he rebuilt two huts on the Palatine (Orti Farnesiani: one rectangular, the other circular, inspired by terracotta urns which he himself had discovered a few years earlier exploring the famous ancient tombs in the Forum Romanum, near the temple of Antonino and Faustina, by the Via Sacra. Boni's unusual proposal was intended as an alternative to the plans put forward by seismic engineering which was developing in Italy at that time. This is a prime example of a clash between two different outlooks and cultures (humanism versus science each of which claimed to offer solutions to attenuate the effect of earthquakes. We have so far been unable to establish whether any earthen dwellings were actually constructed in Marsica or the surroundings of Sora for the survivors of the earthquake of 13th January 1915. Unfortunately, only one of the many houses built with this technique. still existing in the Soran countryside can be dated (1924.

  8. Quantitative facial asymmetry: using three-dimensional photogrammetry to measure baseline facial surface symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Helena O; Morrison, Clinton S; Linden, Olivia; Phillips, Benjamin; Chang, Johnny; Byrne, Margaret E; Sullivan, Stephen R; Forrest, Christopher R

    2014-01-01

    Although symmetry is hailed as a fundamental goal of aesthetic and reconstructive surgery, our tools for measuring this outcome have been limited and subjective. With the advent of three-dimensional photogrammetry, surface geometry can be captured, manipulated, and measured quantitatively. Until now, few normative data existed with regard to facial surface symmetry. Here, we present a method for reproducibly calculating overall facial symmetry and present normative data on 100 subjects. We enrolled 100 volunteers who underwent three-dimensional photogrammetry of their faces in repose. We collected demographic data on age, sex, and race and subjectively scored facial symmetry. We calculated the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the native and reflected faces, reflecting about a plane of maximum symmetry. We analyzed the interobserver reliability of the subjective assessment of facial asymmetry and the quantitative measurements and compared the subjective and objective values. We also classified areas of greatest asymmetry as localized to the upper, middle, or lower facial thirds. This cluster of normative data was compared with a group of patients with subtle but increasing amounts of facial asymmetry. We imaged 100 subjects by three-dimensional photogrammetry. There was a poor interobserver correlation between subjective assessments of asymmetry (r = 0.56). There was a high interobserver reliability for quantitative measurements of facial symmetry RMSD calculations (r = 0.91-0.95). The mean RMSD for this normative population was found to be 0.80 ± 0.24 mm. Areas of greatest asymmetry were distributed as follows: 10% upper facial third, 49% central facial third, and 41% lower facial third. Precise measurement permitted discrimination of subtle facial asymmetry within this normative group and distinguished norms from patients with subtle facial asymmetry, with placement of RMSDs along an asymmetry ruler. Facial surface symmetry, which is poorly assessed

  9. Super-Robust Polylactide Barrier Films by Building Densely Oriented Lamellae Incorporated with Ductile in Situ Nanofibrils of Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng-Yang; Huang, Hua-Dong; Ji, Xu; Yan, Ding-Xiang; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Remarkable combination of excellent gas barrier performance, high strength, and toughness was realized in polylactide (PLA) composite films by constructing the supernetworks of oriented and pyknotic crystals with the assistance of ductile in situ nanofibrils of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT). On the basis that the permeation of gas molecules through polymer materials with anisotropic structure would be more frustrated, we believe that oriented crystalline textures cooperating with inerratic amorphism can be favorable for the enhancement of gas barrier property. By taking full advantage of intensively elongational flow field, the dispersed phase of PBAT in situ forms into nanofibrils, and simultaneously sufficient row-nuclei for PLA are induced. After appropriate thermal treatment with the acceleration effect of PBAT on PLA crystallization, oriented lamellae of PLA tend to be more perfect in a preferential direction and constitute into a kind of network interconnecting with each other. At the same time, the molecular chains between lamellae tend to be more extended. This unique structure manifests superior ability in ameliorating the performance of PLA film. The oxygen permeability coefficient can be achieved as low as 2 × 10(-15) cm(3) cm cm(-2) s(-1) Pa(-1), combining with the high strength, modulus, and ductility (104.5 MPa, 3484 MPa, and 110.6%, respectively). The methodology proposed in this work presents an industrially scalable processing method to fabricate super-robust PLA barrier films. It would indeed push the usability of biopolymers forward, and certainly prompt wider application of biodegradable polymers in the fields of environmental protection such as food packaging, medical packaging, and biodegradable mulch.

  10. Facial rehabilitation: a neuromuscular reeducation, patient-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanswearingen, Jessie

    2008-05-01

    Individuals with facial paralysis and distorted facial expressions and movements secondary to a facial neuromotor disorder experience substantial physical, psychological, and social disability. Previously, facial rehabilitation has not been widely available or considered to be of much benefit. An emerging rehabilitation science of neuromuscular reeducation and evidence for the efficacy of facial neuromuscular reeducation, a process of facilitating the return of intended facial movement patterns and eliminating unwanted patterns of facial movement and expression, may provide patients with disorders of facial paralysis or facial movement control opportunity for the recovery of facial movement and function. We provide a brief overview of the scientific rationale for facial neuromuscular reeducation in the structure and function of the facial neuromotor system, the neuropsychology of facial expression, and relations among expressions, movement, and emotion. The primary purpose is to describe principles of neuromuscular reeducation, assessment and outcome measures, approach to treatment, the process, including surface-electromyographic biofeedback as an adjunct to reeducation, and the goal of enhancing the recovery of facial expression and function in a patient-centered approach to facial rehabilitation.

  11. Men's facial masculinity: when (body) size matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzleitner, Iris J; Hunter, David W; Tiddeman, Bernard P; Seck, Alassane; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that judgments of facial masculinity reflect more than sexually dimorphic shape. Here, we investigated whether the perception of masculinity is influenced by facial cues to body height and weight. We used the average differences in three-dimensional face shape of forty men and forty women to compute a morphological masculinity score, and derived analogous measures for facial correlates of height and weight based on the average face shape of short and tall, and light and heavy men. We found that facial cues to body height and weight had substantial and independent effects on the perception of masculinity. Our findings suggest that men are perceived as more masculine if they appear taller and heavier, independent of how much their face shape differs from women's. We describe a simple method to quantify how body traits are reflected in the face and to define the physical basis of psychological attributions.

  12. Camouflaging Facial Emphysema: a new syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carpio, Pedro A; del Campillo, Ángel F Bedoya; Leal, María Jesús; Lleopart, Núria; Marrón, María T; Trelles, Mario A

    2012-10-10

    Camouflaging Facial Emphysema, as is defined in this paper, is the result of a simple technique used by the patient to deform his face in order to prevent recognition at a police identity parade. The patient performs two punctures in the mucosa at the rear of the upper lip and, after several Valsalva manoeuvres, manages to deform his face in less than 15 min by inducing subcutaneous facial emphysema. The examination shows an accumulation of air in the face, with no laterocervical, mediastinal or thoracic affectations. The swelling is primarily observed in the eyelids and the orbital and zygomatic regions, whereas it is less prominent in other areas of the face. Patients therefore manage to avoid recognition in properly conducted police identity parades. Only isolated cases of self-induced facial emphysema have been reported to date among psychiatric patients and prison inmates. However, the facial emphysema herein described exhibits specific characteristics of significant medical, deontological, social, police-related, and legal implications.

  13. Wavelet based approach for facial expression recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Abidin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition is one of the most active fields of research. Many facial expression recognition methods have been developed and implemented. Neural networks (NNs have capability to undertake such pattern recognition tasks. The key factor of the use of NN is based on its characteristics. It is capable in conducting learning and generalizing, non-linear mapping, and parallel computation. Backpropagation neural networks (BPNNs are the approach methods that mostly used. In this study, BPNNs were used as classifier to categorize facial expression images into seven-class of expressions which are anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, neutral and surprise. For the purpose of feature extraction tasks, three discrete wavelet transforms were used to decompose images, namely Haar wavelet, Daubechies (4 wavelet and Coiflet (1 wavelet. To analyze the proposed method, a facial expression recognition system was built. The proposed method was tested on static images from JAFFE database.

  14. Recurrent facial urticaria following herpes simplex labialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawar, Vijay; Godse, Kiran

    2012-03-01

    We describe recurrent acute right-sided facial urticaria associated with herpes labialis infection in a middle-aged female patient. Antiviral medications and antihistamines not only successfully cleared the herpes infection and urticaria but also prevented further recurrences.

  15. Recurrent facial urticaria following herpes simplex labialis

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Zawar; Kiran Godse

    2012-01-01

    We describe recurrent acute right-sided facial urticaria associated with herpes labialis infection in a middle-aged female patient. Antiviral medications and antihistamines not only successfully cleared the herpes infection and urticaria but also prevented further recurrences.

  16. [Facial paralysis: functional and aesthetic rehabilitation techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveze, A; Paris, J

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of a permanent facial paralysis can be devastating to a patient, because of the cosmetic, functional and psychological disorders. Our society places on physical appearance and leads to isolation of patients who are embarrassed with their paralyzed face. The objectives of the facial rehabilitation is to correct the functional and cosmetic losses of the patient. The main functional goals are to protect the eye and reestablish oral competence. The primary cosmetic goals are to create balance and symmetry of the face at rest and to reestablish the coordinated movement of the facial musculature. The surgeon should be familiar with the variety of options available so that an individual plan can be developed based on each patient's clinical picture. History of the facial paralysis, its etiology and the duration of the paralysis are of particular interest as they orientate the rehabilitation plan strategy.

  17. Ethics and the facial plastic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Neeraj

    2016-09-01

    The facial plastic surgeon potentially has a conflict of interest when confronted with the patients requesting surgery, due to the personal gain attainable by agreeing to perform surgery. The aim of this review is to discuss the potential harm the surgeon can inflict by carrying out facial plastic surgery, beyond the standard surgical complications of infection or bleeding. It will discuss the desire for self-improvement and perfection and increase in the prevalence facial plastic surgery. We address the principles of informed consent, beneficence and non-maleficence, as well as justice and equality and how the clinician who undertakes facial plastic surgery is at risk of breaching these principles without due care and diligence.

  18. Facial reconstruction using 3-D computer graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanezi, P; Vanezis, M; McCombe, G; Niblett, T

    2000-02-14

    Facial reconstruction using 3-D computer graphics is being used in our institute as a routine procedure in forensic cases as well as for skulls of historical and archaeological interest. Skull and facial data from living subjects is acquired using an optical laser scanning system. For the production of the reconstructed image, we employ facial reconstruction software which is constructed using the TCL/Tk scripting language, the latter making use of the C3D system. The computer image may then be exported to enable the production of a solid model, employing, for example, stereolithography. The image can also be modified within an identikit system which allows the addition of facial features as appropriate.

  19. The facial skeleton: Armor to the brain?

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Satishkumar G.; Patil, Bindu S.; Joshi, Udupikrishna; Allurkar, Soumya; Japatti, Sharanabasappa; Munnangi, Ashwini

    2016-01-01

    Background: With the development of urban setting worldwide, the major issue of concern is the increase in the mortality rate in the population due to road traffic accidents. The face, being the most exposed region is susceptible to injuries and maybe associated with injuries to the adjacent neuro-cranium. The literature has conflicting views on the relationship between facial fractures and head injuries with some authors opining that the facial skeleton cushions the brain while some other au...

  20. Penetrating facial injury by a wooden log

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Sadanandan; Varghese, George; Kumar, Sanjay; Subramanian, Dinesh Pambungal

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating facial injuries are potentially dangerous and require emergency management because of the presence of vital structures in the face and it may be life threatening especially when the injury involves airway, major blood vessels, spinal cord and cervical spines. Penetrating injuries of facial region can occur due to missile injuries, blast injuries, accidental fall on sharp objects such as sticks or glass and motor vehicle accidents etc., Indications for immediate surgical management...

  1. Facial age affects emotional expression decoding

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions convey important information on emotional states of our interaction partners. However, in interactions between younger and older adults, there is evidence for a reduced ability to accurately decode emotional facial expressions. Previous studies have often followed up this phenomenon by examining the effect of the observers' age. However, decoding emotional faces is also likely to be influenced by stimulus features, and age-related changes in the face such as wrinkles and fo...

  2. Facial age affects emotional expression decoding

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions convey important information on emotional states of our interaction partners. However, in interactions between younger and older adults, there is evidence for a reduced ability to accurately decode emotional facial expressions.Previous studies have often followed up this phenomenon by examining the effect of the observers’ age. However, decoding emotional faces is also likely to be influenced by stimulus features, and age-related changes in the face such as wrinkles and fol...

  3. Freestyle Local Perforator Flaps for Facial Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Yong Lee; Ji Min Kim; Ho Kwon; Sung-No Jung; Hyung Sup Shim; Sang Wha Kim

    2015-01-01

    For the successful reconstruction of facial defects, various perforator flaps have been used in single-stage surgery, where tissues are moved to adjacent defect sites. Our group successfully performed perforator flap surgery on 17 patients with small to moderate facial defects that affected the functional and aesthetic features of their faces. Of four complicated cases, three developed venous congestion, which resolved in the subacute postoperative period, and one patient with partial necrosi...

  4. Chronic Facial Pain: A Clinical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Marotta, Joseph T.

    1983-01-01

    Facial pain is a common presenting complaint requiring patience and diagnostic acumen. The proliferation of eponyms attached to various syndromes complicates the subject. The most frequent cause of pain is likely to be muscle spasm in masticatory or temporalis muscles. This article presents a rank order for the common causes of facial pain that present diagnostic difficulty, such as temporomandibular joint pain, trigeminal neuralgia, giant cell arteritis, and post-herpetic neuralgia.

  5. The short-term outcome of the modified Sauvé-Kapandji procedure regarding range of motion, carpal bone translation and bony shelf size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Shogo; Tamai, Kazuo; Sakamoto, Atsuto; Hirashima, Toshiko

    2011-02-01

    The Sauvé-Kapandji (S-K) procedure is a common treatment for rheumatoid wrists, but in some cases severe bone destruction makes this operative modality difficult to perform, while also resulting in a poor outcome. A modified S-K procedure for these wrists has been reported, but the clinical outcomes of the modified procedure are unclear. This study evaluated 24 wrists in 20 patients who underwent the modified S-K procedure. The mean follow-up period was 34.5 months. The clinical assessments were range of motion, carpal bone translation and bony shelf size. The range of motion and carpal bone translation were similar to those produced by the S-K procedure. In regard to bony shelf size, wrists with an excessively large bony shelf tended to have a progression of carpal bone translation toward the palmar direction due to the residual malposition of the ECU tendon. The modified S-K procedure appears to be a safe and effective surgical alternative for the treatment of severely destroyed rheumatoid wrists. Although the modified procedure allows for the adjustment of the bony shelf size, it should not be used with wrists that have an excessively large bony shelf.

  6. Facial nerve paralysis after cervical traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Edmund Cheung

    2010-10-01

    Cervical traction is a frequently used treatment in rehabilitation clinics for cervical spine problems. This modality works, in principle, by decompressing the spinal cord or its nerve roots by applying traction on the cervical spine through a harness placed over the mandible (Olivero et al., Neurosurg Focus 2002;12:ECP1). Previous reports on treatment complications include lumbar radicular discomfort, muscle injury, neck soreness, and posttraction pain (LaBan et al., Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992;73:295-6; Lee et al., J Biomech Eng 1996;118:597-600). Here, we report the first case of unilateral facial nerve paralysis developed after 4 wks of intermittent cervical traction therapy. Nerve conduction velocity examination revealed a peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis. Symptoms of facial nerve paralysis subsided after prednisolone treatment and suspension of traction therapy. It is suspected that a misplaced or an overstrained harness may have been the cause of facial nerve paralysis in this patient. Possible causes were (1) direct compression by the harness on the right facial nerve near its exit through the stylomastoid foramen; (2) compression of the right external carotid artery by the harness, causing transient ischemic injury at the geniculate ganglion; or (3) coincidental herpes zoster virus infection or idiopathic Bell's palsy involving the facial nerve.

  7. Forensic Facial Reconstruction: The Final Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sonia; Gupta, Vineeta; Vij, Hitesh; Vij, Ruchieka; Tyagi, Nutan

    2015-09-01

    Forensic facial reconstruction can be used to identify unknown human remains when other techniques fail. Through this article, we attempt to review the different methods of facial reconstruction reported in literature. There are several techniques of doing facial reconstruction, which vary from two dimensional drawings to three dimensional clay models. With the advancement in 3D technology, a rapid, efficient and cost effective computerized 3D forensic facial reconstruction method has been developed which has brought down the degree of error previously encountered. There are several methods of manual facial reconstruction but the combination Manchester method has been reported to be the best and most accurate method for the positive recognition of an individual. Recognition allows the involved government agencies to make a list of suspected victims'. This list can then be narrowed down and a positive identification may be given by the more conventional method of forensic medicine. Facial reconstruction allows visual identification by the individual's family and associates to become easy and more definite.

  8. Facial expression recognition in perceptual color space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajevardi, Seyed Mehdi; Wu, Hong Ren

    2012-08-01

    This paper introduces a tensor perceptual color framework (TPCF) for facial expression recognition (FER), which is based on information contained in color facial images. The TPCF enables multi-linear image analysis in different color spaces and demonstrates that color components provide additional information for robust FER. Using this framework, the components (in either RGB, YCbCr, CIELab or CIELuv space) of color images are unfolded to two-dimensional (2- D) tensors based on multi-linear algebra and tensor concepts, from which the features are extracted by Log-Gabor filters. The mutual information quotient (MIQ) method is employed for feature selection. These features are classified using a multi-class linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The effectiveness of color information on FER using low-resolution and facial expression images with illumination variations is assessed for performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that color information has significant potential to improve emotion recognition performance due to the complementary characteristics of image textures. Furthermore, the perceptual color spaces (CIELab and CIELuv) are better overall for facial expression recognition than other color spaces by providing more efficient and robust performance for facial expression recognition using facial images with illumination variation.

  9. Similarities in Aegyptopithecus and Afropithecus facial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leakey, M G; Leakey, R E; Richtsmeier, J T; Simons, E L; Walker, A C

    1991-01-01

    Recently discovered cranial fossils from the Oligocene deposits of the Fayum depression in Egypt provide many details of the facial morphology of Aegyptopithecus zeuxis. Similar features are found in the Miocene hominoid Afropithecus turkanensis. Their presence is the first good evidence of a strong phenetic link between the Oligocene and Miocene hominoids of Africa. A comparison of trait lists emphasizes the similarities of the two fossil species, and leads us to conclude that the two fossil genera share many primitive facial features. In addition, we studied facial morphology using finite-element scaling analysis and found that the two genera show similarities in morphological integration, or the way in which biological landmarks relate to one another in three dimensions to define the form of the organism. Size differences between the two genera are much greater than the relatively minor shape differences. Analysis of variability in landmark location among the four Aegyptopithecus specimens indicates that variability within the sample is not different from that found within two samples of modern macaques. We propose that the shape differences found among the four Aegyptopithecus specimens simply reflect individual variation in facial characteristics, and that the similarities in facial morphology between Aegyptopithecus and Afropithecus probably represent a complex of primitive facial features retained over millions of years.

  10. Subjective and Objective Facial Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Mark A.; Frisina, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have not adequately compared subjective/objective ratings of female dermatology patients including patients presenting for cosmetic procedures. Objective: To examine objective versus subjective facial attractiveness ratings, demographic variables, and how men versus women judge female facial attractiveness. Methods: Sixty-five women (mean 42 years) presenting to a dermatology office. Subjects filled out a demographic and attractiveness questionnaire and were photographed. Four judges (2 male and 2 female) rated the photographs on a predefined 1 to 7 scale. Results: Mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) was 4.85 versus 3.61 for objective rating (judges rating subjects) (p<0.001). The mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 5 to 7 range was 39 years; the mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 3 to 4 range was 45 years (p=0.053). The mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 5 to 7 range was 33 years; the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 3 to 4 range was 43 years (p<0.001); and the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 1 to 2 range was 50 years (p<0.001). The mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) for married women was 4.55 versus 5.27 for unmarried women (p=0.007); the mean objective rating (judges rating subjects) was 3.22 versus 4.15 (p<0.001). The mean objective rating by male judges was 3.09 versus 4.12 for female judges (p<0.001) Conclusion: Female patients presenting to a dermatology office rated themselves more attractive than did judges who viewed photographs of the subjects. Age and marital status were significant factors, and male judges rated attractiveness lower than female judges. Limitations of the study, implications, and suggestions for future research directions are discussed. PMID:21203353

  11. 改良乙状窦前经部分骨迷路入路的显微解剖%The microsurgical anatomy of the modified presigmoid transpartial bony labyrinth approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗正祥; 赵鹏来; 杨坤; 刘永; 张岩松

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the surgical techniques of the modified presigmoid trans-partial bony labyrinth approach and the advantages in exposure of the petroclival region and in treat the lesion of this area.Methods By simulate the modified presigmoid trans-partial bony labyrinth approach in 15 adult cadaveric heads with the aid of an operating microscope and record important structures in the petroclival region.Results The petroclival region,the posterior cavernous sinus,Meckel cave,the vertebral-basilar artery,the anterior inferior cerebellar artery,the superior cerebellar artery,ipsilateral Ⅲ-Ⅹ cranial nerve nere fully exposured and contralateral Ⅵ cranial nerve were fully exposured.The range of presigmoid exposure was (19.41 ± 1.58)mm,the exposurein of inferior temporal was (14.18 ± 1.88) nun,the maximum exposure angle of slope center depression was (60.54 ± 6.93) °,the depth of operation was (55.87 ± 4.34) mm.Conclusion The advantages of the modified presigmoid trans-partial bony labyrinth approach can earn enough exposures of deep part of petroclival region and posterior part of cavernous sinus,improved petroclival exposure,multiple axes of visualization,preservation of hearing and facial nerve function,and early devascularization of the tumor.%目的 目的 研究改良乙状窦前经部分骨迷路入路的显微解剖暴露,探讨其对岩斜区的显露及在手术处理该区域病变中的优势. 方法 2012年4月至10月,对15具尸头标本进行手术人路的改良研究,在传统乙状窦前入路的基础上切除部分半规管和岩尖,详细记录岩斜区重要结构的显露情况. 结果 该入路能够提供至岩斜区和海绵窦后部宽大的操作空间,在乙状窦前显露范围(水平方向)为(19.41±1.58) mm,在颞叶下方的显露范围(垂直方向)为(14.18±1.88) mm,斜坡中心凹陷的最大暴露角度为(60.54±6.93)°,手术操作深度(55.87 4.34) mm.椎-基底动脉、小脑前下动脉、小脑上动脉

  12. Facial image identification using Photomodeler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Andersen, Marie; Lauritsen, Helle Petri

    2003-09-01

    We present the results of a preliminary study on the use of 3-D software (Photomodeler) for identification purposes. Perpetrators may be photographed or filmed by surveillance systems. The police may wish to have these images compared to photographs of suspects. The surveillance imagery will often consist of many images of the same person taken from different angles. We wanted to see if it was possible to combine such a suite of images in useful 3-D renderings of facial proportions.Fifteen male adults were photographed from four different angles. Based on these photographs, a 3-D wireframe model was produced by Photomodeler. The wireframe models were then rotated to full lateral and frontal views, and compared to like sets of photographs of the subjects. In blind trials, 9/15 of the wireframe models were assigned to the correct sets of photographs. In five/15 cases, the wireframe models were assigned to several sets, including the correct set. Only in one case was a wireframe model not assigned to a correct set of photographs at all.

  13. [Potter's reno-facial syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdi, Radhouane; Kaabi, Mahdi; M'Hamdi, Hichem; Chtioui, Ines; Basly, Mohamed; Messaoudi, Fethi; Zayene, Houcine; Messaoudi, Lotfi; Chibani, Mounir; Gaigi, Soumaya

    2004-07-01

    Potter's reno-facial syndrome is a rare innate abnormality. We bring 4 observations repertoried at the maternity of military hospital of Tunis over a period of 6 years (1997 - 2002). The purpose of our work is to determine after a review of the literature the echographic and foetopathologic characteristics, and the forecast of this syndrome. The frequency of the bilateral renale agenesis is of 0.27 per thousand. Positive diagnosis bases essentially on the ultrasound of the 2th, or the 3-th trimester. The signs of appeal are essentially the oligoamnios associated to an hypotrophy. The caryotype is systematic to eliminate an associeted chromosomic abnormality. Foetopathologic exam is usefull for the diagnosis. Main abnormality except the urinary pathology is the lung hypoplasia. Therapeutic interruption of the pregnancy in this situation not compatible with the extra-uterine life., only type IV authorize the development of the pregnancy according to echographic data and of foetal urinaire biochemistry. We insist on the early practice of the morphological ultrasound between 20 - 22 weeks for the diagnosis of foetal abnormalities and the place of the genetic advice in association with the geneticist in the coverage of the couple.

  14. Multiple neural tube defects: a rare combination of limited dorsal myeloschisis, diplomyelia with dorsal bony spur, sacral meningocoele, syringohydromyelia, and tethered cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashank R, Ramdurg; Shubhi, Dubey; Vishal, Kadeli

    2017-04-01

    Multiple neural tube defects are relatively rare. They account for less than 1% reported neural tube defects. Cases of limited dorsal myeloschisis (LDM) and diplomyelia (two cords in single sac without intervening bony or fibrous septae) with dorsal bony spur are also a rare event. Here, the authors report a rare case of neonate with thoracic LDM, diplomyelia with dorsal bony spur, sacral meningocoele with syringohydromyelia, and low-lying tethered cord. The child also had a ventricular septal defect (VSD) and bilateral rocker bottom feet. Various environmental factors and genetic mutations in transmembrane proteins have been studied in animal models explaining the origin of neural tube defects. To the best of author's knowledge, this is the first case of varied multiple neural tube defects with diplomyelia reported in world literature.

  15. Facial Behaviometrics: the Case of Facial Deformation in Spontenaous Smile/Laughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    In this paper we explore the use of dense facial deformation in spontaneous smile/laughter as a biometric signature. The facial deformation is calculated between a neutral image (as neutral we define the least expressive image of the smile/laughter episode) and the apex of spontaneous smile/laughter

  16. Facial Behaviometrics: the Case of Facial Deformation in Spontenaous Smile/Laughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of dense facial deformation in spontaneous smile/laughter as a biometric signature. The facial deformation is calculated between a neutral image (as neutral we define the least expressive image of the smile/laughter episode) and the apex of spontaneous smile/laughter

  17. A Strategy for Synthesis of Nanosheets Consisting of Alternating Spinel Li4Ti5O12 and Rutile TiO2 Lamellas for High-Rate Anodes of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Libo; Leng, Xuning; Liu, Yan; Wei, Sufeng; Li, Chunlin; Wang, Guoyong; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Qing; Nie, Anmin; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2017-02-08

    Ultrathin dual phase nanosheets consisting of alternating spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and rutile TiO2 (RT) lamellas are synthesized through a facile and scalable hydrothermal method, and the formation mechanism is explored. The thickness of constituent lamellas can be controlled exactly by adjusting the mole ratio of Li:Ti in the original reactants. Alternating insertion of the RT lamellas significantly improves the electrochemical performance of LTO nanosheets, especially at high charge/discharge rates. As anodes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the dual phase nanosheet electrode with the optimized phase ratio can deliver stable discharge capacities of 178.5, 154.9, 148.4, 142.3, 138.2, and 131.4 mA h g(-1) at current densities of 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 C, respectively. Meanwhile, they inherit the excellent cyclic stability of pure spinel LTO and exhibit a capacity retention of 93.1% even after 500 cycles at 50 C. Our results indicate that the alternating nanoscaled lamella structure is a good alternative to facilitate the transfer of both the Li ions and electrons into the spinel LTO, giving rise to an excellent cyclability and fast rate performance. Therefore, the newly prepared carbon-free LTO-RT nanosheets with high safety provide a new opportunity to develop high-power anodes for LIBs.

  18. Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India

    CERN Document Server

    Thorat, S B; Dandale, Jyoti P

    2010-01-01

    A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. In this paper we focus on 3-D facial recognition system and biometric facial recognision system. We do critics on facial recognision system giving effectiveness and weaknesses. This paper also introduces scope of recognision system in India.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of three-dimensional facial scanners measurement accuracy for facial deformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-jiao; Xiong, Yu-xue; Sun, Yu-chun; Yang, Hui-fang; Lyu, Pei-jun; Wang, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the measurement accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) facial scanners for facial deformity patients from oral clinic. Methods: 10 patients in different types of facial deformity from oral clinical were included. Three 3D digital face models for each patient were obtained by three facial scanners separately (line laser scanner from Faro for reference, stereophotography scanner from 3dMD and structured light scanner from FaceScan for test). For each patient, registration based on Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm was executed to align two test models (3dMD data & Facescan data) to the reference models (Faro data in high accuracy) respectively. The same boundaries on each pair models (one test and one reference models) were obtained by projection function in Geomagic Stuido 2012 software for trimming overlapping region, then 3D average measurement errors (3D errors) were calculated for each pair models also by the software. Paired t-test analysis was adopted to compare the 3D errors of two test facial scanners (10 data for each group). 3D profile measurement accuracy (3D accuracy) that is integrated embodied by average value and standard deviation of 10 patients' 3D errors were obtained by surveying analysis for each test scanner finally. Results: 3D accuracies of 2 test facial scanners in this study for facial deformity were 0.44+/-0.08 mm and 0.43+/-0.05 mm. The result of structured light scanner was slightly better than stereophotography scanner. No statistical difference between them. Conclusions: Both test facial scanners could meet the accuracy requirement (0.5mm) of 3D facial data acquisition for oral clinic facial deformity patients in this study. Their practical measurement accuracies were all slightly lower than their nominal accuracies.

  20. The MPI facial expression database--a validated database of emotional and conversational facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Kaulard

    Full Text Available The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural