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Sample records for facet dislocations-a proposal

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in cervical facet dislocation: a third world perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Manzar; Nasir, Sadaf; Murtaza, Ghulam; Moeed, Umber; Bari, Muhammad Ehsan

    2012-03-01

    Retrospective case series. The objective of our study was to determine the change in management brought about by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine in alert and awake patients with facet dislocation and spinal cord injury presenting within 4 hours after injury. Spinal cord injury is a common clinical entity. The role of MRI is well established in evaluating spinal trauma. However, the time at which MRI should be used is still controversial. Retrospective data from 2002-2010 was evaluated. All of the alert and awake patients with spinal cord injury, based on clinical examination with facet dislocation diagnosed on lateral cervical spine X-rays, were included. A questionnaire was also conducted, the data of which consisted of demographic details including age and sex, the mechanism of injury, clinical examination, X-ray findings, MRI findings, whether or not surgery was performed and the time elapsed since injury. Data was analyzed using SPSS ver. 17.0. Continuous variables such as age were expressed in terms of mean ± standard deviation. Categorical variables such as change in management, X-ray/MRI findings and neurological motor level were assessed in terms of percentage. Fifty patients participated in our study. All these patients had spinal cord injury with defined motor levels. The mean age was 35.5 ± 8.95 years (range, 20 to 52 years). Fifty percent showed a motor level at C6 level. None of the patients required any change in management based on the MRI. MRI of the spine in awake patients within 4 hours after injury does not change the management of patients. However, we can hypothesize that such patients can proceed to traction without waiting for the MRI.

  2. Proposal plan of classification faceted for federal universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Santos Brandão

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present a faceted classification plan for the archival management of documents in the federal universities of Brazil. For this, was done a literature review on the archival management in Brazil, the types of classification plans and the theory of the Ranganathan faceted classification, through searches in databases in the areas of Librarianship and Archivology. It was identified the classification plan used in the Federal Institutions of Higher Education to represent the functional facet and created the structural classification plan to represent the structural facet. The two classification plans were inserted into a digital repository management system to give rise to the faceted classification plan. The system used was Tainacan, free software wordpress-based used in digital document management. The developed faceted classification plan allows the user to choose and even combine the way to look for the information that guarantees agreater efficiency in the information retrieval.

  3. Applying the Many-Facet Rasch Measurement Model to Explore Reviewer Ratings of Conference Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Kelly D; Peabody, Michael R; Mensah, Richard K

    For academic conferences, when proposals are submit they are often judged using a rating scale on identified criterion by reviewers who have a shared interest and expertise in the area under consideration. Given the multiple and varied reviewers, an analysis of psychometric properties like rater severity and consistency are important. However, many of the problems that plague the conference proposal selection process are the same issues that plague survey research: rater bias/severity, misuse of rating scale, and the use of raw scores as measures. We propose the use of the many-facet Rasch measurement model (MFRM) to combat these shortcomings and improve the quality of the conference proposal selection process. A set of American Educational Research Association (AERA) Special Interest Group (SIG) proposals is used as an example. The results identify proposals that were accepted based on calculating the mean of summed raw scores, but when MFRM is applied to adjust for judge severity the rank order of the proposals is substantially altered.

  4. Faceted Search

    CERN Document Server

    Tunkelang, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We live in an information age that requires us, more than ever, to represent, access, and use information. Over the last several decades, we have developed a modern science and technology for information retrieval, relentlessly pursuing the vision of a "memex" that Vannevar Bush proposed in his seminal article, "As We May Think." Faceted search plays a key role in this program. Faceted search addresses weaknesses of conventional search approaches and has emerged as a foundation for interactive information retrieval. User studies demonstrate that faceted search provides more

  5. Facets: Ersatz, Resource and Tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frické, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Faceted classification appears to be of utmost importance. Ersatz facets, resource faceting and tag faceting: The distinctions are drawn between facets and ersatz facets, and between faceted resources and faceted tags. Single tag resource faceting and multiple tag information object faceting: The basic features are explored of single…

  6. FACETS: multi-faceted functional decomposition of protein interaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Boon-Siew; Bhowmick, Sourav S.; Forbes Dewey, C.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: The availability of large-scale curated protein interaction datasets has given rise to the opportunity to investigate higher level organization and modularity within the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network using graph theoretic analysis. Despite the recent progress, systems level analysis of high-throughput PPIs remains a daunting task because of the amount of data they present. In this article, we propose a novel PPI network decomposition algorithm called FACETS in order to make sense of the deluge of interaction data using Gene Ontology (GO) annotations. FACETS finds not just a single functional decomposition of the PPI network, but a multi-faceted atlas of functional decompositions that portray alternative perspectives of the functional landscape of the underlying PPI network. Each facet in the atlas represents a distinct interpretation of how the network can be functionally decomposed and organized. Our algorithm maximizes interpretative value of the atlas by optimizing inter-facet orthogonality and intra-facet cluster modularity. Results: We tested our algorithm on the global networks from IntAct, and compared it with gold standard datasets from MIPS and KEGG. We demonstrated the performance of FACETS. We also performed a case study that illustrates the utility of our approach. Contact: seah0097@ntu.edu.sg or assourav@ntu.edu.sg Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at the Bioinformatics online. Availability: Our software is available freely for non-commercial purposes from: http://www.cais.ntu.edu.sg/∼assourav/Facets/ PMID:22908217

  7. Facet analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2013-01-01

    , such as the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and is also applied in many websites. It still has a strong position in the field and it is the most explicit and “pure” theoretical approach to knowledge organization (KO) (but it is not by implication necessarily also the most important one). The strength......The facet-analytic paradigm is probably the most distinct approach to knowledge organization within Library and Information Science, and in many ways it has dominated what has be termed “modern classification theory”. It was mainly developed by S.R. Ranganathan and the British Classification...... Research Group, but it is mostly based on principles of logical division developed more than two millennia ago. Colon Classification (CC) and Bliss 2 (BC2) are among the most important systems developed on this theoretical basis, but it has also influenced the development of other systems...

  8. FacetGist: Collective Extraction of Document Facets in Large Technical Corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Tarique; Ren, Xiang; Parameswaran, Aditya; Han, Jiawei

    2017-01-01

    Given the large volume of technical documents available, it is crucial to automatically organize and categorize these documents to be able to understand and extract value from them. Towards this end, we introduce a new research problem called Facet Extraction. Given a collection of technical documents, the goal of Facet Extraction is to automatically label each document with a set of concepts for the key facets (e.g., application, technique, evaluation metrics, and dataset) that people may be interested in. Facet Extraction has numerous applications, including document summarization, literature search, patent search and business intelligence. The major challenge in performing Facet Extraction arises from multiple sources: concept extraction, concept to facet matching, and facet disambiguation. To tackle these challenges, we develop FacetGist, a framework for facet extraction. Facet Extraction involves constructing a graph-based heterogeneous network to capture information available across multiple local sentence-level features, as well as global context features. We then formulate a joint optimization problem, and propose an efficient algorithm for graph-based label propagation to estimate the facet of each concept mention. Experimental results on technical corpora from two domains demonstrate that Facet Extraction can lead to an improvement of over 25% in both precision and recall over competing schemes. PMID:28210517

  9. Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    The book titled “Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities” is an attempt to bring together some facets of marine microbiology as have been made out by many contemporaries in particular from the tropical marine regions. There are 18 contributed...

  10. FACET CLASSIFICATIONS OF E-LEARNING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the classification of e-learning tools based on the facet method, which suggests the separation of the parallel set of objects into independent classification groups; at the same time it is not assumed rigid classification structure and pre-built finite groups classification groups are formed by a combination of values taken from the relevant facets. An attempt to systematize the existing classification of e-learning tools from the standpoint of classification theory is made for the first time. Modern Ukrainian and foreign facet classifications of e-learning tools are described; their positive and negative features compared to classifications based on a hierarchical method are analyzed. The original author's facet classification of e-learning tools is proposed.

  11. Modeling Reusable and Interoperable Faceted Browsing Systems with Category Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Faceted browsing has become ubiquitous with modern digital libraries and online search engines, yet the process is still difficult to abstractly model in a manner that supports the development of interoperable and reusable interfaces. We propose category theory as a theoretical foundation for faceted browsing and demonstrate how the interactive process can be mathematically abstracted. Existing efforts in facet modeling are based upon set theory, formal concept analysis, and lightweight ontol...

  12. Foundations of reusable and interoperable facet models using category theory

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Faceted browsing has become ubiquitous with modern digital libraries and online search engines, yet the process is still difficult to abstractly model in a manner that supports the development of interoperable and reusable interfaces. We propose category theory as a theoretical foundation for faceted browsing and demonstrate how the interactive process can be mathematically abstracted. Existing efforts in facet modeling are based upon set theory, formal concept analysis, and light-weight onto...

  13. Preliminary design of large reflectors with flat facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, P. K.; Anderson, M. S.; Card, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for approximating curved antenna surfaces using flat facets is discussed. A preliminary design technique for determining the size of the reflector surface facets necessary to meet antenna surface accuracy requirements is presented. A proposed large microwave radiometer satellite (MRS) is selected as an application, and the far-field electromagnetic response of a faceted reflector surface is compared with that from a spherical reflector surface.

  14. Facets of Subjectification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Subjectification, as the diachronic facet of subjectivity, has raised in the last two decades a number of interesting questions in grammaticalization and semantic change theory. In this paper I shall reflect on the nature and construal of subjectification, focusing on the question, formulated by Traugott (2010a, p. 58), "whether it is possible to…

  15. Facet joint syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigrai, M.; Zakovic, J.; Brezinova, M.; Pavlovicova, M.

    2002-01-01

    It is the purpose of the study to demonstrate the clinical relevance of degenerative changes in the facet joint of patients with low back pain irradiating to the lower extremities, and discuss some problems relating to diagnosis and different diagnosis. 119 patients presenting the listed bellow syndromes are covered by the study: scoliosis, polytopic pain vertebral syndrome, paresis and history of trauma. all patients undergo comprehensive neurological examination with special attention focused on the spine: CT and plain x-rays are taken of the lumbosacral segment to assess the condition of the facet joints. The neurological examination demonstrates in all cases pain syndrome in the lumbar spine referred to one or both lower extremities. In 56% it is a matter of persisting pain, and in 44% - recurrent. More than half of the patients complain of sacroiliac (SI) dislocation and palpatory pain. Unilateral or bilateral degenerative changes are documented by imaging studies in all patients, including: subchondral thickening, osteopathy narrowing the lateral or central part of the spinal canal with ensuing nerve root compression. The lumbosacral zygoapophyseal joints are source of pseudoradicular pain. A correlation between clinical picture and GT changes is noted in all patients with facet joint syndrome. CT is an indispensable method in diagnosing facet joint syndrome. (authors)

  16. Superior facet syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-01-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L 5 or/and S 1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively, Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L 5 roots and 11 S 1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L 5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome. (author)

  17. The Many Facets of PISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Trying to understand PISA is analogous to the parable of the blind men and the elephant. There are many facets of the PISA program, and thus many ways to both applaud and critique this ambitious international program of assessment that has gained enormous importance in the crafting of contemporary educational policy. One of the facets discussed in…

  18. Facet Approach to Applied Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canter, David

    1982-01-01

    The contribution of facet theory to applied psychological research is shown to be its ability to define problems and the solutions to them in terms relevant to those wishing to make practical use of research findings. Three examples illustrate the use of facet theory in applied research. (Author/CM)

  19. Asymmetric Facet Joint Osteoarthritis and Its Relationships to Facet Orientation, Facet Tropism, and Ligamentum Flavum Thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Xiao; Shen, Yue; Shang, Ping; Ma, Yan-Xu; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Xu, Hua-Zi

    2016-11-01

    The degrees of osteoarthritis of the left and right facet joints were evaluated by using computerized tomography among elderly patients with low back or leg pain. To reveal the phenomenon of asymmetry regarding facet joint osteoarthritis (FJOA) in old patients and establish its relationships to spinal level, facet orientation, facet tropism and ligamentum flavum (LF) thickening. There were few reports regarding left-right asymmetry among severity of FJOA and its relationships to spinal level, facet orientation, facet tropism, and LF thickening remained unclear. The grade of bilateral FJOA was evaluated using 4-grade scale on computerized tomography images at the L3-4, L4-5, and L5-S1 levels of patients with age ranging from 60 to 80 years. All subjects were divided into 2 groups: symmetric FJOA group (FJOA I-II on both sides or FJOA III-IV on both sides) and asymmetric FJOA group (FJOA I-II on one side and FJOA III-IV on the other side). The relationships of FJOA to spinal level, facet orientation, facet tropism, and LF hypertrophy were evaluated. No association between asymmetric FJOA and spinal level was noted (P>0.05). In asymmetric FJOA group, significant difference in facet orientation between 2 sides was observed at the L4-5 (P=0.018) and L5-S1 levels (P=0.033). Compared with symmetric FJOA, asymmetric FJOA showed significant difference in prevalence of facet tropism at the L5-S1 level (P0.05). Asymmetric FJOA is associated with facet orientation and tropism, but not with spinal level. There is a close relationship between severity of FJOA and LF thickness.

  20. Types of subtalar joint facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Ho; Choi, Byoung Young; Lee, Ji Yong; Han, Chang Sung; Lee, Jin Suk; Yang, Young Chul; Cho, Byung Pil

    2015-08-01

    Articular facets of the clinical subtalar joint (CSTJ) were analyzed using a total of 118 (right 57, left 61) dry, paired calcanei and tali from 68 Korean adult cadavers. The CSTJ facets were classified into the following three types depending on their continuity: type A, all three facets are separated; type B, the anterior and middle facets are partially connected; and type C, the anterior and middle facets are fused to form a single facet. The continuity between the anterior and middle facets was represented by the degree of separation (DS), which ranged between 2.00 (type A) and 1.00 (type C). Type A was most common (39.0 %) in calcanei and rarest (11.0 %) in tali. Matching of calcaneus-talus pairs yielded five combined types: A-A (11.0 %), A-B (28.0 %), B-B (18.6 %), B-C (13.6 %), and C-C (28.8 %). The mean DS was slightly greater in calcanei (1.53) than in tali (1.32), and decreased in the order of types A-A, A-B, B-B, B-C, and C-C. The intersecting angles between the anterior and middle facets, which are related to the mobility of the CSTJ, were inversely related to the DS. These findings indicate that the anterior and middle facets are fused more frequently in tali than in calcanei, and combinations of different CSTJ facet types (A-B, B-C) exist over 40 % of feet. Our results indicate that types with a smaller DS (such as B-C and C-C) are relatively mobile but less stable compared to those with a greater DS (such as A-A and A-B).

  1. Arthrography of the lumber facet joint and facet block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hee Kyung; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Young Soo; Park, Hyung Chun; Moon, Jae Ho; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik

    1988-01-01

    In spite of numerous clinical and patho-anatomical studied made in the past, there are still different opinions concerning the mechanism of low back pain. We have focused attention on the posterior structures as an alternative source of low back pain with sciatica. So we have studied and analyzed the finding of arthrography of facet joint and effect of the injection of methyprednisolone acetate suspension (Depomedrol) 20mg into the each facet joint. Our results are as follows: 1. Abnormal findings of facet joint arthrogram were degenerative osteoarthritis of facet joint (70.5%), synovial cyst (11.8%), accessory bone (11.8%), and spondylolysis (5.9%). 2. The mean facet angulations of patients of facet syndrome were abnormal on lower lumbar facet joint in 9 of 13 cases (69.2%). 3. On initial assessment, 11 of 17 cases (64.7%) showed complete relief and one month later, 6 of 11 cases (35.3%) showed continuous relief, after steroid injection.

  2. Arthrography of the lumber facet joint and facet block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hee Kyung; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Young Soo; Park, Hyung Chun; Moon, Jae Ho; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-12-15

    In spite of numerous clinical and patho-anatomical studied made in the past, there are still different opinions concerning the mechanism of low back pain. We have focused attention on the posterior structures as an alternative source of low back pain with sciatica. So we have studied and analyzed the finding of arthrography of facet joint and effect of the injection of methyprednisolone acetate suspension (Depomedrol) 20mg into the each facet joint. Our results are as follows: 1. Abnormal findings of facet joint arthrogram were degenerative osteoarthritis of facet joint (70.5%), synovial cyst (11.8%), accessory bone (11.8%), and spondylolysis (5.9%). 2. The mean facet angulations of patients of facet syndrome were abnormal on lower lumbar facet joint in 9 of 13 cases (69.2%). 3. On initial assessment, 11 of 17 cases (64.7%) showed complete relief and one month later, 6 of 11 cases (35.3%) showed continuous relief, after steroid injection.

  3. Facets of a life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakharov, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book is physicist's tribute to Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov. This out-standing person - a talented physicist and citizen of the world - has played an extremely important role in the deep-going changes occurring in our country. His name belongs to history. Accounts of people who met him and are capable of assessing his scientific work and public activism are just beginning to pour in. In our view, this collection of reminiscences is only a small but essential, contribution to the restoration of A.D. Sakharov's image. Most of the authors, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists from many countries, knew him as a colleague. To a varying extent, they were a part of his difficult life. This is what this collection is about. Both professional and humanistic facets of his life are described. The book begins with the texts published when he ran for a post of a people's deputy of the USSR and the biographical note printed in the Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk journal after his death. They are mutually complementary for the former contains a short description of his biography and human rights activism, and the latter emphasizes Sakharov's scientific work. The authors' index contains basic data about them. The Annexes contain some previously unpublished Sakharov's documents. Among them there is 'The Letter to Soviet Scientists' with an appeal which, unfortunately, did not get the support it deserved

  4. Dynamic of Faceted Colloidal Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindoro, Melinda; Jee, Ah-Young; Yu, Changqian; Granick, Steve

    2014-03-01

    We study the emulsion induced clustering of faceted metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and their dynamics. Our approach to anisotropic building block is through the rational synthesis of water stable and highly uniform MOFs. This generates colloidal-sized MOFs of defined polyhedral shape with tunable size in micrometer range that are suitable for in situ imaging. The 3D clusters formations are promoted by hydrophilic MOFs particles confined in aqueous droplets of binary water-lutidine mixture at transition temperature. Below this temperature, the water droplet decreases in volume due to one phase mixing with lutidine which forces the N-mers of faceted particles to aggregate in close contact. We compare the faceted clusters formed to those made of spherical particles in term of the building block sphericity. Other focus of our study involves the dynamic of the clusters. We found that, unlike spherical clusters, these faceted N-mers are highly stable on large scale of temperature due to their dominant capillary force on their facet-to-facet contact.

  5. Relationship between facet tropism and facet joint degeneration in the sub-axial cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Rong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facet tropism is the angular asymmetry between the left and right facet joint orientation. Although debatable, facet tropism was suggested to be associated with disc degeneration, facet degeneration and degenerative spondylolisthesis in the lumbar spine. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between facet tropism and facet degeneration in the sub-axial cervical spine. Methods A total of 200 patients with cervical spondylosis were retrospectively analyzed. Facet degeneration was categorized into 4 grade: grade I, normal; grade II, degenerative changes including joint space narrowing, cyst formation, small osteophytes (3 mm without fusion of the joint; grade IV, bony fusion of the facet joints. Facet orientations and facet tropisms with respect to the transverse, sagittal and coronal plane were calculated from the reconstructed cervical spine, which was based on the axial CT scan images. The paired facet joints were then categorized into three types: symmetric, moderated tropism and severe tropism. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to evaluate the relationship between any demographic and anatomical factor and facet degeneration. Results The mean age of enrolled patients was 46.23 years old (ranging from 30 to 64 years old. There were 114 males and 86 females. The degrees of facet degeneration varied according to cervical levels and ages. Degenerated facet joints were most common at C2-C3 level and more common in patients above 50 years old. The facet orientations were also different from level to level. By univariate analysis, genders, ages, cervical levels, facet orientations and facet tropisms were all significantly different between the normal facets and degenerated facets. However, results from multivariate logistic regression suggested only age and facet tropism with respect to the sagittal plane were related to facet degeneration. Conclusion Facet degeneration were more common at

  6. Relationship between facet tropism and facet joint degeneration in the sub-axial cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xin; Liu, Ziyang; Wang, Beiyu; Pan, Xuelin; Liu, Hao

    2017-02-20

    Facet tropism is the angular asymmetry between the left and right facet joint orientation. Although debatable, facet tropism was suggested to be associated with disc degeneration, facet degeneration and degenerative spondylolisthesis in the lumbar spine. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between facet tropism and facet degeneration in the sub-axial cervical spine. A total of 200 patients with cervical spondylosis were retrospectively analyzed. Facet degeneration was categorized into 4 grade: grade I, normal; grade II, degenerative changes including joint space narrowing, cyst formation, small osteophytes (3 mm) without fusion of the joint; grade IV, bony fusion of the facet joints. Facet orientations and facet tropisms with respect to the transverse, sagittal and coronal plane were calculated from the reconstructed cervical spine, which was based on the axial CT scan images. The paired facet joints were then categorized into three types: symmetric, moderated tropism and severe tropism. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to evaluate the relationship between any demographic and anatomical factor and facet degeneration. The mean age of enrolled patients was 46.23 years old (ranging from 30 to 64 years old). There were 114 males and 86 females. The degrees of facet degeneration varied according to cervical levels and ages. Degenerated facet joints were most common at C2-C3 level and more common in patients above 50 years old. The facet orientations were also different from level to level. By univariate analysis, genders, ages, cervical levels, facet orientations and facet tropisms were all significantly different between the normal facets and degenerated facets. However, results from multivariate logistic regression suggested only age and facet tropism with respect to the sagittal plane were related to facet degeneration. Facet degeneration were more common at C2-C3 level. Older age and facet tropism with respect to the

  7. A faceted eye on intellectual giftedness: Examining the personality of gifted students using FFM domains and facets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaras-Dimitrijević Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the personality profile of gifted vs. average-ability students from the perspective of the FFM. The issue was approached by (1 reviewing the literature for well-established personality characteristics of the gifted, (2 establishing correspondences between these traits and FFM domains/facets, and (3 formulating a domain and a facet-level model which were hypothesized to discriminate significantly between gifted and nongifted students. The domain-level model consisted of Openness and Agreeableness. The facet-level model included 14 traits: Anxiety, Impulsiveness, Gregariousness, Assertiveness, Fantasy, Feelings, Aesthetics, Ideas, Compliance, Modesty, Tendermindedness, Order, Achievement, and Deliberation. The models were tested on three samples (N1=515 high-school students, 155 gifted; N2=132 psychology students, 28 gifted; N3=443 psychology students, 91 gifted. Results indicate that the domain-level model does not discriminate significantly between gifted and nongifted students in each sample, whereas the proposed 14-facet model yields a significant discrimination across all samples. The latter model may be further adjusted by removing facets which proved inconsistent or unsubstantial in distinguishing between the two groups. This yields a 7-facet discriminant function, which is also significant across samples, indicating that gifted students are consistently distinguished by a combination of high Ideas, Fantasy, Aesthetics, and Assertiveness, but low Gregariuosness, Modesty, and Tendermindeness. Educational implications and limitations are discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018

  8. THEORY OF INCOMMENSURATE CRYSTAL FACETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSMAALEN, S

    1993-01-01

    The morphology of incommensurately modulated crystals is considered. A surface free energy model is constructed which interprets the stabilization of the incommensurate facets as due to surface pinning of the phase of the modulation wave. The stepped nature of the true crystal surface restricts the

  9. Preamble to marine microbiology: Facets and opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    The book titled 'Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities' is an attempt to bring together some facets of marine microbiology as have been made out by many contemporaries in particular from the tropical marine regions. There are 18 contributed...

  10. Image-guided facet joint injection

    OpenAIRE

    Peh, WCG

    2011-01-01

    Chronic spine pain poses a peculiar diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to multiple pain sources, overlapping clinical features and nonspecific radiological findings. Facet joint injection is an interventional pain management tool for facet-related spinal pain that can be effectively administered by a radiologist. This technique is the gold standard for identifying facet joints as the source of spinal pain. The major indications for facet injections include strong clinical suspicion of t...

  11. Bilateral locked facets in the thoracic spine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Willems; Braakman, R. (Reinder); B. van Linge (Bert)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractTwo cases of traumatic bilateral locked facets in the thoracic spine are reported. Both patients had only minor neurological signs. They both made a full neurological recovery after surgical reduction of the locked facets. Bilateral locked facets are very uncommon in the thoracic spine.

  12. Optical fiber end-facet polymer suspended-mirror devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mian; Wu, Jushuai; Zhang, A. Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Wai, P. K. A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a novel optical fiber device based on a polymer suspended mirror on the end facet of an optical fiber. With an own-developed optical 3D micro-printing technology, SU-8 suspended-mirror devices (SMDs) were successfully fabricated on the top of a standard single-mode optical fiber. Optical reflection spectra of the fabricated SU- 8 SMDs were measured and compared with theoretical analysis. The proposed technology paves a way towards 3D microengineering of the small end-facet of optical fibers to develop novel fiber-optic sensors.

  13. Bending stresses in Facetted Glass Shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne; Jönsson, Jeppe; Almegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    A shell structure of glass combines a highly effective structural principle with a material of optimal permeability to light. A facetted shell structure has a piecewise plane geometry, and together the facets form an approximation to a curved surface. A distributed load on a plane-based facetted...... structure will locally cause bending moments in the loaded facets. The bending stresses are dependent on the stiffness of the joints. Approximate solutions are developed to estimate the magnitude of the bending stresses. A FE-model of a facetted glass shell structure is used to validate the expressions...

  14. Facets of Facebook: Use and Users

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The debate on Facebook raises questions about the use and users of this information service. This collected volume gathers a broad spectrum of social science and information science articles about Facebook.Facebook has many facets, and we just look forward above all to the use and users. The facet of users has sub-facets, such as different age, sex, and culture. The facet of use consists of sub-facets of privacy behavior after the Snowden affair, dealing with friends, unfriending and becoming...

  15. Quantum mechanical facets of chemical bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daudel, R.

    1976-01-01

    To define the concept of bond is both a central problem of quantum chemistry and a difficult one. The concept of bond appeared little by little in the mind of chemists from empirical observations. From the wave-mechanical viewpoint it is not an observable. Therefore there is no precise operator associated with that concept. As a consequence there is not a unique approach to the idea of chemical bond. This is why it is preferred to present various quantum mechanical facets, e.g. the energetic facet, the density facet, the partitioning facet and the functional facet, of that important concept. (Auth.)

  16. Computed Tomography of the lumbar facet joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Mi Ryoung; Kim, Yung Soon; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Jeon, Hae Sang; Kim, Dae Yung [Kang Nam General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    The lumbar facet disease is a frequently overlooked cause of sciatic pain, but the lumbar facet joints are well-recognized source of low back pain and radiating leg pain which can be confused with sciatica due to herniated disc. We measured the angulation of the facet joints on axial spine CT films in 149 cases which contains 41 normal group and 108 abnormal group and studied the relationship between the angulation and degeneration of the facets, the asymmetry of each sided facets and facet degeneration, the asymmetry and disc protrusion, and the asymmetry and annular bulging of the disc. The results were as follows: 1. Facet angulation in abnormal group were more sagittally oriented than the normal group. 2. The angulation of right facet was more sagittally oriented than the left in L4-5 level of abnormal group. 3. Degeneration of facet joints occur asymmetrically, and the more facet joint degenerates, the more it orients sagittally, particularly in L4-5. 4. Asymmetry in facet joint degeneration and unilateral disc protrusion of L5-SI level is greater than the normal gro0008.

  17. Comparing linkage designs based on land facets to linkage designs based on focal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Brian M; Beier, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Least-cost modeling for focal species is the most widely used method for designing conservation corridors and linkages. However, these designs depend on today's land covers, which will be altered by climate change. We recently proposed an alternative approach based on land facets (recurring landscape units of relatively uniform topography and soils). The rationale is that corridors with high continuity of individual land facets will facilitate movement of species associated with each facet today and in the future. Conservation practitioners might like to know whether a linkage design based on land facets is likely to provide continuity of modeled breeding habitat for species needing connectivity today, and whether a linkage for focal species provides continuity and interspersion of land facets. To address these questions, we compared linkages designed for focal species and land facets in three landscapes in Arizona, USA. We used two variables to measure linkage utility, namely distances between patches of modeled breeding habitat for 5-16 focal species in each linkage, and resistance profiles for focal species and land facets between patches connected by the linkage. Compared to focal species designs, linkage designs based on land facets provided as much or more modeled habitat connectivity for 25 of 28 species-landscape combinations, failing only for the three species with the most narrowly distributed habitat. Compared to land facets designs, focal species linkages provided lower connectivity for about half the land facets in two landscapes. In areas where a focal species approach to linkage design is not possible, our results suggest that conservation practitioners may be able to implement a land facets approach with some confidence that the linkage design would serve most potential focal species. In areas where focal species designs are possible, we recommend using the land facet approach to complement, rather than replace, focal species approaches.

  18. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous – (001) facets TiO{sub 2} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yeshuo [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Fei, Xuening, E-mail: xueningfei@126.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); School of Science, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin 300384 (China); Zhou, Yongzhu [School of Science, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • The (001) facets of TiO{sub 2} single crystals with mesoporous structure. • The (010) and (100) facets of TiO{sub 2} single crystals were covered by the flower – shaped TiO{sub 2} crystals. • This special structure could promote charge separation and provide more active sites, which will lead to a substantial increase in photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: In this work, the mesoporous – (001) facets TiO{sub 2} single crystals have been successfully synthesized through a two-step solvothermal route without any template. Their structure and morphology were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). Based on the different characteristics and atomic arrangements on each facet of anatase TiO{sub 2} single crystals, we synthesized these mesoporous – (001) facets TiO{sub 2} single crystals by controlling the interaction characteristics of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and isopropanol (i-PrOH) on the crystal facets. It can been seen that the (001) facets of these as-synthesized TiO{sub 2} single crystals have a clear mesoporous structure through the SEM images and BET methods. Moreover, the other four facets were covered by the flower – shaped TiO{sub 2} crystals with the generation of the mesoporous – (001) facets. This special and interesting morphology could promote charge separation and provide more active sites, which will lead to a substantial increase in photocatalytic activity. Moreover, it is more intuitive to reflect that the different crystal facets possess the different properties due to their atomic arrangement. Besides, according to the different synthetic routes, we proposed and discussed a plausible synthesis mechanism of these mesoporous – (001) facets TiO{sub 2} single crystals.

  19. Growth of Au@Ag core-shell pentatwinned nanorods: tuning the end facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiqing; Goh, Hao Ying Johnny; Firdoz, Shaik; Lu, Xianmao

    2013-09-16

    Au@Ag core-shell nanorods with tunable end facets are obtained by coating Au bipyramids (BPs) with Ag. The resultant nanorods exhibit a pentatwinned crystal structure with tips terminated with either {110} or {111} facets. The control over the end facets is achieved by varying the capping agents and tuning the reduction rate of Ag. Specifically, when Ag is reduced slowly, Au@Ag nanorods with flat {110} end facets are formed with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the capping agent. If CTAB is replaced with cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), Au@Ag nanorods with tips terminated with {111} facets are obtained. However, at a high Ag reduction rate, dumbbell-shaped Au@Ag nanorods are formed, with either CTAB or CTAC as the capping agent. The morphological evolution of the nanorods in each case is closely followed and a growth mechanism is proposed. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Different facets of market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we employ the concept of political market orientation to better understand how the main political parties in the UK and Germany relate to other stakeholders in the political sphere through an exploratory content analysis of their core election offering, the manifesto. This study has...... two aims: firstly, we will discuss the different facets of the market orientation of the main UK and German parties in their respective 2005 General Elections through an exploratory content analysis, and secondly, we will compare characteristics of market orientation between the two countries. Whilst...... the UK parties generally exhibited similar levels of market orientation on each of the relevant construct dimensions, the German parties had more distinct profiles; thus the applied dimensions of political market orientation show discriminatory power within and across electoral systems. In the UK...

  1. Image-guided facet joint injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, Wcg

    2011-01-01

    Chronic spine pain poses a peculiar diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to multiple pain sources, overlapping clinical features and nonspecific radiological findings. Facet joint injection is an interventional pain management tool for facet-related spinal pain that can be effectively administered by a radiologist. This technique is the gold standard for identifying facet joints as the source of spinal pain. The major indications for facet injections include strong clinical suspicion of the facet syndrome, focal tenderness over the facet joints, low back pain with normal radiological findings, post-laminectomy syndrome with no evidence of arachnoiditis or recurrent disc disease, and persistent low back pain after spinal fusion. The contraindications are more ancillary, with none being absolute. Like any synovial joint degeneration, inflammation and injury can lead to pain on motion, initiating a vicious cycle of physical deconditioning, irritation of facet innervations and muscle spasm. Image-guided injection of local anesthetic and steroid into or around the facet joint aims to break this vicious cycle and thereby provide pain relief. This outpatient procedure has high diagnostic accuracy, safety and reproducibility but the therapeutic outcome is variable.

  2. Utilizing Faceted Structures for Information Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priss, Uta; Jacob, Elin

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that a faceted thesaurus should be used as the basis for organizing a small-scale institutional Web site. Contends that a faceted approach to knowledge organization can make the process of organization less random and more manageable. Reports on an informal survey of three Web sites, underscoring the problems of organization that can…

  3. Assessment of dental anxiety: A facet approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthard, M.E.; Mellenbergh, G.J.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1993-01-01

    Used a facet design to construct a new Dental Anxiety Inventory (DAI), which was tested in 5 studies among 1,401 undergraduates and 174 patients. Facets chosen were time (made up of 4 elements: at home, on your way to the dentist, in the dentist's waiting room, in the dental chair), situation (3

  4. Facets of the balanced minimal evolution polytope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcey, Stefan; Keefe, Logan; Sands, William

    2016-08-01

    The balanced minimal evolution (BME) method of creating phylogenetic trees can be formulated as a linear programming problem, minimizing an inner product over the vertices of the BME polytope. In this paper we undertake the project of describing the facets of this polytope. We classify and identify the combinatorial structure and geometry (facet inequalities) of all the facets in dimensions up to five, and classify even more facets in all dimensions. A full set of facet inequalities would allow a full implementation of the simplex method for finding the BME tree-although there are reasons to think this an unreachable goal. However, our results provide the crucial first steps for a more likely-to-be-successful program: finding efficient relaxations of the BME polytope.

  5. Lumbar Facet Tropism: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Fernando; Kirkpatrick, Christina M; Jeong, William; Fisahn, Christian; Usman, Sameera; Rustagi, Tarush; Loukas, Marios; Chapman, Jens R; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-06-01

    Scattered reports exist in the medical literature regarding facet tropism. However, this finding has had mixed conclusions regarding its origin and impact on the normal spine. We performed a literature review of the anatomy, embryology, biomechanics, and pathology related to lumbar facet tropism. Facet tropism is most commonly found at L4-L5 vertebral segments and there is some evidence that this condition may lead to facet degenerative spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disc disease, and other degenerative conditions. Long-term analyses of patients are necessary to elucidate relationships between associated findings and facet tropism. In addition, a universally agreed definition that is more precise should be developed for future investigative studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Terahertz Light Source and User Area at FACET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z.; Li, S.Z.; Litos, M.; Fisher, A.D.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    presented. Potential THz research areas including studies of magnetism, ferroelectric switching dynamics, semiconductor devices and chemical reaction controls have already been proposed for the FACET THz area.

  7. Facet orientation and tropism: associations with spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Leonid; Guermazi, Ali; Li, Ling; Hunter, David J; Suri, Pradeep

    2010-04-01

    Cross-sectional study. To evaluate the association between lumbar spine facet joint orientation, facet joint tropism, and spondylolysis identified by multidetector computed tomography (CT) in the community-based Framingham Heart Study. The association between lumbar spondylolysis and facet orientation and tropism remains unclear. This study was an ancillary project to the Framingham Heart Study. Three thousand five hundred twenty-nine participants of the Framingham Heart Study aged 40 to 80 years underwent multidetector CT imaging to assess aortic calcification. One hundred ninety-one subjects were included in this ancillary study. Facet joint features and spondylolysis were evaluated on CT scans. The final analyzed sample included 104 men with mean age 51.90+/-11.25 years and 84 women with mean age 53.61+/-10.20 years. The association between spondylolysis and facet orientation and tropism was examined using univariate and multivariate analyses. Spondylolysis was prevalent in 11.5% of the total population. chi2 test demonstrated a significant sex difference in prevalence of spondylolysis (P=0.0154), with almost 3 times higher prevalence among men. There was no statistically significant difference in facet orientation and continuous facet tropism between individuals with and without spondylolysis at the L5 level (P=0.49 to 0.91). After adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index, no significant association between the occurrence of spondylolysis and facet orientation and tropism was found. In the studied sample the prevalence of facet joint osteoarthritis was significantly higher in individuals with spondylolysis than in those without spondylolysis at both sides of L4-L5 spinal level (P=0.044 at the right side and P=0.003 at the left side) and at left side of L5-S1 level (P=0.038). We did not find an association between facet orientation, facet tropism, and spondylolysis. One of the possible explanations for this is that the high prevalence of facet joint

  8. Method for partially coating laser diode facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakia, Anil R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Bars of integral laser diode devices cleaved from a wafer are placed with their p regions abutting and n regions abutting. A thin BeCu mask having alternate openings and strips of the same width as the end facets is used to mask the n region interfaces so that multiple bars can be partially coated over their exposed p regions with a reflective or partial reflective coating. The partial coating permits identification of the emitting facet from the fully coated back facet during a later device mounting procedure.

  9. STUDY OF CUSTOMERS’ LOYALTY: DIMENSIONS AND FACETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia BOBÂLCĂ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the main aspects investigated in the study of customer loyalty regarding different dimensions and facets of loyalty. Analyzing the academic literature on this subject, we identified two main directions: (a the approachings of loyalty on its dimensions (one, two or four dimensions; (b the approachings of loyalty on its facets (effects. The main facets of loyalty are repatronage intentions, word-of-mouth intentions and buying frequency. Our approach is a theoretical one and we used documentary research. Identifying and analyzing the dimensions and facets of loyalty are important stages for any loyalty program that a company should implement, regardless of its field of activity.

  10. Migration mechanisms of a faceted grain boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadian, R.; Grabowski, B.; Finnis, M. W.; Neugebauer, J.

    2018-04-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations and their analysis for a mixed tilt and twist grain boundary vicinal to the Σ 7 symmetric tilt boundary of the type {1 2 3 } in aluminum. When minimized in energy at 0 K , a grain boundary of this type exhibits nanofacets that contain kinks. We observe that at higher temperatures of migration simulations, given extended annealing times, it is energetically favorable for these nanofacets to coalesce into a large terrace-facet structure. Therefore, we initiate the simulations from such a structure and study as a function of applied driving force and temperature how the boundary migrates. We find the migration of a faceted boundary can be described in terms of the flow of steps. The migration is dominated at lower driving force by the collective motion of the steps incorporated in the facet, and at higher driving forces by the step detachment from the terrace-facet junction and propagation of steps across the terraces. The velocity of steps on terraces is faster than their velocity when incorporated in the facet, and very much faster than the velocity of the facet profile itself, which is almost stationary. A simple kinetic Monte Carlo model matches the broad kinematic features revealed by the molecular dynamics. Since the mechanisms seem likely to be very general on kinked grain-boundary planes, the step-flow description is a promising approach to more quantitative modeling of general grain boundaries.

  11. Facet-Dependent Property of Sequentially Deposited Perovskite Thin Films: Chemical Origin and Self-Annihilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiankai; Long, Mingzhu; Yan, Keyou; Zeng, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Fengrui; Chen, Zefeng; Wan, Xi; Chen, Kun; Liu, Pengyi; Li, Faming; Yu, Tao; Xie, Weiguang; Xu, Jianbin

    2016-11-30

    Quantification of intergrain length scale properties of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 (MAPbI 3 ) can provide further understanding of material physics, leading to improved device performance. In this work, we noticed that two typical types of facets appear in sequential deposited perovskite (SDP) films: smooth and steplike morphologies. By mapping the surface potential as well as the photoluminescence (PL) peak position, we revealed the heterogeneity of SDP thin films that smooth facets are almost intrinsic with a PL peak at 775 nm, while the steplike facets are p-type-doped with 5-nm blue-shifted PL peak. Considering the reaction process, we propose that the smooth facets have well-defined crystal lattices that resulted from the interfacial reaction between MAI and PbI 2 domains containing low trap states density. The steplike facets are MAI-rich originated from the grain boundaries of PbI 2 film and own more trap states. Conversion of steplike facets to smooth facets can be controlled by increasing the reaction time through Ostwald ripening. The improved stability, photoresponsivity up to 0.3 A/W, on/off ratio up to 3900, and decreased photo response time to ∼160 μs show that the trap states can be annihilated effectively to improve the photoelectrical conversion with prolonged reaction time and elimination of steplike facets. Our findings demonstrate the relationship between the facet heterogeneity of SDP films and crystal growth process for the first time, and imply that the systematic control of crystal grain modification will enable amelioration of crystallinity for more-efficient perovskite photoelectrical applications.

  12. Mindfulness facets and Big Five personality facets in persons with recurrent depression in remission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Huijbers, Marloes J.; Zheng, Yixia; Ormel, Johan; Speckens, Anne E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Studies examining mindfulness in relation to personality traits have been mainly conducted in non-clinical samples and resulted in mixed findings. The present cross-sectional study examined which mindfulness facets are most strongly associated with Big Five personality domains and facets implicated

  13. Cervical facet joint dysfunction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpalani, Dhiruj; Mitra, Raj

    2008-04-01

    To review the relevant literature on cervical facet joint dysfunction and determine findings regarding its anatomy, etiology, prevalence, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. A computer-aided search of several databases was performed, including Medline (1966 to present), Ovid (1966 to present), and the Cochrane database (1993 to present). Selected articles had the following criteria: (1) all articles analyzed cervical facet joint pain-anatomy, prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, treatment; (2) only full, published articles were studied, not abstracts; and (3) all articles were published in English. All articles were critically evaluated and included the following categories: randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, uncontrolled clinical trials, uncontrolled comparison studies, nonquantitative systematic reviews, and literature-based reviews. We examined 45 references that consisted of 44 journal articles and relevant sections from 1 textbook. Cervical facet joints have been well established in the literature as a common nociceptive pain generator, with an estimated prevalence that ranges from 25% to 66% of chronic axial neck pain. No studies have reported clinical examination findings that are diagnostic for cervical facet mediated pain. Overall the literature provides very limited information regarding the treatment of this condition, with only radiofrequency neurotomy showing evidence of effectively reducing pain from cervical facet joint dysfunction.

  14. Facets of Conscientiousness and risk of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, A R; Stephan, Y; Terracciano, A

    2017-09-06

    Multiple studies have found Conscientiousness to be protective against dementia. The purpose of this study is to identify which specific aspects, or facets, of Conscientiousness are most protective against cognitive impairment and whether these associations are moderated by demographic factors and/or genetic risk. Health and Retirement Study participants were selected for analysis if they completed the facets of Conscientiousness measure, scored in the range of normal cognitive functioning at the baseline personality assessment, and had at least one follow-up assessment of cognition over the up to 6-year follow-up (N = 11 181). Cox regression was used to test for risk of incident dementia and risk of incident cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND). Over the follow-up, 278 participants developed dementia and 2186 participants developed CIND. The facet of responsibility had the strongest and most consistent association with dementia risk: every standard deviation increase in this facet was associated with a nearly 35% decreased risk of dementia; self-control and industriousness were also protective. Associations were generally similar when controlling for clinical, behavioral, and genetic risk factors. These three facets were also independent predictors of decreased risk of CIND. The present research indicates that individuals who see themselves as responsible, able to control their behavior, and hard workers are less likely to develop CIND or dementia and that these associations persist after accounting for some common clinical, behavioral, and genetic risk factors.

  15. [Does the French Big Five Inventory evaluate facets other than the Big Five factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, R; Petot, J-M; Lignier, B; Lecocq, G; Plaisant, O

    2017-03-29

    consistency (based on Guildford's (1954) internal consistency criteria, due to the small number of items), with Cronbach's α between 0.60 and 0.86 and test-retest correlations between 0.71 and 0.89, showing satisfactory temporal stability. We found a single facet for Extraversion (Assertiveness), two for Agreeableness (Altruism and Compliance), two for Conscientiousness (Self-Discipline and Order), one for Neuroticism (Anxiety), and two for Openness to Experience (Openness to aesthetics and Openness to ideas). Based on their convergence with the corresponding facets in the NEO PI-R, these eight facets showed satisfactory external validity. With regard to the peer-report format, the Activity facet of Extraversion, which did not have sufficient internal consistency in the self-report format, had acceptable properties (i.e. 9 out of 10 facets). Only the Depression facet of Neuroticism still had insufficient internal consistency. In this study, we proposed an improvement of two facets (Activity and Compliance) and added one facet specific to the French version (Emotional Instability) in place of the Depression facet. We showed that the BFI-Fr can be used to assess nine of the ten facets described by Soto and John. We also identified an Emotional Instability facet, replacing the Depression facet of Neuroticism. DeYoung et al. (2007) considered that anxiety and depression are indissociable and can be represented by a Neuroticism aspect they labeled Withdrawal. They suggested a second aspect of this dimension they called Volatility (with the N2 Angry Hostility facet of the NEO PI-R as main marker and the N5 Impulsiveness and N3 Depression as secondary markers). The Emotional Instability facet we found corresponds closely to the N2 Angry Hostility facet of the NEO PI-R and appears to be a satisfactory marker of DeYoung et al.'s (2007) Volatility aspect. Although this study has limitations, particularly related to the samples (students), the BFI-Fr facets (derived from those defined

  16. Optimization of spherical facets for parabolic solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. E.; Erikson, R. J.; Sturgis, J. D.; Elfe, T. B.

    1986-01-01

    Solar concentrator designs which employ deployable hexagonal panels are being developed for space power systems. An offset optical configuration has been developed which offers significant system level advantages over previously proposed collector designs for space applications. Optical analyses have been performed which show offset reflector intercept factors to be only slightly lower than those for symmetric reflectors with the same slope error. Fluxes on the receiver walls are asymmetric but manageable by varying the tilt angle of the receiver. Greater producibility is achieved by subdividing the hexagonal panels into triangular mirror facets of spherical contour. Optical analysis has been performed upon these to yield near-optimum sizes and radii.

  17. Percutaneous fusion of lumbar facet with bone allograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Dolorit Verdecia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the evolution of the cases treated with percutaneous facet fusion with bone allograft in lumbar facet disease. METHOD: Between 2010 and 2014, 100 patients (59 women and 41 men diagnosed with lumbar facet disease underwent surgery. RESULTS: The lumbar facet fusion with bone allograft shows good clinical results, is performed on an outpatient basis, and presents minimal complications and rapid incorporation of the patient to the activities of daily living. CONCLUSIONS: The lumbar facet fusion with bone allograft appears to be an effective treatment for lumbar facet disease.

  18. Alignment and focus of mirrored facets of a heliosat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellowhair, Julius E; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Diver, Richard B; Moss, Timothy A

    2013-11-12

    Various technologies pertaining to aligning and focusing mirrored facets of a heliostat are described herein. Updating alignment and/or focus of mirrored facets is undertaken through generation of a theoretical image, wherein the theoretical image is indicative of a reflection of the target via the mirrored facets when the mirrored facets are properly aligned. This theoretical image includes reference points that are overlaid on an image of the target as reflected by the mirrored facets of the heliostat. A technician adjusts alignment/focus of a mirrored facet by causing reflected reference markings to become aligned with the reference points in the theoretical image.

  19. The Janus Facet of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Julianna; Jablonkai, István; Bóta, Attila; Visy, Júlia

    2015-01-01

    Application of nanoscale materials (NMs) displays a rapidly increasing trend in electronics, optics, chemical catalysis, biotechnology, and medicine due to versatile nature of NMs and easily adjustable physical, physicochemical, and chemical properties. However, the increasing abundance of NMs also poses significant new and emerging health and environmental risks. Despite growing efforts, understanding toxicity of NMs does not seem to cope with the demand, because NMs usually act entirely different from those of conventional small molecule drugs. Currently, large-scale application of available safety assessment protocols, as well as their furthering through case-by-case practice, is advisable. We define a standard work-scheme for nanotoxicity evaluation of NMs, comprising thorough characterization of structural, physical, physicochemical, and chemical traits, followed by measuring biodistribution in live tissue and blood combined with investigation of organ-specific effects especially regarding the function of the brain and the liver. We propose a range of biochemical, cellular, and immunological processes to be explored in order to provide information on the early effects of NMs on some basic physiological functions and chemical defense mechanisms. Together, these contributions give an overview with important implications for the understanding of many aspects of nanotoxicity. PMID:26075225

  20. Faceting of curved surfaces using the curvature coordinate system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    In many situations, a curved surface has to be approximated by a facetted surface, i.e., as a network with planar meshes. Most often this is done by triangulation of the surface. Points are chosen on the surface and the points are connected by straight lines so that these lines make a network...... this is by tangent faceting. Tangent points are chosen on the surface and the tangent planes at these points are connected along lines of intersection so that these lines make a network with planar meshes and so that no normal to the curved surface intersect more than one facet. The result is a faceted surface...... of triangular meshes and so that no normal to the curved surface intersect more than one mesh/facet. The result is a faceted surface, with vertices, edges and triangular facets. But faceting a curved surface can also be done using planes as the basic geometrical element instead of points. One way of doing...

  1. Vacuum facet phenomenon: a computed tomographic sign of degenerative spondylolisthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefkowitz, D.M.; Quencer, D.M.

    1982-08-01

    A vacuum facet phenomenon, seen on computed tomography as a lens-shaped lucency within a lumbar facet joint, was observed as a consequence of degenerative spondylolisthesis. The significance of this finding is discussed.

  2. Association between facet joint osteoarthritis and the Oswestry Disability Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maataoui, Adel; Vogl, Thomas J; Middendorp, Marcus; Kafchitsas, Konstantinos; Khan, M Fawad

    2014-11-28

    To investigate the correlation of facet joint osteoarthritis (FJOA) at lumbar levels L4/L5 and L5/S1 and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The study involved lumbar MRIs of 591 patients with a mean age of 47.3 years. The MRIs of the lumbar spine were performed on a 1.5 Tesla scanner (Magnetom(®) Avanto, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) using a dedicated receive only spine coil. After initial blinding, each dataset was evaluated by 2 board certified radiologist with more than 5 years experience in musculoskeletal imaging. In total 2364 facet joints were graded. Degenerative changes of the facet joints were evaluated according to the 4-point scale as proposed by Weishaupt et al Functional status was assessed using the ODI. The index is scored from 0 to 100 and interpreted as follows: 0%-20%, minimal disability; 20%-40%, moderate disability; 40%-60%, severe disability; 60%-80%, crippled; 80%-100%, patients are bedbound. Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation was used for statistical analysis, with significance set at P disability had a minimum of 0% and a maximum of 91.11% with an arithmetic mean of 32.77% ± 17.02%. The majority of patients (48.39%) had moderate functional disability (21%-40%). There was no significant correlation between FJOA and ODI on both sides of lumbar level L4/5 and on the left side of lumbar level L5/S1. A weak positive correlation was evaluated between ODI and FJOA on the right side of lumbar level L5/S1. The missing correlation of FJOA and ODI confirms our clinical experience that imaging alone is an insufficient approach explaining low back pain. Clinical correlation is imperative for an adequate diagnostic advance in patients with low back pain.

  3. Results from Plasma Wakefield Experiments at FACET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.Z.; Clarke, C.I.; England, R.J.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S.J.; Hogan, M.J.; Jobe, R.K.; Litos, M.D.; Walz, D.R.; /SLAC; Muggli, P.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; An, W.; Clayton, C.E.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.; Tochitsky, S.; /UCLA; Adli, E.; /U. Oslo

    2011-12-13

    We report initial results of the Plasma Wakefield Acceleration (PWFA) Experiments performed at FACET - Facility for Advanced aCcelertor Experimental Tests at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. At FACET a 23 GeV electron beam with 1.8 x 10{sup 10} electrons is compressed to 20 {mu}m longitudinally and focused down to 10 {mu}m x 10 {mu}m transverse spot size for user driven experiments. Construction of the FACET facility completed in May 2011 with a first run of user assisted commissioning throughout the summer. The first PWFA experiments will use single electron bunches combined with a high density lithium plasma to produce accelerating gradients > 10 GeV/m benchmarking the FACET beam and the newly installed experimental hardware. Future plans for further study of plasma wakefield acceleration will be reviewed. The experimental hardware and operation of the plasma heat-pipe oven have been successfully commissioned. Plasma wakefield acceleration was not observed because the electron bunch density was insufficient to ionize the lithium vapor. The remaining commissioning time in summer 2011 will be dedicated to delivering the FACET design parameters for the experimental programs which will begin in early 2012. PWFA experiments require the shorter bunches and smaller transverse sizes to create the plasma and drive large amplitude wakefields. Low emittance and high energy will minimize head erosion which was found to be a limiting factor in acceleration distance and energy gain. We will run the PWFA experiments with the design single bunch conditions in early 2012. Future PWFA experiments at FACET are discussed in [5][6] and include drive and witness bunch production for high energy beam manipulation, ramped bunch to optimize tranformer ratio, field-ionized cesium plasma, preionized plasmas, positron acceleration, etc.. We will install a notch collimator for two-bunch operation as well as new beam diagnostics such as the X-band TCAV [7] to resolve the two bunches

  4. /facet: A browser for heterogeneous semantic web repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hildebrand (Michiel); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco); L. Hardman (Lynda)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractFacet browsing has become popular as a user friendly interface to data repositories. We extend facet browsing of Semantic Web data in four ways. First, users are able to select and navigate through facets of resources of any type and to make selections based on properties of other,

  5. Nonradiative Step Facets in Semiconductor Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana M; Zhang, Yunyan; Tait, Edward W; Hine, Nicholas D M; Liu, Huiyun; Beanland, Richard

    2017-04-12

    One of the main advantages of nanowires for functional applications is their high perfection, which results from surface image forces that act on line defects such as dislocations, rendering them unstable and driving them out of the crystal. Here we show that there is a class of step facets that are stable in nanowires, with no long-range strain field or dislocation character. In zinc-blende semiconductors, they take the form of Σ3 (112) facets with heights constrained to be a multiple of three {111} monolayers. Density functional theory calculations show that they act as nonradiative recombination centers and have deleterious effects on nanowire properties. We present experimental observations of these defects on twin boundaries and twins that terminate inside GaAsP nanowires and find that they are indeed always multiples of three monolayers in height. Strategies to use the three-monolayer rule during growth to prevent their formation are discussed.

  6. Longitudinal Stability Study for the FACET-II e+ Damping Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, Karl [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-11-29

    This is an initial study of the longitudinal, single-bunch stability in the proposed FACET-II e+ damping ring. It is preliminary because, at present, only a few specific features of the vacuum chamber are known.

  7. Rhetorical facets of imagination in contemporary poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Delbari; Fariba Mehri

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present article deals with the trend of literary imaginative descriptions in the purview of poetical imaginations which have been regarded greatly in the discourse of rhetoricâs. The different facets of imagination of these imageries are also introduced in this article. Throughout this study poetical demonstrations are dealt with on the basis of their indications, functions and profundity. Meanwhile overcoming superficial and intermediate layers of imagination towards inner and ...

  8. Studying the various facets of emotional aging

    OpenAIRE

    Ebner, Natalie C.; Fischer, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    To study emotional aging is to study a very multi-faceted concept. In particular, the study of emotion and aging covers a wide range of topics. Taking a closer look, domains of functioning can be differentiated such as pertaining to the experiential nature of emotion or its regulation, as well as social-cognitive processes associated with the perception of emotion in others or emotion-related attention and memory retrieval. Importantly, evidence over the last two decades suggests that not all...

  9. Plasma wakefield acceleration experiments at FACET II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, C.; Adli, E.; An, W.; Clayton, C. E.; Corde, S.; Gessner, S.; Hogan, M. J.; Litos, M.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; O'shea, B.; Xu, Xinlu; White, G.; Yakimenko, V.

    2018-03-01

    During the past two decades of research, the ultra-relativistic beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) concept has achieved many significant milestones. These include the demonstration of ultra-high gradient acceleration of electrons over meter-scale plasma accelerator structures, efficient acceleration of a narrow energy spread electron bunch at high-gradients, positron acceleration using wakes in uniform plasmas and in hollow plasma channels, and demonstrating that highly nonlinear wakes in the ‘blow-out regime’ have the electric field structure necessary for preserving the emittance of the accelerating bunch. A new 10 GeV electron beam facility, Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test (FACET) II, is currently under construction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for the next generation of PWFA research and development. The FACET II beams will enable the simultaneous demonstration of substantial energy gain of a small emittance electron bunch while demonstrating an efficient transfer of energy from the drive to the trailing bunch. In this paper we first describe the capabilities of the FACET II facility. We then describe a series of PWFA experiments supported by numerical and particle-in-cell simulations designed to demonstrate plasma wake generation where the drive beam is nearly depleted of its energy, high efficiency acceleration of the trailing bunch while doubling its energy and ultimately, quantifying the emittance growth in a single stage of a PWFA that has optimally designed matching sections. We then briefly discuss other FACET II plasma-based experiments including in situ positron generation and acceleration, and several schemes that are promising for generating sub-micron emittance bunches that will ultimately be needed for both an early application of a PWFA and for a plasma-based future linear collider.

  10. Controlled synthesis and enhanced catalytic and gas-sensing properties of tin dioxide nanoparticles with exposed high-energy facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Han, Xiguang; Xie, Shuifen; Kuang, Qin; Jiang, Yaqi; Zhang, Subing; Mu, Xiaoliang; Chen, Guangxu; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Zheng, Lansun

    2012-02-20

    A morphology evolution of SnO(2) nanoparticles from low-energy facets (i.e., {101} and {110}) to high-energy facets (i.e., {111}) was achieved in a basic environment. In the proposed synthetic method, octahedral SnO(2) nanoparticles enclosed by high-energy {111} facets were successfully synthesized for the first time, and tetramethylammonium hydroxide was found to be crucial for the control of exposed facets. Furthermore, our experiments demonstrated that the SnO(2) nanoparticles with exposed high-energy facets, such as {221} or {111}, exhibited enhanced catalytic activity for the oxidation of CO and enhanced gas-sensing properties due to their high chemical activity, which results from unsaturated coordination of surface atoms, superior to that of low-energy facets. These results effectively demonstrate the significance of research into improving the physical and chemical properties of materials by tailoring exposed facets of nanomaterials. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Facet-to-facet Linking of Shape-anisotropic Colloidal Cadmium Chalcogenide Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Xuanwei; Gupta, Shashank; Wu, Wen-Ya; Chakrabortty, Sabyasachi; Chan, Yinthai

    2017-08-10

    Here, we describe a protocol that allows for shape-anisotropic cadmium chalcogenide nanocrystals (NCs), such as nanorods (NRs) and tetrapods (TPs), to be covalently and site-specifically linked via their end facets, resulting in polymer-like linear or branched chains. The linking procedure begins with a cation-exchange process in which the end facets of the cadmium chalcogenide NCs are first converted to silver chalcogenide. This is followed by the selective removal of ligands at their surface. This results in cadmium chalcogenide NCs with highly reactive silver chalcogenide end facets that spontaneously fuse upon contact with each other, thereby establishing an interparticle facet-to-facet attachment. Through the judicious choice of precursor concentrations, an extensive network of linked NCs can be produced. Structural characterization of the linked NCs is carried out via low- and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, which confirm the presence of silver chalcogenide domains between chains of cadmium chalcogenide NCs.

  12. Improving personality facet scores with multidimensional computer adaptive testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A W

    2013-01-01

    Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when...... personality tests contain many highly correlated facets. This article investigates the possibility of increasing the precision of the NEO PI-R facet scores by scoring items with multidimensional item response theory and by efficiently administering and scoring items with multidimensional computer adaptive...... testing (MCAT). The increase in the precision of personality facet scores is obtained from exploiting the correlations between the facets. Results indicate that the NEO PI-R could be substantially shorter without attenuating precision when the MCAT methodology is used. Furthermore, the study shows...

  13. Height of a faceted macrostep for sticky steps in a step-faceting zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Noriko

    2018-02-01

    The driving force dependence of the surface velocity and the average height of faceted merged steps, the terrace-surface slope, and the elementary step velocity are studied using the Monte Carlo method in the nonequilibrium steady state. The Monte Carlo study is based on a lattice model, the restricted solid-on-solid model with point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model). The main focus of this paper is a change of the "kink density" on the vicinal surface. The temperature is selected to be in the step-faceting zone [N. Akutsu, AIP Adv. 6, 035301 (2016), 10.1063/1.4943400] where the vicinal surface is surrounded by the (001) terrace and the (111) faceted step at equilibrium. Long time simulations are performed at this temperature to obtain steady states for the different driving forces that influence the growth/recession of the surface. A Wulff figure of the p-RSOS model is produced through the anomalous surface tension calculated using the density-matrix renormalization group method. The characteristics of the faceted macrostep profile at equilibrium are classified with respect to the connectivity of the surface tension. This surface tension connectivity also leads to a faceting diagram, where the separated areas are, respectively, classified as a Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov zone, step droplet zone, and step-faceting zone. Although the p-RSOS model is a simplified model, the model shows a wide variety of dynamics in the step-faceting zone. There are four characteristic driving forces: Δ μy,Δ μf,Δ μc o , and Δ μR . For the absolute value of the driving force, |Δ μ | is smaller than Max[ Δ μy,Δ μf] , the step attachment-detachments are inhibited, and the vicinal surface consists of (001) terraces and the (111) side surfaces of the faceted macrosteps. For Max[ Δ μy,Δ μf]effects were also determined to be distinctive near equilibrium.

  14. The biomechanical impact of facet tropism on the intervertebral disc and facet joints in the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xin; Wang, Beiyu; Ding, Chen; Deng, Yuxiao; Chen, Hua; Meng, Yang; Yan, Weijie; Liu, Hao

    2017-12-01

    Facet tropism is defined as the angular difference between the left and the right facet orientation. Facet tropism was suggested to be associated with the disc degeneration and facet degeneration in the lumbar spine. However, little is known about the relationship between facet tropism and pathologic changes in the cervical spine and the mechanism behind. This study was conducted to investigate the biomechanical impact of facet tropism on the intervertebral disc and facet joints. A finite element analysis study. The computed tomography (CT) scans of a 28-year-old male volunteer was used to construct the finite element model. First, a symmetrical cervical model from C2 to C7 was constructed. The facet orientations at each level were simulated using the data from our previously published study. Second, the facet orientations at the C5-C6 level were altered to simulate facet tropism with respect to the sagittal plane. The angular difference of the moderate facet tropism model was set to be 7 degrees, whereas the severe facet tropism model was set to be 14 degrees. The inferior of the C7 vertebra was fixed. A 75 N follower loading was applied to simulate the weight of the head. A 1.0 N⋅m moments was applied on the odontoid process of the C2 to simulate flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. The intradiscal pressure (IDP) at the C5-C6 level of the severe facet tropism model increased by 49.02%, 57.14%, 39.06%, and 30.67%, under flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation moments, in comparison with the symmetrical model. The contact force of the severe facet tropism model increased by 35.64%, 31.74%, 79.26%, and 59.47% from the symmetrical model under flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, respectively. Facet tropism with respect to the sagittal plane at the C5-C6 level increased the IDP and facet contact force under flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. The results suggested that facet tropism might

  15. Control to Facet for Polynomial Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to the control to facet problem for arbitrary polynomial vector fields defined on simplices. The novelty of the work is to use Bernstein coefficients of polynomials for determining certificates of positivity. Specifically, the constraints that are set up...... for the controller design are solved by searching for polynomials in Bernstein form. This allows the controller design problem to be formulated as a linear programming problem. Examples are provided that demonstrate the efficiency of the method for designing controls for polynomial systems....

  16. Multiquark hadrons. A new facet of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    I review some selected aspects of the phenomenology of multiquark states discovered in high energy experiments. They have four valence quarks (called tetraquarks) and two of them are found to have five valence quarks (called pentaquarks), extending the conventional hadron spectrum which consists of quark-antiquark (q anti q) mesons and qqq baryons. Multiquark states represent a new facet of QCD and their dynamics is both challenging and currently poorly understood. I discuss various approaches put forward to accommodate them, with emphasis on the diquark model.

  17. Bipolar Radiofrequency Facet Ablation of the Lumbar Facet Capsule: An Adjunct to Conventional Radiofrequency Ablation for Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert E; Palea, Ovidiu; Granville, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    Radiofrequency facet ablation (RFA) has been performed using the same technique for over 50 years. Except for variations in electrode size, tip shape, and change in radiofrequency (RF) stimulation parameters, using standard, pulsed, and cooled RF wavelengths, the target points have remained absolutely unchanged from the original work describing RFA for lumbar pain control. Degenerative changes in the facet joint and capsule are the primary location for the majority of lumbar segmental pathology and pain. Multiple studies show that the degenerated facet joint is richly innervated as a result of the inflammatory overgrowth of the synovium. The primary provocative clinical test to justify an RFA is to perform an injection with local anesthetic into the facet joint and the posterior capsule and confirm pain relief. However, after a positive response, the radiofrequency lesion is made not to the facet joint but to the more proximal fine nerve branches that innervate the joint. The accepted target points for the recurrent sensory branch ignore the characteristic rich innervation of the pathologic lumbar facet capsule and assume that lesioning of these recurrent branches is sufficient to denervate the painful pathologic facet joint. This report describes the additional targets and technical steps for further coagulation points along the posterior capsule of the lumbar facet joint and the physiologic studies of the advantage of the bipolar radiofrequency current in this location. Bipolar RF to the facet capsule is a simple, extra step that easily creates a large thermo-coagulated lesion in this capsule region of the pathologic facet joint. Early studies demonstrate bipolar RF to the facet capsule can provide long-term pain relief when used alone for specific localized facet joint pain, to coagulate lumbar facet cysts to prevent recurrence, and to get more extensive pain control by combining it with traditional lumbar RFA, especially when RFA is repeated.

  18. Morphometric analysis of the cervical facets and the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of Goel inter-facet spacer distraction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Abhidha

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative anatomy of the facets of the sub-axial cervical spine was performed. The purpose of the evaluation was to determine the feasibility of insertion of Goel inter-facetal articular spacers in the sub-axial cervical spine. Only few studies detailing the morphometry of the facets are available in the literature. Ten cervical vertebrae from C3 to C7 with a total of 20 facets were evaluated by the author. The anatomic parameters studied were the height, width, thickness, shape, orientation, and inclination of each of the superior and inferior facets. The alterations in a number of intervertebral segmental distances were measured before and after spacer insertion. The distance of the inferior facet from the foramen tranversarium, spinal canal, and neural foramina was measured to assess safety of spacer insertion with respect to the vertebral artery and neural structures. The height, width and thickness of the superior facets from C3 to C7 ranged from 6 to 12 mm, 8 to 12 mm, and 2.5 to 6 mm, respectively. The inferior facets had an average height of 10.5 mm, average width of 11.2 mm and average thickness of 3.5 mm. The inclination of the superior facets with respect to the transverse plane ranged from 22° to 45° and that of the inferior facets ranged from 29° to 53°. The distance of the anterior margin of the inferior facet from the posterior border of the foramen transversium ranged from 5 to 7 mm. This distance was maximum at C3 level, then decreased at C4 and remained constant from C5 to C7. This anatomic evaluation aided in understanding the morphology of the cervical facets and the suitability of the cervical facetal articular cavity for insertion of spacers.

  19. The Effects of Orientation of Lumbar Facet Joints on the Facet Joint Contact Forces: An In Vitro Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Huang, Zhiping; Zhou, Ruozhou; Zhu, Qingan; Ji, Wei; Long, Yaowu; Wang, Jixing

    2018-02-15

    A biomechanical human cadaveric study. The aim of this study was to measure L2-L3 facet joint contact forces in a flexibility test using thin film electroresistive sensors, and facet joint orientation on computed tomographic (CT) scan images, to examine the effects of orientation of lumbar facet joint on the facet joint contact forces. Biomechanically, the bilateral facet joints play a critical role in maintaining stability of the lumbar spine. The effect of orientation of lumbar facet joints on the contact forces remains unknown. Eight human cadaveric lumbar spine specimens (L2-L3) were tested by applying a pure moment of ±7.5 Nm in three directions of loading (flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation) with and without a follower preload of 300 N. The orientation of the lumbar facet joints at the L2-L3 was measured on axial CT scans. Bilateral facet contact forces were measured during flexibility tests using thin film electroresistive sensors (Tekscan 6900). The average total peak facet loads was 66 N in axial rotation, 27 N in extension, and 20 N in lateral bending under a pure moment. Under a pure moment with a follower preload of 300 N, the average total peak facet loads was 53 N in axial rotation, 43 N in extension, and 24 N in lateral bending. The facet joint forces were correlated positively and significantly with the orientation in all directions with and without a compressive follower preload (P forces at neutral position with a follower preload were correlated positively with the orientation (rs = 0.759, P = 0.001). This study identified that the greater coronal orientation of lumbar facet joints is, the higher the facet joint contact forces are. 3.

  20. Morphometric analysis of the cervical facets and the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of Goel inter-facet spacer distraction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhidha Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Quantitative anatomy of the facets of the sub-axial cervical spine was performed. The purpose of the evaluation was to determine the feasibility of insertion of Goel inter-facetal articular spacers in the sub-axial cervical spine. Only few studies detailing the morphometry of the facets are available in the literature. Materials and Methods: Ten cervical vertebrae from C3 to C7 with a total of 20 facets were evaluated by the author. The anatomic parameters studied were the height, width, thickness, shape, orientation, and inclination of each of the superior and inferior facets. The alterations in a number of intervertebral segmental distances were measured before and after spacer insertion. The distance of the inferior facet from the foramen tranversarium, spinal canal, and neural foramina was measured to assess safety of spacer insertion with respect to the vertebral artery and neural structures. Results: The height, width and thickness of the superior facets from C3 to C7 ranged from 6 to 12 mm, 8 to 12 mm, and 2.5 to 6 mm, respectively. The inferior facets had an average height of 10.5 mm, average width of 11.2 mm and average thickness of 3.5 mm. The inclination of the superior facets with respect to the transverse plane ranged from 22° to 45° and that of the inferior facets ranged from 29° to 53°. The distance of the anterior margin of the inferior facet from the posterior border of the foramen transversium ranged from 5 to 7 mm. This distance was maximum at C3 level, then decreased at C4 and remained constant from C5 to C7. Conclusion: This anatomic evaluation aided in understanding the morphology of the cervical facets and the suitability of the cervical facetal articular cavity for insertion of spacers.

  1. Facets of Dispositional Mindfulness and Health Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenlos, Jamie S; Wells, Stephanie Y; Noonan, Marleah; Mayrsohn, Aubreyanne

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between the facets of trait mindfulness with psychological and physical health while controlling for health behaviors in college students. 310 students from a small, private college in the Northeastern United States. Students completed self-report measures, including the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14), the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Medical Outcomes Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Rutgers Alcohol Problems Index (RAPI). After controlling for other health behaviors, the observation facet of mindfulness was negatively associated with physical health. Both acting with awareness and nonjudging facets were positively associated with emotional well-being. For social functioning, nonjudging was a significant positive facet for this domain of health. Tailoring mindfulness-based interventions to enhance these facets may be beneficial to young adults.

  2. Faceted ceramic fibers, tapes or ribbons and epitaxial devices therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2012-07-24

    A crystalline article includes a single-crystal ceramic fiber, tape or ribbon. The fiber, tape or ribbon has at least one crystallographic facet along its length, which is generally at least one meter long. In the case of sapphire, the facets are R-plane, M-plane, C-plane or A-plane facets. Epitaxial articles, including superconducting articles, can be formed on the fiber, tape or ribbon.

  3. Rhetorical facets of imagination in contemporary poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Delbari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present article deals with the trend of literary imaginative descriptions in the purview of poetical imaginations which have been regarded greatly in the discourse of rhetoric’s. The different facets of imagination of these imageries are also introduced in this article. Throughout this study poetical demonstrations are dealt with on the basis of their indications, functions and profundity. Meanwhile overcoming superficial and intermediate layers of imagination towards inner and profound thoughts would represent the domination of the poets in depiction of imagery. For this purpose, an introduction of numerous imagery layers with their deep and superficial, positive and subsidiary nature is presented through some examples. The result suggests that the extent of imagery complexity among many poets has a direct relation to their subjectivity in such a way that different levels of imageries are internalized as a unique stylistic feature of any individual poet. He endeavors to ornament his poem through imagery devices. Yousefi says: “any poem in which there is not imagery cannot be regarded as a poem. “The attractiveness of such imagination and the success or failure of the poet in conveying this imagery is a matter of poet’s tendency in using imagery devices. Through this article the contemporary poems are analyzed from the view point of objectivity and subjectivity. Furthermore, the poems are studied on their functions. The analysis has been carried out from two perspectives idiosyncratic features of the poet and the characteristics of the era in which he has lived. The examples presented in this article are selected from among the poets with different linguistic backgrounds and unique ideologies. The reason behind this specific consideration is an indication of a generalizability rather than a representativeness of few poets with their idiosyncratic styles. Therefore, the results indicate the style characteristics

  4. Rhetorical facets of imagination in contemporary poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Delbari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present article deals with the trend of literary imaginative descriptions in the purview of poetical imaginations which have been regarded greatly in the discourse of rhetoric’s. The different facets of imagination of these imageries are also introduced in this article. Throughout this study poetical demonstrations are dealt with on the basis of their indications, functions and profundity. Meanwhile overcoming superficial and intermediate layers of imagination towards inner and profound thoughts would represent the domination of the poets in depiction of imagery. For this purpose, an introduction of numerous imagery layers with their deep and superficial, positive and subsidiary nature is presented through some examples. The result suggests that the extent of imagery complexity among many poets has a direct relation to their subjectivity in such a way that different levels of imageries are internalized as a unique stylistic feature of any individual poet. He endeavors to ornament his poem through imagery devices. Yousefi says: “any poem in which there is not imagery cannot be regarded as a poem. “The attractiveness of such imagination and the success or failure of the poet in conveying this imagery is a matter of poet’s tendency in using imagery devices. Through this article the contemporary poems are analyzed from the view point of objectivity and subjectivity. Furthermore, the poems are studied on their functions. The analysis has been carried out from two perspectives idiosyncratic features of the poet and the characteristics of the era in which he has lived. The examples presented in this article are selected from among the poets with different linguistic backgrounds and unique ideologies. The reason behind this specific consideration is an indication of a generalizability rather than a representativeness of few poets with their idiosyncratic styles. Therefore, the results indicate the style characteristics of poet

  5. A folk-psychological ranking of personality facets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Roivainen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Which personality facets should a general personality test measure? No consensus exists on the facet structure of personality, the nature of facets, or the correct method of identifying the most significant facets. However, it can be hypothesized (the lexical hypothesis that high frequency personality describing words more likely represent important personality facets and rarely used words refer to less significant aspects of personality. Participants and procedure A ranking of personality facets was performed by studying the frequency of the use of popular personality adjectives in causal clauses (because he is a kind person on the Internet and in books as attributes of the word person (kind person. Results In Study 1, the 40 most frequently used adjectives had a cumulative usage frequency equal to that of the rest of the 295 terms studied. When terms with a higher-ranking dictionary synonym or antonym were eliminated, 23 terms remained, which represent 23 different facets. In Study 2, clusters of synonymous terms were examined. Within the top 30 clusters, personality terms were used 855 times compared to 240 for the 70 lower-ranking clusters. Conclusions It is hypothesized that personality facets represented by the top-ranking terms and clusters of terms are important and impactful independent of their correlation with abstract underlying personality factors (five/six factor models. Compared to hierarchical personality models, lists of important facets probably better cover those aspects of personality that are situated between the five or six major domains.

  6. Contribution of facet joints to chronic low back pain in postlumbar laminectomy syndrome: a controlled comparative prevalence evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, L; Pampati, V; Baha, A G; Fellows, B; Damron, K S; Barnhill, R C

    2001-04-01

    Postlumbar laminectomy syndrome, or pain following operative procedures of the lumbar spine, is increasingly a common entity in modern medicine. Multiple causes proposed for recurrence of pain after lumbar laminectomy are: epidural fibrosis, recurrent disc herniation, instability, and facet joints. Even though the prevalence of persistent low back pain secondary to the involvement of lumbosacral facet joints has been described in controlled studies from 15% to 45%, the prevalence of facet joint mediated pain in postlumbar laminectomy syndrome has not been studied. This prospective, randomized, controlled comparative evaluation was performed to determine the prevalence of facet joint mediated pain in persistent low back pain in postlumbar laminectomy patients with a comparative non-surgical group. One hundred patients with fifty patients in each group were randomly assigned with group I consisting of fifty patients without history of previous surgery and group II consisting of fifty patients with history of previous surgery. Results showed that the prevalence of facet joint mediated pain in non-surgical patients was 44% compared to 32% in post surgical patients determined by comparative controlled local anesthetic blocks utilizing lidocaine and bupivacaine. This study also showed a false positive rate of 36% in non-surgical group and 24% in post-surgical group. In conclusion, this study shows that facet joint mediated symptomatology in chronic low back pain is prevalent, both in non-surgical as well as post-surgical patients even though prevalence was somewhat higher in the non-surgical group compared to post-surgical group.

  7. Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reiweger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding failure initiation within weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of four samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be observed in detail. Catastrophic failure started due to a shear fracture just above the interface between the depth hoar layer and the underlying crust.

  8. A practical scale for Multi-Faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweber, Zandra M; Henning, Robert A; Magley, Vicki J

    2016-04-01

    The current study sought to develop a practical scale to measure 3 facets of workplace health climate from the employee perspective as an important component of a healthy organization. The goal was to create a short, usable yet comprehensive scale that organizations and occupational health professionals could use to determine if workplace health interventions were needed. The proposed Multi-faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment (MOHCA) scale assesses facets that correspond to 3 organizational levels: (a) workgroup, (b) supervisor, and (c) organization. Ten items were developed and tested on 2 distinct samples, 1 cross-organization and 1 within-organization. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded a 9-item, hierarchical 3-factor structure. Tests confirmed MOHCA has convergent validity with related constructs, such as perceived organizational support and supervisor support, as well as discriminant validity with safety climate. Lastly, criterion-related validity was found between MOHCA and health-related outcomes. The multi-faceted nature of MOHCA provides a scale that has face validity and can be easily translated into practice, offering a means for diagnosing the shortcomings of an organization or workgroup's health climate to better plan health and well-being interventions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Five Facets of Mindfulness and Psychological Health: Evaluating a Psychological Model of the Mechanisms of Mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David B; Bravo, Adrian J; Roos, Corey R; Pearson, Matthew R

    2015-10-01

    There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one's thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students ( N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness.

  10. Five Facets of Mindfulness and Psychological Health: Evaluating a Psychological Model of the Mechanisms of Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David B.; Bravo, Adrian J.; Roos, Corey R.

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one’s thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students (N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness. PMID:26504498

  11. A note on clique-web facets for multicut polytopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2002-01-01

    In this note we provide a previously undiscovered necessary condition for the facet-defining property of clique-web inequalities for the multicut polytope. This condition imposes a minimum cardinality requirement on the node set of the clique, thus implying, in general, that clique-web inequalities...... associated with relatively small cliques are not facet-defining for multicut polytopes....

  12. A Note on Clique-Web Facets for Multicut Polytopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2002-01-01

    In this note we provide a previously undiscovered necessary condition for the facet defining property of clique-web inequalities for the multicut polytope. This condition imposes a minimum cardinality requirement on the node set of the clique, thus implying that clique-web inequalities associated...... with relatively small cliques are not facet defining in general for multicut polytopes....

  13. /facet: A Browser for Heterogeneous Semantic Web Repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hildebrand (Michiel); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco); L. Hardman (Lynda)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractFacet browsing has become popular as a user friendly interface to data repositories. The Semantic Web raises new challenges due to the heterogeneous character of the data. First, users should be able to select and navigate through facets of resources of any type and to make selections

  14. Proximal attrition facets: morphometric, demographic, and aging characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarig, Rachel; Hershkovitz, Israel; Shvalb, Nir; Sella-Tunis, Tatiana; May, Hila; Vardimon, Alexander D

    2014-08-01

    Although interproximal attrition is considered to be limited in modern populations, it has important clinical implications. However, in contrast to occlusal attrition, proximal attrition receives limited scientific attention. The main purpose of the current study was to fill this void. Seven-hundred and sixty-five teeth were collected from 255 skulls of subjects 18-75 yr of age. For each individual, three mandibular teeth (the first and second premolars and the first molar) were examined for proximal attrition facets (PAFs). The results provide detailed information on the size, shape, and location of the facets according to age cohort, gender, and ethnicity. The validity of the method used to measure the facets was also examined. The major findings were as follows: PAFs are usually located on the upper half of the crown proximal aspect; in each tooth, the mesial facet is more lingually positioned and the distal facet is more buccally positioned; the majority of the facets are subrectangular in shape; the size of the facets tends to increase in an anteroposterior direction (from premolars to molars); and facet size and location are age- and sex-dependent and ethnicity-independent. It is our recommendation that dentists bear in mind that interproximal attrition is a dynamic, long-term process and needs to be considered in many clinical scenarios. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  15. New facets of the STS polytope generated from known facets of the ATS polytope.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonetti, Neil (Bryn Athyn College of the New Church, Bryn Athyn, PA); Fischetti, Matteo (University of Padova, Padova, Italy); Balas, Egon (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Carr, Robert D.

    2005-05-01

    While it had been known for a long time how to transform an asymmetric traveling salesman (ATS) problem on the complete graph with n vertices into a symmetric traveling salesman (STS) problem on an incomplete graph with 2n vertices, no method was available for using this correspondence to derive facets of the symmetric polytope from facets of the asymmetric polytope until the work of E. Balas and M. Fischetti in [Lifted cycle inequalities for the asymmetric traveling salesman problem, Mathematics of Operations Research 24 (2) (1999) 273-292] suggested an approach. The original Balas-Fischetti method uses a standard sequential lifting procedure for the computation of the coefficient of the edges that are missing in the incomplete STS graph, which is a difficult task when addressing classes of (as opposed to single) inequalities. In this paper we introduce a systematic procedure for accomplishing the lifting task. The procedure exploits the structure of the tight STS tours and organizes them into a suitable tree structure. The potential of the method is illustrated by deriving large new classes of facet-defining STS inequalities.

  16. Investigation of stresses in facetted glass shell structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne; Jönsson, Jeppe; Wester, Ture

    2007-01-01

    system, while the glass merely serves as a separation of the inside environment from the outside. In this paper facetted glass shell structures with three way vertices, i.e. with three adjoining edges in each vertex are considered, since the load carrying ability of such a structure is achieved primarily......The typical use of triangular and quadrangular facets in doubly curved facetted shells requires the use of triangulated truss systems or quadrangular truss framing with diagonals or cross tension cabling. In such a structure, the load carrying ability is based on concentrated forces in the framing...... by in-plane forces in the facets and the transfer of distributed in-plane forces across the joints. It is described how these facets work structurally, specifically how bending moments develop and cause possible stress concentrations in the corners, which are subjected to uplift. Apart from local...

  17. Concurrent, parallel, multiphysics coupling in the FACETS project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, J R; Carlsson, J A; Hakim, A H; Kruger, S E; Miah, M; Pletzer, A; Shasharina, S [Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Avenue, Suite A, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Candy, J; Groebner, R J [General Atomics (United States); Cobb, J; Fahey, M R [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Cohen, R H; Epperly, T [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Estep, D J [Colorado State University (United States); Krasheninnikov, S [University of California at San Diego (United States); Malony, A D [ParaTools, Inc (United States); McCune, D C [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); McInnes, L; Balay, S [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Pankin, A, E-mail: cary@txcorp.co [Lehigh University (United States)

    2009-07-01

    FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations), is now in its third year. The FACETS team has developed a framework for concurrent coupling of parallel computational physics for use on Leadership Class Facilities (LCFs). In the course of the last year, FACETS has tackled many of the difficult problems of moving to parallel, integrated modeling by developing algorithms for coupled systems, extracting legacy applications as components, modifying them to run on LCFs, and improving the performance of all components. The development of FACETS abides by rigorous engineering standards, including cross platform build and test systems, with the latter covering regression, performance, and visualization. In addition, FACETS has demonstrated the ability to incorporate full turbulence computations for the highest fidelity transport computations. Early indications are that the framework, using such computations, scales to multiple tens of thousands of processors. These accomplishments were a result of an interdisciplinary collaboration among computational physics, computer scientists and applied mathematicians on the team.

  18. Facet-Mediated Growth of High-Quality Monolayer Graphene on Arbitrarily Rough Copper Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Chan; Jo, Sae Byeok; Lee, Eunho; Yoo, Min Seok; Kim, Hyun Ho; Lee, Seong Kyu; Lee, Wi Hyoung; Cho, Kilwon

    2016-03-09

    A synthetic approach for high-quality graphene on rough Cu surfaces via chemical vapor deposition is proposed. High-quality graphene is synthesized on rough Cu surfaces by inducing surface faceting of Cu surfaces prior to graphene growth. The electron mobility of synthesized graphene on the rough Cu surfaces is enhanced to 10 335 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Lumbar facet anatomy changes in spondylolysis: a comparative skeletal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Gali; Peleg, Smadar; Steinberg, Nili; Alperovitch-Najenson, Dvora; Salame, Khalil; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2007-01-01

    Opinions differ as to the exact mechanism responsible for spondylolysis (SP) and whether individuals with specific morphological characteristics of the lumbar vertebral neural arch are predisposed to SP. The aim of our study was to reveal the association between SP and the architecture of lumbar articular facets and the inter-facet region. Methods: Using a Microscribe three-dimensional apparatus (Immersion Co., San Jose, CA, USA), length, width and depth of all articular facets and all inter-facet distances in the lumbar spine (L1–L5) were measured. From the Hamann-Todd Human Osteological Collection (Cleveland Museum of Natural History, OH, USA) 120 normal male skeletons with lumbar spines in the control group and 115 with bilateral SP at L5 were selected. Analysis of variance was employed to examine the differences between spondylolytic and normal spines. Results: Three profound differences between SP and the norm appeared: (1) in individuals with SP, the size and shape of L4’s neural arch had significantly greater inter-facet widths, significantly shorter inter-facet heights and significantly shorter and narrower articular facets; (2) only in the L4 vertebra in individuals with SP was the inferior inter-facet width greater in size than the superior inter-facet width of the vertebra below (L5) (38.7 mm versus 40 mm); (3) in all lumbar vertebrae, the right inferior articular facets in individuals with SP were flatter compared to the control group. Conclusions: Individuals with L4 “SP” characteristics are at a greater risk of developing fatigue fractures in the form of spondylolysis at L5. PMID:17440753

  20. Ultra-steep side facets in multi-faceted SiGe/Si(001 Stranski-Krastanow islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehm Moritz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the prototypical Ge/Si(001 system, we show that at high growth temperature a new type of Stranski-Krastanow islands is formed with side facets steeper than {111} and high aspect ratio. Nano-goniometric analysis of the island shapes reveals the presence of six new facet groups in addition to those previously found for dome or barn-shaped islands. Due to the highly multi-faceted island shape and high aspect ratio, the new island types are named "cupola" islands and their steepest {12 5 3} side facet is inclined by 68°to the substrate surface. Assessing the relative stability of the new facets from surface area analysis, we find that their stability is similar to that of {113} and {15 3 23} facets of dome islands. The comparison of the different island shapes shows that they form a hierarchical class of geometrical structures, in which the lower aspect ratio islands of barns, domes and pyramids are directly derived from the cupola islands by successive truncation of the pedestal bases without facet rearrangements. The results underline the key role of surface faceting in the process of island formation, which is as crucial for understanding the island's growth evolution as it is important for device applications.

  1. The convergence and divergence of impulsivity facets in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Sarah H; Lynam, Donald R; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2017-11-10

    Impulsivity appears to be best conceptualized as a multidimensional construct. For example, the UPPS-P model posits that there are five underlying facets of impulsivity. The present study examined the expression of the UPPS-P facets in daily life using experience sampling methodology. A specific goal of the study was to examine positive urgency, a facet added to the original UPPS model, and its convergence and divergence from the negative urgency facet. A large nonclinical sample of young adults (n = 294) completed the UPPS-P scale and was signaled to complete questionnaires assessing daily affect, cognitions, sense of self, and impulsive behaviors eight times a day for 7 days. Results indicated that the UPPS-P facets are associated with disruptions in affect, cognitions, and behavior in daily life. Furthermore, all of the UPPS-P facets were associated with impulsivity in daily life. Contrary to expectation, positive urgency was associated with negative affect rather than positive affect and had a profile indistinguishable from negative urgency. These results generally support a four-factor model of multidimensional impulsivity with a general overall urgency factor instead of separate positive and negative urgency facets. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Association of facet tropism and progressive facet arthrosis after lumbar total disc replacement using ProDisc-L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myung-Hoon; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik; Hur, Jung-Woo; Kim, Jin-Sung; Park, Chun-Kun

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the association of facet tropism and progressive facet arthrosis (PFA) after lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) surgery using ProDisc-L. A total of 51 segments of 42 patients who had undergone lumbar TDR using ProDisc-L between October 2003 and July 2007 and completed minimum 36-month follow-up period were retrospectively reviewed. The changes of facet arthrosis were categorized as non-PFA and PFA group. Comparison between non-PFA and PFA group was made according to age, sex, mean follow-up duration, grade of preoperative facet arthrosis, coronal and sagittal prosthetic position and degree of facet tropism. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also performed to analyze the effect of facet tropism on the progression of facet arthrosis. The mean age at the surgery was 44.43 ± 11.09 years and there were 16 males and 26 females. The mean follow-up period was 53.18 ± 15.79 months. Non-PFA group was composed of 19 levels and PFA group was composed of 32 levels. Age at surgery, sex proportion, mean follow-up period, level of implant, grade of preoperative facet arthrosis and coronal and sagittal prosthetic position were not significantly different between two groups (p = 0.264, 0.433, 0.527, 0.232, 0.926, 0.849 and 0.369, respectively). However, PFA group showed significantly higher degree of facet tropism (7.37 ± 6.46°) than that of non-PFA group (3.51 ± 3.53°) and p value was 0.008. After adjustment for age, sex and coronal and sagittal prosthetic position, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that facet tropism of more than 5° was the only significant independent predictor of progression of facet arthrosis (odds ratio 5.39, 95 % confidence interval 1.251-19.343, p = 0.023). The data demonstrate that significant higher degree of facet tropism was seen in PFA group compared with non-PFA group and facet tropism of more than 5° had a significant association with PFA after TDR using ProDisc-L.

  3. Ultrasound guided, painful electrical stimulation of lumbar facet joint structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Søren; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Manniche, Claus

    2009-01-01

    placed either side of a lumbar facet joint (right L3-4) and used to induce experimental low back pain for 10 min with continuous stimulation. Thresholds, stimulus-response relationships, distribution and quality of the electrically induced pain were recorded. Electrical facet joint stimulation induced...... low back pain and pain referral into the anterior leg, ipsilaterally, proximal to the knee, similar to what is observed clinically. Pressure pain thresholds did not change significantly before, during and after facet joint stimulation. In conclusion, we describe a novel model of acute experimental low...

  4. Impact of Project Leadership Facets on Project Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Ayub

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the role of project leadership facets on effective project outcome. Numerous such initiatives have already been taken on project outcome/performance in the context of apposite leadership styles or project management. However, the current study is unique in the milieu of project outcome that it introduces a new leadership approach, which throws light on the significance of variant leadership facets on project outcome. The study uses explanatory approach; primary data is collected from project management professionals working in different project organizations. The study uses structural equation model (SEM technique to test the hypothesis. The study found a positive relationship between project leadership facets and project outcome.

  5. On Characterizing weak defining hyperplanes (weak Facets in DEA with Constant Returns to Scale Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Akbarian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Production Possibility Set (PPS is defined as a set of inputs and outputs of a system in which inputs can produce outputs. The Production Possibility Set of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA model is contain of two types defining hyperplanes (facets; strong and weak efficient facets. In this paper, the problem of finding weak defining hyperplanes of the PPS of the CCR model is dealt with. However, the equation of strong defining hyperplanes of the PPS of the CCR model can be found in this paper. We state and prove some properties relative to our method. To illustrate the applicability of the proposed model, some numerical examples are finally provided. Our algorithm can easily be implemented using existing packages for operation research, such as GAMS.

  6. Nanostructured shuriken-like BiVO4with preferentially exposed {010} facets: preparation, formation mechanism, and enhanced photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guosheng; Liu, Wei; Hao, Yan; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Qing; Zang, Shuliang

    2018-01-23

    Nanostructured shuriken-like monoclinic scheelite phase BiVO 4 (mBiVO 4 ) with preferentially exposed {010} facets was synthesized by a solvothermal process in a glycerol (Gly)/water mixed solvent using ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA) as the structure-directing agent. EDTA competes with Gly to control the kind and concentration of reaction species in the system, and thereby the preferential growth of mBiVO 4 nanocrystals along the {010} facets as well as formation of a shuriken-like morphology can take place at the same time. The formation mechanism of products with different microstructures is proposed. The optimized mBiVO 4 photocatalyst obtained using 0.4 mmol EDTA exhibited highest photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB) degradation, which could be attributed to the highest exposure degree of the active {010} facets, as well as the shuriken-like nanostructure, which enhanced the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes.

  7. Clarifying associations between psychopathy facets and personality disorders among offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klipfel, Kristen M.; Garofalo, C.; Kosson, D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study examined bivariate, unique, and multivariate associations between psychopathy facets and other Personality Disorders (PDs). Method 76 incarcerated males were assessed with clinical interviews measuring psychopathy and DSM-5 PDs. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was used to

  8. Facets of Subjective Health From Early Adulthood to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, Carol E; Finkel, Deborah; Panizzon, Matthew S

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Subjective health is a complex indicator predicting longevity independent of objective health. Few studies examine genetic and environmental mechanisms underlying different facets of subjective health across the life course. METHOD: Three subjective health measures were examined in 12,...

  9. The clinical aspects of the acute facet syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Kongsted, Alice; Jensen, Tue Secher

    2009-01-01

    to agree on the number, frequency and duration of chiropractic treatment. RESULTS: Thirty-four chiropractors from nine European countries participated. They described the characteristics of an acute, uncomplicated facet syndrome as follows: local, ipsilateral pain, occasionally extending into the thigh...... that there would be no signs of neurologic involvement or antalgic posture and no aggravation of pain from sitting, flexion or coughing/sneezing. CONCLUSION: The chiropractors attending the workshop described the characteristics of an acute, uncomplicated lumbar facet syndrome in much the same way as chronic pain......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The term 'acute facet syndrome' is widely used and accepted amongst chiropractors, but poorly described in the literature, as most of the present literature relates to chronic facet joint pain. Therefore, research into the degree of consensus on the subject amongst a large...

  10. Hypertrophic Synovitis of the Facet Joint Causing Root Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Iwatsuki M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritic changes in the facet joints are common in the presence of degenerative disc disease. Changes in the joint capsule accompany changes in the articular surfaces. Intraspinal synovial cysts that cause radicular pain, cauda equina syndrome, and myelopathy have been reported; however, there have been few reports in orthopedic or neurosurgical literature regarding hypertrophic synovitis of the facet joint presenting as an incidental para-articular mass. Here, we report a case of hypertrophic synovitis causing root pain. We describe the case of a 65-year-old man suffering from right sciatica and right leg pain in the L5 nerve-root dermatome for 1 year; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed an enhanced mass around the L4–5 facet joint. We investigated this mass pathologically. After right medial facetectomy, the symptoms resolved. Pathological investigation revealed this mass was hypertrophic synovitis. Hypertrophic synovitis of the facet joint might cause root pain.

  11. PRIS at TREC 2010 Blog Track: Faceted Blog Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    faceted blog distillation system is presented. Finally in Section 4, conclusions and comments on the future work are given. 2 The Faceted Blog... VSM ) to score the blogs [9]. (p(t1|post), p(t2|post), p(t3|post) …p(ti|post)) and (personal(t1), personal(t2), personal(t3) …personal(ti)) can

  12. Framework Application for Core Edge Transport Simulation (FACETS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D; Shende, Sameer S; Huck, Kevin A; Mr. Alan Morris, and Mr. Wyatt Spear

    2012-03-14

    The goal of the FACETS project (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations) was to provide a multiphysics, parallel framework application (FACETS) that will enable whole-device modeling for the U.S. fusion program, to provide the modeling infrastructure needed for ITER, the next step fusion confinement device. Through use of modern computational methods, including component technology and object oriented design, FACETS is able to switch from one model to another for a given aspect of the physics in a flexible manner. This enables use of simplified models for rapid turnaround or high-fidelity models that can take advantage of the largest supercomputer hardware. FACETS does so in a heterogeneous parallel context, where different parts of the application execute in parallel by utilizing task farming, domain decomposition, and/or pipelining as needed and applicable. ParaTools, Inc. was tasked with supporting the performance analysis and tuning of the FACETS components and framework in order to achieve the parallel scaling goals of the project. The TAU Performance System® was used for instrumentation, measurement, archiving, and profile / tracing analysis. ParaTools, Inc. also assisted in FACETS performance engineering efforts. Through the use of the TAU Performance System, ParaTools provided instrumentation, measurement, analysis and archival support for the FACETS project. Performance optimization of key components has yielded significant performance speedups. TAU was integrated into the FACETS build for both the full coupled application and the UEDGE component. The performance database provided archival storage of the performance regression testing data generated by the project, and helped to track improvements in the software development.

  13. Unilateral spondylolysis and the presence of facet joint tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankine, James J; Dickson, Robert A

    2010-10-01

    Retrospective review of the CT scans performed in a group of patients examined for a possible spondylolysis. To investigate whether there is an association between unilateral spondylolysis and facet joint tropism. Spondylolysis is a fatigue fracture of the pars interarticularis of great importance in sports injury. The demonstration of a unilateral spondylolysis is important because there is a potential for full healing if the athletic activity is modified, whereas bilateral spondylolysis frequently leads to established nonunion. Coronally orientated facet joints are known to predispose to spondylolysis by increasing the point loading of the pars interarticularis. The importance of this finding has not been investigated in unilateral spondylolysis. A review of patients with low back pain and a possible diagnosis of spondylolysis who were investigated with multislice CT was performed. The coronal orientation of the facet joints at L4/5 and L5/S1 was measured and comparison was done between those with and without a spondylolysis. The coronal angle of 140 facet joints in 35 patients was recorded. Of 35 patients, 23 had a spondylolysis which was unilateral in 12 patients. The facet joint angle was significantly more coronally orientated in the presence of a spondylolysis when compared with an intact pars (means, 53° and 43°, respectively; P spondylolysis, the facet joint was significantly more coronally orientated on the side of the spondylolysis (means, 52° and 45°, respectively; P spondylolysis. Asymmetric facet joints do increase the force through one side of the spine, with a unilateral spondylolysis occurring on the side of the more coronally orientated facet joint.

  14. Percutaneous Facet Screw Fixation in the Treatment of Symptomatic Recurrent Lumbar Facet Joint Cyst: A New Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Gallo, Giacomo; Bertrand, Anne-Sophie; Bard, Robert L.; Kelekis, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of percutaneous treatment of symptomatic recurrent lumbar facet joint cyst resistant to all medical treatments including facet joint steroid injection. Percutaneous transfacet fixation was then performed at L4–L5 level with a cannulated screw using CT and fluoroscopy guidance. The procedure time was 30 min. Using the visual analog scale (VAS), pain decreased from 9.5, preoperatively, to 0 after the procedure. At 6-month follow-up, an asymptomatic cystic recurrence was observed, which further reduced at the 1-year follow-up. Pain remained stable (VAS at 0) during all follow-ups. CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous cyst rupture associated with facet screw fixation could be an alternative to surgery in patients suffering from a symptomatic recurrent lumbar facet joint cyst

  15. Percutaneous Facet Screw Fixation in the Treatment of Symptomatic Recurrent Lumbar Facet Joint Cyst: A New Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoretti, Nicolas, E-mail: amorettinicolas@yahoo.fr; Gallo, Giacomo, E-mail: giacomo.gallo83@gmail.com; Bertrand, Anne-Sophie, E-mail: asbertrand3@hotmail.com [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice (France); Bard, Robert L., E-mail: rbard@cancerscan.com [New York Medical College (United States); Kelekis, Alexis, E-mail: akelekis@med.uoa.gr [University General Hospital “ATTIKON” (Greece)

    2016-01-15

    We present a case of percutaneous treatment of symptomatic recurrent lumbar facet joint cyst resistant to all medical treatments including facet joint steroid injection. Percutaneous transfacet fixation was then performed at L4–L5 level with a cannulated screw using CT and fluoroscopy guidance. The procedure time was 30 min. Using the visual analog scale (VAS), pain decreased from 9.5, preoperatively, to 0 after the procedure. At 6-month follow-up, an asymptomatic cystic recurrence was observed, which further reduced at the 1-year follow-up. Pain remained stable (VAS at 0) during all follow-ups. CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous cyst rupture associated with facet screw fixation could be an alternative to surgery in patients suffering from a symptomatic recurrent lumbar facet joint cyst.

  16. Publication Ethics: Many Facets, Collaboration Required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sir, the recent publication on “Publication Ethics” is very interesting (1. The article by Fazly Bazzaz and Sadeghi demonstrated many interesting cases                   of misconducts. Indeed, the misconducts can be seen  in many ways. As mentioned in the present publication, both author and editor can perform publication misconducts. Nevertheless, the problem has many more facets. Sometimes, the misconducts                      are generated by the third parties. For example, the publisher can perform publication misconduct.                  In fact, the editor takes the role in control of                   the materials to be published in the journal. However, the publisher sometimes interferes with the process. Some unethical publication can be seen in some “predator” online publisher. “Pay then publish” without control of its quality can be seen                      (see also http://www.nature.com/news/predatory-publishers-are-corrupting-open-access-1.11385 and scholarlyoa.com/2012/12/06/bealls-list-of-edatory-publishers-2013. In the present era of rapidly increased number of open access journal, this problem is expected to increase. Another example is the criminal case of “one disguising to be the other person” to perform misconduct aiming at discrediting or destroying others. An interesting case was previously published in Hepatitis Monthly; an author performed plagiarized articles behind the name of another person and finally was charged by the IT investigation (2. Finally, the institute sometimes also performs misconduct. This can be supporting of their members who perform scientific misconduct by acts which do not correspond to the problem (this problem is usually seen in the problematic case generated by senior faculties or administrators, dealing with publisher to “buy” supplementary volume for publication of the works

  17. Empirical relationships among triangular facet slope, facet height and slip rates along active normal faults from ASTER DEM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimi, Christina; Ganas, Athanassios

    2015-04-01

    ASTER DEM data (30-m pixel size) are used to derive empirical relationships between triangular facet attributes and slip rates along active normal faults. We sampled 232 triangular facets along 10 normal faults in Greece and Bulgaria that slip with rates from 0.1 mm/yr up to 1.3 mm/yr. The studied normal faults accumulate Quaternary tectonic strain in well-known extensional provinces, such as central Greece, Crete and SW Bulgaria. The normal fault footwalls analysed herein have been developed under similar long-term climatic conditions. It is suggested that two key geometrical features of the youngest generation of triangular facets (slope angle and height) can provide useful metrics to assess rates of deformation when seismological and geodetic data are lacking or not found in sufficient quantity to make reasonable assessments. Our derived empirical relation between slip rate and facet slope angle is: Y=0.057•X-1 where Y is fault slip rate (mm/yr) and X is facet slope angle (degrees), with an R² = 0.728. It is envisaged that our analysis may be helpful in assessing seismic hazard along normal faults with similar facet characteristics in other extensional settings. Note: This research was funded by The Rapid Analysis and Spatialisation Of Risk (RASOR) project http://www.rasor-project.eu/

  18. Beyond Text Queries and Ranked Lists: Faceted Search in Library Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Since the adoption of faceted search in a small number of academic libraries in 2006, faceted library catalogs have gained popularity in many academic and public libraries. This dissertation seeks to understand whether faceted search improves the interactions between searchers and library catalogs and to understand ways that facets are used in…

  19. Eye Tracking the Use of a Collapsible Facets Panel in a Search Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Kemman (Max); M. Kleppe (Martijn); J. Maarseveen (Jim)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. Facets can provide an interesting functionality in digital libraries. However, while some research shows facets are important, other research found facets are only moderately used. Therefore, in this exploratory study we compare two search interfaces; one where the facets

  20. Uncovertebral joint injury in cervical facet dislocation: the headphones sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, Francesco; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N.; Dell' Atti, Claudia; Lalam, Radhesh K.; Tins, Bernhard J.; Tyrrell, Prudencia N.M.; McCall, Iain W. [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oswestry, England (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    The purpose of our study is to demonstrate the uncovertebral mal-alignment as a reliable indirect sign of cervical facet joint dislocation. We examined the uncovertebral axial plane alignment of 12 patients with unilateral and bilateral cervical facet joint dislocation (UCFJD and BCFJD, respectively), comparing its frequency to the reverse hamburger bun sign on CT and MR axial images. Of the seven cases with BCFJD, five clearly demonstrated the diagnostic reverse facet joint hamburger bun sign on CT and MR images, but in two cases this sign was not detectable. In the five cases with UCFJD, four demonstrated the reverse hamburger bun sign on both CT and MRI. In one case the reverse hamburger bun sign was not seen adequately with either image modality, but the facet dislocation was identified on sagittal imaging. The uncovertebral mal-alignment was detected in all 12 cases. Normally, the two components of the uncovertebral joint enjoy a concentric relationship that in the axial plane is reminiscent of the relationship of headphones with the wearer's head. We name this appearance the 'headphones' sign. Radiologists should be aware of the headphones sign as a reliable indicator of facet joint dislocation on axial imaging used in the assessment of cervical spine injuries. (orig.)

  1. Noble-Metal Nanocrystals with Controlled Facets for Electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jong Wook; Kim, Yena; Kwon, Yongmin; Han, Sang Woo

    2016-08-19

    Noble-metal nanocrystals (NCs) show excellent catalytic performance for many important electrocatalysis reactions. The crystallographic properties of the facets by which the NCs are bound, closely associated with the shape of the NCs, have a profound influence on the electrocatalytic function of the NCs. To develop an efficient strategy for the synthesis of NCs with controlled facets as well as compositions, understanding of the growth mechanism of the NCs and their interaction with the chemical species involved in NC synthesis is quite important. Furthermore, understanding the facet-dependent catalytic properties of noble-metal NCs and the corresponding mechanisms for various electrocatalysis reactions will allow for the rational design of robust electrocatalysts. In this review, we summarize recently developed synthesis strategies for the preparation of mono- and bimetallic noble-metal NCs by classifying them by the type of facets through which they are enclosed and discuss the electrocatalytic applications of noble-metal NCs with controlled facets, especially for reactions associated with fuel-cell applications, such as the oxygen reduction reaction and fuel (methanol, ethanol, and formic acid) oxidation reactions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. MOOCs: A multi-faceted phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kerr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on George Siemens’ recent criticism of educational technology, we propose some reflections on the positioning of the EMMA project, European Multiple MOOC Aggregator, with respect to the future of Higher Education in Europe.

  3. Large conservation gains possible for global biodiversity facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Laura J; Thuiller, Wilfried; Jetz, Walter

    2017-06-01

    Different facets of biodiversity other than species numbers are increasingly appreciated as critical for maintaining the function of ecosystems and their services to humans. While new international policy and assessment processes such as the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) recognize the importance of an increasingly global, quantitative and comprehensive approach to biodiversity protection, most insights are still focused on a single facet of biodiversity-species. Here we broaden the focus and provide an evaluation of how much of the world's species, functional and phylogenetic diversity of birds and mammals is currently protected and the scope for improvement. We show that the large existing gaps in the coverage for each facet of diversity could be remedied by a slight expansion of protected areas: an additional 5% of the land has the potential to more than triple the protected range of species or phylogenetic or functional units. Further, the same areas are often priorities for multiple diversity facets and for both taxa. However, we find that the choice of conservation strategy has a fundamental effect on outcomes. It is more difficult (that is, requires more land) to maximize basic representation of the global biodiversity pool than to maximize local diversity. Overall, species and phylogenetic priorities are more similar to each other than they are to functional priorities, and priorities for the different bird biodiversity facets are more similar than those of mammals. Our work shows that large gains in biodiversity protection are possible, while also highlighting the need to explicitly link desired conservation objectives and biodiversity metrics. We provide a framework and quantitative tools to advance these goals for multi-faceted biodiversity conservation.

  4. Mapping mindfulness facets onto dimensions of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Alethea; Klemanski, David H; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2013-09-01

    Mindfulness has been associated with anxiety and depression, but the ways in which specific facets of mindfulness relate to symptoms of anxiety and depression remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between specific facets of mindfulness (e.g., observing, describing, nonjudging, acting with awareness, and nonreactivity) and dimensions of anxiety and depression symptoms (e.g., anxious arousal, general distress-anxiety, general distress-depression, and anhedonic depression) while controlling for shared variance among variables. Participants were 187 treatment-seeking adults. Mindfulness was measured using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire. Bivariate correlations showed that all facets of mindfulness were significantly related to all dimensions of anxiety and depression, with two exceptions: describing was unrelated to general distress-anxiety, and observing was unrelated to all symptom clusters. Path analysis was used to simultaneously examine associations between mindfulness facets and depression and anxiety symptoms. Significant and marginally significant pathways were retained to construct a more parsimonious model and model fit indices were examined. The parsimonious model indicated that nonreactivity was significantly inversely associated with general distress anxiety symptoms. Describing was significantly inversely associated with anxious arousal, while observing was significantly positively associated with it. Nonjudging and nonreactivity were significantly inversely related to general distress-depression and anhedonic depression symptomatology. Acting with awareness was not significantly associated with any dimensions of anxiety or depression. Findings support associations between specific facets of mindfulness and dimensions of anxiety and depression and highlight the potential utility of targeting these

  5. Large conservation gains possible for global biodiversity facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Laura J.; Thuiller, Wilfried; Jetz, Walter

    2017-06-01

    Different facets of biodiversity other than species numbers are increasingly appreciated as critical for maintaining the function of ecosystems and their services to humans. While new international policy and assessment processes such as the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) recognize the importance of an increasingly global, quantitative and comprehensive approach to biodiversity protection, most insights are still focused on a single facet of biodiversity—species. Here we broaden the focus and provide an evaluation of how much of the world’s species, functional and phylogenetic diversity of birds and mammals is currently protected and the scope for improvement. We show that the large existing gaps in the coverage for each facet of diversity could be remedied by a slight expansion of protected areas: an additional 5% of the land has the potential to more than triple the protected range of species or phylogenetic or functional units. Further, the same areas are often priorities for multiple diversity facets and for both taxa. However, we find that the choice of conservation strategy has a fundamental effect on outcomes. It is more difficult (that is, requires more land) to maximize basic representation of the global biodiversity pool than to maximize local diversity. Overall, species and phylogenetic priorities are more similar to each other than they are to functional priorities, and priorities for the different bird biodiversity facets are more similar than those of mammals. Our work shows that large gains in biodiversity protection are possible, while also highlighting the need to explicitly link desired conservation objectives and biodiversity metrics. We provide a framework and quantitative tools to advance these goals for multi-faceted biodiversity conservation.

  6. Reflections on the four facets of symmetry: how physics exemplifies rational thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, Amaury

    2013-12-01

    In contemporary theoretical physics, the powerful notion of symmetry stands for a web of intricate meanings among which I identify four clusters associated with the notion of transformation, comprehension, invariance and projection. While their interrelations are examined closely these four facets of symmetry are scrutinised one after the other in great detail. This decomposition allows us to carefully examine the multiple different roles symmetry plays in many places in physics. Furthermore, some connections with other disciplines like neurobiology, epistemology, cognitive sciences and, not least, philosophy are proposed in an attempt to show that symmetry can be an organising principle also in these fields.

  7. b-tree facets for the simple graph partitioning polytope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2004-01-01

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually disjoint subgraphs, each consisting of no more than b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we introduce a large class of facet defining inequalities...... for the simple graph partitioning polytopes P_n(b), b >= 3, associated with the complete graph on n nodes. These inequalities are induced by a graph configuration which is built upon trees of cardinality b. We provide a closed-form theorem that states all necessary and sufficient conditions for the facet...

  8. b-Tree Facets for the Simple Graph Partitioning Polytope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2000-01-01

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually disjoint subgraphs, each consisting of no more than b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we introduce a large class of facet defining inequalities...... for the simple graph partitioning polytopes P_n(b), b >= 3, associated with the complete graph on n nodes. These inequalities are induced by a graph configuration which is built upon trees of cardinality b. We provide a closed-form theorem that states all necessary and sufficient conditions for the facet...

  9. 2016 FACET-II Science Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Mark J., ed.

    2017-07-19

    The second in a series of FACET-II Science Workshops was held at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory on October 17-19, 2016 [1]. The workshop drew thirty-five participants from eighteen different institutions including CERN, DESY, Ecole Polytechnique, FNAL, JAI, LBNL, LLNL, Radiabeam, Radiasoft, SLAC, Stony Brook, Strathclyde, Tech-X, Tsinghua, UC Boulder, UCLA and UT Austin. The 2015 workshop [2, 3] helped prioritize research directions for FACET-II. The 2016 workshop was focused on understanding what improvements are needed at the facility to support the next generation of experiments. All presentations are linked to the workshop website as a permanent record.

  10. Cervical endplate and facet arthrosis: an anatomic study of cadaveric specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Daniel L; Toy, Jason O; Eubanks, Jason D; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2012-10-01

    An anatomic, epidemiologic study of cervical endplate and facet arthrosis in cadaveric spines. To determine the prevalence of cervical endplate and facet arthrosis and the relationship between these 2 entities in a large population sample. Cervical endplate and facet arthrosis are common radiographic findings, which have both been linked to pain. However, the prevalence and relationship between cervical endplate and facet arthrosis has not been clearly defined. The cervical vertebrae from 234 cadaveric spines were examined by a single investigator for evidence of endplate and facet arthrosis. Arthrosis at each endplate and facet was graded on a continuum from 0 to IV. Race, age at death, and sex of each specimen were also recorded. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to analyze any association between race, age, sex, endplate arthrosis, and facet arthrosis. Factors with P values arthrosis severity scores among patients within the same decades of life. Concurrent cervical endplate and facet arthrosis was present in 77% of the study population. Stepwise multiple linear regression revealed significant (Parthrosis and between age and facet arthrosis. Race and sex did not correlate with facet arthrosis. In addition, patients in age groups 30 to 39, 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, 70 to 79, and 80 to 89 demonstrated more severe (Parthrosis in comparison with facet arthrosis. Concurrent cervical endplate and facet arthrosis is a common condition. Cervical endplate arthrosis and advancing age are associated with cervical facet arthrosis independent of race and sex. Cervical endplate arthrosis precedes facet arthrosis.

  11. Structural models of faceted-faceted eutectic system vanillin-acenaphthene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    Thermodynamic model for the eutectic system vanillin-acenaphthene has been developed by analysing the excess functions computed from its experimentally determined solidus-liquidus equilibrium data. Spontaneous nucleation model has been explored from the maximum limit of undercooling of the system and verified by the experimental evidences of dislocation mechanism governing the anisotropic velocity of crystallisation determined at different undercoolings. Viscosity measurements of eutectic and non-eutectic melts at different temperatures revealed the essence of peculiar structural changes and specific energy interactions in the eutectic melt in the temperature range near its melting temperature. The rheological activation energy, E vis for eutectic and non-eutectic melts is found to be a function of temperature. Crystalline faceted structure of the system has been furnished with morphological evidences obtained from microscopic studies at different growth rates, whereas whisker reinforced structural model has been accomplished with mechanical properties computed for both isotropic and anisotropic modes of growth. Of greater interest is the special reference of moderate anisotropic growth, since experimental confirmation was obtained for the theoretical shape of parabolic variation in the mechanical properties of eutectic composite material with growth velocity. Direct evidence of three- to four-fold increase in strength properties of the eutectic material at its moderate anisotropic growth velocity (3.11x10 -7 m 3 s -1 ) in comparison with its isotropic growth in an ice bath (∼273 K), confirms a complete composite microstructure with whiskers in equilibrium with the matrix, embedded parallel to the growth direction

  12. Value of 18F-FDG PET/MRI for the outcome of CT-guided facet block therapy in cervical facet syndrome: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawixki, Lino M.; Schaarscjmidt, Benedikt M.; Heusch, Philipp; Buchbender, Christian; Antoch, Gerald; Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra; Bockisch, Andreas; Umutlu, Lale; Eicker, Sven O.; Floeth, Frank W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging ( 18 F-FDG PET/MRI) to detect PET-positive cervical facet arthropathy and identify patients who benefit from facet block therapy. Ten patients with cervical facet syndrome (mean age: 65 ± 12 years) underwent 18 F-FDG PET/MRI of the neck. Focal 18 F-FDG uptake in PET-positive facet joints served as target for computed tomography (CT)-guided facet blocks. In PET-negative patients, the target joint for facet block therapy was selected by current clinical standards considering the level of maximum facet arthrosis and pain. Neck pain was measured on visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after therapy. Bone marrow signal intensity (SI) ratio on turbo inversion recovery magnitude (TIRM) images and maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) was calculated for each facet joint. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was calculated between bone marrow SI ratios on TIRM and SUVmax. 18 F-FDG PET/MRI detected PET-positive facet arthropathy in six patients. Patients with PET-positive facet arthropathy had significantly less pain compared with the pretreatment pain 3 h (P = 0.002), 4 weeks (P = 0.002) and 3 months (P = 0.026) after facet block therapy. Pain did not change significantly in patients with PET-negative facet arthropathy. TIRM SI ratio was higher in PET-positive facet arthropathy than in PET-negative facet arthropathy (P < 0.001). Correlation was strong between bone marrow SI ratio on TIRM images and SUVmax (r = 0.7; P < 0.001).

  13. Comparison of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of facet tropism and facet arthrosis in degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C; Ding, Z H; Xu, Y K

    2014-05-30

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the assessment of facet tropism and facet arthrosis of spondylolisthesis levels in degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis as compared to computed tomography (CT). The discrepancies in the interpretation of CT and MRI data in the evaluation of facet tropism and arthrosis have given rise to questions regarding the reliability of comparisons of the two techniques. Using a 4-point scale, 3 blinded readers independently graded the severity of facet tropism and facet arthrosis of 79 cervical facet joints on axial T2-weighted and sagittal T1 and T2-weighted turbo spin echo images as well as the corresponding axial CT scans. All results were subjected to the kappa coefficient statistic for strength of agreement. In the assessment of the severity of facet arthrosis, intermethod agreement (weighted κ) between CT scanning with a moderate inter-rater reliability (range κ = 0.43-0.57) and MRI with fair inter-rater reliability (range κ = 0.23-0.38) was 0.76 and 0.43 for the severity of facet tropism and facet arthrosis, respectively. Intra-rater reliability for the severity of facet arthrosis was moderate to substantial for CT and was moderate for MRI scans. Intra-rater reliability for the severity of facet tropism was substantial to very good for CT and substantial for MRI scans. MRI can reliably determine the presence or degree of facet tropism but not facet arthrosis. Therefore, for a comprehensive assessment of cervical facet joint degeneration, both a CT and an MRI scan should be performed.

  14. Facet-defining inequalities for the simple graph partitioning polytope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2007-01-01

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually node-disjoint subgraphs, each containing at most b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we provide several classes of facet-defining inequalities...

  15. Personality Facets and RIASEC Interests: An Integrated Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Anthoney, Sarah Fetter

    2009-01-01

    Research examining links between personality and interest have typically focused on links between measures of the five factor model and Holland's RIASEC types. However, the five factor model of personality can be divided in to a larger set of narrow domain personality scales measuring facets of the "big five" traits. Research in a number of fields…

  16. Empirical Identification of the Major Facets of Conscientiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Carolyn; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Roberts, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Conscientiousness is often found to predict academic outcomes, but is defined differently by different models of personality. High school students (N = 291) completed a large number of Conscientiousness items from different models and the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the items uncovered eight facets:…

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of magnetite particles with uncommon crystal facets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junki Sato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal synthesis of Fe3O4 (magnetite particles was carried out using organic compounds as morphology control agents to obtain magnetite crystals with uncommon facets. It was established that the morphology of Fe3O4 crystals obtained by hydrothermal treatment of an aqueous solution containing Fe2+ and organic compounds depended on the organic compound used. The shape of the Fe3O4 particles obtained when no additives were used was quasi-octahedral. In contrast, the addition of picolinic acid, citric acid or pyridine resulted in the formation of polyhedral crystals, indicating the presence of not only {1 1 1}, {1 0 0} and {1 1 0} facets but also high-index facets including at least {3 1 1} and {3 3 1}. When citric acid was used as an additive, octahedral crystals with {1 1 1} facets also appeared, and their size decreased as the amount of citric acid was increased. Thus, control of Fe3O4 particle morphology was achieved by a simple hydrothermal treatment using additives.

  18. A multi-faceted approach to research development (II): Supporting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multi-faceted approach to research development (II): Supporting communities of practice. IM Christiansen, L Slammert. Abstract. In South Africa, dominant discourses on research development are characterised by a technical-rational approach combined with a focus on the individual. Working from the notion that research ...

  19. Posterior longitudinal ligament status in cervical spine bilateral facet dislocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrino, John A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Manton, Geoffrey L.; Morrison, William B.; Flanders, Adam E. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Vaccaro, Alex R. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Rothman Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schweitzer, Mark E. [New York University, Hospital for Joint Diseases, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2006-07-15

    It is generally accepted that cervical spine bilateral facet dislocation results in complete disruption of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The goal of this study was to evaluate the integrity of numerous spine-stabilizing structures by MRI, and to determine if any associations between injury patterns exist with respect to the posterior longitudinal ligament status. Retrospective case series. A retrospective review was performed of 30 cervical spine injury subjects with bilateral facet dislocation. Assessment of 1.5T MRI images was carried out for: intervertebral disc disruption, facet fracture, and ligamentous disruption. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate for associations between various injury patterns and posterior longitudinal ligament status. The frequency of MRI abnormalities was: anterior longitudinal ligament disruption (26.7%), disc herniation or disruption (90%), posterior longitudinal ligament disruption (40%), facet fracture (63.3%) and disruption of the posterior column ligament complex (97%). There were no significant associations between injury to the posterior longitudinal ligament and other structures. Compared to surgical reports, MRI was accurate for determining the status for 24 of 26 ligaments (three of three anterior longitudinal ligament, seven of nine posterior longitudinal ligament, and 14 of 14 posterior column ligament complex) but generated false negatives in two instances (in both MRI showed an intact posterior longitudinal ligament that was torn at surgery). (orig.)

  20. Conceptualizing Educational Leadership: Does Exploring Macro-Level Facets Matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Chetan

    2013-01-01

    The present review attempts to examine the present status of educational leadership highlighting the role of macro-level facets in Asian Pacific context. The conceptualization of educational leadership among researchers so far had been found to vary according to different contexts and situations. Theoretical perspectives associated with…

  1. Facet-Dependent Photoreduction on Single ZnO Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalytic reactions occur at the crystal–solution interface, and hence specific crystal facet expression and surface defects can play an important role. Here we investigate the structure-related photoreduction at zinc oxide (ZnO) microparticles via integrated light and electron microscopy in combination with silver metal photodeposition. This enables a direct visualization of the photoreduction activity at specific crystallographic features. It is found that silver nanoparticle photodeposition on dumbbell-shaped crystals mainly takes place at the edges of O-terminated (0001̅) polar facets. In contrast, on ZnO microrods photodeposition is more homogeneously distributed with an increased activity at {101̅1̅} facets. Additional time-resolved measurements reveal a direct spatial link between the enhanced photoactivity and increased charge carrier lifetimes. These findings contradict previous observations based on indirect, bulk-scale experiments, assigning the highest photocatalytic activity to polar facets. The presented research demonstrates the need for advanced microscopy techniques to directly probe the location of photocatalytic activity. PMID:28001412

  2. The usability issues of faceted navigation in digital libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Blumer

    2014-05-01

    For more than five years, the project ACCEPT, a subproject of a Swiss national project called e-lib.ch, analyzes the usability and usefulness of digital libraries, by using user oriented methods. Experience has shown that filters provided through faceted navigation are considered as positive and very useful by end users. Nevertheless, based on different test results, several returning mistakes have been detected and it turns out that there are some ‘unwritten standards’ concerning e.g. position, labelling or ranking which should be respected to fulfil the aim of a good usability which users do expect of such web services. In this poster we will first give an introduction to faceted navigation, actual design issues and their use in digital libraries and then present testing methods, which can be easily applied in a digital library context. Together with a list of best practices concerning faceted navigation drawn out of different test experiences, the paper should give the reader all important information to evaluate its current faceted navigation and see where improvements could be made.

  3. [Surgical treatment of calcaneus fracture involving posterior subtalar articular facet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng-Wu; Qiao, Lin; Zhang, Shu-Ming; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Qing-Lei

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the methods of reduction and stable fixation for the treatment of calcaneus fracture involving posterior subtalar articular facet. From September 2004 to September 2008, 31 cases(38 feet) of calcaneus fracture involving posterior subtalar articular facet were treated with open reduction and plate fixation through L incision. There were 24 males and 7 females, with an average age of 39.6 years ranging from 20 to 65 years. All patients underwent systematic CT-scan with coronal and horizontal images and sagittal reconstruction. The classification of the fractures by the Sanders scale showed that there were 22 of type II,14 of type III, 2 of type IV. All cases were followed up for from 12 to 36 months with an average of 25 months, and all the fractures healed without skin flap necrosis. According to the Maryland foot scoring, the total score was (96.2 +/- 8.8) on average, the results were excellent in 32 feet, good in 4 feet, fair in 2 feet. The replacement of the posterior articular facet by X-ray control of Broden and open reduction and internal fixation with calcaneus plate and Schanz-Screw during the operation can keep stable of articular facet, and promote early rehabilitation of calcaneus fracture affected with subtalar joint.

  4. [Multi-facetted clinical presentation of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, C.U.; Jurlander, J.; Daugaard, G.

    2009-01-01

    smears. Determination of the ADAMTS13-activity is now becoming available as a routine analysis. We present two cases that illustrate the multi-facetted clinical presentation under which TTP occurs. The importance of access to ADAMTS13 measurements is stressed Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1/26...

  5. Lordosis manoeuvre in the diagnosis of lumbar facet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Ulloa, M A; Almira Suárez, E L; Otero Fernández, M; Leborans Eiras, S; Collado Arce, G

    2016-01-01

    In lumbar pain patients an aetiopathogenic diagnosis leads to a better management. When there are alarm signs, they should be classified on an anatomical basis through anamnesis and physical examination. A significant group is of facet origin (lumbar facet syndrome [LFS]), but the precise clinical diagnosis remains cumbersome and time-consuming. In clinical practice it is observed that patients with an advanced degenerative disease do not perform extension or rotation of their lumbar spine when prompted to extend it, but rather knee flexion, making the manoeuvre meaningless. For this reason, a new simple and quick clinical test was developed for the diagnosis of lumbar facet syndrome, with a facet block-test as a confirmation. The new test is better than a classic one in the diagnosis of facet syndrome, and probably even better than imaging studies A prospective study was conducted on a series of 68 patients (01/01/2012-30/06/2013). A comparison in between: classic manoeuvre (CM), imaging diagnostics (ID), and the new lordosis manoeuvre (LM) test. Examination and block test by one author, and evaluation of results by another one. Deformity and instability. using a physical. To determine the effectiveness of a new clinical test (LM) for the diagnosis of LFS (as confirmed by a positive block-test of medial branch of dorsal ramus of the lumbar root, RMRDRL). R package software. The LM was most effective (pdiagnosis of LFS is presented that is reliable, quick, and simple. Clinical examination is more reliable than imaging test for the diagnosis of LFS. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative morphometric analysis of the lumbar vertebral facets and evaluation of feasibility of lumbar spinal nerve root and spinal canal decompression using the Goel intraarticular facetal spacer distraction technique: A lumbar/cervical facet comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoskar, Savni R; Goel, Aimee A; Mehta, Pooja H; Goel, Atul

    2014-10-01

    The authors evaluate the anatomic subtleties of lumbar facets and assess the feasibility and effectiveness of use of 'Goel facet spacer' in the treatment of degenerative spinal canal stenosis. Twenty-five lumbar vertebral cadaveric dried bones were used for the purpose. A number of morphometric parameters were evaluated both before and after the introduction of Goel facet spacers within the confines of the facet joint. The spacers achieved distraction of facets that was more pronounced in the vertical perspective. Introduction of spacers on both sides resulted in an increase in the intervertebral foraminal height and a circumferential increase in the spinal canal dimensions. Additionally, there was an increase in the disc space or intervertebral body height. The lumbar facets are more vertically and anteroposteriorly oriented when compared to cervical facets that are obliquely and transversely oriented. Understanding the anatomical peculiarities of the lumbar and cervical facets can lead to an optimum utilization of the potential of Goel facet distraction arthrodesis technique in the treatment of spinal degenerative canal stenosis.

  7. Facets of the Fundamental Content Dimensions: Agency with Competence and Assertiveness—Communion with Warmth and Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele, Andrea E.; Hauke, Nicole; Peters, Kim; Louvet, Eva; Szymkow, Aleksandra; Duan, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    Agency (A) and communion (C) are fundamental content dimensions. We propose a facet-model that differentiates A into assertiveness (AA) and competence (AC) and C into warmth (CW) and morality (CM). We tested the model in a cross-cultural study by comparing data from Asia, Australia, Europe, and the USA (overall N = 1.808). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported our model. Both the two-factor model and the four-factor model showed good fit indices across countries. Participants answered additional measures intended to demonstrate the fruitfulness of distinguishing the facets. The findings support the model's construct validity by positioning the fundamental dimensions and their facets within a network of self-construal, values, impression management, and the Big Five personality factors: In all countries, A was related to independent self-construal and to agentic values, C was related to interdependent self-construal and to communal values. Regarding the facets, AA was always related to A values, but the association of AC with A values fell below our effect size criterion in four of the five countries. A (both AA and AC) was related to agentic impression management. However, C (both CW and CM) was neither related to communal nor to agentic impression management. Regarding the Big Five personality factors, A was related to emotional stability, to extraversion, and to conscientiousness. C was related to agreeableness and to extraversion. AA was more strongly related to emotional stability and extraversion than AC. CW was more strongly related to extraversion and agreeableness than CM. We could also show that self-esteem was more related to AA than AC; and that it was related to CM, but not to CW. Our research shows that (a) the fundamental dimensions of A and C are stable across cultures; and (b) that the here proposed distinction of facets of A and C is fruitful in analyzing self-perception. The here proposed measure, the AC-IN, may be a useful tool

  8. Facets of the Fundamental Content Dimensions: Agency with Competence and Assertiveness-Communion with Warmth and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele, Andrea E; Hauke, Nicole; Peters, Kim; Louvet, Eva; Szymkow, Aleksandra; Duan, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    Agency (A) and communion (C) are fundamental content dimensions. We propose a facet-model that differentiates A into assertiveness (AA) and competence (AC) and C into warmth (CW) and morality (CM). We tested the model in a cross-cultural study by comparing data from Asia, Australia, Europe, and the USA (overall N = 1.808). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported our model. Both the two-factor model and the four-factor model showed good fit indices across countries. Participants answered additional measures intended to demonstrate the fruitfulness of distinguishing the facets. The findings support the model's construct validity by positioning the fundamental dimensions and their facets within a network of self-construal, values, impression management, and the Big Five personality factors: In all countries, A was related to independent self-construal and to agentic values, C was related to interdependent self-construal and to communal values. Regarding the facets, AA was always related to A values, but the association of AC with A values fell below our effect size criterion in four of the five countries. A (both AA and AC) was related to agentic impression management. However, C (both CW and CM) was neither related to communal nor to agentic impression management. Regarding the Big Five personality factors, A was related to emotional stability, to extraversion, and to conscientiousness. C was related to agreeableness and to extraversion. AA was more strongly related to emotional stability and extraversion than AC. CW was more strongly related to extraversion and agreeableness than CM. We could also show that self-esteem was more related to AA than AC; and that it was related to CM, but not to CW. Our research shows that (a) the fundamental dimensions of A and C are stable across cultures; and (b) that the here proposed distinction of facets of A and C is fruitful in analyzing self-perception. The here proposed measure, the AC-IN, may be a useful tool

  9. Facets of the Fundamental Content Dimensions:Agency with Competence and Assertiveness– Communion with Warmth and Morality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Elisabeth Abele

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Agency (A and communion (C are fundamental content dimensions. We propose a facet-model that differentiates A into assertiveness (AA and competence (AC and C into warmth (CW and morality (CM. We tested the model in a cross-cultural study by comparing data from Asia, Australia, Europe, and the USA (overall N = 1.808. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported our model. Both the two-factor model and the four-factor model showed good fit indices across countries. Participants answered additional measures intended to demonstrate the fruitfulness of distinguishing the facets. The findings support the model’s construct validity by positioning the fundamental dimensions and their facets within a network of self-construal, values, impression management, and the Big Five personality factors: In all countries, A was related to independent self-construal and to agentic values, C was related to interdependent self-construal and to communal values. Regarding the facets, AA was always related to A values, but the association of AC with A values fell below our effect size criterion in four of the five countries. A (both AA and AC was related to agentic impression management. However, C (both CW and CM was neither related to communal nor to agentic impression management. Regarding the Big Five personality factors, A was related to emotional stability, to extraversion, and to conscientiousness. C was related to agreeableness and to extraversion. AA was more strongly related to emotional stability and extraversion than AC. CW was more strongly related to extraversion and agreeableness than CM. We could also show that self-esteem was more related to AA than AC; and that it was related to CM, but not to CW. Our research shows that (a the fundamental dimensions of A and C are stable across cultures; and (b that the here proposed distinction of facets of A and C is fruitful in analyzing self-perception. The here proposed measure, the AC-IN, may be a

  10. Modeling Integration and Reuse of Heterogeneous Terminologies in Faceted Browsing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    We integrate heterogeneous terminologies into our category-theoretic model of faceted browsing and show that existing terminologies and vocabularies can be reused as facets in a cohesive, interactive system. Commonly found in online search engines and digital libraries, faceted browsing systems depend upon one or more taxonomies which outline the structure and content of the facets available for user interaction. Controlled vocabularies or terminologies are often externally curated and are av...

  11. Dioptrics of the facet lenses in the dorsal rim area of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ukhanov, KY; Leertouwer, HL; Gribakin, FG; Stavenga, DG

    1996-01-01

    1. The optics of the corneal facet lenses from the dorsal rim area (DRA) and from the dorso-lateral areas (DA) of the compound eye of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus were studied. 2. The DRA of the cricket eye contains quite normally shaped facet lenses. The diameter of the facet lens in the DA is

  12. Relations between facets and personality domains with impulsivity: New evidence using the DSM-5 section III framework in patients with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraleda-Barreno, Enrique; Díaz-Batanero, Carmen; Pérez-Moreno, Pedro Juan; Gómez-Bujedo, Jesús; Lozano, Oscar M

    2018-02-12

    Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition proposes an alternative diagnostic model for personality disorders based on the identification of pathological personality facets. Despite the existing evidence for the relationship between personality disorders and impulsivity in patients with substance use disorders, no study has yet been conducted within this framework. Thus, using a sample of 110 patients with substance use disorders, the present work aims to (a) analyze the relationship between the different personality facets and domains evaluated by the Personality Inventory for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (PID-5) and impulsivity and (b) explore the relationships between severity of dependency and personality facets and dimensions of impulsivity. With respect to PID-5 domains, except for sensation-seeking, antagonism and disinhibition showed correlations higher than .30 with the following dimensions: urgency, premeditation, perseverance, sensation-seeking, and positive urgency (UPPS-P). The domains of detachment and psychoticism showed weaker correlations with different UPPS-P dimensions. The risk-taking PID-5 facet explains 49% variability of the sensation-seeking dimension of UPPS-P, whereas the impulsivity facet was significant on regression models computed with lack of premeditation, positive urgency, and negative urgency dimensions. Heroin and cocaine severity of dependence were moderately related to different personality facets. Lower relationships between alcohol and cannabis severity of dependence, impulsivity, and PID-5 facets were found. As a conclusion, the relationships between personality domains and impulsivity behave similarly to their five-factor equivalents for some dimensions but not for negative urgency, which might indicate the lack of specificity of this dimension of impulsivity on this type of patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights

  13. (100) faceted anion voids in electron irradiated fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.

    1979-01-01

    High fluence electron irradiation of fluorite crystals in the temperature range 150 to 320 K results in formation of a simple cubic anion void superlattice. Above 320 K the damage structure changes to a random distribution of large [001] faceted anion voids. This voidage behaviour, similar to that observed in a range of irradiated metals, is discussed in terms points defect rather than conventional colour centre terminology. (Auth.)

  14. Multidimensional Facets of Perceived Risk in Mobile Travel Booking

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sangwon; Tussyadiah, Iis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing prevalence of smartphones in daily life and travel context, travellers still perceive an extent of risk associated with using their smartphone to book travel products. In order to alleviate or reduce perceived risk, it is important to better understand the dimensions of and the factors that contribute to perceived risk. This study analysed 411 responses from an online panel to examine perceived risk in mobile travel booking and identified the following facets: time risk, f...

  15. The differing effects of the extraversion facets on leadership behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    Several meta-analyses have shown extraversion to be an important predictor of leadership emergence, effectiveness, and behaviours. However, in recent years researchers have shown that introverts in some conditions are equal or even better leaders. There have also been several calls for researchers to focus on narrower personality traits, as these might be more valid predictors than broader traits. For that reason, the relationship between facets of extraversion and leadership behaviour was...

  16. The Chernyshenko Conscientiousness Scales: A New Facet Measure of Conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jessica A; O'Connor, Daryl B; Gartland, Nicola; Roberts, Brent W

    2016-06-01

    The current research sought to validate the Chernyshenko Conscientiousness Scales (CCS), a novel measure designed to assess six facets of conscientiousness. Data from 7,569 U.S. participants and 649 U.K. participants were analyzed to assess the internal reliability and factorial structure of the scales. Test-retest reliability, convergent and divergent validity, and criterion-related validity were also evaluated using a separate U.K. sample (n = 118; n = 80 for test-retest). The results showed that those items designed to measure industriousness, order, self-control, traditionalism, and virtue were best represented by a five-factor structure, broadly consistent with the five scales. However, the content and structure of the responsibility scale requires further investigation. Overall, the CCS has the potential to be a useful alternative to the faceted measures of conscientiousness that are currently available. However, future research is required to refine a number of problematic items and to clarify which facets can be better described as interstitial dimensions between conscientiousness and other Big Five domains. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Impact of Distributed Injection on Plasma Wakefield Acceleration at FACET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei-Najafabadi, Navid

    2017-10-01

    Impact of Distributed Injection on Plasma Wakefield Acceleration at FACET An electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) will sustain accelerating gradients of tens of GeV/m in a meter-scale plasma. If the transverse radius of the electron beam is not matched to the plasma, the envelope of this drive beam will execute betatron oscillations in the focusing force of the ion column. At its lowest radius in this oscillation cycle, the electric field of the beam can surpass the ionization threshold of elements, leading to ionization injection of these electrons in to the wake. Electrons from each cycle of this betatron oscillation then accumulate at the back of the wake and decrease the accelerating field. The experiments were carried out at FACET, where the drive electron beam had 3 nC of charge and an energy of 20.35 GeV. Two different plasma sources were used: a 30 cm self-ionized Rubidium (Rb) vapor confined by argon (Ar) gas at room-temperature and a partially pre-ionized hydrogen gas. The experimental and simulation evidence for the distributed injection of electrons and their impact on the PWFA at FACET will be presented in this talk. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1415386 and DOE Grant No. DE-SC0010064. Work at SLAC was supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  18. Fiber facet gratings for high power fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, Martin; Vanis, Jan; Baravets, Yauhen; Todorov, Filip; Ctyroky, Jiri; Honzatko, Pavel

    2017-12-01

    We numerically investigated the properties of diffraction gratings designated for fabrication on the facet of an optical fiber. The gratings are intended to be used in high-power fiber lasers as mirrors either with a low or high reflectivity. The modal reflectance of low reflectivity polarizing grating has a value close to 3% for TE mode while it is significantly suppressed for TM mode. Such a grating can be fabricated on laser output fiber facet. The polarizing grating with high modal reflectance is designed as a leaky-mode resonant diffraction grating. The grating can be etched in a thin layer of high index dielectric which is sputtered on fiber facet. We used refractive index of Ta2O5 for such a layer. We found that modal reflectance can be close to 0.95 for TE polarization and polarization extinction ratio achieves 18 dB. Rigorous coupled wave analysis was used for fast optimization of grating parameters while aperiodic rigorous coupled wave analysis, Fourier modal method and finite difference time domain method were compared and used to compute modal reflectance of designed gratings.

  19. Framework Application for Core Edge Transport Simulation (FACETS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Pigarov, Alexander

    2011-10-15

    The FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations) project of Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Program was aimed at providing a high-fidelity whole-tokamak modeling for the U.S. magnetic fusion energy program and ITER through coupling separate components for each of the core region, edge region, and wall, with realistic plasma particles and power sources and turbulent transport simulation. The project also aimed at developing advanced numerical algorithms, efficient implicit coupling methods, and software tools utilizing the leadership class computing facilities under Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR). The FACETS project was conducted by a multi-discipline, multi-institutional teams, the Lead PI was J.R. Cary (Tech-X Corp.). In the FACETS project, the Applied Plasma Theory Group at the MAE Department of UCSD developed the Wall and Plasma-Surface Interaction (WALLPSI) module, performed its validation against experimental data, and integrated it into the developed framework. WALLPSI is a one-dimensional, coarse grained, reaction/advection/diffusion code applied to each material boundary cell in the common modeling domain for a tokamak. It incorporates an advanced model for plasma particle transport and retention in the solid matter of plasma facing components, simulation of plasma heat power load handling, calculation of erosion/deposition, and simulation of synergistic effects in strong plasma-wall coupling.

  20. Selective Facet Reactivity During Cation Exchange in Cadmium Sulfide Nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis; Zheng, Haimei; Hughes, Steven; Merkle, Maxwell; Dahmen, Ulrich; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-12-18

    The partial transformation of ionic nanocrystals through cation exchange has been used to synthesize nanocrystal heterostructures. We demonstrate that the selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. In the case of copper I (Cu+) cation exchange in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods, the reaction starts preferentially at the ends of the nanorods such that copper sulfide (Cu2S) grows inwards from either end. The resulting morphology is very different from the striped pattern obtained in our previous studies of silver I (Ag+) exchange in CdS nanorods where non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S) occurs. From interface formation energies calculated for several models of epitaxialconnections between CdS and Cu2S or Ag2S, we infer the relative stability of each interface during the nucleation and growth of Cu2S or Ag2S within the CdS nanorods. The epitaxial connections of Cu2S to the end facets of CdS nanorods minimize the formation energy, making these interfaces stable throughout the exchange reaction. However, as the two end facets of wurtzite CdS nanorods are crystallographically nonequivalent, asymmetric heterostructures can be produced.

  1. Eye Tracking the Use of a Collapsible Facets Panel in a Search Interface (Poster)

    OpenAIRE

    Kemman, Max; Kleppe, Martijn; Maarseveen, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Facets can provide an interesting functionality in digital libraries. However, while some research shows facets are important, other research foundfacets are only moderately used. Therefore, in this exploratory study we compare two search interfaces; one where the facets panel is always visible and one where the facets panel is hidden by default. Our main research question is “Is folding the facets panel in a digital library search interface beneficial to academic users?” By performing an eye...

  2. Isolated Facet Joint Fracture as a Cause of Chronic Low Back Pain and Sciatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of facet joint fracture following a rear-end motor vehicle accident who presented with chronic low back pain and sciatica is outlined. Diagnosis was made with 99Tc nuclear bone scan and was confirmed on computed tomographic scan after diagnosis with regular radiographs had failed. Facetectomy relieved pain but led to symptoms related to asymmetric load on the opposite facet joint. Symptoms were substantially relieved with a facet joint deinnervation procedure. Facet joint fracture was felt to occur as a consequence of compression forces on the facet joint at the time of impact.

  3. Unique and interactive effects of impulsivity facets on reckless driving and driving under the influence in a high-risk young adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Trim, Ryan S; Karyadi, Kenny A; Curry, Inga; Hopfer, Christian J; Hewitt, John K; Stallings, Michael C; Brown, Sandra A; Wall, Tamara L

    2017-08-01

    Risky driving behaviors are disproportionately high among young adults and impulsivity is a robust risk factor. Recent conceptualizations have proposed multidimensional facets of impulsivity comprised of negative urgency, premeditation, perseverance, sensation seeking, and positive urgency (UPPS-P model). Prior studies have found these facets are associated with risky driving behaviors in college student samples, but no prior studies have examined these facets in clinical samples. This study examined the unique and interactive effects of UPPS-P impulsivity facets on past-year risky driving behaviors in a sample of high-risk young adults (ages 18-30 years) with a history of substance use and antisocial behavior and their siblings ( n =1,100). Multilevel Poisson regressions indicated that sensation seeking and negative urgency were uniquely and positively associated with both frequency of past-year reckless driving and driving under the influence. Moreover, lack of premeditation was uniquely and positively associated with reckless driving, whereas lack of perseverance was uniquely and positively associated with driving under the influence. Furthermore, lack of premeditation moderated and strengthened the positive association between sensation seeking and driving under the influence. These study findings suggest that assessing multiple facets of trait impulsivity could facilitate targeted prevention efforts among young adults with a history of externalizing psychopathology.

  4. Hydrothermal etching fabrication of TiO2@graphene hollow structures: mutually independent exposed {001} and {101} facets nanocrystals and its synergistic photocaltalytic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Zhiling; Dong, Xiaonan; Liu, Tingting

    2016-09-20

    Highly exposed facets TiO2 attracts enormous attention due to its excellent separation effect of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and induced high performance of photocatalytic activity. Herein, a novel hydrothermal etching reaction was used to synthesize graphene-wrapped TiO2 hollow core-shell structures. Different with the reported co-exposed facets TiO2 single crystal nanoparticles, the present TiO2 core layer is composed by the mutually independent exposed {001} and {101} facets nanocrystals. Combined with the reduced graphene oxide shell layer, this graphene-wrapped TiO2 hollow core-shell structures formed a Z-scheme photocatalytic system, which possess simultaneously the high charge-separation efficiency and strong redox ability. Additionally, the as-prepared samples show a higher absorption property for organic molecules and visible light due to the presence of graphene. All of these unique properties ensure the excellent photocatalytic activity for the graphene-wrapped TiO2 hollow structures in the synergistic photo-oxidation of organic molecules and photo-reduced of Cr(VI) process. The TiO2 core composed with mutually independent exposed {001} and {101} facets nanocrystals is propose to play an important role in the fabrication of this Z-scheme photocatalytic system. Fabrication of Z-scheme photocatalytic system based on this unique exposed facets TiO2 nanocrystals will provides a new insight into the design and fabrication of advanced photocatalytic materials.

  5. POTENTIAL OF ULTRASOUND-GUIDED LUMBAR FACET RADIOFREQUENCY DENERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Volkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of US navigation for Radiofrequency denervation (RFD of the lumbar facets.Material and methods. The authors performed a prospective controlled cohort study which included 50 patients with chronic pain syndrome who underwent RFD LIII-SI facets on both sides. The main group (US included 25 patients, who underwent US guided navigation with FScontrol of the correct placement of the cannula prior to ablation. In the control group (FS the RFD was performed only under FS control. Patients were selected after preliminary test block of medial branch with 50% pain reduction from the baseline. Patients with overweight, spinal deformity, pronounced degenerative changes, spinal stenosis and developmental anomalies were not included in the study. For the evaluation of outcomes, the numeric pain scale NRS-11 and the Oswestry index (ODI were used, the accuracy of the cannula position was assessed and factors determining the accuracy were searched.Results. As a result of the intervention, there was a significant decrease of NRS-11 and ODI criteria in both groups (p<0.001, a positive outcome was achieved in 18 (72% of US patients and 16 (64% of FS patients, p = 0.564. Of the 200 attempts to position the cannula under the ultrasound control, 169 (84.5% were successful, in most cases (187 out of 200, 93.5% at least 3 attempts were required to reposition the cannula. The average time for performing the procedure under the ultrasound control was 47.3±1.13 minutes. The facet angle and procedure level were defined as predictors of the cannula positioning accuracy, odds ratio 0.93 (95% CI 0.894–0.963 and 0.51 (95% CI 0.32–0.805, respectively.Conclusion. RFD of lumbar facet under ultrasound navigation allows to achieve a relatively high accuracy of the cannula position into the zone of passage of the articular branch. The navigation capabilities are reduced at the level of LV and SI vertebrae due to structural

  6. Factors affecting results of fluoroscopy-guided facet joint injection: Probable differences in the outcome of treatment between pure facet joint hypertrophy and concomitant diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Albayrak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Purpose: Facet joints are considered a common source of chronic low-back pain. To determine whether pathogens related to the facet joint arthritis have any effect on treatment failure. Materials and Methods: Facet joint injection was applied to 94 patients treated at our hospital between 2011 and 2012 (mean age 59.5 years; 80 women and 14 men. For the purpose of analysis, the patients were divided into two groups. Patients who only had facet hypertrophy were placed in group A (47 patients, 41 women and 6 men, mean age 55.3 years and patients who had any additional major pathology to facet hypertrophy were placed in group B (47 patients, 39 women and 8 men, mean age 58.9 years. Injections were applied around the facet joint under surgical conditions utilizing fluoroscopy device guidance. A mixture of methylprednisolone and lidocaine was used as the injection ingredient. Results: In terms of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI and visual analog scale (VAS scores, no significant difference was found between preinjection and immediate postinjection values in both groups, and the scores of group A patients were significantly lower (P < 0.005 compared with that of group B patients at the end of the third, sixth, and twelfth month. Conclusion: For low-back pain caused by facet hypertrophy, steroid injection around the facet joint is an effective treatment, but if there is an existing major pathology, it is not as effective.

  7. Light-induced spatial separation of charges toward different crystal facets of square-like WO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Huihua; Ma, Ruirui; Mao, Fang; Liu, Kewei; Cao, Hongmei; Yan, Hongjian

    2016-09-29

    Light-induced preferential migration of electrons and holes to the minor (200) and (020) facets and the dominant (002) facets of square-like WO 3 , respectively, resulted in the square-like WO 3 nanoplates with Pt loaded mainly on dominant (002) facets shows higher photocatalytic activity than that Pt loaded on the minor facets.

  8. Chronic daily headache in children and adolescents: a multi-faceted syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshia, Shashi S; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Abu-Arafeh, Ishaq; Hershey, Andrew D; Guidetti, Vincenzo; Winner, Paul; Wöber-Bingöl, Ciçek

    2010-11-01

    Chronic daily headache (CDH) is a multi-faceted, often complex pain syndrome in children and adolescents. Chronic daily headache may be primary or secondary. Chronic migraine and chronic tension-type are the most frequent subtypes. Chronic daily headache is co-morbid with adverse life events, anxiety and depressive disorders, possibly with other psychiatric disorders, other pain syndromes and sleep disorders; these conditions contribute to initiating and maintaining CDH. Hence, early management of episodic headache and treatment of associated conditions are crucial to prevention. There is evidence for the benefit of psychological therapies, principally relaxation and cognitive behavioral, and promising information on acupuncture for CDH. Data on drug treatment are based primarily on open label studies. The controversies surrounding CDH are discussed and proposals for improvement presented. The multifaceted nature of CDH makes it a good candidate for a multi-axial classification system. Such an approach should facilitate biopsychosocial management and enhance consistency in clinical research.

  9. Association of facet tropism and orientation with lumbar disc herniation in young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Teng, Donghui; Zhang, Tao; Lei, Xinwei; Jiang, Wenxue

    2018-02-15

    Facet tropism and orientation are thought to be associated with lumbar disc herniation (LDH), but the relationship is not well established. Moreover, the effect of facet joint on LDH has not been outlined in young patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of facet joint tropism and orientation with LDH in young patients (18-35 years) by computed tomography (CT). Fifty-three patients with LDH and 129 with neither LDH nor low back pain (18-35 years) were included in this study. The facet joint angles were measured for each facet joint by CT as per the method described by Noren et al. We defined facet tropism as a bilateral angle difference > 5°. Young cases with neither LDH nor low back pain were used as the control group. The results showed that LDH was significantly associated with more coronal facet joint orientation at L1-2 (p = 0.009), L2-3 (p = 0.004), and L3-4 (p = 0.004). No association was established between facet tropism and LDH. This study revealed that facet joint orientation was associated with LDH in young patients (18-35 years); they were more of coronal facing at upper levels. Also, the facet tropism was not associated with LDH.

  10. Facet Defining Inequalities for the Simple Graph Partioning Polytope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2000-01-01

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually disjoint subgraphs, each containing at most b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we investigate the facial structure of the simple graph partitio...... partitioning polytopes P(b), b = 3,...,n, associated with the complete graph on n nodes. In particular we introduce two new classes af facet defining inequalities that are induced by cliques and multistars....

  11. Lumbar facet septic arthritis. Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Velasco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases with isolated septic arthritis of a lumbar facet after a non articular infection, and sepsis. Being a rarity, it is a condition that goes frequently unnoticed, unless taken into account directly. If it is not treated on time, it can leave serious sequelae. The treatment may vary, according to the time of diagnosis. It might have a good response to antibiotic therapy alone, or it may be necessary to associate surgical drainage.

  12. An Enhanced Facet Determination Scheme in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reivinen, M.; Salonen, E.-M.; Todoshchenko, I.; Vaskelainen, V. P.

    2017-01-01

    An enhanced scheme for the determination of equilibrium crystal shapes is introduced. The emphasis of the present study is put on the proper detection of the facets appearing on the crystal surface. The original formulation presented in [1] employs the principle of the virtual work, and the enhanced scheme additionally makes use of a penalty formulation approach. The derivation of the penalty terms is discussed in detail. Finally, the corresponding discrete method is applied to a certain problematic example case presented in [1] resulting now in the correct crystal shape.

  13. ZnO powders as multi-facet single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Francia; Chenot, Stéphane; Viñes, Francesc; Illas, Francesc; Stankic, Slavica; Jupille, Jacques

    2017-04-19

    Oxides are most commonly found in divided forms with properties difficult to control since their crystallographic orientations usually escape analysis. To overcome this an appropriate model system can be provided by ZnO smoke which, obtained by combustion of Zn in air, exhibits nanoparticles with well-defined surface facets. The present work focuses on the interaction of water with ZnO smokes by combining density functional theory based simulations and infrared spectroscopy measurements with applied pressures from 10 -7 to 1 mbar. We demonstrate that the use of ultra-high vacuum allows the analysis of the very first stages of the adsorption, and report on water structures on ZnO(112[combining macron]0) for the first time. We further show that ZnO powders behave as multi-facet single crystals involving (101[combining macron]0), (112[combining macron]0), (0001), and (0001[combining macron]) surfaces with the polar orientations corresponding to 25% of the total surface area. A great deal of cross-agreements between experimental results and simulation provides a simple approach for the examination of hydroxylated/hydrated ZnO smokes and can be widely applied on other ZnO-related powders.

  14. Unknown facets of Well-Known Scientists Series - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Dixit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 1st in the series of articles on “Unknown Facets of well-known Scientists” was about Sir Frederick Grant Banting, co-discoverer of Insulin, who also researched in Aviation and Diving Medicines, results of which brought extraordinary benefits for Flight crew during the World War II. The article was published in the previous issue of the Journal Unknown facets could be celebrated attributes, talents or otherwise, but it is necessary that we get to know fully about the “great mind". THIS ARTICLE IS ABOUT DR WERNER THEODOR OTTO FORSSMANN, A CARDIOLOGIST, WHO BECAME A UROLOGIST! Does the name Dr Forssmann ring a bell? He shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with “Andre Cournand and Dickinson Richards". The trio was awarded for their “discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system". Dr Forssmann was nominated for performing an experiment in which he introduced a catheter into a vein of his arm, further passing it onward into his heart It was risky. This was in the year 1929. Subject of this article is the self-experimentation he carried out and what happened later.

  15. Dynamics of faceted thin films formation during vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun-Dar; Huang, Po-Yu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an anisotropic phase-field model was established to simulate the growth of crystalline thin films during vapor deposition. The formation and evolution of characteristic surface with faceted morphologies were demonstrated, in accordance with the regularly obtained microstructure in the actual experiments. In addition, the influences of deposition parameters, such as the deposition rate and the interfacial energy, on the formation mechanism of the characteristic morphology were also illustrated. While a relatively low surface energy of substrate was regarded, the faceted islands were formed, owing to the anisotropic interfacial energy of thin films. In the condition of a high surface energy of substrate, the layered structures of deposited films were produced, which was corresponding to the Frank–van der Merwe growth mode. As various deposition rates were utilized in the numerical simulations, diverse surface morphologies were developed on the basis of the dominant mechanisms, correlating with the adatom diffusion and the deposition kinetics. According to the calculation results, it was observed that a surface character with flattened morphology was generally driven by the adatom diffusion, while the factor of the deposition kinetics was inclined to roughen the surface of thin films. These numerical simulations enhanced the knowledge of thin film growth and facilitated the progress of the vapor deposition technology for advanced applications.

  16. MR imaging of lumbar facet joint synovial cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolaki, E.; Davies, A.M.; Evans, N. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry (United Kingdom)

    2000-04-01

    The increasing application of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine has raised the awareness of lumbar facet synovial cysts (LFSC). This well recognised, yet uncommon condition, presents with low back pain and radiculopathy due to the presence of an extradural mass. The commonest affected level is L4/5 with a mild degenerative spondylolisthesis a frequent associated finding. MR imaging is the technique of choice to detect and diagnose a LFSC. This pictorial essay, drawing on experience of 43 cases seen in 40 patients, illustrates the spectrum of appearances that can be encountered and suggest differing causes for the variable signal characteristics exhibited. Computed tomography (CT) can be of value in some cases to aid interpretation of the MR images. In addition, CT facet arthrography by injection of air or iodinated non-ionic contrast medium may be used to confirm the diagnosis in doubtful cases as well as noting whether the patients presenting symptoms can be provoked. A comprehensive review of the existing literature is presented. (orig.)

  17. Facet joint injuries in acute cervical spine trauma : evaluation with CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jeon Ju; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jeong Hwa; Lee, Keon; Kwon, Hyeok Po; Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Yun, Seong Mun [Dongkang General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-05-01

    To evaluate injury patterns of facet joints and associated soft tissue injuries in patients with acute traumatic cervical facet joint injuries. From among patients with cervical spine trauma, 27 with facet joint injuries, as seen on CT and MRI, were chosen for this study. CT scans were analyzed with regard to the location of facet joint injury, the presence or absence of facet dislocation or fracture, and other associated fractures. MR images were analyzed with regard to ligament injury, intervertebral disc injury, intervertebral disc herniation, and spinal cord injury. The most common location of facet joint injury was C6-7 level(n=10), followed by C5-6(n=8). Among these 27 patients with facet joint injuries, 12(44%) had bilateral injuries and 15(56%) unilateral injuries. Facet fractures were present in 17 cases(63%) and the fracture of inferior facet was more frequent than superior. Patterns of fracture were vertical, transverse, or comminuted, but vertical fracture was the most common. Various degrees of dislocation were observed in patients with facet fractures. Fractures other than facet included pillar(n=11), lamina(n=6), transverse process(n=14), body(n=13), and spinous process(n=3). On MR images, anterior longitudinal ligament injury was found in 8 patients(30%), posterior longitudinal ligament injury in 4(15%), and interspinous ligament injury in 20(74%). Twelve patients(44%) had spinal cord injuries including edema(n=8) and hemorrhage(n=4). Among patients with disc abnormalities, 11(41%) had intervertebral disc injuries, and traumatic disc herniations were found in nine. Traumatic cervical facet joint injuries were manifested as various patterns and frequently associated with other fractures or soft tissue injuries. Analysis of CT and MR findings of these injury patterns helped formulate a therapeutic plan and determine of prognosis.

  18. In vivo Structure/Function analysis of the Drosophila fat facets deubiquitinating enzyme gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, X; Fischer, J A

    2000-01-01

    The Drosophila Fat facets protein is a deubiquitinating enzyme required for patterning the developing compound eye. Ubiquitin, a 76-amino-acid polypeptide, serves as a tag to direct proteins to the proteasome, a protein degradation complex. Deubiquitinating enzymes are a large group of proteins that cleave ubiquitin-protein bonds. Fat facets belongs to a class of deubiquitinating enzymes called Ubps that share a conserved catalytic domain. Fat facets is unique among them in its large size and...

  19. Facet joint injuries in acute cervical spine trauma : evaluation with CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jeon Ju; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jeong Hwa; Lee, Keon; Kwon, Hyeok Po; Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Yun, Seong Mun

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate injury patterns of facet joints and associated soft tissue injuries in patients with acute traumatic cervical facet joint injuries. From among patients with cervical spine trauma, 27 with facet joint injuries, as seen on CT and MRI, were chosen for this study. CT scans were analyzed with regard to the location of facet joint injury, the presence or absence of facet dislocation or fracture, and other associated fractures. MR images were analyzed with regard to ligament injury, intervertebral disc injury, intervertebral disc herniation, and spinal cord injury. The most common location of facet joint injury was C6-7 level(n=10), followed by C5-6(n=8). Among these 27 patients with facet joint injuries, 12(44%) had bilateral injuries and 15(56%) unilateral injuries. Facet fractures were present in 17 cases(63%) and the fracture of inferior facet was more frequent than superior. Patterns of fracture were vertical, transverse, or comminuted, but vertical fracture was the most common. Various degrees of dislocation were observed in patients with facet fractures. Fractures other than facet included pillar(n=11), lamina(n=6), transverse process(n=14), body(n=13), and spinous process(n=3). On MR images, anterior longitudinal ligament injury was found in 8 patients(30%), posterior longitudinal ligament injury in 4(15%), and interspinous ligament injury in 20(74%). Twelve patients(44%) had spinal cord injuries including edema(n=8) and hemorrhage(n=4). Among patients with disc abnormalities, 11(41%) had intervertebral disc injuries, and traumatic disc herniations were found in nine. Traumatic cervical facet joint injuries were manifested as various patterns and frequently associated with other fractures or soft tissue injuries. Analysis of CT and MR findings of these injury patterns helped formulate a therapeutic plan and determine of prognosis

  20. Plasmas, Dielectrics and the Ultrafast: First Science and Operational Experience at FACET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, C.I.; Adli, E.; Corde, S.; Decker, F.J.; England, R.J.; Erickson, R.; Fisher, A.; Gessner, S.; Hast, C.; Hogan, M.J.; Li, S.Z.; Lipkowitz, N.; Litos, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seeman, J.; Sheppard, J.C.; Tudosa, I.; White, G.; Wienands, U.; Woodley, M.; Wu, Z.; /SLAC /UCLA

    2012-09-14

    FACET (Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests) is an accelerator R&D test facility that has been recently constructed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The facility provides 20 GeV, 3 nC electron beams, short (20 {micro}m) bunches and small (20 {micro}m wide) spot sizes, producing uniquely high power beams. FACET supports studies from many fields but in particular those of Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and Dielectric Wakefield Acceleration. FACET is also a source of THz radiation for material studies. We present the FACET design, initial operating experience and first science from the facility.

  1. FACET: an object-oriented software framework for modeling complex social behavior patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolph, J. E.; Christiansen, J. H.; Sydelko, P. J.

    2000-06-30

    The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is a flexible, object-oriented architecture for implementing models of dynamic behavior of multiple individuals, or agents, in a simulation. These agents can be human (individuals or organizations) or animal and may exhibit any type of organized social behavior that can be logically articulated. FACET was developed by Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL) Decision and Information Sciences Division (DIS) out of the need to integrate societal processes into natural system simulations. The FACET architecture includes generic software components that provide the agents with various mechanisms for interaction, such as step sequencing and logic, resource management, conflict resolution, and preemptive event handling. FACET components provide a rich environment within which patterns of behavior can be captured in a highly expressive manner. Interactions among agents in FACET are represented by Course of Action (COA) object-based models. Each COA contains a directed graph of individual actions, which represents any known pattern of social behavior. The agents' behavior in a FACET COA, in turn, influences the natural landscape objects in a simulation (i.e., vegetation, soil, and habitat) by updating their states. The modular design of the FACET architecture provides the flexibility to create multiple and varied simulation scenarios by changing social behavior patterns, without disrupting the natural process models. This paper describes the FACET architecture and presents several examples of FACET models that have been developed to assess the effects of anthropogenic influences on the dynamics of the natural environment.

  2. Congenital absence of the lumbar facet joint associated with bilateral spondylolysis of the fifth lumbar vertebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Kasai, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with a rare case of congenital absence of lumbar facet joint manifesting as low back pain. Physical examination showed no neurological or hematologic abnormalities. Radiography revealed absence of a facet joint on the right side of L4-5. Computed tomography and three-dimensional computed tomography revealed absence of the facet joint on the right side of L4-5 and spondylolysis on both sides of L5. Pain subsided after conservative treatment. This is an extremely rare case of congenital absence of lumbar facet joint associated with bilateral spondylolysis.

  3. Image-guided lumbar facet joint infiltration in nonradicular low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Arti; Chaturvedi, Sunil; Sivasankar, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of facet joint infiltrations for pain relief in 44 selected patients with chronic nonradicular low back pain (LBP). Forty-four patients with chronic LBP of more than 3 months' duration were selected for facet joint infiltration. The majority (n = 24) had facetal pain with no evidence of significant facetal arthropathy on imaging. Fifteen patients had radiological evidence of facetal arthropathy, one had a facet joint synovial cyst, three were post–lumbar surgery patients, and two patients had spondylolysis. Facet joint injections were carried out under fluoroscopic guidance in 39 patients and under CT guidance in 5 cases. Pain relief was assessed using the visual analog scale at 1 h post-procedure and, thereafter, at 1, 4, 12, and 24 weeks. A total of 141 facet joints were infiltrated in 44 patients over a 2-year period. There was significant pain relief in 81.8% patients 1 h after the procedure, in 86.3% after 1 week, in 93.3% after 4 weeks, in 85.7% after 12 weeks, and in 62.5% after 24 weeks. No major complications were encountered. Facet nerve block was found to be a simple, minimally invasive, and safe procedure. With meticulous patient selection, we achieved long-term success rates of over 60%. We conclude that this method represents an important alternative treatment for nonradicular back pain

  4. Lumbar juxta-facet joint cysts in association with facet joint orientation, -tropism and -arthritis: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ening, Genevieve; Kowoll, Annika; Stricker, Ingo; Schmieder, Kirsten; Brenke, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    To assess the association between juxta-facet-joint cysts (JFC) occurrence at the lumbar spine and Facet Joint (FJ) orientation, -tropism and -arthritis. Study group, 36 consecutive patients with JFC and the same number of controls, with degenerative diseases without JFC were match paired for demographics and spine segment. Parameter assessment was by T2-weighted axial MRI scans. JFC diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically. Group comparison was by Student's t-test for continuous variables and X(2) for categorical variables. Nineteen female and 17 male patients, aged between 45 and 85 years (mean 67.19 ± 10.3 years) had a mean JFC size of 9.26 ± 4.8mm occurring most frequently in the segment L4-L5 (75% n=25) and on the left side (61%). Mean FJ orientation of the study group was significantly more coronal compared to controls (left side 42° vs 36°, ptropism (ptropism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cervical facet oedema: prevalence, correlation to symptoms, and follow-up imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevalainen, M.T.; Foran, P.J.; Roedl, J.B.; Zoga, A.C.; Morrison, W.B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of cervical facet oedema in patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate neck pain and/or radiculopathy, and to investigate whether there is a correlation between the presence of oedema and patients' symptoms. Materials and methods: A retrospective report review of 1885 patients undergoing cervical spine MRI between July 2008 and June 2015 was performed. Exclusion criteria included acute trauma, surgery, neoplastic disease, or infection in the cervical spine. One hundred and seventy-three MRI studies with cervical facet oedema were evaluated by each of the two radiologists. In these patients, the grade of bone marrow oedema (BMO) and corresponding neuroforaminal narrowing at the cervical facets was assessed. Correlation with symptoms was performed based on pre-MRI questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of cervical facet oedema was 9%; the most commonly affected levels were C3–4, C4–5, and C2–3. A total of 202 cervical facets were evaluated: mild BMO was seen in 35%, moderate in 41%, and severe in 24% of cases. Surrounding soft-tissue oedema was observed in 36%, 69%, and 92% of the BMO grades, respectively. The correlations between unilateral radiculopathy and ipsilateral facet BMO grades were 79%, 83%, and 73% (chi-square, p<0.001), respectively. Furthermore, neuroforaminal narrowing on the corresponding level was found in 35%, 38%, and 11% of cases, respectively. At follow-up imaging, facet oedema was most likely to remain unchanged or to decrease. Conclusion: The prevalence of cervical facet oedema is 9%. Cervical facet oedema is associated with ipsilateral radiculopathy. Neuroforaminal narrowing, however, is not associated with facet oedema. - Highlights: • Association between the cervical facet oedema and cervical radiculopathy was studied. • Prevalence of the cervical facet oedema was 9%. • Facet oedema was associated with radiculopathy regardless of the degree of oedema.

  6. Examining student rating of teaching effectiveness using FACETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Daud, Nuraihan; Abu Kassim, Noor Lide

    2011-01-01

    Students' evaluations of teaching staff can be considered high-stakes, as they are often used to determine promotion, reappointment, and merit pay to academics. Using Facets, the reliability and validity of one student rating questionnaire is analyzed. A total of 13,940 respondents of the Human Science Division of International Islamic University Malaysia were involved in the study. The analysis shows that the student rating questionnaire used was valid and reliable, and it allows identification of staff for the institution's prestigious teaching excellence awards, and those needing in-service training. It was found that there was no significant difference in terms of rank, age and gender of the staff. The study also shows that the majority of staff have problems keeping the class interested and getting students to participate in class activities. Faculty also hardly discussed common errors in assignments and tests.

  7. Assessment of wear facets produced by the ACTA wear machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana R; Larsen, Liselotte; Dowling, Adam H

    2016-01-01

    the 2D profile technique ranks RBC materials in terms of in-vitro wear performance. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Confidence in the wear volume measurements can only be achieved if the wear facet is analysed with sufficient resolution using a 3D digital measurement technique. However, the employment of 2D....... The mean wear depth was measured using the traditionally employed 2D and compared with the 3D profilometric (digital) techniques. Data were submitted to analyses of variance, Tukey's post hoc tests and Independent Samples Student's t-tests (where appropriate) at p... for mean wear depth calculations were similar whether the 2D or 3D techniques were employed. However, the mean wear depth values obtained from the 3D digital technique were significantly increased for two of the five RBC materials compared with the 2D methodology. The total volumetric wear data provided...

  8. How the increase of the cervical disc space height affects the facet joint: an anatomy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiayong; Ebraheim, Nabil A; Haman, Steven P; Sanford, Chris G; Sairyo, Koichi; Faizan, Ahmad; Woldenberg, Lee; Goel, Vijay K

    2006-05-20

    In vitro study on the effect of increasing the height of the cervical disc space on the facet joint. To demonstrate how facet joint articulation is affected by increasing the cervical disc space height. A surgeon attempts to increase the disc space and inserts a larger artificial disc than normal in order to keep the intervertebral foramen open and the prosthesis stable. However, it is hypothesized by the current authors that this procedure could have an adverse effect on the facet joints. Computerized tomography images passing through the disc space and the center of the C4-C7 facet joints (sagittal plane) were obtained from 15 cadaveric cervical spine specimens. A 1-mm incremental increase to a total 5 mm in disc space height was performed to simulate the changes seen in disc replacement. The change in the facet joint articulation overlap and space in the sagittal plane at normal and each displacement was measured. Each 1-mm incremental increase in disc space at C4-C5 translated to a decrease in the facet joint articulation overlap in the sagittal plane by approximately 8%. The mean facet joint space increased approximately 0.8 mm. At the C5-C6 and the C6-C7 levels, the articulation overlap decreased by approximately 7% and the facet joint space increased approximately 0.8 mm. There is a significant decrease of the facet joint articulation overlap in the sagittal plane and an increase in the facet joint space following an increase in the cervical disc space. The inappropriate increase of the disc space height may result in facet joint subluxation and could lead to the accelerated failure of the artificial disc.

  9. Superior facet syndrome. Findings on metrizamide CT myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-02-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L5 or/and S1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively. Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L5 roots and 11 S1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome.

  10. Using the ASTER global DEM to derive empirical relationships among triangular facet slope, facet height and slip rates along active normal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimi, Christina; Ganas, Athanassios

    2015-04-01

    The advent of global DEMs provided a uniform elevation dataset for studying geomorphic parameters in a variety of settings. In this paper ASTER DEM data (30-m pixel size) are used to derive empirical relationships between triangular facet attributes and slip rates along active normal faults. We sampled 232 triangular facets along 10 normal faults in Greece and Bulgaria that slip with rates from 0.1 mm/yr up to 1.3 mm/yr. The studied normal faults accumulate Quaternary tectonic strain in well-known extensional provinces, such as central Greece, Crete and SW Bulgaria. The normal fault footwalls analyzed herein have been developed under similar long-term climatic conditions. It is suggested that two key geometrical features of the youngest generation of triangular facets (slope angle and height) can provide useful metrics to assess rates of deformation when seismological and geodetic data are lacking or not found in sufficient quantity to make reasonable assessments. Our derived empirical relation between slip rate and facet slope angle is: Y = 0.057 × X - 1 where Y is the fault slip rate (mm/yr) and X is the facet slope angle (degrees), with an R2 = 0.728. It is envisaged that our analysis may be helpful in assessing seismic hazard along normal faults with similar facet characteristics in other extensional settings.

  11. Long-Term Developmental Changes in Children's Lower-Order Big Five Personality Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Amaranta; De Pauw, Sarah; van den Akker, Alithe; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter

    2017-10-01

    This study examined long-term developmental changes in mother-rated lower-order facets of children's Big Five dimensions. Two independent community samples covering early childhood (2-4.5 years; N = 365, 39% girls) and middle childhood to the end of middle adolescence (6-17 years; N = 579, 50% girls) were used. All children had the Belgian nationality. Developmental changes were examined using cohort-sequential latent growth modeling on the 18 facets of the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children. In early childhood, changes were mostly similar across child gender. Between 2 and 4.5 years, several facets showed mean-level stability; others changed in the direction of less Extraversion and Emotional Stability, and more Benevolence and Imagination. The lower-order facets of Conscientiousness showed opposite changes. Gender differences became more apparent from middle childhood onward for facets of all dimensions except Imagination, for which no gender differences were found. Between 6 and 17 years, same-dimension facets showed different shapes of growth. Facets that changed linearly changed mostly in the direction of less Extraversion, Benevolence, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Imagination. Changes in facets for which nonlinear growth was found generally moved in direction or magnitude during developmental transitions. This study provides comprehensive, fine-grained knowledge about personality development during the first two decades of life. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A Facet Theory Model for Integrating Contextual and Personal Experiences of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Paul M. W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to use a facet theory research approach to provide a clear, coherent, and integrated model of international students' experiences based upon the findings of psychological research into students when studying abroad. In research that employs a facet theory approach events are classified in terms of their constituent…

  13. Investigation on CO catalytic oxidation reaction kinetics of faceted perovskite nanostructures loaded with Pt

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, S. M.

    2017-01-18

    Perovskite lead titanate nanostructures with specific {111}, {100} and {001} facets exposed, have been employed as supports to investigate the crystal facet effect on the growth and CO catalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles. The size, distribution and surface chemical states of Pt on the perovskite supports have been significantly modified, leading to a tailored conversion temperature and catalytic kinetics towards CO catalytic oxidation.

  14. Contacting ZnO Individual Crystal Facets by Direct Write Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Nikolay; Volk, János; Erdélyi, Róbert; Lukács, István Endre; Nagata, Takahiro; Sturm, Chris; Grundmann, M

    2016-09-14

    Many advanced electronic devices take advantage of properties developed at the surface facets of grown crystals with submicrometer dimensions. Electrical contacts to individual crystal facets can make possible the investigations of facet-dependent properties such as piezoelectricity in ZnO or III-nitride crystals having noncentrosymmetric structure. However, a lithography-based method for developing contacts to individual crystal facets with submicrometer size has not yet been demonstrated. In this report we study the use of electron beam-induced deposition (EBID), a direct write lithography method, for contacting individual facets of ZnO pillars within an electron microscope. Correlating structural and in situ deposition and electrical data, we examine proximity effects during the EBID and evaluate the process against obtaining electrically insulated contact lines on neighboring and diametrically opposite ZnO facets. Parameters such as incident beam energy geometry and size of the facets were investigated with the view of minimizing unwanted proximity broadening effects. Additionally, we show that the EBID direct write method has the required flexibility, resolution, and minimized proximity deposition for creating prototype devices. The devices were used to observe facet-dependent effects induced by mechanical stress on single ZnO pillar structures.

  15. Technical Design Report for the FACET-II Project at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-08-26

    Electrons can “surf” on waves of plasma – a hot gas of charged particles – gaining very high energies in very short distances. This approach, called plasma wakefield acceleration, has the potential to dramatically shrink the size and cost of particle accelerators. Research at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has demonstrated that plasmas can provide 1,000 times the acceleration in a given distance compared with current technologies. Developing revolutionary and more efficient acceleration techniques that allow for an affordable high-energy collider has been the focus of FACET, a National User Facility at SLAC. FACET used part of SLAC’s two-mile-long linear accelerator to generate high-density beams of electrons and their antimatter counterparts, positrons. Research into plasma wakefield acceleration was the primary motivation for constructing FACET. In April 2016, FACET operations came to an end to make way for the second phase of SLAC’s x-ray laser, the LCLS-II, which will use part of the tunnel occupied by FACET. FACET-II is a new test facility to provide the unique capability to develop advanced acceleration and coherent radiation techniques with high-energy electron and positron beams. FACET-II represents a major upgrade over current FACET capabilities and the breadth of the potential research program makes it truly unique.

  16. Facile Synthesis of Gold Nanorice Enclosed by High- Index Facets and Its Application for CO Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y.; Tao, J.; Liu, H.; Zeng, J.; Yu, T.; Ma, Y.; Moran, C.; Wu, L.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, J.; Xia, Y.

    2011-01-01

    A facile method for generating Au nanorice enclosed by high-index facets in high purity. The nanorice shows much higher catalytic activity for CO oxidation than multiply twinned particles of Au enclosed by {111} facets at temperatures below 300 C.

  17. Exploring relations among mindfulness facets and various meditation practices: Do they work in different ways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebolla, Ausiàs; Campos, Daniel; Galiana, Laura; Oliver, Amparo; Tomás, Jose Manuel; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Soler, Joaquim; García-Campayo, Javier; Demarzo, Marcelo; Baños, Rosa María

    2017-03-01

    Several meditation practices are associated with mindfulness-based interventions but little is known about their specific effects on the development of different mindfulness facets. This study aimed to assess the relations among different practice variables, types of meditation, and mindfulness facets. The final sample was composed of 185 participants who completed an on-line survey, including information on the frequency and duration of each meditation practice, lifetime practice, and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes structural model was specified, estimated, and tested. Results showed that the Model's overall fit was adequate: χ 2 (1045)=1542.800 (pmindfulness facets were uniquely related to the different variables and types of meditation. Our findings showed the importance of specific practices in promoting mindfulness, compared to compassion and informal practices, and they pointed out which one fits each mindfulness facet better. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Measured and predicted root-mean-square errors in square and triangular antenna mesh facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichter, W. B.

    1989-01-01

    Deflection shapes of square and equilateral triangular facets of two tricot-knit, gold plated molybdenum wire mesh antenna materials were measured and compared, on the basis of root mean square (rms) differences, with deflection shapes predicted by linear membrane theory, for several cases of biaxial mesh tension. The two mesh materials contained approximately 10 and 16 holes per linear inch, measured diagonally with respect to the course and wale directions. The deflection measurement system employed a non-contact eddy current proximity probe and an electromagnetic distance sensing probe in conjunction with a precision optical level. Despite experimental uncertainties, rms differences between measured and predicted deflection shapes suggest the following conclusions: that replacing flat antenna facets with facets conforming to parabolically curved structural members yields smaller rms surface error; that potential accuracy gains are greater for equilateral triangular facets than for square facets; and that linear membrane theory can be a useful tool in the design of tricot knit wire mesh antennas.

  19. When Ligand Exchange Leads to Ion Exchange: Nanocrystal Facets Dictate the Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewavitharana, Indika K; Brock, Stephanie L

    2017-11-28

    This study demonstrates that ligand exchange of nanocrystals (NCs) is not always an innocuous process, but can lead to facile (room temperature) ion exchange, depending on the surface crystal faceting. Rock salt PbTe NCs prepared as cubes with neutral facets undergo room-temperature ligand exchange with sulfide ions, whereas cuboctahedron-shaped particles with neutral {100} and polar {111} facets are transformed to PbS, driven by ion exchange along the ⟨111⟩ direction. Likewise, cation exchange (with Ag + ) occurs rapidly for cuboctahedra, whereas cubes remain inert. This dramatic difference is attributed to the relative surface area of {111} facets that promote rapid ion exchange and shows how facet engineering is a powerful knob for the control of reaction pathways in nanoparticles.

  20. Synthesis of anatase TiO2with exposed (100) facets and enhanced electrorheological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kai; Wen, Qingkun; Wang, Chengwei; Wang, Baoxiang; Yu, Shoushan; Hao, Chuncheng; Chen, Kezheng

    2017-11-08

    Herein, a simple hydrothermal method is employed to synthesize anatase TiO 2 with dominant (100) facets, as a precursor, using titanate nanofibers derived from alkali treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are carried out to confirm the surface morphology and phase structure of the TiO 2 product. The formation mechanism of TiO 2 enclosed by (100) and (101) facets is deduced to be the selective adsorption of OH - on the (100) facets of anatase TiO 2 . Electroheological (ER) experiments indicate that the tetragonal-facet-rod anatase TiO 2 with exposed (100) facets exhibits an excellent ER performance with a high ER efficiency of up to 52.5, which results from the anisotropy of its special morphology. In addition, the effect of shape on its dielectric property is investigated via broadband dielectric spectroscopy.

  1. On the spectrum of facet crystallization waves at the smooth 4He crystal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmistrov, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    The wavelike processes of crystallization and melting or crystallization waves are well known to exist at the 4 He crystal surface in the rough state. Much less is known about crystallization waves for the 4 He crystal surface in the smooth well-faceted state below the roughening transition temperature. To meet the lack, we analyze here the spectrum of facet crystallization waves and its dependence upon the wavelength, perturbation amplitude, and the number of possible facet steps distributed somehow over the wavelength. All the distinctive features of facet crystallization waves from conventional waves at the rough surface result from a nonanalytic cusplike behavior in the angle dependence for the surface tension of smooth crystal facets.

  2. Polarity of prismatic facets delimiting WC grains in WC-Co alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Sabine; Donnadieu, Patricia; Loubradou, Marc

    2010-07-01

    This study reports a determination of the polarity of WC facets in WC-Co alloys sintered at the liquid state. In these alloys, WC grains are delimited by basal facets and two sets of {10 10} prismatic facets, one set of facets being much more developed than the other. A variation of the shape is observed as a function of the composition of the alloy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to investigate the polarity of the prismatic facets owing to the typical triangular patterns appearing on the images. The effect of the composition is investigated using two alloys with different carbon potentials and one containing VC and Cr(3)C(2) as grain growth inhibitors. The interpretation of the images shows that in all cases, the same set of prismatic planes is favoured. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A unifying quantitative framework for exploring the multiple facets of microbial biodiversity across diverse scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalas, Arthur; Bouvier, Thierry; Mouchet, Maud A; Leprieur, Fabien; Bouvier, Corinne; Troussellier, Marc; Mouillot, David

    2013-10-01

    Recent developments of molecular tools have revolutionized our knowledge of microbial biodiversity by allowing detailed exploration of its different facets and generating unprecedented amount of data. One key issue with such large datasets is the development of diversity measures that cope with different data outputs and allow comparison of biodiversity across different scales. Diversity has indeed three components: local (α), regional (γ) and the overall difference between local communities (β). Current measures of microbial diversity, derived from several approaches, provide complementary but different views. They only capture the β component of diversity, compare communities in a pairwise way, consider all species as equivalent or lack a mathematically explicit relationship among the α, β and γ components. We propose a unified quantitative framework based on the Rao quadratic entropy, to obtain an additive decomposition of diversity (γ = α + β), so the three components can be compared, and that integrate the relationship (phylogenetic or functional) among Microbial Diversity Units that compose a microbial community. We show how this framework is adapted to all types of molecular data, and we highlight crucial issues in microbial ecology that would benefit from this framework and propose ready-to-use R-functions to easily set up our approach. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Cervical degenerative spondylolisthesis: analysis of facet orientation and the severity of cervical spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cong; Lin, Bingquan; Ding, Zihai; Xu, Yikai

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown an association between the degree of cervical degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and spinal cord conditions of the cervical spine. However, there is no information available on the association between the severity of cervical DS and the orientation of the cervical facet joints. This study examined the association between the severity of cervical DS and facet tropism. This study aimed to retrospectively explore the relationship between facet tropism and cervical DS and the effect of facet tropism on cervical DS. A retrospective review of radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with or without cervical DS was carried out. A total of 200 patients from a single institution who underwent both MRI and radiography were reviewed. The facet angles at the C3-C4, C4-C5, and C5-C6 levels based on axial MRI in the two groups and the slippage degree at C4-C5 based on neutral lateral radiographs in the experimental group were measured and calculated. One hundred patients with only C4-C5 level cervical DS who were treated in our hospital from January 2005 to August 2011 were selected as the experimental group. One hundred age- and sex-matched spinal disease-free patients were selected as the control group from patients who presented for physical examinations. Comparative analysis of the obtained parameters was performed to determine significant differences between the examined levels in the two groups and to investigate the association between cervical DS and facet tropism. Facet tropism at C4-C5 was significantly greater than that at C3-C4 and C5-C6 in the experimental group (C4-C5 vs. C3-C4, pspondylolisthesis patients was significantly greater than that in the severe spondylolisthesis patients (p=.036), but facet tropism severity did not vary with the degree of spondylolisthesis in the experimental group (p=.108). This study revealed that facet tropism is universally present at the C3-C4, C4-C5, and C5-C6 levels and

  5. Detailed examination of the lower cervical spine facet joints in a road traffic crash fatality - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Nielsen, Edith; Vesterby, Annie

    2005-01-01

    The lower cervical spine facet joints of a road traffic crash fatality were examined using diagnostic imaging and histological techniques. No injuries to the cervical spine facet joints could be identified with diagnostic imaging including conventional radiology, CT and MRI. Examination of stained...... histological sections visualised the morphology and integrity of the facet joints in detail. Occult injuries to and in close proximity of the cervical spine facet joints were identified only on histological examination....

  6. Facets of personality linked to underweight and overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Sutin, Angelina R; McCrae, Robert R; Deiana, Barbara; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Costa, Paul T

    2009-07-01

    Personality traits underlie maladaptive behaviors, and cognitive and emotional disturbances that contribute to major preventable causes of global disease burden. This study examines detailed personality profiles of underweight, normal, and overweight individuals to provide insights into the causes and treatments of abnormal weight. More than half of the population from four towns in Sardinia, Italy (n = 5693; age = 14-94 years; mean +/- standard deviation = 43 +/- 17 years) were assessed on multiple anthropometric measures and 30 facets that comprehensively cover the five major dimensions of personality, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. High Neuroticism and low Conscientiousness were associated with being underweight and obese, respectively. High Impulsiveness (specifically eating-behavior items) and low Order were associated with body mass index categories of overweight and obese, and with measures of abdominal adiposity (waist and hip circumference). Those scoring in the top 10% of Impulsiveness were about 4 kg heavier than those in the bottom 10%, an effect independent and larger than the FTO genetic variant. Prospective analyses confirmed that Impulsiveness and Order were significant predictors of general and central measures of adiposity assessed 3 years later. Overweight and obese individuals have difficulty resisting cravings and lack methodical and organized behaviors that might influence diet and weight control. Although individuals' traits have limited impact on the current obesogenic epidemic, personality traits can improve clinical assessment, suggest points of intervention, and help tailor prevention and treatment approaches.

  7. Theory of isotopic fractionation on facetted ice crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nelson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The currently used "kinetic-fractionation" (KF model of the differential incorporation of water-molecule isotopologues into vapor-grown ice omits surface processes on crystal facets that may be important in temperature reconstructions. This article introduces the "surface-kinetic" fractionation model, a model that includes such surface processes, and shows that differences in deposition coefficients for water isotopologues can produce isotopic fractionation coefficients that significantly differ from those of KF theory. For example, if the deposition coefficient of H218O differs by just 5% from that of ordinary water (H216O, the resulting fractionation coefficient at 20% supersaturation may deviate from the KF value by up to about ±17‰, and even more at greater supersaturation. As a result, the surface-kinetic theory may significantly change how fractionation depends on supersaturation. Moreover, the model introduces possible new temperature dependencies from the deposition coefficients. These parameters need to be constrained by new laboratory measurements.

  8. Granular packings of elongated faceted particles deposited under gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, Raúl Cruz; Zuriguel, Iker; Maza, Diego; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    We report experimental and theoretical results of the effect that particle shape has on the packing properties of granular materials. We have systematically measured the particle angular distribution, the cluster size distribution and the stress profiles of ensembles of faceted elongated particles deposited in a bidimensional box. Stress transmission through this granular system has been numerically simulated using a two-dimensional model of irregular particles. For grains of maximum symmetry (squares), the stress propagation localizes and forms chain-like forces analogous to those observed for granular materials composed of spheres. For thick layers of grains, a pressure saturation is observed for deposit depths beyond a characteristic length. This scenario correlates with packing morphology and can be understood in terms of stochastic models of aggregation and random multiplicative processes. As grains elongate and lose their symmetry, stress propagation is strongly affected. Lateral force transmission becomes less favored than vertical transfer, and hence, an increase in the pressure develops with depth, hindering force saturation

  9. Sensing the facet orientation in silver nano-plates using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdellatif, M.H. [Department of Nanostructures, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Physics Department, National Research Center, Elbehoos st., 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Salerno, M., E-mail: marco.salerno@iit.it [Department of Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Polovitsyn, Anatolii [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Dipartimentodi Fisica, Università di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Marras, Sergio [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); De Angelis, Francesco [Department of Nanostructures, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • The surface potential of drop cast nanocrystals was measured by SKPM in ambient air. • The nanocrystal facet work function was derived by theory. • By comparing theory and experiment we distinguished the nanocrystal facets. • Nanocrystal facet control is of practical interest for optoelectronic devices. - Abstract: The work function of nano-materials is important for a full characterization of their electronic properties. Because the band alignment, band bending and electronic noise are very sensitive to work function fluctuations, the dependence of the work function of nano-scale crystals on facet orientation can be a critical issue in optimizing optoelectronic devices based on these materials. We used scanning Kelvin probe microscopy to assess the local work function on samples of silver nano-plates at sub-micrometric spatial resolution. With the appropriate choice of the substrate and based on statistical analysis, it was possible to distinguish the surface potential of the different facets of silver nano-plates even if the measurements were done in ambient conditions without the use of vacuum. A phenomenological model was used to calculate the differences of facet work function of the silver nano-plates and the corresponding shift in Fermi level. This theoretical prediction and the experimentally observed difference in surface potential on the silver nano-plates were in good agreement. Our results show the possibility to sense the nano-crystal facets by appropriate choice of the substrate in ambient conditions.

  10. Subdural empyema following lumbar facet joint injection: An exceeding rare complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayeye, Oluwafikayo; Silva, Adikarige Haritha Dulanka; Chavda, Swarupsinh; Furtado, Navin Raoul

    2016-01-01

    Chronic low back pain is extremely common with a life time prevalence estimated at greater than 70%. Facet joint arthrosis is thought to be the causative aetiological substrate in approximately 25% of chronic low back pain cases. Facet joint injection is a routine intervention in the armamentarium for both the diagnostic and therapeutic management of chronic low back pain. In fact, a study by Carrino et al. reported in excess of 94,000 facet joint injection procedures were carried out in the US in 1999. Although generally considered safe, the procedure is not entirely without risk. Complications including bleeding, infection, exacerbation of pain, dural puncture headache, and pneumothorax have been described. We report a rare case of a 47-year-old female patient who developed a left L4/5 facet septic arthrosis with an associated subdural empyema and meningitis following facet joint injection. This case is unique, as to the best of our knowledge no other case of subdural empyema following facet joint injection has been reported in the literature. Furthermore this case serves to highlight the potential serious adverse sequelae of a routine and apparently innocuous intervention. The need for medical practitioners to be alert to and respond rapidly to the infective complications of facet joint injection cannot be understated. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal and shape stability of high-index-faceted rhodium nanoparticles: a molecular dynamics investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang-Ming; Huang, Rao; Wen, Yu-Hua; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2015-02-28

    Nanosized noble metallic particles enclosed by high-index facets exhibit superior catalytic activity because of their high density of low-coordinated step atoms at the surface, and thus have attracted growing interest over the past decade. In this article, we employed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the thermodynamic evolution of tetrahexahedral Rh nanoparticles respectively covered by {210}, {310}, and {830} facets during the heating process. Our results reveal that the {210} faceted nanoparticle exhibits better thermal and shape stability than the {310} and {830} faceted ones. Meanwhile, because the {830} facet consists of {210} and {310} subfacets, the stability of the {830} faceted Rh nanoparticle is dominated by the {310} subfacet, which possesses a relatively poor stability. Furthermore, the shape transformation of these nanoparticles occurs much earlier than their melting. Further analyses indicate that surface atoms with higher coordination numbers display lower surface diffusivity, and are thus more helpful for stabilizing the particle shape. This study offers an atomistic understanding of the thermodynamic behaviors of high-index-faceted Rh nanoparticles.

  12. Facet joint orientation and tropism in lumbar degenerative disc disease and spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichaisak, Witchate; Chotiyarnwong, Chayaporn; Chotiyarnwong, Pojchong

    2015-04-01

    Although degenerative disc disease (DDD) and degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) are two common causes of back pain in elderly, the association between the lumbarfacet joint angle and tropism in these conditions are still unclear. To evaluate the difference in facet joint angles between normal population and lumbar degenerative disc disease and spondylolisthesis patient. The angle of lumbar facet joints were retrospectively measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether there was a difference between degenerative diseases. MRI of patients with DDD, DS, and control group at facet joint between L3-4, L4-5 and L5-S1 level were measured in axial view (60 subjects in each group). There was no difference infacetjoint angle in DDD (44.1 ± 11.9) and control (45.6 ± 8.9), but differed in DS (40.1 ± 10. 7) and control group (p = 0.010) at L4-5 level. Facet tropism showed difference between degenerative groups and control group at L4-5 level. DS group showed difference in facet joints angle and tropism when compared with control population, while DDD showed difference only in facet tropism. In addition, longitudinal studies are needed to understand the clinical significant between facet joint angle and tropism in spinal degenerative diseases.

  13. Assessment of Differential Rater Functioning in Latent Classes with New Mixture Facets Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2017-01-01

    Multifaceted data are very common in the human sciences. For example, test takers' responses to essay items are marked by raters. If multifaceted data are analyzed with standard facets models, it is assumed there is no interaction between facets. In reality, an interaction between facets can occur, referred to as differential facet functioning. A special case of differential facet functioning is the interaction between ratees and raters, referred to as differential rater functioning (DRF). In existing DRF studies, the group membership of ratees is known, such as gender or ethnicity. However, DRF may occur when the group membership is unknown (latent) and thus has to be estimated from data. To solve this problem, in this study, we developed a new mixture facets model to assess DRF when the group membership is latent and we provided two empirical examples to demonstrate its applications. A series of simulations were also conducted to evaluate the performance of the new model in the DRF assessment in the Bayesian framework. Results supported the use of the mixture facets model because all parameters were recovered fairly well, and the more data there were, the better the parameter recovery.

  14. Explaining global job satisfaction by facets of job satisfaction: the Japanese civil servants study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuse, Takashi; Sekine, Michikazu

    2011-03-01

    Management of job satisfaction is of growing importance in terms of the maintenance of employees' health. This study aimed to evaluate which and to what extent facets of job satisfaction contributed to global job satisfaction. The participants were 4286 employees aged 18-69 years working in local government in Japan. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 1998-1999. Seven facets of job satisfaction were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate which facets of job satisfaction contributed to global job satisfaction. For all employees, all of the facets of job satisfaction significantly contributed to global job satisfaction. Among the facets of job satisfaction, 'being satisfied with interests and skills involved in work' and 'how abilities were used' contributed more strongly to global satisfaction than 'being satisfied with how the section is running', 'co-workers', 'work prospects', 'physical working conditions' and 'payment'. The differing associations of facets of job satisfaction with global job satisfaction did not change substantially in stratified analysis by occupation, with one exception that only three facets of job satisfaction contributed to global job satisfaction in administrative workers. Job satisfaction related to the intrinsic aspects of the job (i.e., 'interests and skills involved in work' and 'how abilities were used') contributed more to global job satisfaction than the other aspects of job satisfaction. Longitudinal research in employees with various occupations may be needed to confirm the results of this study.

  15. Morphology evolution of TiO2 facets and vital influences on photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lun; Zou, Ji-Jun; Wang, Songbo; Liu, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Xiangwen; Wang, Li

    2012-03-01

    Modulation of anatase toward highly active facets has been attracting much attention, but the mechanism and photoactivity are still ambiguous. Here we demonstrate the inherent mechanisms for facets nucleation and morphology evolution, and clarify some vital influences of facets and surface nature on the photoactivity. Simply tuning the Ti/F ratio in the synthetic mixture leads to single anatase crystal exposed with different facets like {001}, {010}, or {110}. And complex sphere structure exposed with {001} facets can be formed by secondary nucleation and growth. Prolonging the hydrothermal treatment time causes selective etching on {001} facets, whereas defluorination via thermal calcination produces many pores on the surface. The photodegradation of positively and negatively charged, and zwitterionic dyes indicates that the type of reactant, adsorption mode and surface area play significant roles in photocatalysis. This work makes a step toward understanding the formation of facet-mediated structure and designing highly active materials for environmental remediation, hydrogen production, and dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  16. Specific oriented metal-organic framework membranes and their facet-tuned separation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yiyin; Su, Binbin; Cao, Wei; Li, Junwei; Ying, Yulong; Ying, Wen; Hou, Yajun; Sun, Luwei; Peng, Xinsheng

    2014-09-24

    Modulating the crystal morphology, or the exposed crystal facets, of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) expands their potential applications in catalysis, adsorption, and separation. In this article, by immobilizing the citrate modulators on Au nanoparticles and subsequently being fixed on solid copper hydroxide nanostrands, a well-intergrown and oriented HKUST-1 cube crystal membrane was formed at room temperature. In contrast, in the absence of Au nanoparticles, well-intergrown and oriented cuboctahedron and octahedron membranes were formed in water/ethanol and ethanol, respectively. The gas separation performances of these HKUST-1 membranes were tuned via their exposed facets with defined pore sizes. The HKUST-1 cube membrane with exposed {001} facets demonstrated the highest permeance but lowest gas binary separation factors, while the octahedron membrane with exposed {111} facets presented the highest separation factors but lowest permeance, since the window size of {111} facets is 0.46 nm which is smaller than 0.9 nm of {001} facets. Separation of 0.38 nm CO2 from 0.55 nm SF6 was realized by the HKUST-1 octahedron membrane. As a proof of concept, this will open a new way to design MOF-related separation membranes by facet controlling.

  17. Obtaining Content Weights for Test Specifications from Job Analysis Task Surveys: An Application of the Many-Facets Rasch Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Stahl, John

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the use of the Many-Facets Rasch Model, via the FACETS computer program (Linacre, 2006a), to scale job/practice analysis survey data as well as to combine multiple rating scales into single composite weights representing the tasks' relative importance. Results from the Many-Facets Rasch Model are compared with those…

  18. Improving personality facet scores with multidimensional computer adaptive testing: an illustration with the Neo Pi-R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when

  19. Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests at SLAC (FACET) Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, J.; Bane, K.; /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the design of FACET. It will be updated to stay current with the developing design of the facility. This CDR begins as the baseline conceptual design and will evolve into an 'as-built' manual for the completed facility. The Executive Summary, Chapter 1, gives an introduction to the FACET project and describes the salient features of its design. Chapter 2 gives an overview of FACET. It describes the general parameters of the machine and the basic approaches to implementation. The FACET project does not include the implementation of specific scientific experiments either for plasma wake-field acceleration for other applications. Nonetheless, enough work has been done to define potential experiments to assure that the facility can meet the requirements of the experimental community. Chapter 3, Scientific Case, describes the planned plasma wakefield and other experiments. Chapter 4, Technical Description of FACET, describes the parameters and design of all technical systems of FACET. FACET uses the first two thirds of the existing SLAC linac to accelerate the beam to about 20GeV, and compress it with the aid of two chicanes, located in Sector 10 and Sector 20. The Sector 20 area will include a focusing system, the generic experimental area and the beam dump. Chapter 5, Management of Scientific Program, describes the management of the scientific program at FACET. Chapter 6, Environment, Safety and Health and Quality Assurance, describes the existing programs at SLAC and their application to the FACET project. It includes a preliminary analysis of safety hazards and the planned mitigation. Chapter 7, Work Breakdown Structure, describes the structure used for developing the cost estimates, which will also be used to manage the project. The chapter defines the scope of work of each element down to level 3.

  20. Use of land facets to plan for climate change: conserving the arenas, not the actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Paul; Brost, Brian

    2010-06-01

    Even under the most optimistic scenarios, during the next century human-caused climate change will threaten many wild populations and species. The most useful conservation response is to enlarge and link protected areas to support range shifts by plants and animals. To prioritize land for reserves and linkages, some scientists attempt to chain together four highly uncertain models (emission scenarios, global air-ocean circulation, regional circulation, and biotic response). This approach has high risk of error propagation and compounding and produces outputs at a coarser scale than conservation decisions. Instead, we advocate identifying land facets-recurring landscape units with uniform topographic and soil attributes-and designing reserves and linkages for diversity and interspersion of these units. This coarse-filter approach would conserve the arenas of biological activity, rather than the temporary occupants of those arenas. Integrative, context-sensitive variables, such as insolation and topographic wetness, are useful for defining land facets. Classification procedures such as k-means or fuzzy clustering are a good way to define land facets because they can analyze millions of pixels and are insensitive to case order. In regions lacking useful soil maps, river systems or riparian plants can indicate important facets. Conservation planners should set higher representation targets for rare and distinctive facets. High interspersion of land facets can promote ecological processes, evolutionary interaction, and range shift. Relevant studies suggest land-facet diversity is a good surrogate for today's biodiversity, but fails to conserve some species. To minimize such failures, a reserve design based on land facets should complement, rather than replace, other approaches. Designs based on land facets are not biased toward data-rich areas and can be applied where no maps of land cover exist.

  1. Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests at SLAC (FACET) Conceptual Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, J.; Bane, K.

    2009-01-01

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the design of FACET. It will be updated to stay current with the developing design of the facility. This CDR begins as the baseline conceptual design and will evolve into an 'as-built' manual for the completed facility. The Executive Summary, Chapter 1, gives an introduction to the FACET project and describes the salient features of its design. Chapter 2 gives an overview of FACET. It describes the general parameters of the machine and the basic approaches to implementation. The FACET project does not include the implementation of specific scientific experiments either for plasma wake-field acceleration for other applications. Nonetheless, enough work has been done to define potential experiments to assure that the facility can meet the requirements of the experimental community. Chapter 3, Scientific Case, describes the planned plasma wakefield and other experiments. Chapter 4, Technical Description of FACET, describes the parameters and design of all technical systems of FACET. FACET uses the first two thirds of the existing SLAC linac to accelerate the beam to about 20GeV, and compress it with the aid of two chicanes, located in Sector 10 and Sector 20. The Sector 20 area will include a focusing system, the generic experimental area and the beam dump. Chapter 5, Management of Scientific Program, describes the management of the scientific program at FACET. Chapter 6, Environment, Safety and Health and Quality Assurance, describes the existing programs at SLAC and their application to the FACET project. It includes a preliminary analysis of safety hazards and the planned mitigation. Chapter 7, Work Breakdown Structure, describes the structure used for developing the cost estimates, which will also be used to manage the project. The chapter defines the scope of work of each element down to level 3.

  2. Influence of the austenitizing temperature in the cleavage facet size of Niocor 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, F.A.I.; Teixeira, J.C.G.; Fernandes, R.A.; Juer, S.

    1983-01-01

    Convetional Charpy specimens of Niocor 2 steel cooled in air from various austenitizing temperatures were fractured at -196 0 C so as to insure failure by cleavage. The cleavage facet size distribution was determined and then correlated with the grain size and other aspects of the microstructure. The results that the average facet size can be increased through a coarsening of the microstructure. For the case where the γ→α transformation products are predominantely acicular, the facet size is shown to depend on substructural aspects primarily the lath packet size. (Author) [pt

  3. Progress report for FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations): C.S. SAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epperly, T W

    2008-10-01

    The mission of the Computer Science Scientific Application Partnership (C.S. SAP) at LLNL is to develop and apply leading-edge scientific component technology to FACETS software. Contributions from LLNL's fusion energy program staff towards the underlying physics modules are described in a separate report. FACETS uses component technology to combine selectively multiple physics and solver software modules written in different languages by different institutions together in an tightly-integrated, parallel computing framework for Tokamak reactor modeling. In the past fiscal year, the C.S. SAP has focused on two primary tasks: applying Babel to connect UEDGE into the FACETS framework through UEDGE's existing Python interface and developing a next generation componentization strategy for UEDGE which avoids the use of Python. The FACETS project uses Babel to solve its language interoperability challenges. Specific accomplishments for the year include: (1) Refined SIDL interfaces for UEDGE to meet satisfy the standard interfaces required by FACETS for all physics modules. This required consensus building between framework and UEDGE developers. (2) Wrote prototype C++ driver for UEDGE to demonstrate how UEDGE can be called from C++ using Babel. (3) Supported the FACETS project by adding new features to Babel such as release number tagging, porting to new machines, and adding new configuration options. Babel modifications were delivered to FACETS by testing and publishing development snapshots in the projects software repository. (4) Assisted Tech-X Corporation in testing and debugging of a high level build system for the complete FACETS tool chain--the complete list of third-party software libraries that FACETS depends on directly or indirectly (e.g., MPI, HDF5, PACT, etc.). (5) Designed and implemented a new approach to wrapping UEDGE as a FACETS component without requiring Python. To get simulation results as soon as possible, our initial connection from the

  4. Progress report for FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations): C.S. SAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperly, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    The mission of the Computer Science Scientific Application Partnership (C.S. SAP) at LLNL is to develop and apply leading-edge scientific component technology to FACETS software. Contributions from LLNL's fusion energy program staff towards the underlying physics modules are described in a separate report. FACETS uses component technology to combine selectively multiple physics and solver software modules written in different languages by different institutions together in an tightly-integrated, parallel computing framework for Tokamak reactor modeling. In the past fiscal year, the C.S. SAP has focused on two primary tasks: applying Babel to connect UEDGE into the FACETS framework through UEDGE's existing Python interface and developing a next generation componentization strategy for UEDGE which avoids the use of Python. The FACETS project uses Babel to solve its language interoperability challenges. Specific accomplishments for the year include: (1) Refined SIDL interfaces for UEDGE to meet satisfy the standard interfaces required by FACETS for all physics modules. This required consensus building between framework and UEDGE developers. (2) Wrote prototype C++ driver for UEDGE to demonstrate how UEDGE can be called from C++ using Babel. (3) Supported the FACETS project by adding new features to Babel such as release number tagging, porting to new machines, and adding new configuration options. Babel modifications were delivered to FACETS by testing and publishing development snapshots in the projects software repository. (4) Assisted Tech-X Corporation in testing and debugging of a high level build system for the complete FACETS tool chain--the complete list of third-party software libraries that FACETS depends on directly or indirectly (e.g., MPI, HDF5, PACT, etc.). (5) Designed and implemented a new approach to wrapping UEDGE as a FACETS component without requiring Python. To get simulation results as soon as possible, our initial connection from the FACETS

  5. On the convergence between PSY-5 domains and PID-5 domains and facets: implications for assessment of DSM-5 personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jaime L; Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R Michael; Quilty, Lena C; Veltri, Carlo O C; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F

    2013-06-01

    The DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders workgroup and their consultants have developed the 220-item, self-report Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) for direct assessment of the proposed personality trait system for DSM-5; however, most practicing clinical psychologists will likely continue to rely on separate omnibus measures to index symptoms and traits associated with psychopathology. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is one such measure and assesses the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) domains, which are conceptual cognates of the DSM-5 trait domains. The current study examined the associations between the MMPI-2-RF PSY-5 scales and the DSM-5 trait domains and facets indexed by the PID-5. A clear pattern of convergence was found indicating that each of the PSY-5 scales was most highly correlated with its conceptually expected PID-5 counterpart (rs = .44-.67; Mdn r = .53) and facet correlations generally showed the same pattern. Similarly, when each of the PSY-5 scales was regressed onto the PID-5 domains, the conceptually expected pattern of associations emerged even more clearly. Finally, a joint exploratory factor analysis with the PSY-5 and PID-5 trait facet scales indicated a five-factor solution that clearly resembled both of the PSY-5/DSM-5 trait domains. These results show clear evidence that the MMPI-2-RF has utility in the assessment of dimensional personality traits proposed for the upcoming DSM-5.

  6. Specificity matters: criterion-related validity of contextualized and facet measures of conscientiousness in predicting college student performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sang Eun; Jin, Jing; LeBreton, James M

    2015-01-01

    To enhance the predictive validity of self-report personality measures, 2 distinct ways of increasing specificity of personality measures have been proposed in the literature-contextual specificity (i.e., providing a contextual referent) and content specificity (i.e., focusing on more specific constructs such as the Big Five facets). This study extends this line of research by examining whether there is an optimal way to configure, align, or integrate contextual and content specificity using measures of conscientiousness to predict college student success. A sample of 478 undergraduate students completed 4 measures of conscientiousness that varied in the level of content and contextual specificity. These forms of specificity were crossed to yield 4 distinct measures of conscientiousness. We then evaluated and compared the relative importance and the incremental importance of these different measures in the prediction of academic success. Superior predictive validity was found for both contextualized and facet measures of conscientiousness compared to a measure of global conscientiousness in predicting grade-point average and a broader behavioral criterion of student performance. When contextual and content specificity approaches were compared and combined, we observed the strongest predictive validity when the level of specificity is appropriately matched between predictor and criterion.

  7. BSA nanoparticle loaded atorvastatin calcium--a new facet for an old drug.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sripriyalakshmi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, the discovery of effective chemotherapeutic agents poses a major challenge to the field of cancer biology. The present study focuses on enhancing the therapeutic and anti cancer properties of atorvastatin calcium loaded BSA (ATV-BSA nanoparticles in vitro. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: BSA-ATV nanoparticles were prepared using desolvation technique. The process parameters were optimized based on the amount of desolvating agent, stabilization conditions as well as the concentration of the cross linker. The anti cancer properties of the protein coated ATV nanoparticles were tested on MiaPaCa-2 cell lines. In vitro release behavior of the drug from the carrier suggests that about 85% of the drug gets released after 72 hrs. Our studies show that ATV-BSA nanoparticles showed specific targeting and enhanced cytotoxicity to MiaPaCa-2 cells when compared to the bare ATV. CONCLUSION: We hereby propose that the possible mechanism of cellular uptake of albumin bound ATV could be through caveolin mediated endocytosis. Hence our studies open up new facet for an existing cholesterol drug as a potent anti-cancer agent.

  8. BSA nanoparticle loaded atorvastatin calcium--a new facet for an old drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripriyalakshmi, S; Anjali, C H; George, Priya Doss C; Rajith, B; Ravindran, Aswathy

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the discovery of effective chemotherapeutic agents poses a major challenge to the field of cancer biology. The present study focuses on enhancing the therapeutic and anti cancer properties of atorvastatin calcium loaded BSA (ATV-BSA) nanoparticles in vitro. BSA-ATV nanoparticles were prepared using desolvation technique. The process parameters were optimized based on the amount of desolvating agent, stabilization conditions as well as the concentration of the cross linker. The anti cancer properties of the protein coated ATV nanoparticles were tested on MiaPaCa-2 cell lines. In vitro release behavior of the drug from the carrier suggests that about 85% of the drug gets released after 72 hrs. Our studies show that ATV-BSA nanoparticles showed specific targeting and enhanced cytotoxicity to MiaPaCa-2 cells when compared to the bare ATV. We hereby propose that the possible mechanism of cellular uptake of albumin bound ATV could be through caveolin mediated endocytosis. Hence our studies open up new facet for an existing cholesterol drug as a potent anti-cancer agent.

  9. BSA Nanoparticle Loaded Atorvastatin Calcium - A New Facet for an Old Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Sripriyalakshmi.; C. H, Anjali.; C, George Priya Doss.; B, Rajith; Ravindran, Aswathy

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, the discovery of effective chemotherapeutic agents poses a major challenge to the field of cancer biology. The present study focuses on enhancing the therapeutic and anti cancer properties of atorvastatin calcium loaded BSA (ATV-BSA) nanoparticles in vitro. Methodology/Results BSA-ATV nanoparticles were prepared using desolvation technique. The process parameters were optimized based on the amount of desolvating agent, stabilization conditions as well as the concentration of the cross linker. The anti cancer properties of the protein coated ATV nanoparticles were tested on MiaPaCa-2 cell lines. In vitro release behavior of the drug from the carrier suggests that about 85% of the drug gets released after 72 hrs. Our studies show that ATV-BSA nanoparticles showed specific targeting and enhanced cytotoxicity to MiaPaCa-2 cells when compared to the bare ATV. Conclusion We hereby propose that the possible mechanism of cellular uptake of albumin bound ATV could be through caveolin mediated endocytosis. Hence our studies open up new facet for an existing cholesterol drug as a potent anti-cancer agent. PMID:24498272

  10. Virtual ellipsometry on layered micro-facet surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi; Wilkie, Alexander; Harcuba, Petr; Novosad, Lukas

    2017-09-18

    Microfacet-based BRDF models are a common tool to describe light scattering from glossy surfaces. Apart from their wide-ranging applications in optics, such models also play a significant role in computer graphics for photorealistic rendering purposes. In this paper, we mainly investigate the computer graphics aspect of this technology, and present a polarisation-aware brute force simulation of light interaction with both single and multiple layered micro-facet surfaces. Such surface models are commonly used in computer graphics, but the resulting BRDF is ultimately often only approximated. Recently, there has been work to try to make these approximations more accurate, and to better understand the behaviour of existing analytical models. However, these brute force verification attempts still emitted the polarisation state of light and, as we found out, this renders them prone to mis-estimating the shape of the resulting BRDF lobe for some particular material types, such as smooth layered dielectric surfaces. For these materials, non-polarising computations can mis-estimate some areas of the resulting BRDF shape by up to 23%. But we also identified some other material types, such as dielectric layers over rough conductors, for which the difference turned out to be almost negligible. The main contribution of our work is to clearly demonstrate that the effect of polarisation is important for accurate simulation of certain material types, and that there are also other common materials for which it can apparently be ignored. As this required a BRDF simulator that we could rely on, a secondary contribution is that we went to considerable lengths to validate our software. We compare it against a state-of-art model from graphics, a library from optics, and also against ellipsometric measurements of real surface samples.

  11. Local and social facets of planetary boundaries: right to nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahiluoto, Helena; Kuisma, Miia; Kuokkanen, Anna; Mikkilä, Mirja; Linnanen, Lassi

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic nutrient flows exceed the planetary boundaries. The boundaries and the current excesses vary spatially. Such variations have both an ecological and a social facet. We explored the spatial variation using a bottom-up approach. The local critical boundaries were determined through the current or accumulated flow of the preceding five years before the planetary boundary criteria were met. Finland and Ethiopia served as cases with contrasting ecology and wealth. The variation in excess depends on historical global inequities in the access to nutrients. Globally, the accumulated use per capita is 2300 kg reactive nitrogen (N r ) and 200 kg phosphorus (P). For Finland, the accumulated use per capita is 3400 kg N r and 690 kg P, whereas for Ethiopia, it is 26 kg N r and 12 kg P. The critical N boundary in Finland is currently exceeded by 40 kg cap −1 a −1 and the accumulated excess is 65 kg cap −1 a −1 , while the global current excess is 24 kg cap −1 a −1 and there is space in Ethiopia to increase even the accumulated flow. The critical P boundary is exceeded in Finland and (although less so) in Ethiopia, but for contrary reasons: (1) the excessive past inflow to the agrifood system in Finland and (2) the excessive outflow from the agrifood system triggered by deficits in inflow and waste management in Ethiopia. The critical boundaries set by Finnish marine systems are lower and those set by freshwaters are higher than the planetary boundaries downscaled per capita. The shift to dominance of internal loading in watercourses represents a tipping point. We conclude that food security within the safe boundaries requires global redistribution of nutrients in residues, soils and sediments and of rights to use nutrients. Bottom-up assessments reveal local dynamics that shed new light on the relevant boundary criteria and on estimates and remedies. (letter)

  12. Cervical facet dislocation adjacent to the fused motion segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yokoyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on a case that forces re-examination of merits and demerits of anterior cervical fusion. A 79-year-old male was brought to the emergency room (ER of our hospital after he fell and struck the occipital region of his head following excessive alcohol consumption. Four years prior, he had undergone anterior cervical discectomy and fusion of C5/6 and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI performed 3 years after this surgery indicated that he was suffering from degeneration of C6/7 intervertebral discs. After arriving at the ER, he presented motor impairment at level C7 and lower of manual muscle testing grade 1 as well as moderate loss of physical sensation from the trunk and peripheries of both upper limbs to the peripheries of both lower limbs (Frankel B. Cervical computed tomography (CT indicated anterior dislocation of C6/7, and MRI indicated severe spinal cord edema. We performed manipulative reduction of C6/7 with the patient under general anesthesia. Next, we performed laminectomy on C5-T1 and posterior fusion on C6/7. Postoperative CT indicated that cervical alignment had improved, and MRI indicated that the spinal cord edema observed prior to surgery had been mitigated. Three months after surgery, motor function and sensory impairment of the lower limbs had improved, and the patient was ambulatory upon discharge from the hospital (Frankel D. In the present case, although C5 and 6 were rigidly fused, degeneration of the C6/7 intervertebral disc occurred and stability was compromised. As a result, even slight trauma placed a severe dynamic burden on the facet joint of C6/7, which led to dislocation.

  13. Facet Model and Mathematical Morphology for Surface Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abidi, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Hunt, M.A.; Sari-Sarraf, H.

    1999-11-13

    This paper describes an algorithm for the automatic segmentation and representation of surface structures and non-uniformities in an industrial setting. The automatic image processing and analysis algorithm is developed as part of a complete on-line web characterization system of a papermaking process at the wet end. The goal is to: (1) link certain types of structures on the surface of the web to known machine parameter values, and (2) find the connection between detected structures at the beginning of the line and defects seen on the final product. Images of the pulp mixture (slurry), carried by a fast moving table, are obtained using a stroboscopic light and a CCD camera. This characterization algorithm succeeded where conventional contrast and edge detection techniques failed due to a poorly controlled environment. The images obtained have poor contrast and contain noise caused by a variety of sources. After a number of enhancement steps, conventional segmentation methods still f ailed to detect any structures and are consequently discarded. Techniques tried include the Canny edge detector, the Sobel, Roberts, and Prewitt's filters, as well as zero crossings. The facet model algorithm, is then applied to the images with various parameter settings and is found to be successful in detecting the various topographic characteristics of the surface of the slurry. Pertinent topographic elements are retained and a filtered image computed. Carefully tailored morphological operators are then applied to detect and segment regions of interest. Those regions are then selected according to their size, elongation, and orientation. Their bounding rectangles are computed and represented. Also addressed in this paper are aspects of the real time implementation of this algorithm for on-line use. The algorithm is tested on over 500 images of slurry and is found to segment and characterize nonuniformities on all 500 images.

  14. Synthesis of trapezohedral indium oxide nanoparticles with high-index {211} facets and high gas sensing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiguang; Han, Xiao; Sun, Linqiang; Gao, Shengguang; Li, Liang; Kuang, Qin; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Wang, Chao

    2015-06-14

    Nanocrystals with high-index facets usually exhibit higher catalytic activities than those with only low-index facets. Trapezohedron-shaped (TS) In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets were successfully synthesized in an oleic acid (OA) and trioctylamine (TOA) system. It has been demonstrated that the gas sensing activity of TS In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets is higher than that of octahedron-shaped In2O3 particles with exposed low-index {111} facets.

  15. Extracting User Interaction Information from the Transaction Logs of a Faceted Navigation OPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Hemminger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the analysis of Apache web server logs from a faceted catalog interface (OPAC at North Carolina State University. By grouping individual HTTP requests into user sessions and analyzing in that context, requests can be understood as particular user actions, with more specificity as to purpose and effect of an action. Client IP address and time are used as a sufficient proxy for determining user sessions from logs. Some initial exploratory findings of user behavior in the NCSU OPAC are provided, including that users make use of facets less than of text searching, and that some facet groups are used significantly more than others. Links are provided to the scripts used to make this session-based analysis, which could be modified for use with other facetted OPACs which use an Apache front-end.

  16. Changes in facets of mindfulness and posttraumatic stress disorder treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler Boden, Matthew; Bernstein, Amit; Walser, Robyn D; Bui, Leena; Alvarez, Jennifer; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2012-12-30

    Though there has been a recent surge of interest in the relations between facets of mindfulness and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), there has been a dearth of empirical studies investigating the impact of changes in facets of mindfulness on PTSD treatment outcomes. The present study tested the prospective associations between pre- to post-treatment changes in facets of mindfulness and PTSD and depression severity at treatment discharge, among 48 military Veterans in residential PTSD treatment adhering to a cognitive-behavioral framework. Together, changes in facets of mindfulness significantly explained post-treatment PTSD and depression severity (19-24% of variance). Changes in acting with awareness explained unique variance in post-treatment PTSD severity and changes in nonjudgmental acceptance explained unique variance in post-treatment depression severity. These results remained significant after adjusting for shared variance with length of treatment stay. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Facets of emotional awareness and associations with emotion regulation and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J

    2015-06-01

    Emotion theories posit that effective emotion regulation depends upon the nuanced information provided by emotional awareness; attending to and understanding one's own emotions. Additionally, the strong associations between facets of emotional awareness and various forms of psychopathology may be partially attributable to associations with emotion regulation. These logically compelling hypotheses are largely uninvestigated, including which facets compose emotional awareness and how they relate to emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology. We used exploratory structural equation modeling of individual difference measures among a large adult sample (n = 919) recruited online. Results distinguished 4 facets of emotional awareness (type clarity, source clarity, involuntary attention to emotion, and voluntary attention to emotion) that were differentially associated with expressive suppression, acceptance of emotions, and cognitive reappraisal. Facets were associated with depression both directly and indirectly via associations with emotion regulation strategies. We discuss implications for theory and research on emotional awareness, emotion regulation, and psychopathology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Consensually defined facets of personality as prospective predictors of change in depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Watson, David

    2014-08-01

    Depression has robust associations with personality, showing a strong relation with neuroticism and more moderate associations with extraversion and conscientiousness. In addition, each Big Five domain can be decomposed into narrower facets. However, we currently lack consensus as to the contents of Big Five facets, with idiosyncrasies across instruments; moreover, few studies have examined associations with depression. In the current study, community participants completed six omnibus personality inventories; self-reported depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and 5 years later. Exploratory factor analyses suggested three to five facets in each domain, and these facets served as prospective predictors of depression in hierarchical regressions, after accounting for baseline and trait depression. In these analyses, high anger (from neuroticism), low positive emotionality (extraversion), low conventionality (conscientiousness), and low culture (openness to experiences) were significant prospective predictors of depression. Results are discussed in regard to personality structure and assessment, as well as personality-psychopathology associations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. A facet approach to extending the normative component of the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, I; Cooper, S R

    2001-12-01

    Using facet theory, this study addresses the weak explanatory power of normative influence in theories of reasoned action or planned behaviour. A broad normative construct is hypothesized as being characterized by two facets--social unit and behavioural modality--each of which is examined in relation to recreational drug use. A questionnaire was developed from the facets and administered to undergraduate students. Data (N = 181) were analysed using Smallest Space Analysis (SSA). The results suggest that the facets provide an adequate description of the normative construct and that personal and social normative beliefs, behavioural norms and behavioural intentions can be distinguished empirically. The results also lend partial support to Ajzen's (1988; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977) principle of compatibility. Implications for how social influence is operationalized and conceptualized are also discussed.

  20. Personality and externalizing behavior in the transition to young adulthood : The additive value of personality facets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimstra, T.A.; Luyckx, K.; Hale, W.W.; Goossens, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The directionality of effects in the associations between personality and externalizing behavior (i.e., delinquency, soft drugs use, and alcohol abuse) is unclear. Moreover, previous studies only examined personality trait domains when examining these associations, whereas personality facets

  1. Exploring the relationship between facets of mindfulness and eating pathology in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T

    2011-01-01

    Although researchers have examined the efficacy of acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions in the treatment of eating disorders, few studies have explored the association between trait mindfulness and eating pathology. Therefore, the purpose of the current investigation was to examine the unique associations between multiple facets of mindfulness (acting with awareness, nonreactivity, nonjudgment, describing, and observing) and eating pathology. Undergraduate women (N = 276) completed the Eating Attitudes Test-26, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, and the 21-item version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that four mindfulness facets (awareness, nonreactivity, nonjudgment, and describing) were uniquely associated with eating pathology above and beyond anxiety and depression symptoms. Results are discussed with regard to the potential role of various facets of trait mindfulness in eating pathology as well as the possible utility of mindfulness-based treatments for eating disorders.

  2. Influence of the size of facets on point focus solar concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros-Rosas, David [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Col. Copilco, Coyoacan, CP 04510 DF (Mexico); Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcelino [Centro Nacional de Energias Renovables, c/Somera 7-9, CP 28026 Madrid (Spain); Arancibia-Bulnes, Camilo A.; Estrada, Claudio A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-03-15

    It is a common practice in the development of point focus solar concentrators to use multiple identical reflecting facets, as a practical and economic alternative for the design and construction of large systems. This kind of systems behaves in a different manner than continuous paraboloidal concentrators. A theoretical study is carried out to understand the effect of the size of facets and of their optical errors in multiple facet point focus solar concentrating systems. For this purpose, a ray tracing program was developed based on the convolution technique, in which the brightness distribution of the sun and the optical errors of the reflecting surfaces are considered. The study shows that both the peak of concentration and the optimal focal distance of the system strongly depend on the size of the facets, and on their optical errors. These results are useful to help concentrator developers to have a better understanding of the relationship between manufacturing design restrictions and final optical behavior. (author)

  3. The prevalence cervical facet arthrosis: an osseous study in a cadveric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael J; Riew, K Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Cervical facet arthrosis has been implicated as a cause for neck pain, radiculopathy, occipital headache, and ear pain. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of facet arthrosis in the cervical spine. This study examined cadaveric specimens from the Hamann Todd Collection. None. None. Four hundred sixty-five skeletally mature human cervical spines from the Hamann Todd Collection in the Cleveland Museum of Natural History were obtained for analysis. We analyzed the facets for arthrosis. We graded no arthrosis as Grade 0. Facets with peripheral osteophytic reaction, but with no lateral mass distortion were graded as Grade 1. Facets with peripheral osteophytic reaction and lateral mass distortion were graded as Grade 2. Facets that were ankylosed were graded as Grade 3. Each specimen was examined bilaterally at levels from C2-C3 through C6-C7, yielding 4,650 specimen assessments. The data were analyzed to compare cervical levels, gender, facet side, age groups, and race. Proportion analysis, using the Fisher exact test, was used to assess for statistical difference between various groupings. In the entire population of 465 specimens, the upper cervical specimens appeared to be affected by facet arthrosis more frequently than the lower levels; 12.37% of the specimens had bony evidence of arthrosis at the C2-C3 level; 13.33% of the specimens had arthrosis occur at the C3-C4 level; 14.62% at the C4-C5 level; 7.85% at the C5-C6 level, and 4.84% at the C6-C7 level. The large majority of all cervical facet arthrosis was found to be Grade 1 at all levels. In the older population, the prevalence of facet arthrosis is as high as 29.87% for the C4-C5 level. C4-C5 level appears to be affected the most frequently, followed by the C3-C4 level, then C2-C3, C5-C6, and C6-C7. The prevalence of cervical facet arthrosis increases with age, and occurs more commonly in the upper cervical spine.

  4. Facet-Based Search and Navigation With LCSH: Problems and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley McGrath

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Facet-based interfaces demonstrate some limitations of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH, which were designed to deal with constraints that do not exist in the current computerized environment. This paper discusses some challenges for using LCSH for faceted browsing and navigation in library catalogs. Ideas are provided for improving results through system design, changes to LCSH practice, and LCSH structure.

  5. Desmoid type fibromatosis in the facet joint of lumbar spine: Case report and review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, So Jung; Ha, Doo Hoe; Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Hae Youn [CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Desmoid type fibromatosis is a benign fibroblastic tumor arising from the fascia or musculoaponeurosis. It may occur in various locations, but most commonly in the shoulder girdle and neck; to our knowledge, there has been no reported case originating from a facet joint of the spine. We report CT and MR imaging findings of a desmoid type fibromatosis, involving the facet joint of the L3-4 spine with bone involvement.

  6. Exploring relations among mindfulness facets and various meditation practices: Do they work in different ways?

    OpenAIRE

    Cebolla i Martí, Ausiàs Josep; Campos, Daniel; Galiana Llinares, Laura; Oliver Germes, Amparo; Tomás Miguel, José Manuel; Feliu Soler, Albert; Soler, Joaquim; García Campayo, Javier; Demarzo, Marcelo; Baños Rivera, Rosa María

    2017-01-01

    Several meditation practices are associated with mindfulness-based interventions but little is known about their specific effects on the development of different mindfulness facets. This study aimed to assess the relations among different practice variables, types of meditation, and mindfulness facets. The final sample was composed of 185 participants who completed an on-line survey, including information on the frequency and duration of each meditation practice, lifetime practice, and the Fi...

  7. New SERS-active junction based on cerium dioxide facet dielectric films for biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kurochkin

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we investigated the possibility of the facet structures, based on cerium dioxide to further enhance the SERS signal. During the studies a new metamaterial was developed. The metamaterial is based on the facet cerium dioxide films and plasmonic nanoparticles that are immobilized on its surface. The new metamaterial provides additional SERS signal amplification factor of 211. Thus developed material offers the prospect of increasing the sensitivity and selectivity of biochemical and immunological analysis.

  8. Load Rate of Facet Joints at the Adjacent Segment Increased After Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui; Pei, Bao-Qing; Yang, Jin-Cai; Hai, Yong; Li, De-Yu; Wu, Shu-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cause of the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after fusion remains unknown. It is reported that adjacent facet joint stresses increase after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. This increase of stress rate may lead to tissue injury. Thus far, the load rate of the adjacent segment facet joint after fusion remains unclear. Methods: Six C2-C7 cadaveric spine specimens were loaded under four motion modes: Flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending, with a pure m...

  9. Load Rate of Facet Joints at the Adjacent Segment Increased After Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cause of the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD after fusion remains unknown. It is reported that adjacent facet joint stresses increase after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. This increase of stress rate may lead to tissue injury. Thus far, the load rate of the adjacent segment facet joint after fusion remains unclear. Methods: Six C2-C7 cadaveric spine specimens were loaded under four motion modes: Flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending, with a pure moment using a 6° robot arm combined with an optical motion analysis system. The Tecscan pressure test system was used for testing facet joint pressure. Results: The contact mode of the facet joints and distributions of the force center during different motions were recorded. The adjacent segment facet joint forces increased faster after fusion, compared with intact conditions. While the magnitude of pressures increased, there was no difference in distribution modes before and after fusion. No pressures were detected during flexion. The average growth velocity during extension was the fastest and was significantly faster than lateral bending. Conclusions: One of the reasons for cartilage injury was the increasing stress rate of loading. This implies that ASD after fusion may be related to habitual movement before and after fusion. More and faster extension is disadvantageous for the facet joints and should be reduced as much as possible.

  10. Intraarticular Pulsed Radiofrequency to Treat Refractory Lumbar Facet Joint Pain in Patients with Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Min Cheol; Cho, Yun-Woo; Ahn, Da Hyun; Do, Kyung Hee

    2018-01-06

    Many treatment techniques have been used for refractory lumbar facet joint pain; however, their efficacy has been controversial. In this study, we investigated the clinical efficacy and safety of intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency for the treatment of refractory lumbar facet joint pain in patients with low back pain. Twenty patients with refractory lumbar facet joint pain were recruited, and each patient was treated via intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency. The treatment effects were measured with a numerical rating scale, and the technical accuracy of intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency treatment was evaluated independently by 2 radiologists. Any adverse events or complications also were checked. We performed intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency treatment at 48 levels of the lumbar facet joints in 20 patients (5 men and 15 women; mean age, 64.50 ± 10.65 years) with refractory lumbar facet joint pain. Pain scores were significantly reduced at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment (P radiofrequency results in all 20 patients, without any serious adverse effects. Treatment using intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency is an alternative to other techniques in patients with refractory lumbar facet joint pain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Biometric and biomechanic analysis of lumbar posterior facets based on a CT-scan database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsard, N; Serre, T; Staccini, P; Hovorka, I; Thollon, L; Padovani, B; de Peretti, F; Signoli, M; Tropiano, P

    2013-03-01

    Our knowledge on anatomy of lumbar spine is based on few cadaver's study with old and few subjects. CT-scan is very precise for lumbar facet's morphology. We have analysed 400 subjects. The aim of this study is to measure different distances, angles and circles to better understand the mechanical function of the lumbar facets. We have analysed 720 CT-scan. We had 217 men and 183 women with 59 years of mean age. We used native slices of 1.25 mm thick from L1 to S1. We created transversal plan and we put different mark point. We took their coordinates and we have calculated different distances, angles and mechanical circles. We have compared different axis of rotation of the facets. From L1 to S1, the facets goes near to the posterior wall and far from themselves. Moreover, the posterior angle between both facets increase down to the sacrum. The radius of the left side circle and the right one are very closed in 50% of the cases but the three radius are close only in 10% of cases. This study based on 400 subjects shows that there is not a unique axis of rotation for both lumbar posterior facets. We have had only 50% of symmetry between both sides whatever the level studied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Shaping Gold Nanocrystals in Dimethyl Sulfoxide: Toward Trapezohedral and Bipyramidal Nanocrystals Enclosed by {311} Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wenxin; Duan, Yukun; Qing, Zikun; Huang, Hejin; Lu, Xianmao

    2017-04-26

    The remarkable synthetically tunable structural, electronic, and optical properties of gold nanocrystals have attracted increasing interest and enabled multidisciplinary applications. Over the past decades, nearly all the possible fundamental shapes of faceted Au nanocrystals have been synthesized, except for only one missing-the trapezohedron enclosed by {hkk} facets. In this report, the unprecedented synthesis of trapezohedral Au nanocrystals with {311} crystal facets was realized. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was discovered as a solvent for shaping Au nanocrystals with {311} crystal facets for the first time. Mechanistic studies, together with previous DFT and STM studies, attribute the unique role of DMSO to its ambidentate nature, where both sulfur and oxygen of DMSO can coordinate to gold surface, endowing its unique role in stabilizing high-index {311} facets through a "two center bonding" mode. The DMSO-based synthesis provides a new synthetic tool toward the synthesis of a series of unreported Au nanocrystals with new structures. In particular, a new type of gold bipyramids, the octagonal bipyramids, was first synthesized with additional plasmonic tunability while simultaneously retaining their {311} facets. The application of these new Au nanocrystals in surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy was investigated, and their shape-dependent performances were demonstrated. These results highlight the tremendous potential of using ambidentate molecules as shape- and surface-directing agents for metal nanocrystals and offer the promise of enabling new synthetic tools toward atomically precise control of surface structures of metal nanocrystals.

  13. Load rate of facet joints at the adjacent segment increased after fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Pei, Bao-Qing; Yang, Jin-Cai; Hai, Yong; Li, De-Yu; Wu, Shu-Qin

    2015-04-20

    The cause of the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after fusion remains unknown. It is reported that adjacent facet joint stresses increase after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. This increase of stress rate may lead to tissue injury. Thus far, the load rate of the adjacent segment facet joint after fusion remains unclear. Six C2-C7 cadaveric spine specimens were loaded under four motion modes: Flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending, with a pure moment using a 6° robot arm combined with an optical motion analysis system. The Tecscan pressure test system was used for testing facet joint pressure. The contact mode of the facet joints and distributions of the force center during different motions were recorded. The adjacent segment facet joint forces increased faster after fusion, compared with intact conditions. While the magnitude of pressures increased, there was no difference in distribution modes before and after fusion. No pressures were detected during flexion. The average growth velocity during extension was the fastest and was significantly faster than lateral bending. One of the reasons for cartilage injury was the increasing stress rate of loading. This implies that ASD after fusion may be related to habitual movement before and after fusion. More and faster extension is disadvantageous for the facet joints and should be reduced as much as possible.

  14. Hierarchical TiO2 nanospheres with dominant {001} facets: facile synthesis, growth mechanism, and photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Zeng, Yangsu; Huang, Tongcheng; Piao, Lingyu; Yan, Zijie; Liu, Min

    2012-06-11

    Hierarchical TiO(2) nanospheres with controlled surface morphologies and dominant {001} facets were directly synthesized from Ti powder by a facile, one-pot, hydrothermal method. The obtained hierarchical TiO(2) nanospheres have a uniform size of 400-500 nm and remarkable 78 % fraction of {001} facets. The influence of the reaction temperature, amount of HF, and reaction time on the morphology and the exposed facets was systematically studied. A possible growth mechanism speculates that Ti powder first dissolves in HF solution, and then flowerlike TiO(2) nanostructures are formed by assembly of TiO(2) nanocrystals. Because of the high concentration of HF in the early stage, these TiO(2) nanostructures were etched, and hollow structures formed on the surface. After the F(-) ions were effectively absorbed on the crystal surfaces, {001} facets appear and grow steadily. At the same time, the {101} facets also grow and meet the {101} facets from adjacent truncated tetragonal pyramids, causing coalescence of these facets and formation of nanospheres with dominant {001} facets. With further extension of the reaction time, single-crystal {001} facets of hierarchical TiO(2) nanospheres are dissolved and TiO(2) nanospheres with dominant {101} facets are obtained. The photocatalytic activities of the hierarchical TiO(2) nanospheres were evaluated and found to be closely related to the exposed {001} facets. Owing to the special hierarchical architecture and high percentage of exposed {001} facets, the TiO(2) nanospheres exhibit much enhanced photocatalytic efficiency (almost fourfold) compared to P25 TiO(2) as a benchmark material. This study provides new insight into crystal-facet engineering of anatase TiO(2) nanostructures with high percentage of {001} facets as well as opportunities for controllable synthesis of 3D hierarchical nanostructures. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Lumbar Facet Joint Arthritis Is Associated with More Coronal Orientation of the Facet Joints at the Upper Lumbar Spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentzsch, Th.; Geiger, J.; Zimmermann, S.M.; Slankamenac, K.; Werner, C.M.L.; Nguyen-Kim, Th.D.L.

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed CT scans of 620 individuals, who presented to our traumatology department between 2008 and 2010. Facet joint (FJ) arthritis was present in 308 (49.7%) individuals with a mean grade of 1. It was seen in 27% of individuals ≤40 years and in 75% of individuals ≥41 years ( Ρ <0.0001) as well as in 52% of females and 49% of males ( Ρ=0.61). Mean FJ orientation was 30.4° at L2/3, 38.7° at L3/4, 47° at L4/5, and 47.3° at L5/S1. FJ arthritis was significantly associated with more coronal (increased degree) FJ orientation at L2/3 (Ρ=0.03) with a cutoff point at ≥32°. FJs were more coronally oriented (48.8°) in individuals ≤40 years and more sagittally oriented (45.6°) in individuals ≥41 years at L5/S1 (Ρ=0.01). Mean FJ asymmetry was 4.89° at L2/3, 6.01° at L3/4, 6.67° at L4/5, and 7.27° at L5/S1, without a significant difference for FJ arthritis. FJ arthritis is common, increases with age, and affects both genders equally. More coronally oriented FJs (≥32°) in the upper lumbar spine may be an individual risk factor for development of FJ arthritis.

  16. Comparison of facet joint activity on 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT with facet joint signal change on MRI with fat suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Vance T; Murphy, Robert C; Schenck, Louis A; Carter, Rickey E; Johnson, Geoffrey B; Kotsenas, Amy L; Morris, Jonathan M; Nathan, Mark A; Wald, John T; Maus, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    We compared signal change on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with fat suppression and bone scan activity of lumbar facet joints to determine if these two imaging findings are correlated. We retrospectively identified all patients who underwent imaging of the lumbar spine for pain evaluation using both technetium-99m methylene disphosphonate single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT) and MRI with at least one fat-suppressed T2- or T1-weighted sequence with gadolinium enhancement within a 180-day interval, at our institution between 1 January 2008 and 19 February 2013. Facet joint activity on 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT and peri-facet signal change on MRI were rated as normal or increased. Agreement between the two examination types were determined with the κ and prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted κ (PABAK) statistics. This study included 60 patients (28 male, 47%), with a mean age of 49±19.7 years (range, 12-93 years). The κ value indicated no agreement between 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT and MRI (κ=-0.026; 95% confidence interval: -0.051, 0.000). The PABAK values were fair to high at each spinal level, which suggests that relatively low disease prevalence lowered the κ values. Together, the κ and PABAK values indicate that there is some degree of intermodality agreement, but that it is not consistent. Overall, facet joint signal change on fat-suppressed MRI did not always correlate with increased 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT activity. MRI and 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT for facet joint evaluation should not be considered interchangeable examinations in clinical practice or research.

  17. Synthesis of nanocrystals with variable high-index Pd facets through the controlled heteroepitaxial growth of trisoctahedral Au templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Qingbo; Liu, Bo; Lee, Jim Yang

    2010-12-29

    The shape-controlled synthesis of noble metal nanocrystals (NCs) bounded by high-index facets is a current research interest because the products have the potential of significantly improving the catalytic performance of NCs in industrially important reactions. This study reports a versatile method for synthesizing polyhedral NCs enclosed by a variety of high-index Pd facets. The method is based on the heteroepitaxial growth of Pd layers on concave trisoctahedral (TOH) gold NC seeds under careful control of the growth kinetics. Polyhedral Au@Pd NCs with three different classes of high-index facets, including concave TOH NCs with {hhl} facets, concave hexoctahedral (HOH) NCs with {hkl} facets, and tetrahexahedral (THH) NCs with {hk0} facets, can be formed in high yield. The Miller indices of NCs are also modifiable, and we have used the THH NCs as a demonstrative example. The catalytic activities of these NCs were evaluated by the structure-sensitive reaction of formic acid electro-oxidation. The results showed that the high-index facets are generally more active than the low-index facets. In summary, a seeded growth process based on concave high-index faceted monometallic TOH NC templates and careful control of the growth kinetics is a simple and effective strategy for the synthesis of noble metal NCs with high-index facets. It also offers tailorability of the surface structure in shape-controlled synthesis.

  18. Kinetics-Driven Crystal Facets Evolution at the Tip of Nanowires: A New Implementation of the Ostwald-Lussac Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin; Wang, Xudong

    2016-11-09

    Nanocrystal facets evolution is critical for designing nanomaterial morphology and controlling their properties. In this work, we report a unique high-energy crystal facets evolution phenomenon at the tips of wurtzite zinc oxide nanowires (NWs). As the zinc vapor supersaturation decreased at the NW deposition region, the NW tip facets evolved from the (0001) surface to the {101̅3} surface and subsequently to the {112̅2} surface and eventually back to the flat (0001) surface. A series of NW tip morphology was observed in accordance to the different combinations of exposed facets. Exposure of the high-energy facets was attributed to the fluctuation of the energy barriers for the formation of different crystal facets during the layer-by-layer growth of the NW tip. The energy barrier differences between these crystal facets were quantified from the surface area ratios as a function of supersaturation. On the basis of the experimental observation and kinetics analysis, we argue that at appropriate deposition conditions exposure of the crystal facets at NW growth front is not merely determined by the surface energy. Instead, the NW may choose to expose the facets with minimal formation energy barrier, which can be determined by the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier variation. This empirical law for the NW tip facet formation was in analogy to the Ostwald-Lussac law of phase transformation, which brings a new insight toward nanostructure design and controlled synthesis.

  19. Facets : a Cloudcompare Plugin to Extract Geological Planes from Unstructured 3d Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewez, T. J. B.; Girardeau-Montaut, D.; Allanic, C.; Rohmer, J.

    2016-06-01

    Geological planar facets (stratification, fault, joint…) are key features to unravel the tectonic history of rock outcrop or appreciate the stability of a hazardous rock cliff. Measuring their spatial attitude (dip and strike) is generally performed by hand with a compass/clinometer, which is time consuming, requires some degree of censoring (i.e. refusing to measure some features judged unimportant at the time), is not always possible for fractures higher up on the outcrop and is somewhat hazardous. 3D virtual geological outcrop hold the potential to alleviate these issues. Efficiently segmenting massive 3D point clouds into individual planar facets, inside a convenient software environment was lacking. FACETS is a dedicated plugin within CloudCompare v2.6.2 (http://cloudcompare.org/ ) implemented to perform planar facet extraction, calculate their dip and dip direction (i.e. azimuth of steepest decent) and report the extracted data in interactive stereograms. Two algorithms perform the segmentation: Kd-Tree and Fast Marching. Both divide the point cloud into sub-cells, then compute elementary planar objects and aggregate them progressively according to a planeity threshold into polygons. The boundaries of the polygons are adjusted around segmented points with a tension parameter, and the facet polygons can be exported as 3D polygon shapefiles towards third party GIS software or simply as ASCII comma separated files. One of the great features of FACETS is the capability to explore planar objects but also 3D points with normals with the stereogram tool. Poles can be readily displayed, queried and manually segmented interactively. The plugin blends seamlessly into CloudCompare to leverage all its other 3D point cloud manipulation features. A demonstration of the tool is presented to illustrate these different features. While designed for geological applications, FACETS could be more widely applied to any planar objects.

  20. Degenerative Changes of the Facet Joints in Adults With Lumbar Spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Yuichiro; Sakai, Toshinori; Harada, Taihei; Takao, Shoichiro; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Harada, Masafumi; Sairyo, Koichi

    2017-07-01

    Radiologic analysis using computed tomography. To analyze the degenerative changes of the facet joints in patients with spondylolysis in comparison with control subjects. Defects of the pars interarticularis are thought to result in a reduction of biomechanical stress on adjacent facet joints. Therefore, degenerative changes of the facet joints in patients with spondylolysis are expected to be less than those in patients without spondylolysis. Abdominal and pelvic multidetector computed tomography scans of 2000 subjects, performed for conditions unrelated to low back pain, were reviewed. A total of 107 patients (37 women and 70 men) with L5 spondylolysis were identified [spondylolysis (+) group]. Sex-matched and age-matched controls without spondylolysis were chosen randomly [spondylolysis (-) group]. Subjects in the spondylolysis group were subdivided into either bilateral spondylolysis or unilateral spondylolysis groups for comparison with the control group. Four radiologic findings (narrowing, sclerosis, osteophyte, and bone cyst) indicative of degenerative change of the facet joints adjacent to the L5 pars defects were evaluated and the degree of degenerative change was graded by summing the number of degenerative changes (score range, 0-4). The χ test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Significantly more degenerative changes in both L4/L5 and L5/S facet joints were found in the spondylolysis (+) group than in the spondylolysis (-) group (χ test, P spondylolysis (+) group than in the spondylolysis (-) group. Degenerative changes of the facet joints at both L4/L5 and L5/S were more severe in the unilateral spondylolysis (+) group than in the spondylolysis (-) group. Degenerative changes of the facet joints in patients with lumbar spondylolysis were more severe than those without spondylolysis.

  1. Vertebral rotatory subluxation in degenerative scoliosis: facet joint tropism is related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hongda; Zhu, Feng; Liu, Zhen; Bentley, Mark; Mao, Saihu; Zhu, Zezhang; Ding, Yitao; Qiu, Yong

    2014-12-15

    A cross-sectional study. To identify facet tropism as one of the possible risk factors leading to vertebral rotatory subluxation (VRS). VRS has been considered as one of the prognostic factors for degenerative scoliosis. Although several risk factors of VRS, including age and Cobb angle, have been investigated, few studies exist that have evaluated the correlation between VRS and anatomical structures of the vertebral column. This retrospective study recruited 23 patients diagnosed with degenerative lumbar scoliosis with VRS and 20 patients with degenerative scoliosis without VRS. The lateral translation on coronal radiographs was measured and 5 mm was used as the cutoff value to define rotatory subluxation. Computed tomographic scans for facet joints were made for all lumbar levels. The difference between right and left facet angles was recorded as ΔFA. Facet tropism was defined as a difference between the bilateral facet angles of more than 10°. In this study, VRS was most commonly found at the L3-L4 level (49%) and, with decreasing frequency at L2-L3 (24%), L4-L5 (20%), and L1-L2 (7%). On the convex side of the main curve, face joints at levels with VRS were more coronally oriented compared with those at levels without VRS (41.64° ± 11.65° vs. 36.30° ± 10.99°, P = 0.034). ΔFA was also significantly different between levels with and without VRS (P = 0.005). A strong correlation was found between ΔFA and lateral translation, with a coefficient of 0.33 (P tropism was more significantly observed at levels with VRS. On the convex side of the main curve, facet joints at levels with VRS were more coronally oriented. A larger Cobb angle and severe facet tropism in degenerative scoliosis should be considered to be related to VRS.

  2. Solvothermal fabrication of TiO2/sepiolite composite gel with exposed {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets and its enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruirui; Ji, Zhijiang; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jinjun

    2018-05-01

    A novel TiO2/sepiolite composite gel (TiSG) was fabricated in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) through a simple solvothermal reaction in an acetic acid-water solvent. A homogeneous anchoring of TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets on sepiolite nanofibers was achieved. CTAB content, solvothermal temperature/time, and HAc content play crucial roles in the morphological and facet formation of TiSG. A possible mechanism for the formation of TiSG was further proposed. CTAB as capping/shape-controlling agent can strongly bind to the more reactive (0 0 1) facet of TiO2 and then mitigate the thermodynamically favored (0 0 1) plane growth. Eventually, the truncated octahedral TiO2 was obtained by controlling the growth rates in 〈0 0 1〉 and 〈1 0 1〉 directions. Sepiolite as a cross-linking agent provides sufficient crosslinking sites for TiO2 to induce three-dimensional (3D) network formation, thereby generating the composite gel. The synthesized TiSG samples were then used as photocatalysts, which exhibited increased methyl orange removal under UV-vis light (350-780 nm) by the synergistic effect of adsorption and in-situ photocatalytic degradation as compared to P25 and bare TiO2. The excellent photocatalytic performance of TiSG was mainly ascribed to the formations of 3D gel structure and surface heterojunctions between (0 0 1) and (1 0 1) facets.

  3. The Effectiveness of the Latarjet Procedure in Patients with Chronic Locked Anterior Shoulder Dislocation: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Jiang, Chunyan

    2016-05-18

    Chronic locked anterior shoulder dislocation is a difficult clinical problem for patients and surgeons. Prior studies have proposed a variety of surgical techniques to address this problem; however, the failure rate is high. To our knowledge, there have been no previously published studies on the clinical outcome of the Latarjet procedure for the treatment of chronic locked anterior shoulder dislocation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term subjective, objective, and radiographic outcomes of patients with chronic locked anterior shoulder dislocation after a Latarjet procedure. From January 2005 to January 2013, 43 patients with chronic locked anterior shoulder dislocation were treated surgically in our institution. Open Latarjet procedures were performed in 35 patients. A subscapularis tenotomy or split was chosen on the basis of the ability to achieve open reduction. Outcomes were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively with the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale, and the Constant-Murley rating scale. A comparison of the clinical outcomes among the patients who underwent subscapularis tenotomy and repair, those who underwent a procedure that used the subscapularis-splitting technique, and those who underwent a concomitant humeral head replacement was performed. Twenty-five shoulders of 25 patients were available for a mean follow-up of 31.6 months. At the time of the latest follow-up, the range of motion and the shoulder functional evaluations (VAS [p = 0.02], ASES [p = 0.01], Constant score [p = 0.01], and UCLA score [p = 0.04]) were significantly improved. The overall redislocation or subluxation rate was 48% (12 of 25): 0% (0 of 5) for the subscapularis-splitting group, 53% (8 of 15) for the subscapularis tenotomy and repair group, and 80% (4 of 5) for the humeral head replacement group. The ASES score (p = 0

  4. Can Big Five Facets Distinguish between Hedonic and Eudaimonic Well-Being? A Dominance Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Rosario J; Rey, Mar; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan Andrés

    2016-11-22

    In this study, the aim was to analyze the relative importance of Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality facets for eudaimonic or psychological well-being (PWB) and hedonic or subjective well-being (SWB) through dominance analyses. The participants were 1,403 adult residents of Spain (mean age 37.2 years, SD = 13.9). As expected, facets captured a substantial proportion of the variance in PWB and SWB, with PWB being better predicted than SWB (explaining around 36-55% of the variance of PWB vs. 25% of the variance of SWB). Some facets were common to both types of well-being such as depression (explaining between 5-33% of the variance), vulnerability (explaining between 4-21% of the variance), positive emotions (explaining between 2-9% of the variance) and achievement striving (explaining between 2-10% of the variance), whereas others made a unique contribution according to type of well-being. Certain facets had a greater relative importance for women's well-being -e.g., positive emotions explained 9% of the variance of self-acceptance for women vs. 3% for men- and others for men's well-being -e.g., achievement striving explained 9% of the variance of personal growth for men vs. 2% for women-. The present results contribute to the literature by identifying which Big Five facets showed greater relative importance in explaining and distinguishing between PWB and SWB for women and men.

  5. Surface Area of Patellar Facets: Inferential Statistics in the Iraqi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Imam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body; its three-dimensional complexity necessitates biomechanical perfection. Numerous pathologies occur at the patellofemoral unit which may end in degenerative changes. This study aims to test the presence of statistical correlation between the surface areas of patellar facets and other patellar morphometric parameters. Materials and Methods. Forty dry human patellae were studied. The morphometry of each patella was measured using a digital Vernier Caliper, electronic balance, and image analyses software known as ImageJ. The patellar facetal surface area was correlated with patellar weight, height, width, and thickness. Results. Inferential statistics proved the existence of linear correlation of total facetal surface area and patellar weight, height, width, and thickness. The correlation was strongest for surface area versus patellar weight. The lateral facetal area was found persistently larger than the medial facetal area, the p value was found to be <0.001 (one-tailed t-test for right patellae, and another significant p value of < 0.001 (one-tailed t-test was found for left patellae. Conclusion. These data are vital for the restoration of the normal biomechanics of the patellofemoral unit; these are to be consulted during knee surgeries and implant designs and can be of an indispensable anthropometric, interethnic, and biometric value.

  6. Lumbar radiculopathy due to unilateral facet hypertrophy following lumbar disc hernia operation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kökeş, Fatih; Günaydin, Ahmet; Aciduman, Ahmet; Kalan, Mehmet; Koçak, Halit

    2007-10-01

    To present a radiculopathy case due to unilateral facet hypertrophy developing three years after a lumbar disc hernia operation. A fifty two-year-old female patient, who had been operated on for a left L5-S1 herniated lumbar disc three years ago, was hospitalized and re-operated with a diagnosis of unilateral facet hypertrophy. She had complaints of left leg pain and walking restrictions for the last six months. Left Straight Leg Raising test was positive at 40 degrees , left ankle dorsiflexion muscle strength was 4/5, left Extensor Hallucis Longus muscle strength was 3/5, and left Achilles reflex was hypoactive. Lumbar spinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging revealed left L5-S1 facet hypertrophy. Lumbar radiculopathy due to lumbar facet hypertrophy is a well-known neurological condition. Radicular pain develops during the late postoperative period following lumbar disc hernia operations that are often related to recurrent disc herniation or to formation of post-operative scar tissue. In addition, it can be speculated that unilateral facet hypertrophy, which may develop after a disc hernia operation, might also be one of the causes of radiculopathy.

  7. Parallel syndromes: two dimensions of narcissism and the facets of psychopathic personality in criminally involved individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn

    2011-04-01

    Little research has examined different dimensions of narcissism that may parallel psychopathy facets in criminally involved individuals. In this study, we examined the pattern of relationships between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16 and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, respectively, and the four facets of psychopathy (interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial) assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version. As predicted, grandiose and vulnerable narcissism showed differential relationships to psychopathy facets, with grandiose narcissism relating positively to the interpersonal facet of psychopathy and vulnerable narcissism relating positively to the lifestyle facet of psychopathy. Paralleling existing psychopathy research, vulnerable narcissism showed stronger associations than grandiose narcissism to (a) other forms of psychopathology, including internalizing and substance use disorders, and (b) self- and other-directed aggression, measured with the Life History of Aggression and the Forms of Aggression Questionnaire. Grandiose narcissism was nonetheless associated with social dysfunction marked by a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style and unprovoked aggression. Potentially important implications for uncovering etiological pathways and developing treatment interventions for these disorders in externalizing adults are discussed.

  8. Achievement of safer palladium nanocrystals by enlargement of {100} crystallographic facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yun; Li, Kai; Feng, Yanlin; Cheng, Yan; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Zuankai; Wu, Zhijian; Zhang, Haiyuan

    2017-09-01

    Developing catalytic and safe nanomaterials is very necessary for the reduction of potential risk to human health; however, this strategy has been found extremely challenging because the enhancement in catalytic activity of nanomaterials is inevitably accompanied with more potent cell injury. The relationship of physicochemical properties and biological responses in catalytic nanomaterials needs to be clarified at the nano-bio interface for achieving the safe application. Herein, high-energy crystallographic facets of palladium (Pd) nanocrystals that have been known to significantly contribute to the catalytic activity were introduced to attenuate the toxicity, and the underlying mechanism was unraveled. Polyhedral Pd nanocrystals with morphology evolution from truncated octahedron to cuboctahedron and cube were prepared for elaborately tuning the extents of high-energy {100} facets, and hierarchical in vitro and in vivo biological evaluation were performed to clarify that Pd nanocrystals exposed with the more {100} facets could show the less toxicity to cells and animals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation revealed {100} facet exposure was endowed with a strong oxygen adsorption, which weakens the breakage of the water molecule and suppresses the hazardous water dissociation and hydroxyl radical generation, which was supported by electron spin resonance (ESR)-based radical evaluation and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)-based oxygen identification. This means high-energy facet-based catalytic Pd nanocrystals can deliver low toxicity due to their unique surface properties.

  9. Advances in porous and high-energy (001)-faceted anatase TiO2 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Akrajas Ali; Md Saad, Siti Khatijah; Ali Umar, Marjoni Imamora; Rahman, Mohd Yusri Abd; Oyama, Munetaka

    2018-01-01

    In this review, we present a summary of research to date on the anatase polymorph of TiO2 nanostructures containing high-energy facet, particularly (001) plane, with porous structure, covering their synthesis and their application in photocatalysis as well as a review of any attempts to modify their electrical, optical and photocatalytic properties via doping. After giving a brief introduction on the role of crystalline facet on the physico-chemical properties of the anatase TiO2, we discuss the electrical and optical properties of pristine anatase TiO2 and after being doped with both metal and non-metals dopants. We then continue to the discussion of the electrical properties of (001) faceted anatase TiO2 and their modification upon being prepared in the form of porous morphology. Before coming to the review of the photocatalytic properties of the (001) faceted anatase and (001) with porous morphology in selected photocatalysis application, such as photodegradation of organic pollutant, hydrogenation reaction, water splitting, etc., we discuss the synthetic strategy for the preparation of them. We then end our discussion by giving an outlook on future strategy for development of research related to high-energy faceted and porous anatase TiO2.

  10. Pedicle marrow signal intensity changes in the lumbar spine: a manifestation of facet degenerative joint disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.L.; Kaplan, P.A.; Dussault, R.G.; Anderson, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. Signal intensity changes in lumbar pedicles, similar to those described in vertebral body endplates adjacent to degenerated discs, have been described as an ancillary sign of spondylolysis on MRI. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pedicle marrow signal intensity changes also occur in association with facet degenerative joint disease.Design. Eighty-nine lumbar spine MRI examinations without spondylolysis were reviewed for marrow signal intensity changes in pedicles and vertebral bodies as well as for facet degenerative joint disease.Results. Five percent (46/890) of lumbar pedicles in 23 patients had marrow signal intensity changes. Ninety-one percent (42/46) of the abnormal pedicles had adjacent degenerative joint disease of the facets, while only 21% (189/890) of normal pedicles had adjacent facet degenerative joint disease (p<0.001). Eighty-nine percent (41/46) of the pedicles with marrow signal intensity changes had adjacent degenerative disc disease.Conclusions. Pedicle marrow signal intensity changes are not a specific sign of spondylolysis; they are commonly seen with adjacent facet degenerative joint disease in the absence of spondylolysis. Pedicle marrow signal intensity changes are probably a response to abnormal stresses related to abnormal motion or loading caused by the degenerative changes in the spinal segment. (orig.)

  11. Pedicle marrow signal intensity changes in the lumbar spine: a manifestation of facet degenerative joint disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Kaplan, P.A.; Dussault, R.G.; Anderson, M.W. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Objective. Signal intensity changes in lumbar pedicles, similar to those described in vertebral body endplates adjacent to degenerated discs, have been described as an ancillary sign of spondylolysis on MRI. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pedicle marrow signal intensity changes also occur in association with facet degenerative joint disease.Design. Eighty-nine lumbar spine MRI examinations without spondylolysis were reviewed for marrow signal intensity changes in pedicles and vertebral bodies as well as for facet degenerative joint disease.Results. Five percent (46/890) of lumbar pedicles in 23 patients had marrow signal intensity changes. Ninety-one percent (42/46) of the abnormal pedicles had adjacent degenerative joint disease of the facets, while only 21% (189/890) of normal pedicles had adjacent facet degenerative joint disease (p<0.001). Eighty-nine percent (41/46) of the pedicles with marrow signal intensity changes had adjacent degenerative disc disease.Conclusions. Pedicle marrow signal intensity changes are not a specific sign of spondylolysis; they are commonly seen with adjacent facet degenerative joint disease in the absence of spondylolysis. Pedicle marrow signal intensity changes are probably a response to abnormal stresses related to abnormal motion or loading caused by the degenerative changes in the spinal segment. (orig.)

  12. FACET ORIENTATION AND TROPISM: ASSOCIATION WITH ACCELERATED DEGENERATION OF STABILIZING STRUCTURES IN LOWER LUMBAR SPINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelec, Vjekoslav; Turner, Rajka; Franić, Miljenko; Korušić, Anđelko; Rotim, Krešimir

    2016-03-01

    The influence of facet orientation and tropism on the process of spinal degeneration has been extensively studied during the last few decades, but there are still many controversies and conflicting results in this field of research. The biomechanical cause of accelerated degeneration of stabilizing structures in lower lumbar spine lies within the combination of several factors, but two most important ones are compressive load and more coronal facet orientation that offers less resistance against torsional loading. Axial rotation of lower lumbar spine is undoubtedly associated with higher strain in disc annulus, and enhanced range of secondary rotational movements may be even more significant for the progression of annular degeneration. Accordingly, more pronounced facet tropism could be having part in faster progression of disc degeneration in lower lumbar spine, as indicated by a number of recent studies. More sagittal facet orientation in patients with a higher facet osteoarthritis score at lower lumbar segments is very likely related to arthritic remodeling commonly seen in other synovial joints. There is also a possibility that it could be associated with the adaptation to partial loss of lumbar lordosis, as both coincide with advanced age.

  13. Short-term outcome of fluoroscopic-guided steroid injection therapy of lumber facet cyst-induced radicular pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Mi Ri; Kwon, Jong Won; Lee, Jong Seo; Kim, Eu Sang [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    To determine the short-term effect of fluoroscopic-guided steroid injection therapy of lumbar facet cyst-induced radicular pain. Seventeen patients with radiculopathy due to lumbar synovial cysts, who were treated with fluoroscopically guided injection, were retrospectively evaluated. All plain radiographic images and MR images before the therapy were reviewed. Five patients underwent only the facet joint injection, whereas twelve patients underwent the facet joint injection with perineural injection therapy. The clinical course of pain was evaluated on the first follow-up after therapy. Effective pain relief was achieved in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients. Among 12 patients who underwent facet joint injection with perineural injection, 9 patients (75%) had an effective pain relief. Of 5 patients, 2 (40%) patients only took the facet joint injection and had an effective pain relief. Fluoroscopic-guided steroid injection therapy shows a good short-term effect in patients with symptomatic lumbar facet joint synovial cysts.

  14. Mindfulness facets, trait emotional intelligence, emotional distress, and multiple health behaviors: A serial two-mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ingo; Wollny, Anna; Sim, Chu-Won; Horsch, Antje

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we tested a serial mindfulness facets-trait emotional intelligence (TEI)-emotional distress-multiple health behaviors mediation model in a sample of N = 427 German-speaking occupational therapists. The mindfulness facets-TEI-emotional distress section of the mediation model revealed partial mediation for the mindfulness facets Act with awareness (Act/Aware) and Accept without judgment (Accept); inconsistent mediation was found for the Describe facet. The serial two-mediator model included three mediational pathways that may link each of the four mindfulness facets with multiple health behaviors. Eight out of 12 indirect effects reached significance and fully mediated the links between Act/Aware and Describe to multiple health behaviors; partial mediation was found for Accept. The mindfulness facet Observe was most relevant for multiple health behaviors, but its relation was not amenable to mediation. Implications of the findings will be discussed. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Direct Imaging of Highly Anisotropic Photogenerated Charge Separations on Different Facets of a Single BiVO4 Photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Fan, Fengtao; Chen, Ruotian; An, Hongyu; Feng, Zhaochi; Li, Can

    2015-07-27

    Spatially resolved surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SRSPS) was employed to obtain direct evidence for highly anisotropic photogenerated charge separation on different facets of a single BiVO4 photocatalyst. Through the controlled synthesis of a single crystal with preferentially exposed {010} facets, highly anisotropic photogenerated hole transfer to the {011} facet of single BiVO4 crystals was observed. The surface photovoltage signal intensity on the {011} facet was 70 times stronger than that on the {010} facets. The influence of the built-in electric field in the space charge region of different facets on the anisotropic photoinduced charge transfer in a single semiconductor crystal is revealed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Large-scale synthesis of palladium concave nanocubes with high-index facets for sustainable enhanced catalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaobin; Gao, Guanhui; Pan, Zhengyin; Wang, Tingjun; Meng, Xiaoqing; Cai, Lintao

    2015-02-17

    The catalytic activity of palladium (Pd) nanostructures highly relies on their size and morphology, especially enclosed with high-index facets, which provide more active sites so as to enhance their catalytic performance comparing with their low-index facet counterparts. Herein, Pd concave nanocubes enclosed with {730} facets by a one-pot scalable liquid method, with various high-index facets are synthesized via tuning reduction kinetics. Due to their high-index facets, the Pd concave nanocubes exhibit much higher electrocatalytic activity and stability for methanol oxidation than the Pd nanocubes enclosed by {100} facets and commercial Pd/C. Furthermore, we scale up synthesis of Pd concave nanocubes by expanding the volume of all species to fifty times with high-yield production.

  17. Selectivity on Etching: Creation of High-Energy Facets on Copper Nanocrystals for CO2 Electrochemical Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenni; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Zhaorui; Jin, Mingshang; Yin, Yadong

    2016-04-26

    Creating high-energy facets on the surface of catalyst nanocrystals represents a promising method for enhancing their catalytic activity. Herein we show that crystal etching as the reverse process of crystal growth can directly endow nanocrystal surfaces with high-energy facets. The key is to avoid significant modification of the surface energies of the nanocrystal facets by capping effects from solvents, ions, and ligands. Using Cu nanocubes as the starting material, we have successfully demonstrated the creation of high-energy facets in metal nanocrystals by controlled chemical etching. The etched Cu nanocrystals with enriched high-energy {110} facets showed significantly enhanced activity toward CO2 reduction. We believe the etching-based strategy could be extended to the synthesis of nanocrystals of many other catalysts with more active high-energy facets.

  18. Significance of interfacet distance, facet joint orientation, and lumbar lordosis in spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sang-Bong; Lee, Sungjoon; Kim, Hoon; Lee, Sun-Ho; Kim, Eun Sang; Eoh, Whan

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the association between lumbar spondylolysis and several radiologic parameters, which had been suggested to be significant. The authors examine interfacet distance (IFD), facet joint orientation (FJO), and lumbar segmental lordosis (LSL) all together on the basis of lumbar computed tomography (CT) scan of 35 patients with L5 spondylolysis and 36 unaffected control groups. Thirty-five Korean military recruits, aged 19-23 (mean 20.9 years), were diagnosed as L5 spondylolysis by lumber CT scans. As a control group, 36 male Korean military recruits, aged 18-25 (mean 21.3 years), were reconfirmed as not affected by lumbar spondylolysis by CT scan when they visited our hospital complaining of back pain. This study compares IFD, FJO, and LSL for each lumbar segment between the spondylolytic and unaffected groups. We also propose the use of normal mean data of IFD, FJO, and LSL of lumbar vertebrae from 36 Korean young military recruits because each measurement has power as an absolute value, like data from an osteologic collection in other studies. Comparison of IFD between spondylolytic and unaffected individuals reveals significant differences at the L3, L4, and L5 level (P = 0.0384, P = 0.0219, and P spondylolysis, the increase of IFD from L4 to S1 was less pronounced (P spondylolysis and individuals without pars defect on L5. In the spondylolysis group, and the increase of IFD from L4 to S1 was less pronounced and the LSL at L5-S1 was more lordotic. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The comparison of measurement between ultrasound and computed tomography for abnormal degenerative facet joints: A STROBE-compliant article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wen; Tian, Dan; Liu, Da; Yin, Jing; Huang, Ying

    2017-08-01

    Besides the study on examining facet joints of lumbar spine by ultrasound in normal population, there has not been any related report about examining normal facet joints of lumbar spine by ultrasound so far. This study was aimed to explore the feasibility of ultrasound assessment of lumber spine facet joints by comparing ultrasound measure values of normal and degenerative lumber spine facet joints, and by comparing measure values of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) of degenerative lumber spine facet joints.This study included 15 patients who had chronic low back pain because of degenerative change in lumbar vertebrae, and 19 volunteers who did not have low back pain or pain in the lower limb. The ultrasound measure values (height [H] and width [W]) of normal and degenerative lumber spine facet joints were compared. And the differentiation between measure values (H and W) of ultrasound and CT of degenerative lumber spine facet joints was also analyzed.The ultrasound clearly showed abnormal facet joints lesion, which was characterized by hyperostosis on the edge of joints, bone destruction under joints, and thinner or thicker articular cartilage. There were significant differences between the ultrasound measure values of the normal (H: 1.26 ± 0.03 cm, W: 0.18 ± 0.01 cm) and abnormal facet joints (H: 1.43 ± 0.05 cm, W: 0.15 ± 0.02 cm) (all P  .05).Ultrasound can clearly show the structure of facet joints of lumbar spine. It is precise and feasible to assess facet joints of lumbar spine by ultrasound. This study has important significance for the diagnosis of lumbar facet joint degeneration.

  20. Do as You're Told! Facets of Agreeableness and Early Adult Outcomes for Inner-City Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Margaret L; Duckworth, Angela L; Urzúa, Sergio; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Lynam, Donald R

    2013-12-01

    With data from the middle cohort of the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a prospective longitudinal study of inner-city boys, we examined whether Big Five agreeableness facets could be reliably recovered in this sample, and whether facets predicted educational, occupational, social, and antisocial life outcomes assessed a decade later. Caregivers described their adolescent boys' personalities using the Common California Q-Set; twelve years later, participants were interviewed and court records were obtained. Factor analyses recovered two facets: compliance and compassion. Compliance predicted more schooling and lower risk of unemployment, teenage fatherhood, and crime; compassion related to longer committed relationships. Findings highlight the value of studying personality at the facet level.

  1. On the Structure Sensitivity of Direct NO Decomposition over Low-Index Transition Metal Facets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falsig, Hanne; Shen, Juan; Khan, Tuhin Suvra

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the dissociative chemisorption of NO, O2, and N2 over close-packed, stepped, kinked, and open (fcc {111}, {211}, {311}, {532}, {100}, and {110}) transition metal facets using density functional theory (DFT). The offset of the Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations suggest......} rate. The ordering of the maximum activity over the facets is: {110} > {100} similar to {532} > {311} similar to {211} > {111}, which is in general agreement with the offset in the BEP relations. We show that the top-point location and shape of the volcano relations are approximately independent...... for generally obtaining quantitative agreement between theory and experiments is for the simulations to address in detail the propensities of the various types of active sites. Finally, we show that the ordering of NO decomposition rates among metals and facets is essentially unaltered when using BEP...

  2. GPU accelerated Discrete Element Method (DEM) molecular dynamics for conservative, faceted particle simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spellings, Matthew [Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2800 Plymouth Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Biointerfaces Institute, University of Michigan, 2800 Plymouth Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Marson, Ryan L. [Materials Science & Engineering, University of Michigan, 2300 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Biointerfaces Institute, University of Michigan, 2800 Plymouth Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Anderson, Joshua A. [Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2800 Plymouth Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Biointerfaces Institute, University of Michigan, 2800 Plymouth Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Glotzer, Sharon C., E-mail: sglotzer@umich.edu [Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2800 Plymouth Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Materials Science & Engineering, University of Michigan, 2300 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Biointerfaces Institute, University of Michigan, 2800 Plymouth Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Faceted shapes, such as polyhedra, are commonly found in systems of nanoscale, colloidal, and granular particles. Many interesting physical phenomena, like crystal nucleation and growth, vacancy motion, and glassy dynamics are challenging to model in these systems because they require detailed dynamical information at the individual particle level. Within the granular materials community the Discrete Element Method has been used extensively to model systems of anisotropic particles under gravity, with friction. We provide an implementation of this method intended for simulation of hard, faceted nanoparticles, with a conservative Weeks–Chandler–Andersen (WCA) interparticle potential, coupled to a thermodynamic ensemble. This method is a natural extension of classical molecular dynamics and enables rigorous thermodynamic calculations for faceted particles.

  3. GPU accelerated Discrete Element Method (DEM) molecular dynamics for conservative, faceted particle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellings, Matthew; Marson, Ryan L.; Anderson, Joshua A.; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2017-04-01

    Faceted shapes, such as polyhedra, are commonly found in systems of nanoscale, colloidal, and granular particles. Many interesting physical phenomena, like crystal nucleation and growth, vacancy motion, and glassy dynamics are challenging to model in these systems because they require detailed dynamical information at the individual particle level. Within the granular materials community the Discrete Element Method has been used extensively to model systems of anisotropic particles under gravity, with friction. We provide an implementation of this method intended for simulation of hard, faceted nanoparticles, with a conservative Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) interparticle potential, coupled to a thermodynamic ensemble. This method is a natural extension of classical molecular dynamics and enables rigorous thermodynamic calculations for faceted particles.

  4. Topological defects govern crack front motion and facet formation on broken surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolvin, Itamar; Cohen, Gil; Fineberg, Jay

    2018-02-01

    Cracks develop intricate patterns on the surfaces that they create. As faceted fracture surfaces are commonly formed by slow tensile cracks in both crystalline and amorphous materials, facet formation and structure cannot reflect microscopic order. Although fracture mechanics predict that slow crack fronts should be straight and form mirror-like surfaces, facet-forming fronts propagate simultaneously within different planes separated by steps. Here we show that these steps are topological defects of crack fronts and that crack front separation into disconnected overlapping segments provides the condition for step stability. Real-time imaging of propagating crack fronts combined with surface measurements shows that crack dynamics are governed by localized steps that drift at a constant angle to the local front propagation direction while their increased dissipation couples to long-ranged elasticity to determine front shapes. We study how three-dimensional topology couples to two-dimensional fracture dynamics to provide a fundamental picture of how patterned surfaces are generated.

  5. Interaction of water with faceted NiO(1 1 1) surface tuned by films thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixia; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Shuming; Guo, Qinlin; Guo, Jiandong

    2018-01-01

    The interaction of water with the polar surface of NiO(1 1 1) films has been investigated using various in situ surface analytical techniques, as well as ex situ scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The {1 0 0} facets are formed on NiO(1 1 1) films upon annealing. The boundary between {1 0 0} facet and bare (1 1 1) face and the corner on the facet can facilitate dissociation of water. The total boundary length and the number of corner sites vary with film thickness. The dissociated hydroxyls are thermally stable up to 700 K on the thinner films. Consequently the activity of water dissociation can be tuned by adjusting the film thickness.

  6. Facet personality and surface-level diversity as team mental model antecedents: implications for implicit coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David M; Bell, Suzanne T; Dierdorff, Erich C; Belohlav, James A

    2012-07-01

    Team mental models (TMMs) have received much attention as important drivers of effective team processes and performance. Less is known about the factors that give rise to these shared cognitive structures. We examined potential antecedents of TMMs, with a specific focus on team composition variables, including various facets of personality and surface-level diversity. Further, we examined implicit coordination as an important outcome of TMMs. Results suggest that team composition in terms of the cooperation facet of agreeableness and racial diversity were significantly related to team-focused TMM similarity. TMM similarity was also positively predictive of implicit coordination, which mediated the relationship between TMM similarity and team performance. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant interaction between the trust facet of agreeableness and racial diversity in predicting TMM similarity. Results are discussed in terms of facilitating the emergence of TMMs and corresponding implications for team-related human resource practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Histological Osteoarthritic Changes in the Human Cervical Spine Facet Joints Related to Age and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Charles, Annie Vesterby; Gregersen, Markil

    2018-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional autopsy study. OBJECTIVE: Quantify histological changes in the lower cervical spine facet joints with regard to age and gender using systematic random sampling of entire joints. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Neck pain is a common debilitating musculoskeletal condition...... and one of the highest ranked causes of years lived with disability. The cause of neck pain is multifactorial and osteoarthritis is one potential cause. The cervical spine facet joints have been implicated in the aetiology of chronic neck pain. Hence, a detailed description of their anatomy and age......- and gender related changes is needed. METHODS: The lower four cervical spine segments (C4-C7 included) were obtained from 72 subjects during autopsy; 29 females (median age 53 years [22-77]) and 43 males (median age 38 years [20-78]). A total of 1132 articular facets were embedded in toto in hard plastic...

  8. Which facets of mindfulness are related to problematic eating among patients seeking bariatric surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael E; Dalrymple, Kristy; Himes, Susan; Zimmerman, Mark

    2014-04-01

    There has been growing research indicating the potential positive benefits of mindfulness-based interventions for obesity, but few studies have examined the relationship of mindfulness processes to obesity-related behaviors, particularly among clinical populations such as bariatric surgery candidates. The current study examined the relationship of specific mindfulness facets to a variety of problematic eating behaviors assessed through diagnostic interviews in a clinical sample of 820 patients seeking bariatric surgery. Results indicated that greater mindfulness on specific facets, particularly acting with awareness, was related to less binge and emotional eating. Greater mindfulness was also related, though less consistently, to less habitual overeating and grazing. The observing facet was generally unrelated to problematic eating, but in a few cases being more observant related to having greater eating problems. The results of the study and future directions are discussed in relation to research on problematic eating in obesity and mindfulness-based interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A glimpse behind the mask: facets of narcissism and feelings of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Besser, Avi

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the connections that the facets of narcissism captured by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Hall, 1979) and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009) have with self-esteem. This was accomplished by asking 372 participants to complete measures of narcissism and self-esteem level as well as daily diary measures concerning their state self-esteem and daily experiences. Our analyses found that the facets of narcissism differed in their associations with average level of self-esteem, fluctuations in state self-esteem over time, and self-esteem reactions following daily events. These results suggest that it is important to consider specific facets of narcissism when examining feelings of self-worth rather than relying on broader composite measures of narcissistic personality features. Implications of these results for our understanding of the dynamics of the narcissistic personality are discussed.

  10. Linear-phase approximation in the triangular facet near-field physical optics computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbriale, W. A.; Hodges, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of reflector antenna surfaces use a computer program based on a discrete approximation of the radiation integral. The calculation replaces the actual surface with a triangular facet representation; the physical optics current is assumed to be constant over each facet. Described here is a method of calculation using linear-phase approximation of the surface currents of parabolas, ellipses, and shaped subreflectors and compares results with a previous program that used a constant-phase approximation of the triangular facets. The results show that the linear-phase approximation is a significant improvement over the constant-phase approximation, and enables computation of 100 to 1,000 lambda reflectors within a reasonable time on a Cray computer.

  11. Personality and externalizing behavior in the transition to young adulthood: the additive value of personality facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimstra, Theo A; Luyckx, Koen; Hale Iii, William W; Goossens, Luc

    2014-08-01

    The directionality of effects in the associations between personality and externalizing behavior (i.e., delinquency, soft drugs use, and alcohol abuse) is unclear. Moreover, previous studies only examined personality trait domains when examining these associations, whereas personality facets underlying these broad domains provide more specificity. To address these limitations, the present study examined the directionality of effects between externalizing behavior and personality while employing a facet-level approach to personality. Cross-lagged panel models were employed to four annual measurement waves of longitudinal data on 485 Belgian-Caucasian late adolescents (87.4 % female; M age = 18.63 years, SD = 0.61). Participants filled out the NEO-FFI as a measure of personality, the Deviant Behavior Scale as a measure of delinquency, and single items for soft drugs use and alcohol abuse on all four measurement occasions. The incremental value of personality facets over broad trait domains was demonstrated, as it was often the case that only some, but not all, facets underlying a specific trait domain were significantly associated with specific externalizing behaviors. Furthermore, linkages between personality and externalizing behavior were shown to be complex. Depending on the personality trait domain or facet and the specific behavior under investigation, the directionality of effects may differ. To capture the full complexity of the linkages between personality and externalizing behavior, a facet approach to personality is recommended. This information is potentially important for clinicians, as it indicates which specific aspects of a broad trait domain affect, and are affected by, specific externalizing behaviors.

  12. Contribution of facet joints, axial compression, and composition to human lumbar disc torsion mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezci, Semih E; Eleswarapu, Ananth; Klineberg, Eric O; O'Connell, Grace D

    2018-02-12

    Stresses applied to the spinal column are distributed between the intervertebral disc and facet joints. Structural and compositional changes alter stress distributions within the disc and between the disc and facet joints. These changes influence the mechanical properties of the disc joint, including its stiffness, range of motion, and energy absorption under quasi-static and dynamic loads. There have been few studies evaluating the role of facet joints in torsion. Furthermore, the relationship between biochemical composition and torsion mechanics is not well understood. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to investigate the role of facet joints in torsion mechanics of healthy and degenerated human lumbar discs under a wide range of compressive preloads. To achieve this, each disc was tested under four different compressive preloads (300-1200 N) with and without facet joints. The second objective was to develop a quantitative structure-function relationship between tissue composition and torsion mechanics. Facet joints have a significant contribution to disc torsional stiffness (∼60%) and viscoelasticity, regardless of the magnitude of axial compression. The findings from this study demonstrate that annulus fibrosus GAG content plays an important role in disc torsion mechanics. A decrease in GAG content with degeneration reduced torsion mechanics by more than an order of magnitude, while collagen content did not significantly influence disc torsion mechanics. The biochemical-mechanical and compression-torsion relationships reported in this study allow for better comparison between studies that use discs of varying levels of degeneration or testing protocols and provide important design criteria for biological repair strategies. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. 'Pseudofacets' or 'supernumerary facets' in congenital atlanto-axial dislocation: boon or bane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Pravin; Futane, Sameer; Sharma, Manish; Sahoo, Sushant; Kovilapu, Udaybhanu; Khandelwal, N K

    2015-01-01

    Certain abnormal contact points, appearing like additional joints (pseudofacets) were observed between atlas and axis in a subset of patients with congenital atlantoaxial dislocation (CAAD). The origin, function and bearing on management of such pseudofacets remain largely undetermined. The object is to study 'pseudofacets'or 'accessory joints' in patients with CAAD and to analyze the possible genesis, role and bearing of these on surgery and fusion rates. 35 patients with CAAD were analyzed. Reconstructed images of CT craniovertebral junction passing through these pseudo and true facets were studied. A novel method was devised to measure the faceto-isthmic angle of axis, both in patients with CAAD and normal subjects. Operative details and fusion rates were studied in patients with pseudofacets and compared with those without it. Eight out of 35 patients (6 Irreducible CAAD and 2 with RCAAD) had pseudofacets. These are seen posterior to the true facets and resemble partially formed joints. The C2 facet was acutely bent over its isthmus in these patients. The direction of these pseudofacets appeared to counter the abnormal mobility at C1-2 true facets. Intraoperatively, they posed a visual hindrance to reach up to true facets for placement of spacers and lateral mass screws, requiring extensive drilling. At the same time, they did help in distraction and increased the surface for fusion between C1 and C2 in cases where sublaminar wiring alone was used. Fusion rates were 100 % in patients with pseudofacets. Pseudofacets may be a result of genetic aberration and nature's mechanism to restrict abnormal C1-2 mobility in CAAD by imparting some stability. Their presence hinders the visualization making it difficult to reach upto the true facets, thus a bane. They may require extensive drilling when direct posterior approach is used, thereby disrupting the natural restrictive mechanism. However, the flattened surfaces provide an increased area for postoperative bony

  14. Prevalence of facet joint pain in chronic spinal pain of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pampati Vidyasagar

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facet joints are a clinically important source of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the prevalence of facet joint pain by spinal region in patients with chronic spine pain referred to an interventional pain management practice. Methods Five hundred consecutive patients with chronic, non-specific spine pain were evaluated. The prevalence of facet joint pain was determined using controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks (1% lidocaine or 1% lidocaine followed by 0.25% bupivacaine, in accordance with the criteria established by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP. The study was performed in the United States in a non-university based ambulatory interventional pain management setting. Results The prevalence of facet joint pain in patients with chronic cervical spine pain was 55% 5(95% CI, 49% – 61%, with thoracic spine pain was 42% (95% CI, 30% – 53%, and in with lumbar spine pain was 31% (95% CI, 27% – 36%. The false-positive rate with single blocks with lidocaine was 63% (95% CI, 54% – 72% in the cervical spine, 55% (95% CI, 39% – 78% in the thoracic spine, and 27% (95% CI, 22% – 32% in the lumbar spine. Conclusion This study demonstrated that in an interventional pain management setting, facet joints are clinically important spinal pain generators in a significant proportion of patients with chronic spinal pain. Because these patients typically have failed conservative management, including physical therapy, chiropractic treatment and analgesics, they may benefit from specific interventions designed to manage facet joint pain.

  15. Lamina horizontalization and facet tropism as the risk factors for adjacent segment degeneration after PLIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Shinya; Oda, Takenori; Miyauchi, Akira; Tamura, Satoru; Hashimoto, Yoshichika; Yamasaki, Shinya; Haku, Takamitsu; Kanematsu, Fumiaki; Ariga, Kenta; Ohwada, Tetsuo; Aono, Hiroyuki; Hosono, Noboru; Fuji, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Motoki

    2008-12-01

    A retrospective case-control study. To clarify associations between both lamina horizontalization and facet tropism and adjacent segment degeneration (ASD). We have previously reported coexistence of lamina horizontalization and facet tropism adjacent to the cranial fusion segment as risk factors for ASD. Subjects comprised 20 patients who underwent additional surgery for ASD after L4/5 posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) for L4 degenerative spondylolisthesis. Patients who underwent additional surgery for ASD (ASD group) were divided into 2 groups according to the duration until additional surgery: early group (n = 13), additional surgery 3 years after primary surgery. As a control group, 20 age- and sex-matched patients who underwent L4/5 PLIF and could be followed for > or =5 years without ASD were selected. Lamina inclination angle at L3 and facet tropism at L3/4 in each group were measured 3 times by 3 individuals blinded to clinical results. Associations between clinical results and these risk factors and influences of these factors for periods up to the occurrence of ASD were investigated. All ASD was observed in the cranial adjacent segment and the most common condition at additional surgery was spondylolisthesis (n = 15, 75%). Lamina inclination angle was significantly higher in the ASD group than in the control group. ASD was observed in 86% of patients with lamina inclination >130 degrees . In addition, facet tropism was more significant in the early group than in the late and control groups. ASD was observed 130 degrees and facet tropism >10 degrees . Preexisting lamina horizontalization at the cranial fusion segment seems to affect ASD, and coexistence of lamina horizontalization and facet tropism seems to accelerate ASD after PLIF.

  16. Electrical field-induced faceting of etched features using plasma etching of fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, M.; Pedersen, M.

    2017-07-01

    This paper reports a previously unreported anomaly that occurs when attempting to perform deep, highly anisotropic etches into fused silica using an Inductively-Coupled Plasma (ICP) etch process. Specifically, it was observed that the top portion of the etched features exhibited a substantially different angle compared to the vertical sidewalls that would be expected in a typical highly anisotropic etch process. This anomaly has been termed as "faceting." A possible explanation of the mechanism that causes this effect and a method to eradicate it has been developed. Additionally, the method to eliminate the faceting is demonstrated. It is theorized that this faceting is a result of the interaction of the electro-potential electrical fields that surround the patterned nickel layers used as a hard mask and the electrical fields directing the high-energy ions from the plasma to the substrate surface. Based on this theory, an equation for calculating the minimum hard mask thickness required for a desired etch depth into fused silica to avoid faceting was derived. As validation, test samples were fabricated employing hard masks of thicknesses calculated based on the derived equation, and it was found that no faceting was observed on these samples, thereby demonstrating that the solution performed as predicted. Deep highly anisotropic etching of fused silica, as well as other forms of silicon dioxide, including crystalline quartz, using plasma etching, has an important application in the fabrication of several MEMS, NEMS, microelectronic, and photonic devices. Therefore, a method to eliminate faceting is an important development for the accurate control of the dimensions of deep and anisotropic etched features of these devices using ICP etch technology.

  17. Enhanced photoactivity of BiPO4/(001) facet-dominated square BiOBr flakes by combining heterojunctions with facet engineering effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingzhi; Meng, Xiangying; Hao, Mengjian; Cao, Zhenzhu; He, Weiyan; Gao, Yanfang; Liu, Jinrong

    2018-02-01

    In this study, BiPO4/highly (001) facet exposed square BiOBr flake heterojunction photocatalysts with different molar ratios were fabricated via a two-step method. The synergetic effect of the heterojunction and facet engineering was systematically investigated. The physicochemical properties of the BiPO4/square BiOBr flake composites were characterized based on X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and the photocurrent response. The BiPO4/square BiOBr flake heterojunction photocatalyst exhibited much higher photocatalytic performance compared with the individual BiPO4 and BiOBr. In particular, the BiPO4/BiOBr composite where P/Br = 1/3 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. The intensified separation of photoinduced charges at the p-n heterojunction between the BiPO4 nanoparticle and (001) facet of BiOBr was mainly responsible for the enhanced photoactivity.

  18. Delayed onset of a spinal epidural hematoma after facet joint injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Velickovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of chronic back pain is a challenging problem. Facet joint infiltration is an established treatment for chronic low back pain caused by arthrosis of the lumbar facet joints. Due to the increasing number of patients with chronic low back pain, this therapy has become more frequent. We treated a 51-year-old male patient, who developed an epidural hematoma 2 months after infiltration therapy. Our case shows that even a delayed onset of spinal epidural hematoma is possible and should be kept in mind as a possible cause of acute myelopathy after spinal intervention.

  19. New Facets and a Branch-and-Cut Algorithm for the Weighted Clique Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2001-01-01

    of facet defining inequalities in a branch-and-cut algorithm for the problem. We give a description of this algorithm, including some separation procedures, and present the computational results for different sets of test problems. The computation times that are obtained indicate that this algorithm...... four new classes of facet defining inequalities for the associated b-clique polytope. One of these inequality classes constitutes a generalization of the well known tree inequalities; the other classes are associated with multistars. We utilize these inequality classes together with other classes...... is more efficient than previously described algorithms for the problem....

  20. New facets and a branch-and-cut algorithm for the weighted clique problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2004-01-01

    defining inequalities in a branch-and-cut algorithm for the problem. We give a description of this algorithm, including some separation procedures, and present the computational results for different sets of test problems. The computation times that are obtained indicate that this algorithm is more...... four new classes of facet defining inequalities for the associated b-clique polytope. One of these inequality classes constitutes a generalization of the well known tree inequalities; the other classes are associated with multistars. We use these inequalities together with other classes of facet...... efficient than previously described algorithms for the problem. Udgivelsesdato: APR 1...

  1. A Framework for a Multi-Faceted, Educational, Knowledge-Based Recommender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Coffey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The literature on intelligent or adaptive tutoring systems generally has a focus on how to determine what resources to present to students as they make their way through a course of study. The idea of multi-faceted student modeling is that a variety of measures, both academic and non-academic, might be represented in student models in service of a broader educational context. This paper contains a framework for a multi-faceted, educational, knowledge-based recommender system, including a basic set of descriptors that the model contains, and a taxonomy of inferences that might be made over such models.

  2. Ultrasound-guided facet joint injection to treat a spinal cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Liang Lin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar spinal cysts often present with backache and may be accompanied by lower extremity weakness as well as radiation pain if root compression occurs. The treatment regimens include anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, procedures guided by fluoroscopy or computed tomography, and surgery. We report the case of a patient with a symptomatic lumbar spinal cyst at the L4–L5 facet joint. The symptoms immediately remitted after ultrasound-guided steroid–lidocaine injection into the L4–L5 facet joint. Magnetic resonance imaging follow up 4 months after injection showed complete resolution of the cyst.

  3. Preliminary Conceptual Design Report for the FACET-II Project at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Mark [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-04-22

    Plasma wakefield acceleration has the potential to dramatically shrink the size and cost of particle accelerators. Research at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has demonstrated that plasmas can provide 1,000 times the acceleration in a given distance compared with current technologies. Developing revolutionary and more efficient acceleration techniques that allow for an affordable high-energy collider is the focus of FACET, a National User Facility at SLAC. The existing FACET National User Facility uses part of SLAC’s two-mile-long linear accelerator to generate high-density beams of electrons and positrons. FACET-II is a new test facility to develop advanced acceleration and coherent radiation techniques with high-energy electron and positron beams. It is the only facility in the world with high energy positron beams. FACET-II provides a major upgrade over current FACET capabilities and the breadth of the potential research program makes it truly unique. It will synergistically pursue accelerator science that is vital to the future of both advanced acceleration techniques for High Energy Physics, ultra-high brightness beams for Basic Energy Science, and novel radiation sources for a wide variety of applications. The design parameters for FACET-II are set by the requirements of the plasma wakefield experimental program. To drive the plasma wakefield requires a high peak current, in excess of 10kA. To reach this peak current, the electron and positron design bunch size is 10μ by 10μ transversely with a bunch length of 10μ. This is more than 200 times better than what has been achieved at the existing FACET. The beam energy is 10 GeV, set by the Linac length available and the repetition rate is up to 30 Hz. The FACET-II project is scheduled to be constructed in three major stages. Components of the project discussed in detail include the following: electron injector, bunch compressors and linac, the positron system, the Sector 20 sailboat and W chicanes

  4. Contact pressure in the facet joint during sagittal bending of the cadaveric cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumard, Nicolas V; Bauman, Joel A; Weisshaar, Christine L; Guarino, Benjamin B; Welch, William C; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2011-07-01

    The facet joint contributes to the normal biomechanical function of the spine by transmitting loads and limiting motions via articular contact. However, little is known about the contact pressure response for this joint. Such information can provide a quantitative measure of the facet joint's local environment. The objective of this study was to measure facet pressure during physiologic bending in the cervical spine, using a joint capsule-sparing technique. Flexion and extension bending moments were applied to six human cadaveric cervical spines. Global motions (C2-T1) were defined using infra-red cameras to track markers on each vertebra. Contact pressure in the C5-C6 facet was also measured using a tip-mounted pressure transducer inserted into the joint space through a hole in the postero-inferior region of the C5 lateral mass. Facet contact pressure increased by 67.6 ± 26.9 kPa under a 2.4 Nm extension moment and decreased by 10.3 ± 9.7 kPa under a 2.7 Nm flexion moment. The mean rotation of the overall cervical specimen motion segments was 9.6 ± 0.8° and was 1.6 ± 0.7° for the C5-C6 joint, respectively, for extension. The change in pressure during extension was linearly related to both the change in moment (51.4 ± 42.6 kPa/Nm) and the change in C5-C6 angle (18.0 ± 108.9 kPa/deg). Contact pressure in the inferior region of the cervical facet joint increases during extension as the articular surfaces come in contact, and decreases in flexion as the joint opens, similar to reports in the lumbar spine despite the difference in facet orientation in those spinal regions. Joint contact pressure is linearly related to both sagittal moment and spinal rotation. Cartilage degeneration and the presence of meniscoids may account for the variation in the pressure profiles measured during physiologic sagittal bending. This study shows that cervical facet contact pressure can be directly measured with minimal disruption to the joint and is the first to provide local

  5. Triangular facets of slope in the region of Tudela (Ebro Basin, Navarra, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, C.; Desir, G.; Gutierrez, M.

    2009-01-01

    Some triangular slope facets are localized to the south of Bardenas Reales (central-west of Ebro Basin), elaborated on Tudela Formation deposits, Aragonian in age. Three of them have been dated by OSL resulting on ages of 35,588±2,488 yr. BP, 35,355±2,446 yr. BP and 40.185±2,411 yr. BP. The origin of these facets is ought to an alternation between accumulation and incision phases produced by vegetation cover variation percentage. Those vegetation cover changes are estimated to be due to climatic changes. (Author) 21 refs.

  6. Contemporary cybernetics and its facets of cognitive informatics and computational intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingxu; Kinsner, Witold; Zhang, Du

    2009-08-01

    This paper explores the architecture, theoretical foundations, and paradigms of contemporary cybernetics from perspectives of cognitive informatics (CI) and computational intelligence. The modern domain and the hierarchical behavioral model of cybernetics are elaborated at the imperative, autonomic, and cognitive layers. The CI facet of cybernetics is presented, which explains how the brain may be mimicked in cybernetics via CI and neural informatics. The computational intelligence facet is described with a generic intelligence model of cybernetics. The compatibility between natural and cybernetic intelligence is analyzed. A coherent framework of contemporary cybernetics is presented toward the development of transdisciplinary theories and applications in cybernetics, CI, and computational intelligence.

  7. Morphometric analysis of superior articular facets of atlas vertebra and its clinical applications in ergonomics of atlanto-occipital joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motagi, Manjunath V; Ranganath, Vallabhajosyula

    2013-12-01

    The classic variants in superior articular facets of atlas such as, variability in shape, presence of notch, constrictions, partial or complete separation of facets, and presence of pressure facets, have been reported to a limited extent in relation to ergonomics of cranio-vertebral joint. The objectives of the present study were to report the analyzed morphological features and metrical values of superior articular facets of the atlas. The morphological features which were included in this study were variability in shapes, constrictions and partial or complete separation of facets. The metrical measure included the surface area measurement of the facets. This study was carried out on 50 (100 sides) dry atlas vertebrae from the Department of Anatomy, St John's Medical College, Bangalore, India. The superior articular facets were studied for the shape and symmetry, constrictions and partial or complete separation of facets. The surface area of the facets were measured by using Image J (Image processing and analysis in JAVA) tool, that was primarily designed to measure and analyze different metrics. The mean surface area on the right side was 157.3 ± 29.02, and on the left side, it was 158.5 ± 24.85. Oval, irregular, kidney and figure of eight shapes were observed either on both sides or on one side. Bilateral constrictions of facets were seen in 58 % of vertebrae. Bilateral, complete separations of facets were seen in 30% of vertebrae. The observations of the present study are important to understand the ergonomics of the cranio-vertebral joint and they are helpful for academicians, neuro-surgeons, clinicians and radiologists in day to day clinical practice.

  8. Geometry of the articular facets of the lateral atlanto-axial joints in the case of occipitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryniewicz, A M; Skrzat, J; Ryniewicz, A; Ryniewicz, W; Walocha, J

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates if atlanto-occipital fusion affects the size and geometrical configuration of the articular facets of the atlanto-axial joint. Morphometric analysis was performed on the male adult skull, the occipital bone of which is assimilated with the first cervical vertebrae (the atlas). The perimeter, Feret's diameter, surface area, and circularity of the inferior articular fa-cets were measured. However, we did not observe significant bilateral differences in size of the inferior articular facets of the assimilated atlas compared to normal first cervical vertebrae. Geometrical conformation of the articular facets of the atlas and axis was assessed using a coordinate measuring machine (PMM - 12106, Leitz). The results obtained from this machine indicated that the inferior articular facets of the assimilated atlas presented asymmetrical orientation compared to the normal anatomy of the atlas. Hence, in the case of occipitalization, the gap between the articulating facets of the atlas and the axis was measured to be greater than in the normal atlanto-axial joint. Computer assisted tomography was applied to visualise the anatomical relationship between the inferior articular facets of the assimilated atlas and the corresponding facets located on the axis. In this case, radiographic examination revealed that the bilaterally articulating facets (inferior and superior) showed disproportion in their adjustment within the lateral atlanto-axial joints. Thus, we concluded that the fusion of the atlas with the occipital bone altered the geometry of the inferior articular facets of the atlas and influenced the orientation of the superior articular facets of the axis.

  9. Visible-light photocatalysis in Cu2Se nanowires with exposed {111} facets and charge separation between (111) and (1[combining macron]1[combining macron]1[combining macron]) polar surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Ning, Lichao; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Congjie; Yang, Heqing; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2015-05-28

    The search for active narrow band gap semiconductor photocatalysts that directly split water or degrade organic pollutants under solar irradiation remains an open issue. We synthesized Cu2Se nanowires with exposed {111} facets using ethanol and glycerol as morphology controlling agents. The {111} facets were found to be the active facets for decomposing organic contaminants in the entire solar spectrum. Based on the polar structure of the Cu2Se {111} facets, a charge separation model between polar (111) and (1[combining macron]1[combining macron]1[combining macron]) surfaces is proposed. The internal electric field between polar (111) and (1[combining macron]1[combining macron]1[combining macron]) surfaces created by spontaneous polarization drives charge separation. The reduction and oxidation reactions occur on the positive (111) and negative (1[combining macron]1[combining macron]1[combining macron]) polar surfaces, respectively. This suggests the surface-engineering of narrow band gap semiconductors as a strategy to fabricate photocatalysts with high reactivity in the entire solar spectrum. The charge separation model can deepen the understanding of charge transfer in other semiconductor nanocrystals with high photocatalytic activities and offer guidance to design more effective photocatalysts as well as new types of solar cells, photoelectrodes and photoelectric devices.

  10. Atlantooccipital dislocation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M J; Elliott, J L; Nichols, J

    1995-03-01

    We report on a child who suffered an atlantooccipital dislocation and survived. The patient required tracheostomy and feeding gastrostomy due to retropharyngeal swelling from a traumatic pseudomeningocele. He later underwent fusion of his occiput to C3. The complications of such an injury and the anesthetic management are discussed.

  11. In search of content validity: facet analysis as a qualitative method to improve questionnaire design : An application in health research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsheer, J.A.; Boeije, H.R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, two scales are examined for the measurement of self-regulation. The item content is evaluated for its specific usefulness for measuring self-regulation of obesity patients. Qualitative facet analysis (QFA), an application of Guttmann’s Facet Theory, is used to investigate whether item

  12. Violence Risk Assessment and Facet 4 of the Psychopathy Checklist: Predicting Institutional and Community Aggression in Two Forensic Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.; Heilbrun, Kirk

    2010-01-01

    The Psychopathy Checklist and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL/PCL-R) were used to predict institutional aggression and community violence in two groups of forensic patients. Results showed that Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL/PCL-R or one of its parcels consistently achieved incremental validity relative to the first three facets, whereas the…

  13. Prediction of Job Satisfaction Based on Workplace Facets for Adjunct Business Faculty at Four-Year Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Vance Johnson

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the job satisfaction of adjuncts in the curriculum area of business at four-year universities and to determine the roles that individual job facets play in creating overall job satisfaction. To explore which job facets and demographics predict job satisfaction for the population, participants were asked to…

  14. Detailed examination of the lower cervical spine facet joints in a road traffic crash fatality - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Nielsen, Edith; Vesterby, Annie

    2005-01-01

    The lower cervical spine facet joints of a road traffic crash fatality were examined using diagnostic imaging and histological techniques. No injuries to the cervical spine facet joints could be identified with diagnostic imaging including conventional radiology, CT and MRI. Examination of stained...

  15. Quantitative in vivo MRI evaluation of lumbar facet joints and intervertebral discs using axial T2 mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelzeneder, David; Messner, Alina; Scheurecker, Georg; Goed, Sabine; Friedrich, Klaus M.; Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, MR Centre-High Field MR, Vienna (Austria); Vlychou, Marianna [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, MR Centre-High Field MR, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Larissa, Department of Radiology, Larissa (Greece); Welsch, Goetz H. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, MR Centre-High Field MR, Vienna (Austria); University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Pieber, Karin; Pflueger, Verena [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-11-15

    To assess the feasibility of T2 mapping of lumbar facet joints and intervertebral discs in a single imaging slab and to compare the findings with morphological grading. Sixty lumbar spine segments from 10 low back pain patients and 5 healthy volunteers were examined by axial T2 mapping and morphological MRI at 3.0 Tesla. Regions of interest were drawn on a single slice for the facet joints and the intervertebral discs (nucleus pulposus, anterior and posterior annulus fibrosus). The Weishaupt grading was used for facet joints and the Pfirrmann score was used for morphological disc grading (''normal'' vs. ''abnormal'' discs). The inter-rater agreement was excellent for the facet joint T2 evaluation (r = 0.85), but poor for the morphological Weishaupt grading (kappa = 0.15). The preliminary results show similar facet joint T2 values in segments with normal and abnormal Pfirrmann scores. There was no difference in mean T2 values between facet joints in different Weishaupt grading groups. Facet joint T2 values showed a weak correlation with T2 values of the posterior annulus (r = 0.32) This study demonstrates the feasibility of a combined T2 mapping approach for the facet joints and intervertebral discs using a single axial slab. (orig.)

  16. Facet orientation and tropism: Associations with asymmetric lumbar paraspinal and psoas muscle parameters in patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W B; Chen, S; Fan, S W; Zhao, F D; Yu, X J; Hu, Z J

    2016-08-10

    Many studies have explored the relationship between facet tropism and facet joint osteoarthritis, disc degeneration and degenerative spondylolisthesis. However, the associations between facet orientation and tropism, and paraspinal muscles have not been studied. To analyze the associations between facet orientation and tropism, and parameters of paraspinal muscles in patients with chronic low back pain. Ninety-five patients with chronic low back pain were consecutively enrolled. Their facet joint angles were measured on computed tomography (CT) while gross cross-sectional area (GCSA), functional cross-sectional area (FCSA) and T2 signal intensity of lumbar paraspinal and psoas muscle were evaluated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The GCSA and FCSA were significantly smaller for multifidus muscle (Ptropism group than those in no facet tropism group (P= 0.009 and P= 0.019). Muscular asymmetries may develop in the lumbar region of the spine, which are associated with facet asymmetry in patients with chronic low back pain. Longitudinal studies are needed to understand the causal relationship between facet orientation and tropism and muscular asymmetry in future.

  17. Associations of identity dimensions with Big Five personality domains and facets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimstra, T.A.; Luyckx, K.; Goossens, L.; Teppers, E.; De Fruyt, F.

    2013-01-01

    Personality is among the most important factors contributing to individual differences in identity formation. However, previous studies mainly focused on broad personality domains and neglected more specific facets. In addition, it has only recently been recognized that identity formation is guided

  18. Big Five Personality Factors and Facets as Predictors of Openness to Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suejung; Pistole, M Carole

    2017-11-17

    Openness to diversity is a crucial component of cultural competence needed in the increasingly diversified modern society and a necessary condition for benefitting from diversity contacts and interventions (e.g., diversity training, cultural courses). Responding to the recent call for more research on personality and its relation to diversity outcomes, we examined the associations between Big Five personality (i.e., Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness) higher order factors and lower order facets and universal-diverse orientation (i.e., open attitude of appreciating human universality and diversity; Miville et al., 1999 ). In the Study 1 (N = 338) web survey on Big Five factors, Openness to Experience and Agreeableness were associated with universal-diverse orientation significantly. In the Study 2 (N = 176) paper survey on both Big Five factors and facets, Openness to Experience, low Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness, and various lower-order facets of all the Big Five personality were associated with universal-diverse orientation significantly. Practical implications were suggested on how personality facets could be incorporated into current diversity interventions to enhance their effectiveness of promoting openness to diversity.

  19. Long-term developmental changes in children’s lower-order big five personality facets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, A.; de Pauw, S.; van den Akker, A.; Deković, M.; Prinzie, P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study examined long-term developmental changes in mother-rated lower-order facets of children's Big Five dimensions. Method Two independent community samples covering early childhood (2–4.5 years; N = 365, 39% girls) and middle childhood to the end of middle adolescence (6–17 years;

  20. FACETS: using open data to measure community social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Michael N; Chandras, Rajan; Pulgarin, Claudia

    2018-04-01

    To develop a dataset based on open data sources reflective of community-level social determinants of health (SDH). We created FACETS (Factors Affecting Communities and Enabling Targeted Services), an architecture that incorporates open data related to SDH into a single dataset mapped at the census-tract level for New York City. FACETS (https://github.com/mcantor2/FACETS) can be easily used to map individual addresses to their census-tract-level SDH. This dataset facilitates analysis across different determinants that are often not easily accessible. Wider access to open data from government agencies at the local, state, and national level would facilitate the aggregation and analysis of community-level determinants. Timeliness of updates to federal non-census data sources may limit their usefulness. FACETS is an important first step in standardizing and compiling SDH-related data in an open architecture that can give context to a patient's condition and enable better decision-making when developing a plan of care.

  1. Analyzing Process Quality of Early Childhood Education with Many Facet Rash Measurement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturk, Ramazan; Isikoglu, Nesrin

    2008-01-01

    Quality of early childhood education institutions specifically, dimensions of process quality should be evaluated. Purpose of this study is to analyze process quality of early childhood education by using many-facet Rasch measurement model (MFRM). In this study, data were collected from twelve early childhood education institutions by four…

  2. Sensing the facet orientation in silver nano-plates using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, M. H.; Salerno, M.; Polovitsyn, Anatolii; Marras, Sergio; De Angelis, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    The work function of nano-materials is important for a full characterization of their electronic properties. Because the band alignment, band bending and electronic noise are very sensitive to work function fluctuations, the dependence of the work function of nano-scale crystals on facet orientation can be a critical issue in optimizing optoelectronic devices based on these materials. We used scanning Kelvin probe microscopy to assess the local work function on samples of silver nano-plates at sub-micrometric spatial resolution. With the appropriate choice of the substrate and based on statistical analysis, it was possible to distinguish the surface potential of the different facets of silver nano-plates even if the measurements were done in ambient conditions without the use of vacuum. A phenomenological model was used to calculate the differences of facet work function of the silver nano-plates and the corresponding shift in Fermi level. This theoretical prediction and the experimentally observed difference in surface potential on the silver nano-plates were in good agreement. Our results show the possibility to sense the nano-crystal facets by appropriate choice of the substrate in ambient conditions.

  3. A Faceted Taxonomy for Rating Student Bibliographies in an Online Information Literacy Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeder, Chris; Markey, Karen; Yakel, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study measured the quality of student bibliographies through creation of a faceted taxonomy flexible and fine-grained enough to encompass the variety of online sources cited by today's students. The taxonomy was developed via interviews with faculty, iterative refinement of categories and scoring, and testing on example student…

  4. The Relation between Different Facets of Creativity and the Dark Side of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen-Wassenberg, Phoebe; Kämmerle, Monika; Unterrainer, Human-Friedrich; Fink, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relation between different facets of creativity and personality, focusing on the dark side of personality. In a sample of 247 students, psychometric measures for the assessment of the dark triad of personality (subclinical narcissism, Machiavellianism, subclinical psychopathy), personality organization (structural deficit:…

  5. The Role of Interpersonal Influence in Counterbalancing Psychopathic Personality Trait Facets at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütte, Nora; Blickle, Gerhard; Frieder, Rachel E.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relations of two facets of psychopathic personality (i.e., self-centered impulsivity and fearless dominance) with interpersonally directed counterproductive work behavior (CWB-I) and contextual performance (CP). Consistent with research on psychopathy...

  6. Long-term developmental changes in children’s lower-order Big Five personality facets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, A.D.; de Pauw, S.; van den Akker, A.L.; Dekovic, M.; Prinzie, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study examined long-term developmental changes in mother-rated lower-order facets of children's Big Five dimensions. Method Two independent community samples covering early childhood (2–4.5 years; N = 365, 39% girls) and middle childhood to the end of middle adolescence (6–17 years;

  7. The Role of Shape on Electronic Structure and Charge Transport in Faceted PbSe Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Kaushik, Ananth P.

    2014-03-25

    We have determined the effect of shape on the charge transport characteristics of nanocrystals. Our study looked at the explicit determination of the electronic properties of faceted nanocrystals that essentially probe the limit of current computational reach, i.e., nanocrystals from 1.53 to 2.1 nm in diameter. These nanocrystals, which resemble PbSe systems, are either bare or covered in short ligands. They also differ in shape, octahedral vs cube-octahedral, and in superlattice symmetry (fcc vs bcc). We have provided insights on electron and hole coupling along different facets and overall charge mobility in bcc and fcc superlattices. We have determined that the relative areas of (100) to (111) facets, and facet atom types are important factors governing the optimization of charge transport. The calculated electronic density of states shows no role of -SCH3 - ligands on states near the band gap. Electron coupling between nanocrystals is significantly higher than that of hole coupling; thiol ligands lower the ratio between electron and hole couplings. Stronger coupling exists between smaller nanocrystals. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  8. Zeroing In on Mindfulness Facets: Similarities, Validity, and Dimensionality across Three Independent Measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex B Siegling

    Full Text Available The field of mindfulness has seen a proliferation of psychometric measures, characterised by differences in operationalisation and conceptualisation. To illuminate the scope of, and offer insights into, the diversity apparent in the burgeoning literature, two distinct samples were used to examine the similarities, validity, and dimensionality of mindfulness facets and subscales across three independent measures: the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS, and Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS. Results revealed problematic associations of FFMQ Observe with the other FFMQ facets and supported a four-factor structure (omitting this facet, while disputing the originally envisaged five-factor model; thus, solidifying a pattern in the literature. Results also confirmed the bidimensional nature of the PHLMS and TMS subscales, respectively. A joint Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed that PHLMS Acceptance could be assimilated within the FFMQ's four-factor model (as a distinct factor. The study offers a way of understanding interrelationships between the available mindfulness scales, so as to help practitioners and researchers make a more informed choice when conceptualising and operationalising mindfulness.

  9. Correlations between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Neo Personality Inventory facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D A; Anderson, P E; Tsagarakis, C I; Holland, C J

    1995-04-01

    Using data obtained from 48 male and 161 female undergraduate students in psychology, correlations between scores on the scales of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the facets of the Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness domains of the NEO Personality Inventory were low to moderate.

  10. Facets of clinicians' anxiety and the delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levita, Liat; Salas Duhne, Paulina Gonzalez; Girling, Carla; Waller, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    Psychological therapists commonly fail to adhere to treatment protocols in everyday clinical practice. In part, this pattern of drift is attributable to anxious therapists being less likely to undertake some elements of evidence-based therapies - particularly the exposure-based elements. This study considers what facets of anxiety (cognitive, behavioral, physiological) are related to junior clinicians' reported use of cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques. Thirty-two clinicians (mean age = 28.9 years; mean length of CBT experience = 1.5 years; 23 female, nine male) who offered CBT were assessed for their cognitive, behavioral and physiological characteristics (Intolerance of Uncertainty scale; risk taking; skin conductance response and heart rate variability). While the three different facets of anxiety were relatively poorly associated with each other, as is usual in this literature, each facet was linked differently to the reported delivery of CBT techniques (P behavioral or cognitive methods. Of the three facets of anxiety, only physiological reactivity showed an association with the clinicians' temporal characteristics, with more experienced therapists being more likely to have greater skin conductance responses to positive and negative outcomes. These findings suggest that clinicians who are more anxious are less likely to deliver the full evidence-based form of CBT and to focus instead on less challenging elements of the therapy. Potential ways of overcoming this limitation are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Considering the Differential Impact of Three Facets of Organizational Health Climate on Employees' Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweber, Zandra M; Henning, Robert A; Magley, Vicki J; Faghri, Pouran

    2015-01-01

    One potential way that healthy organizations can impact employee health is by promoting a climate for health within the organization. Using a definition of health climate that includes support for health from multiple levels within the organization, this study examines whether all three facets of health climate--the workgroup, supervisor, and organization--work together to contribute to employee well-being. Two samples are used in this study to examine health climate at the individual level and group level in order to provide a clearer picture of the impact of the three health climate facets. k-means cluster analysis was used on each sample to determine groups of individuals based on their levels of the three health climate facets. A discriminant function analysis was then run on each sample to determine if clusters differed on a function of employee well-being variables. Results provide evidence that having strength in all three of the facets is the most beneficial in terms of employee well-being at work. Findings from this study suggest that organizations must consider how health is treated within workgroups, how supervisors support employee health, and what the organization does to support employee health when promoting employee health.

  12. Exploring the Relationship between Workaholism Facets and Personality Traits: A Replication in American Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shahnaz; Tronzo, Casie L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we further explored whether any of the dimensions in the five-factor model of personality (i.e., openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) were related to facets of workaholism (i.e., work involvement, work drive, and work enjoyment) in a sample of American workers in various…

  13. A hybrid approach to software repository retrieval: Blending faceted classification and type signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David A.

    1992-01-01

    We present a user interface for software reuse repository that relies both on the informal semantics of faceted classification and the formal semantics of type signatures for abstract data types. The result is an interface providing both structural and qualitative feedback to a software reuser.

  14. Validity of Social, Moral and Emotional Facets of Self-Description Questionnaire II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kim Chau; Marsh, Herbert W.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Abduljabbar, Adel S.

    2015-01-01

    Studies adopting a construct validity approach can be categorized into within- and between-network studies. Few studies have applied between-network approach and tested the correlations of the social (same-sex relations, opposite-sex relations, parent relations), moral (honesty-trustworthiness), and emotional (emotional stability) facets of the…

  15. Four Facets of Privacy and Intellectual Freedom in Licensing Contracts for Electronic Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Alan; Zhang, Mei

    2015-01-01

    This is a study of the treatment of library patron privacy in licenses for electronic journals in academic libraries. We begin by distinguishing four facets of privacy and intellectual freedom based on the LIS and philosophical literature. Next, we perform a content analysis of 42 license agreements for electronic journals, focusing on terms for…

  16. Facets of Mindfulness Mediate the Relationship between Depressive Symptoms and Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Christine; Spears, Claire A.; Peltier, MacKenzie R.; Copeland, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms is well-established. Dispositional mindfulness has been associated with lower depressive symptoms, lower smoking dependence, and higher odds of smoking cessation. Given that mindfulness is multi-faceted, the current study examined which facets of mindfulness might mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking behavior. Participants (n = 72) completed the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD), and Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS; subscales-Observe, Describe, Acting with Awareness, Accepting without Judgment), and indicated number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Simple mediation models (followed by multiple mediation when more than one facet was significant) tested whether mindfulness facets mediated the relationship between CESD and smoking behavior (CPD and SCQ subscales). Results indicated that 1) lower depressive symptoms were associated with higher Accepting without Judgment, which was related to lower Negative Reinforcement expectancies, 2) lower depressive symptoms were associated with increased Describe, which was associated with greater perceived Negative Consequences, 3) lower depressive symptoms were associated with higher Accepting without Judgment, which was associated with lower Negative Consequences expectancies, and 4) higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher scores on Observe, which related to both greater Positive Reinforcement and Negative Consequences expectancies. Greater Accepting without Judgment and Describe aspects of mindfulness may serve as protective factors in the relationship of depressive symptoms and smoking. PMID:28083076

  17. Considering the Differential Impact of Three Facets of Organizational Health Climate on Employees' Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweber, Zandra M.; Henning, Robert A.; Magley, Vicki J.; Faghri, Pouran

    2015-01-01

    One potential way that healthy organizations can impact employee health is by promoting a climate for health within the organization. Using a definition of health climate that includes support for health from multiple levels within the organization, this study examines whether all three facets of health climate—the workgroup, supervisor, and organization—work together to contribute to employee well-being. Two samples are used in this study to examine health climate at the individual level and group level in order to provide a clearer picture of the impact of the three health climate facets. k-means cluster analysis was used on each sample to determine groups of individuals based on their levels of the three health climate facets. A discriminant function analysis was then run on each sample to determine if clusters differed on a function of employee well-being variables. Results provide evidence that having strength in all three of the facets is the most beneficial in terms of employee well-being at work. Findings from this study suggest that organizations must consider how health is treated within workgroups, how supervisors support employee health, and what the organization does to support employee health when promoting employee health. PMID:26380360

  18. Redox enzyme-mimicking activities of CeO2nanostructures: Intrinsic influence of exposed facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yushi; Mao, Zhou; Huang, Wenjie; Liu, Lihua; Li, Junli; Li, Jialiang; Wu, Qingzhi

    2016-10-17

    CeO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) have been well demonstrated as an antioxidant in protecting against oxidative stress-induced cellular damages and a potential therapeutic agent for various diseases thanks to their redox enzyme-mimicking activities. The Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ ratio and oxygen vacancies on the surface have been considered as the major originations responsible for the redox enzyme-mimicking activities of CeO 2 NPs. Herein, CeO 2 nanostructures (nanocubes and nanorods) exposed different facets were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The characterizations by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy show that the Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ ratio and oxygen vacancy content on the surfaces of as-synthesized CeO 2 nanostructures are nearly at the same levels. Meanwhile, the enzymatic activity measurements indicate that the redox enzyme-mimicking activities of as-synthesized CeO 2 nanostructures are greatly dependent on their exposed facets. CeO 2 nanocubes with exposed {100} facets exhibit a higher peroxidase but lower superoxide dismutase activity than those of the CeO 2 nanorods with exposed {110} facets. Our results provide new insights into the redox enzyme-mimicking activities of CeO 2 nanostructures, as well as the design and synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials-based artificial enzymes.

  19. Facets of Object Representation: Process and Outcome Over the Course of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Anthony S J; Hilsenroth, Mark J; Gold, Jerold; Farber, Barry A

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of psychodynamic psychotherapy in improving facets of object relations (OR) functioning over the course of treatment. The sample consisted of 75 outpatients engaged in short-term dynamic psychotherapy at a university-based psychological services clinic. Facets of OR functioning were assessed at pre- and posttreatment by independent raters using the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global rating method (SCORS-G; Stein, Hilsenroth, Slavin-Mulford, & Pinsker, 2011 ; Westen, 1995 ) from in-session patient relational narratives. The Comparative Psychotherapy Process Scale (CPPS; Hilsenroth, Blagys, Ackerman, Bonge, & Blais, 2005 ) was used to assess therapist activity and psychotherapy techniques early in treatment. Independent clinical ratings of OR functioning and psychotherapy technique were conducted and all were found to be in the good to excellent range of reliability. Specific facets of OR functioning improved with medium to large effect changes posttreatment. These adaptive changes were significantly related to the incidence of psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) techniques. Also, this study identified the role specific psychodynamic techniques had in facilitating change in a number of underlying dimensions of OR. Patient self-reported reliable change in symptomatology and reliable change in facets of OR were significantly related as well. This study highlights the utility of incorporating psychological assessment into psychotherapy practice to assess change at the explicit (symptoms) and implicit (OR) level. Limitations of this study, future research directions, and implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  20. Deformation due to migration of faceted twin boundaries in magnesium and cobalt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostapovets, Andriy; Buršík, Jiří; Gröger, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 36 (2015), s. 4106-4117 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : twinning * computer simulation * faceting * deformation * grain boundaries Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.632, year: 2015

  1. Global Flows, Local Appropriations : Facets of Secularisation and Re-Islamization Among Contemporary Cape Muslims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bangstad, Sindre

    2007-01-01

    Global Flows, Local Appropriations; Facets of Secularisation and Re-Islamization Among Contemporary Cape Muslims is de eerste etnografische studie naar moslims in het Zuid-Afrikaanse Kaapstad van dit niveau in 25 jaar. Sindre Bangstad onderzoekt het proces van secularisatie en re-islamisatie onder

  2. Digital urbanisms : Exploring the spectacular, ordinary and contested facets of the media city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuolteenaho, Jani; Leurs, K.H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/343295334; Sumiala, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This introductory review article develops an analytic-conceptual distinction between spectacular, ordinary and contested facets of the present-day digitized urban condition. We reject a scholarly techno-optimism versus techno-pessimism dichotomy and argue that this triadic conceptualization can pave

  3. Controlled synthesis and facets-dependent photocatalysis of TiO2 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nitish; Park, Yohan; Sohn, Youngku; Pradhan, Debabrata

    2015-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a wide band gap semiconductor that has been extensively used in several environmental applications including degradation of organic hazardous chemicals, water splitting to generate hydrogen, dye sensitized solar cells, self cleaning agents, and pigments. Herein we demonstrate the synthesis of TiO2 nanocrystals (NCs) with the shapes of ellipsoids, rods, cuboids, and sheets with different exposed facets using a noncorrosive and nontoxic chemical (i.e. diethanolamine) as the shape controlling agent, unlike hydrofluoric acid commonly used. The TiO2 NCs of diverse shapes with different exposed facets were tested for photocatalytic hydroxyl radical (OH•) formation, which determines their photocatalytic behavior and the results were compared with the standard P-25 Degussa. The formation rate of OH• per specific surface area was found to be >6 fold higher for rod-shaped TiO2 NCs than that of commercial Degussa P25 catalyst. The highest photocatalytic activity of rod-shaped TiO2 NCs is ascribed to the unique chemical environment of {010} exposed facets which facilitates the electron/hole separation in presence of {101} facets.

  4. Component Structure of a Measure of Job Facet Satisfaction: Stability Across Job Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Kenneth W.; Campbell, James P.

    1987-01-01

    A job satisfaction questionnaire was completed by 4,130 exempt and non-exempt employees of a computer company. Results supported test reliability and validity and suggested exempt employees were more satisfied. Satisfaction with the nature of work and satisfaction with pay and working conditions were the most important facets. (GDC)

  5. Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

  6. Long-Term Developmental Changes in Children's Lower-Order Big Five Personality Facets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. de Haan (Amaranta); S.S.W. de Pauw (Sarah); A.L. van den Akker (Alithe); M. Deković (Maja); P.J. Prinzie (Peter)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objective:__ This study examined long-term developmental changes in mother-rated lower-order facets of children's Big Five dimensions. __Method:__ Two independent community samples covering early childhood (2-4.5 years; N=365, 39% girls) and middle childhood to the end of middle

  7. Mind Your Words: Positive and Negative Items Create Method Effects on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Hobkirk, Andrea L.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Earleywine, Mitch

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness, a construct that entails moment-to-moment effort to be aware of present experiences and positive attitudinal features, has become integrated into the sciences. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), one popular measure of mindfulness, exhibits different responses to positively and negatively worded items in nonmeditating…

  8. Posterior facet cartilage injury in operatively treated intra-articular calcaneus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, David L; Yoo, Brad J

    2014-10-01

    Direct visualization of the posterior facet in displaced intra-articular calcaneus fractures (DIACF) frequently shows partial or full thickness cartilage delamination. This is felt to be secondary to the depression of an osteoarticular segment of the posterior facet within the calcaneal body and the subsequent contact with fracture edges as it impacts caudally. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of cartilage injury and if it correlates with fracture classification. A single surgeon prospective, observational series of 28 patients with 28 DIACFs was reviewed for patient demographic and injury data, radiographic fracture characterization, and intraoperative observation of articular injury size, depth, and location over the time period of February 2010 to December 2012. Observations were correlated with the OTA and Sanders classification systems. Age, sex, mechanism of injury, and depth and location of cartilage injury were not significantly different between the 13 OTA/Sanders type 2 and 15 type 3 DIACFs evaluated in this study. Posterior facet articular cartilage delamination was found in 77% of type 2 and 100% of type 3 fractures (P = .09). Location of cartilage injury was common (56%) along the distal, lateral aspect of the posterior facet (P fractures (3.1%) then type 2 (1.3%) (P fractures compared to type 2 fractures. Level IV, prospective, observational series. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Construct Validity of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in Meditating and Nonmeditating Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Ruth A.; Smith, Gregory T.; Lykins, Emily; Button, Daniel; Krietemeyer, Jennifer; Sauer, Shannon; Walsh, Erin; Duggan, Danielle; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on assessment of mindfulness by self-report suggests that it may include five component skills: observing, describing, acting with awareness, nonjudging of inner experience, and nonreactivity to inner experience. These elements of mindfulness can be measured with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). The authors…

  10. Unique relationships between facets of mindfulness and eating pathology among female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Claire E; Apperson McVay, Megan; Kinsaul, Jessica; Benitez, Lindsay; Vinci, Christine; Stewart, Diana W; Copeland, Amy L

    2012-12-01

    Female smokers often have higher levels of eating disorder symptoms than non-smokers, and concerns about eating and weight might interfere with smoking cessation. Thus, it is critical to identify factors to promote healthier eating and body image in this population. Initial research suggests that specific aspects of trait mindfulness predict lower body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among non-smokers. However, these relationships are unknown among smokers. The current study examined associations between facets of trait mindfulness and eating disorder symptoms in 112 college female smokers (83% Caucasian; mean age 20 years, SD=1.69). After controlling for relevant sociodemographic variables, Describing and Nonjudging facets of mindfulness predicted lower bulimic symptoms and body dissatisfaction (psmindfulness facets are related to lower eating disorder symptoms among smokers, whereas other facets are not associated or have a positive relationship with these symptoms. Mindfulness-based interventions focusing on Describing, Nonjudging, and Acting with Awareness may help to reduce eating pathology among female smokers, which could potentially improve smoking cessation rates in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. FACET: A simulation software framework for modeling complex societal processes and interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, J. H.

    2000-06-02

    FACET, the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory to address the need for a simulation software architecture in the style of an agent-based approach, but with sufficient robustness, expressiveness, and flexibility to be able to deal with the levels of complexity seen in real-world social situations. FACET is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. It can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET can also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. To date, for example, FACET has been applied to such areas as land management, health care delivery, avian social behavior, and interactions between natural and social processes in ancient Mesopotamia.

  12. Zeroing In on Mindfulness Facets: Similarities, Validity, and Dimensionality across Three Independent Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, Alex B.; Petrides, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    The field of mindfulness has seen a proliferation of psychometric measures, characterised by differences in operationalisation and conceptualisation. To illuminate the scope of, and offer insights into, the diversity apparent in the burgeoning literature, two distinct samples were used to examine the similarities, validity, and dimensionality of mindfulness facets and subscales across three independent measures: the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS), and Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS). Results revealed problematic associations of FFMQ Observe with the other FFMQ facets and supported a four-factor structure (omitting this facet), while disputing the originally envisaged five-factor model; thus, solidifying a pattern in the literature. Results also confirmed the bidimensional nature of the PHLMS and TMS subscales, respectively. A joint Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed that PHLMS Acceptance could be assimilated within the FFMQ’s four-factor model (as a distinct factor). The study offers a way of understanding interrelationships between the available mindfulness scales, so as to help practitioners and researchers make a more informed choice when conceptualising and operationalising mindfulness. PMID:27055017

  13. Cross-cultural evidence for the two-facet structure of pride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Y.; Chung, J.M.H.; Cheng, J.T.; Tracy, J.L.; Robins, R.W.; Chen, X.; Zheng, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Across six studies conducted in Mainland China and South Korea, the present research extended prior findings showing that pride is comprised of two distinct conceptual and experiential facets in the U.S.: a pro-social, achievement-oriented “authentic pride”, and an arrogant, self-aggrandizing

  14. Angular and spectral sensitivity of fly photoreceptors. I. Integrated facet lens and rhabdomere optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.

    Three optical components of a fly’s eye determine the angular sensitivity of the photoreceptors: the light diffracting facet lens, the wave-guiding rhabdomere and the light-absorbing visual pigment in the rhabdomere. How the integrated optical system of the fly eye shapes the angular sensitivity

  15. Fast faceted search in XML: using XQuery and ondexes in eXist-db

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuth, A.; Marx, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present and compare three implementations of faceted search in eXist-db, an XML database. The bit-vector based implementation outperforms the other two implementations in that performance is near constant when the size of the database grows. We investigate this method in detail to pinpoint the

  16. Synthesis of ZnWO4 Electrode with tailored facets: Deactivating the Microorganisms through Photoelectrocatalytic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Su; Zhou, Feng; Huang, Naibao; Liu, Yujun; He, Qiuchen; Tian, Yu; Yang, Yifan; Ye, Fei

    2017-01-01

    The exotic invasive species from the ballast water in the ship will bring about serious damages to ecosystem. Photocatalyst films have been widely studied for sterilization. In this study, ZnWO4 with different exposed facets was synthesized by hydrothermal method, and ZnWO4 film electrodes have been applied in ballast water treatment through the electro-assisted photocatalytic system. Then the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), Field emission on scanning electron microcopy (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), BET specific surface area analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). ZnWO4 with an appropriate exposure of (0 1 1) facets ratio exhibited the best photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities. The microorganisms deactivated completely in 10 min by ZnWO4 films with 3 V bias. The mechanisms of (0 1 1) facets enhanced the photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities which were deduced based on the calculated result from the first principles. Simultaneously, appropriate exposed facets and applied bias could reduce the recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and improve the photocatalytic activities of ZnWO4.

  17. Distorted Facets of Marketing Ethics for Alcoholic Beer Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newaj Avinash

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marketing is the art of delivering value whilst ethical marketing is to provide this value through what is morally right. This new era customers are well informed, more knowledgeable, less vulnerable to unethical practices and cannot be easily manipulated by marketers. Many companies are thus, moving towards ethical marketing so as to develop trust among existing and new customers. Strict regulations by the Mauritian government have further forced marketers to act ethically; whereby the advertising of alcoholic beers has been banned. Yet, indirect strategies have been adopted by marketers so as to pave their way in this competitive industry. What are they? Are customers aware about them and are they influenced? Road accidents, social violence and health problems are associated to such malpractice. This study has shed light on the above and measures have been proposed for the benefit of customers, marketers and the government. This study was connected to the ethical theories.

  18. Correlation between facet tropism and lumbar degenerative disease: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tian; Lai, Qi; Zhou, Song; Liu, Xuqiang; Liu, Yuan; Zhan, Ping; Yu, Xiaolong; Xiao, Jun; Dai, Min; Zhang, Bin

    2017-11-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between facet tropism and spinal degenerative diseases, such as degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis, degenerative lumbar scoliosis, and lumbar disc herniation. This study retrospectively analysed clinical data from the Department of Orthopaedics at The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University. Ninety-two patients were diagnosed with lumbar spondylolisthesis, 64 patients with degenerative scoliosis, and 86 patients with lumbar disc herniation between 1 October 2014 and 1 October 2016. All patients were diagnosed using 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging and underwent conservative or operative treatment. Facet tropism was defined as greater than a ten degree between the facet joint angles on both sides. For L3-L4 degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis, one out of six cases had tropism compared to seven out of the 86 controls (p = 0.474). At the L4-L5 level, 17/50 cases had tropism compared to 4/42 cases in the control group (p = 0.013). At the L5-S1 level, 18/36 cases had tropism compared to 7/56 controls (p = 0.000). For degenerative lumbar scoliosis at the L1-L5 level, 83/256 cases had tropism as compared to 36/256 controls (p = 0.000). For L3-L4 lumbar disc herniation two out of eight cases had tropism compared to 14/78 controls (p = 0.625). At the L4-L5 level, 19/44 cases had tropism compared to four out of 42 controls (p = 0.001). At the L5-S1 level, 24/34 cases had tropism compared to 10/52 controls (p = 0.000). At the L4-5 and L5-S1 levels, facet tropism is associated with degenerative spondylolisthesis. In the degenerative lumbar scoliosis group, the number of case with facet tropism was significantly higher than that of the control group. Facet tropism was associated with lumbar disc herniation at the L4-5 and L5-S1 levels. Overall, in these three lumbar degenerative diseases, facet tropism is a common phenomenon.

  19. Modified anterior-only reduction and fixation for traumatic cervical facet dislocation (AO type C injuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanna, Rishi M; Shetty, Ajoy P; Rajasekaran, S

    2017-12-26

    Surgical reduction of uni and bi-facetal dislocations of the cervical spine (AO type C injuries) can be performed by posterior, anterior or combined approaches. Ease of access, low infection rates and less risks of neurological worsening has popularized anterior approach. However, the reduction of locked cervical facets can be intricate through anterior approach. We analyzed the safety, efficacy and outcomes at a minimum 1 year, of a novel anterior reduction technique for consecutively treated cervical facet dislocations. Patients with single level traumatic sub-axial cervical dislocation (n = 39) treated by this modified anterior technique were studied. The technique involved standard Smith-Robinson approach, discectomy beyond PLL, use of inter-laminar distracter to distract while Caspar pins were used as "joysticks" (either flexion-extension or lateral rotation moments are provided), to reduce the sub-luxed facets. Among 51 patients with cervical type C injury treated during the study period, 4 patients who had spontaneous reduction and 8 treated by planned global fusion were excluded. 39 patients of mean age 49.9 years were studied. The levels of injury included (C3-4 = 2, C4-5 = 5, C5-6 = 20, C6-7 = 12). 18 were bi-facetal and 21 were uni-facetal dislocation. One facet was fractured in 17 and both in 5 patients. 30% (n = 13) had a concomitant disc prolapse. The neurological status was as follows: 9 ASIA A, 9 ASIA C, 13 ASIA D and 8 ASIA E. All the patients were successfully reduced by this technique and fixed with anterior locking cervical locking plates. No supplemental posterior surgery was performed. 22 patients with incomplete deficit showed recovery. The mean follow-up was 14.3 months and there was no implant failure except one patient who had partial loss of the reduction. Patients with traumatic sub-axial cervical dislocation (AO type C injuries) can be safely and effectively reduced by this technique. Other advantages include minimal

  20. Precursor salt assisted syntheses of high-index faceted concave hexagon and nanorod-like polyoxometalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Jaya; Ganguly, Mainak; Mondal, Chanchal; Negishi, Yuichi; Pal, Tarasankar

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes an effective method for a precursor salt assisted fabrication and reshaping of two different polyoxometalates [(NH4)2Cu(MoO4)2 (ACM) and Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2 (CMOH)] into five distinctive shapes through straightforward and indirect routes. Explicit regulation of the structural arrangements of ACM and CMOH has been studied in detail with altered precursor salt concentration employing our laboratory developed modified hydrothermal (MHT) method. Morphologically different ACM 3D architectures are evolved with higher molybdate concentration, whereas 1D growth of CMOH is observed with increased copper concentration. Interesting morphological transformation of the products has been accomplished employing one precursor salt at a time without using any other foreign reagent. It has been proven that large ACMs become labile in the presence of incoming Cu(ii) and NH4+ ions of the precursor salts. A new strategy for the conversion of faceted ACMs (hexagonal plate, circular plate and hollow flower) to exclusive CMOH nanorods through a Cu(ii) assisted reaction has been adopted. According to thermodynamic consideration, the synthesis of rare concave nanostructures with high index facet is still challenging due to their higher reactivity. In this study, concave hexagonal ACM with high index facet {hkl} has been successfully prepared for the first time from hexagonal ACM through simple etching with ammonium heptamolybdate (AHM), which is another precursor salt. Hexagonal ACM corrugates to a concave hexagon because of the higher reactivity of the {001} crystal plane than that of the {010} plane. It has been shown that high index facet exposed concave hexagonal ACM serves as a better catalyst for the photodegradation of dye than the other microstructures enclosed by low index facets.This paper describes an effective method for a precursor salt assisted fabrication and reshaping of two different polyoxometalates [(NH4)2Cu(MoO4)2 (ACM) and Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2 (CMOH)] into

  1. Efficacy of needle-placement technique in radiofrequency ablation for treatment of lumbar facet arthropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loh JT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey T Loh,1 Andrea L Nicol,1 David Elashoff,2 F Michael Ferrante,1 1Department of Anesthesiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, 2Department of Biomathematics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Background: Many studies have assessed the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation to denervate the facet joint as an interventional means of treating axial low-back pain. In these studies, varying procedural techniques were utilized to ablate the nerves that innervate the facet joints. To date, no comparison studies have been performed to suggest superiority of one technique or even compare the prevalence of side effects and complications. Materials and methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent a lumbar facet denervation procedure. Each patient's chart was analyzed for treatment technique (early versus advanced Australian, preprocedural visual numeric scale (VNS score, postprocedural VNS score, duration of pain relief, and complications. Results: Pre- and postprocedural VNS scores and change in VNS score between the two groups showed no significant differences. Patient-reported benefit and duration of relief was greater in the advanced Australian technique group (P=0.012 and 0.022, respectively. The advanced Australian technique group demonstrated a significantly greater median duration of relief (4 months versus 1.5 months, P=0.022. Male sex and no pain-medication use at baseline were associated with decreased postablation VNS scores, while increasing age and higher preablation VNS scores were associated with increased postablation VNS scores. Despite increasing age being associated with increased postablation VNS scores, age and the advanced Australian technique were found to confer greater patient self-reported treatment benefit. Conclusion: The advanced Australian technique provides a significant benefit over the early Australian technique for the treatment of lumbar facet pain, both in

  2. What’s in a word? : Rethinking facet headings in a discovery service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nelson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Discovery systems has been well received by libraries who have long been concerned with offering a smorgasbord of databases that require either individual searching of databases or the problematic use of federated searching.  The ability to search across a wide array of subscribed and open-access information resources via a centralized index has opened up access for users to a library’s wealth of information resources.  This capability has been particularly praised for its ‘google like’ search interface, thereby conforming to user expectations for information searching.  Yet, all discovery services also include facets as a search capability and thus provide faceted navigation which is a search feature that Google is not particularly well suited for.  Discovery services thus provide a hybrid search interface.  An examination of e-commerce sites clearly shows that faceted navigation is an integral part of their discovery systems.  Many library OPACs also now are being developed with faceted navigation capabilities.  However, the discovery services faceted structures suffer from a number of problems which inhibit their usefulness and their potential.  This article examines a number of these issues and it offers suggestions for improving the discovery search interface.  It also argues that vendors and libraries need to work together to more closely analyze the user experience of the discovery system.

  3. Risk Factors for Failure of Nonoperative Treatment for Unilateral Cervical Facet Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eck, Carola Francisca; Fourman, Mitchell Stephen; Abtahi, Amir Mohamad; Alarcon, Louis; Donaldson, William Fielding; Lee, Joon Yung

    2017-06-01

    Retrospective clinical study. The purpose of this study was to determine what percentage of patients who underwent nonoperative management of unilateral non-displaced or minimally displaced facet fractures progressed radiographically and to determine what percentage of patients required surgical intervention and to identify risk factors for failure of conservative management. According to most commonly used classification systems, unilateral, non-and minimally displaced facet fractures are be amendable to nonoperative management. A retrospective review of the Trauma Registry of a Level I trauma center was performed to identify all patients diagnosed with a non- or minimally displaced unilateral facet fracture which was managed nonoperatively. Several demographic variables and clinical outcomes were recorded. Using computed tomography scanning and plain radiographs, fracture pattern, listhesis, displacement, angle and percentage of the facet that included the fracture were determined. Radiographic progression was defined as the occurrence of listhesis of more than 10% of the anterior-posterior dimensions of the inferior vertebral body during radiographic follow-up. Failure of conservative management was defined as a patient requiring surgical intervention after initially being managed nonoperatively. Seventy-four patients were included. Fifteen patients (20%) progressed radiographically. However, only 2 developed radicular symptoms and none developed myelopathy or other catastrophic cord related symptoms. Seven patients (9%) underwent surgery. Indications for surgery included significant radiographic progression and/or radicular symptoms. Risk factors for failure of conservative management included presence of radiculopathy at the time of presentation, a higher body mass index, increased Injury Severity Score, greater initial fracture displacement and more than 2 mm of listhesis. Patients with non-displaced or minimally displaced facet fractures who do not have

  4. TiO(2) crystal facet-dependent antimony adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiaying; Yan, Li; Duan, Jinming; Jing, Chuanyong

    2017-06-15

    Anatase TiO 2 crystal facets are garnering increasing attention due to their unique surface property. However, no specific linear relationship had been derived between the facet exposed on TiO 2 and the surface adsorption capacity as well as photocatalytic performance. This study systematically explored the facet effects on antimony (Sb) adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation using high-index {201} and low-index {101}, {001}, and {100} TiO 2 . The results suggest that high-index {201} TiO 2 exhibits the best Sb(III) adsorption and photocatalytic activity compared to the low-index TiO 2 . Both the Sb(III) adsorption density and the amount of OH and O 2 - generated in solution were correlated to the magnitude of surface energy on TiO 2 facets. Photocatalytically generated OH and O 2 - were responsible for Sb(III) photooxidation as evidenced by radical-trapping experiments. The great contribution of OH was observed only on {201}, not on low-index TiO 2 . This phenomenon was found to be attributable to the high surface energy on {201}, which enables the generation of a large amount of photogeneration OH to compensate for the fast rate of OH dissipation. Therefore, the predominant participation of OH in Sb(III) photooxidation was only possible on high-index {201} TiO 2 , which resulted in an enhanced photocatalytic rate. On the other hand, O 2 - dominated the Sb(III) photocatalytic oxidation on low-index TiO 2 . The intrinsic facet-dependent adsorption and photocatalytic mechanism obtained from this study would be useful for developing TiO 2 -based environmental technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Facet Joint Violation During Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Placement: A Comparison of Two Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannous, Oliver; Jazini, Ehsan; Weir, Tristan B; Banagan, Kelley E; Koh, Eugene Y; Greg Anderson, D; Gelb, Daniel E; Ludwig, Steven C

    2017-08-01

    A comparative study of facet joint violation (FJV) using two percutaneous surgical techniques. To compare the rate of iatrogenic FJV and medial pedicle wall breach between two methods of percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Variable iatrogenic damage to the facet joints has been reported to occur with percutaneous pedicle screw techniques, compared with the open approach, which has been associated with adjacent segment disease. Technical variations of percutaneous pedicle screw placement may pose different risks to the facet joint. Attending spine surgeons percutaneously placed pedicle screws in seven human cadaveric spines from T2 to L5. At each level, screws were instrumented on one side using the 9 or 3 o'clock reference point of the pedicle on the posteroanterior view with a lateral-to-medial trajectory (LMT) and on the contralateral side using the center of the pedicle with an owl's eye trajectory (OET). Postoperative screw placement was assessed with computed tomography and then open cadaveric dissection. Outcome measures included FJV and medial pedicle wall breach. Overall, 17 of 105 screws placed with an LMT versus 49 of 105 screws placed with an OET violated or abutted the facet joint (P L1), and lumbar (L2-L5) levels (P = 0.003, 0.035, and 0.018, respectively). Medial pedicle wall breach occurred with 11 LMT screws and seven OET screws (P = 0.077), and no breach was considered critical. A significantly higher FJV rate was observed using the OET versus the LMT in the thoracic, thoracolumbar, and lumbar spine. No statistically significant differences in medial pedicle wall breach occurred between the techniques. Thus, the LMT of minimally invasive pedicle screw fixation may reduce iatrogenic damage to the facet joints. 3.

  6. Synergetic effect of dual co-catalysts on the activity of p-type Cu2O crystals with anisotropic facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rengui; Tao, Xiaoping; Chen, Ruotian; Fan, Fengtao; Li, Can

    2015-10-05

    Spatial separation of reduction sites and oxidation sites to inhibit the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes plays a vital role in improving the efficiency of photocatalyst systems. It is very challenging to rationally deposit cocatalysts on the right facets (sites), namely, the reduction cocatalyst on the reduction facets (sites) and the oxidation cocatalyst on the oxidation facets (sites). Herein, we report that the reduction and oxidation cocatalysts can be selectively constructed on the different facets of p-type Cu2 O crystals with anisotropic facets, but not on the Cu2 O crystal with isotropic facets. The deposition of dual cocatalysts on the different facets resulted in a remarkable synergetic effect in the photocatalytic performance, which could be attributed to the spatial separation of the photogenerated charges between facets. Our work reports an instructive strategy for constructing high-efficiency photocatalyst systems for solar energy conversion. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. {1 1 1} facet growth laws and grain competition during silicon crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamelou, V.; Tsoutsouva, M. G.; Riberi-Béridot, T.; Reinhart, G.; Regula, G.; Baruchel, J.; Mangelinck-Noël, N.

    2017-12-01

    Directional solidification from mono-crystalline Si seeds having different orientations along the growth direction is studied. Due to the frequent twinning phenomenon, new grains soon nucleate during growth. The grain competition is then characterized in situ by imaging the dynamic evolution of the grain boundaries and of the corresponding grain boundary grooves that are formed at the solid-liquid interface. To perform this study, an experimental investigation based on Bridgman solidification technique coupled with in situ X-ray imaging is conducted in an original device: GaTSBI (Growth at high Temperature observed by X-ray Synchrotron Beam Imaging). Imaging characterisation techniques using X-ray synchrotron radiation at ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France) are applied during the solidification to study the growth dynamics. Facetted/facetted grain boundary grooves only are studied due to their importance in the grain competition because of their implication in the twinning mechanism. The maximum undercooling inside the groove is calculated from the groove depth knowing the local temperature gradient. Additionally, thanks to dynamic X-ray images, the global solid-liquid interface growth rate and the normal growth rate of the {1 1 1} facets existing at the grooves and at the edges are measured. From these measurements, experimental growth laws that correlate the normal velocity of the {1 1 1} facets with the maximum undercooling of the groove are extracted and compared to existing theoretical models. Finally, the experimental laws found for the contribution to the undercooling of the {1 1 1} facets are in good agreement with the theoretical model implying nucleation and growth eased by the presence of dislocations. Moreover, it is shown that, for the same growth parameters, the undercooling at the level of the facets (always lower than 1 K) is higher at the edges so that there is a higher probability of twin nucleation at the edges which

  8. A new device used in the restoration of kinematics after total facet arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermesan D

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available D Vermesan,1 R Prejbeanu,1 C Vlad Daliborca,1 H Haragus,1 M Magureanu,2 M Marrelli,3–5 L Promenzio,4 M Caprio,6 R Cagiano,6,* M Tatullo3,5,* 1Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, 2Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania; 3Maxillofacial Unit, Dental Center Calabrodental, 4Orthopedics and Traumatology Unit, Marrelli Hospital, 5Biomedical Section, Tecnologica Research Institute, Crotone, 6Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, Medical Faculty, Aldo Moro University of Bari, Bari, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Facet degeneration can lead to spinal stenosis and instability, and often requires stabilization. Interbody fusion is commonly performed, but it can lead to adjacent-segment disease. Dynamic posterior stabilization was performed using a total facet arthroplasty system. The total facet arthroplasty system was originally intended to restore the natural motion of the posterior stabilizers, but follow-up studies are lacking due to limited clinical use. We studied the first 14 cases (long-term follow-up treated with this new device in our clinic. All patients were diagnosed with lumbar stenosis due to hypertrophy of the articular facets on one to three levels (maximum. Disk space was of normal height. The design of this implant allows its use only at levels L3–L4 and L4–L5. We implanted nine patients at the L4–L5 level and four patients at level L3–L4. Postoperative follow-up of the patients was obtained for an average of 3.7 years. All patients reported persistent improvement of symptoms, visual analog scale score, and Oswestry Disability Index score. Functional scores and dynamic radiographic imaging demonstrated the functional efficacy of this new implant, which represents an alternative technique and a new approach to dynamic stabilization of the vertebral column after interventions for spine decompression. The total facet arthroplasty

  9. Thesis Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Erik

    2010-01-01

    de konkrete forskningsprojekter. Denne ’omvendte’ argumentationsgang er begrundet i det faktum at ph.d. afhandlingens kerne netop er de forskningsbaserede artikler. Den teoretiske gennemgang fungerer således som en kontekstualisering af forskningsprojekterne. I den teoretiske gennemgang starter jeg......Strukturen i Thesis proposal er følgende: Først præsenteres mine konkrete empiriske forskningsprojekter som skal munde ud i afhandlingens artikler. Jeg præsenterer herefter de teoretiske overvejelser omkring oplevelsesbegrebet og forbrugerkulturteori som danner baggrund for at jeg er nået frem til...

  10. 1988 Volvo award in clinical sciences. Facet joint injection in low-back pain. A prospective statistical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R P; Jacobs, R R; Montesano, P X

    1988-09-01

    From January 1980 through December 1984, 454 patients were evaluated with facet joint injections. All had the chief complaint of low-back pain, normal neurologic examinations and no root tension signs. Three hundred and ninety completed the protocol, which included a lumbar motion pain assessment before and after facet injection. A total of 127 variables were studied. There were 229 males and 161 females with a median age of 38. Facet joint arthrograms were performed prior to intra-articular injection of local anesthetic and cortisone. Initial mean pain relief was only 29%. Variables correlating significantly (P less than 0.05) with more postinjection pain relief were older age, prior history of low-back pain, normal gait, maximum pain on extension following forward flexion in the standing position, and the absence of leg pain, muscle spasm and aggravation of pain on Valsalva. Greatest pain relief immediately after injection was seen with lumbar extension and rotation, motions reported to stress the facet joints or aggravate pain of facet joint origin. Patients with more pain on lumbar extension and rotation as a group, however, did not get more pain relief. From this study we were not able to identify clinical facet joint syndromes or predict patients responding better to this procedure. The facet joints were not commonly the single or primary source for low-back pain in the great majority (greater than 90%) of patients studied.

  11. Development of big five domains and facets in adulthood: mean-level age trends and broadly versus narrowly acting mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Christopher J; John, Oliver P

    2012-08-01

    Data from a cross-sectional sample (N = 601 men and women) and a longitudinal sample (N = 125 women) were used to test hypotheses about the development of Big Five domains and facets from early adulthood through middle age. Analyses of mean-level age trends indicated that overall Agreeableness and Conscientiousness increased with age and that several facets showed distinctive trends that replicated across the samples. Cross-sectional analyses of trait intercorrelations and covariances indicated that interrelations between the Big Five domains, and between their more specific facets, were quite similar at older versus younger ages. Finally, longitudinal analyses of individual-level changes indicated that (a) different people's personalities changed in markedly different ways; (b) these changes were predominantly independent, rather than correlated, across Big Five domains; and (c) the pattern of change correlations between Big Five facets could be explained by the facets' interrelations at the first assessment time. Taken together, these results suggest that a complete understanding of personality development requires consideration of facet-level traits and that adult personality development is predominantly influenced by narrowly acting mechanisms that each affect a single Big Five domain, or a small cluster of related facets, rather than by broadly acting mechanisms that simultaneously affect previously independent traits. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A bright side, facet analysis of histrionic personality disorder: the relationship between the HDS Colourful factor and the NEO-PI-R facets in a large adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at "bright-side," Big Five Personality trait correlates of a "dark-side" Personality Disorder, namely Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD). More than 5000 British adults completed the Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory-Revised (Costa & McCrae, 1985), which measures the Big Five Personality factors at the Domain (Super Factor) and the Facet (Factor) level, as well as the Hogan Development Survey (HDS; Hogan & Hogan, 2009), which has a measure of HPD, exclusively called "Colourful" in the HDS terminology. Correlation and regression results confirmed many of the associations between these "bright" and "dark" side individual difference variables. The Colourful (HPD) score from the HDS was the criterion variable in all analyses. Colourful individuals are high on Extraversion and Openness, but also Stable and disagreeable. The Facet analysis identified Assertiveness and Immodesty as particularly characteristic of that type. The study confirmed work on HPD using different population groups and different measures, showing that personality traits are predictable and correlated with various personality disorders.

  13. 3D Model Optimization of Four-Facet Drill for 3D Drilling Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranský, Ivan; Necpal, Martin; Bračík, Matej

    2016-09-01

    The article is focused on optimization of four-facet drill for 3D drilling numerical modelling. For optimization, the process of reverse engineering by PowerShape software was used. The design of four-facet drill was created in NumrotoPlus software. The modified 3D model of the drill was used in the numerical analysis of cutting forces. Verification of the accuracy of 3D models for reverse engineering was implemented using the colour deviation maps. The CAD model was in the STEP format. For simulation software, 3D model in the STEP format is ideal. STEP is a solid model. Simulation software automatically splits the 3D model into finite elements. The STEP model was therefore more suitable than the STL model.

  14. It's in the mix: psychological distress differs between combinations of alexithymic facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan Härtwig, Elif; Crayen, Claudia; Heuser, Isabella; Eid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in identifying, describing, and communicating one's emotions. The aim of the present study is to examine the usefulness of a typological approach considering the interaction between distinct alexithymic features within a population of high-alexithymic German adults (N = 217). Latent profile analysis (LPA) was employed to test for possible underlying profiles. A 3-profile solution showed the best fit: The profiles can be described as (1) “low”: lower load on all facets of alexithymia, (2) “mixed”: specific problems on identifying emotions, and (3) “high”: higher load on all facets of alexithymia. Moreover, this study tested how these profiles differed in psychological distress. “Mixed” profile, with specific problems on identifying emotions showed the highest levels of psychological distress. The present study suggests the importance of a specific combination of alexithymic features, rather than total alexithymia scores, as a risk factor for psychological distress. PMID:25429275

  15. High-power laser arrays with 100% fill factor emission facet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanson, Dan A.; McDougall, Stewart D.; Qiu, Bocang; Loyo-Maldonado, Valentin; Bacchin, Gianluca; Robertson, Stephen; Bon, Sébastien; Marsh, John H.

    2008-02-01

    Novel types of laser diode array with a 100% filling factor at the emission facet are reported. The arrays utilize both parallel and tapered cavity emitters that are connected via a common Laterally Unconfined Non-Absorbing Mirror (LUNAM) defined with quantum-well intermixing technology at 808 nm wavelength. Two LUNAM array types are considered: incoherent (weakly coupled) and coherent (diffraction coupled). Incoherent LUNAM arrays benefit from a reduced power density at the facet, improving reliability, and a near-uniform intensity distribution across the array aperture. Stacked laser diode arrays built with LUNAM bars deliver 950 W power under QCW operation with integrated LUNAM Talbot cavity. The devices produce a single-lobed horizontal far-field pattern over a limited current range with <10% slope efficiency penalty compared to an uncoupled case. The LUNAM arrays are promising candidates for high-power, high-brightness and high-reliability operation.

  16. Facets of impulsivity in the relationship between antisocial personality and abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Marsha N; Bornovalova, Marina A; Trotman, Adria J-M; Fishman, Shira; Lejuez, Carl W

    2012-03-01

    Most individuals who enter drug treatment programs are unable to maintain long-term abstinence. This problem is especially relevant for those presenting with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD). In examining potential mechanisms underlying the relationship between ASPD and abstinence, one factor that may be especially useful is the personality variable of impulsivity. Thus, the current study examined ASPD status in relation to longest abstinence attempt among 117 substance use treatment-seeking individuals, considering the mediating role of five facets of impulsivity: urgency, perseverance, premeditation, control, and delay discounting. Results indicated that individuals with ASPD evidenced shorter previous abstinence attempts and lower levels of perseverance and control than those without ASPD. Further, lower levels of control were associated with shorter abstinence attempts. Finally, control mediated the relationship between ASPD and longest quit attempt. These results suggest the potential value of multiple facets of impulsivity in efforts to understand relapse and subsequent treatment development efforts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [How I explore the various statistical facets of 2 x 2 tables in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, A

    2013-09-01

    In the medical scientific literature, 2 x 2 contingency tables are widely used to display the distribution of binary data. They are associated with the definition of basic concepts in medicine and epidemiology that are universally utilized. They are usually taught in any basic course in biostatistics early in the medical curriculum; their interpretation however is not always straightforward. We have discerned at least eight different facets of such fourfold tables: homogeneity test, independence test, McNemar test, Cohen kappa coefficient, incidence relative risk, prevalence relative risk, odds ratio, diagnostic value of a clinical test. Each facet is illustrated by a clinical problem used as an example. This article should help the reader to understand which table he/she is actually dealing with.

  18. 3D Model Optimization of Four-Facet Drill for 3D Drilling Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buranský Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on optimization of four-facet drill for 3D drilling numerical modelling. For optimization, the process of reverse engineering by PowerShape software was used. The design of four-facet drill was created in NumrotoPlus software. The modified 3D model of the drill was used in the numerical analysis of cutting forces. Verification of the accuracy of 3D models for reverse engineering was implemented using the colour deviation maps. The CAD model was in the STEP format. For simulation software, 3D model in the STEP format is ideal. STEP is a solid model. Simulation software automatically splits the 3D model into finite elements. The STEP model was therefore more suitable than the STL model.

  19. Antibody molecules discriminate between crystalline facets of a gallium arsenide semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzy Schnirman, Arbel; Zahavi, Efrat; Yeger, Hadas; Rosenfeld, Ronit; Benhar, Itai; Reiter, Yoram; Sivan, Uri

    2006-09-01

    Seamless integration of biomolecules with manmade materials will most likely rely on molecular recognition and specific binding. In the following we show that combinatorial antibody libraries, based on the vast repertoire of the human immune system, can be harnessed to generate such binders. As a demonstration, we isolate antibody fragments that discriminate and bind selectively GaAs (111A) facets as opposed to GaAs (100). The isolated antibodies are utilized for exclusive localization of a fluorescent dye on (111A) surfaces in a structure comprising a mixture of (100) and (111A) surfaces. The potential importance of structure rigidity to facet recognition is suggested vis-a-vis published experiments with short and longer peptides.

  20. CHANGES FACETS JOINTS IN TRAUMA AND DEGENERATIVE DISEASES OF THE LUMBAR SPINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Shchedrenok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Produced spondilometric measurements of the lumbosacral spine is normal (20 cases and in patients with spinal cord injury and degenerative-dystrophic diseases of the spine (43 cases. The width of the facet joint space joints on both sides, its relation to the longitudinal axis of the body in degrees and another on the same level were studied. The width of the facet joint space at the lumbosacral level of 3.5–4.0 mm, the area of the intervertebral foramen varies from 96–132 mm2. Among the changes in the parameters of the vertebral-motor segment can distinguish moderate, marked and significant extent that is important in determining the amount of the alleged operation.

  1. Optical characterization of synthetic faceted gem materials grown from hydrothermal solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Taijin; Shigley, James E.

    1998-10-01

    Various non-destructive optical characterization techniques have been used to characterize and identify synthetic gem materials grown from hydrothermal solutions, to include ruby, sapphire, emerald, amethyst and ametrine (amethyst-citrine), from their natural counterparts. The ability to observe internal features, such as inclusions, dislocations, twins, color bands, and growth zoning in gem materials is strongly dependent on the observation techniques and conditions, since faceted gemstones have many polished surfaces which can reflect and scatter light in various directions which can make observation difficult. However, diagnostic gemological properties of these faceted synthetic gem materials can be obtained by choosing effective optical characterization methods, and by modifying optical instruments. Examples of some of the distinctive features of synthetic amethyst, ametrine, pink quartz, ruby and emerald are presented to illustrate means of optical characterization of gemstones. The ability to observe defects by light scattering techniques is discussed.

  2. The Variations in Calcaneal Articular Facets In North Indian Population and its Clinical Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepinder Kaur Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives- To know the most common type of calcanei in North Indian population and itsclinical importance. There are three articular facets on superior surface of calcaneus- anterior, middle andposterior. Three types of calcanei are noted according to number and arrangement of the articular facets-type A, B and C. Methodology - The present studywas done on 300 dry adult human calcanei of unknownsex taken from Department of Anatomy Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and ResearchVallah (Amritsar. Results- In our study Type B was found as the most common type. Type A is the nextmost common. Interpretation- The talocalcaneal joint is important in arthritis and coalition, flat foot, valgus deformity, congenital anomalies and intra articular fractures.

  3. Evaluation of Facet Joint Arthrosis in Stenotic and Normal Lumbar Spines with MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Ozan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To reveal the prevalence of lumbar facet joint arthrosis in normal and stenotic lumbar spines with magnetic resonance imaging. Material and Method: Study group consisted of 30 patients with complaints and findings of lower back pain, neurologic claudicatio and lumbar spinal stenosis detected at L3-4, L4-5 and/or L5-S1 with magnetic resonance imaging (cross section area of the dural sac

  4. The Effect of Nine Facets of Job Satisfaction for Creative Employees in Creative Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Sumedho, Sumedho

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research is to find if Nine Facets of Job Satisfaction by Spector (1997) can explain job satisfaction for creative employee in Creative Agency. This research is inspired by the conclusions from The Orange Economy by Howkins and Indonesia's Long-Term Development Plan 2005-2025 by the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy that creative economy has unlimited growth possibilities. The author is interested to find what exactly satisfies creative employees for future improvement...

  5. A Teoria das Facetas: noções básicas Facet Theory: basic notions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Bilsky

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A Teoria das Facetas é um procedimento de pesquisa metateórico. Ela oferece um marco de referência formal que facilita o desenvolvimento de teorias e o estabelecimento de hipóteses, utiliza métodos que requerem um mínimo de restrições estatísticas e inter-relaciona sistematicamente delineamento de pesquisa, coleta de dados e análise estatística. Neste artigo esboçam-se os componentes básicos desta teoria, ilustra-se a aplicação da análise da estrutura de similaridades - um método freqüentemente empregado no contexto da Teoria das Facetas - e esquematizam-se os diversos papéis que as facetas desempenham na análise multidimensional. Isto é realizado usando como ilustração exemplos advindos da pesquisa de motivação e de valores, bem como estudos sobre medo do delito.Facet Theory is a meta-theoretical approach to research. It offers a formal frame of reference for theory construction and hypothesis building, uses methods that require a minimum of statistical assumptions, and interrelates research design, data collection and statistical analysis systematically. In this article, the basic components of Facet Theory are outlined, the application of Similarity Structure Analysis, a method frequently used in the context of Facet Theory, is illustrated, and the different roles that facets are likely to play in multidimensional analysis are sketched out. This is accomplished by using examples from motivational and values research, as well as studies on fear of crime.

  6. Efficacy of needle-placement technique in radiofrequency ablation for treatment of lumbar facet arthropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Jeffrey T; Nicol, Andrea L; Elashoff, David; Ferrante, F Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have assessed the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation to denervate the facet joint as an interventional means of treating axial low-back pain. In these studies, varying procedural techniques were utilized to ablate the nerves that innervate the facet joints. To date, no comparison studies have been performed to suggest superiority of one technique or even compare the prevalence of side effects and complications. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent a lumbar facet denervation procedure. Each patient's chart was analyzed for treatment technique (early versus advanced Australian), preprocedural visual numeric scale (VNS) score, postprocedural VNS score, duration of pain relief, and complications. Pre- and postprocedural VNS scores and change in VNS score between the two groups showed no significant differences. Patient-reported benefit and duration of relief was greater in the advanced Australian technique group (P=0.012 and 0.022, respectively). The advanced Australian technique group demonstrated a significantly greater median duration of relief (4 months versus 1.5 months, P=0.022). Male sex and no pain-medication use at baseline were associated with decreased postablation VNS scores, while increasing age and higher preablation VNS scores were associated with increased postablation VNS scores. Despite increasing age being associated with increased postablation VNS scores, age and the advanced Australian technique were found to confer greater patient self-reported treatment benefit. The advanced Australian technique provides a significant benefit over the early Australian technique for the treatment of lumbar facet pain, both in magnitude and duration of pain relief.

  7. Efficacy of needle-placement technique in radiofrequency ablation for treatment of lumbar facet arthropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Jeffrey T; Nicol, Andrea L; Elashoff, David; Ferrante, F Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies have assessed the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation to denervate the facet joint as an interventional means of treating axial low-back pain. In these studies, varying procedural techniques were utilized to ablate the nerves that innervate the facet joints. To date, no comparison studies have been performed to suggest superiority of one technique or even compare the prevalence of side effects and complications. Materials and methods A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent a lumbar facet denervation procedure. Each patient’s chart was analyzed for treatment technique (early versus advanced Australian), preprocedural visual numeric scale (VNS) score, postprocedural VNS score, duration of pain relief, and complications. Results Pre- and postprocedural VNS scores and change in VNS score between the two groups showed no significant differences. Patient-reported benefit and duration of relief was greater in the advanced Australian technique group (P=0.012 and 0.022, respectively). The advanced Australian technique group demonstrated a significantly greater median duration of relief (4 months versus 1.5 months, P=0.022). Male sex and no pain-medication use at baseline were associated with decreased postablation VNS scores, while increasing age and higher preablation VNS scores were associated with increased postablation VNS scores. Despite increasing age being associated with increased postablation VNS scores, age and the advanced Australian technique were found to confer greater patient self-reported treatment benefit. Conclusion The advanced Australian technique provides a significant benefit over the early Australian technique for the treatment of lumbar facet pain, both in magnitude and duration of pain relief. PMID:26504407

  8. Few-Layer ZnO Nanosheets: Preparation, Properties, and Films with Exposed {001} Facets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demel, Jan; Pleštil, Josef; Bezdička, Petr; Janda, Pavel; Klementová, Mariana; Lang, Kamil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 50 (2011), s. 24702-24706 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/10/1447 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : high-index facets * double hydroxides * nanocrystals * crystallites * delamination * surfaces Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.805, year: 2011

  9. Age and gender differences in the relation between self-concept facets and self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in self-concept-self-esteem relations might provide valuable knowledge for designing effective self-esteem enhancement interventions. We investigated grade and...

  10. Antagonism trait facets and comprehensive psychosocial disability: Comparing information across self, informant, and interviewer reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Eunyoe; Nuzum, Hallie; Clark, Lee Anna

    2017-10-01

    It is widely known that personality traits collectively discussed as the Dark Triad are antagonistic and associated with poor interpersonal relationships, but few studies have examined how specific facets of antagonism are associated with psychosocial adjustment or how antagonism relates to psychosocial adjustment other than interpersonal functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine how 6 antagonism facets-manipulativeness, grandiosity, attention-seeking, hostility, callousness, and deceitfulness-relate to comprehensive psychosocial functional domains (i.e., well-being, interpersonal relationships, basic daily functioning) using information about both antagonism and functioning from 3 sources-self, informant, and interviewer. Data were from 318 primary participants and informants. We present 3 main findings: (1) When psychosocial functioning and antagonism traits were both rated by informants, all psychosocial disability domains were consistently positively associated with antagonism traits. (2) We next created a single psychosocial-disability factor score via principal factors analysis of all raters' psychosocial-functioning scores. When all 3 raters' reports of domain-level antagonism were used as independent variables in a simultaneous regression analysis to predict this overall functioning score, informant-reported antagonism most strongly predicted psychosocial functioning, followed by interviewer-rated antagonism. (3) We then created 6 facet scores by summing the 3 raters' scores on each. When we used these scores to predict psychosocial functioning, hostility was the main trait significantly predicting psychosocial functioning. The study provides further insight into associations of psychosocial disability with antagonism facets from different raters' perspectives. The findings thus further our understanding of psychosocial outcomes associated with antagonism, the core of the dark traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. How Enterprise Architecture Formative Critical Success Facets Might Affect Enterprise Architecture Success: A Literature Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Haining; Luo, Aimin; Luo, Xueshan

    2014-01-01

    Part 4: Enterprise Architecture; International audience; Though Enterprise Architecture (EA) is getting increasing attentions from both academics and practitioners, EA research around EA success factors remains modest and immature. This study explores how EA formative critical success facets/factors would affect the achievement of EA success. This research highlights the importance of four mediators, i.e., (I) Real and mature business needs; (II) Real and continuous commitment; (III) Actionab...

  12. Associations between different motivations for animal cruelty, methods of animal cruelty and facets of impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Newberry, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Associations between specific motivations for animal cruelty, particular methods of animal cruelty and different facets of impulsivity were explored among 130 undergraduate students. Participants completed an adapted version of the Boat Inventory on Animal-Related Experiences (BIARE) which asked participants to state whether they had intentionally harmed or killed an animal, the species of animal(s) involved, their motivations for harming or killing the animal(s) and the method(s) used. Parti...

  13. ?Do Unto Others??: Distinct Psychopathy Facets Predict Reduced Perception and Tolerance of Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Brislin, Sarah J.; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has sought to understand how individuals high in psychopathic traits perceive pain in others (Decety, Skelly, & Kiehl, 2013; Marsh et al., 2013). Perception of pain in others is presumed to act as a prosocial signal, and underreactivity to others? pain may contribute to engagement in exploitative-aggressive behaviors among individuals high in psychopathic traits (Jackson, Meltzoff, & Decety; 2005). The current study tested for associations between facets of psychopathy as defi...

  14. First results from core-edge parallel composition in the FACETS project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, J. R.; Candy, J.; Cohen, R. H.; Krasheninnikov, S.; McCune, D. C.; Estep, D. J.; Larson, J.; Malony, A. D.; Pankin, A.; Worley, P. H.; Carlsson, J. A.; Hakim, A. H.; Hamill, P.; Kruger, S.; Miah, M.; Muzsala, S.; Pletzer, A.; Shasharina, S.; Wade-Stein, D.; Wang, N.; Balay, S.; McInnes, L.; Zhang, H.; Casper, T.; Diachin, L. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Tech-X Corp.); (General Atomics); (LLNL); (Univ. of California at San Diego); (Princeton Plasma Physics Lab.); (Colorado State Univ.); (ParaTools Inc.); (Lehigh Univ.); (ORNL)

    2008-01-01

    FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations), now in its second year, has achieved its first coupled core-edge transport simulations. In the process, a number of accompanying accomplishments were achieved. These include a new parallel core component, a new wall component, improvements in edge and source components, and the framework for coupling all of this together. These accomplishments were a result of an interdisciplinary collaboration among computational physics, computer scientists, and applied mathematicians on the team.

  15. First results from core-edge parallel composition in the FACETS project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, J R; Carlsson, J A; Hakim, A H; Hamill, P; Kruger, S; Miah, M; Muzsala, S; Pletzer, A; Shasharina, S; Wade-Stein, D; Wang, N [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Candy, J [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Cohen, R H [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Krasheninnikov, S [University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); McCune, D C [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Estep, D J [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Larson, J [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Malony, A D [ParaTools, Inc., Eugene, OR 97405 (United States); Pankin, A [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Worley, P H [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)], E-mail: cary@txcorp.com (and others)

    2008-07-15

    FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations), now in its second year, has achieved its first coupled core-edge transport simulations. In the process, a number of accompanying accomplishments were achieved. These include a new parallel core component, a new wall component, improvements in edge and source components, and the framework for coupling all of this together. These accomplishments were a result of an interdisciplinary collaboration among computational physics, computer scientists, and applied mathematicians on the team.

  16. First results from core-edge parallel composition in the FACETS project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, John R. [Tech-X Corporation; Candy, Jeff [General Atomics; Cohen, Ronald H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Krasheninnikov, Sergei [University of California, San Diego; McCune, Douglas [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Estep, Donald J [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Larson, Jay [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Malony, Allen [University of Oregon; Pankin, A. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Worley, Patrick H [ORNL; Carlsson, Johann [Tech-X Corporation; Hakim, A H [Tech-X Corporation; Hamill, P [Tech-X Corporation; Kruger, Scott [Tech-X Corporation; Miah, Mahmood [Tech-X Corporation; Muzsala, S [Tech-X Corporation; Pletzer, Alexander [Tech-X Corporation; Shasharina, Svetlana [Tech-X Corporation; Wade-Stein, D [Tech-X Corporation; Wang, N [Tech-X Corporation; Balay, Satish [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); McInnes, Lois [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Zhang, Hong [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Casper, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Diachin, Lori [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Epperly, Thomas [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Rognlien, T. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Fahey, Mark R [ORNL; Cobb, John W [ORNL; Morris, A [University of Oregon; Shende, Sameer [University of Oregon; Hammett, Greg [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Indireshkumar, K [Tech-X Corporation; Stotler, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Pigarov, A [University of California, San Diego

    2008-01-01

    FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations), now in its second year, has achieved its first coupled core-edge transport simulations. In the process, a number of accompanying accomplishments were achieved. These include a new parallel core component, a new wall component, improvements in edge and source components, and the framework for coupling all of this together. These accomplishments were a result of an interdisciplinary collaboration among computational physics, computer scientists, and applied mathematicians on the team.

  17. Mindfulness Facets, Social Anxiety, and Drinking to Cope with Social Anxiety: Testing Mediators of Drinking Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Clerkin, Elise M.; Sarfan, Laurel D.; Parsons, E. Marie; Magee, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study tested social anxiety symptoms, trait mindfulness, and drinking to cope with social anxiety as potential predictors and/or serial mediators of drinking problems. A community-based sample of individuals with co-occurring social anxiety symptoms and alcohol dependence were recruited. Participants (N = 105) completed measures of social anxiety, drinking to cope with social anxiety, and alcohol use and problems. As well, participants completed the Five Facet Mindfulness...

  18. Which facets of mindfulness are related to problematic eating among patients seeking bariatric surgery?

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Michael E.; Dalrymple, Kristy; Himes, Susan; Zimmerman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing research indicating the potential positive benefits of mindfulness-based interventions for obesity, but few studies have examined the relationship of mindfulness processes to obesity-related behaviors, particularly among clinical populations such as bariatric surgery candidates. The current study examined the relationship of specific mindfulness facets to a variety of problematic eating behaviors assessed through diagnostic interviews in a clinical sample of 820 patient...

  19. Evaluation of Temporal Diagnostic Techniques for Two-Bunch Facet Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litos, M.D.; Bionta, M.R.; Dolgashev, V.A.; England, R.J.; Fritz, D.; Gilevich, S.; Hering, Ph.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Three temporal diagnostic techniques are considered for use in the FACET facility at SLAC, which will incorporate a unique two-bunch beam for plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. The results of these experiments will depend strongly on the the inter-bunch spacing as well as the longitudinal profiles of the two bunches. A reliable, singleshot, high resolution measurement of the beam's temporal profile is necessary to fully quantify the physical mechanisms underlying the beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. In this study we show that a transverse deflecting cavity is the diagnostic which best meets our criteria. Based on our laboratory testing, numerical calculations, and simulations of the three single-shot temporal diagnostic devices, the X-band TCAV system is the best candidate for resolving FACET's two-bunch beam, with an estimated resolution of 7 {micro}m. Both the S-band TCAV system and the EO system could resolve the peak-to-peak separation of the two bunches in the FACET beam with estimated resolutions of 25 {micro}m and 30 {micro}m, respectively, but would be unable to resolve the temporal profiles of the individual bunches themselves. Because the TCAV signal is more easily interpreted and because the reliability of the EO system is less well known, however, the S-band TCAV system would be the next preferred option after the X-band TCAV system. The Fesca-200 streak camera, though simple, compact, and reliable, is unable to achieve a resolution that would be of use to FACET.

  20. The big five personality factors as predictors of changes across time in burnout and its facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon, Galit; Shirom, Arie; Melamed, Samuel

    2012-04-01

    We tested the effects of Neuroticism and Conscientiousness on burnout across time, controlling for age, gender, work hours, and depressive symptoms. Our theoretical model included both global burnout and its physical, emotional, and cognitive facets, consistent with the bifactor approach to modeling second-order constructs in structural equation modeling. Data were gathered from 1,105 respondents (63% men) who completed questionnaires at Time 1 (T1) and approximately 24 months later at Time 2 (T2). Neuroticism positively predicted T1 global burnout and negatively predicted T1 and T2 emotional exhaustion. Conscientiousness negatively predicted T1 global burnout and T1 and T2 cognitive weariness, and positively predicted T1 and T2 emotional exhaustion. Our gender-specific exploratory analysis revealed that for each gender, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness predicted different facets of burnout at T1 and T2. We recommend that future research test the possibility that the associations of Neuroticism and Conscientiousness with global burnout and its facets may be gender specific. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Intentions to Cheat: Ajzen's Planned Behavior and Goal-Related Personality Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Damian

    2017-02-17

    This study sought to test antecedents to college students' intentions to cheat by utilizing Ajzen's ( 1991 ) theory of planned behavior (TPB), and four goal-related personality facets. Those facets were behavioral approach, behavioral inhibition, need for achievement-hope of success, and need for achievement-fear of failure. As hypothesized, perceived friends' and parents' attitudes toward academic dishonesty (two subjective norms) and perceived ease of cheating (perceived behavioral control) all positively predicted overall intentions to cheat. Perceived friends' attitudes seemed to play a more influential role than perceived parents' attitudes. Interestingly, male students reported greater parental acceptance of academic misconduct than female students reported. Among the personality facets, behavioral approach and need for achievement-hope of success were positive and negative predictors of cheating intentions, respectively. A more fine-grained examination of take-home assignments revealed that students considered them easier to cheat on and reported greater intentions to cheat on them in comparison to other forms of academic work (e.g., exams and papers). Also, need for achievement-fear of failure positively predicted intentions to cheat on take-home assignments, but not other cheating intentions. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  2. [INVITED] Surface plasmon cavities on optical fiber end-facets for biomolecule and ultrasound detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian; He, Xiaolong; Zhou, Xin; Lei, Zeyu; Wang, Yalin; Yang, Jie; Cai, De; Chen, Sung-Liang; Wang, Xueding

    2018-05-01

    Integrating surface plasmon resonance (SPR) devices upon single-mode fiber (SMF) end facets renders label-free sensing systems that have a simple dip-and-read configuration, a small form factor, high compatibility with fiber-optic techniques, and invasive testing capability. Such devices are not only low cost replacement of current equipments in centralized laboratories, but also highly desirable for opening paths to new applications of label-free optical sensing technologies, such as point-of-care immunological tests and intravascular ultrasound imaging. In this paper, we explain the requirements and challenges for such devices from the perspectives of biomolecule and ultrasound detection applications. In such a context, we review our recent work on SMF end-facet SPR cavities. This include a glue-and-strip fabrication method to transfer a nano-patterned thin gold film to the SMF end-facet with high yield, high quality and high alignment precision, the designs of distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and distributed feedback (DFB) SPR cavities that couple efficiently with the SMF guided mode and reach quality factors of over 100, and the preliminary results for biomolecule interaction sensing and ultrasound detection. The particular advantages and potential values of these devices have been discussed, in terms of sensitivity, data reliability, reproducibility, bandwidth, etc.

  3. "Do unto others"? Distinct psychopathy facets predict reduced perception and tolerance of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brislin, Sarah J; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Joiner, Thomas E; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Recent research has sought to understand how individuals high in psychopathic traits perceive pain in others (Decety, Skelly, & Kiehl, 2013; Marsh et al., 2013). Perception of pain in others is presumed to act as a prosocial signal, and underreactivity to others' pain may contribute to engagement in exploitative-aggressive behaviors among individuals high in psychopathic traits (Jackson, Meltzoff, & Decety, 2005). The current study tested for associations between facets of psychopathy as defined by the triarchic model (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009) and decreased sensitivity to pain in 105 undergraduates tested in a laboratory pain assessment. A pressure algometer was used to index pain tolerance, and participants also rated their perceptions of and reactivity to the algometer-induced pain during the assessment and again 3 days later. A unique positive relationship was found between pain tolerance and the meanness facet of psychopathy, which also predicted reduced fear of painful algometer stimulation. Other psychopathy facets (boldness, disinhibition) showed negative relations with fear of pain stimulation during testing and at follow-up. Findings from this study extend the nomological network surrounding callousness (meanness) and suggest that increased pain tolerance may be a mechanism contributing to insensitivity to expressions of discomfort in others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. ‘Do Unto Others’?: Distinct Psychopathy Facets Predict Reduced Perception and Tolerance of Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brislin, Sarah J.; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has sought to understand how individuals high in psychopathic traits perceive pain in others (Decety, Skelly, & Kiehl, 2013; Marsh et al., 2013). Perception of pain in others is presumed to act as a prosocial signal, and underreactivity to others’ pain may contribute to engagement in exploitative-aggressive behaviors among individuals high in psychopathic traits (Jackson, Meltzoff, & Decety; 2005). The current study tested for associations between facets of psychopathy as defined by the triarchic model (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009) and decreased sensitivity to pain in 105 undergraduates tested in a laboratory pain assessment. A pressure algometer was used to index pain tolerance, and participants also rated their perceptions of and reactivity to the algometer-induced pain during the assessment and again three days later. A unique positive relationship was found between pain tolerance and the meanness facet of psychopathy, which also predicted reduced fear of painful algometer stimulation. Other psychopathy facets (boldness, disinhibition) showed negative relations with fear of pain stimulation during testing and at follow-up. Findings from this study extend the nomological network surrounding callousness (meanness) and suggest that increased pain tolerance may be a mechanism contributing to insensitivity to expressions of discomfort in others. PMID:26950545

  5. Mindfulness Facets, Social Anxiety, and Drinking to Cope with Social Anxiety: Testing Mediators of Drinking Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Sarfan, Laurel D; Parsons, E Marie; Magee, Joshua C

    2017-02-01

    This cross-sectional study tested social anxiety symptoms, trait mindfulness, and drinking to cope with social anxiety as potential predictors and/or serial mediators of drinking problems. A community-based sample of individuals with co-occurring social anxiety symptoms and alcohol dependence were recruited. Participants ( N = 105) completed measures of social anxiety, drinking to cope with social anxiety, and alcohol use and problems. As well, participants completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire , which assesses mindfulness facets of accepting without judgment, acting with awareness, not reacting to one's internal experiences, observing and attending to experiences, and labeling and describing. As predicted, the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and drinking problems was mediated by social anxiety coping motives across each of the models. Further, the relationship between specific mindfulness facets (acting with awareness, accepting without judgment, and describe) and drinking problems was serially mediated by social anxiety symptoms and drinking to cope with social anxiety. This research builds upon existing studies that have largely been conducted with college students to evaluate potential mediators driving drinking problems. Specifically, individuals who are less able to act with awareness, accept without judgment, and describe their internal experiences may experience heightened social anxiety and drinking to cope with that anxiety, which could ultimately result in greater alcohol-related problems.

  6. Mindfulness facets and problematic Internet use: A six-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Cortazar, Nerea

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to study the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between mindfulness facets and problematic Internet use in adolescents. The sample consisted of 609 adolescents (313 girls, 296 boys; Mean age=14.21years, SD=1.71; age range 11-18). Participants completed a measure of five facets of mindfulness (describing, observing, acting with awareness, non-judging and non-reacting) at the beginning of the year, and measures of several components of problematic Internet use (preference for online social interactions, the use of the Internet to regulate mood, deficient self-regulation and negative outcomes) at beginning of the year and six months later. Findings indicated that non-judging is the only dimension of mindfulness that predicts a decrease in preference for online social interactions over face-to-face relationships. Moreover, non-judging indirectly predicted reductions in the rest of the problematic Internet use components. The observing and acting with awareness dimensions of mindfulness directly predicted less deficient self-regulation of Internet use and indirectly predicted less negative outcomes through their impact on deficient self-regulation. Thus, these dimensions seem to act when the maladaptive use of the Internet is consolidated. These findings suggest that interventions should include approaches to develop those mindfulness facets that protect against the development of problematic Internet use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimized cervical spine bone SPET for detection of facet joint injury after whiplash injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardaci, G.T.; Bower, G.D.; Taylor, J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The most frequent origin for chronic cervical pain in patients with a remote history of whiplash injury is the cervical facet joints. Exact localization of facet joint injury is difficult and currently advocated methods include multiple invasive diagnostic injections. Optimization of 99 Tc m -HDP cervical SPET (CSPET) to accurately localize facet joint pathology was attempted and the results correlated with clinical localization relying on focal joint tenderness and passive movement methods. Imaging was performed on a dual-headed gamma camera system using an elliptical orbit over 360 deg. The patient's neck was flexed to eliminate the cervical lordosis. Reconstructed CSPET images were reorientated into the long axis of the vertebral bodies. CSPET studies were independently scored by two observers blinded to the clinical and other imaging information and correlated with clinical localization and response to radiofrequency ablation. 54 patients have been studied using this technique in a prospective study. Early patient follow-up data will be presented. CSPET was felt to be clinically useful by pain therapists in targeting treatment

  8. Laser-induced asymmetric faceting and growth of a nano-protrusion on a tungsten tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Yanagisawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation of a sharp tungsten tip by a femtosecond laser and exposed to a strong DC electric field led to reproducible surface modifications. By a combination of field emission microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we observed asymmetric surface faceting with sub-ten nanometer high steps. The presence of faceted features mainly on the laser-exposed side implies that the surface modification was driven by a laser-induced transient temperature rise on a scale of a couple of picoseconds in the tungsten tip apex. Moreover, we identified the formation of a nano-tip a few nanometers high located at one of the corners of a faceted plateau. The results of simulations emulating the experimental conditions are consistent with the experimental observations. The presented technique would be a new method to fabricate a nano-tip especially for generating coherent electron pulses. The features may also help to explain the origin of enhanced field emission, which leads to vacuum arcs, in high electric field devices such as radio-frequency particle accelerators.

  9. A comparison of intraarticular lumbar facet joint steroid injections and lumbar facet joint radiofrequency denervation in the treatment of low back pain: a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakemeier, Stefan; Lind, Marcel; Schultz, Wolfgang; Fuchs-Winkelmann, Susanne; Timmesfeld, Nina; Foelsch, Christian; Peterlein, Christian D

    2013-07-01

    Lumbar facet joint degeneration is a source of chronic low back pain, with an incidence of 15% to 45% among patients with low back pain. Various therapeutic techniques in the treatment of facet-related pain have been described in the literature, including intraarticular lumbar facet joint steroid injections and radiofrequency denervation. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of intraarticular facet joint steroid injections and radiofrequency denervation. Our randomized, double-blind, controlled study included patients who received intraarticular steroid infiltrations in the lumbar facet joints (L3/L4-L5/S1) and patients who underwent radiofrequency denervation of L3/L4-L5/S1 segments. The inclusion criteria were based first on magnetic resonance imaging findings showing hypertrophy of the facet joints L3/L4-L5/S1 and a positive response to an intraarticular test infiltration of the facet joints L3/L4-L5/S1 with local anesthetics. The primary end point was the Roland-Morris Questionnaire. Secondary end points were the visual analog scale and the Oswestry Disability Index. All outcome assessments were performed at baseline and at 6 months. Fifty-six patients were randomized; 24 of 29 patients in the steroid injection group and 26 of 27 patients in the denervation group completed the 6-month follow-up. Pain relief and functional improvement were observed in both groups. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups for the primary end point (95% confidence interval [CI], -3 to 4) and for both secondary end points (95% CI for visual analog scale, -2 to 1; 95% CI for Oswestry Disability Index, -18 to 0). Intraarticular steroid infiltration or radiofrequency denervation appear to be a managing option for chronic function-limiting low back pain of facet origin with favorable short- and midterm results in terms of pain relief and function improvement, but improvements were similar in both groups.

  10. Photocatalytic mechanism of high-activity anatase TiO2 with exposed (001) facets from molecular-atomic scale: HRTEM and Raman studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Shi, Chentian; Zhang, Yupeng; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Chunxu

    2017-12-01

    Anatase TiO2 with a variant percentage of exposed (001) facets was prepared under hydrothermal processes by adjusting the volume of HF, and the photocatalytic mechanism was studied from atomic-molecular scale by HRTEM and Raman spectroscopy. It was revealed that: 1) From HRTEM observations, the surface of original TiO2 with exposed (001) facets was clean without impurity, and the crystal lattice was clear and completed; however, when mixed with methylene blue (MB) solution, there were many 1 nm molecular absorbed at the surface of TiO2; after the photocatalytic experiment, MB molecules disappeared and the TiO2 lattice image became fuzzy. 2) The broken path of the MB chemical bond was obtained by Raman spectroscopy, i.e., after the irradiation of the light, the vibrational mode of C-N-C disappeared due to the chemical bond breakage, and the groups containing C-N bond and carbon rings were gradually decomposed. Accordingly, we propose that the driving force for breaking the chemical bond and the disappearance of groups is from the surface lattice distortion of TiO2 during photocatalyzation.

  11. Facet Theory and the Mapping Sentence As Hermeneutically Consistent Structured Meta-Ontology and Structured Meta-Mereology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Paul M. W.

    2016-01-01

    When behavior is interpreted in a reliable manner (i.e., robustly across different situations and times) its explained meaning may be seen to possess hermeneutic consistency. In this essay I present an evaluation of the hermeneutic consistency that I propose may be present when the research tool known as the mapping sentence is used to create generic structural ontologies. I also claim that theoretical and empirical validity is a likely result of employing the mapping sentence in research design and interpretation. These claims are non-contentious within the realm of quantitative psychological and behavioral research. However, I extend the scope of both facet theory based research and claims for its structural utility, reliability and validity to philosophical and qualitative investigations. I assert that the hermeneutic consistency of a structural ontology is a product of a structural representation's ontological components and the mereological relationships between these ontological sub-units: the mapping sentence seminally allows for the depiction of such structure. PMID:27065932

  12. Resting Heart Rate Variability, Facets of Rumination and Trait Anxiety: Implications for the Perseverative Cognition Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, DeWayne P; Feeling, Nicole R; Hill, LaBarron K; Spangler, Derek P; Koenig, Julian; Thayer, Julian F

    2017-01-01

    The perseverative cognition hypothesis (PCH) posits that perseveration, defined as the repetitive or sustained activation of cognitive representations of a real or imagined stressor, is a primary mechanism linking psychological (or stress) vulnerability with poor health and disease. Resting vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is an important indicator of self-regulatory abilities, stress vulnerability and overall health. Those with lower resting vmHRV are more vulnerable to stress, and thus more likely to engage in perseverative cognition and experience subsequent negative mental health outcomes such as anxiety. Recent research suggests that rumination-one of the core mechanisms underlying perseveration-is a construct containing (at least) two maladaptive (depressive and brooding) and one adaptive (reflective) types of rumination. However, to date, research has not examined how the association between resting vmHRV may differ between these three facets of rumination, in addition to these facets' mechanistic role in linking lower resting vmHRV with greater trait anxiety. The current cross-sectional study explores these relationships in a sample of 203 participants (112 females, 76 ethnic minorities, mean age = 19.43, standard deviation = 1.87). Resting vmHRV was assessed during a 5-min-resting period using an Electrocardiogram (ECG). Both trait rumination (including the three facets) and anxiety were assessed via self-report scales. Significant negative associations were found between resting vmHRV and maladaptive, but not adaptive, forms of perseveration. Similarly, mediation analyses showed a significant indirect relationship between resting vmHRV and anxiety through maladaptive, but not adaptive, facets of rumination. Our findings support the PCH such that those with stress vulnerability, as indexed by lower resting vmHRV, are more likely to engage in maladaptive perseverative cognition and thus experience negative outcomes such as anxiety. Our data

  13. Lumbar facet joint septic arthritis presenting atypically as acute abdomen – A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysha Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The atypical presentation of facet joint septic arthritis is one of the reasons why early diagnosis is elusive. Definitive diagnoses with MRI and bacterial culture as well as prolonged antibiotic therapy are recommended in this condition.

  14. Kinetically controlled synthesis of Pt-Cu alloy concave nanocubes with high-index facets for methanol electro-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue; Bian, Ting; Choi, Sang-Il; Jiang, Yingying; Jin, Chuanhong; Fu, Maoshen; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2014-01-18

    Pt-Cu alloy concave nanocubes enclosed by high-index {511} facets were synthesized in high yields and exhibited substantially enhanced electrocatalytic properties for methanol oxidation relative to commercial Pt/C.

  15. Enhancing the photoresponse and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 by controllably tuning defects across {101} facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Piaopiao; Hood, Zachary D.; Adhikari, Shiba P.; Xu, Yunfan; Yang, Shize; Wu, Sujuan

    2018-03-01

    Introducing defects into semiconductors with well-controlled exposed facets offers an effective route for the development of photocatalytic materials with greatly improved properties. Here, we report a facile ethylene glycol reduction procedure to make anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) with different concentrations of exposed {001} and {101} facets, leading to different surficial defects. TiO2 with increased concentrations of {101} facets shows a 5-fold improvement in photocurrent generation as well as improved photocatalytic activity towards water splitting under visible light irradiation. The improved activity is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies as well as the variable surface chemical states, which collectively induce a slower recombination rate of photo-induced electron-hole pairs. This work also highlights a feasible strategy to obtain the defective TiO2 and explore the synergistic effect of surface defects and different concentrations of exposed {001} and {101} facets for photocurrent and photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation.

  16. CW operation of high-power blue laser diodes with polished facets on semi-polar ( 20 2 ¯ 1 ¯ ) GaN substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Pourhashemi, A.

    2016-10-11

    Continuous wave (CW) operation of high-power blue laser diodes (LDs) with polished facets on semi-polar (202̅1̅) gallium nitride (GaN) substrates is demonstrated. Ridge waveguide LDs were fabricated using indium GaN waveguiding layers and GaN cladding layers. At a lasing wavelength of 452 nm, the peak two-facet CW output power from an LD with uncoated facets was 1.71 W at a current of 3 A, corresponding to an optical power density of 32.04 MW/cm2 on each facet. The dependence of output power on current did not change with repeated CW measurements, indicating that the polished facets did not degrade under high-power CW operation. These results show that polished facets are a viable alternative to cleaved or etched facets for high-power CW semi-polar LDs.

  17. Final Report for Project "Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations (FACETS)"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estep, Donald [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2014-01-17

    This is the final report for the Colorado State University Component of the FACETS Project. FACETS was focused on the development of a multiphysics, parallel framework application that could provide the capability to enable whole-device fusion reactor modeling and, in the process, the development of the modeling infrastructure and computational understanding needed for ITER. It was intended that FACETS be highly flexible, through the use of modern computational methods, including component technology and object oriented design, to facilitate switching from one model to another for a given aspect of the physics, and making it possible to use simplified models for rapid turnaround or high-fidelity models that will take advantage of the largest supercomputer hardware. FACETS was designed in a heterogeneous parallel context, where different parts of the application can take advantage through parallelism based on task farming, domain decomposition, and/or pipelining as needed and applicable. As with all fusion simulations, an integral part of the FACETS project was treatment of the coupling of different physical processes at different scales interacting closely. A primary example for the FACETS project is the coupling of existing core and edge simulations, with the transport and wall interactions described by reduced models. However, core and edge simulations themselves involve significant coupling of different processes with large scale differences. Numerical treatment of coupling is impacted by a number of factors including, scale differences, form of information transferred between processes, implementation of solvers for different codes, and high performance computing concerns. Operator decomposition involving the computation of the individual processes individually using appropriate simulation codes and then linking/synchronizing the component simulations at regular points in space and time, is the defacto approach to high performance simulation of multiphysics

  18. Solvothermal synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals with {001} facets using titanic acid nanobelts for superior photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yuhui; Zong, Lanlan [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Li, Qiuye, E-mail: qiuyeli@henu.edu.cn [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Li, Chen; Li, Junli [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Yang, Jianjun, E-mail: yangjianjun@henu.edu.cn [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} exposed with {001} facets were firstly prepared using TAN as Ti source. • The mineralization rate of MO on sample with 77% {001} facets was as high as 96%. • The superior photocatalytic activity was greatly due to {001} facets exposing. - Abstract: Anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals exposed with {001} facets were fabricated by solvothermal strategy in HF-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH mixed solution, using titanic acid nanobelts (TAN) as a precursor. The shape of TAN is a long flat plane with a high aspect ratio, and F{sup −} is easily adsorbed on the surface of the nanobelts, inducing a higher exposure of {001} facet of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles during the structure reorganization. The exposed percentage of {001} facets could vary from 40 to 77% by adjusting the amount of HF. The as-prepared samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. The photocatalytic measurement showed that TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals with 77% {001} facets exhibited much superior photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of methyl orange, methylene blue, and rhodamine B. And what’s more, the mineralization rate of methyl orange was as high as 96% within 60 min. The photocatalytic enhancement is due to a large amount of the high energetic {001} facets exposing, the special truncated octahedral morphology and a stronger ability for dyes adsorption.

  19. Synthesis of ZnWO{sub 4} Electrode with tailored facets: Deactivating the Microorganisms through Photoelectrocatalytic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Su [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); Zhou, Feng, E-mail: zhoufeng99@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); Huang, Naibao; Liu, Yujun; He, Qiuchen; Tian, Yu; Yang, Yifan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); Ye, Fei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116026 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnWO{sub 4} with different exposed facets was synthesized by the hydrothermal method. • The reactive facets were tailored by varying the solution pH. • The photoelectrocatalysis was more efficient in deactivating the microorganism. - Abstract: The exotic invasive species from the ballast water in the ship will bring about serious damages to ecosystem. Photocatalyst films have been widely studied for sterilization. In this study, ZnWO{sub 4} with different exposed facets was synthesized by hydrothermal method, and ZnWO{sub 4} film electrodes have been applied in ballast water treatment through the electro-assisted photocatalytic system. Then the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), Field emission on scanning electron microcopy (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), BET specific surface area analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). ZnWO{sub 4} with an appropriate exposure of (0 1 1) facets ratio exhibited the best photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities. The microorganisms deactivated completely in 10 min by ZnWO{sub 4} films with 3 V bias. The mechanisms of (0 1 1) facets enhanced the photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities which were deduced based on the calculated result from the first principles. Simultaneously, appropriate exposed facets and applied bias could reduce the recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and improve the photocatalytic activities of ZnWO{sub 4}.

  20. Direct Observation of Charge Separation on Anatase TiO2 Crystals with Selectively Etched {001} Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaogang; Dong, Guojun; Li, Shaopeng; Lu, Gongxuan; Bi, Yingpu

    2016-03-09

    Synchronous illumination X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SIXPS) was employed for the first time to directly identify the photogenerated charge separation and transfer on anatase TiO2 single-crystals with selectively etched {001} facets. More specifically, for the TiO2 crystals with intact {001} and {101} facets, most of photogenerated charge carriers rapidly recombined, and no evident electron-hole separation was detected. With selectively etching on {001} facets, high efficient charge separation via hole transfer to titanium and electron to oxygen was clearly observed. However, when the {001} facets were completely etched into a hollow structure, the recombination for photogenerated electron-hole pairs would dominate again. These demonstrations clearly reveal that the appropriate corrosion on {001} facets could facilitate more efficient electron-hole separation and transfer. As expected, the optimized TiO2 microcrystals with etched {001} facets could achieve a hydrogen generation rate of 74.3 μmol/h/g, which is nearly 7 times higher than the intact-TiO2 crystals.

  1. Formation of a-plane facets in three-dimensional hexagonal GaN structures for photonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Hyuk; Sim, Young Chul; Yoo, Yang-Seok; Choi, Sunghan; Lee, Sangwon; Cho, Yong-Hoon

    2017-08-24

    Control of the growth front in three-dimensional (3D) hexagonal GaN core structures is crucial for increased performance of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and other photonic devices. This is due to the fact that InGaN layers formed on different growth facets in 3D structures exhibit various band gaps which originate from differences in the indium-incorporation efficiency, internal polarization, and growth rate. Here, a-plane {[Formula: see text] } facets, which are rarely formed in hexagonal pyramid based growth, are intentionally fabricated using mask patterns and adjustment of the core growth conditions. Moreover, the growth area covered by these facets is modified by changing the growth time. The origin of the formation of a-plane {[Formula: see text]} facets is also discussed. Furthermore, due to a growth condition transition from a 3D core structure to an InGaN multi-quantum well, a growth front transformation (i.e., a transformation of a-plane {[Formula: see text]} facets to semi-polar {[Formula: see text]} facets) is directly observed. Based on our understanding and control of this novel growth mechanism, we can achieve efficient broadband LEDs or photovoltaic cells.

  2. Screw Thread-Like Platinum-Copper Nanowires Bounded with High-Index Facets for Efficient Electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Bu, Lingzheng; Guo, Shaojun; Guo, Jun; Huang, Xiaoqing

    2016-08-10

    Introducing high-index facets into nanocrystals (NCs) is an effective way for boosting the electrocatalytic intrinsic activity. However, the established NCs with high-index facets usually have a big diameter, which makes them exhibit a very limited surface area, thus finally limited mass activity. To embody the advantage of high-index facets in enhancing electrocatalysis well, the better nanostructures should meet the requirement of both high surface area and high-density high-index facets. Herein, we report our important advances in making the unique three-dimensional screw thread-like platinum-copper (Pt-Cu) alloy nanowires (NWs) with high-density high-index facets and controlled composition. Such special NWs with a high surface area of 46.90 m(2) g(-1) exhibit much better performance than the PtCu nanoparticles (NPs) in alcohol electrooxidations. This work opens a new way for maximizing the electrocatalytic performance by introducing high-index facets into high-surface-area stable bimetallic NWs.

  3. Meta-analysis of genome-wide SNP- and pathway-based associations for facets of neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Song E; Kim, Han-Na; Yun, Yeo-Jun; Heo, Seong Gu; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Shin, Chol; Cho, Nam H; Sung, Yeon Ah; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2017-10-01

    Neuroticism is a heritable personality trait that is comprised of distinct sub-factors, or facets. Sub-factors of neuroticism are linked to different emotional states or psychiatric symptoms and studying the genetic variants associated with these facets may help reveal the biological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders. In the present study, a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for six facets of neuroticism was performed in 5584 participants from three cohorts. Additionally, a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis was conducted to find biological pathways associated with each facet. Six neuroticism facets (N1: anxiety, N2: angry hostility, N3: depression, N4: self-consciousness, N5: impulsivity and N6: vulnerability) were assessed using the Korean version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. In the single-nucleotide polymorphism-based analysis, results showed genome-wide significance for N2 within the MIR548H3 gene (rs1360001, P=4.14 × 10 -9 ). Notable genes with suggestive associations (Pfacets of neuroticism (N2, N4 and N6). The focal adhesion and extracellular matrix receptor interaction pathways were significantly associated with N2 and N3. Our findings revealed genetic influences and biological pathways that are associated with facets of neuroticism.

  4. Understanding the Property-Activity Relationships of Polyhedral Cuprous Oxide Nanocrystals in Terms of Reactive Crystallographic Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanlin; Chang, Yun; Sun, Xiujuan; Liu, Ning; Cheng, Yan; Feng, Yuqing; Zhang, Haiyuan; Li, Xi

    2017-04-01

    The property-activity relationship is usually established to understand the toxicity mechanism of nanomaterials. In the present study, different morphological Cu2O nanocrystals, octahedrons, truncated octahedrons, cuboctahedrons, and cubes, were synthesized to precisely tuning the {100} and {111} facet percentages in purpose of systematically investigating the toxicity role of crystallographic facets in BEAS-2B and RAW 264.7 cells. It was found that the toxicity of polyhedral Cu2O nanocrystals was highly dependent on the exposed {100} surface after short-term exposure because {100} facets could produce more reactive oxygen species (ROS) than {111} facets; however, after long-term exposure, their toxicity showed again the correlation with total surface property because toxic copper ions were largely released from the whole nanocrystal surface irrespective of {100} or {111} facet and this copper dissolution caused the collapse of surface crystals and the vanishing of ROS. This study reveals the potential hazard of crystallographic facets based on ROS and metal dissolution mechanism at the different exposure time. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Differentiating Between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton Voters Using Facets of Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Social-Dominance Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowson, Howard Michael; Brandes, Joyce A

    2017-06-01

    Historically, much of the research on right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation has proceeded from the assumption that they are unidimensional. Recently, researchers have begun to seriously consider the possibility that they are multidimensional in nature and should be measured as such. Several studies have examined the unique relationships between right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation facets and social and political outcome measures of interest. However, there have been no efforts to include the full slate of right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation facets as predictors in the same model. This is problematic when investigating the discriminant validity of these facets, given the potential empirical overlap among the facets both within and across scales. We included facets of right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation as predictors of U.S. voters' intentions to vote for Hillary Clinton versus Donald Trump in the 2016 Presidential Election. Data were collected in September 2016. We found evidence for the discriminant validity of several of the right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation facets.

  6. Evaluation of the stress distribution change at the adjacent facet joints after lumbar fusion surgery: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianxiong; Jia, Haobo; Ma, Xinlong; Xu, Weiguo; Yu, Jingtao; Feng, Rui; Wang, Jie; Xing, Dan; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Shaowen; Yang, Yang; Chen, Yang; Ma, Baoyi

    2014-07-01

    Spinal fusion surgery has been widely applied in clinical treatment, and the spinal fusion rate has improved markedly. However, its postoperative complications, especially adjacent segment degeneration, have increasingly attracted the attention of spinal surgeons. The most common pathological condition at adjacent segments is hypertrophic degenerative arthritis of the facet joint. To study the stress distribution changes at the adjacent facet joint after lumbar fusion with pedicle screw fixation, human cadaver lumbar spines were used in the present study, and electrical resistance strain gauges were attached on L1-L4 articular processes parallel or perpendicular to the articular surface of facet joints. Subsequently, electrical resistance strain gauge data were measured using anYJ-33 static resistance strain indicator with three types of models: the intact model, the laminectomy model, and the fusion model with pedicle screw fixation. The strain changes in the measurement sites indirectly reflect the stress changes. Significant differences in strain were observed between the normal and laminectomy state at all facet joints. Significant differences in strain were observed between the normal and the pedicle screw fixation fusion state at the L1/2 and L3/4 facet joints. The increased stress on the facet joints after lumbar fusion with pedicle screw fixation may be the cause of adjacent segment degeneration. © IMechE 2014.

  7. Adjacent disc and facet joint degeneration in young adults with low-grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis: A magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chin-Chiang; Wang, Jung-Der; Lin, Ruey-Mo; Lin, Chii-Jeng; Huang, Kuo-Yuan

    2015-12-01

    Premature adjacent-level degeneration has been attributed to vertebral fusion, but spondylolisthesis has not been reported as a pathological factor responsible for the degeneration of adjacent disc and facet joint. We hypothesized that the degeneration of disc and facet joints in the adjacent levels is correlated with spondylolisthesis. Magnetic resonance images of 35 symptomatic young adults (16-29 years old) with low-grade L5-S1 spondylolytic spondylolisthesis (Meyerding Grade 1 or 2) and 50 symptomatic young referents (20-29 years old) with L5-S1 disc herniation without spondylolisthesis were recruited to compare the differences between disc and facet-joint degenerations at the olisthetic and adjacent levels using the Mantel extension test. There were statistically significant degenerative changes of the discs and facet joints at the olisthetic and adjacent levels of patients with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis compared with the reference group. There is a trend that the disc and facet joints degenerate the most at the olisthetic level and become less affected at adjacent levels away from the lesion of pars defect. Low-grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis was associated with significant degenerations of the disc and facet joints at olisthetic and adjacent levels in young adults. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Characteristic MRI and MR Myelography Findings for the Facet Cyst Hematoma at T12-L1 Spine: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Seung Eun; Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Tae Hong; Choi, Gun; Paeng, Sung Suk

    2011-01-01

    A facet cyst is a very rare condition in the thoracolumbar spine and more so, hemorrhage into a cyst is extremely rare. We present a case of a facet cyst hematoma in the T12-L1 spine. A 69-year-old woman complained of chronic back pain with right lower extremity pain, and weakness for 3 years. MRI and MR myelography showed an extradural mass at the T12-L1 level with heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1-and T2-weighted images, which was continuous to the right T12-L1 facet joint. The neighboring facet joint showed severe degeneration on the CT scan. The mass a was simple hematoma covered with a thin fibrous membrane and connected with facet joint macroscopically and microscopically. The pathogenesis of the facet cyst hematoma is not clear but it can compress nerve roots or dura mater and cause radiculopathy or cauda equina syndrome. Surgical removal should be recommended for symptomatic relief.

  9. Characteristic MRI and MR Myelography Findings for the Facet Cyst Hematoma at T12-L1 Spine: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Seung Eun [Dept of Diagnostic Radiology, Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Ho [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hong [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Gun [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Seoul Wooridul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paeng, Sung Suk [Dept of Radiology, Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    A facet cyst is a very rare condition in the thoracolumbar spine and more so, hemorrhage into a cyst is extremely rare. We present a case of a facet cyst hematoma in the T12-L1 spine. A 69-year-old woman complained of chronic back pain with right lower extremity pain, and weakness for 3 years. MRI and MR myelography showed an extradural mass at the T12-L1 level with heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1-and T2-weighted images, which was continuous to the right T12-L1 facet joint. The neighboring facet joint showed severe degeneration on the CT scan. The mass a was simple hematoma covered with a thin fibrous membrane and connected with facet joint macroscopically and microscopically. The pathogenesis of the facet cyst hematoma is not clear but it can compress nerve roots or dura mater and cause radiculopathy or cauda equina syndrome. Surgical removal should be recommended for symptomatic relief.

  10. Morphotectonic evolution of triangular facets and wine-glass valleys in the Noakoh anticline, Zagros, Iran: Implications for active tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Shahram

    2012-07-01

    The Noakoh anticline is located in Kermanshah province and is part of the Simply Folded Belt of Zagros. Boundaries of 97 triangular facets and 67 wine-glass (W-G) valleys, which formed on anticline limbs, were delineated using Quickbird satellite imagery. The strata dip (D), area (A), base length (BL), topographic slope (S) of facets, the maximum width (M), outlet width (O) and ratio of maximum width to outlet width (W index) of W-G valleys were analysed in detail. Noakoh anticline was subdivided into 9 tectonic zones on the basis of dip, topographic slopes and width of limbs. Results show that there are strong positive correlations between means of D-BL and S-BL pairs. Poor positive correlations exist between means of D-A and S-A pairs. Among W-G valley metrics, the W index has strong relations with D and S parameters. Based on the results, steep facets with long bases and well developed W-G valleys with narrow outlets and wide upper parts are associated with more rotated limbs having steep slopes. Facets on the northeastern slope have more forest cover, micro-organism activity, karstic features and soil cover, whereas facets on relatively drier southwestern slope are characterized by physical weathering processes and minor karstic landforms. This study demonstrates that, apart from tectonic activity as a major control on the morphometry of facets and valleys, climate and slope aspect have also acted as secondary factors on the development of the studied landforms.

  11. Benchmarking Data for the Proposed Signature of Used Fuel Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-23

    A set of benchmarking measurements to test facets of the proposed extended storage signature was conducted on May 17, 2016. The measurements were designed to test the overall concept of how the proposed signature can be used to identify a used fuel cask based only on the distribution of neutron sources within the cask. To simulate the distribution, 4 Cf-252 sources were chosen and arranged on a 3x3 grid in 3 different patterns and raw neutron totals counts were taken at 6 locations around the grid. This is a very simplified test of the typical geometry studied previously in simulation with simulated used nuclear fuel.

  12. [Ultrasound-guided facet block to low back pain: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Ana Ellen Q; Leal, Plinio C; Bezerra, Elmiro Helio M; Giraldes, Ana Laura A; Ferraro, Leonardo C; Rezende, Andre H; Sakata, Rioko Kimiko

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthrosis is a common cause of low back pain. The diagnosis is clinical and can be confirmed by imaging studies. Pain treatment and confirmation of diagnosis are made by intra-articular injection of corticosteroid and by local anesthetic use, due to clinical improvement. A direct monitoring of the procedure can be done under fluoroscopy, a classic technique, or else by an ultrasound-guided procedure. Female patient, 88 years old, 1.68m and 72kg, with facet osteoarthrosis at L2-L3, L3-L4 and L4-L5 for two years. On physical examination, she exhibited pain on lateralization and spinal extension. We opted in favor of an ultrasound-guided facet joint block. A midline spinal longitudinal scan was obtained, with identification of the desired joint space at L3-L4. A 25 G needle was inserted into the skin by the echographic off-plane ultrasound technique. 1 mL of contrast was administered, with confirmation by fluoroscopy. After aspiration of the contrast, 1 mL of solution containing 0.25% bupivacaine hydrochloride and 10 mg of methylprednisolone acetate was injected. Injections into L3-L4, L2-L3 and L1-L2 to the right were applied. The visualization of the facet joint by ultrasound involves minimal risk, besides reduction of radiation. This option is suitable for a large part of the population. However, fluoroscopy and computed tomography remain as monitoring techniques indicated for patients with specific characteristics, such as obesity, severe degenerative diseases and anatomical malformations, in which the ultrasound technique is still in need of further study. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrasound-guided facet block to low back pain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Ana Ellen Q; Leal, Plinio C; Bezerra, Elmiro Helio M; Giraldes, Ana Laura A; Ferraro, Leonardo C; Rezende, Andre H; Sakata, Rioko Kimiko

    2014-01-01

    osteoarthrosis is a common cause of low back pain. The diagnosis is clinical and can be confirmed by imaging studies. Pain treatment and confirmation of diagnosis are made by intra-articular injection of corticosteroid and by local anesthetic use, due to clinical improvement. A direct monitoring of the procedure can be done under fluoroscopy, a classic technique, or else by an ultrasound-guided procedure. female patient, 88 years old, 1.68 m and 72 kg, with facet osteoarthrosis at L2-L3, L3-L4 and L4-L5 for two years. On physical examination, she exhibited pain on lateralization and spinal extension. We opted in favor of an ultrasound-guided facet joint block. A midline spinal longitudinal scan was obtained, with identification of the desired joint space at L3-L4. A 25G needle was inserted into the skin by the echographic off-plane ultrasound technique. 1 mL of contrast was administered, with confirmation by fluoroscopy. After aspiration of the contrast, 1 mL of solution containing 0.25% bupivacaine hydrochloride and 10mg of methylprednisolone acetate was injected. Injections into L3-L4, L2-L3 and L1-L2 to the right were applied. the visualization of the facet joint by ultrasound involves minimal risk, besides reduction of radiation. This option is suitable for a large part of the population. However, fluoroscopy and computed tomography remain as monitoring techniques indicated for patients with specific characteristics, such as obesity, severe degenerative diseases and anatomical malformations, in which the ultrasound technique is still in need of further study. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Does sensory stimulation threshold affect lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation outcomes? A prospective clinical correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Steven P; Strassels, Scott A; Kurihara, Connie; Lesnick, Ivan K; Hanling, Steven R; Griffith, Scott R; Buckenmaier, Chester C; Nguyen, Conner

    2011-11-01

    Radiofrequency facet denervation is one of the most frequently performed procedures for chronic low back pain. Although sensory stimulation is generally used as a surrogate measure to denote sufficient proximity of the electrode to the nerve, no study has examined whether stimulation threshold influences outcome. We prospectively recorded data in 61 consecutive patients undergoing lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation who experienced significant pain relief after medial branch blocks. For each nerve lesioned, multiple attempts were made to maximize sensory stimulation threshold (SST). Mean SST was calculated on the basis of the lowest stimulation perceived at 0.1-V increments for each medial branch. A positive outcome was defined as a ≥50% reduction in back pain coupled with a positive satisfaction score lasting ≥3 months. The relationship between mean SST and denervation outcomes was evaluated via a receiver's operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and stratifying outcomes on the basis of various cutoff values. No correlation was noted between mean SST and pain relief at rest (Pearson's r=-0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.24 to 0.23, P=0.97), with activity (r=-0.17, 95% CI: -0.40 to 0.07, P=0.20), or a successful outcome. No optimal SST could be identified. There is no significant relationship between mean SST during lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation and treatment outcome, which may be due to differences in general sensory perception. Because stimulation threshold was optimized for each patient, these data cannot be interpreted to suggest that sensory testing should not be performed, or that high sensory stimulation thresholds obtained on the first attempt should be deemed acceptable.

  15. Facets of job satisfaction of dental practitioners working in different organisational settings in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R V; Ashcroft, A; Burnside, G; Dancer, J M; Smith, D; Grieveson, B

    2008-01-12

    Before April 2006, English dentists were either working as an NHS general dental service (GDS) practitioner (fee-per-item, no local contractual obligations); an NHS personal dental service (PDS) practitioner (block contract with the primary care trust (PCT)); a private practitioner (either fee-per-item or capitation-based, independent of the PCT); or in a situation where they were mixing their NHS work (either under the GDS or PDS arrangements) with private work. To a) investigate the extent of the mix of NHS and private work in English dentists working in the GDS and PDS, b) to compare global job satisfaction, and c) to compare facets of job satisfaction for practitioners working in the different organisational settings of PDS practices, GDS practices and practices where there is a mix of NHS and private provision. Method A questionnaire was sent to 684 practitioners, containing 83 attitudinal statements relating to job facets, a global job satisfaction score and questions concerning workload. Response rate was 65.2%. More PDS than GDS dentists were found to treat the majority of their patients under the NHS. GDS dentists working fully in the NHS were least likely to be satisfied with their job, followed by PDS practitioners and then GDS dentists working in mixed NHS/private practices. Private practitioners were the most satisfied. Differences between GDS, PDS and private practitioners were found in global job satisfaction and in the facets of job satisfaction related to restriction in being able to provide quality care, control of work and developing clinical skills.

  16. Segmental variations in facet joint translations during in vivo lumbar extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Ryan M; Zhou, Yu; Zheng, Liying; Chowdhury, Suman K; Aiyangar, Ameet; Zhang, Xudong

    2018-03-21

    The lumbar facet joint (FJ) is often associated with pathogenesis in the spine, but quantification of normal FJ motion remains limited to in vitro studies or static imaging of non-functional poses. The purpose of this study was to quantify lumbar FJ kinematics in healthy individuals during functional activity with dynamic stereo radiography (DSX) imaging. Ten asymptomatic participants lifted three known weights starting from a trunk-flexed (∼75°) position to an upright position while being imaged within the DSX system. High resolution computed tomography (CT) scan-derived 3D models of their lumbar vertebrae (L2-S1) were registered to the biplane 2D radiographs using a markerless model-based tracking technique providing instantaneous 3D vertebral kinematics throughout the lifting tasks. Effects of segment level and weight lifted were assessed using mixed-effect repeated measures ANOVA. Superior-inferior (SI) translation dominated FJ translation, with L5S1 showing significantly less translation magnitudes (Median (Md) = 3.5 mm, p translations revealed strong linearity for SI translation (r 2  > 0.94), reasonably high linearity for sideways sliding (Z-) (r 2  > 0.8), but much less linearity for facet gap change (X-) (r 2  ∼ 0.5). Caudal segments (L4-S1), particularly L5S1, displayed greater coupling compared to cranial (L2-L4) segments, revealing distinct differences overall in FJ translation trends at L5S1. No significant effect of weight lifted on FJ translations was detected. The study presents a hitherto unavailable and highly precise baseline dataset of facet translations measured during a functional, dynamic lifting task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationships among different facets of host specificity in three taxa of haematophagous ectoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mescht, Luther; Warburton, Elizabeth M; Khokhlova, Irina S; Vinarski, Maxim V; Korallo-Vinarskaya, Natalia P; Krasnov, Boris R

    2017-12-01

    Host specificity is a fundamental trait of a parasite species. Recently, multiple aspects of host specificity have been recognized, but the relationships between these facets are still poorly understood. Here, we studied pairwise relationships between basic, structural, phylogenetic and geographic host specificity in three taxa of haematophagous ectoparasitic arthropods that differ in tightness of their association with the host. We asked which metrics of host specificity are correlated within each parasite taxon and whether the patterns of the association between different facets of host specificity are similar among parasite taxa. Data on bat flies were taken from published surveys across the Neotropics while data on fleas and mites parasitic on small mammals were compiled from multiple published surveys across the Palaearctic. Basic, structural, phylogenetic and geographic specificity indices were calculated for 18 bat fly species recorded on 40 host species from 15 regions, 109 flea species recorded on 120 host species from 51 regions and 34 mite species recorded on 67 host species from 28 regions. Then, we tested for the correlation between any two measures of host specificity using model II regressions. We found that structural and basic specificity, as well as structural and geographic specificity, exhibited a positive association in all three taxa. However, basic and geographic specificity, as well as basic and phylogenetic specificity, were significantly positively associated in fleas but did not correlate in bat flies or mites. In addition, we found a significant negative association between structural and phylogenetic specificity in bat flies but no association in the remaining taxa. Moreover, geographic and phylogenetic specificity were not associated in any parasite taxon. Our results suggest that different facets of host specificity were shaped differently by natural selection in different taxa. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology

  18. Ultrasound-guided facet block to low back pain: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ellen Q. Santiago

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoarthrosis is a common cause of low back pain. The diagnosis is clinical and can be confirmed by imaging studies. Pain treatment and confirmation of diagnosis are made by intra-articular injection of corticosteroid and by local anesthetic use, due to clinical improvement. A direct monitoring of the procedure can be done under fluoroscopy, a classic technique, or else by an ultrasound-guided procedure. CASE REPORT: Female patient, 88 years old, 1.68 m and 72 kg, with facet osteoarthrosis at L2-L3, L3-L4 and L4-L5 for two years. On physical examination, she exhibited pain on lateralization and spinal extension. We opted in favor of an ultrasound-guided facet joint block. A midline spinal longitudinal scan was obtained, with identification of the desired joint space at L3-L4. A 25 G needle was inserted into the skin by the echographic off-plane ultrasound technique. 1 mL of contrast was administered, with confirmation by fluoroscopy. After aspiration of the contrast, 1 mL of solution containing 0.25% bupivacaine hydrochloride and 10 mg of methylprednisolone acetate was injected. Injections into L3-L4, L2-L3 and L1-L2 to the right were applied. CONCLUSIONS: The visualization of the facet joint by ultrasound involves minimal risk, besides reduction of radiation. This option is suitable for a large part of the population. However, fluoroscopy and computed tomography remain as monitoring techniques indicated for patients with specific characteristics, such as obesity, severe degenerative diseases and anatomical malformations, in which the ultrasound technique is still in need of further study.

  19. Internet addiction and its facets: The role of genetics and the relation to self-directedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Elisabeth; Reuter, Martin; Spinath, Frank M; Montag, Christian

    2017-02-01

    A growing body of research focuses on problematic behavior patterns related to the use of the Internet to identify contextual as well as individual risk factors of this new phenomenon called Internet addiction (IA). IA can be described as a multidimensional syndrome comprising aspects such as craving, development of tolerance, loss of control and negative consequences. Given that previous research on other addictive behaviors showed substantial heritability, it can be expected that the vulnerability to IA may also be due to a person's genetic predisposition. However, it is questionable whether distinct components of IA have different etiologies. Using data from a sample of adult monozygotic and dizygotic twins and non-twin siblings (N=784 individuals, N=355 complete pairs, M=30.30years), we investigated the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on generalized IA as well as on specific facets such as excessive use, self-regulation, preference for online social interaction or negative consequences. To explain the heritability in IA, we further examined the relation to Self-Directedness as potential mediating source. Results showed that relative contributions of genetic influences vary considerable for different components of IA. For generalized IA factors, individual differences could be explained by shared and non-shared environmental influences while genetic influences did not play a role. For specific facets of IA and private Internet use in hours per week, heritability estimates ranged between 21% and 44%. Bivariate analysis indicated that Self-Directedness accounted for 20% to 65% of the genetic variance in specific IA facets through overlapping genetic pathways. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of the increase in the height of lumbar disc space on facet joint articulation area in sagittal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiayong; Ebraheim, Nabil A; Haman, Steven P; Shafiq, Qaiser; Karkare, Nakul; Biyani, Ashok; Goel, Vijay K; Woldenberg, Lee

    2006-04-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) of the lumbar spine cadaveric specimens was used to evaluate the effect of increasing the height of the disc space in the lumbar spine to the facet joint articulation in the sagittal plane. To show how the facet joint articulation is affected by increasing the height of the disc space in the lumbar spine. The Charité Artificial Disc (DePuy Spine, Inc., Raynham, MA) was successful in relieving low back pain in the majority of patients, yet there was still a significant number of patients who did not obtain pain relief, or their pain even worsened. The etiology of their pain is still not known. To our knowledge, no study has addressed the effect on the facet joints when the disc height is increased. CT images passing through the center of the L3-S1 facet joints (sagittal plane) were obtained from 15 cadaveric lumbar spine specimens. The articulation overlap of facet joints in sagittal plane from the L3 to S1 was measured. A 1-mm incremental increase to a total 5 mm in disc space height was performed to simulate the changes seen in disc replacement. The change in the facet joint articulation overlap in sagittal plane at normal and each displacement was then measured. There were 5 lumbar spine specimens dissected to validate the technique and standardize the measurements. Mean, percentages, and standard deviation values were calculated for all measured dimensions. No significant difference was found between the measurements on CT and gross specimens (P > 0.05). In 15 specimens, the mean facet joint articulation overlap on the sagittal plane was: 16.29 +/- 1.20 mm (left) and 16.22 +/- 1.16 (right) at the L3-L4 level; 17.81 +/- 1.18 mm (left) and 17.74 +/- 1.18 mm (right) at the L4-L5 level; and 18.18 +/- 1.18 mm (left) and 18.23 +/- 1.15 mm (right) at the L5-S1 level. There is no significant difference between the measured values on left and right sides (P > 0.05). Each 1-mm incremental increase in disc space at the L3-L4 level translated

  1. Within-trait heterogeneity in age group differences in personality domains and facets: implications for the development and coherence of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Johnson, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated differences in the Five-Factor Model (FFM) domains and facets across adulthood. The main questions were whether personality scales reflected coherent units of trait development and thereby coherent personality traits more generally. These questions were addressed by testing if the components of the trait scales (items for facet scales and facets for domain scales) showed consistent age group differences. For this, measurement invariance (MI) framework was used. In a sample of 2,711 Estonians who had completed the NEO Personality Inventory 3 (NEO PI-3), more than half of the facet scales and one domain scale did not meet the criterion for weak MI (factor loading equality) across 12 age groups spanning ages from 18 to 91 years. Furthermore, none of the facet and domain scales met the criterion for strong MI (intercept equality), suggesting that items of the same facets and facets of the same domains varied in age group differences. When items were residualized for their respective facets, 46% of them had significant (p facets were residualized for their domain scores, a majority had significant (p facets as embodied in the NEO PI-3 do not reflect aetiologically coherent traits.

  2. The influence of facet joint orientation and tropism on the stress at the adjacent segment after lumbar fusion surgery: a biomechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Son, Juhyun; Lee, Choon-Ki; Chang, Bong-Soon; Yeom, Jin S

    2015-08-01

    Facet joint orientation and tropism influence the biomechanics of the corresponding segment. Therefore, the sagittal orientation or tropism of the facet joint adjacent to the fusion segment seems a potential risk factor for adjacent segment degeneration. However, there have been no biomechanical studies regarding this issue. To investigate the association between adjacent facet orientation and facet tropism and stress in adjacent disc/facet joints using finite element (FE) analysis. An FE analysis. Four intact (F50, F55, F60, and FT [facet tropism]) and matched L3-L4 fusion (F50, F55, F60, and FT fusion) models with different facet joint orientation (50°, 55°, 60° relative to the coronal plane, and facet tropism, respectively) at both L2-L3 facet joints were simulated. In each model, intradiscal pressures and facet contact force at the L2-L3 segment were investigated under pure moments and anterior shear force. Compared with the matched-intact model, the F60 fusion model yielded the highest and largest percentage increase of intradiscal pressure at the L2-L3 segment under flexion, torsion moment, and anterior shear force among the F50, F55, and F60 fusion models. F60 fusion model also demonstrated the largest facet contact force under torsion moment among the F50, F55, and F60 fusion models. In all conditions tested, the FT fusion model demonstrated the highest intradiscal pressure and facet contact force of all the models. Facet joint orientation and tropism at the adjacent segment influences the overstress of the adjacent segment, especially under the clinical circumstance of increased anterior shear force. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of fatigue crack initiation facets in Ti-6Al-4V using focused ion beam milling and electron backscatter diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaerts, J; Verlinden, B; Wevers, M

    2017-07-01

    In the very high cycle fatigue regime, internal crack initiation can occur in Ti-6Al-4V because of the formation of facets, which are α grains that have fractured in a transcrystalline and planar manner. Because this crack initiation phase occupies most of the fatigue life, it is essential to understand which mechanisms lead to facet formation. Fatigue tests have been performed on drawn and heat-treated Ti-6Al-4V wires, and the facets at internal crack initiation sites have been analysed in detail in terms of their appearance, their spatial orientation and their crystallographic orientation. The facets were not smooth, but showed surface markings at the nanoscale. In nearly all cases, these markings followed a linear pattern. One anomalous facet, in a sample with the largest grain size, contained a fan-shaped pattern. The facets were at relatively steep angles, mostly between 50° and 70°. Cross-sections of the fracture surfaces have been made by focused ion beam milling and were used to measure the crystallographic orientation of facets by electron backscatter diffraction. Most facet planes coincided with a prismatic lattice plane, and the linear markings were parallel to the prismatic slip direction, which is a strong indication that prismatic slip and slip band formation led to crack initiation. However, the anomalous facet had a near-basal orientation, which points to a possible cleavage mechanism. The cross-sections also exposed secondary cracks, which had formed on prismatic lattice planes, and in some cases early stage facet formation and short crack growth phenomena. The latter observations show that facets can extend through more than one grain, and that there is crack coalescence between facets. The fact that drawn wires have a specific crystallographic texture has led to a different facet formation behaviour compared to what has been suggested in the literature. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Facet and in-plane crystallographic orientations of GaN nanowires grown on Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Largeau, L; Harmand, J C; Dheeraj, D L; Tchernycheva, M; Cirlin, G E

    2008-01-01

    We have determined the in-plane orientation of GaN nanowires relative to the Si (111) substrate on which they were grown. We used x-ray diffraction pole figure measurements to evidence two types of crystallographic orientation, all the nanowires having {101-bar 0} lateral facets. The proportion of these two orientations was determined and shown to be influenced by the pre-deposition of Al(Ga)N intermediate layers. In the main orientation, the GaN basal directions are aligned with the directions. This orientation corresponds to an in-plane coincidence of GaN and Si lattices

  5. Resting Heart Rate Variability, Facets of Rumination and Trait Anxiety: Implications for the Perseverative Cognition Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeWayne P. Williams

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The perseverative cognition hypothesis (PCH posits that perseveration, defined as the repetitive or sustained activation of cognitive representations of a real or imagined stressor, is a primary mechanism linking psychological (or stress vulnerability with poor health and disease. Resting vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV is an important indicator of self-regulatory abilities, stress vulnerability and overall health. Those with lower resting vmHRV are more vulnerable to stress, and thus more likely to engage in perseverative cognition and experience subsequent negative mental health outcomes such as anxiety. Recent research suggests that rumination—one of the core mechanisms underlying perseveration—is a construct containing (at least two maladaptive (depressive and brooding and one adaptive (reflective types of rumination. However, to date, research has not examined how the association between resting vmHRV may differ between these three facets of rumination, in addition to these facets’ mechanistic role in linking lower resting vmHRV with greater trait anxiety. The current cross-sectional study explores these relationships in a sample of 203 participants (112 females, 76 ethnic minorities, mean age = 19.43, standard deviation = 1.87. Resting vmHRV was assessed during a 5-min-resting period using an Electrocardiogram (ECG. Both trait rumination (including the three facets and anxiety were assessed via self-report scales. Significant negative associations were found between resting vmHRV and maladaptive, but not adaptive, forms of perseveration. Similarly, mediation analyses showed a significant indirect relationship between resting vmHRV and anxiety through maladaptive, but not adaptive, facets of rumination. Our findings support the PCH such that those with stress vulnerability, as indexed by lower resting vmHRV, are more likely to engage in maladaptive perseverative cognition and thus experience negative outcomes such as

  6. Clinical evaluation and surgical decision making for patients with lumbar discogenic pain and facet syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessitore, Enrico, E-mail: enrico.tessitore@hcuge.ch [Neurosurgical Unit, Geneva University Hospitals, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva (Switzerland); Molliqaj, Granit, E-mail: granitmolliqaj@gmail.com [Neurosurgical Unit, Geneva University Hospitals, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva (Switzerland); Schatlo, Bawarjan, E-mail: schatlo@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Georg-August University, University of Medicine Gottingen, 37075 Gottingen (Germany); Schaller, Karl, E-mail: karl.schaller@hcuge.ch [Neurosurgical Unit, Geneva University Hospitals, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    In industrialized countries, more than two thirds of the population suffers from low back pain (LBP) in their lifetime. LBP associated with lumbar disc herniation, stenosis, and instability is a well-known and documented entity. On the other hand, the lumbar discogenic pain and facet syndrome are difficult to be clearly identified, and they are not always detectable by imaging. This article describes the causes of these painful syndromes, which are typically without radicular component, explains the modern diagnostic procedures, and provides guidelines for surgical decision making.

  7. Validation of the Electromagnetic Code FACETS for Numerical Simulation of Radar Target Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    leurs solutions potentielles. Une approche raisonnable et logique à la bonne validation CEM consiste à utiliser un modèle de cible bien défini comme...2009 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2009 DRDC Ottawa TM 2009-275 i...valider le Frequency Asymptotic Code for Electromagnetic Target Scattering (FACETS [code de fréquence asymptotique pour la diffusion de cibles

  8. Septic arthritis of a lumbar facet joint: Detection with bone SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swayne, L.C.; Dorsky, S.; Caruana, V.; Kaplan, I.L.

    1989-01-01

    We present a rare case of septic arthritis of a lumbar facet joint with an associated epidural abscess resulting from Staphylococcus aureus. The infection was initially detected with planar bone scintigraphy and precisely localized with single photon emission computed tomography bone scintigraphy, despite an initially negative radiologic evaluation that included radiographs of the lumbar spine, lumbar myelography, and a postmyelography x-ray computed tomography scan. In the appropriate clinical setting, a bone scan demonstrating unilateral increased activity within the spine should raise the suspicion of inflammatory involvement of the posterior elements

  9. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (174). L5 vertebral superior facet osteoblastoma (OB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Manickam; Chou, Hong; Chokkappan, Kabilan; Peh, Wilfred Cg

    2017-02-01

    A 25-year-old man presented with chronic low back pain and occasional radiation to the right lower limb. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (CT) of the lumbar spine showed an osteolytic expansile lesion with a central sclerotic nidus in the right superior facet of the L5 vertebra and surrounding marrow oedema. The diagnosis of osteoblastoma was made based on imaging findings and confirmed after CT-guided biopsy. Radiofrequency ablation of the lesion was successfully performed. The patient tolerated the procedure well and showed symptomatic relief. The imaging features and management of osteoblastoma are discussed. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  10. Inter-rater reliability of diagnostic criteria for sacroiliac joint-, disc- and facet joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Cornelis W J; Groeneweg, Johannes G; Stronks, Dirk L; Huygen, Frank J P M

    2017-01-01

    Several diagnostic criteria sets are described in the literature to identify low back pain subtypes, but very little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these criteria. We conducted a study to determine the reliability of diagnostic tests that point towards SI joint-, disc- or facet joint pain. Inter-rater reliability study alongside three randomized clinical trials. Multidisciplinary pain center of general hospital. Patients aged 18 or more with medical history and physical examination suggestive of sacroiliac joint-, disc- and facet joint pain on lumbar level. Making use of nowadays most common used diagnostic criteria, a physical examination is taken independently by three physicians (two pain physicians and one orthopedic surgeon). Inter-rater reliability (Kappa (κ) measure of agreement) and significance (p) between raters are presented. Strengths of agreement, indicated with κ values above 0,20, are presented in order of agreement. One hundred patients were included. None of the parameters from the physical investigation had κ values of more than 0.21 (fair) in all pairs of raters. Between two raters (C and D), there was an almost perfect agreement on three parameters, more specifically ``Abnormal sensory and motor examination, hyperactive or diminished reflexes'', ``Sitting exam shows no reflex, motor or sensory signs in the legs'' and ``Straight leg raising (Laségue) negative between 30 and 70 degrees of flexion''. The ``Drop test positive'' parameters had moderate strength of agreement between raters A and D and fair strength between raters A and B. The ``Digital interspinous pressure test positive'' had moderate strength of agreement between raters C and D and fair strength of agreement between raters A and B as well as raters B and C. Three other parameters had a fair strength of agreement between two raters, all other parameters had a slight or poor strength of agreement. Inter-rater reliability, confidence intervals and significance of

  11. Ultrasound-guided facet joint injection to treat a spinal cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tung-Liang; Chung, Chin-Teng; Lan, Howard Haw-Chang; Sheen, Huey-Min

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar spinal cysts often present with backache and may be accompanied by lower extremity weakness as well as radiation pain if root compression occurs. The treatment regimens include anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, procedures guided by fluoroscopy or computed tomography, and surgery. We report the case of a patient with a symptomatic lumbar spinal cyst at the L4–L5 facet joint. The symptoms immediately remitted after ultrasound-guided steroid–lidocaine injection into the L4–L5 fac...

  12. Calibrating Charisma: The many-facet Rasch model for leader measurement and automated coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Matt

    2016-11-01

    No one is a leader unless others follow. Consequently, leadership is fundamentally a social judgment construct, and may be best measured via a Many Facet Rasch Model designed for this purpose. Uniquely, the MFRM allows for objective, accurate and precise estimation of leader attributes, along with identification of rater biases and other distortions of the available information. This presentation will outline a mobile computer-adaptive measurement system that measures and develops charisma, among others. Uniquely, the approach calibrates and mass-personalizes artificially intelligent, Rasch-calibrated electronic coaching that is neither too hard nor too easy but “just right” to help each unique leader develop improved charisma.

  13. Final Report for the "Fusion Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations (FACETS)"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, John R; Kruger, Scott

    2014-10-02

    The FACETS project over its lifetime developed the first self-consistent core-edge coupled capabilities, a new transport solver for modeling core transport in tokamak cores, developed a new code for modeling wall physics over long time scales, and significantly improved the capabilities and performance of legacy components, UEDGE, NUBEAM, GLF23, GYRO, and BOUT++. These improved capabilities leveraged the team’s expertise in applied mathematics (solvers and algorithms) and computer science (performance improvements and language interoperability). The project pioneered new methods for tackling the complexity of simulating the concomitant complexity of tokamak experiments.

  14. Paraspinal muscle, facet joint, and disc problems: risk factors for adjacent segment degeneration after lumbar fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Yeol; Ryu, Dal Sung; Paik, Ho Kyu; Ahn, Sang Soak; Kang, Moo Sung; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Park, Jeong Yoon; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun; Kuh, Sung Uk

    2016-07-01

    Adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) is one of the major complications after lumbar fusion. Several studies have evaluated the risk factors of ASD. Although the paraspinal muscles play an important role in spine stability, no study has assessed the relationship between paraspinal muscle atrophy and the incidence of ASD after lumbar fusion. In the present study, we aimed to verify the known risk factors of ASD, such as body mass index (BMI), preoperative adjacent facet joint degeneration, and disc degeneration, and to assess the relationship between paraspinal muscle atrophy and ASD. This is a retrospective 1:1 pair analysis matched by age, sex, fusion level, and follow-up period. To calculate the appropriate sample size for the study, we performed a pre-study analysis of the paraspinal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), and estimated that at least 35 cases would be needed for each group. Among the 510 patients who underwent posterior lumbar fusion for degenerative lumbar disease between January 2009 and October 2009, a total of 50 patients with ASD after surgery were selected. Another group of 50 matched patients with degenerative lumbar disease without ASD after spinal fusion were selected as the control group. Each patient in the ASD group was matched with a control patient according to age, sex, fusion level, and follow-up period. Radiographic measurements and demographic data were reviewed. The risk factors considered were higher BMI, preoperative adjacent segment disc and facet degeneration, and preoperative paraspinal muscle atrophy and fatty degeneration. The radiographic data were compared between the ASD and control groups to determine the predictive factors of ASD after posterior lumbar fusion by using logistic regression analysis. The study was not externally funded. The authors have no conflict of interest to declare. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that higher BMI (odds ratio [OR]: 1.353, p=.008), preoperative facet degeneration on

  15. Toward Principles of Construct Clarity: Exploring the Usefulness of Facet Theory in Guiding Conceptualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Conceptualization in theory development has received limited consideration despite its frequently stressed importance in Information Systems research. This paper focuses on the role of construct clarity in conceptualization, arguing that construct clarity should be considered an essential criterion for evaluating conceptualization and that a focus on construct clarity can advance conceptualization methodology. Drawing from Facet Theory literature, we formulate a set of principles for assessing construct clarity, particularly regarding a construct’s relationships to its extant related constructs. Conscious and targeted attention to this criterion can promote a research ecosystem more supportive of knowledge accumulation.

  16. Highly exposed surface area of {001} facets dominated BiOBr nanosheets with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Fang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Tan, Tingting; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-02-17

    Two groups of BiOBr nanosheets with different sizes and similar exposure percentages of {001} facets were selectively synthesized by simple hydrothermal methods. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activity was estimated from the degradation of organic pollutants under visible-light irradiation. The results indicated that BiOBr nanosheets with similar exposure percentages of {001} facets but smaller sizes exhibited higher photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the effects of the size, including the thickness and length, of BiOBr nanosheets were also studied. The results showed that the impact of thickness was more significant than that of length. It was found that reducing the thickness of BiOBr nanosheets can significantly increase the exposed surface areas of {001} facets (S{001}), but not necessarily the exposure percentage of {001} facets. Moreover, in our experiment, the photocatalytic activity of BiOBr nanosheets increased linearly with an increase in S{001} in the range of 0.022 to 0.111 nm(-1). Therefore, the photocatalytic activity of BiOBr nanosheets depended on the exposed surface areas of {001} facets rather than the exposure percentage of {001} facets. The enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of ultrathin BiOBr nanosheets with large exposed surface areas of {001} facets can be mainly ascribed to their enhanced absorption of visible light and improved separation efficiency of charge carriers.

  17. [Features of the new minimally invasive techniques facet fixation system «Facet Wedge» in the treatment of degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byvaltsev, V A; Kalinin, A A; Okoneshnikova, A K

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was a comparative analysis of the clinical and radiographic effectiveness of the use of interbody fusion and open pedicle screw stabilization of simultaneous and new minimally invasive techniques facet fixation system «Facet Wedge» in the treatment of degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine in elderly patients. The study included 39 elderly patients (older than 60), which carries out the transforaminal interbody fusion Cage «T-pal»: open transpedicaular stabilization was used in 1st group (n=23), ipsilateral open transpedicular stabilization with contralateral transfaset installing titanium Cage «facet Wedge» -in 2nd group (n=16). We used intraoperative interventions and specific post-operative patient management, clinical data and radiographic outcomes for a comparative analysis of the parameters. Dynamic assessment was made in a period of 8 to 36 months after surgery (median 24 mo.). As a result, it found that the use of the system «facet Wedge» allows you to achieve the best clinical outcomes and fewer postoperative complications compared with open transpedicular stabilization in similar radiographic findings of bone block formation. Low traumatic facet fixation makes it possible to use methods for the treatment of elderly patients with degenerative diseases of the lumbosacral spine.

  18. The relationship between schizotypal facets and conspiracist beliefs via cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, David; Furnham, Adrian; Weis, Laura; Morgan, Kevin D; Towell, Tony; Swami, Viren

    2018-01-01

    This study sought to replicate previous work showing relationships between components of schizotypy and conspiracist beliefs, and extend it by examining the mediating role of cognitive processes. An international online sample of 411 women and men (mean age = 35.41 years) completed measures of the schizotypal facets of Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking and Ideas of Reference, conspiracist beliefs, and cognitive processes related to need for cognition, analytic thinking, and cognitive insight. Path analysis confirmed the associations between both schizotypal facets and conspiracist beliefs in the present sample. Confirmatory evidence was found for the association between analytic thinking and conspiracist beliefs, and results also suggested an association between cognitive insight and conspiracist beliefs. Cognitive insight also mediated the link between Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking and Ideas of Reference with conspiracist beliefs. However, analytic thinking provided a mediating link to conspiracy ideation for Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking and not Ideas of Reference. Finally, there was an association between Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking and need for cognition, but this path did not extend to conspiracist beliefs. These results suggest possible mediating roles for analytic thinking and self-certainty between schizotypy and conspiracist beliefs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cubic zirconia as a high-quality facet coating for semiconductor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, A.K.; Satyanarayan, A.; Zarrabi, J.H.; Vetterling, W.

    1988-08-01

    In this paper we describe the properties of high-quality, semiconductor laser facet coatings based on yttria-stabilizied cubic zirconia (90-m% ZrO/sub 2//10-m% Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/). We have found that cubic zirconia films can be reproducibly deposited by electron-beam evaporation with an index of refraction of 1.98 at 6328 A, almost ideal for use as a single-layer antireflection coating for GaAs/GaAlAs-based lasers. ZrO/sub 2/ has a monoclinic crystal structure at room temperature, but changes to tetragonal, hexagonal, and cubic phases upon heating to higher temperatures. However, the addition of the Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ stabilizes ZrO/sub 2/ in the cubic form, thus allowing electron-beam deposition of thin films of this material to be more controllable and reproducible without the usual addition of oxygen into the vacuum chamber during deposition. Preliminary aging tests of high-power GaAs/GaAlAs lasers show that cubic zirconia films suppress the photo-enhanced oxidation of laser facets that degrades device performance.

  20. Enabling multi-faceted measures of success for protected area management in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granderson, Ainka A

    2011-08-01

    A key challenge has been to define and measure "success" in managing protected areas. A case study was conducted of efforts to evaluate the new protected area management system in Trinidad and Tobago using a participatory approach. The aim of the case study was to (1) examine whether stakeholder involvement better captures the multi-faceted nature of success and (2) identify the role and influence of various stakeholder groups in this process. An holistic and systematic framework was developed with stakeholder input that facilitated the integration of expert and lay knowledge, a broad emphasis on ecological, socio-economic, and institutional aspects, and the use of both quantitative and qualitative data allowing the evaluation to capture the multi-faceted nature and impacts of protected area management. Input from primary stakeholders, such as local communities, was critical as they have a high stake in protected area outcomes. Secondary and external stakeholders, including government agencies, non-governmental organizations, academia and the private sector, were also important in providing valuable technical assistance and serving as mediators. However, a lack of consensus over priorities, politics, and limited stakeholder capacity and data access pose significant barriers to engaging stakeholders to effectively measure the management success of protected areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct transfer of metallic photonic structures onto end facets of optical fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinping Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a flexible approach to transfer metallic photonic crystals (MPCs onto end facets of optical fibers. The MPCs were initially fabricated on a glass substrate with a spacer layer of indium tin oxide (ITO, which was used as a buffer layer in the transferring process. The fiber ends were firstly welded on the top surface of the MPCs by a drop of polymer solution after the solvent evaporated. The ITO layer was then etched by hydrochloric acid (HCl, so that the MPCs got off the substrate and were transferred to the fiber ends. Alternatively, the MPCs may be also etched off the substrate first by immersing the sample in HCl. The ultra-thin MPC sheet consisting of gold nanolines interlaced with photoresist gratings was then transferred to cap the fiber ends. In the later approach, we can choose which side of the MPCs to be used as the contact with the fiber facet. Such methods enabled convenient nanostructuring on optical fiber tips and achieving miniaturized MPC devices with compact integration, extending significantly applications of MPCs. In particular, the fabrications presented in this manuscript enrich the lab-on-fiber engineering techniques and the resultant devices have potential applications in remote sensing and detection systems.

  2. The Indirect Effects of Childhood ADHD on Alcohol Problems in Adulthood through Unique Facets of Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A.P.; Harty, Seth C.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Research has not studied unique impulsivity dimensions as prospective links between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and alcohol problems. We examined the association between childhood ADHD, 5 facets of impulsivity and alcohol problems in adulthood, and the indirect effects of childhood ADHD-to-impulsivity-to-alcohol problems. Design, Setting, and Participants Participants were from a longitudinal study (N = 289, MAge = 28.67) of individuals with (n = 170) and without (n = 119) childhood ADHD. The ADHD sample, as part of an ADHD summer treatment program, was initially diagnosed in childhood (1987–1996, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA) via structured parent interview and standardized parent/teacher ratings. The ADHD sample and demographically similar individuals without ADHD (living in the greater Pittsburgh area) were recruited to participate in the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) between 1999 and 2003. Measurements Self-reported impulsivity (UPPS-P) and alcohol-related problems were assessed in adulthood (2011 – 2014). Findings Adults with, compared with those without, childhood ADHD had more alcohol problems (β = .34, p facets (except sensation seeking) were related to number of alcohol problems (β’s = .34–.61, p’s < .05). Negative (b = .26, p < .01) and positive (b = .27, p < .01) urgency mediated the association between childhood ADHD and number of adult alcohol problems. Conclusions Elevated levels of emotional impulsivity (negative/positive urgency) may place children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at increased risk for alcohol problems in adulthood. PMID:26999438

  3. Ab initio calculation of transport properties between PbSe quantum dots facets with iodide ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Patterson, R.; Chen, W.; Zhang, Z.; Yang, J.; Huang, S.; Shrestha, S.; Conibeer, G.

    2018-01-01

    The transport properties between Lead Selenide (PbSe) quantum dots decorated with iodide ligands has been studied using density functional theory (DFT). Quantum conductance at each selected energy levels has been calculated along with total density of states and projected density of states. The DFT calculation is carried on using a grid-based planar augmented wave (GPAW) code incorporated with the linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) mode and Perdew Burke Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange-correlation functional. Three iodide ligand attached low index facets including (001), (011), (111) are investigated in this work. P-orbital of iodide ligand majorly contributes to density of state (DOS) at near top valence band resulting a significant quantum conductance, whereas DOS of Pb p-orbital shows minor influence. Various values of quantum conductance observed along different planes are possibly reasoned from a combined effect electrical field over topmost surface and total distance between adjacent facets. Ligands attached to (001) and (011) planes possess similar bond length whereas it is significantly shortened in (111) plane, whereas transport between (011) has an overall low value due to newly formed electric field. On the other hand, (111) plane with a net surface dipole perpendicular to surface layers leading to stronger electron coupling suggests an apparent increase of transport probability. Apart from previously mentioned, the maximum transport energy levels located several eVs (1 2 eVs) from the edge of valence band top.

  4. Neo-Geometric Copper Nanocrystals by Competitive, Dual Surfactant-Mediated Facet Adsorption Controlling Skin Permeation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmani Murugan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neogeometric copper nanoparticles (CuNPs have various applications yet its synthesis still proves to be challenging with regards to self-assembly and uniformity control. This study aimed to synthesize shape-specific CuNPs in the biomedical application of ascertaining skin permeation and retention of the CuNPs as a drug delivery system. The approach to the shape design involved the dual control of two surfactants to direct the shape organisation of the nanoparticles (NPs while an interesting aspect of the study showed the competitive adsorption of the surfactants onto the nanocrystal facets to direct facet growth. The resulting copper nanoparticles were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD and electron diffraction spectra analysis (EDS for elemental and crystalline analysis. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA identified the degradation of the surfactant coat and the synthesis of a novel copper-polymer complex and extensive transmission electron microscopy (TEM was conducted to determine the nanoparticle morphology. Epidermal skin tissue served as the model for permeation studies of five idealistic nano-geometries and investigated its application in drug delivery with regards to cellular internalisation and transbarrier transport of the geometric CuNPs. A mechanistic consideration for shape control is discussed.

  5. A subexponential lower bound for the Random Facet algorithm for Parity Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedmann, Oliver; Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Zwick, Uri

    2011-01-01

    of turn-based Stochastic Mean Payoff Games. It is a major open problem whether these game families can be solved in polynomial time. The currently theoretically fastest algorithms for the solution of all these games are adaptations of the randomized algorithms of Kalai and of Matouˇsek, Sharir and Welzl...... for LP-type problems, an abstract generalization of linear programming. The expected running time of both algorithms is subexponential in the size of the game, i.e., 2O(√n log n), where n is the number of vertices in the game. We focus in this paper on the algorithm of Matouˇsek, Sharir and Welzl...... and refer to it as the Random Facet algorithm. Matouˇsek constructed a family of abstract optimization problems such that the expected running time of the Random Facet algorithm, when run on a random instance from this family, is close to the subexponential upper bound given above. This shows...

  6. Controlled synthesis of water-dispersible faceted crystalline copper nanoparticles and their catalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfei; Biradar, Ankush V; Wang, Gang; Sharma, Krishna K; Duncan, Cole T; Rangan, Sylvie; Asefa, Tewodros

    2010-09-17

    We report a solution-phase synthetic route to copper nanoparticles with controllable size and shape. The synthesis of the nanoparticles is achieved by the reduction of copper(II) salt in aqueous solution with hydrazine under air atmosphere in the presence of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as capping agent. The results suggest that the pH plays a key role for the formation of pure copper nanoparticles, whereas the concentration of PAA is important for controlling the size and geometric shape of the nanoparticles. The average size of the copper nanoparticles can be varied from 30 to 80 nm, depending on the concentration of PAA. With a moderate amount of PAA, faceted crystalline copper nanoparticles are obtained. The as-synthesized copper nanoparticles appear red in color and are stable for weeks, as confirmed by UV/Vis and X-ray photoemission (XPS) spectroscopy. The faceted crystalline copper nanoparticles serve as an effective catalyst for N-arylation of heterocycles, such as the C--N coupling reaction between p-nitrobenzyl chloride and morpholine producing 4-(4-nitrophenyl)morpholine in an excellent yield under mild reaction conditions. Furthermore, the nanoparticles are proven to be versatile as they also effectively catalyze the three-component, one-pot Mannich reaction between p-substituted benzaldehyde, aniline, and acetophenone affording a 100% conversion of the limiting reactant (aniline).

  7. Upper cervical facet joint and spinal rami blocks for the treatment of cervicogenic headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linqiu; Hud-Shakoor, Zarinah; Hennessey, Christopher; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of upper cervical facet joint injections and spinal rami blocks in the treatment of cervicogenic headache. Cervicogenic headache has been recognized as a common and often disabling disorder. The treatment of this headache type remains challenging. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 31 patients with refractory cervicogenic headache who underwent fluoroscopically guided C(1/2), C(2/3) facet joint injections and C(2), C(3) spinal rami blocks using a mixture of 0.25% bupivacaine and 3 mg betamehtasone. The outcome measures were the change in headache severity, assessed using an 11-point numerical pain scale, after treatment, and the duration of head pain relief. Twenty-eight (90.3%) patients experienced >50% headache relief after treatment, with an average duration of 21.7 (1-90) days. Mean (+/-SD) head pain intensity decreased from 7.5 +/- 1.3 before treatment to 2.7 +/- 1.9 immediately after it (P rami blocks were effective and well tolerated for the treatment of cervicogenic headache in this study. The procedures provided significant and prolonged pain relief in the majority of patients. Larger controlled studies are needed to further evaluate the efficacy of this treatment modality in cervicogenic headache.

  8. Facet tropism: possible role in the pathology of lumbar disc herniation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honggang; Zhou, Yue

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE The role of facet tropism (FT) in lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is ambiguous. The present study aimed to investigate the association between FT and LDH in adolescents. METHODS This study included 65 adolescents with LDH with 1- or 2-level LDH, or both. Facet angles were measured with MRI. FT was defined as asymmetry of 10° between the left and right side. The same levels of 30 healthy persons who had no lumbar lesions were used as controls. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. RESULTS FT was identified in 16 of 39 patients with LDH in L4-5 and in 3 of 30 controls (p = 0.006, OR 6.261, 95% CI 1.619-24.217). It was also identified in 12 of 27 patients with LDH in L5-S1 and in 4 of 30 controls (p = 0.017, OR 5.200, 95% CI 1.420-19.039). One patient had LDH in both L4-5 and L5-S1. CONCLUSIONS FT is associated with LDH in both L4-5 and L5-S1 levels in adolescents.

  9. Exploring Variability Sources in Student Evaluation of Teaching via Many-Facet Rasch Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü BÖRKAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating quality of teaching is important in nearly every higher education institute. The most common way of assessing teaching effectiveness takes place through students. Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET is used to gather information about students’ experiences with a course and instructor’s performance at some point of semester. SET can be considered as a type of rater mediated performance assessment where students are the raters and instructors are the examinees. When performance assessment becomes a rater mediated assessment process, extra measures need to be taken into consideration in order to create more reliable and fair assessment practices. The study has two main purposes; (a to examine the extent to which the facets (instructor, student, and rating items contribute to instructors’ score variance and (b to examine the students’ judging behavior in order to detect any potential source of bias in student evaluation of teaching by using the Many-Facet Rasch Model. The data set includes one thousand 235 students’ responses from 254 courses. The results show that a students greatly differ in the severity while rating instructors, b students were fairly consistent in their ratings, c students as a group and individual level are tend to display halo effect in their ratings, d students are clustered at the highest two categories of the scale and e the variation in item measures is fairly low. The findings have practical implications for the SET practices by improving the psychometric quality of measurement.

  10. Parallel Syndromes: Two Dimensions of Narcissism and the Facets of Psychopathic Personality in Criminally-Involved Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined different dimensions of narcissism that may parallel psychopathy facets in criminally-involved individuals. The present study examined the pattern of relationships between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16 and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, respectively, and the four facets of psychopathy (interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial) assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). As predicted, grandiose and vulnerable narcissism showed differential relationships to psychopathy facets, with grandiose narcissism relating positively to the interpersonal facet of psychopathy and vulnerable narcissism relating positively to the lifestyle facet of psychopathy. Paralleling existing psychopathy research, vulnerable narcissism showed stronger associations than grandiose narcissism to 1) other forms of psychopathology, including internalizing and substance use disorders, and 2) self- and other-directed aggression, measured using the Life History of Aggression and the Forms of Aggression Questionnaire. Grandiose narcissism was nonetheless associated with social dysfunction marked by a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style and unprovoked aggression. Potentially important implications for uncovering etiological pathways and developing treatment interventions for these disorders in externalizing adults are discussed. PMID:22448731

  11. Facet Joints of the Spine: Structure-Function Relationships, Problems and Treatments, and the Potential for Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Siobhan A; Paschos, Nikolaos K; Link, Jarrett M; Klineberg, Eric O; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2018-03-01

    The zygapophyseal joint, a diarthrodial joint commonly referred to as the facet joint, plays a pivotal role in back pain, a condition that has been a leading cause of global disability since 1990. Along with the intervertebral disc, the facet joint supports spinal motion and aids in spinal stability. Highly susceptible to early development of osteoarthritis, the facet is responsible for a significant amount of pain in the low-back, mid-back, and neck regions. Current noninvasive treatments cannot offer long-term pain relief, while invasive treatments can relieve pain but fail to preserve joint functionality. This review presents an overview of the facet in terms of its anatomy, functional properties, problems, and current management strategies. Furthermore, this review introduces the potential for regeneration of the facet and particular engineering strategies that could be employed as a long-term treatment. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering Volume 20 is June 4, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  12. Self-Assembled Dendritic Pt Nanostructure with High-Index Facets as Highly Active and Durable Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Youngjin; Choi, Kwang-Hyun; Chung, Dong Young; Lee, Ji Eun; Jung, Namgee; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2017-08-10

    The durability issues of Pt catalyst should be resolved for the commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Nanocrystal structures with high-index facets have been recently explored to solve the critical durability problem of fuel cell catalysts as Pt catalysts with high-index facets can preserve the ordered surfaces without change of the original structures. However, it is very difficult to develop effective and practical synthetic methods for Pt-based nanostructures with high-index facets. The current study describes a simple one-pot synthesis of self-assembled dendritic Pt nanostructures with electrochemically active and stable high-index facets. Pt nanodendrites exhibited 2 times higher ORR activity and superior durability (only 3.0 % activity loss after 10 000 potential cycles) than a commercial Pt/C. The enhanced catalytic performance was elucidated by the formation of well-organized dendritic structures with plenty of reactive interfaces among 5 nm-sized Pt particles and the coexistence of low- and high-index facets on the particles. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Chemically assisted ion beam etching of laser diode facets on nonpolar and semipolar orientations of GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritzky, L. Y.; Becerra, D. L.; Saud Abbas, A.; Nedy, J.; Nakamura, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Cohen, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate a vertical (devices. The etch profiles were achieved with photoresist masks and optimized CAIBE chamber conditions including the platen tilt angle and Cl2 flow rate. Co-loaded studies showed similar etch rates of ˜60 nm min-1 for (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}),(20\\bar{2}1), and m-plane orientations. The etched surfaces of LD facets on these orientations are chemically dissimilar (Ga-rich versus N-rich), but were visually indistinguishable, thus confirming the negligible orientation dependence of the etch. Continuous-wave blue LDs were fabricated on the semipolar (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}) plane to compare CAIBE and reactive ion etch (RIE) facet processes. The CAIBE process resulted in LDs with lower threshold current densities due to reduced parasitic mirror loss compared with the RIE process. The LER, degree of verticality, and model of the 1D vertical laser mode were used to calculate a maximum uncoated facet reflection of 17% (94% of the nominal) for the CAIBE facet. The results demonstrate the suitability of CAIBE for forming high quality facets for high performance nonpolar and semipolar III-N LDs.

  14. Conscientiousness, openness to experience and extraversion as predictors of nursing work performance: a facet-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellershaw, Julia; Fullarton, Christie; Rodwell, John; Mcwilliams, John

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the relationships between the personality traits of conscientiousness, openness and extraversion at trait and facet-levels and three indicators of work role performance; proficiency, 'adaptivity' and proactivity measured at individual, team and organisational levels. This is one of the first studies to explore the relationship between personality, measured at trait and facet-level and performance using a comprehensive range of performance indicators. An online survey of 393 nurses from health-care organisations across Australia was conducted to test hypothesised relationships. Path analyses revealed numerous relationships between personality, measured at both trait and facet-levels, and work role performance. Conscientiousness was highlighted as the strongest driver of work role performance across all the indicators, with extraversion also strongly associated with work role performance. Openness to experience, previously considered a week predictor of performance, was, when examined at the facet-level, related to all of the work role performance indicators. Results suggests a bandwidth effect, where the personality traits drive global performance while the facets drive specific performance. Better understanding of the relationship between personality and work role performance will help nurse managers to foster the fit between individual and organisation, improving job satisfaction, engagement, retention and performance in role. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The structure, correlates, and treatment related changes of mindfulness facets across the anxiety disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Lance L; Rogojanski, Jenny; Vorstenbosch, Valerie; Quilty, Lena C; Laposa, Judith M; Rector, Neil A

    2017-06-01

    Research with non-clinical and clinical samples has examined how mindfulness concepts relate to psychological symptom presentations. However, there is less clarity when examining treatment-seeking patients who experience DSM-diagnosed anxiety and obsessional disorders - both cross-sectionally, and following empirically-supported treatments. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ; Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, & Toney, 2006) conceptualizes mindfulness as consisting of five facets: Observing, Describing, Acting with Awareness, Nonreactivity, and Nonjudging. The current study examines the factor structure and predictive validity of the FFMQ in a large sample of treatment-seeking individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) established that both four and five-factor models (i.e., with and without inclusion of the Observing factor) provided an acceptable representation of the underlying FFMQ structure, but did not support a one-factor solution. For each of these diagnostic groups, hierarchical regression analyses clarified the association between specific FFMQ facets and diagnosis specific symptom change during CBT treatment. These findings are discussed in the context of the possible transdiagnostic relevance of specific mindfulness facets, and how these facets are differentially associated with diagnosis specific symptom alleviation during CBT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced photocatalytic activities of single-crystalline ZnGa2O4nanoprisms by the coexposed {111} and {110} facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tingting; Xia, Yuguo; Jiao, Xiuling; Wang, Ting; Chen, Dairong

    2017-03-02

    Facet-control has been a fascinating method for preparation of highly active photocatalysts. Herein, we report the hydrothermal preparation of single-crystalline ZnGa 2 O 4 nanoprisms with the {111} and {110} facets coexposed. Studies of their photocatalytic performance have revealed that the as-formed nanoprisms exhibit significantly enhanced photocatalytic activities compared with ZnGa 2 O 4 nanocubes with only the {100} facets exposed and nanosheets with the {110} facets exposed for H 2 evolution and contaminant degradation. Theoretical calculations combined with valence band XPS results indicate the formation of a surface heterojunction by the coexposed {111} and {110} facets, which promotes the photogenerated electron and hole migration to the {110} and {111} facets, respectively, and enhances the photocatalytic performance.

  17. Early Afferent Activity from the Facet Joint after Painful Trauma to its Capsule Potentiates Neuronal Excitability and Glutamate Signaling in the Spinal Cord

    OpenAIRE

    Crosby, Nathan D.; Gilliland, Taylor M.; Winkelstein, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical facet joint injury induces persistent pain and central sensitization. Preventing the peripheral neuronal signals that initiate sensitization attenuates neuropathic pain. Yet, there is no clear relationship between facet joint afferent activity, development of central sensitization, and pain, which may be hindering effective treatments for this pain syndrome. This study investigates how afferent activity from the injured cervical facet joint affects induction of behavioral sensitivity...

  18. Preparation of superparamagnetic Mn(x)Fe(1-x)O nanoparticles from low-index-facet cubes to high-index-facet concave structures and their catalytic performance in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Ying; Teng, His-Sheng; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2013-08-21

    We report the synthesis of concave magnetic Mn(x)Fe(1-x)O nanoparticles with high-index facet structures by a thermal decomposition approach. The particle morphology varies from cubic shape under pure Ar, to star-like shapes with exposure to air during the reaction. The oxidative etching in the presence of air (O2) strongly affects the exposed facets on the surface. These concave nanoparticles are transferred from the organic phase to aqueous solution and show distinct catalytic activity toward the degradation of xylenol orange in aqueous solution.

  19. Broad Bandwidth or High Fidelity? Evidence from the Structure of Genetic and Environmental Effects on the Facets of the Five Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Daniel A.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2017-01-01

    The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality is well-established at the phenotypic level, but much less is known about the coherence of the genetic and environmental influences within each personality domain. Univariate behavioral genetic analyses have consistently found the influence of additive genes and nonshared environment on multiple personality facets, but the extent to which genetic and environmental influences on specific facets reflect more general influences on higher order factors is less clear. We applied a multivariate quantitative-genetic approach to scores on the CPI-Big Five facets for 490 monozygotic and 317 dizygotic twins who took part in the National Merit Twin Study. Our results revealed a complex genetic structure for facets composing all five factors, with both domain-general and facet-specific genetic and environmental influences. Models that required common genetic and environmental influences on each facet to occur by way of effects on a higher order trait did not fit as well as models allowing for common genetic and environmental effects to act directly on the facets for three of the Big Five domains. These results add to the growing body of literature indicating that important variation in personality occurs at the facet level which may be overshadowed by aggregating to the trait level. Research at the facet level, rather than the factor level, is likely to have pragmatic advantages in future research on the genetics of personality. PMID:22695681

  20. Hexagonal SiC with spatially separated active sites on polar and nonpolar facets achieving enhanced hydrogen production from photocatalytic water reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da; Liu, Ning; Guo, Zhongnan; Wang, Wenjun; Guo, Liwei; Yuan, Wenxia; Chen, Xiaolong

    2018-02-14

    Sufficient spatial separation of photo-generated electrons and holes plays a significant role in affecting the efficiency for solar energy conversion. Non-equivalent facets of a catalyst are known to possess different charge distribution properties. Here, we report that hexagonal 6H-SiC, a metal-free, environmentally friendly, polar semiconductor, exhibits different charge distribution and photocatalytic properties on naturally occurring Si-{0001} and {10-10} facets. Very strong selectivity of metals in situ photodeposition occurs in these two facets, demonstrating that the photo-excited electrons are assembled only on polar Si-{0001} facets while the holes are assembled on non-polar {10-10} facets. Consequently, reduction reactions occur only on the Si-{0001} facets with noble metals, and meantime oxidation occurs only in {10-10} with metal oxide. We show that the activity of photocatalytic water splitting is significantly enhanced by this kind of selective depositions resulting from the charge spatial separation. The underlying mechanism is investigated in terms of experimental evidence and first principles calculations. Our results demonstrate that the utilization of facets with opposite catalytic characteristics could be a feasible means to enhance the photocatalytic performance in diverse semiconducting materials. This is, in particular, of interest for polar semiconductors, as their particles always naturally occur in both polar facets and non-polar ones without needing facet engineering.

  1. Enhanced Gas-Sensing Properties of the Hierarchical TiO₂ Hollow Microspheres with Exposed High-Energy {001} Crystal Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Liang, Yan; Wang, Guozhong; Liu, Liangliang; Yuan, Cailei; Yu, Ting; Li, Qinliang; Zeng, Fanyan; Gu, Gang

    2015-11-11

    Anatase hierarchical TiO2 with innovative designs (hollow microspheres with exposed high-energy {001} crystal facets, hollow microspheres without {001} crystal facets, and solid microspheres without {001} crystal facets) were synthesized via a one-pot hydrothermal method and characterized. Based on these materials, gas sensors were fabricated and used for gas-sensing tests. It was found that the sensor based on hierarchical TiO2 hollow microspheres with exposed high-energy {001} crystal facets exhibited enhanced acetone sensing properties compared to the sensors based on the other two materials due to the exposing of high-energy {001} crystal facets and special hierarchical hollow structure. First-principle calculations were performed to illustrate the sensing mechanism, which suggested that the adsorption process of acetone molecule on TiO2 surface was spontaneous, and the adsorption on high-energy {001} crystal facets would be more stable than that on the normally exposed {101} crystal facets. Further characterization indicated that the {001} surface was highly reactive for the adsorption of active oxygen species, which was also responsible for the enhanced sensing performance. The present studies revealed the crystal-facets-dependent gas-sensing properties of TiO2 and provided a new insight into improving the gas sensing performance by designing hierarchical hollow structure with special-crystal-facets exposure.

  2. A Big Five facet analysis of sub-clinical narcissism: understanding boldness in terms of well-known personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Crump, John

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to examine a Big Five 'bright-side' analysis of a sub-clinical personality disorder, i.e. narcissism. A total of 6957 British adults completed the NEO-PI-R, which measures the Big Five Personality factors at the domain and the facet level, as well as the Hogan Development Survey (HDS), which has a measure of Narcissism called Bold as one of its dysfunctional interpersonal tendencies. Correlation and regression results confirmed many of the associations between the Big Five domains and facets (NEO-PI-R) and sub-clinical narcissism. The Bold (Narcissism) scale from the HDS was the criterion variable in all analyses. Bold individuals are disagreeable extraverts with very low scores on facet Modesty but moderately high scores on Assertiveness, Competence and Achievement Striving. The study confirmed work using different population groups and different measures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Edge-facet pumped, multi-aperture, thin-disk laser geometry for very high average power output scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis E.

    2004-12-21

    The average power output of a laser is scaled, to first order, by increasing the transverse dimension of the gain medium while increasing the thickness of an index matched light guide proportionately. Strategic facets cut at the edges of the laminated gain medium provide a method by which the pump light introduced through edges of the composite structure is trapped and passes through the gain medium repeatedly. Spontaneous emission escapes the laser volume via these facets. A multi-faceted disk geometry with grooves cut into the thickness of the gain medium is optimized to passively reject spontaneous emission generated within the laser material, which would otherwise be trapped and amplified within the high index composite disk. Such geometry allows the useful size of the laser aperture to be increased, enabling the average laser output power to be scaled.

  4. Rutile TiO2nanocrystals with exposed {331} facets for enhanced photocatalytic CO2reduction activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Duc; Hoa, Huu Thu; Le, Thanh Son

    2017-10-15

    Rutile TiO 2 nanocrystals with exposed high-index facets have been investigated in detail by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). It was found that the each branched nanocrystal is bound by 4 facets of high-index {331}. Additionally, rutile {101} twinned structures are formed in the boundary of branches during the growth of multi branches in a hierarchical flower-like nanostructures. Notably, the synthesized nanostructures showed significantly higher photocatalytic activities than that of rod particles with exposed {110} facets in photocatalytic CO 2 reduction. Correlating the presence of high-energy surface on rutile nanocrystals with the photocatalytic activity clearly shows the significant role of surface steps in enhancing intrinsic activity for CO 2 reduction to methanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Delayed surgical treatment for a traumatic bilateral cervical facet joint dislocation using a posterior-anterior approach: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimada Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There have been few reports of patients with bilateral cervical facet dislocations that remain untreated for eight weeks or more. We report the case of a 76-year-old man with an old bilateral cervical facet joint dislocation fracture that was treated by posterior-anterior reduction and fixation. Case presentation A 76-year-old Asian man was involved in a road traffic accident. He presented with neck pain and arm pain on his right side, but motor weakness and paralysis were not observed. He was treated conservatively; however, instability and spondylolisthesis at the C5 to C6 joint increased eight weeks after the injury. We performed a posterior-anterior reduction and fixation. After surgery, bony union was achieved, and his neck pain and arm pain disappeared. Conclusion We recommend reduction and fixation surgery if a patient has an old bilateral facet joint dislocation fracture in the cervical spine.

  6. Domain and facet personality predictors of all-cause mortality among Medicare patients aged 65 to 100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; Costa, Paul T

    2005-01-01

    Our objectives were to test whether Conscientiousness, the other 4 domains of the Five-Factor Model, and their facets predicted mortality in older, frail individuals. Controlling for demographic and health measures, we used Cox regression to test whether the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness domains predicted all-cause mortality over 5 years in 1076 65- to 100-year-old participants who took part in a Medicare Demonstration study. Supplementary analyses on 597 participants aged 66 to 102 who were reassessed 2 years later were conducted to determine whether any of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) facets were related to mortality. When personality domains were treated as continuous variables, NEO-FFI Neuroticism and Agreeableness were significant protective factors. When personality domains were trichotomized, NEO-FFI Conscientiousness was a protective factor. In a third analysis, Agreeableness was not a significant predictor in a model that included the continuous Neuroticism and trichotomized Conscientiousness variables. Analysis of the NEO-PI-R Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness factors showed that Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were protective and that there was a trend for a similar effect of Neuroticism. Facet-level analyses revealed that the Impulsiveness, Straightforwardness, and Self-Discipline facets of Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, respectively, were prospectively related to greater survival over a 3-year interval. The effects of Neuroticism and Agreeableness on mortality are inconsistent across previous studies. This study indicates that, in a sample of older, frail participants, high Neuroticism and Agreeableness scores are protective and that more specific effects are primarily the result of the Impulsiveness and Straightforwardness facet scales. The Conscientiousness findings are consistent with those in

  7. Is sustained natural apophyseal glides combined with conventional physiotherapy effective for patients with facet joint syndrome? – A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak B. Anap, Subhash Khatri, Zambre BR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic back pain has been the nemesis of the human race since the time they evolved and began walking on their two legs; leaving aside the 4 limb locomotion of their predecessors. Varied are the causes of low back ache and facet joint syndrome is one amongst them. Hence this study was undertaken to find out the effectiveness of SNAGS and conventional physiotherapy in patients with lumbar facet joint syndrome. Purpose: To describe the management and outcomes of 4 patients with lumbar facet joint syndrome treated with Sustained Natural apophyseal glides (SNAGs, Therapeutic Ultrasound and lumbar stabilization exercises. Study Design : A case series of consecutive patients with Lumbar facet syndrome Case Description: Four consecutive patients (mean age 52 years who presented with lumbar facet syndrome were treated with two weeks protocol which included Sustained Natural apophyseal glides, Therapeutic Ultrasound (Cont. 1-MHz , 2.0-W/cm2, 10min and lumbar stabilization exercises. Follow up was taken 1 week after the end of active intervention. All patients completed Visual analogue Scale (VAS, Modified Oswestery Disability Questionnaire (MODQ, Sorensen Test hold Timing and spinal Range of motion on initial assessment, immediately at the end of active intervention (2 weeks and at the end of follow up. Outcome: All four patients showed the mean percentage change in score of VAS 49.87 %, MODQ 61.14 %, Sorensen test scores 19.63 %, Flexion range 9.21 % and extend range 17.07 % at the end of follow up. Conclusion: All four patients with Lumbar facet joint syndrome treated with sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAGS, Therapeutic Ultrasound and lumbar stabilisation exercises exhibited reduced pain, reduced disability, improved endurance of back muscles and range of motion at the time follow-up.

  8. Percutaneous posterior cervical fusion with the DTRAX Facet System for single-level radiculopathy: results in 60 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Bruce M; Bundoc, Rafael C; Ver, Mario R; Ignacio, Jose Manuel F; Berven, Sigurd H; Eyster, Edward F

    2013-03-01

    The authors present 1-year results in 60 patients with cervical radiculopathy due to spondylosis and stenosis that was treated with a bilateral percutaneous facet implant. The implant consists of a screw and washer that distracts and immobilizes the cervical facet for root decompression and fusion. Clinical and radiological results are analyzed. Between 2009 and 2011, 60 patients were treated with the DTRAX Facet System in a multicenter prospective single-arm study. All patients had symptomatic clinical radiculopathy, and conservative management had failed. The majority of patients had multilevel radiographically confirmed disease. Only patients with single-level radiculopathy confirmed by history, physical examination, and in some cases confirmatory nerve blocks were included. Patients were assessed preoperatively with Neck Disability Index, visual analog scale, quality of life questionnaire (Short Form-12 version 2), CT scans, MRI, and dynamic radiographs. Surgery was percutaneous posterior bilateral facet implants consisting of a screw and expandable washer and iliac crest bone aspirate. Patients underwent postoperative assessments at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year with validated outcome questionnaires. Alterations of segmental and overall cervical lordosis, foraminal dimensions, device retention and fusion criteria were assessed for up to 1 year with CT reconstructions and radiographs. Fusion criteria were defined as bridging trabecular bone between the facets, translational motion cervical lordosis. There was a 1.6° loss of segmental lordosis at the treated level at 1 year that was significant. Foraminal width, volume, and posterior disc height was significantly increased at 6 months and returned to baseline levels at 1 year. There was no significant decrease in foraminal width and height at adjacent levels. There were no reoperations or surgery- or device-related complications, including implant failure or retained hardware. Results

  9. Comprehensive drilling of the C1-2 facets to achieve direct posterior reduction in irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Pravin; Sahoo, Sushanta K; Deepak, Arsikere N; Ghuman, Mandeep S; Khandelwal, Niranjan K

    2015-09-01

    The cause of irreducibility in irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) appears to be the orientation of the C1-2 facets. The current management strategies for irreducible AAD are directed at removing the cause of irreducibility followed by fusion, rather than transoral decompression and posterior fusion. The technique described in this paper addresses C1-2 facet mobilization by facetectomies to aid intraoperative manipulation. Using this technique, reduction was achieved in 19 patients with congenital irreducible AAD treated between January 2011 and December 2013. The C1-2 joints were studied preoperatively, and particular attention was paid to the facet orientation. Intraoperatively, oblique C1-2 joints were opened widely, and extensive drilling of the facets was performed to make them close to flat and parallel to each other, converting an irreducible AAD to a reducible one. Anomalous vertebral arteries (VAs) were addressed appropriately. Further reduction was then achieved after vertical distraction and joint manipulation. Adequate facet drilling was achieved in all but 2 patients, due to VA injury in 1 patient and an acute sagittal angle operated on 2 years previously in the other patient. Complete reduction could be achieved in 17 patients and partial in the remaining 2. All patients showed clinical improvement. Two patients showed partial redislocation due to graft subsidence. The fusion rates were excellent. Comprehensive drilling of the C1-2 facets appears to be a logical and effective technique for achieving direct posterior reduction in irreducible AAD. The extensive drilling makes large surfaces raw, increasing fusion rates.

  10. Maximizing safety in screw placement for posterior facet fixation in calcaneus fractures: a cadaveric radio-anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phisitkul, Phinit; Sullivan, Jaron P; Goetz, Jessica E; Marsh, John L

    2013-09-01

    Successful screw fixation of reduced posterior facet fragments to the unexposed, nondisplaced sustentaculum tali avoids breaching the subtalar joint or disrupting surrounding soft tissue structures. Safe passage for screw fixation through this narrow bony corridor has not been rigorously defined. Computed tomography scans of 8 cadaveric feet were digitally reconstructed in 3-D; 3.5-mm-diameter screws were simulated, aiming at the center of the sustentaculum tali from 5 locations (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) along the posterolateral facet joint. The range of entry points, screw paths trajectories, and screw lengths that did not breach the subtalar joint or the medial calcaneal cortex were evaluated. To prevent violation of the subtalar joint or the medial calcaneal cortex while reaching the center of the sustentaculum tali, screws must be inserted at least 5 mm below the joint line. Screw placement 15 ± 1 mm below the posterior facet measured perpendicular to the joint line provided the widest safe corridor with the trajectory of the ranges from 6 to 36 degrees parallel to the joint depending on the location along the posterior facet and 20 ± 2 degrees perpendicular to the joint at all locations. The average maximal length of screws placed at the ideal entry points ranged from 44 to 46 mm, longest at the 100% location and shortest at the 25% location. Operative guidelines facilitating instrumentation into the sustentaculum tali have been defined applying to most calcanei, assuming the fractures are well reduced: screws, approximately 40 mm in length, should be started 15 mm below the posterior facet measured perpendicular to the joint line and aimed 20 degrees perpendicular to the joint line toward the joint and 6 to 36 degrees anteversion parallel to the joint line increasing at each position from anterior to posterior. The operative guidelines described in this study may assist surgeons in the placement of screws for the fixation of posterior facet fragments to

  11. Luxación facetaria unilateral lumbosacra postraumática. [ Post-traumatic lumbosacral unilateral facet dislocation].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel González Murillo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the literature have been reported around fifty cases of lumbosacral dislocations; treated most bilateral facet dislocations. We report the case of a female 42 year old with unilateral lumbosacral facet dislocation of one month duration after accident. Circumferential instrumented fusion L5-S1 with interbody cage and pedicle screws L5-S1 was performed.   The lumbosacral dislocation is a rare injury that occurs due to the combination of a high-energy mechanism predisposing anatomical factors. Recent publications advocate the surgical reduction and stabilization with instrumentation as standard treatment.

  12. Characteristics of threading dislocations in ZnO grown on facet-controlled epitaxial overgrown GaN templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H L; Chua, S J; Chow, S Y; Pan, H; Zhu, Y W; Feng, Y P; Wang, L S; Zang, K Y; Liu, W; Tripathy, S

    2007-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the authors have investigated the behavior of threading dislocations in ZnO selectively grown on a facet-controlled epitaxial overgrown GaN template. In this case, the ZnO is grown by a vapor transport method. The TEM study in the overgrown regions shows that all the pure-edge type dislocations in ZnO are parallel toward the mask area and vertical propagation of dislocation to the ZnO surface is minimized. Using such a selective growth technique on a faceted semi-polar GaN surface, a reduction of threading dislocation density in ZnO could be achieved

  13. 77 FR 42780 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... certain trading and hedging strategies. Thus, weeklies may be attractive for retail trading strategies... strategies effectively via STOs,\\8\\ particularly in the current fast and volatile multi-faceted trading and... proposal, to allow execution of more effective trading and hedging strategies on the Exchange. See...

  14. Energetical optimization and parameters selection for a fixed faceted mirror concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, R.O.; Duran, J.C.; Dawidowski, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    A method which allows to select the parameters of a cylindrical solar collector by means of an energetical optimization is presented. In particular, the energy collected by the operating fluid and the collection efficiency of a Fixed Faceted Mirror Concentrator (FFMC) are obtained and compared for different sets of parameters. To this end, the two-dimensional optical analysis for non-perfect cylindrical concentrators presented previously is used. Some graphs analyzing the variations of the yearly efficiency of the FFMC as a function of those parameters are given. Finally, the possibility of using a second concentrator in the receiver plane of the FFMC in order to improve the whole efficiency of the prototype is also analyzed. (Author)

  15. Deciphering the consumer behaviour facets of functional foods: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navdeep; Singh, Devinder Pal

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a systematic literature review of studies investigating various facets of consumer behaviour towards functional foods. It focuses on published international research on functional food attitude and behaviour from across the world. Research papers (n = 112) that were identified were coded in terms of study type, variables studied, product type, participant profile, research methodology and analysis details, as well as results and implications for future research. Results provide a systematic overview of the context in which behaviour towards functional foods have been examined in the past and provide a synthesis of findings in four categories of determinants, namely (1) Personal Factors, (2) Psychological Factors, (3) Cultural & Social Factors, and (4) Factors relating to the functional food product. A reference model for the relationships between these factors and behaviour of consumers is derived. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Refining Trait Resilience: Identifying Engineering, Ecological, and Adaptive Facets from Extant Measures of Resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Maltby

    Full Text Available The current paper presents a new measure of trait resilience derived from three common mechanisms identified in ecological theory: Engineering, Ecological and Adaptive (EEA resilience. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of five existing resilience scales suggest that the three trait resilience facets emerge, and can be reduced to a 12-item scale. The conceptualization and value of EEA resilience within the wider trait and well-being psychology is illustrated in terms of differing relationships with adaptive expressions of the traits of the five-factor personality model and the contribution to well-being after controlling for personality and coping, or over time. The current findings suggest that EEA resilience is a useful and parsimonious model and measure of trait resilience that can readily be placed within wider trait psychology and that is found to contribute to individual well-being.

  17. Sex typing and gender ideology: two facets of the individual's gender psychology that go together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frable, D E

    1989-01-01

    Three studies tested the hypothesis that gendered personality dispositions are related to gender attitudes and gender discriminatory behaviors. In Study 1, sex-typed individuals were more likely than androgynous, undifferentiated, and cross-sex-typed individuals to accept gender rules designating culturally appropriate behavior for men and women. In Study 2, sex-typed individuals were particularly likely to pay attention spontaneously to the sex of job applicants and then to devalue the interview performances of women. In Study 3, only sex-typed men tended to endorse sexist language. As expected, sex typing and gender ideology go together. This relation between two facets of the individual's gender psychology indicates that some sex role inventories may tap more than expressivity and instrumentality.

  18. Refining Trait Resilience: Identifying Engineering, Ecological, and Adaptive Facets from Extant Measures of Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hall, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The current paper presents a new measure of trait resilience derived from three common mechanisms identified in ecological theory: Engineering, Ecological and Adaptive (EEA) resilience. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of five existing resilience scales suggest that the three trait resilience facets emerge, and can be reduced to a 12-item scale. The conceptualization and value of EEA resilience within the wider trait and well-being psychology is illustrated in terms of differing relationships with adaptive expressions of the traits of the five-factor personality model and the contribution to well-being after controlling for personality and coping, or over time. The current findings suggest that EEA resilience is a useful and parsimonious model and measure of trait resilience that can readily be placed within wider trait psychology and that is found to contribute to individual well-being. PMID:26132197

  19. Solid state single crystal growth of three-dimensional faceted LaFeAsO crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappenberger, Rhea; Aswartham, Saicharan; Scaravaggi, Francesco; Blum, Christian G. F.; Sturza, Mihai I.; Wolter, Anja U. B.; Wurmehl, Sabine; Büchner, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    Solid state single crystal growth (SSCG) is a crystal growth technique where crystals are grown from a polycrystalline matrix. Here, we present single crystals of the iron pnictide LaFeAsO grown via SSCG using NaAs as a liquid phase to aid crystallization. The size of the as-grown crystals are up to 2 × 3 × 0.4 mm3. Typical for this method, but very uncommon for crystals of the pnictide superconductors and especially for the oxypnictides, the crystals show pronounced facets caused by considerable growth in c direction. The crystals were characterized regarding their composition, structure, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties. This sets the stage for further measurements for which single crystals are crucial such as any c axis and reciprocal space dependent measurements.

  20. Design of a Shape Memory Alloy deployment hinge for reflector facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, W. S.; Rogers, C. A.

    1991-01-01

    A design concept for a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuated hinge mechanism for deploying segmented facet-type reflector surfaces on antenna truss structures is presented. The mechanism uses nitinol, a nickel-titanium shape memory alloy, as a displacement-force micro-actuator. An electrical current is used to resistively heat a 'plastically' elongated SMA actuator wire, causing it to contract in response to a thermally-induced phase transformation. The resulting tension creates a moment, imparting rotary motion between two adjacent panels. Mechanical stops are designed into the device to limit its range of motion and to establish positioning accuracy at the termination of deployment. The concept and its operation are discussed in detail, and an analytical dynamic simulation model is presented. The model has been used to perform nondimensionalized parametric design studies.