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Sample records for face processing system

  1. Enhanced 3D face processing using an active vision system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Morten; Larsen, Rasmus; Kraft, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    We present an active face processing system based on 3D shape information extracted by means of stereo information. We use two sets of stereo cameras with different field of views (FOV): One with a wide FOV is used for face tracking, while the other with a narrow FOV is used for face identificati...

  2. Enhanced 3D face processing using an active vision system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Morten; Larsen, Rasmus; Kraft, Dirk;

    2014-01-01

    of the narrow FOV camera. We substantiate these two observations by qualitative results on face reconstruction and quantitative results on face recognition. As a consequence, such a set-up allows to achieve better and much more flexible system for 3D face reconstruction e.g. for recognition or emotion......We present an active face processing system based on 3D shape information extracted by means of stereo information. We use two sets of stereo cameras with different field of views (FOV): One with a wide FOV is used for face tracking, while the other with a narrow FOV is used for face identification....... We argue for two advantages of such a system: First, an extended work range, and second, the possibility to place the narrow FOV camera in a way such that a much better reconstruction quality can be achieved compared to a static camera even if the face had been fully visible in the periphery...

  3. System Analysis of Flat Grinding Process with Wheel Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Ivanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a conducted system analysis of the flat grinding wheel face, considers the state parameters, input and output variables of subsystems, namely: machine tool, workpiece, grinding wheel, cutting fluids, and the contact area. It reveals the factors influencing the temperature and power conditions for the grinding process.Aim: conducting the system analysis of the flat grinding process with wheel face expects to enable a development of the system of grinding process parameters as a technical system, which will make it possible to evaluate each parameter individually and implement optimization of the entire system.One of the most important criteria in defining the optimal process conditions is the grinding temperature, which, to avoid defects appearance of on the surface of component, should not exceed the critical temperature values to be experimentally determined. The temperature criterion can be useful for choosing the conditions for the maximum defect-free performance of the mechanical face grinding. To define the maximum performance of defect-free grinding can also use other criteria such as a critical power density, indirectly reflecting the allowable thermal stress grinding process; the structure of the ground surface, which reflects the presence or absence of a defect layer, which is determined after the large number of experiments; flow range of the diamond layer.Optimal conditions should not exceed those of defect-free grinding. It is found that a maximum performance depends on the characteristics of circles and grade of processed material, as well as on the contact area and grinding conditions. Optimal performance depends on the diamond value (cost and specific consumption of diamonds in a circle.Above criteria require formalization as a function of the variable parameters of the grinding process. There is an option for the compromise of inter-criteria optimality, thereby providing a set of acceptable solutions, from

  4. Functional development of the brain's face-processing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haist, Frank; Anzures, Gizelle

    2017-01-01

    In the first 20 years of life, the human brain undergoes tremendous growth in size, weight, and synaptic connectedness. Over the same time period, a person achieves remarkable transformations in perception, thought, and behavior. One important area of development is face processing ability, or the ability to quickly and accurately extract extensive information about a person's identity, emotional state, attractiveness, intention, and numerous other types of information that are crucial to everyday social interaction and communication. Associating particular brain changes with specific behavioral and intellectual developments has historically been a serious challenge for researchers. Fortunately, modern neuroimaging is dramatically advancing our ability to make associations between morphological and behavioral developments. In this article, we demonstrate how neuroimaging has revolutionized our understanding of the development of face processing ability to show that this essential perceptual and cognitive skill matures consistently yet slowly over the first two decades of life. In this manner, face processing is a model system of many areas of complex cognitive development. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1423. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1423 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Using Face Recognition System in Ship Protection Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Bača

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of security improvement is a huge problem especiallyin large ships. Terrorist attacks and everyday threatsagainst life and property destroy transport and tourist companies,especially large tourist ships. Every person on a ship can berecognized and identified using something that the personknows or by means of something the person possesses. The bestresults will be obtained by using a combination of the person'sknowledge with one biometric characteristic. Analyzing theproblem of biometrics in ITS security we can conclude that facerecognition process supported by one or two traditional biometriccharacteristics can give very good results regarding ship security.In this paper we will describe a biometric system basedon face recognition. Special focus will be given to crew member'sbiometric security in crisis situation like kidnapping, robbelyor illness.

  6. Face Processing Systems: From Neurons to Real-World Social Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiwald, Winrich; Duchaine, Bradley; Yovel, Galit

    2016-07-08

    Primate face processing depends on a distributed network of interlinked face-selective areas composed of face-selective neurons. In both humans and macaques, the network is divided into a ventral stream and a dorsal stream, and the functional similarities of the areas in humans and macaques indicate they are homologous. Neural correlates for face detection, holistic processing, face space, and other key properties of human face processing have been identified at the single neuron level, and studies providing causal evidence have established firmly that face-selective brain areas are central to face processing. These mechanisms give rise to our highly accurate familiar face recognition but also to our error-prone performance with unfamiliar faces. This limitation of the face system has important implications for consequential situations such as eyewitness identification and policing.

  7. Sensitive periods for the functional specialization of the neural system for human face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Brigitte; Ley, Pia; Shenoy, Bhamy H; Kekunnaya, Ramesh; Bottari, Davide

    2013-10-15

    The aim of the study was to identify possible sensitive phases in the development of the processing system for human faces. We tested the neural processing of faces in 11 humans who had been blind from birth and had undergone cataract surgery between 2 mo and 14 y of age. Pictures of faces and houses, scrambled versions of these pictures, and pictures of butterflies were presented while event-related potentials were recorded. Participants had to respond to the pictures of butterflies (targets) only. All participants, even those who had been blind from birth for several years, were able to categorize the pictures and to detect the targets. In healthy controls and in a group of visually impaired individuals with a history of developmental or incomplete congenital cataracts, the well-known enhancement of the N170 (negative peak around 170 ms) event-related potential to faces emerged, but a face-sensitive response was not observed in humans with a history of congenital dense cataracts. By contrast, this group showed a similar N170 response to all visual stimuli, which was indistinguishable from the N170 response to faces in the controls. The face-sensitive N170 response has been associated with the structural encoding of faces. Therefore, these data provide evidence for the hypothesis that the functional differentiation of category-specific neural representations in humans, presumably involving the elaboration of inhibitory circuits, is dependent on experience and linked to a sensitive period. Such functional specialization of neural systems seems necessary to archive high processing proficiency.

  8. Face-to-face: Perceived personal relevance amplifies face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublatzky, Florian; Pittig, Andre; Schupp, Harald T; Alpers, Georg W

    2017-05-01

    The human face conveys emotional and social information, but it is not well understood how these two aspects influence face perception. In order to model a group situation, two faces displaying happy, neutral or angry expressions were presented. Importantly, faces were either facing the observer, or they were presented in profile view directed towards, or looking away from each other. In Experiment 1 (n = 64), face pairs were rated regarding perceived relevance, wish-to-interact, and displayed interactivity, as well as valence and arousal. All variables revealed main effects of facial expression (emotional > neutral), face orientation (facing observer > towards > away) and interactions showed that evaluation of emotional faces strongly varies with their orientation. Experiment 2 (n = 33) examined the temporal dynamics of perceptual-attentional processing of these face constellations with event-related potentials. Processing of emotional and neutral faces differed significantly in N170 amplitudes, early posterior negativity (EPN), and sustained positive potentials. Importantly, selective emotional face processing varied as a function of face orientation, indicating early emotion-specific (N170, EPN) and late threat-specific effects (LPP, sustained positivity). Taken together, perceived personal relevance to the observer-conveyed by facial expression and face direction-amplifies emotional face processing within triadic group situations. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Processing faces and facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posamentier, Mette T; Abdi, Hervé

    2003-09-01

    This paper reviews processing of facial identity and expressions. The issue of independence of these two systems for these tasks has been addressed from different approaches over the past 25 years. More recently, neuroimaging techniques have provided researchers with new tools to investigate how facial information is processed in the brain. First, findings from "traditional" approaches to identity and expression processing are summarized. The review then covers findings from neuroimaging studies on face perception, recognition, and encoding. Processing of the basic facial expressions is detailed in light of behavioral and neuroimaging data. Whereas data from experimental and neuropsychological studies support the existence of two systems, the neuroimaging literature yields a less clear picture because it shows considerable overlap in activation patterns in response to the different face-processing tasks. Further, activation patterns in response to facial expressions support the notion of involved neural substrates for processing different facial expressions.

  10. An Efficient Face Recognition System Based On the Hybridization of Pose Invariant and Illumination Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Muruganantham

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the previous decade, one of the most effectual applications of image analysis and indulgent that attracted significant consideration is the human face recognition. One of the diverse techniques used for identifying an individual is the Face recognition. Normally the image variations for the reason that of the change in face identity are less than the variations between the images of the same face under different illumination and viewing angle. Among several factors that manipulate face recognition, illumination and pose are the two major challenges. Pose and illumination variations harshly affect the performance of face recognition. Considerably less effort has been taken to deal with the problem of mutual variations of pose and illumination in face recognition, while several algorithms have been proposed for face recognition from fixed points. In this paper we intend a face recognition method that is forceful to pose and illumination variations. We first put forward a simple pose estimation method based on 2D images, which uses a proper classification rule and image representation to classify a pose of a face image. After that, the image can be assigned to a pose class by a classification rule in a low-dimensional subspace constructed by a feature extraction method. We offer a shadow compensation method that compensates for illumination variation in a face image so that the image can be predictable by a face recognition system designed for images under normal illumination condition. Starting the accomplishment result, it is obvious that our projected technique based on the hybridization system recognizes the face images effectively.

  11. Efficacy of identifying neural components in the face and emotion processing system in schizophrenia using a dynamic functional localizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Aiden E G F; Iaria, Giuseppe; Goghari, Vina M

    2016-02-28

    Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in face perception and emotion recognition. Despite consistent behavioural results, the neural mechanisms underlying these cognitive abilities have been difficult to isolate, in part due to differences in neuroimaging methods used between studies for identifying regions in the face processing system. Given this problem, we aimed to validate a recently developed fMRI-based dynamic functional localizer task for use in studies of psychiatric populations and specifically schizophrenia. Previously, this functional localizer successfully identified each of the core face processing regions (i.e. fusiform face area, occipital face area, superior temporal sulcus), and regions within an extended system (e.g. amygdala) in healthy individuals. In this study, we tested the functional localizer success rate in 27 schizophrenia patients and in 24 community controls. Overall, the core face processing regions were localized equally between both the schizophrenia and control group. Additionally, the amygdala, a candidate brain region from the extended system, was identified in nearly half the participants from both groups. These results indicate the effectiveness of a dynamic functional localizer at identifying regions of interest associated with face perception and emotion recognition in schizophrenia. The use of dynamic functional localizers may help standardize the investigation of the facial and emotion processing system in this and other clinical populations.

  12. Holistic processing predicts face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J; Cheung, Olivia S; Gauthier, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face-recognition research. In the study reported here, we demonstrated that holistic processing predicts face-recognition abilities on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and on a perceptual face-identification task. Our findings validate a large body of work that relies on the assumption that holistic processing is related to face recognition. These findings also reconcile the study of face recognition with the perceptual-expertise work it inspired; such work links holistic processing of objects with people's ability to individuate them. Our results differ from those of a recent study showing no link between holistic processing and face recognition. This discrepancy can be attributed to the use in prior research of a popular but flawed measure of holistic processing. Our findings salvage the central role of holistic processing in face recognition and cast doubt on a subset of the face-perception literature that relies on a problematic measure of holistic processing.

  13. Face Processing: Models For Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Matthew A.; Pentland, Alexander P.

    1990-03-01

    The human ability to process faces is remarkable. We can identify perhaps thousands of faces learned throughout our lifetime and read facial expression to understand such subtle qualities as emotion. These skills are quite robust, despite sometimes large changes in the visual stimulus due to expression, aging, and distractions such as glasses or changes in hairstyle or facial hair. Computers which model and recognize faces will be useful in a variety of applications, including criminal identification, human-computer interface, and animation. We discuss models for representing faces and their applicability to the task of recognition, and present techniques for identifying faces and detecting eye blinks.

  14. Autism and the development of face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golarai, Golijeh; Grill-Spector, Kalanit; Reiss, Allan L

    2006-10-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental condition, characterized by impairments in non-verbal communication, social relationships and stereotypical patterns of behavior. A large body of evidence suggests that several aspects of face processing are impaired in autism, including anomalies in gaze processing, memory for facial identity and recognition of facial expressions of emotion. In search of neural markers of anomalous face processing in autism, much interest has focused on a network of brain regions that are implicated in social cognition and face processing. In this review, we will focus on three such regions, namely the STS for its role in processing gaze and facial movements, the FFA in face detection and identification and the amygdala in processing facial expressions of emotion. Much evidence suggests that a better understanding of the normal development of these specialized regions is essential for discovering the neural bases of face processing anomalies in autism. Thus, we will also examine the available literature on the normal development of face processing. Key unknowns in this research area are the neuro-developmental processes, the role of experience and the interactions among components of the face processing system in shaping each of the specialized regions for processing faces during normal development and in autism.

  15. FaceID: A face detection and recognition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, M.B.; Rao, N.S.V.; Olman, V.; Uberbacher, E.C.; Mann, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    A face detection system that automatically locates faces in gray-level images is described. Also described is a system which matches a given face image with faces in a database. Face detection in an Image is performed by template matching using templates derived from a selected set of normalized faces. Instead of using original gray level images, vertical gradient images were calculated and used to make the system more robust against variations in lighting conditions and skin color. Faces of different sizes are detected by processing the image at several scales. Further, a coarse-to-fine strategy is used to speed up the processing, and a combination of whole face and face component templates are used to ensure low false detection rates. The input to the face recognition system is a normalized vertical gradient image of a face, which is compared against a database using a set of pretrained feedforward neural networks with a winner-take-all fuser. The training is performed by using an adaptation of the backpropagation algorithm. This system has been developed and tested using images from the FERET database and a set of images obtained from Rowley, et al and Sung and Poggio.

  16. A comparative study of face processing using scrambled faces

    OpenAIRE

    Taubert, Jessica; Aagten-Murphy, David; Parr, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    It is a widespread assumption that all primate species process faces in the same way because the species are closely related and they engage in similar social interactions. However, this approach ignores potentially interesting and informative differences that may exist between species. This paper describes a comparative study of holistic face processing. Twelve subjects (six chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and six rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate whole faces (faces wit...

  17. Effects of aging on face identification and holistic face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Yaroslav; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2013-08-09

    Several studies have shown that face identification accuracy is lower in older than younger adults. This effect of aging might be due to age differences in holistic processing, which is thought to be an important component of human face processing. Currently, however, there is conflicting evidence as to whether holistic face processing is impaired in older adults. The current study therefore re-examined this issue by measuring response accuracy in a 1-of-4 face identification task and the composite face effect (CFE), a common index of holistic processing, in older adults. Consistent with previous reports, we found that face identification accuracy was lower in older adults than in younger adults tested in the same task. We also found a significant CFE in older adults that was similar in magnitude to the CFE measured in younger subjects with the same task. Finally, we found that there was a significant positive correlation between the CFE and face identification accuracy. This last result differs from the results obtained in a previous study that used the same tasks and which found no evidence of an association between the CFE and face identification accuracy in younger adults. Furthermore, the age difference was found with subtraction-, regression-, and ratio-based estimates of the CFE. The current findings are consistent with previous claims that older adults rely more heavily on holistic processing to identify objects in conditions of limited processing resources.

  18. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-06-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training ('better' trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics' everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits.

  19. Holistic Processing of Static and Moving Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Humans' face ability develops and matures with extensive experience in perceiving, recognizing, and interacting with faces that move most of the time. However, how facial movements affect 1 core aspect of face ability--holistic face processing--remains unclear. Here we investigated the influence of rigid facial motion on holistic and part-based…

  20. Dissociating Face Identity and Facial Expression Processing Via Visual Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Face identity and facial expression are processed in two distinct neural pathways. However, most of the existing face adaptation literature studies them separately, despite the fact that they are two aspects from the same face. The current study conducted a systematic comparison between these two aspects by face adaptation, investigating how top- and bottom-half face parts contribute to the processing of face identity and facial expression. A real face (sad, “Adam” and its two size-equivalent face parts (top- and bottom-half were used as the adaptor in separate conditions. For face identity adaptation, the test stimuli were generated by morphing Adam's sad face with another person's sad face (“Sam”. For facial expression adaptation, the test stimuli were created by morphing Adam's sad face with his neutral face and morphing the neutral face with his happy face. In each trial, after exposure to the adaptor, observers indicated the perceived face identity or facial expression of the following test face via a key press. They were also tested in a baseline condition without adaptation. Results show that the top- and bottom-half face each generated a significant face identity aftereffect. However, the aftereffect by top-half face adaptation is much larger than that by the bottom-half face. On the contrary, only the bottom-half face generated a significant facial expression aftereffect. This dissociation of top- and bottom-half face adaptation suggests that face parts play different roles in face identity and facial expression. It thus provides further evidence for the distributed systems of face perception.

  1. Automated Face Recognition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    atestfOl.feature-vectjJ -averageljJ); for(j=l; <num-coefsj++) for(i= 5 num-train-faces;i++) sdlQjI -(btrainhil.feaure..vecU1- veagU (btraintil.feature- vecU ... vecU ])* (atest(O1.feature-vecUJ - btrain[iI.feature- vecU ]) + temp; btrain(ii.distance = sqrt ( (double) temp); I**** Store the k-nearest neighbors rank

  2. Parallel Processing in Face Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Ulla; Leuthold, Hartmut; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined face perception models with regard to the functional and temporal organization of facial identity and expression analysis. Participants performed a manual 2-choice go/no-go task to classify faces, where response hand depended on facial familiarity (famous vs. unfamiliar) and response execution depended on facial expression…

  3. Simultaneous face and voice processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taosheng; Pinheiro, Ana P; Zhao, Zhongxin; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2016-05-15

    While several studies have consistently demonstrated abnormalities in the unisensory processing of face and voice in schizophrenia (SZ), the extent of abnormalities in the simultaneous processing of both types of information remains unclear. To address this issue, we used event-related potentials (ERP) methodology to probe the multisensory integration of face and non-semantic sounds in schizophrenia. EEG was recorded from 18 schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy control (HC) subjects in three conditions: neutral faces (visual condition-VIS); neutral non-semantic sounds (auditory condition-AUD); neutral faces presented simultaneously with neutral non-semantic sounds (audiovisual condition-AUDVIS). When compared with HC, the schizophrenia group showed less negative N170 to both face and face-voice stimuli; later P270 peak latency in the multimodal condition of face-voice relative to unimodal condition of face (the reverse was true in HC); reduced P400 amplitude and earlier P400 peak latency in the face but not in the voice-face condition. Thus, the analysis of ERP components suggests that deficits in the encoding of facial information extend to multimodal face-voice stimuli and that delays exist in feature extraction from multimodal face-voice stimuli in schizophrenia. In contrast, categorization processes seem to benefit from the presentation of simultaneous face-voice information. Timepoint by timepoint tests of multimodal integration did not suggest impairment in the initial stages of processing in schizophrenia.

  4. Priming with threatening faces modulates the self-face advantage by enhancing the other-face processing rather than suppressing the self-face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lili; Qi, Mingming; Li, Haijiang; Hitchman, Glenn; Yang, Juan; Liu, Yijun

    2015-05-22

    Social emotional information influences self-processing in everyday activities, but few researchers have investigated this process. The current ERP study adopted a prime paradigm to investigate how socially threatening faces impact on the self-face processing advantage. After being primed with emotional faces (happy, angry or neutral), participants judged whether the target face (self, friend, and stranger) was familiar or unfamiliar. Results showed an interaction effect between the prime face and the target face at posterior P3, suggesting that after priming with happy and neutral faces, self-faces elicited larger P3 amplitudes than friend-faces and stranger-faces; however, after priming with angry faces, the P3 amplitudes were not significantly different between self-face and friend-face. Moreover, the P3 amplitudes of self-faces did not differ between priming with angry and neutral faces; however, the P3 amplitude of both friend-faces and stranger-faces showed enhanced responses after priming with angry faces compared to priming with neutral faces. We suggest that the self-face processing advantage (self vs. friend) could be weakened by priming with threatening faces, through enhancement of the other-faces processing rather than suppression of self-faces processing in angry vs. neutral face prime.

  5. Are reading and face processing related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K.; Petersen, Anders

    . In this light, investigating face processing in dyslexia, and reading in prosopagnosia becomes interesting: Do deficits in the two domains dissociate? We present data from 11 people with developmental prosopagnosia, which is a disorder of face processing in people with no known brain injury, and in the context...

  6. Are reading and face processing related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja; Petersen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    . In this light, investigating face processing in dyslexia, and reading in prosopagnosia becomes interesting: Do deficits in the two domains dissociate? Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a disorder of face processing in the absence of brain injury, and in the context of normal intelligence and general cognitive...

  7. Spatial attention modulates early face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenfeng; Martinez, Antigona; Pitts, Michael; Luo, Yue-Jia; Hillyard, Steven A

    2012-12-01

    It is widely reported that inverting a face dramatically affects its recognition. Previous studies have shown that face inversion increases the amplitude and delays the latency of the face-specific N170 component of the event-related potential (ERP) and also enhances the amplitude of the occipital P1 component (latency 100-132 ms). The present study investigates whether these effects of face inversion can be modulated by visual spatial attention. Participants viewed two streams of visual stimuli, one to the left and one to the right of fixation. One stream consisted of a sequence of alphanumeric characters at 6.67 Hz, and the other stream consisted of a series of upright and inverted images of faces and houses presented in randomized order. The participants' task was to attend selectively to one or the other of the streams (during different blocks) in order to detect infrequent target stimuli. ERPs elicited by inverted faces showed larger P1 amplitudes compared to upright faces, but only when the faces were attended. In contrast, the N170 amplitude was larger to inverted than to upright faces only when the faces were not attended. The N170 peak latency was delayed to inverted faces regardless of attention condition. These inversion effects were face specific, as similar effects were absent for houses. These results suggest that early stages of face-specific processing can be enhanced by attention, but when faces are not attended the onset of face-specific processing is delayed until the latency range of the N170.

  8. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  9. Processing of emotional faces in social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Kristjansen Rosenberg

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has found that individuals with social phobia differ from controls in their processing of emotional faces. For instance, people with social phobia show increased attention to briefly presented threatening faces. However, when exposure times are increased, the direction of this attentional bias is more unclear. Studies investigating eye movements have found both increased as well as decreased attention to threatening faces in socially anxious participants. The current study investigated eye movements to emotional faces in eight patients with social phobia and 34 controls. Three different tasks with different exposure durations were used, which allowed for an investigation of the time course of attention. At the early time interval, patients showed a complex pattern of both vigilance and avoidance of threatening faces. At the longest time interval, patients avoided the eyes of sad, disgust, and neutral faces more than controls, whereas there were no group differences for angry faces.

  10. Attention to individual identities modulates face processing.

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    Ruz, María; Aranda, Clara; Sarmiento, Beatriz R; Sanabria, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The ability of attention to apply in a flexible manner to several types of information at various stages of processing has been studied extensively. However, the susceptibility of these effects to the nature of the idiosyncratic items being attended is less understood. In the current study, we used symbolic cues to orient the attention of participants to the subsequent appearance of the face of a famous person (the former king of Spain) or an unfamiliar face. These were matched in perceptual characteristics. Behavioral effects showed that face-specific attention optimized response speed in an orthogonal task when the target matched the cue (valid trials) compared to when it did not (invalid trials). According to topographical analyses of the electrophysiological data, the famous and unfamiliar faces engaged dissociable brain circuits in two different temporal windows, from 144 to 300 ms after target processing, and at a later 456-492 ms epoch. In addition, orienting attention to specific faces modulated the perceptual stages reflected in the P1 and N170 potentials but with a different laterality pattern that depended on the familiarity of the faces. Whereas only attention to the famous face enhanced the P1 potential at left posterior electrodes, with no corresponding effect for the unfamiliar face at this stage, the N170 was modulated at left posterior sites for the famous item and at right homologous electrodes for the unfamiliar face. Intermediate processing stages, previously linked to facial identity processing indexed by the P2 and N2 potentials, reflected item familiarity but were not affected by the cueing manipulation. At the P3 level, attention influenced again item processing but did so in an equivalent manner for the famous and unfamiliar face. Our results, showing that identity-specific attention modulates perceptual stages of facial processing at different locations depending on idiosyncratic stimulus familiarity, may inform comparison of studies

  11. The evolution of holistic processing of faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren eBurke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the holistic processing of faces from an evolutionary perspective, clarifying what such an approach entails, and evaluating the extent to which the evidence currently available permits any strong conclusions. While it seems clear that the holistic processing of faces depends on mechanisms evolved to perform that task, our review of the comparative literature reveals that there is currently insufficient evidence (or sometimes insufficiently compelling evidence to decide when in our evolutionary past such processing may have arisen. It is also difficult to assess what kinds of selection pressures may have led to evolution of such a mechanism, or even what kinds of information holistic processing may have originally evolved to extract, given that many sources of socially relevant face-based information other than identity depend on integrating information across different regions of the face – judgements of expression, behavioural intent, attractiveness, sex, age, etc. We suggest some directions for future research that would help to answer these important questions.

  12. A Systems View of Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Messinger, Daniel; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Margolis, Amy; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian

    2016-01-01

    Principles of a dynamic, dyadic systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication, which considers self- and interactive processes in relation to one another, were tested. The process of interaction across time in a large low-risk community sample at infant age 4 months was examined. Split-screen videotape was coded on a 1-s time base for…

  13. Perceptual load effects on processing distractor faces indicate face-specific capacity limits

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Volker; Lavie, Nilli

    2013-01-01

    The claim that face perception is mediated by a specialized ‘face module’ that proceeds automatically, independently of attention (e.g., Kanwisher, 2000) can be reconciled with load theory claims that visual perception has limited capacity (e.g., Lavie, 1995) by hypothesizing that face perception has face-specific capacity limits. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the effects of face and non-face perceptual load on distractor face processing. Participants searched a central array of eith...

  14. Face Patch Resting State Networks Link Face Processing to Social Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiedrzik, Caspar M; Zarco, Wilbert; Everling, Stefan; Freiwald, Winrich A

    2015-01-01

    Faces transmit a wealth of social information. How this information is exchanged between face-processing centers and brain areas supporting social cognition remains largely unclear. Here we identify these routes using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys. We find that face areas functionally connect to specific regions within frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices, as well as subcortical structures supporting emotive, mnemonic, and cognitive functions. This establishes the existence of an extended face-recognition system in the macaque. Furthermore, the face patch resting state networks and the default mode network in monkeys show a pattern of overlap akin to that between the social brain and the default mode network in humans: this overlap specifically includes the posterior superior temporal sulcus, medial parietal, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, areas supporting high-level social cognition in humans. Together, these results reveal the embedding of face areas into larger brain networks and suggest that the resting state networks of the face patch system offer a new, easily accessible venue into the functional organization of the social brain and into the evolution of possibly uniquely human social skills.

  15. Face Patch Resting State Networks Link Face Processing to Social Cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar M Schwiedrzik

    Full Text Available Faces transmit a wealth of social information. How this information is exchanged between face-processing centers and brain areas supporting social cognition remains largely unclear. Here we identify these routes using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys. We find that face areas functionally connect to specific regions within frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices, as well as subcortical structures supporting emotive, mnemonic, and cognitive functions. This establishes the existence of an extended face-recognition system in the macaque. Furthermore, the face patch resting state networks and the default mode network in monkeys show a pattern of overlap akin to that between the social brain and the default mode network in humans: this overlap specifically includes the posterior superior temporal sulcus, medial parietal, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, areas supporting high-level social cognition in humans. Together, these results reveal the embedding of face areas into larger brain networks and suggest that the resting state networks of the face patch system offer a new, easily accessible venue into the functional organization of the social brain and into the evolution of possibly uniquely human social skills.

  16. Face processing is gated by visual spatial attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E Crist

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Human perception of faces is widely believed to rely on automatic processing by a domain-specifi c, modular component of the visual system. Scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP recordings indicate that faces receive special stimulus processing at around 170 ms poststimulus onset, in that faces evoke an enhanced occipital negative wave, known as the N170, relative to the activity elicited by other visual objects. As predicted by modular accounts of face processing, this early face-specifi c N170 enhancement has been reported to be largely immune to the infl uence of endogenous processes such as task strategy or attention. However, most studies examining the infl uence of attention on face processing have focused on non-spatial attention, such as object-based attention, which tend to have longer-latency effects. In contrast, numerous studies have demonstrated that visual spatial attention can modulate the processing of visual stimuli as early as 80 ms poststimulus – substantially earlier than the N170. These temporal characteristics raise the question of whether this initial face-specifi c processing is immune to the infl uence of spatial attention. This question was addressed in a dual-visualstream ERP study in which the infl uence of spatial attention on the face-specifi c N170 could be directly examined. As expected, early visual sensory responses to all stimuli presented in an attended location were larger than responses evoked by those same stimuli when presented in an unattended location. More importantly, a signifi cant face-specifi c N170 effect was elicited by faces that appeared in an attended location, but not in an unattended one. In summary, early face-specifi c processing is not automatic, but rather, like other objects, strongly depends on endogenous factors such as the allocation of spatial attention. Moreover, these fi ndings underscore the extensive infl uence that top-down attention exercises over the processing of

  17. Individual differences in holistic processing predict face recognition ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruosi; Li, Jingguang; Fang, Huizhen; Tian, Moqian; Liu, Jia

    2012-02-01

    Why do some people recognize faces easily and others frequently make mistakes in recognizing faces? Classic behavioral work has shown that faces are processed in a distinctive holistic manner that is unlike the processing of objects. In the study reported here, we investigated whether individual differences in holistic face processing have a significant influence on face recognition. We found that the magnitude of face-specific recognition accuracy correlated with the extent to which participants processed faces holistically, as indexed by the composite-face effect and the whole-part effect. This association is due to face-specific processing in particular, not to a more general aspect of cognitive processing, such as general intelligence or global attention. This finding provides constraints on computational models of face recognition and may elucidate mechanisms underlying cognitive disorders, such as prosopagnosia and autism, that are associated with deficits in face recognition.

  18. Holistic face processing can inhibit recognition of forensic facial composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Alex H; Hancock, Peter J B; Frowd, Charlie D; Langton, Stephen R H

    2016-04-01

    Facial composite systems help eyewitnesses to show the appearance of criminals. However, likenesses created by unfamiliar witnesses will not be completely accurate, and people familiar with the target can find them difficult to identify. Faces are processed holistically; we explore whether this impairs identification of inaccurate composite images and whether recognition can be improved. In Experiment 1 (n = 64) an imaging technique was used to make composites of celebrity faces more accurate and identification was contrasted with the original composite images. Corrected composites were better recognized, confirming that errors in production of the likenesses impair identification. The influence of holistic face processing was explored by misaligning the top and bottom parts of the composites (cf. Young, Hellawell, & Hay, 1987). Misalignment impaired recognition of corrected composites but identification of the original, inaccurate composites significantly improved. This effect was replicated with facial composites of noncelebrities in Experiment 2 (n = 57). We conclude that, like real faces, facial composites are processed holistically: recognition is impaired because unlike real faces, composites contain inaccuracies and holistic face processing makes it difficult to perceive identifiable features. This effect was consistent across composites of celebrities and composites of people who are personally familiar. Our findings suggest that identification of forensic facial composites can be enhanced by presenting composites in a misaligned format.

  19. Association with emotional information alters subsequent processing of neutral faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Lily; Fujioka, Takako; Chan, Jessica; McQuiggan, Douglas A; Anderson, Adam K; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2014-01-01

    The processing of emotional as compared to neutral information is associated with different patterns in eye movement and neural activity. However, the 'emotionality' of a stimulus can be conveyed not only by its physical properties, but also by the information that is presented with it. There is very limited work examining the how emotional information may influence the immediate perceptual processing of otherwise neutral information. We examined how presenting an emotion label for a neutral face may influence subsequent processing by using eye movement monitoring (EMM) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) simultaneously. Participants viewed a series of faces with neutral expressions. Each face was followed by a unique negative or neutral sentence to describe that person, and then the same face was presented in isolation again. Viewing of faces paired with a negative sentence was associated with increased early viewing of the eye region and increased neural activity between 600 and 1200 ms in emotion processing regions such as the cingulate, medial prefrontal cortex, and amygdala, as well as posterior regions such as the precuneus and occipital cortex. Viewing of faces paired with a neutral sentence was associated with increased activity in the parahippocampal gyrus during the same time window. By monitoring behavior and neural activity within the same paradigm, these findings demonstrate that emotional information alters subsequent visual scanning and the neural systems that are presumably invoked to maintain a representation of the neutral information along with its emotional details.

  20. Research on Face Recognition Based on Embedded System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because a number of image feature data to store, complex calculation to execute during the face recognition, therefore the face recognition process was realized only by PCs with high performance. In this paper, the OpenCV facial Haar-like features were used to identify face region; the Principal Component Analysis (PCA was employed in quick extraction of face features and the Euclidean Distance was also adopted in face recognition; as thus, data amount and computational complexity would be reduced effectively in face recognition, and the face recognition could be carried out on embedded platform. Finally, based on Tiny6410 embedded platform, a set of embedded face recognition systems was constructed. The test results showed that the system has stable operation and high recognition rate can be used in portable and mobile identification and authentication.

  1. A Multi—View Face Recognition System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永越; 彭振云; 等

    1997-01-01

    In many automatic face recognition systems,posture constraining is a key factor preventing them from application.In this paper a series of strategies will be described to achieve a system which enables face recognition under varying pose.These approaches include the multi-view face modeling,the threschold image based face feature detection,the affine transformation based face posture normalization and the template matching based face identification.Combining all of these strategies,a face recognition system with the pose invariance is designed successfully,Using a 75MHZ Pentium PC and with a database of 75 individuals,15 images for each person,and 225 test images with various postures,a very good recognition rate of 96.89% is obtained.

  2. The special status of sad infant faces: age and valence differences in adults' cortical face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasante, Tyler; Mossad, Sarah I; Dudek, Joanna; Haley, David W

    2016-12-20

    Understanding the relative and joint prioritization of age- and valence-related face characteristics in adults' cortical face processing remains elusive because these two characteristics have not been manipulated in a single study of neural face processing. We used electroencephalography to investigate adults' P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses to infant and adult faces with happy and sad facial expressions. Viewing infant vs adult faces was associated with significantly larger P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses, with hemisphere and/or participant gender moderating this effect in select cases. Sad faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses than happy faces. Sad infant faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses in the right hemisphere than all other combinations of face age and face valence characteristics. We discuss the relative and joint neural prioritization of infant face characteristics and negative facial affect, and their biological value as distinct caregiving and social cues.

  3. Real Time Implementation Of Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Manchanda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes face recognition method using PCA for real time implementation. Nowadays security is gaining importance as it is becoming necessary for people to keep passwords in their mind and carry cards. Such implementations however, are becoming less secure and practical, also is becoming more problematic thus leading to an increasing interest in techniques related to biometrics systems. Face recognition system is amongst important subjects in biometrics systems. This system is very useful for security in particular and has been widely used and developed in many countries. This study aims to achieve face recognition successfully by detecting human face in real time, based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA algorithm.

  4. Suddenly I see! A developmental perspective on face processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Boomen, C.

    2014-01-01

    The central aim of this PhD thesis was to study typical development of visual mechanisms underlying face processing. Despite the importance of faces for interaction with the environment, little is known about the factors influencing the development of face processing. Perception of a face, and the u

  5. Face Context Influences Local Part Processing: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Sun, Yaoru; Zhao, Lun

    2017-01-01

    Perception of face parts on the basis of features is thought to be different from perception of whole faces, which is more based on configural information. Face context is also suggested to play an important role in face processing. To investigate how face context influences the early-stage perception of facial local parts, we used an oddball paradigm that tested perceptual stages of face processing rather than recognition. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by whole faces and face parts presented in four conditions (upright-normal, upright-thatcherised, inverted-normal and inverted-thatcherised), as well as the ERPs elicited by non-face objects (whole houses and house parts) with corresponding conditions. The results showed that face context significantly affected the N170 with increased amplitudes and earlier peak latency for upright normal faces. Removing face context delayed the P1 latency but did not affect the P1 amplitude prominently for both upright and inverted normal faces. Across all conditions, neither the N170 nor the P1 was modulated by house context. The significant changes on the N170 and P1 components revealed that face context influences local part processing at the early stage of face processing and this context effect might be specific for face perception. We further suggested that perceptions of whole faces and face parts are functionally distinguished.

  6. A Massively Parallel Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahdenoja Olli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present methods for processing the LBPs (local binary patterns with a massively parallel hardware, especially with CNN-UM (cellular nonlinear network-universal machine. In particular, we present a framework for implementing a massively parallel face recognition system, including a dedicated highly accurate algorithm suitable for various types of platforms (e.g., CNN-UM and digital FPGA. We study in detail a dedicated mixed-mode implementation of the algorithm and estimate its implementation cost in the view of its performance and accuracy restrictions.

  7. A Massively Parallel Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Paasio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We present methods for processing the LBPs (local binary patterns with a massively parallel hardware, especially with CNN-UM (cellular nonlinear network-universal machine. In particular, we present a framework for implementing a massively parallel face recognition system, including a dedicated highly accurate algorithm suitable for various types of platforms (e.g., CNN-UM and digital FPGA. We study in detail a dedicated mixed-mode implementation of the algorithm and estimate its implementation cost in the view of its performance and accuracy restrictions.

  8. Holistic Face Processing Is Mature at 4 Years of Age: Evidence from the Composite Face Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heering, Adelaide; Houthuys, Sarah; Rossion, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Although it is acknowledged that adults integrate features into a representation of the whole face, there is still some disagreement about the onset and developmental course of holistic face processing. We tested adults and children from 4 to 6 years of age with the same paradigm measuring holistic face processing through an adaptation of the…

  9. Traditional facial tattoos disrupt face recognition processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttle, Heather; East, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Factors that are important to successful face recognition, such as features, configuration, and pigmentation/reflectance, are all subject to change when a face has been engraved with ink markings. Here we show that the application of facial tattoos, in the form of spiral patterns (typically associated with the Maori tradition of a Moko), disrupts face recognition to a similar extent as face inversion, with recognition accuracy little better than chance performance (2AFC). These results indicate that facial tattoos can severely disrupt our ability to recognise a face that previously did not have the pattern.

  10. Effects of unconscious processing on implicit memory for fearful faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongjiong Yang

    Full Text Available Emotional stimuli can be processed even when participants perceive them without conscious awareness, but the extent to which unconsciously processed emotional stimuli influence implicit memory after short and long delays is not fully understood. We addressed this issue by measuring a subliminal affective priming effect in Experiment 1 and a long-term priming effect in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, a flashed fearful or neutral face masked by a scrambled face was presented three times, then a target face (either fearful or neutral was presented and participants were asked to make a fearful/neutral judgment. We found that, relative to a neutral prime face (neutral-fear face, a fearful prime face speeded up participants' reaction to a fearful target (fear-fear face, when they were not aware of the masked prime face. But this response pattern did not apply to the neutral target. In Experiment 2, participants were first presented with a masked faces six times during encoding. Three minutes later, they were asked to make a fearful/neutral judgment for the same face with congruent expression, the same face with incongruent expression or a new face. Participants showed a significant priming effect for the fearful faces but not for the neutral faces, regardless of their awareness of the masked faces during encoding. These results provided evidence that unconsciously processed stimuli could enhance emotional memory after both short and long delays. It indicates that emotion can enhance memory processing whether the stimuli are encoded consciously or unconsciously.

  11. Outlining face processing skills of portrait artists: Perceptual experience with faces predicts performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devue, Christel; Barsics, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    Most humans seem to demonstrate astonishingly high levels of skill in face processing if one considers the sophisticated level of fine-tuned discrimination that face recognition requires. However, numerous studies now indicate that the ability to process faces is not as fundamental as once thought and that performance can range from despairingly poor to extraordinarily high across people. Here we studied people who are super specialists of faces, namely portrait artists, to examine how their specific visual experience with faces relates to a range of face processing skills (perceptual discrimination, short- and longer term recognition). Artists show better perceptual discrimination and, to some extent, recognition of newly learned faces than controls. They are also more accurate on other perceptual tasks (i.e., involving non-face stimuli or mental rotation). By contrast, artists do not display an advantage compared to controls on longer term face recognition (i.e., famous faces) nor on person recognition from other sensorial modalities (i.e., voices). Finally, the face inversion effect exists in artists and controls and is not modulated by artistic practice. Advantages in face processing for artists thus seem to closely mirror perceptual and visual short term memory skills involved in portraiture.

  12. Face perception in high-functioning autistic adults: evidence for superior processing of face parts, not for a configural face-processing deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaie, A; Mottron, L; Arguin, M; Berthiaume, C; Jemel, B; Saumier, D

    2006-01-01

    Configural processing in autism was studied in Experiment 1 by using the face inversion effect. A normal inversion effect was observed in the participants with autism, suggesting intact configural face processing. A priming paradigm using partial or complete faces served in Experiment 2 to assess both local and configural face processing. Overall, normal priming effects were found in participants with autism, irrespective of whether the partial face primes were intuitive face parts (i.e., eyes, nose, etc.) or arbitrary segments. An exception, however, was that participants with autism showed magnified priming with single face parts relative to typically developing control participants. The present findings argue for intact configural processing in autism along with an enhanced processing for individual face parts. The face-processing peculiarities known to characterize autism are discussed on the basis of these results and past congruent results with nonsocial stimuli.

  13. The early development of face processing-What makes faces special?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefanie Hoehl; Stefanie Peykarjou

    2012-01-01

    In the present article we review behavioral and neurophysiological studies on face processing in adults and in early development.From the existing empirical and theoretical literature we derive three aspects that distinguish face processing from the processing of other visual object categories.Each of these aspects is discussed from a developmental perspective.First,faces are recognized and represented at the individual level rather than at the basic level.Second,humans typically acquire extensive expertise in individuating faces from early on in development.And third,more than other objects,faces are processed holistically.There is a quantitative difference in the amount of visual experience for faces and other object categories in that the amount of expertise typically acquired for faces is greater than that for other object categories.In addition,we discuss possible qualitative differences in experience for faces and objects.For instance,there is evidence for a sensitive period in infancy for building up a holistic face representation and for perceptual narrowing for faces of one's own species and race.We conclude our literature review with questions for future research,for instance,regarding the exact relationship between behavioral and neuronal markers of face processing across development.

  14. Automatic Age Estimation System for Face Images

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Teng Lin; Dong-Lin Li; Jian-Hao Lai; Ming-Feng Han; Jyh-Yeong Chang

    2012-01-01

    Humans are the most important tracking objects in surveillance systems. However, human tracking is not enough to provide the required information for personalized recognition. In this paper, we present a novel and reliable framework for automatic age estimation based on computer vision. It exploits global face features based on the combination of Gabor wavelets and orthogonal locality preserving projections. In addition, the proposed system can extract face aging features automatically in rea...

  15. The Impact of Early Bilingualism on Face Recognition Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Burfin, Sabine; Méary, David; Ruiz-Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Pascalis, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Early linguistic experience has an impact on the way we decode audiovisual speech in face-to-face communication. The present study examined whether differences in visual speech decoding could be linked to a broader difference in face processing. To identify a phoneme we have to do an analysis of the speaker’s face to focus on the relevant cues for speech decoding (e.g., locating the mouth with respect to the eyes). Face recognition processes were investigated through two classic effects in face recognition studies: the Other-Race Effect (ORE) and the Inversion Effect. Bilingual and monolingual participants did a face recognition task with Caucasian faces (own race), Chinese faces (other race), and cars that were presented in an Upright or Inverted position. The results revealed that monolinguals exhibited the classic ORE. Bilinguals did not. Overall, bilinguals were slower than monolinguals. These results suggest that bilinguals’ face processing abilities differ from monolinguals’. Early exposure to more than one language may lead to a perceptual organization that goes beyond language processing and could extend to face analysis. We hypothesize that these differences could be due to the fact that bilinguals focus on different parts of the face than monolinguals, making them more efficient in other race face processing but slower. However, more studies using eye-tracking techniques are necessary to confirm this explanation. PMID:27486422

  16. The impact of early bilingualism on face recognition processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Kandel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Early linguistic experience has an impact on the way we decode audiovisual speech in face-to-face communication. The present study examined whether differences in visual speech decoding could be linked to a broader difference in face processing. To identify a phoneme we have to do an analysis of the speaker’s face to focus on the relevant cues for speech decoding (e.g., locating the mouth with respect to the eyes. Face recognition processes were investigated through two classic effects in face recognition studies: the Other Race Effect (ORE and the Inversion Effect. Bilingual and monolingual participants did a face recognition task with Caucasian faces (own race, Chinese faces (other race and cars that were presented in an Upright or Inverted position. The results revealed that monolinguals exhibited the classic ORE. Bilinguals did not. Overall, bilinguals were slower than monolinguals. These results suggest that bilinguals’ face processing abilities differ from monolinguals’. Early exposure to more than one language may lead to a perceptual organization that goes beyond language processing and could extend to face analysis. We hypothesize that these differences could be due to the fact that bilinguals focus on different parts of the face than monolinguals, making them more efficient in other race face processing but slower. However, more studies using eye-tracking techniques are necessary to confirm this explanation.

  17. Perceptual face processing in developmental prosopagnosia is not sensitive to the canonical location of face parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towler, John; Parketny, Joanna; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) are strongly impaired in recognizing faces, but it is controversial whether this deficit is linked to atypical visual-perceptual face processing mechanisms. Previous behavioural studies have suggested that face perception in DP might be less sensitive to the canonical spatial configuration of face parts in upright faces. To test this prediction, we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to intact upright faces and to faces with spatially scrambled parts (eyes, nose, and mouth) in a group of ten participants with DP and a group of ten age-matched control participants with normal face recognition abilities. The face-sensitive N170 component and the vertex positive potential (VPP) were both enhanced and delayed for scrambled as compared to intact faces in the control group. In contrast, N170 and VPP amplitude enhancements to scrambled faces were absent in the DP group. For control participants, the N170 to scrambled faces was also sensitive to feature locations, with larger and delayed N170 components contralateral to the side where all features appeared in a non-canonical position. No such differences were present in the DP group. These findings suggest that spatial templates of the prototypical feature locations within an upright face are selectively impaired in DP.

  18. Neural markers of opposite-sex bias in face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado eProverbio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that adults prefer to view attractive faces of the opposite sex more than attractive faces of the same sex. However, unlike the other-race face effect (ORE; Caldara et al., 2004, little is known regarding the existence of an opposite-/same-sex bias in face processing. In this study, the faces of 130 attractive male and female adults were foveally presented to 40 heterosexual university students (20 men and 20 women who were engaged in a secondary perceptual task (landscape detection. The automatic processing of face gender was investigated by recording ERPs from 128 scalp sites. Neural markers of opposite- vs. same-sex bias in face processing included larger and earlier centro-parietal N400s in response to faces of the opposite sex and a larger late positivity (LP to same-sex faces. Analysis of intra-cortical neural generators (swLORETA showed that facial processing-related (FG, BA37, BA20/21 and emotion-related brain areas (the right parahippocampal gyrus, BA35; uncus, BA36/38; and the cingulate gyrus, BA24 had higher activations in response to opposite- than same-sex faces. The results of this analysis, along with data obtained from ERP recordings, support the hypothesis that both genders process opposite-sex faces differently than same-sex faces. The data also suggest a hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of opposite-/same-sex faces, with the right hemisphere involved in processing same-sex faces and the left hemisphere involved in processing faces of the opposite sex. The data support previous literature suggesting a right lateralization for the representation of self-image and body awareness.

  19. A Brain Network Processing the Age of Faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homola, G.A.; Jbabdi, S.; Beckmann, C.F.; Bartsch, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Age is one of the most salient aspects in faces and of fundamental cognitive and social relevance. Although face processing has been studied extensively, brain regions responsive to age have yet to be localized. Using evocative face morphs and fMRI, we segregate two areas extending beyond the previo

  20. The Thatcher Illusion and Face Processing in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Evelin; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2004-01-01

    Adults readily detect changes in face patterns brought about by the inversion of eyes and mouth when the faces are viewed upright but not when they are viewed upside down. Research suggests that this illusion (the Thatcher illusion) is caused by the interfering effects of face inversion on the processing of second-order relational information…

  1. Age-related face processing bias in infancy: evidence of perceptual narrowing for adult faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Bulf, Hermann; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Proietti, Valentina

    2014-02-01

    Recent data demonstrate a perceptual processing advantage for adult faces in both adults and young children, suggesting that face representation is shaped by visual experience accumulated with different face-age groups. As for species and race, this age bias may emerge during the first year of life as part of the general process of perceptual narrowing, given the extensive amount of social and perceptual experience accumulated with caregivers and/or other adult individuals. Using infant-controlled habituation and visual-paired comparison at test, two experiments were carried out to examine 3- and 9-month-olds' ability to discriminate within adult and infant faces. Results showed that, when they are provided with adequate time to visually compare the stimuli during test trials (Experiment 2), 3-month-olds exhibit above-chance discrimination of adult and infant faces. Instead, 9-month-olds discriminate adult faces but not infant faces (Experiments 1 and 2). Results provide the first evidence of age-related face processing biases in infancy, and show that by 9 months face representations tune to adult human faces.

  2. Face processing in Williams syndrome is already atypical in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean eD'Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Face processing is a crucial socio-cognitive ability. Is it acquired progressively or does it constitute an innately-specified, face-processing module? The latter would be supported if some individuals with seriously impaired intelligence nonetheless showed intact face-processing abilities. Some theorists claim that Williams syndrome (WS provides such evidence since, despite IQs in the 50s, adolescents/adults with WS score in the normal range on standardised face-processing tests. Others argue that atypical neural and cognitive processes underlie WS face-processing proficiencies. But what about infants with WS? Do they start with typical face-processing abilities, with atypicality developing later, or are atypicalities already evident in infancy? We used an infant familiarisation/novelty design and compared infants with WS to healthy controls as well as to a group of infants with DS matched on both mental and chronological age. Participants were familiarised with a schematic face, after which they saw a novel face in which either the features (eye shape were changed or just the configuration of the original features. Configural changes were processed successfully by controls, but not by infants with WS who were only sensitive to featural changes and who showed syndrome-specific profiles different from infants with the other neurodevelopmental disorder. Our findings indicate that theorists can no longer use the case of Williams syndrome to support claims that evolution has endowed the human brain with an independent face-processing module.

  3. Face-specific and domain-general visual processing deficits in children with developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Elison, Jed T; Duchaine, Brad

    2017-02-01

    Evidence suggests that face and object recognition depend on distinct neural circuitry within the visual system. Work with adults with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) demonstrates that some individuals have preserved object recognition despite severe face recognition deficits. This face selectivity in adults with DP indicates that face- and object-processing systems can develop independently, but it is unclear at what point in development these mechanisms are separable. Determining when individuals with DP first show dissociations between faces and objects is one means to address this question. In the current study, we investigated face and object processing in six children with DP (5-12-years-old). Each child was assessed with one face perception test, two different face memory tests, and two object memory tests that were matched to the face memory tests in format and difficulty. Scores from the DP children on the matched face and object tasks were compared to within-subject data from age-matched controls. Four of the six DP children, including the 5-year-old, showed evidence of face-specific deficits, while one child appeared to have more general visual-processing deficits. The remaining child had inconsistent results. The presence of face-specific deficits in children with DP suggests that face and object perception depend on dissociable processes in childhood.

  4. Human face processing is tuned to sexual age preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponseti, J; Granert, O; van Eimeren, T

    2014-01-01

    . In paedophilia, sexual attraction is directed to sexually immature children. Therefore, we hypothesized that brain networks that normally are tuned to mature faces of the preferred gender show an abnormal tuning to sexual immature faces in paedophilia. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (f......Human faces can motivate nurturing behaviour or sexual behaviour when adults see a child or an adult face, respectively. This suggests that face processing is tuned to detecting age cues of sexual maturity to stimulate the appropriate reproductive behaviour: either caretaking or mating......MRI) to test directly for the existence of a network which is tuned to face cues of sexual maturity. During fMRI, participants sexually attracted to either adults or children were exposed to various face images. In individuals attracted to adults, adult faces activated several brain regions significantly more...

  5. Neurophysiological Correlates of Featural and Spacing Processing for Face and Non-face Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Marcello; Brkić, Diandra; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Premoli, Isabella; Rivolta, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The peculiar ability of humans to recognize hundreds of faces at a glance has been attributed to face-specific perceptual mechanisms known as holistic processing. Holistic processing includes the ability to discriminate individual facial features (i.e., featural processing) and their spatial relationships (i.e., spacing processing). Here, we aimed to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of featural- and spacing-processing of faces and objects. Nineteen healthy volunteers completed a newly created perceptual discrimination task for faces and objects (i.e., the “University of East London Face Task”) while their brain activity was recorded with a high-density (128 electrodes) electroencephalogram. Our results showed that early event related potentials at around 100 ms post-stimulus onset (i.e., P100) are sensitive to both facial features and spacing between the features. Spacing and features discriminability for objects occurred at circa 200 ms post-stimulus onset (P200). These findings indicate the existence of neurophysiological correlates of spacing vs. features processing in both face and objects, and demonstrate faster brain processing for faces. PMID:28348535

  6. A color based face detection system using multiple templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 卜佳俊; 陈纯

    2003-01-01

    A color based system using multiple templates was developed and implemented for detecting human faces in color images. The algorithm consists of three image processing steps. The first step is human skin color statistics. Then it separates skin regions from non-skin regions. After that, it locates the frontal human face(s) within the skin regions. In the first step, 250 skin samples from persons of different ethnicities are used to determine the color distribution of human skin in chromatic color space in order to get a chroma chart showing likelihoods of skin colors. This chroma chart is used to generate, from the original color image, a gray scale image whose gray value at a pixel shows its likelihood of representing the skin. The algorithm uses an adaptive thresholding process to achieve the optimal threshold value for dividing the gray scale image into separate skin regions from non skin regions. Finally, multiple face templates matching is used to determine if a given skin region represents a frontal human face or not. Test of the system with more than 400 color images showed that the resulting detection rate was 83%, which is better than most color-based face detection systems. The average speed for face detection is 0.8 second/image (400×300 pixels) on a Pentium 3 (800MHz) PC.

  7. Passive and motivated perception of emotional faces: qualitative and quantitative changes in the face processing network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie R Skelly

    Full Text Available Emotionally expressive faces are processed by a distributed network of interacting sub-cortical and cortical brain regions. The components of this network have been identified and described in large part by the stimulus properties to which they are sensitive, but as face processing research matures interest has broadened to also probe dynamic interactions between these regions and top-down influences such as task demand and context. While some research has tested the robustness of affective face processing by restricting available attentional resources, it is not known whether face network processing can be augmented by increased motivation to attend to affective face stimuli. Short videos of people expressing emotions were presented to healthy participants during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Motivation to attend to the videos was manipulated by providing an incentive for improved recall performance. During the motivated condition, there was greater coherence among nodes of the face processing network, more widespread correlation between signal intensity and performance, and selective signal increases in a task-relevant subset of face processing regions, including the posterior superior temporal sulcus and right amygdala. In addition, an unexpected task-related laterality effect was seen in the amygdala. These findings provide strong evidence that motivation augments co-activity among nodes of the face processing network and the impact of neural activity on performance. These within-subject effects highlight the necessity to consider motivation when interpreting neural function in special populations, and to further explore the effect of task demands on face processing in healthy brains.

  8. Developmental changes in analytic and holistic processes in face perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Elizabeth Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although infants demonstrate sensitivity to some kinds of perceptual information in faces, many face capacities continue to develop throughout childhood. One debate is the degree to which children perceive faces analytically versus holistically and how these processes undergo developmental change. In the present study, school-aged children and adults performed a perceptual matching task with upright and inverted face and house pairs that varied in similarity of featural or 2nd order configural information. Holistic processing was operationalized as the degree of serial processing when discriminating faces and houses (i.e., increased reaction time, RT, as more features or spacing relations were shared between stimuli. Analytical processing was operationalized as the degree of parallel processing (or no change in reaction time as a function of greater similarity of features or spatial relations. Adults showed the most evidence for holistic processing (most strongly for 2nd order faces and holistic processing was weaker for inverted faces and houses. Younger children (6-8 years, in contrast, showed analytical processing across all experimental manipulations. Older children (9-11 years showed an intermediate pattern with a trend toward holistic processing of 2nd order faces like adults, but parallel processing in other experimental conditions like younger children. These findings indicate that holistic face representations emerge around 10 years of age. In adults both 2nd order and featural information are incorporated into holistic representations, whereas older children only incorporate 2nd order information. Holistic processing was not evident in younger children. Hence, the development of holistic face representations relies on 2nd order processing initially then incorporates featural information by adulthood.

  9. Human face processing is tuned to sexual age preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseti, J; Granert, O; van Eimeren, T; Jansen, O; Wolff, S; Beier, K; Deuschl, G; Bosinski, H; Siebner, H

    2014-05-01

    Human faces can motivate nurturing behaviour or sexual behaviour when adults see a child or an adult face, respectively. This suggests that face processing is tuned to detecting age cues of sexual maturity to stimulate the appropriate reproductive behaviour: either caretaking or mating. In paedophilia, sexual attraction is directed to sexually immature children. Therefore, we hypothesized that brain networks that normally are tuned to mature faces of the preferred gender show an abnormal tuning to sexual immature faces in paedophilia. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test directly for the existence of a network which is tuned to face cues of sexual maturity. During fMRI, participants sexually attracted to either adults or children were exposed to various face images. In individuals attracted to adults, adult faces activated several brain regions significantly more than child faces. These brain regions comprised areas known to be implicated in face processing, and sexual processing, including occipital areas, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and, subcortically, the putamen and nucleus caudatus. The same regions were activated in paedophiles, but with a reversed preferential response pattern.

  10. A color based face detection system using multiple templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 卜佳酸; 陈纯

    2003-01-01

    A color based system using multiple templates was developed and implemented for detecting hu-man faces in color images.The algorithm comsists of three image processing steps.The first step is human skin color statistics.Then it separates skin regions from non-skin regions.After that,it locates the frontal human face(s) within the skin regions.In the first step,250 skin samples from persons of different ethnicities are used to determine the color distribution of human skin in chromatic color space in order to get a chroma chart showing likelihoods of skin colors.This chroma chart is used to generate,from the original color image,a gray scale image whose gray value at a pixel shows its likelihood of representing the shin,The algorithm uses an adaptive thresholding process to achieve the optimal threshold value for dividing the gray scale image into sep-arate skin regions from non skin regions.Finally,multiple face templates matching is used to determine if a given skin region represents a frontal human face or not.Test of the system with more than 400 color images showed that the resulting detection rate was 83%,which is better than most colou-based face detection sys-tems.The average speed for face detection is 0.8 second/image(400×300pixels) on a Pentium 3(800MHz) PC.

  11. Face Synthesis (FASY) System for Generation of a Face Image from Human Description

    CERN Document Server

    Halder, Santanu; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at generating a new face based on the human like description using a new concept. The FASY (FAce SYnthesis) System is a Face Database Retrieval and new Face generation System that is under development. One of its main features is the generation of the requested face when it is not found in the existing database, which allows a continuous growing of the database also.

  12. Automatic Age Estimation System for Face Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Teng Lin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans are the most important tracking objects in surveillance systems. However, human tracking is not enough to provide the required information for personalized recognition. In this paper, we present a novel and reliable framework for automatic age estimation based on computer vision. It exploits global face features based on the combination of Gabor wavelets and orthogonal locality preserving projections. In addition, the proposed system can extract face aging features automatically in real‐time. This means that the proposed system has more potential in applications compared to other semi‐automatic systems. The results obtained from this novel approach could provide clearer insight for operators in the field of age estimation to develop real‐world applications.

  13. Holistic person processing: faces with bodies tell the whole story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviezer, Hillel; Trope, Yaacov; Todorov, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Faces and bodies are typically encountered simultaneously, yet little research has explored the visual processing of the full person. Specifically, it is unknown whether the face and body are perceived as distinct components or as an integrated, gestalt-like unit. To examine this question, we investigated whether emotional face-body composites are processed in a holistic-like manner by using a variant of the composite face task, a measure of holistic processing. Participants judged facial expressions combined with emotionally congruent or incongruent bodies that have been shown to influence the recognition of emotion from the face. Critically, the faces were either aligned with the body in a natural position or misaligned in a manner that breaks the ecological person form. Converging data from 3 experiments confirm that breaking the person form reduces the facilitating influence of congruent body context as well as the impeding influence of incongruent body context on the recognition of emotion from the face. These results show that faces and bodies are processed as a single unit and support the notion of a composite person effect analogous to the classic effect described for faces.

  14. Social and emotional relevance in face processing: Happy faces of future interaction partners enhance the LPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eBublatzky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human face perception is modulated by both emotional valence and social relevance, but their interaction has rarely been examined. Event-related brain potentials (ERP to happy, neutral, and angry facial expressions with different degrees of social relevance were recorded. Social relevance was manipulated by presenting pictures of two specific face actors as future interaction partners (meet condition, whereas two other face actors remained non-relevant. As a further control condition all stimuli were presented without specific task instructions (passive viewing condition. A within-subject design (Facial Expression x Relevance x Task was implemented, where randomly ordered face stimuli of four actors (2 women, from the KDEF were presented for 1s to 26 participants (16 female. Results showed an augmented N170, early posterior negativity (EPN, and late positive potential (LPP for emotional in contrast to neutral facial expressions. Of particular interest, face processing varied as a function of instructed social relevance. Whereas the meet condition was accompanied with unspecific effects regardless of relevance (P1, EPN, viewing potential interaction partners was associated with increased LPP amplitudes. The LPP was specifically enhanced for happy facial expressions of the future interaction partners. This underscores that social relevance can impact face processing already at an early stage of visual processing. These findings are discussed within the framework of motivated attention and face processing theories.

  15. Atypical face processing in children with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Shafali Spurling; Hirsch, Suzanna; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Norona, Amanda; Navalta, Mary-Clare; Gregas, Matt C; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Sahin, Mustafa; Nelson, Charles A

    2013-12-01

    There is a high incidence of autism in tuberous sclerosis complex. Given the evidence of impaired face processing in autism, the authors sought to investigate electrophysiological markers of face processing in children with tuberous sclerosis complex. The authors studied 19 children with tuberous sclerosis complex under age 4, and 20 age-matched controls, using a familiar-unfamiliar faces paradigm. Of the children, 6 with tuberous sclerosis complex (32%) had autism. Children with tuberous sclerosis complex showed a longer N290 latency than controls (276 ms vs 259 ms, P = .05) and also failed to show the expected hemispheric differences in face processing. The longest N290 latency was seen in (1) children with autism and tuberous sclerosis complex and (2) children with temporal lobe tubers. This study is the first to quantify atypical face processing in children with tuberous sclerosis complex. This functional impairment may provide insight into a mechanism underlying a pathway to autism in tuberous sclerosis complex.

  16. Passing faces: sequence-dependent variations in the perceptual processing of emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Christian; Hewig, Johannes; Osinsky, Roman

    2016-10-01

    There is broad evidence that contextual factors influence the processing of emotional facial expressions. Yet temporal-dynamic aspects, inter alia how face processing is influenced by the specific order of neutral and emotional facial expressions, have been largely neglected. To shed light on this topic, we recorded electroencephalogram from 168 healthy participants while they performed a gender-discrimination task with angry and neutral faces. Our event-related potential (ERP) analyses revealed a strong emotional modulation of the N170 component, indicating that the basic visual encoding and emotional analysis of a facial stimulus happen, at least partially, in parallel. While the N170 and the late positive potential (LPP; 400-600 ms) were only modestly affected by the sequence of preceding faces, we observed a strong influence of face sequences on the early posterior negativity (EPN; 200-300 ms). Finally, the differing response patterns of the EPN and LPP indicate that these two ERPs represent distinct processes during face analysis: while the former seems to represent the integration of contextual information in the perception of a current face, the latter appears to represent the net emotional interpretation of a current face.

  17. Face Synthesis (FASY) System for Determining the Characteristics of a Face Image

    CERN Document Server

    Halder, Santanu; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at determining the characteristics of a face image by extracting its components. The FASY (FAce SYnthesis) System is a Face Database Retrieval and new Face generation System that is under development. One of its main features is the generation of the requested face when it is not found in the existing database, which allows a continuous growing of the database also. To generate the new face image, we need to store the face components in the database. So we have designed a new technique to extract the face components by a sophisticated method. After extraction of the facial feature points we have analyzed the components to determine their characteristics. After extraction and analysis we have stored the components along with their characteristics into the face database for later use during the face construction.

  18. Romanian Insurance Market Facing Globalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru G. Badea

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian insurance market has passed through a permanent process of growth which ended up in 2004 to exceed the threshold of 1 billion Euros, in the frame of a small awareness and confidence of the population towards insurance, even now after 15 years. The globalization process of the financial markets affected also the Romanian market even before Romania became member of the European Union. The globalization brought about benefits (especially under the form of increase in the quality of the services provided to clients but also disadvantages for local companies (significant costs in logistics and training in order to cope with the international groups.

  19. Gender differences in hemispheric asymmetry for face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matarazzo Silvia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current cognitive neuroscience models predict a right-hemispheric dominance for face processing in humans. However, neuroimaging and electromagnetic data in the literature provide conflicting evidence of a right-sided brain asymmetry for decoding the structural properties of faces. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether this inconsistency might be due to gender differences in hemispheric asymmetry. Results In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs were recorded in 40 healthy, strictly right-handed individuals (20 women and 20 men while they observed infants' faces expressing a variety of emotions. Early face-sensitive P1 and N1 responses to neutral vs. affective expressions were measured over the occipital/temporal cortices, and the responses were analyzed according to viewer gender. Along with a strong right hemispheric dominance for men, the results showed a lack of asymmetry for face processing in the amplitude of the occipito-temporal N1 response in women to both neutral and affective faces. Conclusion Men showed an asymmetric functioning of visual cortex while decoding faces and expressions, whereas women showed a more bilateral functioning. These results indicate the importance of gender effects in the lateralization of the occipito-temporal response during the processing of face identity, structure, familiarity, or affective content.

  20. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF DSP-BASED FACE RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR ROBOTIC REHABILITATION NURSING BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming XING

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of DSP as the core of the face recognition system, on the basis of understanding the background, significance and current research situation at home and abroad of face recognition issue, having a in-depth study to face detection, Image preprocessing, feature extraction face facial structure, facial expression feature extraction, classification and other issues during face recognition and have achieved research and development of DSP-based face recognition system for robotic rehabilitation nursing beds. The system uses a fixed-point DSP TMS320DM642 as a central processing unit, with a strong processing performance, high flexibility and programmability.

  1. Phasic alertness enhances processing of face and non-face stimuli in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, Michal; Weinbach, Noam; Mardo, Elite; Henik, Avishai; Avidan, Galia

    2016-08-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) is a severe face processing impairment that occurs in the absence of any obvious brain damage and has often been associated with a more general deficit in deriving holistic relations between facial features or even between non-face shape dimensions. Here we further characterized this deficit and examined a potential way to ameliorate it. To this end we manipulated phasic alertness using alerting cues previously shown to modulate attention and enhance global processing of visual stimuli in normal observers. Specifically, we first examined whether individuals with CP, similarly to controls, would show greater global processing when exposed to an alerting cue in the context of a non-facial task (Navon global/local task). We then explored the effect of an alerting cue on face processing (upright/inverted face discrimination). Confirming previous findings, in the absence of alerting cues, controls showed a typical global bias in the Navon task and an inversion effect indexing holistic processing in the upright/inverted task, while CP failed to show these effects. Critically, when alerting cues preceded the experimental trials, both groups showed enhanced global interference and a larger inversion effect. These results suggest that phasic alertness may modulate visual processing and consequently, affect global/holistic perception. Hence, these findings further reinforce the notion that global/holistic processing may serve as a possible mechanism underlying the face processing deficit in CP. Moreover, they imply a possible route for enhancing face processing in individuals with CP and thus shed new light on potential amelioration of this disorder.

  2. Tolerance for distorted faces: challenges to a configural processing account of familiar face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Adam; Burton, A Mike

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition is widely held to rely on 'configural processing', an analysis of spatial relations between facial features. We present three experiments in which viewers were shown distorted faces, and asked to resize these to their correct shape. Based on configural theories appealing to metric distances between features, we reason that this should be an easier task for familiar than unfamiliar faces (whose subtle arrangements of features are unknown). In fact, participants were inaccurate at this task, making between 8% and 13% errors across experiments. Importantly, we observed no advantage for familiar faces: in one experiment participants were more accurate with unfamiliars, and in two experiments there was no difference. These findings were not due to general task difficulty - participants were able to resize blocks of colour to target shapes (squares) more accurately. We also found an advantage of familiarity for resizing other stimuli (brand logos). If configural processing does underlie face recognition, these results place constraints on the definition of 'configural'. Alternatively, familiar face recognition might rely on more complex criteria - based on tolerance to within-person variation rather than highly specific measurement.

  3. A brain network processing the age of faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György A Homola

    Full Text Available Age is one of the most salient aspects in faces and of fundamental cognitive and social relevance. Although face processing has been studied extensively, brain regions responsive to age have yet to be localized. Using evocative face morphs and fMRI, we segregate two areas extending beyond the previously established face-sensitive core network, centered on the inferior temporal sulci and angular gyri bilaterally, both of which process changes of facial age. By means of probabilistic tractography, we compare their patterns of functional activation and structural connectivity. The ventral portion of Wernicke's understudied perpendicular association fasciculus is shown to interconnect the two areas, and activation within these clusters is related to the probability of fiber connectivity between them. In addition, post-hoc age-rating competence is found to be associated with high response magnitudes in the left angular gyrus. Our results provide the first evidence that facial age has a distinct representation pattern in the posterior human brain. We propose that particular face-sensitive nodes interact with additional object-unselective quantification modules to obtain individual estimates of facial age. This brain network processing the age of faces differs from the cortical areas that have previously been linked to less developmental but instantly changeable face aspects. Our probabilistic method of associating activations with connectivity patterns reveals an exemplary link that can be used to further study, assess and quantify structure-function relationships.

  4. Local discriminability determines the strength of holistic processing for faces in the Fusiform Face Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie eGoffaux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the Fusiform Face Area (FFA is not exclusively dedicated to the interactive processing of face features, but also contains neurons sensitive to local features. This suggests the existence of both interactive and local processing modes, consistent with recent behavioral findings that the strength of interactive feature processing (IFP engages most strongly when similar features need to be disambiguated.Here we address whether the engagement of the FFA into interactive versus featural representational modes is governed by local feature discriminability. We scanned human participants while they matched target features within face pairs, independently of the context of distracter features. IFP was operationalized as the failure to match the target without being distracted by distracter features. Picture-plane inversion was used to disrupt IFP while preserving input properties. We found that FFA activation was comparably strong, irrespective of whether similar target features were embedded in dissimilar contexts (i.e., inducing robust IFP or dissimilar target features were embedded in the same context, (i.e., engaging local processing. Second, inversion decreased FFA activation to faces most robustly when similar target features were embedded in dissimilar contexts, indicating that FFA engages into IFP mainly when features cannot be disambiguated at a local level. Third, by means of Spearman rank correlation tests, we show that the local processing of feature differences in the FFA is supported to a large extent by the Occipital Face Area (OFA, the Lateral Occipital Complex (LOC, and early visual cortex (EVC, suggesting that these regions encode the local aspects of face information. The present findings confirm the co-existence of holistic and featural representations in the FFA. Furthermore, they establish FFA as the main contributor to the featural/holistic representational mode switches determined by local

  5. Intranasal inhalation of oxytocin improves face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Sarah; Cook, Sarah J; Duchaine, Bradley; Tree, Jeremy J; Burns, Edwin J; Hodgson, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is characterised by a severe lifelong impairment in face recognition. In recent years it has become clear that DP affects a substantial number of people, yet little work has attempted to improve face processing in these individuals. Intriguingly, recent evidence suggests that intranasal inhalation of the hormone oxytocin can improve face processing in unimpaired participants, and we investigated whether similar findings might be noted in DP. Ten adults with DP and 10 matched controls were tested using a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind within-subject experimental design (AB-BA). Each participant took part in two testing sessions separated by a 14-25 day interval. In each session, participants inhaled 24 IU of oxytocin or placebo spray, followed by a 45 min resting period to allow central oxytocin levels to plateau. Participants then completed two face processing tests: one assessing memory for a set of newly encoded faces, and one measuring the ability to match simultaneously presented faces according to identity. Participants completed the Multidimensional Mood Questionnaire (MMQ) at three points in each testing session to assess the possible mood-altering effects of oxytocin and to control for attention and wakefulness. Statistical comparisons revealed an improvement for DP but not control participants on both tests in the oxytocin condition, and analysis of scores on the MMQ indicated that the effect cannot be attributed to changes in mood, attention or wakefulness. This investigation provides the first evidence that oxytocin can improve face processing in DP, and the potential neural underpinnings of the findings are discussed alongside their implications for the treatment of face processing disorders.

  6. Faces as objects of non-expertise: processing of thatcherised faces in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Grüter, Thomas; Weber, Joachim E; Lueschow, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (cPA) is a severe disorder in recognising familiar faces, a human characteristic that is presumably innate, without any macro-spatial brain anomalies. Following the idea that cPA is based on deficits of configural face processing, we used a speeded grotesqueness decision task with thatcherised faces, since the Thatcher illusion can serve as a test of configural disruption (Lewis and Johnston, 1997 Perception 26 225-227). The time needed to report the grotesqueness of a face in relation to orientation showed dissociate patterns between a group of fourteen people with cPA and a group of matched controls: whereas the RTs of controls followed a strong sigmoid function depending on rotation from the upright orientation, the RTs of people with cPA showed a much weaker sigmoid trend approaching a linear function. The latter result is interpreted as a diagnostic sign of impaired configural processing, being the primary cause of the absence of 'face expertise' in prosopagnosia.

  7. Recognition advantage of happy faces: tracing the neurocognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Beltrán, David

    2013-09-01

    The present study aimed to identify the brain processes-and their time course-underlying the typical behavioral recognition advantage of happy facial expressions. To this end, we recorded EEG activity during an expression categorization task for happy, angry, fearful, sad, and neutral faces, and the correlation between event-related-potential (ERP) patterns and recognition performance was assessed. N170 (150-180 ms) was enhanced for angry, fearful and sad faces; N2 was reduced and early posterior negativity (EPN; both, 200-320 ms) was enhanced for happy and angry faces; P3b (350-450 ms) was reduced for happy and neutral faces; and slow positive wave (SPW; 700-800 ms) was reduced for happy faces. This reveals (a) an early processing (N170) of negative affective valence (i.e., angry, fearful, and sad), (b) discrimination (N2 and EPN) of affective intensity or arousal (i.e., angry and happy), and (c) facilitated categorization (P3b) and decision (SPW) due to expressive distinctiveness (i.e., happy). In addition, N2, EPN, P3b, and SPW were related to categorization accuracy and speed. This suggests that conscious expression recognition and the typical happy face advantage depend on encoding of expressive intensity and, especially, on later response selection, rather than on the early processing of affective valence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using Regression to Measure Holistic Face Processing Reveals a Strong Link with Face Recognition Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Wilmer, Jeremy; Mercado, Rogelio J.; Cohan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Although holistic processing is thought to underlie normal face recognition ability, widely discrepant reports have recently emerged about this link in an individual differences context. Progress in this domain may have been impeded by the widespread use of subtraction scores, which lack validity due to their contamination with control condition…

  9. Faces in context: a review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Matthias J; Brosch, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals' emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant "basic emotion" approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, de-contextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual's face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at (1) systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and (2) summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in future research.

  10. Faces in context: A review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Wieser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant basic emotion approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, decontextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at 1 systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and 2 summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in

  11. Basic Abnormalities in Visual Processing Affect Face Processing at an Early Age in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlamings, Petra Hendrika Johanna Maria; Jonkman, Lisa Marthe; van Daalen, Emma; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Kemner, Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Background: A detailed visual processing style has been noted in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); this contributes to problems in face processing and has been directly related to abnormal processing of spatial frequencies (SFs). Little is known about the early development of face processing in ASD an

  12. The role of perceptual load in processing distractor faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Nilli; Ro, Tony; Russell, Charlotte

    2003-09-01

    It has been established that successful ignoring of irrelevant distractors depends on the extent to which the current task loads attention. However, the previous load studies have typically employed neutral distractor stimuli (e.g., letters). In the experiments reported here, we examined whether the perception of irrelevant distractor faces would show the same effects. We manipulated attentional load in a relevant task of name search by varying the search set size and found that whereas congruency effects from meaningful nonface distractors were eliminated by higher search load, interference from distractor faces was entirely unaffected by search load. These results support the idea that face processing may be mandatory and generalize the load theory to the processing of meaningful and more complex nonface distractors.

  13. Mandatory processing of irrelevant fearful face features in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenker, Daniela B; Heipertz, Dorothee; Boehler, Carsten N; Schoenfeld, Mircea A; Noesselt, Tömme; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Duezel, Emrah; Hopf, Jens-Max

    2010-12-01

    Faces expressing fear may attract attention in an automatic bottom-up fashion. Here we address this issue with magneto-encephalographic (MEG) recordings in subjects performing a demanding visual search combined with the presentation of irrelevant neutral or fearful faces. The impact of the faces' emotional expression on attentional selection was assessed by analyzing the N2pc component--a modulation of the event-related magnetic field response known to reflect attentional focusing in visual search. We observed that lateralized fearful faces elicited an N2pc approximately between 240 and 400 msec in ventral extrastriate cortex that was independent of the N2pc reflecting target selection in visual search. Despite their clear influence on neural processing, fearful faces did not significantly influence behavioral performance. To clarify this discrepancy, we further performed an MEG experiment in which the demands of the search task were reduced. Under those conditions, lateralized fearful faces elicited an N2pc response that was again independent of the N2pc response to the search target. Behavioral performance was, however, influenced in a significant manner, suggesting that for behavioral effects to appear, sufficient attentional resources need to be left unoccupied by the search task--a notion put forward by the perceptual load theory. Our observations are taken to indicate that irrelevant fearful faces influence attentional processing in extrastriate visual cortex in an automatic fashion and independent of other task-relevant attentional operations. However, this may not necessarily be echoed at the behavioral level as long as task-relevant selection operations exhaust attentional resources.

  14. Suprasegmental information affects processing of talking faces at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guellai, Bahia; Mersad, Karima; Streri, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    From birth, newborns show a preference for faces talking a native language compared to silent faces. The present study addresses two questions that remained unanswered by previous research: (a) Does the familiarity with the language play a role in this process and (b) Are all the linguistic and paralinguistic cues necessary in this case? Experiment 1 extended newborns' preference for native speakers to non-native ones. Given that fetuses and newborns are sensitive to the prosodic characteristics of speech, Experiments 2 and 3 presented faces talking native and nonnative languages with the speech stream being low-pass filtered. Results showed that newborns preferred looking at a person who talked to them even when only the prosodic cues were provided for both languages. Nonetheless, a familiarity preference for the previously talking face is observed in the "normal speech" condition (i.e., Experiment 1) and a novelty preference in the "filtered speech" condition (Experiments 2 and 3). This asymmetry reveals that newborns process these two types of stimuli differently and that they may already be sensitive to a mismatch between the articulatory movements of the face and the corresponding speech sounds.

  15. Arguments Against a Configural Processing Account of Familiar Face Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Jenkins, Rob; Kaufmann, Jürgen M

    2015-07-01

    Face recognition is a remarkable human ability, which underlies a great deal of people's social behavior. Individuals can recognize family members, friends, and acquaintances over a very large range of conditions, and yet the processes by which they do this remain poorly understood, despite decades of research. Although a detailed understanding remains elusive, face recognition is widely thought to rely on configural processing, specifically an analysis of spatial relations between facial features (so-called second-order configurations). In this article, we challenge this traditional view, raising four problems: (1) configural theories are underspecified; (2) large configural changes leave recognition unharmed; (3) recognition is harmed by nonconfigural changes; and (4) in separate analyses of face shape and face texture, identification tends to be dominated by texture. We review evidence from a variety of sources and suggest that failure to acknowledge the impact of familiarity on facial representations may have led to an overgeneralization of the configural account. We argue instead that second-order configural information is remarkably unimportant for familiar face recognition.

  16. Big Questions Facing Vocational Psychology: A Cognitive Information Processing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Robert C.; Lenz, Janet G.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon the authors' experience in developing cognitive information processing theory in order to examine three important questions facing vocational psychology and assessment: (a) Where should new knowledge for vocational psychology come from? (b) How do career theories and research find their way into practice? and (c) What is…

  17. The Development of Emotional Face and Eye Gaze Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehl, Stefanie; Striano, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that infants' attention towards novel objects is affected by an adult's emotional expression and eye gaze toward the object. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated how infants at 3, 6, and 9 months of age process fearful compared to neutral faces looking toward objects or averting gaze away…

  18. Big Questions Facing Vocational Psychology: A Cognitive Information Processing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Robert C.; Lenz, Janet G.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon the authors' experience in developing cognitive information processing theory in order to examine three important questions facing vocational psychology and assessment: (a) Where should new knowledge for vocational psychology come from? (b) How do career theories and research find their way into practice? and (c) What is…

  19. A Real-Time Face Recognition System Using Eigenfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A real-time system for recognizing faces in a video stream provided by a surveillance camera was implemented, having real-time face detection. Thus, both face detection and face recognition techniques are summary presented, without skipping the important technical aspects. The proposed approach essentially was to implement and verify the algorithm Eigenfaces for Recognition, which solves the recognition problem for two dimensional representations of faces, using the principal component analysis. The snapshots, representing input images for the proposed system, are projected in to a face space (feature space which best defines the variation for the face images training set. The face space is defined by the ‘eigenfaces’ which are the eigenvectors of the set of faces. These eigenfaces contribute in face reconstruction of a new face image projected onto face space with a meaningful (named weight.The projection of the new image in this feature space is then compared to the available projections of training set to identify the person using the Euclidian distance.  The implemented system is able to perform real-time face detection, face recognition and can give feedback giving a window with the subject's info from database and sending an e-mail notification to interested institutions.

  20. Functional connectivity for face processing in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder and anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, T D; Sasaki, M A; Bohon, C; Strober, M A; Bookheimer, S Y; Sheen, C L; Feusner, J D

    2015-12-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) are both characterized by distorted perception of appearance. Previous studies in BDD suggest abnormalities in visual processing of own and others' faces, but no study has examined visual processing of faces in AN, nor directly compared the two disorders in this respect. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging data on 60 individuals of equivalent age and gender in each of three groups--20 BDD, 20 weight-restored AN, and 20 healthy controls (HC)--while they viewed images of others' faces that contained only high or low spatial frequency information (HSF or LSF). We tested hypotheses about functional connectivity within specialized sub-networks for HSF and LSF visual processing, using psychophysiological interaction analyses. The BDD group demonstrated increased functional connectivity compared to HC between left anterior occipital face area and right fusiform face area (FFA) for LSF faces, which was associated with symptom severity. Both BDD and AN groups had increased connectivity compared to HC between FFA and precuneous/posterior cingulate gyrus for LSF faces, and decreased connectivity between FFA and insula. In addition, we found that LSF connectivity between FFA and posterior cingulate gyrus was significantly associated with thoughts about own appearance in AN. Results suggest similar abnormal functional connectivity within higher-order systems for face processing in BDD and AN, but distinct abnormal connectivity patterns within occipito-temporal visual networks. Findings may have implications for understanding relationships between these disorders, and the pathophysiology underlying perceptual distortions.

  1. Holistic face processing of own- and other-age faces in young and older adults: ERP evidence from the composite face task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Holger; Kachel, Ulrike; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2013-07-01

    Participants more accurately remember own-age relative to other-age faces (own-age bias, OAB). The present study tested whether this effect is related to more efficient holistic processing of own-age faces. Young adult and older participants performed a composite face task with young and old faces, in which they indicated whether the upper half of two subsequent composite faces was identical or not. The lower half of the second face was always different, and face halves were horizontally misaligned in 50% of the trials. Both participant groups were more efficient to correctly identify same upper halves in the misaligned relative to the aligned condition, and this composite face effect (CFE), a marker of holistic face processing, was stronger for young faces. Analysis of event-related potentials revealed strong misalignment effects in the N170, which were more pronounced for young faces in both groups. Critically, in the subsequent N250r a stronger misalignment effect for young faces was detected in young participants only. Since N250r may reflect the facilitated access of a perceptual representation of a previously presented face, this finding is interpreted to reflect young participants' more efficient representation of own-age faces as a whole, which may contribute to their OAB in memory.

  2. Video based Parallel Face recognition using Gabor filter on homogeneous distributed systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Usman; Bilal, Muhammad

    This research aimed at building a fast video, parallel face recognition system based on the well known Gabor filtering approach. Face recognition is done after face detection in each frame of the video, individually. The master-slave technique is employed as the parallel computing model. Each frame...... is processed by different slave personal computers (PC) attached to the master, which acquire and distribute frames. It is believed that this approach can be used for practical face recognition applications with some further optimization...

  3. Random-Profiles-Based 3D Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joongrock Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a noble nonintrusive three-dimensional (3D face modeling system for random-profile-based 3D face recognition is presented. Although recent two-dimensional (2D face recognition systems can achieve a reliable recognition rate under certain conditions, their performance is limited by internal and external changes, such as illumination and pose variation. To address these issues, 3D face recognition, which uses 3D face data, has recently received much attention. However, the performance of 3D face recognition highly depends on the precision of acquired 3D face data, while also requiring more computational power and storage capacity than 2D face recognition systems. In this paper, we present a developed nonintrusive 3D face modeling system composed of a stereo vision system and an invisible near-infrared line laser, which can be directly applied to profile-based 3D face recognition. We further propose a novel random-profile-based 3D face recognition method that is memory-efficient and pose-invariant. The experimental results demonstrate that the reconstructed 3D face data consists of more than 50 k 3D point clouds and a reliable recognition rate against pose variation.

  4. Face processing biases in social anxiety: an electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Jason S; Huppert, Jonathan D; Duval, Elizabeth; Simons, Robert F

    2008-04-01

    Studies of information processing biases in social anxiety suggest abnormal processing of negative and positive social stimuli. To further investigate these biases, behavioral performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured, while high- and low-socially anxious individuals performed a modified version of the Erikson flanker task comprised of negative and positive facial expressions. While no group differences emerged on behavioral measures, ERP results revealed the presence of a negative face bias in socially anxious subjects as indexed by the parietally maximal attention- and memory-related P3/late positive potential. Additionally, non-anxious subjects evidenced the presence of a positive face bias as reflected in the centrally maximal early attention- and emotion-modulated P2 and the frontally maximal response monitoring-related correct response negativity. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of different processing stages to different biases in high- versus low-socially anxious individuals that may prove important in advancing models of anxious pathology.

  5. Neural decoding reveals impaired face configural processing in the right fusiform face area of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiedong; Liu, Jia; Xu, Yaoda

    2015-01-28

    Most of human daily social interactions rely on the ability to successfully recognize faces. Yet ∼2% of the human population suffers from face blindness without any acquired brain damage [this is also known as developmental prosopagnosia (DP) or congenital prosopagnosia]). Despite the presence of severe behavioral face recognition deficits, surprisingly, a majority of DP individuals exhibit normal face selectivity in the right fusiform face area (FFA), a key brain region involved in face configural processing. This finding, together with evidence showing impairments downstream from the right FFA in DP individuals, has led some to argue that perhaps the right FFA is largely intact in DP individuals. Using fMRI multivoxel pattern analysis, here we report the discovery of a neural impairment in the right FFA of DP individuals that may play a critical role in mediating their face-processing deficits. In seven individuals with DP, we discovered that, despite the right FFA's preference for faces and it showing decoding for the different face parts, it exhibited impaired face configural decoding and did not contain distinct neural response patterns for the intact and the scrambled face configurations. This abnormality was not present throughout the ventral visual cortex, as normal neural decoding was found in an adjacent object-processing region. To our knowledge, this is the first direct neural evidence showing impaired face configural processing in the right FFA in individuals with DP. The discovery of this neural impairment provides a new clue to our understanding of the neural basis of DP.

  6. 6th Annual Earth System Grid Federation Face to Face Conference Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-06

    The Sixth Annual Face-to-Face (F2F) Conference of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF), a global consortium of international government agencies, institutions, and companies dedicated to the creation, management, analysis, and distribution of extreme-scale scientific data, was held December 5–9, 2016, in Washington, D.C.

  7. A systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Messinger, Daniel; Bahrick, Lorraine E; Margolis, Amy; Buck, Karen A; Chen, Henian

    2016-04-01

    Principles of a dynamic, dyadic systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication, which considers self- and interactive processes in relation to one another, were tested. The process of interaction across time in a large low-risk community sample at infant age 4 months was examined. Split-screen videotape was coded on a 1-s time base for communication modalities of attention, affect, orientation, touch, and composite facial-visual engagement. Time-series approaches generated self- and interactive contingency estimates in each modality. Evidence supporting the following principles was obtained: (a) Significant moment-to-moment predictability within each partner (self-contingency) and between the partners (interactive contingency) characterizes mother-infant communication. (b) Interactive contingency is organized by a bidirectional, but asymmetrical, process: Maternal contingent coordination with infant is higher than infant contingent coordination with mother. (c) Self-contingency organizes communication to a far greater extent than interactive contingency. (d) Self- and interactive contingency processes are not separate; each affects the other in communication modalities of facial affect, facial-visual engagement, and orientation. Each person's self-organization exists in a dynamic, homoeostatic (negative feedback) balance with the degree to which the person coordinates with the partner. For example, those individuals who are less facially stable are likely to coordinate more strongly with the partner's facial affect and vice versa. Our findings support the concept that the dyad is a fundamental unit of analysis in the investigation of early interaction. Moreover, an individual's self-contingency is influenced by the way the individual coordinates with the partner. Our results imply that it is not appropriate to conceptualize interactive processes without simultaneously accounting for dynamically interrelated self-organizing processes.

  8. Emotional cues during simultaneous face and voice processing: electrophysiological insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taosheng Liu

    Full Text Available Both facial expression and tone of voice represent key signals of emotional communication but their brain processing correlates remain unclear. Accordingly, we constructed a novel implicit emotion recognition task consisting of simultaneously presented human faces and voices with neutral, happy, and angry valence, within the context of recognizing monkey faces and voices task. To investigate the temporal unfolding of the processing of affective information from human face-voice pairings, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs to these audiovisual test stimuli in 18 normal healthy subjects; N100, P200, N250, P300 components were observed at electrodes in the frontal-central region, while P100, N170, P270 were observed at electrodes in the parietal-occipital region. Results indicated a significant audiovisual stimulus effect on the amplitudes and latencies of components in frontal-central (P200, P300, and N250 but not the parietal occipital region (P100, N170 and P270. Specifically, P200 and P300 amplitudes were more positive for emotional relative to neutral audiovisual stimuli, irrespective of valence, whereas N250 amplitude was more negative for neutral relative to emotional stimuli. No differentiation was observed between angry and happy conditions. The results suggest that the general effect of emotion on audiovisual processing can emerge as early as 200 msec (P200 peak latency post stimulus onset, in spite of implicit affective processing task demands, and that such effect is mainly distributed in the frontal-central region.

  9. Emotional cues during simultaneous face and voice processing: electrophysiological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taosheng; Pinheiro, Ana; Zhao, Zhongxin; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A

    2012-01-01

    Both facial expression and tone of voice represent key signals of emotional communication but their brain processing correlates remain unclear. Accordingly, we constructed a novel implicit emotion recognition task consisting of simultaneously presented human faces and voices with neutral, happy, and angry valence, within the context of recognizing monkey faces and voices task. To investigate the temporal unfolding of the processing of affective information from human face-voice pairings, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to these audiovisual test stimuli in 18 normal healthy subjects; N100, P200, N250, P300 components were observed at electrodes in the frontal-central region, while P100, N170, P270 were observed at electrodes in the parietal-occipital region. Results indicated a significant audiovisual stimulus effect on the amplitudes and latencies of components in frontal-central (P200, P300, and N250) but not the parietal occipital region (P100, N170 and P270). Specifically, P200 and P300 amplitudes were more positive for emotional relative to neutral audiovisual stimuli, irrespective of valence, whereas N250 amplitude was more negative for neutral relative to emotional stimuli. No differentiation was observed between angry and happy conditions. The results suggest that the general effect of emotion on audiovisual processing can emerge as early as 200 msec (P200 peak latency) post stimulus onset, in spite of implicit affective processing task demands, and that such effect is mainly distributed in the frontal-central region.

  10. Neural processing of high and low spatial frequency information in faces changes across development : qualitative changes in face processing during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Judith C.; Vlamings, Petra; Kemner, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Face perception in adults depends on skilled processing of interattribute distances (configural' processing), which is disrupted for faces presented in inverted orientation (face inversion effect or FIE). Children are not proficient in configural processing, and this might relate to an underlying im

  11. Neural processing of high and low spatial frequency information in faces changes across development : qualitative changes in face processing during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Judith C.; Vlamings, Petra; Kemner, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Face perception in adults depends on skilled processing of interattribute distances (configural' processing), which is disrupted for faces presented in inverted orientation (face inversion effect or FIE). Children are not proficient in configural processing, and this might relate to an underlying im

  12. Impairment of the face processing network in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Galia; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-06-01

    The goal of the current paper is to review recent findings concerning the neural basis of congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a lifelong impairment in face processing that occurs in the absence of explicit brain damage. As such, CP offers a unique model for exploring the psychological and neural bases of normal face processing. We start by providing background about face perception and representation, and then review behavioral evidence gleaned from individuals with CP. We then review recent functional and structural neural investigations which offer a comprehensive account of the mechanisms underlying CP and support a characterization of this impairment as a disconnection syndrome rather than as a syndrome related to focal brain malfunction. We end the paper by offering a general framework for CP which, we believe, best integrates the behavioral and neural findings, and offers a platform for generating hypotheses for future studies. There remain many open issues in our understanding of CP and, to address these unanswered questions, we lay out several future research directions and testable hypotheses for further investigation.

  13. 2D Face Recognition System Based on Selected Gabor Filters and Linear Discriminant Analysis LDA

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, Samir F.; Selim, Mazen M.; Hala H. Zayed

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach for face recognition system. The method is based on 2D face image features using subset of non-correlated and Orthogonal Gabor Filters instead of using the whole Gabor Filter Bank, then compressing the output feature vector using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). The face image has been enhanced using multi stage image processing technique to normalize it and compensate for illumination variation. Experimental results show that the proposed system is effective for ...

  14. Beyond the face: exploring rapid influences of context on face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, Beatrice; Meeren, Hanneke K M; Righart, Ruthger; van den Stock, Jan; van de Riet, Wim A C; Tamietto, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Humans optimize behavior by deriving context-based expectations. Contextual data that are important for survival are extracted rapidly, using coarse information, adaptive decision strategies, and dedicated neural infrastructure. In the field of object perception, the influence of a surrounding context has been a major research theme, and it has generated a large literature. That visual context, as typically provided by natural scenes, facilitates object recognition as has been convincingly demonstrated (Bar, M. (2004) Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 5: 617-629). Just like objects, faces are generally encountered as part of a natural scene. Thus far, the facial expression literature has neglected such context and treats facial expressions as if they stand on their own. This constitutes a major gap in our knowledge. Facial expressions tend to appear in a context of head and body orientations, body movements, posture changes, and other object-related actions with a similar or at least a closely related meaning. For instance, one would expect a frightened face when confronted to an external danger to be at least accompanied by withdrawal movements of head and shoulders. Furthermore, some cues provided by the environment or the context in which a facial expression appears may have a direct relation with the emotion displayed by the face. The brain may even fill in the natural scene context typically associated with the facial expression. Recognition of the facial expression may also profit from processing the vocal emotion as well as the emotional body language that normally accompany it. Here we review the emerging evidence on how the immediate visual and auditory contexts influence the recognition of facial expressions.

  15. Method for secure electronic voting system: face recognition based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, M. Affan; Baig, Misbah M.; Mehboob, Shahzain; Naseem, Imran

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework for low cost secure electronic voting system based on face recognition. Essentially Local Binary Pattern (LBP) is used for face feature characterization in texture format followed by chi-square distribution is used for image classification. Two parallel systems are developed based on smart phone and web applications for face learning and verification modules. The proposed system has two tire security levels by using person ID followed by face verification. Essentially class specific threshold is associated for controlling the security level of face verification. Our system is evaluated three standard databases and one real home based database and achieve the satisfactory recognition accuracies. Consequently our propose system provides secure, hassle free voting system and less intrusive compare with other biometrics.

  16. Facial identity and facial expression are initially integrated at visual perceptual stages of face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Katie; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-08

    It is frequently assumed that facial identity and facial expression are analysed in functionally and anatomically distinct streams within the core visual face processing system. To investigate whether expression and identity interact during the visual processing of faces, we employed a sequential matching procedure where participants compared either the identity or the expression of two successively presented faces, and ignored the other irrelevant dimension. Repetitions versus changes of facial identity and expression were varied independently across trials, and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during task performance. Irrelevant facial identity and irrelevant expression both interfered with performance in the expression and identity matching tasks. These symmetrical interference effects show that neither identity nor expression can be selectively ignored during face matching, and suggest that they are not processed independently. N250r components to identity repetitions that reflect identity matching mechanisms in face-selective visual cortex were delayed and attenuated when there was an expression change, demonstrating that facial expression interferes with visual identity matching. These findings provide new evidence for interactions between facial identity and expression within the core visual processing system, and question the hypothesis that these two attributes are processed independently.

  17. Mutual influences of pain and emotional face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Wieser

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of unpleasant stimuli enhances whereas the perception of pleasant stimuli decreases pain perception. In contrast, the effects of pain on the processing of emotional stimuli are much less known. Especially given the recent interest in facial expressions of pain as a special category of emotional stimuli, a main topic in this research line is the mutual influence of pain and facial expression processing. Therefore, in this mini-review we selectively summarize research on the effects of emotional stimuli on pain, but more extensively turn to the opposite direction namely how pain influences concurrent processing of affective stimuli such as facial expressions. Based on the motivational priming theory one may hypothesize that the perception of pain enhances the processing of unpleasant stimuli and decreases the processing of pleasant stimuli. This review reveals that the literature is only partly consistent with this assumption: Pain reduces the processing of pleasant pictures and happy facial expressions, but does not - or only partly - affect processing of unpleasant pictures. However, it was demonstrated that pain selectively enhances the processing of facial expressions if these are pain-related (i.e. facial expressions of pain. Extending a mere affective modulation theory, the latter results suggest pain-specific effects which may be explained by the perception-action model of empathy. Together, these results underscore the important mutual influence of pain and emotional face processing.

  18. Mutual influences of pain and emotional face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Matthias J; Gerdes, Antje B M; Reicherts, Philipp; Pauli, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The perception of unpleasant stimuli enhances whereas the perception of pleasant stimuli decreases pain perception. In contrast, the effects of pain on the processing of emotional stimuli are much less known. Especially given the recent interest in facial expressions of pain as a special category of emotional stimuli, a main topic in this research line is the mutual influence of pain and facial expression processing. Therefore, in this mini-review we selectively summarize research on the effects of emotional stimuli on pain, but more extensively turn to the opposite direction namely how pain influences concurrent processing of affective stimuli such as facial expressions. Based on the motivational priming theory one may hypothesize that the perception of pain enhances the processing of unpleasant stimuli and decreases the processing of pleasant stimuli. This review reveals that the literature is only partly consistent with this assumption: pain reduces the processing of pleasant pictures and happy facial expressions, but does not - or only partly - affect processing of unpleasant pictures. However, it was demonstrated that pain selectively enhances the processing of facial expressions if these are pain-related (i.e., facial expressions of pain). Extending a mere affective modulation theory, the latter results suggest pain-specific effects which may be explained by the perception-action model of empathy. Together, these results underscore the important mutual influence of pain and emotional face processing.

  19. Perception and Processing of Faces in the Human Brain Is Tuned to Typical Feature Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, D. Samuel; Alvarez, Ivan; Lawson, Rebecca P.; Henriksson, Linda; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Faces are salient social stimuli whose features attract a stereotypical pattern of fixations. The implications of this gaze behavior for perception and brain activity are largely unknown. Here, we characterize and quantify a retinotopic bias implied by typical gaze behavior toward faces, which leads to eyes and mouth appearing most often in the upper and lower visual field, respectively. We found that the adult human visual system is tuned to these contingencies. In two recognition experiments, recognition performance for isolated face parts was better when they were presented at typical, rather than reversed, visual field locations. The recognition cost of reversed locations was equal to ∼60% of that for whole face inversion in the same sample. Similarly, an fMRI experiment showed that patterns of activity evoked by eye and mouth stimuli in the right inferior occipital gyrus could be separated with significantly higher accuracy when these features were presented at typical, rather than reversed, visual field locations. Our findings demonstrate that human face perception is determined not only by the local position of features within a face context, but by whether features appear at the typical retinotopic location given normal gaze behavior. Such location sensitivity may reflect fine-tuning of category-specific visual processing to retinal input statistics. Our findings further suggest that retinotopic heterogeneity might play a role for face inversion effects and for the understanding of conditions affecting gaze behavior toward faces, such as autism spectrum disorders and congenital prosopagnosia. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Faces attract our attention and trigger stereotypical patterns of visual fixations, concentrating on inner features, like eyes and mouth. Here we show that the visual system represents face features better when they are shown at retinal positions where they typically fall during natural vision. When facial features were shown at typical (rather

  20. Development of visual systems for faces and objects: further evidence for prolonged development of the face system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozana Meinhardt-Injac

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of face and object processing has attracted much attention; however, studies that directly compare processing of both visual categories across age are rare. In the present study, we compared the developmental trajectories of face and object processing in younger children (8-10 years, older children (11-13 years, adolescents (14-16 years, and adults (20-37. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a congruency paradigm in which subjects compared the internal features of two stimuli, while the (unattended external features either agreed or disagreed independent of the identity of the internal features. We found a continuous increase in matching accuracy for faces and watches across childhood and adolescence, with different magnitudes for both visual categories. In watch perception, adult levels were reached at the age of 14-16, but not in face perception. The effect of context and inversion, as measures of holistic and configural processing, were clearly restricted to faces in all age groups. This finding suggests that different mechanisms are involved in face and object perception at any age tested. Moreover, the modulation of context and inversion effects by exposure duration was strongly age-dependent, with the strongest age-related differences found for brief timings below 140 ms. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study suggest prolonged development of face-specific processing up to young adulthood. The improvement in face processing is qualitatively different from the improvement of general perceptual and cognitive ability.

  1. Design of embedded intelligent monitoring system based on face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weidong; Ding, Yan; Zhao, Liangjin; Li, Jia; Hu, Xuemei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new embedded intelligent monitoring system based on face recognition is proposed. The system uses Pi Raspberry as the central processor. A sensors group has been designed with Zigbee module in order to assist the system to work better and the two alarm modes have been proposed using the Internet and 3G modem. The experimental results show that the system can work under various light intensities to recognize human face and send alarm information in real time.

  2. The Role of Configural Processing in Face Classification by Race: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jing; Yan, Tianyi; Tao, Luyang; Zhao, Lun

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the time course of the other-race classification advantage (ORCA) in the subordinate classification of normally configured faces and distorted faces by race. Slightly distorting the face configuration delayed the categorization of own-race faces and had no conspicuous effects on other-race faces. The N170 was sensitive neither to configural distortions nor to faces' races. The P3 was enhanced for other-race than own-race faces and reduced by configural manipulation only for own-race faces. We suggest that the source of ORCA is the configural analysis applied by default while processing own-race faces. PMID:26733850

  3. A Driver Face Monitoring System for Fatigue and Distraction Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad-Hoseyn Sigari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver face monitoring system is a real-time system that can detect driver fatigue and distraction using machine vision approaches. In this paper, a new approach is introduced for driver hypovigilance (fatigue and distraction detection based on the symptoms related to face and eye regions. In this method, face template matching and horizontal projection of top-half segment of face image are used to extract hypovigilance symptoms from face and eye, respectively. Head rotation is a symptom to detect distraction that is extracted from face region. The extracted symptoms from eye region are (1 percentage of eye closure, (2 eyelid distance changes with respect to the normal eyelid distance, and (3 eye closure rate. The first and second symptoms related to eye region are used for fatigue detection; the last one is used for distraction detection. In the proposed system, a fuzzy expert system combines the symptoms to estimate level of driver hypo-vigilance. There are three main contributions in the introduced method: (1 simple and efficient head rotation detection based on face template matching, (2 adaptive symptom extraction from eye region without explicit eye detection, and (3 normalizing and personalizing the extracted symptoms using a short training phase. These three contributions lead to develop an adaptive driver eye/face monitoring. Experiments show that the proposed system is relatively efficient for estimating the driver fatigue and distraction.

  4. Teacher Training in a Synchronous Cyber Face-to-Face Classroom: Characterizing and Supporting the Online Teachers' Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Chen, Nian-Shing; Levy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the learning process undertaken by language teachers in a cyber face-to-face teacher training program. Eight tertiary Chinese language teachers attended a 12-week training program conducted in an online synchronous learning environment characterized by multimedia-based, oral and visual interaction. The term "cyber…

  5. Image-Based 3D Face Modeling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vezhnevets

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an automatic system for 3D face modeling using frontal and profile images taken by an ordinary digital camera. The system consists of four subsystems including frontal feature detection, profile feature detection, shape deformation, and texture generation modules. The frontal and profile feature detection modules automatically extract the facial parts such as the eye, nose, mouth, and ear. The shape deformation module utilizes the detected features to deform the generic head mesh model such that the deformed model coincides with the detected features. A texture is created by combining the facial textures augmented from the input images and the synthesized texture and mapped onto the deformed generic head model. This paper provides a practical system for 3D face modeling, which is highly automated by aggregating, customizing, and optimizing a bunch of individual computer vision algorithms. The experimental results show a highly automated process of modeling, which is sufficiently robust to various imaging conditions. The whole model creation including all the optional manual corrections takes only 2∼3 minutes.

  6. Grounding context in face processing: color, emotion, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Sandrine; Le Bigot, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have become interested in the way that the affective quality of contextual information transfers to a perceived target. We therefore examined the effect of a red (vs. green, mixed red/green, and achromatic) background - known to be valenced - on the processing of stimuli that play a key role in human interactions, namely facial expressions. We also examined whether the valenced-color effect can be modulated by gender, which is also known to be valenced. Female and male adult participants performed a categorization task of facial expressions of emotion in which the faces of female and male posers expressing two ambiguous emotions (i.e., neutral and surprise) were presented against the four different colored backgrounds. Additionally, this task was completed by collecting subjective ratings for each colored background in the form of five semantic differential scales corresponding to both discrete and dimensional perspectives of emotion. We found that the red background resulted in more negative face perception than the green background, whether the poser was female or male. However, whereas this valenced-color effect was the only effect for female posers, for male posers, the effect was modulated by both the nature of the ambiguous emotion and the decoder's gender. Overall, our findings offer evidence that color and gender have a common valence-based dimension.

  7. Grounding Context in Face Processing: Color, Emotion and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine eGil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, researchers have become interested in the way that the affective quality of contextual information transfers to a perceived target. We therefore examined the effect of a red (versus green, mixed red/green and achromatic background–known to be valenced−on the processing of stimuli that play a key role in human interactions, namely facial expressions. We also examined whether the valenced-color effect can be modulated by gender, which is also known to be valenced. Female and male adult participants performed a categorization task of facial expressions of emotion in which the faces of female and male posers expressing two ambiguous emotions (i.e., neutral and surprise were presented against the four different colored backgrounds. Additionally, this task was completed by collecting subjective ratings for each colored background in the form of five semantic differential scales corresponding to both discrete and dimensional perspectives of emotion. We found that the red background resulted in more negative face perception than the green background, whether the poser was female or male. However, whereas this valenced-color effect was the only effect for female posers, for male posers, the effect was modulated by both the nature of the ambiguous emotion and the decoder’s gender. Overall, our findings offer evidence that color and gender have a common valence-based dimension.

  8. iFace: Facial Expression Training System

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Kyoko; Kurose, Hiroyuki; Takami, Ai; Nishida, Shogo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a target facial expression selection interface for a facial expression training system and a facial expression training system were both proposed and developed. Twelve female dentists used the facial expression training system, and evaluations and opinions about the facial expression training system were obtained from these participants. In the future, we will attempt to improve both the target facial expression selection interface and the comparison of a current and a target f...

  9. Face Processing at Birth: A Thatcher Illusion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Irene; Simion, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The present study was aimed at exploring newborns' ability to recognize configural changes within real face images by testing newborns' sensitivity to the Thatcher illusion. Using the habituation procedure, newborns' ability to discriminate between an unaltered face image and the same face with the eyes and the mouth 180 degrees rotated (i.e.…

  10. Social and emotional relevance in face processing: happy faces of future interaction partners enhance the late positive potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublatzky, Florian; Gerdes, Antje B M; White, Andrew J; Riemer, Martin; Alpers, Georg W

    2014-01-01

    Human face perception is modulated by both emotional valence and social relevance, but their interaction has rarely been examined. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) to happy, neutral, and angry facial expressions with different degrees of social relevance were recorded. To implement a social anticipation task, relevance was manipulated by presenting faces of two specific actors as future interaction partners (socially relevant), whereas two other face actors remained non-relevant. In a further control task all stimuli were presented without specific relevance instructions (passive viewing). Face stimuli of four actors (2 women, from the KDEF) were randomly presented for 1s to 26 participants (16 female). Results showed an augmented N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) for emotional in contrast to neutral facial expressions. Of particular interest, face processing varied as a function of experimental tasks. Whereas task effects were observed for P1 and EPN regardless of instructed relevance, LPP amplitudes were modulated by emotional facial expression and relevance manipulation. The LPP was specifically enhanced for happy facial expressions of the anticipated future interaction partners. This underscores that social relevance can impact face processing already at an early stage of visual processing. These findings are discussed within the framework of motivated attention and face processing theories.

  11. The role of configural processing in face classification by race: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eLv

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the time course of the other-race classification advantage (ORCA in the subordinate classification of normally configured faces and distorted faces by race. Slightly distorting the face configuration delayed even more the categorization of own-race faces having no conspicuous effect on other race faces. The N170 was not sensitive to configural distortions and faces’ races. The P3 was enhanced for other-race than own-race faces and reduced by configural manipulation only for own-race faces. We suggest that the source of ORCA is the configural analysis applied by default while processing own-race faces.

  12. The Construction and Implement of Quality Management System Which Faced to the Manufacture Process of Aerospace Product%面向航天产品制造过程的质量管理系统建设与实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨山豹; 何薇

    2012-01-01

      Product quality is the life of aerospace enterprises, and the quality management of aerospace enterprises is particularly important. This article describes a quality management system which faced to manufacturing process of aerospace products. By construction and implementation of the quality management system, realize all-right management of quality data, and the change of quality management from controlling by the results to controlling in the production process, and from controlling by the indicators to controlling by the production parameters. Thus, enhance quality management level.%  介绍了一种面向航天产品制造过程的质量管理系统,并通过质量管理系统的建设与实施,实现质量数据的有机管理,实现质量管理工作由结果控制向生产过程控制,由指标控制向生产参数控制的转变,从而提升企业的质量管理水平。

  13. An ERP Study of Emotional Face Processing in the Adult and Infant Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppanen, Jukka M.; Moulson, Margaret C.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the ontogeny of emotional face processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from adults and 7-month-old infants while viewing pictures of fearful, happy, and neutral faces. Face-sensitive ERPs at occipital-temporal scalp regions differentiated between fearful and neutral/happy faces in both adults (N170 was larger for fear)…

  14. The face inversion effect following pitch and yaw rotations: investigating the boundaries of holistic processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eFavelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Upright faces are thought to be processed holistically. However, the range of views within which holistic processing occurs is unknown. Recent research by McKone (2008 suggests that holistic processing occurs for all yaw rotated face views (i.e. full-face through to profile. Here we examined whether holistic processing occurs for pitch, as well as yaw, rotated face views. In this face recognition experiment: (i participants made same/different judgments about two sequentially presented faces (either both upright or both inverted; (ii the test face was pitch/yaw rotated by between 0°-75° from the encoding face (always a full face view. Our logic was as follows: If a particular pitch/yaw rotated face view is being processed holistically when upright, then this processing should be disrupted by inversion. Consistent with previous research, significant face inversion effects (FIEs were found for all yaw rotated views. However, while FIEs were found for pitch rotations up to 45°, none were observed for 75° pitch rotations (rotated either above or below the full face. We conclude that holistic processing does not occur for all views of upright faces (e.g., not for uncommon pitch rotated views, only those that can be matched to a generic global representation of a face.

  15. Face Recognition System based on SURF and LDA Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narpat A. Singh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, Improve the quality in face recognition system is a challenge. It is a challenging problem and widely studied in the different type of imag-es to provide the best quality of faces in real life. These problems come due to illumination and pose effect due to light in gradient features. The improvement and optimization of human face recognition and detection is an important problem in the real life that can be handles to optimize the error rate, accuracy, peak signal to noise ratio, mean square error, and structural similarity Index. Now-a-days, there several methods are proposed to recognition face in different problem to optimize above parameters. There occur many invariant changes in hu-man faces due to the illumination and pose variations. In this paper we proposed a novel method in face recogni-tion to improve the quality parameters using speed up robust feature and linear discriminant analysis for opti-mize result. SURF is used for feature matching. In this paper, we use linear discriminant analysis for the edge dimensions reduction to live faces from our data-sets. The proposed method shows the better result as compare to the previous result on the basis of comparative analysis because our method show the better quality and better results in live images of face.

  16. The effect of texture on face identification and configural information processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzschaschel Eva Alica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape and texture are an integral part of face identity. In the present study, the importance of face texture for face identification and detection of configural manipulation (i.e., spatial relation among facial features was examined by comparing grayscale face photographs (i.e., real faces and line drawings of the same faces. Whereas real faces provide information about texture and shape of faces, line drawings are lacking texture cues. A change-detection task and a forced-choice identification task were used with both stimuli categories. Within the change detection task, participants had to decide whether the size of the eyes of two sequentially presented faces had changed or not. After having made this decision, three faces were shown to the subjects and they had to identify the previously shown face among them. Furthermore, context (full vs. cropped faces and orientation (upright vs. inverted were manipulated. The results obtained in the change detection task suggest that configural information was used in processing real faces, while part-based and featural information was used in processing line-drawings. Additionally, real faces were identified more accurately than line drawings, and identification was less context but more orientation sensitive than identification of line drawings. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new evidence stressing the importance of face texture for identity encoding and configural face processing.

  17. Impaired processing of self-face recognition in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirot, France; Lesage, Marine; Pedron, Lya; Meyer, Isabelle; Thomas, Pierre; Cottencin, Olivier; Guardia, Dewi

    2016-03-01

    Body image disturbances and massive weight loss are major clinical symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of body changes and eating attitudes on self-face recognition ability in AN. Twenty-seven subjects suffering from AN and 27 control participants performed a self-face recognition task (SFRT). During the task, digital morphs between their own face and a gender-matched unfamiliar face were presented in a random sequence. Participants' self-face recognition failures, cognitive flexibility, body concern and eating habits were assessed with the Self-Face Recognition Questionnaire (SFRQ), Trail Making Test (TMT), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), respectively. Subjects suffering from AN exhibited significantly greater difficulties than control participants in identifying their own face (p = 0.028). No significant difference was observed between the two groups for TMT (all p > 0.1, non-significant). Regarding predictors of self-face recognition skills, there was a negative correlation between SFRT and body mass index (p = 0.01) and a positive correlation between SFRQ and EDI-2 (p < 0.001) or BSQ (p < 0.001). Among factors involved, nutritional status and intensity of eating disorders could play a part in impaired self-face recognition.

  18. Age biases in face processing: the effects of experience across development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, I review studies investigating discrimination and recognition abilities for faces of different ages in children and adults. Contrary to the earlier assertion that own-age faces are better recognized than other-age faces (own-age bias; OAB), I discuss recent evidence for a processing advantage for adult versus non-adult faces. This evidence is interpreted as suggesting that the precocious and continuous exposure to adult faces may shape the individual's face representation across development. Moreover, by testing how experience with faces of various ages acquired at different times in development modulates face-processing skills, this evidence shows that plasticity of face recognition abilities decreases with age, but early-acquired experience has enduring effects that impact our ability to learn from encounters with new types of faces in adulthood.

  19. Face Recognition System Based on Spectral Graph Wavelet Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Premalatha Kanikannan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an efficient approach for automatic face recognition based on Spectral Graph Wavelet Theory (SGWT. SGWT is analogous to wavelet transform and the transform functions are defined on the vertices of a weighted graph. The given face image is decomposed by SGWT at first. The energies of obtained sub-bands are fused together and considered as feature vector for the corresponding image. The performance of proposed system is analyzed on ORL face database using nearest neighbor classifier. The face images used in this study has variations in pose, expression and facial details. The results indicate that the proposed system based on SGWT is better than wavelet transform and 94% recognition accuracy is achieved.

  20. Time course of implicit processing and explicit processing of emotional faces and emotional words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühholz, Sascha; Jellinghaus, Anne; Herrmann, Manfred

    2011-05-01

    Facial expressions are important emotional stimuli during social interactions. Symbolic emotional cues, such as affective words, also convey information regarding emotions that is relevant for social communication. Various studies have demonstrated fast decoding of emotions from words, as was shown for faces, whereas others report a rather delayed decoding of information about emotions from words. Here, we introduced an implicit (color naming) and explicit task (emotion judgment) with facial expressions and words, both containing information about emotions, to directly compare the time course of emotion processing using event-related potentials (ERP). The data show that only negative faces affected task performance, resulting in increased error rates compared to neutral faces. Presentation of emotional faces resulted in a modulation of the N170, the EPN and the LPP components and these modulations were found during both the explicit and implicit tasks. Emotional words only affected the EPN during the explicit task, but a task-independent effect on the LPP was revealed. Finally, emotional faces modulated source activity in the extrastriate cortex underlying the generation of the N170, EPN and LPP components. Emotional words led to a modulation of source activity corresponding to the EPN and LPP, but they also affected the N170 source on the right hemisphere. These data show that facial expressions affect earlier stages of emotion processing compared to emotional words, but the emotional value of words may have been detected at early stages of emotional processing in the visual cortex, as was indicated by the extrastriate source activity.

  1. Research on a Product Information Management System Facing Remanufacture Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Du-cheng; YU Kai-chao; JIA Jian-shi; TANG Xiu-ying

    2007-01-01

    Remanufacture Engineering is an important characteristic and development trend of a manufacturing system in the 21st Century, and product information management is very important to Remanufacture Engineering. In this paper, we first compared traditional manufacturing and remanufacturing. Then, according to the features of Remanufacture Engineering, we analyzed the request of product information management system facing Remanufacture Engineering, and designed the system module. Finally, we built a kind of system structure of product information management facing Remanufacture Engineering and gave realization methods based on Web.

  2. FACELOCK-Lock Control Security System Using Face Recognition-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Takatsugu; Iwai, Yoshio; Yachida, Masahiko

    A security system using biometric person authentication technologies is suited to various high-security situations. The technology based on face recognition has advantages such as lower user’s resistance and lower stress. However, facial appearances change according to facial pose, expression, lighting, and age. We have developed the FACELOCK security system based on our face recognition methods. Our methods are robust for various facial appearances except facial pose. Our system consists of clients and a server. The client communicates with the server through our protocol over a LAN. Users of our system do not need to be careful about their facial appearance.

  3. Holistic Processing of Faces as Measured by the Thatcher Illusion Is Intact in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Laura; Brady, Nuala; Fitzgerald, Michael; Gallagher, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Impaired face perception in autism spectrum disorders is thought to reflect a perceptual style characterized by componential rather than configural processing of faces. This study investigated face processing in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders using the Thatcher illusion, a perceptual phenomenon exhibiting "inversion effects"…

  4. Event-Related Brain Potentials Reveal Anomalies in Temporal Processing of Faces in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.; Panagiotides, Heracles; Carver, Leslie J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Individuals with autism exhibit impairments in face recognition, and neuroimaging studies have shown that individuals with autism exhibit abnormal patterns of brain activity during face processing. The current study examined the temporal characteristics of face processing in autism and their relation to behavior. Method: High-density…

  5. Bilateral hemispheric processing of words and faces: evidence from word impairments in prosopagnosia and face impairments in pure alexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Marlene; Plaut, David C

    2014-04-01

    Considerable research has supported the view that faces and words are subserved by independent neural mechanisms located in the ventral visual cortex in opposite hemispheres. On this view, right hemisphere ventral lesions that impair face recognition (prosopagnosia) should leave word recognition unaffected, and left hemisphere ventral lesions that impair word recognition (pure alexia) should leave face recognition unaffected. The current study shows that neither of these predictions was upheld. A series of experiments characterizing speed and accuracy of word and face recognition were conducted in 7 patients (4 pure alexic, 3 prosopagnosic) and matched controls. Prosopagnosic patients revealed mild but reliable word recognition deficits, and pure alexic patients demonstrated mild but reliable face recognition deficits. The apparent comingling of face and word mechanisms is unexpected from a domain-specific perspective, but follows naturally as a consequence of an interactive, learning-based account in which neural processes for both faces and words are the result of an optimization procedure embodying specific computational principles and constraints.

  6. Social contact and other-race face processing in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvert, Laetitia; Hewstone, Miles; Nobre, Anna C.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence social factors upon the neural processing of faces of other races using event-related potentials. A multi-tiered approach was used to identify face-specific stages of processing, to test for effects of race-of-face upon processing at these stages and to evaluate the impact of social contact and individuating experience upon these effects. The results showed that race-of-face has significant effects upon face processing, starting from early perceptual stages of structural encoding, and that social factors may play an important role in mediating these effects. PMID:19015091

  7. Featural and configural face processing strategies: evidence from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, Janek S; Klaver, Peter; Loenneker, Thomas; Martin, Ernst; Mast, Fred W

    2008-02-12

    We explored the processing mechanisms of featural and configural face information using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Featural information describes the information contained in the facial parts; configural information conveys the spatial interrelationship between parts. In a delayed matching-to-sample task, participants decided whether an intact test face matched a precedent scrambled or blurred cue face. Scrambled faces primarily contain featural information whereas blurred faces preserve configural information. Scrambled cue faces evoked enhanced activation in the left fusiform gyrus, left parietal lobe, and left lingual gyrus when viewing intact test faces. Following blurred cue faces, test faces enhanced activation bilaterally in the middle temporal gyrus. The results suggest that featural and configural information is processed by following distinct neural pathways.

  8. Featural, configural, and holistic face-processing strategies evoke different scan patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombari, Dario; Mast, Fred W; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments we investigated the role of eye movements during face processing. In experiment 1, using modified faces with primarily featural (scrambled faces) or configural (blurred faces) information as cue stimuli, we manipulated the way participants processed subsequently presented intact faces. In a sequential same-different task, participants decided whether the identity of an intact test face matched a preceding scrambled or blurred cue face. Analysis of eye movements for test faces showed more interfeatural saccades when they followed a blurred face, and longer gaze duration within the same feature when they followed scrambled faces. In experiment 2, we used a similar paradigm except that test faces were cued by intact faces, low-level blurred stimuli, or second-order scrambled stimuli (features were cut out but maintained their first-order relations). We found that in the intact condition participants performed fewer interfeatural saccades than in low-level blurred condition and had shorter gaze duration than in second-order scrambled condition. Moreover, participants fixated the centre of the test face to grasp the information from the whole face. Our findings suggest a differentiation between featural, configural, and holistic processing strategies, which can be associated with specific patterns of eye movements.

  9. Initial study of Nickel Electrolyte for EnFACE Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Widayatno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel electrolyte for a micro-pattern transfer process without photolithography, EnFACE, has been developed. Previous work on copper deposition indicated that a conductivity of ~2.7 Sm-1 is required. Electrochemical parameters of electrolyte i.e. current density and overpotential are also crucial to govern a successful pattern replication. Therefore, the investigation focused on the measurement of physicochemical properties and electrochemical behaviour of the electrolyte at different nickel concentrations and complexing agents of chloride and sulfamate. Nickel electrolytes containing sulfamate, chloride and combined sulfamate-chloride with concentrations between 0.14 M and 0.3 M were investigated. Physicochemical properties i.e. pH and conductivity were measured to ensure if they were in the desired value. The electrochemical behaviour of the electrolytes was measured by polarisation experiments in a standard three-electrode cell. The working electrode was a copper disc (surface area of 0.196 cm2 and the counter electrode was platinum mesh. The potential was measured againts a saturated calomel reference electrode (SCE. The experiments were carried out at various scan rate and Rotating Disc Electrode (RDE rotation speed to see the effect of scan rate and agitation. Based on the measured physicochemical properties, the electrolyte of 0.19 M nickel sulfamate was chosen for experimentation. Polarisation curve of agitated solution suggested that overall nickel electrodeposition reaction is controlled by a combination of kinetics and mass transfer.  Reduction potential of nickel was in the range of -0.7 to -1.0 V. The corresponding current densities for nickel deposition were in the range of -0.1 to -1.5 mA cm-2.

  10. Personal familiarity enhances sensitivity to horizontal structure during processing of face identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachai, Matthew V; Sekuler, Allison B; Bennett, Patrick J; Schyns, Philippe G; Ramon, Meike

    2017-06-01

    What makes identification of familiar faces seemingly effortless? Recent studies using unfamiliar face stimuli suggest that selective processing of information conveyed by horizontally oriented spatial frequency components supports accurate performance in a variety of tasks involving matching of facial identity. Here, we studied upright and inverted face discrimination using stimuli with which observers were either unfamiliar or personally familiar (i.e., friends and colleagues). Our results reveal increased sensitivity to horizontal spatial frequency structure in personally familiar faces, further implicating the selective processing of this information in the face processing expertise exhibited by human observers throughout their daily lives.

  11. Multimodal biometrics system based on face profile and ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Iman S.; Abaza, Ayman A.; Rasmy, Mohamed E.; Badawi, Ahmed M.

    2014-05-01

    Face recognition from a side profile view, has recently received significant attention in the literature. Even though current face recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity at angles up to 30 degrees, their success is still limited with side profile angles. This paper presents an efficient technique for the fusion of face profile and ear biometrics. We propose to use a Block-based Local Binary Pattern (LBP) to generate the features for recognition from face profile images and ear images. These feature distributions are then fused at the score level using simple mean rule. Experimental results show that the proposed multimodal system can achieve 97:98% recognition performance, compared to unimodal biometrics of face profile 96.76%, and unimodal biometrics of ear 96.95%, details in the Experimental Results Section. Comparisons with other multimodal systems used in the literature, like Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Full-space Linear Discriminant Analysis (FSLDA) and Kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (KFDA), are presented in the Experimental Results Section.

  12. Neural processing of high and low spatial frequency information in faces changes across development: qualitative changes in face processing during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Judith C; Vlamings, Petra; Kemner, Chantal

    2013-05-01

    Face perception in adults depends on skilled processing of interattribute distances ('configural' processing), which is disrupted for faces presented in inverted orientation (face inversion effect or FIE). Children are not proficient in configural processing, and this might relate to an underlying immaturity to use facial information in low spatial frequency (SF) ranges, which capture the coarse information needed for configural processing. We hypothesized that during adolescence a shift from use of high to low SF information takes place. Therefore, we studied the influence of SF content on neural face processing in groups of children (9-10 years), adolescents (14-15 years) and young adults (21-29 years) by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) to upright and inverted faces which varied in SF content. Results revealed that children show a neural FIE in early processing stages (i.e. P1; generated in early visual areas), suggesting a superficial, global facial analysis. In contrast, ERPs of adults revealed an FIE at later processing stages (i.e. N170; generated in face-selective, higher visual areas). Interestingly, adolescents showed FIEs in both processing stages, suggesting a hybrid developmental stage. Furthermore, adolescents and adults showed FIEs for stimuli containing low SF information, whereas such effects were driven by both low and high SF information in children. These results indicate that face processing has a protracted maturational course into adolescence, and is dependent on changes in SF processing. During adolescence, sensitivity to configural cues is developed, which aids the fast and holistic processing that is so special for faces.

  13. Emotion Perception or Social Cognitive Complexity: What Drives Face Processing Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer A; Creighton, Sarah E; Rutherford, M D

    2016-02-01

    Some, but not all, relevant studies have revealed face processing deficits among those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, deficits are revealed in face processing tasks that involve emotion perception. The current study examined whether either deficits in processing emotional expression or deficits in processing social cognitive complexity drive face processing deficits in ASD. We tested adults with and without ASD on a battery of face processing tasks that varied with respect to emotional expression processing and social cognitive complexity. Results revealed significant group differences on tasks involving emotional expression processing, but typical performance on a non-emotional but socially complex task. These results support an emotion processing rather than a social complexity explanation for face processing deficits in ASD.

  14. The effects of mothers' past infant-holding preferences on their adult children's face processing lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloed, M.P.J.; Hendriks, A.W.C.J.; Eijnde, E. van den

    2011-01-01

    Face processing development is negatively affected when infants have not been exposed to faces for some time because of congenital cataract blocking all vision (Le Grand, Mondloch, Maurer, & Brent, 2001). It is not clear, however, whether more subtle differences in face exposure may also have an inf

  15. The Effects of Mothers' Past Infant-Holding Preferences on Their Adult Children's Face Processing Lateralisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Hendriks, Angelique W.; van den Eijnde, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Face processing development is negatively affected when infants have not been exposed to faces for some time because of congenital cataract blocking all vision (Le Grand, Mondloch, Maurer, & Brent, 2001). It is not clear, however, whether more subtle differences in face exposure may also have an influence. The present study looked at the effect of…

  16. Automatic Processing of Emotional Faces in High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: An Affective Priming Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Yoko; Wolf, Julie; Fein, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This study examined automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (HFPDD) using an affective priming paradigm. Sixteen participants (HFPDD and matched controls) were presented with happy faces, fearful faces or objects in both subliminal and supraliminal exposure conditions, followed…

  17. Face-identity change activation outside the face system: "release from adaptation" may not always indicate neuronal selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mur, Marieke; Ruff, Douglas A; Bodurka, Jerzy; Bandettini, Peter A; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2010-09-01

    Face recognition is a complex cognitive process that requires distinguishable neuronal representations of individual faces. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using the "fMRI-adaptation" technique have suggested the existence of face-identity representations in face-selective regions, including the fusiform face area (FFA). Here, we present face-identity adaptation findings that are not well explained in terms of face-identity representations. We performed blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI measurements, while participants viewed familiar faces that were shown repeatedly throughout the experiment. We found decreased activation for repeated faces in face-selective regions, as expected based on previous studies. However, we found similar effects in regions that are not face-selective, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and early visual cortex (EVC). These effects were present for exact-image (same view and lighting) as well as different-image (different view and/or lighting) repetition, but more widespread for exact-image repetition. Given the known functional properties of PPA and EVC, it appears unlikely that they contain domain-specific face-identity representations. Alternative interpretations include general attentional effects and carryover of activation from connected regions. These results remind us that fMRI stimulus-change effects can have a range of causes and do not provide conclusive evidence for a neuronal representation of the changed stimulus property.

  18. Orientation tuning of human face processing estimated by contrast matching in transparency displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Paolo; McKone, Elinor; Nakayama, Ken

    2006-06-01

    Upright images of faces appear more salient than faces of other orientations. We exploited this effect in a titration experiment where faces were superimposed in transparency. By manipulating the physical contrast of the component images, we measured the degree of perceptual dominance as function of the orientation of the face in the image plane. From these measurements, we obtain the orientation tuning of face processing, which is well approximated by a Gaussian function with a SD of about 45 deg and mean centered on upright. Faces predominantly lit from above and from below produced very similar results. However, when presented with scrambled faces observers showed no orientation preference. We argue that these results can be explained by the existence of specialized face processing mechanisms with an orientation tuning with a bandwidth of approximately 90 deg, predominantly centered on the upright orientation and easily disrupted by alterations of the normal facial configuration.

  19. Face recognition system for set-top box-based intelligent TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Oh; Kim, Yeong Gon; Hong, Hyung Gil; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2014-11-18

    Despite the prevalence of smart TVs, many consumers continue to use conventional TVs with supplementary set-top boxes (STBs) because of the high cost of smart TVs. However, because the processing power of a STB is quite low, the smart TV functionalities that can be implemented in a STB are very limited. Because of this, negligible research has been conducted regarding face recognition for conventional TVs with supplementary STBs, even though many such studies have been conducted with smart TVs. In terms of camera sensors, previous face recognition systems have used high-resolution cameras, cameras with high magnification zoom lenses, or camera systems with panning and tilting devices that can be used for face recognition from various positions. However, these cameras and devices cannot be used in intelligent TV environments because of limitations related to size and cost, and only small, low cost web-cameras can be used. The resulting face recognition performance is degraded because of the limited resolution and quality levels of the images. Therefore, we propose a new face recognition system for intelligent TVs in order to overcome the limitations associated with low resource set-top box and low cost web-cameras. We implement the face recognition system using a software algorithm that does not require special devices or cameras. Our research has the following four novelties: first, the candidate regions in a viewer's face are detected in an image captured by a camera connected to the STB via low processing background subtraction and face color filtering; second, the detected candidate regions of face are transmitted to a server that has high processing power in order to detect face regions accurately; third, in-plane rotations of the face regions are compensated based on similarities between the left and right half sub-regions of the face regions; fourth, various poses of the viewer's face region are identified using five templates obtained during the initial user

  20. Face Recognition System for Set-Top Box-Based Intelligent TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Oh Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of smart TVs, many consumers continue to use conventional TVs with supplementary set-top boxes (STBs because of the high cost of smart TVs. However, because the processing power of a STB is quite low, the smart TV functionalities that can be implemented in a STB are very limited. Because of this, negligible research has been conducted regarding face recognition for conventional TVs with supplementary STBs, even though many such studies have been conducted with smart TVs. In terms of camera sensors, previous face recognition systems have used high-resolution cameras, cameras with high magnification zoom lenses, or camera systems with panning and tilting devices that can be used for face recognition from various positions. However, these cameras and devices cannot be used in intelligent TV environments because of limitations related to size and cost, and only small, low cost web-cameras can be used. The resulting face recognition performance is degraded because of the limited resolution and quality levels of the images. Therefore, we propose a new face recognition system for intelligent TVs in order to overcome the limitations associated with low resource set-top box and low cost web-cameras. We implement the face recognition system using a software algorithm that does not require special devices or cameras. Our research has the following four novelties: first, the candidate regions in a viewer’s face are detected in an image captured by a camera connected to the STB via low processing background subtraction and face color filtering; second, the detected candidate regions of face are transmitted to a server that has high processing power in order to detect face regions accurately; third, in-plane rotations of the face regions are compensated based on similarities between the left and right half sub-regions of the face regions; fourth, various poses of the viewer’s face region are identified using five templates obtained

  1. A Multi-Modal Recognition System Using Face and Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Akrouf

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Person Recognition has got more and more interest especially for security reasons. The recognition performed by a biometric system using a single modality tends to be less performing due to sensor data, restricted degrees of freedom and unacceptable error rates. To alleviate some of these problems we use multimodal biometric systems which provide better recognition results. By combining different modalities, such us speech, face, fingerprint, etc., we increase the performance of recognition systems. In this paper, we study the fusion of speech and face in a recognition system for taking a final decision (i.e., accept or reject identity claim. We evaluate the performance of each system differently then we fuse the results and compare the performances.

  2. Measuring the face-sensitive N170 with a gaming EEG system: A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lissa, Peter; Sörensen, Sidsel; Badcock, Nicholas; Thie, Johnson; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-09-30

    The N170 is a "face-sensitive" event-related potential (ERP) that occurs at around 170ms over occipito-temporal brain regions. The N170's potential to provide insight into the neural processing of faces in certain populations (e.g., children and adults with cognitive impairments) is limited by its measurement in scientific laboratories that can appear threatening to some people. The advent of cheap, easy-to-use portable gaming EEG systems provides an opportunity to record EEG in new contexts and populations. This study tested the validity of the face-sensitive N170 ERP measured with an adapted commercial EEG system (the Emotiv EPOC) that is used at home by gamers. The N170 recorded through both the gaming EEG system and the research EEG system exhibited face-sensitivity, with larger mean amplitudes in response to the face stimuli than the non-face stimuli, and a delayed N170 peak in response to face inversion. The EPOC system produced very similar N170 ERPs to a research-grade Neuroscan system, and was capable of recording face-sensitivity in the N170, validating its use as research tool in this arena. This opens new possibilities for measuring the face-sensitive N170 ERP in people who cannot travel to a traditional ERP laboratory (e.g., elderly people in care), who cannot tolerate laboratory conditions (e.g., people with autism), or who need to be tested in situ for practical or experimental reasons (e.g., children in schools). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Holistic processing and reliance on global viewing strategies in older adults' face perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Persike, Malte; Meinhardt, Günter

    2014-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that face recognition might be impaired in older adults, but it is unclear whether the impairment is truly perceptual, and face specific. In order to address this question we compared performance in same/different matching tasks with face and non-face objects (watches) among young (mean age 23.7) and older adults (mean age 70.4) using a context congruency paradigm (Meinhardt-Injac, Persike & Meinhardt, 2010, Meinhardt-Injac, Persike and Meinhardt, 2011a). Older adults were less accurate than young adults with both object classes, while face matching was notably impaired. Effects of context congruency and inversion, measured as the hallmarks of holistic processing, were equally strong in both age groups, and were found only for faces, but not for watches. The face specific decline in older adults revealed deficits in handling internal facial features, while young adults matched external and internal features equally well. Comparison with non-face stimuli showed that this decline was face specific, and did not concern processing of object features in general. Taken together, the results indicate no age-related decline in the capabilities to process faces holistically. Rather, strong holistic effects, combined with a loss of precision in handling internal features indicate that older adults rely on global viewing strategies for faces. At the same time, access to the exact properties of inner face details becomes restricted.

  4. Size determines whether specialized expert processes are engaged for recognition of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nan; Shafai, Fakhri; Oruc, Ipek

    2014-07-22

    Many influential models of face recognition postulate specialized expert processes that are engaged when viewing upright, own-race faces, as opposed to a general-purpose recognition route used for nonface objects and inverted or other-race faces. In contrast, others have argued that empirical differences do not stem from qualitatively distinct processing. We offer a potential resolution to this ongoing controversy. We hypothesize that faces engage specialized processes at large sizes only. To test this, we measured recognition efficiencies for a wide range of sizes. Upright face recognition efficiency increased with size. This was not due to better visibility of basic image features at large sizes. We ensured this by calculating efficiency relative to a specialized ideal observer unique to each individual that incorporated size-related changes in visibility and by measuring inverted efficiencies across the same range of face sizes. Inverted face recognition efficiencies did not change with size. A qualitative face inversion effect, defined as the ratio of relative upright and inverted efficiencies, showed a complete lack of inversion effects for small sizes up to 6°. In contrast, significant face inversion effects were found for all larger sizes. Size effects may stem from predominance of larger faces in the overall exposure to faces, which occur at closer viewing distances typical of social interaction. Our results offer a potential explanation for the contradictory findings in the literature regarding the special status of faces.

  5. Detailed exploration of face-related processing in congenital prosopagnosia: 1. Behavioral findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Marlene; Avidan, Galia; Marotta, Jonathan J; Kimchi, Rutie

    2005-07-01

    We show that five individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) are impaired at face recognition and discrimination and do not exhibit the normal superiority for upright over inverted faces despite intact visual acuity, low-level vision and intelligence, and in the absence of any obvious neural concomitant. Interestingly, the deficit is not limited to faces: The CP individuals were also impaired at discriminating common objects and novel objects although to a lesser extent than discriminating faces. The perceptual deficit may be attributable to a more fundamental visual processing disorder; the CP individuals exhibited difficulty in deriving global configurations from simple visual stimuli, even with extended exposure duration and considerable perceptual support in the image. Deriving a global configuration from local components is more critical for faces than for other objects, perhaps accounting for the exaggerated deficit in face processing. These findings elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying CP and support the link between configural and face processing.

  6. Reliability Analysis of Production System of Fully-Mechanized Face Based on Output Statistic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Qing-xiang; LI Nai-liang

    2005-01-01

    Production system of fully-mechanized face is a complicated system composed of human, machine and environment, meantime influenced by various random factors. Analyzing the reliability of system needs plentiful data by means of system faults statistic. Based on the viewpoint that shift output of fully-mechanized face is the result of various random factors' synthetical influence, the process of how to analyze its reliability was deduced by using probability theory, symbolic statistics theory and systematic reliability theory combined with the concrete case study in this paper. And it has been proved that this method is feasible and valuable.

  7. Evidence of a Shift from Featural to Configural Face Processing in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Gudrun; Zauner, Nicola; Jovanovic, Bianca

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether 4-, 6-, and 10-month-old infants process natural looking faces by feature, i.e. processing internal facial features independently of the facial context or holistically by processing the features in conjunction with the facial context. Infants were habituated to two faces and looking time was measured. After…

  8. Brain systems for assessing the affective value of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Christopher P; Haxby, James V; Todorov, Alexander

    2011-06-12

    Cognitive neuroscience research on facial expression recognition and face evaluation has proliferated over the past 15 years. Nevertheless, large questions remain unanswered. In this overview, we discuss the current understanding in the field, and describe what is known and what remains unknown. In §2, we describe three types of behavioural evidence that the perception of traits in neutral faces is related to the perception of facial expressions, and may rely on the same mechanisms. In §3, we discuss cortical systems for the perception of facial expressions, and argue for a partial segregation of function in the superior temporal sulcus and the fusiform gyrus. In §4, we describe the current understanding of how the brain responds to emotionally neutral faces. To resolve some of the inconsistencies in the literature, we perform a large group analysis across three different studies, and argue that one parsimonious explanation of prior findings is that faces are coded in terms of their typicality. In §5, we discuss how these two lines of research--perception of emotional expressions and face evaluation--could be integrated into a common, cognitive neuroscience framework.

  9. The effect of image resolution on the performance of a face recognition system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, L.J.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of image resolution on the error rates of a face verification system. We do not restrict ourselves to the face recognition algorithm only, but we also consider the face registration. In our face recognition system, the face registration is done by finding land

  10. Postencoding cognitive processes in the cross-race effect: Categorization and individuation during face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Michael R; Pezdek, Kathy

    2016-06-01

    The cross-race effect (CRE) describes the finding that same-race faces are recognized more accurately than cross-race faces. According to social-cognitive theories of the CRE, processes of categorization and individuation at encoding account for differential recognition of same- and cross-race faces. Recent face memory research has suggested that similar but distinct categorization and individuation processes also occur postencoding, at recognition. Using a divided-attention paradigm, in Experiments 1A and 1B we tested and confirmed the hypothesis that distinct postencoding categorization and individuation processes occur during the recognition of same- and cross-race faces. Specifically, postencoding configural divided-attention tasks impaired recognition accuracy more for same-race than for cross-race faces; on the other hand, for White (but not Black) participants, postencoding featural divided-attention tasks impaired recognition accuracy more for cross-race than for same-race faces. A social categorization paradigm used in Experiments 2A and 2B tested the hypothesis that the postencoding in-group or out-group social orientation to faces affects categorization and individuation processes during the recognition of same-race and cross-race faces. Postencoding out-group orientation to faces resulted in categorization for White but not for Black participants. This was evidenced by White participants' impaired recognition accuracy for same-race but not for cross-race out-group faces. Postencoding in-group orientation to faces had no effect on recognition accuracy for either same-race or cross-race faces. The results of Experiments 2A and 2B suggest that this social orientation facilitates White but not Black participants' individuation and categorization processes at recognition. Models of recognition memory for same-race and cross-race faces need to account for processing differences that occur at both encoding and recognition.

  11. Strabismic amblyopia affects relational but not featural and Gestalt processing of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Monegato, Maura; Pece, Alfredo; Merabet, Lotfi B; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-03-22

    The ability to identify faces is of critical importance for normal social interactions. Previous evidence suggests that early visual deprivation may impair certain aspects of face recognition. The effects of strabismic amblyopia on face processing have not been investigated previously. In this study, a group of individuals with amblyopia were administered two tasks known to selectively measure face detection based on a Gestalt representation of a face (Mooney faces task) and featural and relational processing of faces (Jane faces task). Our data show that--when relying on their amblyopic eye only - strabismic amblyopes perform as well as normally sighted individuals in face detection and recognition on the basis of their single features. However, they are significantly impaired in discriminating among different faces on the basis of the spacing of their single features (i.e., configural processing of relational information). Our findings are the first to demonstrate that strabismic amblyopia may cause specific deficits in face recognition, and add to previous reports characterizing visual perceptual deficits associated in amblyopia as high-level and not only as low-level processing.

  12. Testing Differential Holistic Processing Within a Face: No Evidence of Asymmetry from the Complete Composite Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyi, Gary C.-W.; Wang, Chao-Chih

    2016-01-01

    The composite face task is one of the most popular research paradigms for measuring holistic processing of upright faces. The exact mechanism underlying holistic processing remains elusive and controversial, and some studies have suggested that holistic processing may not be evenly distributed, in that the top-half of a face might induce stronger holistic processing than its bottom-half counterpart. In two experiments, we further examined the possibility of asymmetric holistic processing. Prior to Experiment 1, we confirmed that perceptual discriminability was equated between top and bottom face halves; we found no differences in performance between top and bottom face halves when they were presented individually. Then, in Experiment 1, using the composite face task with the complete design to reduce response bias, we failed to obtain evidence that would support the notion of asymmetric holistic processing between top and bottom face halves. To further reduce performance variability and to remove lingering holistic effects observed in the misaligned condition in Experiment 1, we doubled the number of trials and increased misalignment between top and bottom face halves to make misalignment more salient in Experiment 2. Even with these additional manipulations, we were unable to find evidence indicative of asymmetric holistic processing. Taken together, these findings suggest that holistic processing is distributed homogenously within an upright face.

  13. Testing Differential Holistic Processing Within a Face: No Evidence of Asymmetry from the Complete Composite Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C.-W. Shyi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The composite face task is one of the most popular research paradigms for measuring holistic processing of upright faces. The exact mechanism underlying holistic processing remains elusive and controversial, and some studies have suggested that holistic processing may not be evenly distributed, in that the top-half of a face might induce stronger holistic processing than its bottom-half counterpart. In two experiments, we further examined the possibility of asymmetric holistic processing. Prior to Experiment 1, we confirmed that perceptual discriminability was equated between top and bottom face halves; we found no differences in performance between top and bottom face halves when they were presented individually. Then, in Experiment 1, using the composite face task with the complete design to reduce response bias, we failed to obtain evidence that would support the notion of asymmetric holistic processing between top and bottom face halves. To further reduce performance variability and to remove lingering holistic effects observed in the misaligned condition in Experiment 1, we doubled the number of trials and increased misalignment between top and bottom face halves to make misalignment more salient in Experiment 2. Even with these additional manipulations, we were unable to find evidence indicative of asymmetric holistic processing. Taken together, these findings suggest that holistic processing is distributed homogenously within an upright face.

  14. How race and age experiences shape young children's face processing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Luo, Lizhu; Pisacane, Antonella; Li, Hong; Lee, Kang

    2014-04-01

    Despite recent advances in research on race and age biases, the question of how race and age experiences combine to affect young children's face perception remains unexplored. To fill this gap, the current study tested two ethnicities of 3-year-old children using a combined cross-race/cross-age design. Caucasian children with and without older siblings and Mainland Chinese children without older siblings were tested for their ability to discriminate adult and child Caucasian faces as well as adult and child Asian faces in both upright and inverted orientations. Children of both ethnicities manifested an own-race bias, which was confined to adult faces, and an adult face bias, which was confined to own-race faces. Likewise, sibling experience affected Caucasian children's processing of own-race child faces, but this effect did not generalize to other-race faces. Results suggest that race and age information are represented at the same hierarchical level in young children's memory.

  15. Interdependent mechanisms for processing gender and emotion:The special status of angry male faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Harris

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While some models of how various attributes of a face are processed have posited that face features, invariant physical cues such as gender or ethnicity as well as variant social cues such as emotion, may be processed independently (e.g., Bruce & Young, 1986, other models suggest a more distributed representation and interdependent processing (e.g., Haxby, Hoffman, & Gobbini, 2000. Here we use a contingent adaptation paradigm to investigate if mechanisms for processing the gender and emotion of a face are interdependent and symmetric across the happy-angry emotional continuum and regardless of the gender of the face. We simultaneously adapted participants to angry female faces and happy male faces (Experiment 1 or to happy female faces and angry male faces (Experiment 2. In Experiment 1 we found evidence for contingent adaptation, with simultaneous aftereffects in opposite directions: male faces were biased towards angry while female faces were biased towards happy. Interestingly, in the complementary Experiment 2 we did not find evidence for contingent adaptation, with both male and female faces biased towards angry. Our results highlight that evidence for contingent adaptation and the underlying interdependent face processing mechanisms that would allow for contingent adaptation may only be evident for certain combinations of face features. Such limits may be especially important in the case of social cues given how maladaptive it may be to stop responding to threatening information, with male angry faces considered to be the most threatening. The underlying neuronal mechanisms that could account for such asymmetric effects in contingent adaptation remain to be elucidated.

  16. Age-related dedifferentiation and compensatory changes in the functional network underlying face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burianová, Hana; Lee, Yunjo; Grady, Cheryl L; Moscovitch, Morris

    2013-12-01

    Recent evidence has shown that older adults fail to show adaptation in the right fusiform gyrus (FG) to the same face presented repeatedly, despite accurate detection of the previously presented face. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether this phenomenon is associated with age-related reductions in face specificity in brain activity and whether older adults compensate for these face-processing deficiencies by increasing activity in other areas within the face-processing network, or outside this network. A comparison of brain activity across multiple stimulus categories showed that, unlike young adults who engaged a number of brain regions specific to face processing, older adults generalized these patterns of activity to objects and houses. Also, young adults showed functional connectivity between the right FG and its homologous region during face processing, whereas older adults did not engage the left FG but showed a functional connection between the right FG and left orbitofrontal cortex. Finally, this frontotemporal functional connection was activated more strongly in older adults who performed better on a face-matching task (done outside of the scanner), suggesting increased involvement of this functional link for successful face recognition with increasing age. These findings suggest that 2 neural mechanisms, dedifferentiation and compensatory neural recruitment, underlie age differences in face processing.

  17. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization.

  18. Technique for real-time frontal face image acquisition using stereo system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyaz, Vladimir A.; Vizilter, Yuri V.; Kudryashov, Yuri I.

    2013-04-01

    Most part of existing systems for face recognition is usually based on two-dimensional images. And the quality of recognition is rather high for frontal images of face. But for other kind of images the quality decreases significantly. It is necessary to compensate for the effect of a change in the posture of a person (the camera angle) for correct operation of such systems. There are methods of transformation of 2D image of the person to the canonical orientation. The efficiency of these methods depends on the accuracy of determination of specific anthropometric points. Problems can arise for cases of partly occlusion of the person`s face. Another approach is to have a set of person images for different view angles for the further processing. But a need for storing and processing a large number of two-dimensional images makes this method considerably time-consuming. The proposed technique uses stereo system for fast generation of person face 3D model and obtaining face image in given orientation using this 3D model. Real-time performance is provided by implementing and graph cut methods for face surface 3D reconstruction and applying CUDA software library for parallel calculation.

  19. Spatiotemporal brain dynamics of emotional face processing modulations induced by the serotonin 1A/2A receptor agonist psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Fosco; Schmidt, André; Pokorny, Thomas; Kometer, Michael; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2014-12-01

    Emotional face processing is critically modulated by the serotonergic system. For instance, emotional face processing is impaired by acute psilocybin administration, a serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptor agonist. However, the spatiotemporal brain mechanisms underlying these modulations are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal brain dynamics underlying psilocybin-induced modulations during emotional face processing. Electrical neuroimaging analyses were applied to visual evoked potentials in response to emotional faces, following psilocybin and placebo administration. Our results indicate a first time period of strength (i.e., Global Field Power) modulation over the 168-189 ms poststimulus interval, induced by psilocybin. A second time period of strength modulation was identified over the 211-242 ms poststimulus interval. Source estimations over these 2 time periods further revealed decreased activity in response to both neutral and fearful faces within limbic areas, including amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus, and the right temporal cortex over the 168-189 ms interval, and reduced activity in response to happy faces within limbic and right temporo-occipital brain areas over the 211-242 ms interval. Our results indicate a selective and temporally dissociable effect of psilocybin on the neuronal correlates of emotional face processing, consistent with a modulation of the top-down control.

  20. Spatial frequency and face processing in children with autism and Asperger syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Deruelle, Christine; Rondan, Cécilie; Gepner, Bruno; Tardif, Carole

    2004-01-01

    International audience; Two experiments were designed to investigate possible abnormal face processing strategies in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Agroup of 11 children with autism was compared to two groups of normally developing children matched on verbal mental age and on chronologi- cal age. In the first experiment, participants had to recognize faces on the basis of identity, emo- tion, gaze direction, gender, and lip reading. All aspects of face processing, except for ident...

  1. APPLICATION OF BINARY DESCRIPTORS TO MULTIPLE FACE TRACKING IN VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Oleinik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with the problem of multiple face tracking in a video stream. The primary application of the implemented tracking system is the automatic video surveillance. The particular operating conditions of surveillance cameras are taken into account in order to increase the efficiency of the system in comparison to existing general-purpose analogs. Method. The developed system is comprised of two subsystems: detector and tracker. The tracking subsystem does not depend on the detector, and thus various face detection methods can be used. Furthermore, only a small portion of frames is processed by the detector in this structure, substantially improving the operation rate. The tracking algorithm is based on BRIEF binary descriptors that are computed very efficiently on modern processor architectures. Main Results. The system is implemented in C++ and the experiments on the processing rate and quality evaluation are carried out. MOTA and MOTP metrics are used for tracking quality measurement. The experiments demonstrated the four-fold processing rate gain in comparison to the baseline implementation that processes every video frame with the detector. The tracking quality is on the adequate level when compared to the baseline. Practical Relevance. The developed system can be used with various face detectors (including slow ones to create a fully functional high-speed multiple face tracking solution. The algorithm is easy to implement and optimize, so it may be applied not only in full-scale video surveillance systems, but also in embedded solutions integrated directly into cameras.

  2. An ERP Study of Emotional Face Processing in the Adult and Infant Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Leppänen, Jukka M.; Moulson, Margaret C.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the ontogeny of emotional face processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from adults and 7-month-old infants while viewing pictures of fearful, happy, and neutral faces. Face-sensitive ERPs at occipital-temporal scalp regions differentiated between fearful and neutral/happy faces in both adults (N170 was larger for fear) and infants (P400 was larger for fear). Behavioral measures showed no overt attentional bias toward fearful faces in adults, but in infants, the du...

  3. Word and face processing engage overlapping distributed networks: Evidence from RSVP and EEG investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Amanda K; Plaut, David C; Behrmann, Marlene

    2017-07-01

    Words and faces have vastly different visual properties, but increasing evidence suggests that word and face processing engage overlapping distributed networks. For instance, fMRI studies have shown overlapping activity for face and word processing in the fusiform gyrus despite well-characterized lateralization of these objects to the left and right hemispheres, respectively. To investigate whether face and word perception influences perception of the other stimulus class and elucidate the mechanisms underlying such interactions, we presented images using rapid serial visual presentations. Across 3 experiments, participants discriminated 2 face, word, and glasses targets (T1 and T2) embedded in a stream of images. As expected, T2 discrimination was impaired when it followed T1 by 200 to 300 ms relative to longer intertarget lags, the so-called attentional blink. Interestingly, T2 discrimination accuracy was significantly reduced at short intertarget lags when a face was followed by a word (face-word) compared with glasses-word and word-word combinations, indicating that face processing interfered with word perception. The reverse effect was not observed; that is, word-face performance was no different than the other object combinations. EEG results indicated the left N170 to T1 was correlated with the word decrement for face-word trials, but not for other object combinations. Taken together, the results suggest face processing interferes with word processing, providing evidence for overlapping neural mechanisms of these 2 object types. Furthermore, asymmetrical face-word interference points to greater overlap of face and word representations in the left than the right hemisphere. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Differing processing abilities for specific face properties in mid-childhood and adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eCohen Kadosh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to process facial information is vital for social interactions. Previous research has shown that mature face processing depends on the extraction of featural and configural face information. It has been also shown that the acquisition of these processing skills is prolonged in children. The order in which different face properties are processed is currently less understood. Namely, while some research has supported a parallel-route model which groups different properties according to their variability, other studies have shown that specific invariant properties, such as facial identity, can serve as a reference frame for interpreting more dynamic aspects, such as facial expression or eye gaze direction. The current study tested a different approach, which proposes that face property processing varies with task requirements. Sixteen adults did a same-different task where the second face could differ from the first in the identity, expression, or gaze, or any combination of those. We found that reaction times increased and accuracy rates decreased when the identity was repeated, suggesting that changes in facial identity were the most salient ones. Finally, we tested two groups of 7-8- and 10-11-year-old children and found lower accuracy rates for those face properties that rely in particular on configural information processing strategies. This suggests that while overall, face-processing strategies are adult-like from 7 years of age, the processing of specific face properties develops continuously throughout mid-childhood.

  5. Investigation of Effects of Face Rotation on Race Processing: An ERPs Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalan, Benoit; Veujoz, Mathieu; Boitout, Alexis; Leleu, Arnaud; Camus, Odile; Lalonde, Robert; Rebai, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Recent ERP research has indicated that the processing of faces of other races (OR) and same race (SR) as the perceiver differs at the perceptual level, more precisely for the N170 component. The purpose of the present study was to continue the investigation of the race-of-face processing across multiple orientations. Event-related brain potentials…

  6. Spatial frequency and face processing in children with autism and Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deruelle, Christine; Rondan, Cecilie; Gepner, Bruno; Tardif, Carole

    2004-04-01

    Two experiments were designed to investigate possible abnormal face processing strategies in children with autistic spectrum disorders. A group of 11 children with autism was compared to two groups of normally developing children matched on verbal mental age and on chronological age. In the first experiment, participants had to recognize faces on the basis of identity, emotion, gaze direction, gender, and lip reading. All aspects of face processing, except for identity matching, were deficient in the autistic population compared with controls. In the second study, children had to match faces on either high-(i.e., local facial features) or low-spatial frequency information (i.e., global configuration of faces). Contrary to the control subjects, children with autism showed better performance when using high rather than low spatial frequency, confirming face-processing peculiarities in this population.

  7. Infants’ experience-dependent processing of male and female faces: Insights from eye tracking and event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Righi

    2014-04-01

    The results of the present study suggest that 7-month olds with a large amount of female face experience show a processing advantage for forming a neural representation of female faces, compared to male faces. However, the enhanced neural sensitivity to the repetition of female faces is not due to the infants’ inability to discriminate male faces. Instead, the combination of results from the two tasks suggests that the differential processing for female faces may be a signature of expert-level processing.

  8. The Effect of Affective Context on Visuocortical Processing of Neutral Faces in Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Matthias J; Moscovitch, David A

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that verbal context information alters the neural processing of ambiguous faces such as faces with no apparent facial expression. In social anxiety, neutral faces may be implicitly threatening for socially anxious individuals due to their ambiguous nature, but even more so if these neutral faces are put in self-referential negative contexts. Therefore, we measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to neutral faces which were preceded by affective verbal information (negative, neutral, positive). Participants with low social anxiety (LSA; n = 23) and high social anxiety (HSA; n = 21) were asked to watch and rate valence and arousal of the respective faces while continuous EEG was recorded. ERP analysis revealed that HSA showed elevated P100 amplitudes in response to faces, but reduced structural encoding of faces as indexed by reduced N170 amplitudes. In general, affective context led to an enhanced early posterior negativity (EPN) for negative compared to neutral facial expressions. Moreover, HSA compared to LSA showed enhanced late positive potentials (LPP) to negatively contextualized faces, whereas in LSA this effect was found for faces in positive contexts. Also, HSA rated faces in negative contexts as more negative compared to LSA. These results point at enhanced vigilance for neutral faces regardless of context in HSA, while structural encoding seems to be diminished (avoidance). Interestingly, later components of sustained processing (LPP) indicate that LSA show enhanced visuocortical processing for faces in positive contexts (happy bias), whereas this seems to be the case for negatively contextualized faces in HSA (threat bias). Finally, our results add further new evidence that top-down information in interaction with individual anxiety levels can influence early-stage aspects of visual perception.

  9. Dissociated neural basis of two behavioral hallmarks of holistic face processing: The whole-part effect and composite-face effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Huang, Lijie; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2017-07-28

    It has been long proposed that our extraordinary face recognition ability stems from holistic face processing. Two widely-used behavioral hallmarks of holistic face processing are the whole-part effect (WPE) and composite-face effect (CFE). However, it remains unknown whether these two effects reflect similar or different aspects of holistic face processing. Here we investigated this question by examining whether the WPE and CFE involved shared or distinct neural substrates in a large sample of participants (N=200). We found that the WPE and CFE showed hemispheric dissociation in the fusiform face area (FFA), that is, the WPE was correlated with face selectivity in the left FFA, while the CFE was correlated with face selectivity in the right FFA. Further, the correlation between the WPE and face selectivity was largely driven by the FFA response to faces, whereas the association between the CFE and face selectivity resulted from suppressed response to objects in the right FFA. Finally, we also observed dissociated correlation patterns of the WPE and CFE in other face-selective regions and across the whole brain. These results suggest that the WPE and CFE may reflect different aspects of holistic face processing, which shed new light on the behavioral dissociations of these two effects demonstrated in literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatiotemporal dipole source localization of face processing ERPs in adolescents: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAlonan Grainne

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive investigation of the neural systems for face perception and emotion recognition in adults and young children in the past, the precise temporal activation of brain sources specific to the processing of emotional facial expressions in older children and adolescents is not well known. This preliminary study aims to trace the spatiotemporal dynamics of facial emotion processing during adolescence and provide a basis for future developmental studies and comparisons with patient populations that have social-emotional deficits such as autism. Methods We presented pictures showing happy, angry, fearful, or neutral facial expressions to healthy adolescents (aged 10–16 years and recorded 128-channel event-related potentials (ERPs while they performed an emotion discrimination task. ERP components were analyzed for effects of age and emotion on amplitude and latency. The underlying cortical sources of scalp ERP activity were modeled as multiple equivalent current dipoles using Brain Electrical Source Analysis (BESA. Results Initial global/holistic processing of faces (P1 took place in the visual association cortex (lingual gyrus around 120 ms post-stimulus. Next, structural encoding of facial features (N170 occurred between 160–200 ms in the inferior temporal/fusiform region, and perhaps early emotion processing (Vertex Positive Potential or VPP in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. Finally, cognitive analysis of facial expressions (P2 in the prefrontal cortex and emotional reactions in somatosensory areas were observed from about 230 ms onwards. The temporal sequence of cortical source activation in response to facial emotion processing was occipital, prefrontal, fusiform, parietal for young adolescents and occipital, limbic, inferior temporal, and prefrontal for older adolescents. Conclusion This is a first report of high-density ERP dipole source analysis in healthy adolescents which traces the sequence of

  11. Early sensitivity for eyes within faces: a new neuronal account of holistic and featural processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemrodov, Dan; Anderson, Thomas; Preston, Frank F; Itier, Roxane J

    2014-08-15

    Eyes are central to face processing however their role in early face encoding as reflected by the N170 ERP component is unclear. Using eye tracking to enforce fixation on specific facial features, we found that the N170 was larger for fixation on the eyes compared to fixation on the forehead, nasion, nose or mouth, which all yielded similar amplitudes. This eye sensitivity was seen in both upright and inverted faces and was lost in eyeless faces, demonstrating it was due to the presence of eyes at fovea. Upright eyeless faces elicited largest N170 at nose fixation. Importantly, the N170 face inversion effect (FIE) was strongly attenuated in eyeless faces when fixation was on the eyes but was less attenuated for nose fixation and was normal when fixation was on the mouth. These results suggest the impact of eye removal on the N170 FIE is a function of the angular distance between the fixated feature and the eye location. We propose the Lateral Inhibition, Face Template and Eye Detector based (LIFTED) model which accounts for all the present N170 results including the FIE and its interaction with eye removal. Although eyes elicit the largest N170 response, reflecting the activity of an eye detector, the processing of upright faces is holistic and entails an inhibitory mechanism from neurons coding parafoveal information onto neurons coding foveal information. The LIFTED model provides a neuronal account of holistic and featural processing involved in upright and inverted faces and offers precise predictions for further testing.

  12. Power effects on implicit prejudice and stereotyping: The role of intergroup face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Petra C; Amodio, David M

    2017-04-01

    Power is thought to increase discrimination toward subordinate groups, yet its effect on different forms of implicit bias remains unclear. We tested whether power enhances implicit racial stereotyping, in addition to implicit prejudice (i.e., evaluative associations), and examined the effect of power on the automatic processing of faces during implicit tasks. Study 1 showed that manipulated high power increased both forms of implicit bias, relative to low power. Using a neural index of visual face processing (the N170 component of the ERP), Study 2 revealed that power affected the encoding of White ingroup vs. Black outgroup faces. Whereas high power increased the relative processing of outgroup faces during evaluative judgments in the prejudice task, it decreased the relative processing of outgroup faces during stereotype trait judgments. An indirect effect of power on implicit prejudice through enhanced processing of outgroup versus ingroup faces suggested a potential link between face processing and implicit bias. Together, these findings demonstrate that power can affect implicit prejudice and stereotyping as well as early processing of racial ingroup and outgroup faces.

  13. Too bad: Bias for angry faces in social anxiety interferes with identity processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Julian; Straube, Thomas; Schulz, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The recognition of faces across incidences is a complex function of the human brain and a crucial ability for communication and daily interactions. This first study on ERP correlates of emotional face learning in social anxiety disorder (SAD) investigates whether the known attentional bias for threatening faces leads to a corresponding memory bias. Therefore, 21 patients with SAD and 21 healthy controls (HCs) learned faces with emotional facial expressions (neutral, happy, and angry) and were later asked to recognize these out of novel identities all presented with a neutral facial expression. EEG was recorded throughout. Behaviorally, the faces' emotional expression modulated later recognition in terms of accuracy, response times, signal detection parameters and ratings of valence, but with better performance for happy than angry faces in HC as well as in SAD. In the learning phase, attention- and memory-associated event-related potentials (ERPs) P100, N170, P200, N250/EPN, and LPP indicated enhanced processing of angry faces, which was restricted to patients with SAD in N250/EPN and LPP. In the test phase, familiarity effects emerged in N250, FN400 and LPP. While N250 was affected by learned-angry faces, FN400 and LPP reflected image learning of neutral faces, which was restricted to SAD in LPP. We replicated the attentional bias to threatening faces, which was not restricted to early ERP components, but was prolonged to later stages of conscious processing, especially in SAD. In contrast to what had been expected, sustained hypervigilance to the emotional content seems to have impaired the processing of the facial identity, resulting in a happy face advantage at the behavioral level. This could be explained by prominent models assuming separate processing of facial emotion and identity. Hypervigilance in SAD might be a disadvantage in those studies focusing on other aspects of face processing than emotion.

  14. Noise as a mechanism of anomalous face processing among persons with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce K. Christensen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence that people with Schizophrenia (SCZ have altered visual perception and cognition, including impaired face processing. However, the mechanism(s underlying this observation are not yet known. Eye movement studies have found that people with SCZ do not direct their gaze to the most informative regions of the face (e.g., the eyes. This suggests that SCZ patients may be less able to extract the most relevant face information and therefore have decreased calculation efficiency. In addition, research with non-face stimuli indicates that SCZ is associated with increased levels of internal noise. Importantly, both calculation efficiency and internal noise have been shown to underpin face perception among healthy observers. Therefore, the current study applies noise masking to upright and inverted faces to determine if face processing deficits among those with SCZ are the result of changes in calculation efficiency, internal noise, or both. Consistent with previous results, SCZ participants exhibited higher contrast thresholds in order to identify masked target faces. However, higher thresholds were associated with increases in internal noise but unrelated to changes in calculation efficiency. These results suggest that SCZ-related face processing deficits are the result of a decreased noise-to-signal ratio. The source of increased processing noise among these patients is unclear, but may emanate from abnormal neural dynamics.

  15. Awake fMRI reveals a specialized region in dog temporal cortex for face processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilks, Daniel D.; Cook, Peter; Weiller, Samuel K.; Berns, Helen P.; Spivak, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Recent behavioral evidence suggests that dogs, like humans and monkeys, are capable of visual face recognition. But do dogs also exhibit specialized cortical face regions similar to humans and monkeys? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in six dogs trained to remain motionless during scanning without restraint or sedation, we found a region in the canine temporal lobe that responded significantly more to movies of human faces than to movies of everyday objects. Next, using a new stimulus set to investigate face selectivity in this predefined candidate dog face area, we found that this region responded similarly to images of human faces and dog faces, yet significantly more to both human and dog faces than to images of objects. Such face selectivity was not found in dog primary visual cortex. Taken together, these findings: (1) provide the first evidence for a face-selective region in the temporal cortex of dogs, which cannot be explained by simple low-level visual feature extraction; (2) reveal that neural machinery dedicated to face processing is not unique to primates; and (3) may help explain dogs’ exquisite sensitivity to human social cues. PMID:26290784

  16. Face detection for interactive tabletop viewscreen system using olfactory display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Kanazawa, Fumihiro

    2009-10-01

    An olfactory display is a device that delivers smells to the nose. It provides us with special effects, for example to emit smell as if you were there or to give a trigger for reminding us of memories. The authors have developed a tabletop display system connected with the olfactory display. For delivering a flavor to user's nose, the system needs to recognition and measure positions of user's face and nose. In this paper, the authors describe an olfactory display which enables to detect the nose position for an effective delivery.

  17. Effect of Affective Personality Information on Face Processing: Evidence from ERPs

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Qiu L.; Wang, Han L.; Dzhelyova, Milena; Huang, Ping; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which there are the neural correlates of the affective personality influence on face processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). In the learning phase, participants viewed a target individual’s face (expression neutral or faint smile) paired with either negative, neutral or positive sentences describing previous typical behavior of the target. In the following EEG testing phase, participants completed gender judgments of the learned faces. Statistical a...

  18. Effect of Affective Personality Information on Face Processing: Evidence from ERPs

    OpenAIRE

    Qiuling eLuo; Hanlin eWang; Milena eDzhelyova; Lei eMo

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the extent to which there are neural correlates of the influence of affective personality information on face processing, using event-related potentials (ERPs). In the learning phase, participants viewed a target individual’s face (with a neutral expression or faint smile) paired with negative, neutral or positive sentences describing the target’s previous typical behavior. In the following EEG testing phase, participants completed gender judgments of the learned faces. Stat...

  19. Neural Tuning Size in a Model of Primate Visual Processing Accounts for Three Key Markers of Holistic Face Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheston Tan

    Full Text Available Faces are an important and unique class of visual stimuli, and have been of interest to neuroscientists for many years. Faces are known to elicit certain characteristic behavioral markers, collectively labeled "holistic processing", while non-face objects are not processed holistically. However, little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms. The main aim of this computational simulation work is to investigate the neural mechanisms that make face processing holistic. Using a model of primate visual processing, we show that a single key factor, "neural tuning size", is able to account for three important markers of holistic face processing: the Composite Face Effect (CFE, Face Inversion Effect (FIE and Whole-Part Effect (WPE. Our proof-of-principle specifies the precise neurophysiological property that corresponds to the poorly-understood notion of holism, and shows that this one neural property controls three classic behavioral markers of holism. Our work is consistent with neurophysiological evidence, and makes further testable predictions. Overall, we provide a parsimonious account of holistic face processing, connecting computation, behavior and neurophysiology.

  20. The µ-opioid system promotes visual attention to faces and eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelnokova, Olga; Laeng, Bruno; Løseth, Guro; Eikemo, Marie; Willoch, Frode; Leknes, Siri

    2016-12-01

    Paying attention to others' faces and eyes is a cornerstone of human social behavior. The µ-opioid receptor (MOR) system, central to social reward-processing in rodents and primates, has been proposed to mediate the capacity for affiliative reward in humans. We assessed the role of the human MOR system in visual exploration of faces and eyes of conspecifics. Thirty healthy males received a novel, bidirectional battery of psychopharmacological treatment (an MOR agonist, a non-selective opioid antagonist, or placebo, on three separate days). Eye-movements were recorded while participants viewed facial photographs. We predicted that the MOR system would promote visual exploration of faces, and hypothesized that MOR agonism would increase, whereas antagonism decrease overt attention to the information-rich eye region. The expected linear effect of MOR manipulation on visual attention to the stimuli was observed, such that MOR agonism increased while antagonism decreased visual exploration of faces and overt attention to the eyes. The observed effects suggest that the human MOR system promotes overt visual attention to socially significant cues, in line with theories linking reward value to gaze control and target selection. Enhanced attention to others' faces and eyes represents a putative behavioral mechanism through which the human MOR system promotes social interest.

  1. Face recognition deficits in autism spectrum disorders are both domain specific and process specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Sarah; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies have reported face identity recognition deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), two fundamental question remains: 1) Is this deficit "process specific" for face memory in particular, or does it extend to perceptual discrimination of faces as well? And 2) Is the deficit "domain specific" for faces, or is it found more generally for other social or even nonsocial stimuli? The answers to these questions are important both for understanding the nature of autism and its developmental etiology, and for understanding the functional architecture of face processing in the typical brain. Here we show that children with ASD are impaired (compared to age and IQ-matched typical children) in face memory, but not face perception, demonstrating process specificity. Further, we find no deficit for either memory or perception of places or cars, indicating domain specificity. Importantly, we further showed deficits in both the perception and memory of bodies, suggesting that the relevant domain of deficit may be social rather than specifically facial. These results provide a more precise characterization of the cognitive phenotype of autism and further indicate a functional dissociation between face memory and face perception.

  2. Neural Decoding Reveals Impaired Face Configural Processing in the Right Fusiform Face Area of Individuals with Developmental Prosopagnosia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Most of human daily social interactions rely on the ability to successfully recognize faces. Yet ∼2% of the human population suffers from face blindness without any acquired brain damage [this is also known as developmental prosopagnosia (DP) or congenital prosopagnosia]). Despite the presence of severe behavioral face recognition deficits, surprisingly, a majority of DP individuals exhibit normal face selectivity in the right fusiform face area (FFA), a key brain region involved in face conf...

  3. Contextual Valence and Sociality Jointly Influence the Early and Later Stages of Neutral Face Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengsi Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that face perception is influenced by emotional contextual information. However, because facial expressions are routinely decoded and understood during social communication, sociality should also be considered—that is, it seems necessary to explore whether emotional contextual effects are influenced by the sociality of contextual information. Furthermore, although one behavioural study has explored the effects of context on selective attention to faces, the exact underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated how valence and sociality of contextual information influenced the early and later stages of neutral face processing. We first employed an established affective learning procedure, wherein neutral faces were paired with verbal information that differed in valence (negative, neutral and sociality (social, non-social, to manipulate contextual information. Then, to explore the effects of context on face perception, participants performed a face perception task, while the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN, and late positive potential (LPP components were measured. Finally, to explore the effects of context on selective attention, participants performed a dot probe task while the N2pc was recorded. The results showed that, in the face perception task, faces paired with negative social information elicited greater EPN and LPP than did faces paired with neutral social information; no differences existed between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. In the dot probe task, faces paired with negative social information elicited a more negative N2pc amplitude (indicating attentional bias than did faces paired with neutral social information; the N2pc did not differ between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. Together, these results suggest that contextual information influenced both face perception and selective attention, and

  4. Contextual Valence and Sociality Jointly Influence the Early and Later Stages of Neutral Face Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengsi; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Fan, Lingxia; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that face perception is influenced by emotional contextual information. However, because facial expressions are routinely decoded and understood during social communication, sociality should also be considered-that is, it seems necessary to explore whether emotional contextual effects are influenced by the sociality of contextual information. Furthermore, although one behavioral study has explored the effects of context on selective attention to faces, the exact underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated how valence and sociality of contextual information influenced the early and later stages of neutral face processing. We first employed an established affective learning procedure, wherein neutral faces were paired with verbal information that differed in valence (negative, neutral) and sociality (social, non-social), to manipulate contextual information. Then, to explore the effects of context on face perception, participants performed a face perception task, while the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) components were measured. Finally, to explore the effects of context on selective attention, participants performed a dot probe task while the N2pc was recorded. The results showed that, in the face perception task, faces paired with negative social information elicited greater EPN and LPP than did faces paired with neutral social information; no differences existed between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. In the dot probe task, faces paired with negative social information elicited a more negative N2pc amplitude (indicating attentional bias) than did faces paired with neutral social information; the N2pc did not differ between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. Together, these results suggest that contextual information influenced both face perception and selective attention, and these context

  5. Beyond the core face-processing network: Intracerebral stimulation of a face-selective area in the right anterior fusiform gyrus elicits transient prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jacques; Rossion, Bruno; Brissart, Hélène; Frismand, Solène; Jacques, Corentin; Hossu, Gabriela; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Vespignani, Hervé; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Maillard, Louis

    2015-11-01

    According to neuropsychological evidence, a distributed network of regions of the ventral visual pathway - from the lateral occipital cortex to the temporal pole - supports face recognition. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have generally confined ventral face-selective areas to the posterior section of the occipito-temporal cortex, i.e., the inferior occipital gyrus occipital face area (OFA) and the posterior and middle fusiform gyrus fusiform face area (FFA). There is recent evidence that intracranial electrical stimulation of these areas in the right hemisphere elicits face matching and recognition impairments (i.e., prosopagnosia) as well as perceptual face distortions. Here we report a case of transient inability to recognize faces following electrical stimulation of the right anterior fusiform gyrus, in a region located anteriorly to the FFA. There was no perceptual face distortion reported during stimulation. Although no fMRI face-selective responses were found in this region due to a severe signal drop-out as in previous studies, intracerebral face-selective event-related potentials and gamma range electrophysiological responses were found at the critical site of stimulation. These results point to a causal role in face recognition of the right anterior fusiform gyrus and more generally of face-selective areas located beyond the "core" face-processing network in the right ventral temporal cortex. It also illustrates the diagnostic value of intracerebral electrophysiological recordings and stimulation in understanding the neural basis of face recognition and visual recognition in general.

  6. Heat treatment process optimization for face gearsbased on deformation and residual stress control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-zhong; LAN Zhou‡; HOU Liang-wei; ZHAO Hong-pu; ZHONG Yang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, based on the principle of heat transfer and thermal elastic-plastic theory, the heat treatment process optimization scheme for face gearsis proposed according to the structural characteristics oftheface gear and material properties of 12Cr2Ni4 steel.To simulate the effect of carburizing and quenching process on tooth deformation and residual stress distribution,aheat treatment analysis model of face gearsis established, and the microstructure, stress and deformation of face gear teeth changing with time are analyzed. The simulation results show that face gear tooth hardness increases, tooth surface residual compressive stress increases and tooth deformation decreases after heat treatment process optimization.It is beneficialto improvingthe fatigue strength and performance of face gears.

  7. Face Processing and Facial Emotion Recognition in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisnikov, Koviljka; Hippolyte, Loyse; Van der Linden, Martial

    2008-01-01

    Face processing and facial expression recognition was investigated in 17 adults with Down syndrome, and results were compared with those of a child control group matched for receptive vocabulary. On the tasks involving faces without emotional content, the adults with Down syndrome performed significantly worse than did the controls. However, their…

  8. Detailed exploration of face-related processing in congenital prosopagnosia: 2. Functional neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Galia; Hasson, Uri; Malach, Rafael; Behrmann, Marlene

    2005-07-01

    Specific regions of the human occipito-temporal cortex are consistently activated in functional imaging studies of face processing. To understand the contribution of these regions to face processing, we examined the pattern of fMRI activation in four congenital prosopagnosic (CP) individuals who are markedly impaired at face processing despite normal vision and intelligence, and with no evidence of brain damage. These individuals evinced a normal pattern of fMRI activation in the fusiform gyrus (FFA) and in other ventral occipito-temporal areas, in response to faces, buildings, and other objects, shown both as line drawings in detection and discrimination tasks and under more naturalistic testing conditions when no task was required. CP individuals also showed normal adaptation levels in a block-design adaptation experiment and, like control subjects, exhibited evidence of global face representation in the FFA. The absence of a BOLD-behavioral correlation (profound behavioral deficit, normal face-related activation in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex) challenges existing accounts of face representation, and suggests that activation in these cortical regions per se is not sufficient to ensure intact face processing.

  9. Face Processing and Facial Emotion Recognition in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisnikov, Koviljka; Hippolyte, Loyse; Van der Linden, Martial

    2008-01-01

    Face processing and facial expression recognition was investigated in 17 adults with Down syndrome, and results were compared with those of a child control group matched for receptive vocabulary. On the tasks involving faces without emotional content, the adults with Down syndrome performed significantly worse than did the controls. However, their…

  10. The effect of stereotypical primes on the neural processing of racially ambiguous faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickter, Cheryl L; Kittel, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that an early attentional component of the event-related potential (ERP), the P2, is sensitive to the distinction between the processing of racial outgroup and ingroup faces but may not be sensitive to the distinction between racially ambiguous and ingroup faces. Recent behavioral work, however, has suggested that contextual information may affect the processing of racially ambiguous faces. Thus, the first goal of this study was to examine whether the early neural processing of racially ambiguous faces would be affected by primed stereotypes. White college student participants (n = 29) completed a task in which they racially categorized monoracial Black and White faces and racially ambiguous Black-White morphs. These faces were preceded by positive and negative Black and White stereotypical primes. Results indicated that P2 amplitude to the racially ambiguous faces was moderated by the valence of the primes such that negative primes led to greater neural processing of the racially ambiguous faces than positive primes. Furthermore, the extent to which P2 amplitude was affected by prime valence was moderated by individual differences in preference for structure and categorical thinking, as well as comfort with ambiguity.

  11. Spatial Frequency and Face Processing in Children with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deruelle, Christine; Rondan, Cecilie; Gepner, Bruno; Tardif, Carole

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to investigate possible abnormal face processing strategies in children with autistic spectrum disorders. A group of 11 children with autism was compared to two groups of normally developing children matched on verbal mental age and on chronological age. In the first experiment, participants had to recognize faces on…

  12. A novel BCI based on ERP components sensitive to configural processing of human faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Qibin; Jing, Jin; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2012-04-01

    This study introduces a novel brain-computer interface (BCI) based on an oddball paradigm using stimuli of facial images with loss of configural face information (e.g., inversion of face). To the best of our knowledge, till now the configural processing of human faces has not been applied to BCI but widely studied in cognitive neuroscience research. Our experiments confirm that the face-sensitive event-related potential (ERP) components N170 and vertex positive potential (VPP) have reflected early structural encoding of faces and can be modulated by the configural processing of faces. With the proposed novel paradigm, we investigate the effects of ERP components N170, VPP and P300 on target detection for BCI. An eight-class BCI platform is developed to analyze ERPs and evaluate the target detection performance using linear discriminant analysis without complicated feature extraction processing. The online classification accuracy of 88.7% and information transfer rate of 38.7 bits min-1 using stimuli of inverted faces with only single trial suggest that the proposed paradigm based on the configural processing of faces is very promising for visual stimuli-driven BCI applications.

  13. Financial problems facing the manufacturers of small wind energy conversion systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolle, T G

    1979-11-01

    The financial barriers faced by the manufacturers of small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) are assessed and found to be similar to those faced by other start up businesses. However, these problems are found to be aggravated by the high expectations for accelerated SWECS industry growth in the face of moderate government support and lack of investment capital. The underlying conditions of limited SWECS entrepreneur business experience, the highly competitive venture capital market, the inability of existing financial institutions to aid infant busineses and public unawareness of SWECS are reviewed. Specific manufacturer-oriented recommendations and federal, state and regulatory policy-oriented recommendations are made. In addition, the dynamics of the SWECS commercialization process are assessed and the variety of financial institutions playing a role in this process is detailed. Issues related to inflation, tax policy, regulation and federal R and D procurement policies are analyzed.

  14. Face Image Quality and its Improvement in a Face Detection System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    When a person passes by a surveillance camera a sequence of images is obtained. Most of these images are redundant and usually keeping some of them which have better quality is sufficient. So before performing any analysis on the face of a person, the face at the first step needs to be detected....... In the second step the quality of the different face images needs to be evaluated. Finally, after choosing the best image(s) based on this quality assessment, in the third step, if this image(s) is not satisfying a predefined set of measures for good quality images, its quality should be improved. In this work...

  15. Development of effective connectivity during own- and other-race face processing: A Granger causality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifei Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous developmental studies have suggested that other-race effect (ORE in face recognition emerges as early as in infancy and develops steadily throughout childhood. However, there is very limited research on the neural mechanisms underlying this developmental ORE. The present study used Granger causality analysis (GCA to examine the development of children’s cortical networks in processing own- and other-race faces. Children were between 3 to 13 years. An old-new paradigm was used to assess their own- and other-race face recognition with ETG-4000 (Hitachi Medical Co., Japan acquiring functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS data. After preprocessing, for each participant and under each face condition, we obtained the causal map by calculating the weights of causal relations between the time courses of oxy-Hb of each pair of channels using GCA. To investigate further the differential causal connectivity for own-race faces and other-race faces at the group level, a repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed on the GCA weights for each pair of channels with the face race task (own-race face vs. other-race face as the within-subject variable and the age as a between-subject factor (continuous variable. We found an age-related increase in functional connectivity, paralleling a similar age-related improvement in behavioral face processing ability. More importantly, we found that the significant differences in neural functional connectivity between the recognition of own-race faces and that of other-race faces were moderated by age. Thus, like the behavioral ORE, the neural ORE emerges early and undergoes a protracted developmental course.

  16. Face and location processing in children with early unilateral brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Brianna; Appelbaum, Mark; Carapetian, Stephanie; Hesselink, John; Nass, Ruth; Trauner, Doris; Stiles, Joan

    2014-07-01

    Human visuospatial functions are commonly divided into those dependent on the ventral visual stream (ventral occipitotemporal regions), which allows for processing the 'what' of an object, and the dorsal visual stream (dorsal occipitoparietal regions), which allows for processing 'where' an object is in space. Information about the development of each of the two streams has been accumulating, but very little is known about the effects of injury, particularly very early injury, on this developmental process. Using a set of computerized dorsal and ventral stream tasks matched for stimuli, required response, and difficulty (for typically-developing individuals), we sought to compare the differential effects of injury to the two systems by examining performance in individuals with perinatal brain injury (PBI), who present with selective deficits in visuospatial processing from a young age. Thirty participants (mean=15.1 years) with early unilateral brain injury (15 right hemisphere PBI, 15 left hemisphere PBI) and 16 matched controls participated. On our tasks children with PBI performed more poorly than controls (lower accuracy and longer response times), and this was particularly prominent for the ventral stream task. Lateralization of PBI was also a factor, as the dorsal stream task did not seem to be associated with lateralized deficits, with both PBI groups showing only subtle decrements in performance, while the ventral stream task elicited deficits from RPBI children that do not appear to improve with age. Our findings suggest that early injury results in lesion-specific visuospatial deficits that persist into adolescence. Further, as the stimuli used in our ventral stream task were faces, our findings are consistent with what is known about the neural systems for face processing, namely, that they are established relatively early, follow a comparatively rapid developmental trajectory (conferring a vulnerability to early insult), and are biased toward the right

  17. How the Thatcher illusion reveals evolutionary differences in the face processing of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Kimberly B; Taubert, Jessica; Smith, Carolynn L; Parr, Lisa A

    2013-09-01

    Face recognition in humans is a complex cognitive skill that requires sensitivity to unique configurations of eyes, mouth, and other facial features. The Thatcher illusion has been used to demonstrate the importance of orientation when processing configural information within faces. Transforming an upright face so that the eyes and mouth are inverted renders the face grotesque; however, when this "Thatcherized" face is inverted, the effect disappears. Due to the use of primate models in social cognition research, it is important to determine the extent to which specialized cognitive functions like face processing occur across species. To date, the Thatcher illusion has been explored in only a few species with mixed results. Here, we used computerized tasks to examine whether nonhuman primates perceive the Thatcher illusion. Chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys were required to discriminate between Thatcherized and unaltered faces presented upright and inverted. Our results confirm that chimpanzees perceived the Thatcher illusion, but rhesus monkeys did not, suggesting species differences in the importance of configural information in face processing. Three further experiments were conducted to understand why our results differed from previously published accounts of the Thatcher illusion in rhesus monkeys.

  18. Composite faces are not processed holistically: evidence from the Garner and redundant target paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitousi, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Composite faces fuse the top half of one face with the bottom half of another. These stimuli inflict a strong illusion of a novel face on their viewers, and are often considered to be processed holistically. The current study challenges this holistic view. Here I present provocative evidence from various classic attention paradigms such as the Garner (1974) and the redundant target (Miller, Cognitive Psychology, 14, 247-279, 1982; Townsend & Nozawa, Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 39, 321-359, 1995) tasks showing that face parts are perceived and processed in an analytic rather than holistic fashion. In Experiment 1, composite faces failed to exhibit Garner interference, indicating perfect selective attention to the constituent parts. In Experiments 2 and 3, composite faces failed to exhibit super-capacity with same-identity composites, demonstrating limited or unlimited capacity. This pattern is consistent with analytic perception. Taken together, the results cast serious doubts on the validity of the holistic processing approach. In many respects, the study proposes disillusionment from the composite face illusion. In addition, the study highlights the importance of converging operations, model testability, and individual differences in the study of faces.

  19. The effect of familiarity on face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Face adaptation techniques have been used extensively to investigate how faces are processed. It has even been suggested that face adaptation is functional in calibrating the visual system to the diet of faces to which an observer is exposed. Yet most adaptation studies to date have used unfamiliar faces: few have used faces with real world familiarity. Familiar faces have more abstractive representations than unfamiliar faces. The experiments in this thesis therefore examined face adaptation...

  20. Multimodal processing of emotional information in 9-month-old infants I: emotional faces and voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, R A; Donkers, F C L; Braeken, M A K A; Van den Bergh, B R H

    2015-04-01

    Making sense of emotions manifesting in human voice is an important social skill which is influenced by emotions in other modalities, such as that of the corresponding face. Although processing emotional information from voices and faces simultaneously has been studied in adults, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying the development of this ability in infancy. Here we investigated multimodal processing of fearful and happy face/voice pairs using event-related potential (ERP) measures in a group of 84 9-month-olds. Infants were presented with emotional vocalisations (fearful/happy) preceded by the same or a different facial expression (fearful/happy). The ERP data revealed that the processing of emotional information appearing in human voice was modulated by the emotional expression appearing on the corresponding face: Infants responded with larger auditory ERPs after fearful compared to happy facial primes. This finding suggests that infants dedicate more processing capacities to potentially threatening than to non-threatening stimuli.

  1. Challenges and Specifications for Robust Face and Gait Recognition Systems for Surveillance Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUCIU Ioan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Automated person recognition (APR based on biometric signals addresses the process of automatically recognize a person according to his physiological traits (face, voice, iris, fingerprint, ear shape, body odor, electroencephalogram – EEG, electrocardiogram, or hand geometry, or behavioural patterns (gait, signature, hand-grip, lip movement. The paper aims at briefly presenting the current challenges for two specific non-cooperative biometric approaches, namely face and gait biometrics as well as approaches that consider combination of the two in the attempt of a more robust system for accurate APR, in the context of surveillance application. Open problems from both sides are also pointed out.

  2. Applications of PCA and SVM-PSO Based Real-Time Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Shieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper incorporates principal component analysis (PCA with support vector machine-particle swarm optimization (SVM-PSO for developing real-time face recognition systems. The integrated scheme aims to adopt the SVM-PSO method to improve the validity of PCA based image recognition systems on dynamically visual perception. The face recognition for most human-robot interaction applications is accomplished by PCA based method because of its dimensionality reduction. However, PCA based systems are only suitable for processing the faces with the same face expressions and/or under the same view directions. Since the facial feature selection process can be considered as a problem of global combinatorial optimization in machine learning, the SVM-PSO is usually used as an optimal classifier of the system. In this paper, the PSO is used to implement a feature selection, and the SVMs serve as fitness functions of the PSO for classification problems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method simplifies features effectively and obtains higher classification accuracy.

  3. BENEFICIAL FACE OF BACTERIOPHAGES: APPLICATIONS IN FOOD PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Raghu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Foods are processed to make them available at all places; consequently, our awareness regarding hygiene measures in food production has also increased dramatically over the last decades. In many countries cases associated with foodborne infectious are increased. However, available techniques are unable to effectively control the problem. Further, exploring novel methods and technologies for ensuring the safety of food with effective quality control approaches are under research. Phages are the natural enemies of bacteria, and are more specific to host renders them ideal candidates for applications designed to increase food safety during the production process. Scientific findings are available showing the possibility to use as biocontrol agents against various pathogens with out interfering with the natural microflora or the cultures in fermented products. Furthermore, phages or phage derived proteins can also be used to detect the presence of unwanted pathogens in food or the production environments, which allows quick and sp ecific identification of viable cells. Bacteriophages are natural, found in various environments including water; foods etc. and are not found significantly influence the human cells.

  4. Face processing improvements in prosopagnosia: successes and failures over the last 50 years

    OpenAIRE

    DeGutis, Joseph M.; Sarah eCohan; Chris eChiu; Mallory eGrosso

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians and researchers have widely believed that face processing cannot be improved in prosopagnosia. Though more than a dozen reported studies have attempted to enhance face processing in prosopagnosics over the last 50 years, evidence for effective treatment approaches has only begun to emerge. Here, we review the current literature on spontaneous recovery in acquired prosopagnosia (AP), as well as treatment attempts in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia (DP), differentiating be...

  5. Sensory competition in the face processing areas of the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Nagy

    Full Text Available The concurrent presentation of multiple stimuli in the visual field may trigger mutually suppressive interactions throughout the ventral visual stream. While several studies have been performed on sensory competition effects among non-face stimuli relatively little is known about the interactions in the human brain for multiple face stimuli. In the present study we analyzed the neuronal basis of sensory competition in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study using multiple face stimuli. We varied the ratio of faces and phase-noise images within a composite display with a constant number of peripheral stimuli, thereby manipulating the competitive interactions between faces. For contralaterally presented stimuli we observed strong competition effects in the fusiform face area (FFA bilaterally and in the right lateral occipital area (LOC, but not in the occipital face area (OFA, suggesting their different roles in sensory competition. When we increased the spatial distance among pairs of faces the magnitude of suppressive interactions was reduced in the FFA. Surprisingly, the magnitude of competition depended on the visual hemifield of the stimuli: ipsilateral stimulation reduced the competition effects somewhat in the right LOC while it increased them in the left LOC. This suggests a left hemifield dominance of sensory competition. Our results support the sensory competition theory in the processing of multiple faces and suggests that sensory competition occurs in several cortical areas in both cerebral hemispheres.

  6. The Effect of Self-Referential Expectation on Emotional Face Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel McKendrick

    Full Text Available The role of self-relevance has been somewhat neglected in static face processing paradigms but may be important in understanding how emotional faces impact on attention, cognition and affect. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of self-relevant primes on processing emotional composite faces. Sentence primes created an expectation of the emotion of the face before sad, happy, neutral or composite face photos were viewed. Eye movements were recorded and subsequent responses measured the cognitive and affective impact of the emotion expressed. Results indicated that primes did not guide attention, but impacted on judgments of valence intensity and self-esteem ratings. Negative self-relevant primes led to the most negative self-esteem ratings, although the effect of the prime was qualified by salient facial features. Self-relevant expectations about the emotion of a face and subsequent attention to a face that is congruent with these expectations strengthened the affective impact of viewing the face.

  7. Using hypnosis to disrupt face processing: Mirrored-self misidentification delusion and different visual media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Connors

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mirrored-self misidentification delusion is the belief that one’s reflection in the mirror is not oneself. This experiment used hypnotic suggestion to impair normal face processing in healthy participants and recreate key aspects of the delusion in the laboratory. From a pool of 439 participants, 22 high hypnotisable participants (highs and 20 low hypnotisable participants were selected on the basis of their extreme scores on two separately administered measures of hypnotisability. These participants received a hypnotic induction and a suggestion for either impaired (i self-face recognition or (ii impaired recognition of all faces. Participants were tested on their ability to recognise themselves in a mirror and other visual media – including a photograph, live video, and handheld mirror – and their ability to recognise other people, including the experimenter and famous faces. Both suggestions produced impaired self-face recognition and recreated key aspects of the delusion in highs. However, only the suggestion for impaired other-face recognition disrupted recognition of other faces, albeit in a minority of highs. The findings confirm that hypnotic suggestion can disrupt face processing and recreate features of mirrored-self misidentification. The variability seen in participants’ responses also corresponds to the heterogeneity seen in clinical patients. An important direction for future research will be to examine sources of this variability within both clinical patients and the hypnotic model.

  8. Face processing changes in normal aging revealed by fMRI adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunjo; Grady, Cheryl L; Habak, Claudine; Wilson, Hugh R; Moscovitch, Morris

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the neural correlates of facial processing changes in healthy aging using fMRI and an adaptation paradigm. In the scanner, participants were successively presented with faces that varied in identity, viewpoint, both, or neither and performed a head size detection task independent of identity or viewpoint. In right fusiform face area (FFA), older adults failed to show adaptation to the same face repeatedly presented in the same view, which elicited the most adaptation in young adults. We also performed a multivariate analysis to examine correlations between whole-brain activation patterns and behavioral performance in a face-matching task tested outside the scanner. Despite poor neural adaptation in right FFA, high-performing older adults engaged the same face-processing network as high-performing young adults across conditions, except the one presenting a same facial identity across different viewpoints. Low-performing older adults used this network to a lesser extent. Additionally, high-performing older adults uniquely recruited a set of areas related to better performance across all conditions, indicating age-specific involvement of this added network. This network did not include the core ventral face-processing areas but involved the left inferior occipital gyrus, frontal, and parietal regions. Although our adaptation results show that the neuronal representations of the core face-preferring areas become less selective with age, our multivariate analysis indicates that older adults utilize a distinct network of regions associated with better face matching performance, suggesting that engaging this network may compensate for deficiencies in ventral face processing regions.

  9. Top-down interference and cortical responsiveness in face processing: a TMS-EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattavelli, Giulia; Rosanova, Mario; Casali, Adenauer G; Papagno, Costanza; Romero Lauro, Leonor J

    2013-08-01

    Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have shown the involvement of a fronto-temporo-occipital network in face processing, but the functional relation among these areas remains unclear. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) to explore the local and global cortical excitability at rest and during two different face processing behavioral tasks. Single-pulse TMS was delivered (100 ms after face stimulus onset) over the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during a face identity or a face expression matching task, while continuous EEG was recorded using a 60-channel TMS-compatible amplifier. We examined TMS effects on the occipital face-specific ERP component and compared TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) recorded during task performance and a passive point fixation control task. TMS reduced the P1-N1 component recorded at the occipital electrodes. Moreover, performing face tasks significantly modulated TEPs recorded at the occipital and temporal electrodes within the first 30 ms after right mPFC stimulation, with a specific increase of temporal TEPs in the right hemisphere for the facial expression task. Furthermore, in order to test the site-specificity of the reported effects, TMS was applied over the right premotor cortex (PMC) as a control site using the same experimental paradigm. Results showed that TMS over the right PMC did not affect ERP components in posterior regions during the face tasks and TEP amplitude did not change between task and no task condition, either at fronto-central electrodes near the stimulation or at temporal and occipital electrodes. These findings support the notion that the prefrontal cortex exerts a very early influence over the occipital cortex during face processing tasks and that excitability across right fronto-temporal cortical regions is significantly modulated during explicit facial expression processing.

  10. ONLINE TRAINING FOR FACE RECOGNITION SYSTEM USING IMPROVED PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo Budiharto

    2011-11-01

    where the tested images are captured real-time from camera. Varying illumination in tested images will increase the accuracy using ITS face database which its accuracy is 95.5 %, higher than ATT face databases as 95.4% and Indian face databases as 72%. The results from this experiment are still evaluated to be improved in the future.

  11. Application of binocular vision system to face detection and tracking in service robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Junfeng; Ma, Shiwei; Xu, Yulin; Li, Xin; Shen, Yujie

    2012-01-01

    A binocular vision system and its application to face detection and tracking in robot is introduced in this paper. With the vision system, the robot can do face detection, identification, recognition and tracking. The face area is detected in realtime by using AdaBoost algorithm. And a method is proposed with which a real face can be distinguished from a picture one by using skin color information and depth data. A specific face can be recognized by comparing the principal components of the current face to those of the known individuals in a face database built in advance. Finally, the robot can track a specified face according to depth of the face and position of a face rectangle in the frame. Experiment results are given and discussed.

  12. Challenges facing air management for fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P.B. [Department of Energy (United States); Sutton, R. [Argonne National Lab. (United States); Wagner, F.W. [Energetics Incorporated (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. automotive industry are working cooperatively under the auspices of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) to develop a six-passenger automobile that can achieve up to 80 mpg. while meeting customer needs and all safety and emission requirements. These partners are continuing to invest heavily in the research and development of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells as a clean and efficient energy conversion system for the PNGV. A critical challenge facing fuel cell systems for the PNGV is the development of efficient, compact, cost-effective air management systems. The U.S. Department of Energy has been exploring several compressor/expander options for pressurized fuel cell systems, including scroll, toroidal intersecting vane, turbine, twin screw, and piston technologies. Each of these technologies has strengths and weaknesses regarding efficiency, pressure ratio over turndown, size and weight, and cost. This paper will present data from the U.S. Department of Energy's research and development efforts on air management systems and will discusses recent program developments resulting from an independent peer review evaluation. (author)

  13. Differential brain activation to angry faces by elite warfighters: neural processing evidence for enhanced threat detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Paulus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the neural basis of elite performers and their optimal performance in extreme environments. The purpose of this study was to examine brain processing differences between elite warfighters and comparison subjects in brain structures that are important for emotion processing and interoception. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Navy Sea, Air, and Land Forces (SEALs while off duty (n = 11 were compared with n = 23 healthy male volunteers while performing a simple emotion face-processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Irrespective of the target emotion, elite warfighters relative to comparison subjects showed relatively greater right-sided insula, but attenuated left-sided insula, activation. Navy SEALs showed selectively greater activation to angry target faces relative to fearful or happy target faces bilaterally in the insula. This was not accounted for by contrasting positive versus negative emotions. Finally, these individuals also showed slower response latencies to fearful and happy target faces than did comparison subjects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support the hypothesis that elite warfighters deploy greater processing resources toward potential threat-related facial expressions and reduced processing resources to non-threat-related facial expressions. Moreover, rather than expending more effort in general, elite warfighters show more focused neural and performance tuning. In other words, greater neural processing resources are directed toward threat stimuli and processing resources are conserved when facing a nonthreat stimulus situation.

  14. Self-esteem Modulates the P3 Component in Response to the Self-face Processing after Priming with Emotional Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Guan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The self-face processing advantage (SPA refers to the research finding that individuals generally recognize their own face faster than another’s face; self-face also elicits an enhanced P3 amplitude compared to another’s face. It has been suggested that social evaluation threats could weaken the SPA and that self-esteem could be regarded as a threat buffer. However, little research has directly investigated the neural evidence of how self-esteem modulates the social evaluation threat to the SPA. In the current event-related potential study, 27 healthy Chinese undergraduate students were primed with emotional faces (angry, happy, or neutral and were asked to judge whether the target face (self, friend, and stranger was familiar or unfamiliar. Electrophysiological results showed that after priming with emotional faces (angry and happy, self-face elicited similar P3 amplitudes to friend-face in individuals with low self-esteem, but not in individuals with high self-esteem. The results suggest that as low self-esteem raises fears of social rejection and exclusion, priming with emotional faces (angry and happy can weaken the SPA in low self-esteem individuals but not in high self-esteem individuals.

  15. Self-esteem Modulates the P3 Component in Response to the Self-face Processing after Priming with Emotional Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lili; Zhao, Yufang; Wang, Yige; Chen, Yujie; Yang, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The self-face processing advantage (SPA) refers to the research finding that individuals generally recognize their own face faster than another's face; self-face also elicits an enhanced P3 amplitude compared to another's face. It has been suggested that social evaluation threats could weaken the SPA and that self-esteem could be regarded as a threat buffer. However, little research has directly investigated the neural evidence of how self-esteem modulates the social evaluation threat to the SPA. In the current event-related potential study, 27 healthy Chinese undergraduate students were primed with emotional faces (angry, happy, or neutral) and were asked to judge whether the target face (self, friend, and stranger) was familiar or unfamiliar. Electrophysiological results showed that after priming with emotional faces (angry and happy), self-face elicited similar P3 amplitudes to friend-face in individuals with low self-esteem, but not in individuals with high self-esteem. The results suggest that as low self-esteem raises fears of social rejection and exclusion, priming with emotional faces (angry and happy) can weaken the SPA in low self-esteem individuals but not in high self-esteem individuals.

  16. Effect of Affective Personality Information on Face Processing: Evidence from ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiu L; Wang, Han L; Dzhelyova, Milena; Huang, Ping; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which there are the neural correlates of the affective personality influence on face processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). In the learning phase, participants viewed a target individual's face (expression neutral or faint smile) paired with either negative, neutral or positive sentences describing previous typical behavior of the target. In the following EEG testing phase, participants completed gender judgments of the learned faces. Statistical analyses were conducted on measures of neural activity during the gender judgment task. Repeated measures ANOVA of ERP data showed that faces described as having a negative personality elicited larger N170 than did those with a neutral or positive description. The early posterior negativity (EPN) showed the same result pattern, with larger amplitudes for faces paired with negative personality than for others. The size of the late positive potential was larger for faces paired with positive personality than for those with neutral and negative personality. The current study indicates that affective personality information is associated with an automatic, top-down modulation on face processing.

  17. Functional MRI reveals compromised neural integrity of the face processing network in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Galia; Behrmann, Marlene

    2009-07-14

    The summed activity of multiple nodes of a distributed cortical network supports face recognition in humans, including "core" ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC) regions, and "extended" regions outside VOTC. Many individuals with congenital prosopagnosia-an impairment in face processing-exhibit normal blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activation in the core VOTC regions. These individuals evince a reduction in the structural integrity of the white matter tracts connecting VOTC to anterior temporal and frontal cortices, part of the "extended" face network. The impairment in congenital prosopagnosia may arise, therefore, not from a dysfunction of the core VOTC areas but from a failure to propagate signals between the intact VOTC and the extended nodes of the network. Using the fMR adaptation paradigm with famous and unknown faces, we show that individuals with congenital prosopagnosia evince normal adaptation effects in VOTC, indicating sensitivity to facial identity, but show no differential activation for familiar versus unknown faces outside VOTC, particularly in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior paracingulate cortex. Normal BOLD activation in VOTC is thus insufficient to subserve intact face recognition, and disrupted information propagation between VOTC and the extended face processing network may explain the functional impairment in congenital prosopagnosia.

  18. Effect of Affective Personality Information on Face Processing: Evidence from ERPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuling eLuo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the extent to which there are neural correlates of the influence of affective personality information on face processing, using event-related potentials (ERPs. In the learning phase, participants viewed a target individual’s face (with a neutral expression or faint smile paired with negative, neutral or positive sentences describing the target’s previous typical behavior. In the following EEG testing phase, participants completed gender judgments of the learned faces. Statistical analyses were conducted on measures of neural activity during the gender judgment task. Repeated measures ANOVA of ERP data showed that faces described as having a negative personality elicited larger N170 than did those with a neutral or positive description. The early posterior negativity (EPN showed the same pattern, with larger amplitudes for faces paired with negative personality than for others. The size of the late positive potential (LPP was larger for faces paired with positive personality than for those with neutral and negative personality. The current study indicates that affective personality information is associated with an automatic, top-down modulation of face processing.

  19. Task effects, performance levels, features, configurations, and holistic face processing: a reply to Rossion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesenhuber, Maximilian; Wolff, Brian S

    2009-11-01

    A recent article in Acta Psychologica ("Picture-plane inversion leads to qualitative changes of face perception" by Rossion [Rossion, B. (2008). Picture-plane inversion leads to qualitative changes of face perception. Acta Psychologica (Amst), 128(2), 274-289]) criticized several aspects of an earlier paper of ours [Riesenhuber, M., Jarudi, I., Gilad, S., & Sinha, P. (2004). Face processing in humans is compatible with a simple shape-based model of vision. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B (Supplements), 271, S448-S450]. We here address Rossion's criticisms and correct some misunderstandings. To frame the discussion, we first review our previously presented computational model of face recognition in cortex [Jiang, X., Rosen, E., Zeffiro, T., Vanmeter, J., Blanz, V., & Riesenhuber, M. (2006). Evaluation of a shape-based model of human face discrimination using FMRI and behavioral techniques. Neuron, 50(1), 159-172] that provides a concrete biologically plausible computational substrate for holistic coding, namely a neural representation learned for upright faces, in the spirit of the original simple-to-complex hierarchical model of vision by Hubel and Wiesel. We show that Rossion's and others' data support the model, and that there is actually a convergence of views on the mechanisms underlying face recognition, in particular regarding holistic processing.

  20. Increasing face validity of a vascular interventional training system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, John; Zheng, Huiru; Hughes, Simon; Kelly, Barry; Wilson, Carol; Gallagher, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Many aspects of medical training take place on real patients in a live environment thus incurring risk. Apart from the obvious risks to patients there is the issue of X-ray exposure to both staff and trainees. Image quality used during interventional procedures is low to ensure minimum X-ray radiation dose. A virtual interventional system may be used to simulate the interventional cardiology training environment therefore reducing overall risk. The purpose of this project was to determine the appropriate image quality settings on a virtual training system to accurately simulate interventional cardiology and increase the face validity of the overall system. Real image data was obtained from patients undergoing diagnostic interventional cardiology examinations in the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast. The images were obtained during catheter placement and contrast enhancement around the region of the heart. The diagnostic views were left anterior oblique, right anterior oblique, left lateral, caudal and the spider view. These five views were simulated on a virtual interventional training system (VIST, Mentice Medical Simulation AB, Sweden) by adjusting x-ray tube and table position at 20 different image quality settings. Signal to noise ratio and image contrast were measured for each of these views using soft tissue and vertebra. The results from the real image data and the VIST image data were compared. Calibration curves were compiled to determine the appropriate VIST image quality setting for each procedure. Average SNR ranged from 2.94 to 74.0 and IC ranged from 0.009 to 0.61 on the real image data. This indicates the very wide range of image quality encountered in interventional cardiology. Calibration curves for each view with the corresponding range of real patient image quality were produced. These calibration curves enabled the appropriate VIST image quality setting to be determined and therefore simulate the real examination image quality as closely as

  1. Testing the effects of expression, intensity and age on emotional face processing in ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyster, Rhiannon J; Bick, Johanna; Westerlund, Alissa; Nelson, Charles A

    2017-06-21

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly show global deficits in the processing of facial emotion, including impairments in emotion recognition and slowed processing of emotional faces. Growing evidence has suggested that these challenges may increase with age, perhaps due to minimal improvement with age in individuals with ASD. In the present study, we explored the role of age, emotion type and emotion intensity in face processing for individuals with and without ASD. Twelve- and 18-22- year-old children with and without ASD participated. No significant diagnostic group differences were observed on behavioral measures of emotion processing for younger versus older individuals with and without ASD. However, there were significant group differences in neural responses to emotional faces. Relative to TD, at 12 years of age and during adulthood, individuals with ASD showed slower N170 to emotional faces. While the TD groups' P1 latency was significantly shorter in adults when compared to 12 year olds, there was no significant age-related difference in P1 latency among individuals with ASD. Findings point to potential differences in the maturation of cortical networks that support visual processing (whether of faces or stimuli more broadly), among individuals with and without ASD between late childhood and adulthood. Finally, associations between ERP amplitudes and behavioral responses on emotion processing tasks suggest possible neural markers for emotional and behavioral deficits among individuals with ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Visual attention to dynamic faces and objects is linked to face processing skills: a combined study of children with autism and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish-Morris, Julia; Chevallier, Coralie; Tonge, Natasha; Letzen, Janelle; Pandey, Juhi; Schultz, Robert T

    2013-01-01

    Although the extant literature on face recognition skills in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) shows clear impairments compared to typically developing controls (TDC) at the group level, the distribution of scores within ASD is broad. In the present research, we take a dimensional approach and explore how differences in social attention during an eye tracking experiment correlate with face recognition skills across ASD and TDC. Emotional discrimination and person identity perception face processing skills were assessed using the Let's Face It! Skills Battery in 110 children with and without ASD. Social attention was assessed using infrared eye gaze tracking during passive viewing of movies of facial expressions and objects displayed together on a computer screen. Face processing skills were significantly correlated with measures of attention to faces and with social skills as measured by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Consistent with prior research, children with ASD scored significantly lower on face processing skills tests but, unexpectedly, group differences in amount of attention to faces (vs. objects) were not found. We discuss possible methodological contributions to this null finding. We also highlight the importance of a dimensional approach for understanding the developmental origins of reduced face perception skills, and emphasize the need for longitudinal research to truly understand how social motivation and social attention influence the development of social perceptual skills.

  3. Visual attention to dynamic faces and objects is linked to face processing skills: A combined study of children with autism and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eParish-Morris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the extant literature on face recognition skills in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD shows clear impairments compared to typically developing controls (TDC at the group level, the distribution of scores within ASD is broad. In the present research, we take a dimensional approach and explore how differences in social attention during an eye tracking experiment correlate with face recognition skills across ASD and TDC. Emotional discrimination and person identity perception face processing skills were assessed using the Let’s Face It! Skills Battery in 110 children with and without ASD. Social attention was assessed using infrared eye gaze tracking during passive viewing of movies of facial expressions and objects displayed together on a computer screen. Face processing skills were significantly correlated with measures of attention to faces and with social skills as measured by the Social Communication Questionnaire. Consistent with prior research, children with ASD scored significantly lower on face processing skills tests but, unexpectedly, group differences in amount of attention to faces (versus objects were not found. We discuss possible methodological contributions to this null finding. We also highlight the importance of a dimensional approach for understanding the developmental origins of reduced face perception skills, and emphasize the need for longitudinal research to truly understand how social motivation and social attention influence the development of social perceptual skills.

  4. Early Left-Hemispheric Dysfunction of Face Processing in Congenital Prosopagnosia: An MEG Study

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Dobel; Christian Putsche; Pienie Zwitserlood; Markus Junghöfer

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Congenital prosopagnosia is a severe face perception impairment which is not acquired by a brain lesion and is presumably present from birth. It manifests mostly by an inability to recognise familiar persons. Electrophysiological research has demonstrated the relevance to face processing of a negative deflection peaking around 170 ms, labelled accordingly as N170 in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and M170 in magnetoencephalography (MEG). The M170 was shown to be sensitive to the i...

  5. Social anhedonia is associated with neural abnormalities during face emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germine, Laura T; Garrido, Lucia; Bruce, Lori; Hooker, Christine

    2011-10-01

    Human beings are social organisms with an intrinsic desire to seek and participate in social interactions. Social anhedonia is a personality trait characterized by a reduced desire for social affiliation and reduced pleasure derived from interpersonal interactions. Abnormally high levels of social anhedonia prospectively predict the development of schizophrenia and contribute to poorer outcomes for schizophrenia patients. Despite the strong association between social anhedonia and schizophrenia, the neural mechanisms that underlie individual differences in social anhedonia have not been studied and are thus poorly understood. Deficits in face emotion recognition are related to poorer social outcomes in schizophrenia, and it has been suggested that face emotion recognition deficits may be a behavioral marker for schizophrenia liability. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to see whether there are differences in the brain networks underlying basic face emotion processing in a community sample of individuals low vs. high in social anhedonia. We isolated the neural mechanisms related to face emotion processing by comparing face emotion discrimination with four other baseline conditions (identity discrimination of emotional faces, identity discrimination of neutral faces, object discrimination, and pattern discrimination). Results showed a group (high/low social anhedonia) × condition (emotion discrimination/control condition) interaction in the anterior portion of the rostral medial prefrontal cortex, right superior temporal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex. As predicted, high (relative to low) social anhedonia participants showed less neural activity in face emotion processing regions during emotion discrimination as compared to each control condition. The findings suggest that social anhedonia is associated with abnormalities in networks responsible for basic processes associated with social cognition, and provide a

  6. Face the hierarchy: ERP and oscillatory brain responses in social rank processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Audrey; Jerbi, Karim; Henaff, Marie-Anne; Cheylus, Anne; Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Schmitz, Christina; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of social hierarchy is a key feature that helps us navigate through our complex social environment. Neuroimaging studies have identified brain structures involved in the processing of hierarchical stimuli but the precise temporal dynamics of brain activity associated with such processing remains largely unknown. Here, we used electroencephalography to examine the effect of social hierarchy on neural responses elicited by faces. In contrast to previous studies, the key manipulation was that a hierarchical context was constructed, not by varying facial expressions, but by presenting neutral-expression faces in a game setting. Once the performance-based hierarchy was established, participants were presented with high-rank, middle-rank and low-rank player faces and had to evaluate the rank of each face with respect to their own position. Both event-related potentials and task-related oscillatory activity were investigated. Three main findings emerge from the study. First, the experimental manipulation had no effect on the early N170 component, which may suggest that hierarchy did not modulate the structural encoding of neutral-expression faces. Second, hierarchy significantly modulated the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) within a 400-700 ms time-window, with more a prominent LPP occurring when the participants processed the face of the highest-rank player. Third, high-rank faces were associated with the highest reduction of alpha power. Taken together these findings provide novel electrophysiological evidence for enhanced allocation of attentional resource in the presence of high-rank faces. At a broader level, this study brings new insights into the neural processing underlying social categorization.

  7. Atypical Asymmetry for Processing Human and Robot Faces in Autism Revealed by fNIRS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne E Jung

    Full Text Available Deficits in the visual processing of faces in autism spectrum disorder (ASD individuals may be due to atypical brain organization and function. Studies assessing asymmetric brain function in ASD individuals have suggested that facial processing, which is known to be lateralized in neurotypical (NT individuals, may be less lateralized in ASD. Here we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS to first test this theory by comparing patterns of lateralized brain activity in homologous temporal-occipital facial processing regions during observation of faces in an ASD group and an NT group. As expected, the ASD participants showed reduced right hemisphere asymmetry for human faces, compared to the NT participants. Based on recent behavioral reports suggesting that robots can facilitate increased verbal interaction over human counterparts in ASD, we also measured responses to faces of robots to determine if these patterns of activation were lateralized in each group. In this exploratory test, both groups showed similar asymmetry patterns for the robot faces. Our findings confirm existing literature suggesting reduced asymmetry for human faces in ASD and provide a preliminary foundation for future testing of how the use of categorically different social stimuli in the clinical setting may be beneficial in this population.

  8. Congenital prosopagnosia: multistage anatomical and functional deficits in face processing circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelacker, V; Grüter, M; Klaver, P; Grüter, T; Specht, K; Weis, S; Kennerknecht, I; Elger, C E; Fernandez, G

    2011-05-01

    Face recognition is a primary social skill which depends on a distributed neural network. A pronounced face recognition deficit in the absence of any lesion is seen in congenital prosopagnosia. This study investigating 24 congenital prosopagnosic subjects and 25 control subjects aims at elucidating its neural basis with fMRI and voxel-based morphometry. We found a comprehensive behavioral pattern, an impairment in visual recognition for faces and buildings that spared long-term memory for faces with negative valence. Anatomical analysis revealed diminished gray matter density in the bilateral lingual gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In most of these areas, gray matter density correlated with memory success. Decreased functional activation was found in the left fusiform gyrus, a crucial area for face processing, and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas activation of the medial prefrontal cortex was enhanced. Hence, our data lend strength to the hypothesis that congenital prosopagnosia is explained by network dysfunction and suggest that anatomic curtailing of visual processing in the lingual gyrus plays a substantial role. The dysfunctional circuitry further encompasses the fusiform gyrus and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may contribute to their difficulties in long-term memory for complex visual information. Despite their deficits in face identity recognition, processing of emotion related information is preserved and possibly mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex. Congenital prosopagnosia may, therefore, be a blueprint of differential curtailing in networks of visual cognition.

  9. Are patients with schizophrenia impaired in processing non-emotional features of human faces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley eDarke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is known that individuals with schizophrenia exhibit signs of impaired face processing, however, the exact perceptual and cognitive mechanisms underlying these deficits are yet to be elucidated. One possible source of confusion in the current literature is the methodological and conceptual inconsistencies that can arise from the varied treatment of different aspects of face processing relating to emotional and non-emotional aspects of face perception. This review aims to disentangle the literature by focusing on the performance of patients with schizophrenia in a range of tasks that required processing of non-emotional features of face stimuli (e.g. identity or gender. We also consider the performance of patients on non-face stimuli that share common elements such as familiarity (e.g. cars and social relevance (e.g. gait. We conclude by exploring whether observed deficits are best considered as face-specific and note that further investigation is required to properly assess the potential contribution of more generalised attentional or perceptual impairments.

  10. Characterization of face processing in patients with congenital prosopagnosia by means of electro- and magnetoencephalography

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Joachim E.

    2011-01-01

    In this study patients with congenital prosopagnosia were compared to a group of matched controls by means of extensive neuropsychological, electrophysiological and brain imaging methods. To confirm the diagnosis both the target and control group underwent thorough neuropsychological testing. In a large variety of tests assessing functions other than face processing (general cognitive performance, basic visual abilities, object recognition and object processing) subjects wit...

  11. Face Emotion Processing in Depressed Children and Adolescents with and without Comorbid Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepman, Karen; Taylor, Eric; Collishaw, Stephan; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Studies of adults with depression point to characteristic neurocognitive deficits, including differences in processing facial expressions. Few studies have examined face processing in juvenile depression, or taken account of other comorbid disorders. Three groups were compared: depressed children and adolescents with conduct disorder (n = 23),…

  12. Impaired holistic processing of left-right composite faces in congenital prosopagnosia

    OpenAIRE

    Tina T. Liu; Marlene eBehrmann

    2014-01-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) refers to a lifelong impairment in face processing despite normal visual and intellectual skills. Many studies have suggested that the key underlying deficit in CP is one of a failure to engage holistic processing. Moreover, there has been some suggestion that, in normal observers, there may be greater involvement of the right than left hemisphere in holistic processing. To examine the proposed deficit in holistic processing and its potential hemispheric atypical...

  13. Experience Shapes the Development of Neural Substrates of Face Processing in Human Ventral Temporal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golarai, Golijeh; Liberman, Alina; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2017-02-01

    In adult humans, the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) represents faces in a reproducible topology. However, it is unknown what role visual experience plays in the development of this topology. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in children and adults, we found a sequential development, in which the topology of face-selective activations across the VTC was matured by age 7, but the spatial extent and degree of face selectivity continued to develop past age 7 into adulthood. Importantly, own- and other-age faces were differentially represented, both in the distributed multivoxel patterns across the VTC, and also in the magnitude of responses of face-selective regions. These results provide strong evidence that experience shapes cortical representations of faces during development from childhood to adulthood. Our findings have important implications for the role of experience and age in shaping the neural substrates of face processing in the human VTC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Bilateral hemispheric processing of words and faces: evidence from word impairments in prosopagnosia and face impairments in pure alexia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behrmann, Marlene; Plaut, David C

    2014-01-01

    .... On this view, right hemisphere ventral lesions that impair face recognition (prosopagnosia) should leave word recognition unaffected, and left hemisphere ventral lesions that impair word recognition (pure alexia...

  15. GPS Real-Time Supervisory System and Application in the Construction of Face Rockfill Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Shengxiang; LIU Jingnan; ZENG Huai'en

    2005-01-01

    According to the quality control needs of filling construction of the face rockfill dam, by means of the global satellite positioning technology, the wireless data communication technology, the computer technology and the data processing and analysis technology, and integrating with the roller compaction machine, the GPS real-time supervisory system is developed in this paper. It can be used to real-timely supervise the construction quality of the roller compaction for filling engineering. The composition and applied characteristics of GPS system, and the key technique problem and solution of the design are discussed. The height accuracy of GPS system is analyzed and the preliminary application is introduced.

  16. Following the time course of face gender and expression processing: a task-dependent ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Conroy, Berenice; Aguado, Luis; Fernández-Cahill, María; Romero-Ferreiro, Verónica; Diéguez-Risco, Teresa

    2014-05-01

    The effects of task demands and the interaction between gender and expression in face perception were studied using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants performed three different tasks with male and female faces that were emotionally inexpressive or that showed happy or angry expressions. In two of the tasks (gender and expression categorization) facial properties were task-relevant while in a third task (symbol discrimination) facial information was irrelevant. Effects of expression were observed on the visual P100 component under all task conditions, suggesting the operation of an automatic process that is not influenced by task demands. The earliest interaction between expression and gender was observed later in the face-sensitive N170 component. This component showed differential modulations by specific combinations of gender and expression (e.g., angry male vs. angry female faces). Main effects of expression and task were observed in a later occipito-temporal component peaking around 230 ms post-stimulus onset (EPN or early posterior negativity). Less positive amplitudes in the presence of angry faces and during performance of the gender and expression tasks were observed. Finally, task demands also modulated a positive component peaking around 400 ms (LPC, or late positive complex) that showed enhanced amplitude for the gender task. The pattern of results obtained here adds new evidence about the sequence of operations involved in face processing and the interaction of facial properties (gender and expression) in response to different task demands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Testing the connections within face processing circuitry in Capgras delusion with diffusion imaging tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, Maria A; Góngora, Daylin; Valdes, Annette; Santos, Yusniel; Acosta, Yanely; Fernandez Garcia, Yuriem; Lage, Agustin; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Although Capgras delusion (CD) patients are capable of recognizing familiar faces, they present a delusional belief that some relatives have been replaced by impostors. CD has been explained as a selective disruption of a pathway processing affective values of familiar faces. To test the integrity of connections within face processing circuitry, diffusion tensor imaging was performed in a CD patient and 10 age-matched controls. Voxel-based morphometry indicated gray matter damage in right frontal areas. Tractography was used to examine two important tracts of the face processing circuitry: the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and the inferior longitudinal (ILF). The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and commissural tracts were also assessed. CD patient did not differ from controls in the commissural fibers, or the SLF. Right and left ILF, and right IFOF were also equivalent to those of controls. However, the left IFOF was significantly reduced respect to controls, also showing a significant dissociation with the ILF, which represents a selective impairment in the fiber-tract connecting occipital and frontal areas. This suggests a possible involvement of the IFOF in affective processing of faces in typical observers and in covert recognition in some cases with prosopagnosia.

  18. Testing the connections within face processing circuitry in Capgras delusion with diffusion imaging tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bobes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Capgras delusion (CD patients are capable of recognizing familiar faces, they present a delusional belief that some relatives have been replaced by impostors. CD has been explained as a selective disruption of a pathway processing affective values of familiar faces. To test the integrity of connections within face processing circuitry, diffusion tensor imaging was performed in a CD patient and 10 age-matched controls. Voxel-based morphometry indicated gray matter damage in right frontal areas. Tractography was used to examine two important tracts of the face processing circuitry: the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF and the inferior longitudinal (ILF. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF and commissural tracts were also assessed. CD patient did not differ from controls in the commissural fibers, or the SLF. Right and left ILF, and right IFOF were also equivalent to those of controls. However, the left IFOF was significantly reduced respect to controls, also showing a significant dissociation with the ILF, which represents a selective impairment in the fiber-tract connecting occipital and frontal areas. This suggests a possible involvement of the IFOF in affective processing of faces in typical observers and in covert recognition in some cases with prosopagnosia.

  19. Testing the connections within face processing circuitry in Capgras delusion with diffusion imaging tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, Maria A.; Góngora, Daylin; Valdes, Annette; Santos, Yusniel; Acosta, Yanely; Fernandez Garcia, Yuriem; Lage, Agustin; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Although Capgras delusion (CD) patients are capable of recognizing familiar faces, they present a delusional belief that some relatives have been replaced by impostors. CD has been explained as a selective disruption of a pathway processing affective values of familiar faces. To test the integrity of connections within face processing circuitry, diffusion tensor imaging was performed in a CD patient and 10 age-matched controls. Voxel-based morphometry indicated gray matter damage in right frontal areas. Tractography was used to examine two important tracts of the face processing circuitry: the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and the inferior longitudinal (ILF). The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and commissural tracts were also assessed. CD patient did not differ from controls in the commissural fibers, or the SLF. Right and left ILF, and right IFOF were also equivalent to those of controls. However, the left IFOF was significantly reduced respect to controls, also showing a significant dissociation with the ILF, which represents a selective impairment in the fiber-tract connecting occipital and frontal areas. This suggests a possible involvement of the IFOF in affective processing of faces in typical observers and in covert recognition in some cases with prosopagnosia. PMID:26909325

  20. Automated process planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, W.

    1978-01-01

    Program helps process engineers set up manufacturing plans for machined parts. System allows one to develop and store library of similar parts characteristics, as related to particular facility. Information is then used in interactive system to help develop manufacturing plans that meet required standards.

  1. Face Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Independent or Interactive Processing of Facial Identity and Facial Expression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Julia F.; Biswas, Ajanta; Pascalis, Olivier; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmuth; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated if deficits in processing emotional expression affect facial identity processing and vice versa in children with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism and IQ and age matched typically developing children classified faces either by emotional expression, thereby ignoring facial identity or by facial identity…

  2. The early time course of compensatory face processing in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Stollhoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prosopagnosia is a selective deficit in facial identification which can be either acquired, (e.g., after brain damage, or present from birth (congenital. The face recognition deficit in prosopagnosia is characterized by worse accuracy, longer reaction times, more dispersed gaze behavior and a strong reliance on featural processing. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We introduce a conceptual model of an apperceptive/associative type of congenital prosopagnosia where a deficit in holistic processing is compensated by a serial inspection of isolated, informative features. Based on the model proposed we investigated performance differences in different face and shoe identification tasks between a group of 16 participants with congenital prosopagnosia and a group of 36 age-matched controls. Given enough training and unlimited stimulus presentation prosopagnosics achieved normal face identification accuracy evincing longer reaction times. The latter increase was paralleled by an equally-sized increase in stimulus presentation times needed achieve an accuracy of 80%. When the inspection time of stimuli was limited (50 ms to 750 ms, prosopagnosics only showed worse accuracy but no difference in reaction time. Tested for the ability to generalize from frontal to rotated views, prosopagnosics performed worse than controls across all rotation angles but the magnitude of the deficit didn't change with increasing rotation. All group differences in accuracy, reaction or presentation times were selective to face stimuli and didn't extend to shoes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides a characterization of congenital prosopagnosia in terms of early processing differences. More specifically, compensatory processing in congenital prosopagnosia requires an inspection of faces that is sufficiently long to allow for sequential focusing on informative features. This characterization of dysfunctional processing in prosopagnosia further emphasizes fast

  3. Content and Processes in Problem-Based Learning: A Comparison of Computer-Mediated and Face-to-Face Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromso, H. I.; Grottum, P.; Lycke, K. H.

    2007-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in problem-based learning. One line of research has been to introduce synchronous, or simultaneous, communication attempting to create text-based digital real-time interaction. Compared with face-to-face (F2F) communication, CMC may be a poorer medium…

  4. Is it a baby? Perceived age affects brain processing of faces differently in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Riva, Federica; Zani, Alberto; Martin, Eleonora

    2011-11-01

    It is known that infant faces stimulate visual and anterior brain regions belonging to the mesocortical limbic system (orbito-frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens) as well as the fusiform gyrus during face coding, suggesting a preferential response to baby schema. In the present investigation, faces of infants, children, and adults were presented to 40 male and female right-handed university students with technological objects (and inanimate scenarios to serve as targets) in a randomly mixed fashion. EEG was recorded from 128 scalp sites. In both sexes, the N1 response to infant faces was larger than the response to adult faces; however, the baby-specific N1 response was much larger in women than in men across the left hemisphere. The anterior N2 response to infants was greater than the response to children only in women, whereas the response to children of any age was larger than the response to adults in men. LORETA identified the intracranial sources of N2 response to infants in the left fusiform gyrus (FG), as well as the uncus, cingulate, and orbito-frontal cortices. The FG, the limbic, and especially the orbito-frontal sources were much larger in women than in men. The data suggest a sex difference in the brain response to faces of different ages and in the preferential response to infants, especially with regard to activation of the mesocorticolimbic system.

  5. Electrophysiological correlates of emotional face processing after mild traumatic brain injury in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Fabien; Lassonde, Maryse; Thebault-Dagher, Fanny; Bernier, Annie; Gravel, Jocelyn; Vannasing, Phetsamone; Beauchamp, Miriam H

    2017-02-01

    Evidence suggests that social skills are affected by childhood mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), but the neural and affective substrates of these difficulties are still underexplored. In particular, nothing is known about consequences on the perception of emotional facial expressions, despite its critical role in social interactions and the importance of the preschool period in the development of this ability. This study thus aimed to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of emotional facial expressions processing after early mTBI. To this end, 18 preschool children (mean age 53 ± 8 months) who sustained mTBI and 15 matched healthy controls (mean age 55 ± 11 months) were presented with pictures of faces expressing anger, happiness, or no emotion (neutral) while event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded. The main results revealed that P1 amplitude was higher for happy faces than for angry faces, and that N170 latency was shorter for emotional faces than for neutral faces in the control group only. These findings suggest that preschool children who sustain mTBI do not present the early emotional effects that are observed in healthy preschool children at visuospatial and visual expertise stages. This study provides new evidence regarding the consequences of childhood mTBI on socioemotional processing, by showing alterations of emotional facial expressions processing, an ability known to underlie social competence and appropriate social interactions.

  6. Selective dissociation between core and extended regions of the face processing network in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Galia; Tanzer, Michal; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Liu, Ning; Ungerleider, Leslie G; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-06-01

    There is growing consensus that accurate and efficient face recognition is mediated by a neural circuit composed of a posterior "core" and an anterior "extended" set of regions. Here, we characterize the distributed face network in human individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP)-a lifelong impairment in face processing-relative to that of matched controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we first uncover largely normal activation patterns in the posterior core face patches in CP. We also document normal activity of the amygdala (emotion processing) as well as normal or even enhanced functional connectivity between the amygdala and the core regions. Critically, in the same individuals, activation of the anterior temporal cortex (identity processing) is reduced and connectivity between this region and the posterior core regions is disrupted. The dissociation between the neural profiles of the anterior temporal lobe and amygdala was evident both during a task-related face scan and during a resting state scan, in the absence of visual stimulation. Taken together, these findings elucidate selective disruptions in neural circuitry in CP and offer an explanation for the known differential difficulty in identity versus emotional expression recognition in many individuals with CP.

  7. The neuroscience of face processing and identification in eyewitnesses and offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole-Simone eWerner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans are experts in face perception. We are better able to distinguish between the differences of faces and their components than between any other kind of objects. Several studies investigating the underlying neural networks provided evidence for deviated face processing in criminal individuals, although results are often confounded by accompanying mental or addiction disorders. On the other hand, face processing in non-criminal healthy persons can be of high juridical interest in cases of witnessing a felony and afterwards identifying a culprit. Memory and therefore recognition of a person can be affected by many parameters and thus become distorted. But also face processing itself is modulated by different factors like facial characteristics, degree of familiarity and emotional relation. These factors make the comparison of different cases, as well as the transfer of laboratory results to real live settings very challenging. Several neuroimaging studies have been published in recent years and some progress was made connecting certain brain activation patterns with the correct recognition of an individual. However, there is still a long way to go before brain imaging can make a reliable contribution to court procedures.

  8. Design of Face Recognition System by Using Neural Network with Discrete Cosine Transform and Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Jain, Rajshree Taparia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper deals with the implementation of face recognition system using neural network Importance of face recognition system has speed up in the last few decades. A face recognition system is one of the biometric information processing. The developed algorithm for the face recognition system formulates an image-based approach, which uses the Two-Dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform (2D-DCT for image compression and the Self- Organizing Map (SOM Neural Network for recognition purpose, simulated in MATLAB. By using 2D-DCT we extract image vectors and these vectors becomes the input to neural network classifier, which uses self-organizing map, algorithm to recognize familiar faces (trained and faces with variations in expressions, illumination changes, tilt of 5 to 10 degrees. Again face Recognition system is developed with principal component analysis (PCA instead of Two Dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform (2D-DCT and self-Organizing Map (SOM Neural Network for recognition purpose. The crux of proposed algorithm is its beauty to use unsupervised single neural network as classifier.

  9. Evaluating faces on trustworthiness: an extension of systems for recognition of emotions signaling approach/avoidance behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander

    2008-03-01

    People routinely make various trait judgments from facial appearance, and such judgments affect important social outcomes. These judgments are highly correlated with each other, reflecting the fact that valence evaluation permeates trait judgments from faces. Trustworthiness judgments best approximate this evaluation, consistent with evidence about the involvement of the amygdala in the implicit evaluation of face trustworthiness. Based on computer modeling and behavioral experiments, I argue that face evaluation is an extension of functionally adaptive systems for understanding the communicative meaning of emotional expressions. Specifically, in the absence of diagnostic emotional cues, trustworthiness judgments are an attempt to infer behavioral intentions signaling approach/avoidance behaviors. Correspondingly, these judgments are derived from facial features that resemble emotional expressions signaling such behaviors: happiness and anger for the positive and negative ends of the trustworthiness continuum, respectively. The emotion overgeneralization hypothesis can explain highly efficient but not necessarily accurate trait judgments from faces, a pattern that appears puzzling from an evolutionary point of view and also generates novel predictions about brain responses to faces. Specifically, this hypothesis predicts a nonlinear response in the amygdala to face trustworthiness, confirmed in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, and dissociations between processing of facial identity and face evaluation, confirmed in studies with developmental prosopagnosics. I conclude with some methodological implications for the study of face evaluation, focusing on the advantages of formally modeling representation of faces on social dimensions.

  10. Constructing Consistent Multiscale Scenarios by Transdisciplinary Processes: the Case of Mountain Regions Facing Global Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridolin Simon. Brand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alpine regions in Europe, in particular, face demanding local challenges, e.g., the decline in the agriculture and timber industries, and are also prone to global changes, such as in climate, with potentially severe impacts on tourism. We focus on the Visp region in the Upper Valais, Switzerland, and ask how the process of stakeholder involvement in research practice can contribute to a better understanding of the specific challenges and future development of mountainous regions under global change. Based on a coupled human-environment system (HES perspective, we carried out a formative scenario analysis to develop a set of scenarios for the future directions of the Visp region. In addition, we linked these regional scenarios to context scenarios developed at the global and Swiss levels via an external consistency analysis. This method allows the coupling of both the scenario building process and the scenarios as such. We used a functional-dynamic approach to theory-practice cooperation, i.e., the involvement of key stakeholders from, for example, tourism, forestry, and administration, differed in type and intensity during the steps of the research process. In our study, we experienced strong problem awareness among the stakeholders concerning the impacts of global change and local challenges. The guiding research question was commonly defined and problem ownership was more or less balanced. We arrived at six multiscale scenarios that open up future trajectories for the Visp region, and present generic strategies to cope with global and local challenges. The results show that local identity, spatial planning, community budget, and demographic development are important steering elements in the region's future development. We suggest that method-guided transdisciplinary processes result in a richer picture and a more systemic understanding, which enable a discussion of critical and surprising issues.

  11. Beyond Faces and Expertise: Facelike Holistic Processing of Nonface Objects in the Absence of Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    Holistic processing-the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes-has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories.

  12. Early integration processing between faces and vowel sounds in human brain: an MEG investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Itta; Hirano, Yoji; Ohara, Naotoshi; Hirano, Shogo; Ueno, Takefumi; Tsuchimoto, Rikako; Kanba, Shigenobu; Onitsuka, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Unconscious fast integration of face and voice information is a crucial brain function necessary for communicating effectively with others. Here, we investigated for evidence of rapid face-voice integration in the auditory cortex. Magnetic fields (P50m and N100m) evoked by visual stimuli (V), auditory stimuli (A) and audiovisual stimuli (VA), i.e. by face, vowel and simultaneous vowel-face stimuli, were recorded in 22 healthy subjects. Magnetoencephalographic data from 28 channels around bilateral auditory cortices were analyzed. In both hemispheres, AV - V showed significantly larger P50m amplitudes than A. Additionally, compared with A, the N100m amplitudes and dipole moments of AV - V were significantly smaller in the left hemisphere, but not in the right hemisphere. Differential changes in P50m (bilateral) and N100m (left hemisphere) that occur when V (faces) are associated with A (vowel sounds) indicate that AV (face-voice) integration occurs in early processing, likely enabling us to communicate effectively in our lives. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Can we distinguish emotions from faces? Investigation of implicit and explicit processes of peak facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most previous studies on facial expression recognition have focused on the moderate emotions; to date, few studies have been conducted to investigate the explicit and implicit processes of peak emotions. In the current study, we used transiently peak intense expression images of athletes at the winning or losing point in competition as materials, and investigated the diagnosability of peak facial expressions at both implicit and explicit levels. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to evaluate isolated faces, isolated bodies, and the face-body compounds, and eye-tracking movement was recorded. The results revealed that the isolated body and face-body congruent images were better recognized than isolated face and face-body incongruent images, indicating that the emotional information conveyed by facial cues was ambiguous, and the body cues influenced facial emotion recognition. Furthermore, eye movement records showed that the participants displayed distinct gaze patterns for the congruent and incongruent compounds. In Experiment 2A, the subliminal affective priming task was used, with faces as primes and bodies as targets, to investigate the unconscious emotion perception of peak facial expressions. The results showed that winning face prime facilitated reaction to winning body target, whereas losing face prime inhibited reaction to winning body target, suggesting that peak facial expressions could be perceived at the implicit level. In general, the results indicate that peak facial expressions cannot be consciously recognized but can be perceived at the unconscious level. In Experiment 2B, revised subliminal affective priming task and a strict awareness test were used to examine the validity of unconscious perception of peak facial expressions found in Experiment 2A. Results of Experiment 2B showed that reaction time to both winning body targets and losing body targets was influenced by the invisibly peak facial expression primes

  14. Impaired holistic processing of left-right composite faces in congenital prosopagnosia

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    Tina T. Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital prosopagnosia (CP refers to a lifelong impairment in face processing despite normal visual and intellectual skills. Many studies have suggested that the key underlying deficit in CP is one of a failure to engage holistic processing. Moreover, there has been some suggestion that, in normal observers, there may be greater involvement of the right than left hemisphere in holistic processing. To examine the proposed deficit in holistic processing and its potential hemispheric atypicality in CP, we compared the performance of 8 CP individuals with both matched controls and a large group of non-matched controls on a novel, vertical composite task. In this task, participants judged whether a cued half of a face (either left or right half is the same or different at study and test, and the two face halves can be either aligned or misaligned. The standard index of holistic processing is one in which the unattended face half influences performance on the cued half and this influence is greater in the aligned than in the misaligned condition. Relative to controls, the CP participants, both at a group and at an individual level, did not show holistic processing in the vertical composite task. There was also no difference in performance as a function of hemifield of the cued face half in the CP individuals, and this was true in the control participants, as well. The findings clearly confirm the deficit in holistic processing in CP and reveal the useful application of this novel experimental paradigm to this population and potentially to others as well.

  15. Impaired holistic processing of left-right composite faces in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tina T; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) refers to a lifelong impairment in face processing despite normal visual and intellectual skills. Many studies have suggested that the key underlying deficit in CP is one of a failure to engage holistic processing. Moreover, there has been some suggestion that, in normal observers, there may be greater involvement of the right than left hemisphere in holistic processing. To examine the proposed deficit in holistic processing and its potential hemispheric atypicality in CP, we compared the performance of 8 CP individuals with both matched controls and a large group of non-matched controls on a novel, vertical composite task. In this task, participants judged whether a cued half of a face (either left or right half) was the same or different at study and test, and the two face halves could be either aligned or misaligned. The standard index of holistic processing is one in which the unattended face half influences performance on the cued half and this influence is greater in the aligned than in the misaligned condition. Relative to controls, the CP participants, both at a group and at an individual level, did not show holistic processing in the vertical composite task. There was also no difference in performance as a function of hemifield of the cued face half in the CP individuals, and this was true in the control participants, as well. The findings clearly confirm the deficit in holistic processing in CP and reveal the useful application of this novel experimental paradigm to this population and potentially to others as well.

  16. The Forgotten Tribe in ODL Systems: Challenges Faced by Visually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Faced by Visually Impaired Students in Institutions of Higher Learning. ... CH Tichauya, CR Alexander, M Paul, D Emanuel ... Data was collected through student interviews and questionnaires for lecturers and thematically analysed.

  17. The extended functional neuroanatomy of emotional processing biases for masked faces in major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Victor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with a mood-congruent processing bias in the amygdala toward face stimuli portraying sad expressions that is evident even when such stimuli are presented below the level of conscious awareness. The extended functional anatomical network that maintains this response bias has not been established, however. AIMS: To identify neural network differences in the hemodynamic response to implicitly presented facial expressions between depressed and healthy control participants. METHOD: Unmedicated-depressed participants with MDD (n=22 and healthy controls (HC; n=25 underwent functional MRI as they viewed face stimuli showing sad, happy or neutral face expressions, presented using a backward masking design. The blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD signal was measured to identify regions where the hemodynamic response to the emotionally valenced stimuli differed between groups. RESULTS: The MDD subjects showed greater BOLD responses than the controls to masked-sad versus masked-happy faces in the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior inferotemporal cortex. While viewing both masked-sad and masked-happy faces relative to masked-neutral faces, the depressed subjects showed greater hemodynamic responses than the controls in a network that included the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices and anterior temporal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Depressed and healthy participants showed distinct hemodynamic responses to masked-sad and masked-happy faces in neural circuits known to support the processing of emotionally valenced stimuli and to integrate the sensory and visceromotor aspects of emotional behavior. Altered function within these networks in MDD may establish and maintain illness-associated differences in the salience of sensory/social stimuli, such that attention is biased toward negative and away from positive stimuli.

  18. Interactions between Identity and Emotional Expression in Face Processing across the Lifespan: Evidence from Redundancy Gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Yankouskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested how aging affects the integration of visual information from faces. Three groups of participants aged 20–30, 40–50, and 60–70 performed a divided attention task in which they had to detect the presence of a target facial identity or a target facial expression. Three target stimuli were used: (1 with the target identity but not the target expression, (2 with the target expression but not the target identity, and (3 with both the target identity and target expression (the redundant target condition. On nontarget trials the faces contained neither the target identity nor expression. All groups were faster in responding to a face containing both the target identity and emotion compared to faces containing either single target. Furthermore the redundancy gains for combined targets exceeded performance limits predicted by the independent processing of facial identity and emotion. These results are held across the age range. The results suggest that there is interactive processing of facial identity and emotion which is independent of the effects of cognitive aging. Older participants demonstrated reliably larger size of the redundancy gains compared to the young group that reflect a greater experience with faces. Alternative explanations are discussed.

  19. Oxytocin's impact on social face processing is stronger in homosexual than heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienel, Matthias; Heinrichs, Markus; Fischer, Stefan; Ott, Volker; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin is an evolutionarily highly preserved neuropeptide that contributes to the regulation of social interactions including the processing of facial stimuli. We hypothesized that its improving effect on social approach behavior depends on perceived sexual features and, consequently, on sexual orientation. In 19 homosexual and 18 heterosexual healthy young men, we investigated the acute effect of intranasal oxytocin (24IU) and placebo, respectively, on the processing of social stimuli as assessed by ratings of trustworthiness, attractiveness and approachability for male and female faces. Faces were each presented with a neutral, a happy, and an angry expression, respectively. In heterosexual subjects, the effect of oxytocin administration was restricted to a decrease in ratings of trustworthiness for angry female faces (phomosexual men oxytocin administration robustly increased ratings of attractiveness and approachability for male faces regardless of the facial expression (all p ≤ 0.05), as well as ratings of approachability for happy female faces (phomosexual in comparison to heterosexual men display higher sensitivity to oxytocin's enhancing impact on social approach tendencies, suggesting that differences in sexual orientation imply differential oxytocinergic signaling.

  20. Featural versus configural face processing in a rare genetic disorder: Williams syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isaac, L.; Lincoln, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Williams syndrome (WMS) is a rare genetic disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 20 000 live births. Among other characteristics, WMS has a distinctive cognitive profile with spared face processing and language skills that contrasts with impairment in the cognitive domains of spat

  1. Emotionally anesthetized: media violence induces neural changes during emotional face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Laura A; Morrison, Robert G; Kmiecik, Matthew J; Garbarino, James; Silton, Rebecca L

    2015-10-01

    Media violence exposure causes increased aggression and decreased prosocial behavior, suggesting that media violence desensitizes people to the emotional experience of others. Alterations in emotional face processing following exposure to media violence may result in desensitization to others' emotional states. This study used scalp electroencephalography methods to examine the link between exposure to violence and neural changes associated with emotional face processing. Twenty-five participants were shown a violent or nonviolent film clip and then completed a gender discrimination stop-signal task using emotional faces. Media violence did not affect the early visual P100 component; however, decreased amplitude was observed in the N170 and P200 event-related potentials following the violent film, indicating that exposure to film violence leads to suppression of holistic face processing and implicit emotional processing. Participants who had just seen a violent film showed increased frontal N200/P300 amplitude. These results suggest that media violence exposure may desensitize people to emotional stimuli and thereby require fewer cognitive resources to inhibit behavior. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Facial color processing in the face-selective regions: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kae; Minami, Tetsuto; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2014-09-01

    Facial color is important information for social communication as it provides important clues to recognize a person's emotion and health condition. Our previous EEG study suggested that N170 at the left occipito-temporal site is related to facial color processing (Nakajima et al., [2012]: Neuropsychologia 50:2499-2505). However, because of the low spatial resolution of EEG experiment, the brain region is involved in facial color processing remains controversial. In the present study, we examined the neural substrates of facial color processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We measured brain activity from 25 subjects during the presentation of natural- and bluish-colored face and their scrambled images. The bilateral fusiform face (FFA) area and occipital face area (OFA) were localized by the contrast of natural-colored faces versus natural-colored scrambled images. Moreover, region of interest (ROI) analysis showed that the left FFA was sensitive to facial color, whereas the right FFA and the right and left OFA were insensitive to facial color. In combination with our previous EEG results, these data suggest that the left FFA may play an important role in facial color processing.

  3. Face processing improvements in prosopagnosia: successes and failures over the last 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph M; Chiu, Christopher; Grosso, Mallory E; Cohan, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians and researchers have widely believed that face processing cannot be improved in prosopagnosia. Though more than a dozen reported studies have attempted to enhance face processing in prosopagnosics over the last 50 years, evidence for effective treatment approaches has only begun to emerge. Here, we review the current literature on spontaneous recovery in acquired prosopagnosia (AP), as well as treatment attempts in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia (DP), differentiating between compensatory and remedial approaches. We find that for AP, rather than remedial methods, strategic compensatory training such as verbalizing distinctive facial features has shown to be the most effective approach (despite limited evidence of generalization). In children with DP, compensatory training has also shown some effectiveness. In adults with DP, two recent larger-scale studies, one using remedial training and another administering oxytocin, have demonstrated group-level improvements and evidence of generalization. These results suggest that DPs, perhaps because of their more intact face processing infrastructure, may benefit more from treatments targeting face processing than APs.

  4. Face Processing Improvements in Prosopagnosia: Successes and Failures over the last 50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Degutis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians and researchers have widely believed that face processing cannot be improved in prosopagnosia. Though more than a dozen reported studies have attempted to enhance face processing in prosopagnosics over the last 50 years, evidence for effective treatment approaches has only begun to emerge. Here, we review the current literature on spontaneous recovery in acquired prosopagnosia (AP, as well as treatment attempts in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia (DP, differentiating between compensatory and remedial approaches. We find that for AP, rather than remedial methods, strategic compensatory training such as verbalizing distinctive facial features has shown to be the most effective approach (despite limited evidence of generalization. In children with DP, compensatory training has also shown some effectiveness. In adults with DP, two recent larger-scale studies, one using remedial training and another administering oxytocin, have demonstrated group-level improvements and evidence of generalization. These results suggest that DPs, perhaps because of their more intact face processing infrastructure, may benefit more from treatments targeting face processing than APs.

  5. Amygdala Hyperactivation During Face Emotion Processing in Unaffected Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsavsky, Aviva K.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rutenberg, Julia G.; Muhrer, Eli J.; Deveney, Christen M.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Towbin, Kenneth; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD) show deficits in face emotion processing, but the neural correlates of these deficits have not been examined. This preliminary study tests the hypothesis that, relative to healthy comparison (HC) subjects, both BD subjects and youth at risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree BD…

  6. Quartz resonator processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

  7. The independence of expression and identity in face-processing: Evidence from neuropsychological case studies

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    Sarah eBate

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing of facial identity and facial expression have traditionally been seen as independent – a hypothesis that has largely been informed by a key double dissociation between neurological patients with a deficit in facial identity recognition but not facial expression recognition, and those with the reverse pattern of impairment. The independence hypothesis is also reflected in more recent anatomical models of face-processing, although these theories permit some interaction between the two processes. Given that much of the traditional patient-based evidence has been criticised, a review of more recent case reports that are accompanied by neuroimaging data is timely. Further, the performance of individuals with developmental face-processing deficits has recently been considered with regard to the independence debate. This paper reviews evidence from both acquired and developmental disorders, identifying methodological and theoretical strengths and caveats in these reports, and highlighting pertinent avenues for future research.

  8. More than a face: a unified theoretical perspective on nonverbal social cue processing in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Shachar-Lavie, Iris

    2013-12-31

    Processing of nonverbal social cues (NVSCs) is essential to interpersonal functioning and is particularly relevant to models of social anxiety. This article provides a review of the literature on NVSC processing from the perspective of social rank and affiliation biobehavioral systems (ABSs), based on functional analysis of human sociality. We examine the potential of this framework for integrating cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary accounts of social anxiety. We argue that NVSCs are uniquely suited to rapid and effective conveyance of emotional, motivational, and trait information and that various channels are differentially effective in transmitting such information. First, we review studies on perception of NVSCs through face, voice, and body. We begin with studies that utilized information processing or imaging paradigms to assess NVSC perception. This research demonstrated that social anxiety is associated with biased attention to, and interpretation of, emotional facial expressions (EFEs) and emotional prosody. Findings regarding body and posture remain scarce. Next, we review studies on NVSC expression, which pinpointed links between social anxiety and disturbances in eye gaze, facial expressivity, and vocal properties of spontaneous and planned speech. Again, links between social anxiety and posture were understudied. Although cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary theories have described different pathways to social anxiety, all three models focus on interrelations among cognition, subjective experience, and social behavior. NVSC processing and production comprise the juncture where these theories intersect. In light of the conceptualizations emerging from the review, we highlight several directions for future research including focus on NVSCs as indexing reactions to changes in belongingness and social rank, the moderating role of gender, and the therapeutic opportunities offered by embodied cognition to treat social anxiety.

  9. More than a face: A unified theoretical perspective on nonverbal social cue processing in social anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eGilboa-Schechtman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Processing of nonverbal social cues (NVSCs is essential to interpersonal functioning and is particularly relevant to models of social anxiety. This article provides a review of the literature on NVSC processing from the perspective of social rank and affiliation biobehavioral systems, based on functional analysis of human sociality. We examine the potential of this framework for integrating cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary accounts of social anxiety. We argue that NVSCs are uniquely suited to rapid and effective conveyance of emotional, motivational, and trait information and that various channels are differentially effective in transmitting such information. First, we review studies on perception of NVSCs through face, voice, and body. We begin with studies that utilized information processing or imaging paradigms to assess NVSC perception. This research demonstrated that social anxiety is associated with biased attention to, and interpretation of, emotional facial expressions and emotional prosody. Findings regarding body and posture remain scarce. Next, we review studies on NVSC expression, which pinpointed links between social anxiety and disturbances in eye gaze, facial expressivity, and vocal properties of spontaneous and planned speech. Again, links between social anxiety and posture were understudied. Although cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary theories have described different pathways to social anxiety, all three models focus on interrelations among cognition, subjective experience, and social behavior. NVSC processing and production comprise the juncture where these theories intersect. In light of the conceptualizations emerging from the review, we highlight several directions for future research including focus on NVSCs as indexing reactions to changes in belongingness and social rank, the moderating role of gender, and the therapeutic opportunities offered by embodied cognition to treat social anxiety.

  10. Two faces of entropy and information in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrokhin, Yuriy

    2014-10-21

    The article attempts to overcome the well-known paradox of contradictions between the emerging biological organization and entropy production in biological systems. It is assumed that quality, speculative correlation between entropy and antientropy processes taking place both in the past and today in the metabolic and genetic cellular systems may be perfectly authorized for adequate description of the evolution of biological organization. So far as thermodynamic entropy itself cannot compensate for the high degree of organization which exists in the cell, we discuss the mode of conjunction of positive entropy events (mutations) in the genetic systems of the past generations and the formation of organized structures of current cells. We argue that only the information which is generated in the conditions of the information entropy production (mutations and other genome reorganization) in genetic systems of the past generations provides the physical conjunction of entropy and antientropy processes separated from each other in time generations. It is readily apparent from the requirements of the Second law of thermodynamics.

  11. Are faces processed like words? A diagnostic test for recognition by parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Marialuisa; Majaj, Najib J; Pelli, Denis G

    2005-02-04

    Do we identify an object as a whole or by its parts? This simple question has been surprisingly hard to answer. It has been suggested that faces are recognized as wholes and words are recognized by parts. Here we answer the question by applying a test for crowding. In crowding, a target is harder to identify in the presence of nearby flankers. Previous work has described crowding between objects. We show that crowding also occurs between the parts of an object. Such internal crowding severely impairs perception, identification, and fMRI face-area activation. We apply a diagnostic test for crowding to a word and a face, and we find that the critical spacing of the parts required for recognition is proportional to distance from fixation and independent of size and kind. The critical spacing defines an isolation field around the target. Some objects can be recognized only when each part is isolated from the rest of the object by the critical spacing. In that case, recognition is by parts. Recognition is holistic if the observer can recognize the object even when the whole object fits within a critical spacing. Such an object has only one part. Multiple parts within an isolation field will crowd each other and spoil recognition. To assess the robustness of the crowding test, we manipulated familiarity through inversion and the face- and word-superiority effects. We find that threshold contrast for word and face identification is the product of two factors: familiarity and crowding. Familiarity increases sensitivity by a factor of x1.5, independent of eccentricity, while crowding attenuates sensitivity more and more as eccentricity increases. Our findings show that observers process words and faces in much the same way: The effects of familiarity and crowding do not distinguish between them. Words and faces are both recognized by parts, and their parts -- letters and facial features -- are recognized holistically. We propose that internal crowding be taken as the

  12. Faces and emotions: brain electric field sources during covert emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzagalli, D; Koenig, T; Regard, M; Lehmann, D

    1998-04-01

    Covert brain activity related to task-free, spontaneous (i.e. unrequested), emotional evaluation of human face images was analysed in 27-channel averaged event-related potential (ERP) map series recorded from 18 healthy subjects while observing random sequences of face images without further instructions. After recording, subjects self-rated each face image on a scale from "liked" to "disliked". These ratings were used to dichotomize the face images into the affective evaluation categories of "liked" and "disliked" for each subject and the subjects into the affective attitudes of "philanthropists" and "misanthropists" (depending on their mean rating across images). Event-related map series were averaged for "liked" and "disliked" face images and for "philanthropists" and "misanthropists". The spatial configuration (landscape) of the electric field maps was assessed numerically by the electric gravity center, a conservative estimate of the mean location of all intracerebral, active, electric sources. Differences in electric gravity center location indicate activity of different neuronal populations. The electric gravity center locations of all event-related maps were averaged over the entire stimulus-on time (450 ms). The mean electric gravity center for disliked faces was located (significant across subjects) more to the right and somewhat more posterior than for liked faces. Similar differences were found between the mean electric gravity centers of misanthropists (more right and posterior) and philanthropists. Our neurophysiological findings are in line with neuropsychological findings, revealing visual emotional processing to depend on affective evaluation category and affective attitude, and extending the conclusions to a paradigm without directed task.

  13. Shades of Emotion: What the Addition of Sunglasses or Masks to Faces Reveals about the Development of Facial Expression Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Debi; Kikutani, Mariko; Doge, Paula; Whitaker, Lydia; Majid, Asifa

    2012-01-01

    Three studies investigated developmental changes in facial expression processing, between 3 years-of-age and adulthood. For adults and older children, the addition of sunglasses to upright faces caused an equivalent decrement in performance to face inversion. However, younger children showed "better" classification of expressions of faces wearing…

  14. Shades of Emotion: What the Addition of Sunglasses or Masks to Faces Reveals about the Development of Facial Expression Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Debi; Kikutani, Mariko; Doge, Paula; Whitaker, Lydia; Majid, Asifa

    2012-01-01

    Three studies investigated developmental changes in facial expression processing, between 3 years-of-age and adulthood. For adults and older children, the addition of sunglasses to upright faces caused an equivalent decrement in performance to face inversion. However, younger children showed "better" classification of expressions of faces wearing…

  15. Effects of age, task performance, and structural brain development on face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Johnson, Mark H; Dick, Frederic; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2013-07-01

    In this combined structural and functional MRI developmental study, we tested 48 participants aged 7-37 years on 3 simple face-processing tasks (identity, expression, and gaze task), which were designed to yield very similar performance levels across the entire age range. The same participants then carried out 3 more difficult out-of-scanner tasks, which provided in-depth measures of changes in performance. For our analysis we adopted a novel, systematic approach that allowed us to differentiate age- from performance-related changes in the BOLD response in the 3 tasks, and compared these effects to concomitant changes in brain structure. The processing of all face aspects activated the core face-network across the age range, as well as additional and partially separable regions. Small task-specific activations in posterior regions were found to increase with age and were distinct from more widespread activations that varied as a function of individual task performance (but not of age). Our results demonstrate that activity during face-processing changes with age, and these effects are still observed when controlling for changes associated with differences in task performance. Moreover, we found that changes in white and gray matter volume were associated with changes in activation with age and performance in the out-of-scanner tasks.

  16. Perceiving emotions in neutral faces: expression processing is biased by affective person knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Franziska; Rabovsky, Milena; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2015-04-01

    According to a widely held view, basic emotions such as happiness or anger are reflected in facial expressions that are invariant and uniquely defined by specific facial muscle movements. Accordingly, expression perception should not be vulnerable to influences outside the face. Here, we test this assumption by manipulating the emotional valence of biographical knowledge associated with individual persons. Faces of well-known and initially unfamiliar persons displaying neutral expressions were associated with socially relevant negative, positive or comparatively neutral biographical information. The expressions of faces associated with negative information were classified as more negative than faces associated with neutral information. Event-related brain potential modulations in the early posterior negativity, a component taken to reflect early sensory processing of affective stimuli such as emotional facial expressions, suggest that negative affective knowledge can bias the perception of faces with neutral expressions toward subjectively displaying negative emotions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Gaze-cueing requires intact face processing - Insights from acquired prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, Nicolas; Kerzel, Dirk; Ramon, Meike

    2017-04-01

    Gaze-cueing is the automatic spatial orienting of attention in the direction of perceived gaze. Participants respond faster to targets located at positions congruent with the direction of gaze, compared to incongruent ones (gaze cueing effect, GCE). However, it still remains unclear whether its occurrence depends on intact integration of information from the entire eye region or face, rather than simply the presence of the eyes per se. To address this question, we investigated the GCE in PS, an extensively studied case of pure acquired prosopagnosia. In our gaze-cueing paradigm, we manipulated the duration at which cues were presented (70ms vs. 400ms) and the availability of facial information (full-face vs. eyes-only). For 70ms cue duration, we found a context-dependent dissociation between PS and controls: PS showed a GCE for eyes-only stimuli, whereas controls showed a GCE only for full-face stimuli. For 400ms cue duration, PS showed gaze-cueing independently of stimulus context, whereas in healthy controls a GCE again emerged only for full-face stimuli. Our findings suggest that attentional deployment based on the gaze direction of briefly presented faces requires intact processing of facial information, which affords salience to the eye region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Face and emotion expression processing and the serotonin transporter polymorphism 5-HTTLPR/rs22531.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A; Kiy, A; Reuter, M; Sommer, W; Wilhelm, O

    2016-06-01

    Face cognition, including face identity and facial expression processing, is a crucial component of socio-emotional abilities, characterizing humans as highest developed social beings. However, for these trait domains molecular genetic studies investigating gene-behavior associations based on well-founded phenotype definitions are still rare. We examined the relationship between 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphisms - related to serotonin-reuptake - and the ability to perceive and recognize faces and emotional expressions in human faces. For this aim we conducted structural equation modeling on data from 230 young adults, obtained by using a comprehensive, multivariate task battery with maximal effort tasks. By additionally modeling fluid intelligence and immediate and delayed memory factors, we aimed to address the discriminant relationships of the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphisms with socio-emotional abilities. We found a robust association between the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphism and facial emotion perception. Carriers of two long (L) alleles outperformed carriers of one or two S alleles. Weaker associations were present for face identity perception and memory for emotional facial expressions. There was no association between the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphism and non-social abilities, demonstrating discriminant validity of the relationships. We discuss the implications and possible neural mechanisms underlying these novel findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  19. Early left-hemispheric dysfunction of face processing in congenital prosopagnosia: an MEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dobel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Congenital prosopagnosia is a severe face perception impairment which is not acquired by a brain lesion and is presumably present from birth. It manifests mostly by an inability to recognise familiar persons. Electrophysiological research has demonstrated the relevance to face processing of a negative deflection peaking around 170 ms, labelled accordingly as N170 in the electroencephalogram (EEG and M170 in magnetoencephalography (MEG. The M170 was shown to be sensitive to the inversion of faces and to familiarity--two factors that are assumed to be crucial for congenital prosopagnosia. In order to locate the cognitive dysfunction and its neural correlates, we investigated the time course of neural activity in response to these manipulations. METHODOLOGY: Seven individuals with congenital prosopagnosia and seven matched controls participated in the experiment. To explore brain activity with high accuracy in time, we recorded evoked magnetic fields (275 channel whole head MEG while participants were looking at faces differing in familiarity (famous vs. unknown and orientation (upright vs. inverted. The underlying neural sources were estimated by means of the least square minimum-norm-estimation (L2-MNE approach. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The behavioural data corroborate earlier findings on impaired configural processing in congenital prosopagnosia. For the M170, the overall results replicated earlier findings, with larger occipito-temporal brain responses to inverted than upright faces, and more right- than left-hemispheric activity. Compared to controls, participants with congenital prosopagnosia displayed a general decrease in brain activity, primarily over left occipitotemporal areas. This attenuation did not interact with familiarity or orientation. CONCLUSIONS: The study substantiates the finding of an early involvement of the left hemisphere in symptoms of prosopagnosia. This might be related to an efficient and overused featural

  20. Processing of emotional faces in congenital amusia: An emotional music priming event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhishuai, Jin; Hong, Liu; Daxing, Wu; Pin, Zhang; Xuejing, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Congenital amusia is characterized by lifelong impairments in music perception and processing. It is unclear whether pitch detection deficits impact amusic individuals' perception of musical emotion. In the current work, 19 amusics and 21 healthy controls were subjected to electroencephalography (EEG) while being exposed to music excerpts and emotional faces. We assessed each individual's ability to discriminate positive- and negative-valenced emotional faces and analyzed electrophysiological indices, in the form of event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded at 32 sites, following exposure to emotionally positive or negative music excerpts. We observed smaller N2 amplitudes in response to facial expressions in the amusia group than in the control group, suggesting that amusics were less affected by the musical stimuli. The late-positive component (LPC) in amusics was similar to that in controls. Our results suggest that the neurocognitive deficit characteristic of congenital amusia is fundamentally an impairment in musical information processing rather than an impairment in emotional processing.

  1. Ethical aspects of face recognition systems in public places.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2004-01-01

    This essay examines ethical aspects of the use of facial recognition technology for surveillance purposes in public and semipublic areas, focusing particularly on the balance between security and privacy and civil liberties. As a case study, the FaceIt facial recognition engine of Identix Corporatio

  2. Double face: Adjustable translucent system to improve thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrin, M.; Tenpierik, M.J.; De Ruiter, P.; Van der Spoel, W.H.; Chang Lara, C.; Heinzelmann, F.; Teuffel, P.; Van Bommel, W.

    2015-01-01

    The DoubleFace project aims at developing a new product that passively improves thermal comfort of indoor and semi-indoor spaces by means of lightweight materials for latent heat storage, while simultaneously allowing daylight to pass through as much as possible. Specifically, the project aims at

  3. Double face: Adjustable translucent system to improve thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrin, M.; Tenpierik, M.J.; De Ruiter, P.; Van der Spoel, W.H.; Chang Lara, C.; Heinzelmann, F.; Teuffel, P.; Van Bommel, W.

    2015-01-01

    The DoubleFace project aims at developing a new product that passively improves thermal comfort of indoor and semi-indoor spaces by means of lightweight materials for latent heat storage, while simultaneously allowing daylight to pass through as much as possible. Specifically, the project aims at de

  4. Face Recognition Based Door Lock System Using Opencv and C# with Remote Access and Security Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathamesh Timse

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the accuracy and effectiveness of the face detection and recognition algorithms using OpenCV and C# computer language. The adaboost algorithm [2] is used for face detection and PCA algorithm[1] is used for face recognition. This paper also investigates the robustness of the face recognition system when an unknown person is being detected, wherein the system will send an email to the owner of the system using SMTP [7]. The door lock can also be accessed remotely from any part of the world by using a Dropbox [8] account.

  5. The obligatory nature of holistic processing of faces in social judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander; Loehr, Valerie; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N

    2010-01-01

    Using a composite-face paradigm, we show that social judgments from faces rely on holistic processing. Participants judged facial halves more positively when aligned with trustworthy than with untrustworthy halves, despite instructions to ignore the aligned parts (experiment 1). This effect was substantially reduced when the faces were inverted (experiments 2 and 3) and when the halves were misaligned (experiment 3). In all three experiments, judgments were affected to a larger extent by the to-be-attended than the to-be-ignored halves, suggesting that there is partial control of holistic processing. However, after rapid exposures to faces (33 to 100 ms), judgments of trustworthy and untrustworthy halves aligned with incongruent halves were indistinguishable (experiment 4a). Differences emerged with exposures longer than 100 ms. In contrast, when participants were not instructed to attend to specific facial parts, these differences did not emerge (experiment 4b). These findings suggest that the initial pass of information is holistic and that additional time allows participants to partially ignore the task-irrelevant context.

  6. Natural experience modulates the processing of older adult faces in young adults and 3-year-old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Proietti

    Full Text Available Just like other face dimensions, age influences the way faces are processed by adults as well as by children. However, it remains unclear under what conditions exactly such influence occurs at both ages, in that there is some mixed evidence concerning the presence of a systematic processing advantage for peer faces (own-age bias across the lifespan. Inconsistency in the results may stem from the fact that the individual's face representation adapts to represent the most predominant age traits of the faces present in the environment, which is reflective of the individual's specific living conditions and social experience. In the current study we investigated the processing of younger and older adult faces in two groups of adults (Experiment 1 and two groups of 3-year-old children (Experiment 2 who accumulated different amounts of experience with elderly people. Contact with elderly adults influenced the extent to which both adult and child participants showed greater discrimination abilities and stronger sensitivity to configural/featural cues in younger versus older adult faces, as measured by the size of the inversion effect. In children, the size of the inversion effect for older adult faces was also significantly correlated with the amount of contact with elderly people. These results show that, in both adults and children, visual experience with older adult faces can tune perceptual processing strategies to the point of abolishing the discrimination disadvantage that participants typically manifest for those faces in comparison to younger adult faces.

  7. The Sluggishness of Early-Stage Face Processing (N170 is Correlated with Negative and General Psychiatric Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjun Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia exhibit consistent abnormalities in face-evoked N170. However, the relation between face-specific N170 abnormalities in schizophrenic patients and schizophrenia clinical characters, which probably based on common neural mechanisms, is still rarely discovered. Using event-related potentials (ERPs recording in both schizophrenic patients and healthy controls, the amplitude and latency of N170 were recorded when participants were passively watching face and non-face (table pictures. The results showed a face-specific N170 latency sluggishness in schizophrenic patients, i.e., the N170 latencies of schizophrenic patients were significantly longer than those of healthy controls under both upright face and inverted face conditions. Importantly, the face-related N170 latencies of the left temporo-occipital electrodes (P7 and PO7 were positively correlated with negative symptoms and general psychiatric symptoms. Besides the analysis of latencies, the N170 amplitudes became weaker in schizophrenic patients under both inverted face and inverted table conditions, with a left hemisphere dominant. More interestingly, the FIEs (the difference of N170 amplitudes between upright and inverted faces were absent in schizophrenic patients, which suggested the abnormality of holistic face processing. These results above revealed a marked symptom-relevant neural sluggishness of face-specific processing in schizophrenic patients, supporting the demyelinating hypothesis of schizophrenia.

  8. Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Helical Face-Gear Transmission System with Multi-Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic analysis of the dynamics of a helical face-gear system with 8 degree of freedom is performed in this study under complex excitation. The nonlinear dynamic system is solved by the Runge-Kutta method. The bifurcation and dynamic load characteristics of the system is identified from a series of diagrams. The effect of multi-factor on bifurcation diagrams is also analysed. The results real that with the increase of dimensionless frequency, the system undergoes the process of periodic, chaotic and periodic motions. The amplitude of the dynamic load gradually increases in a certain range and begins to decrease at a certain value. A higher mesh damping coefficient or a higher input torque or a lower gear backlash can reduce the vibration or eliminate chaotic responses.

  9. Integrating faces, houses, motion, and action: spontaneous binding across ventral and dorsal processing streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, André W; Colzato, Lorenza S; Hommel, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Perceiving an event requires the integration of its features across numerous brain maps and modules. Visual object perception is thought to be mediated by a ventral processing stream running from occipital to inferotemporal cortex, whereas most spatial processing and action control is attributed to the dorsal stream connecting occipital, parietal, and frontal cortex. Here we show that integration operates not only on ventral features and objects, such as faces and houses, but also across ventral and dorsal pathways, binding faces and houses to motion and manual action. Furthermore, these bindings seem to persist over time, as they influenced performance on future task-relevant visual stimuli. This is reflected by longer reaction times for repeating one, but alternating other features in a sequence, compared to complete repetition or alternation of features. Our findings are inconsistent with the notion that the dorsal stream is operating exclusively online and has no access to memory.

  10. Results of performance tests on chemical and radiation measurement systems for use at a dig-face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Lawrence, R.S.; Pawelko, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    Chemical and radiation measurement systems are being developed for use at a dig-face to provide sensing capability during the excavation of previously buried waste. it is believed that on-line dig-face characterization will reduce environmental, health, and safety risks during the cleanup of buried waste sites as well as improve the efficiency of the cleanup process. This report describes progress in the development of three measurement systems: (a) a {gamma}/neutron monitor that scans the dig-face for high levels of radiation prior to excavation, (b) a Ge spectrometer that identifies specific radionuclides located with the {gamma}/neutron monitor, and (c) a prompt {gamma} neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system that measures the presence of chlorine and chlorinated compounds often associated with hazardous waste. The Ge spectrometer and PGNAA system also will provide off-line but on-site capability of radionuclide and elemental identification of excavated waste prior to handling, treatment, transportation, or disposal.

  11. Non-invasive Mapping of Face Processing by Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Stefanie; Giglhuber, Katrin; Sollmann, Nico; Kelm, Anna; Ille, Sebastian; Hauck, Theresa; Tanigawa, Noriko; Ringel, Florian; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Besides motor and language function, tumor resections within the frontal and parietal lobe have also been reported to cause neuropsychological impairment like prosopagnosia. Objective: Since non-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has previously been used to map neuropsychological cortical function, this study aims to evaluate the feasibility and spatial discrimination of repetitive navigated TMS (rTMS) mapping for detection of face processing impairment in healthy volunteers. The study was also designed to establish this examination for preoperative mapping in brain tumor patients. Methods: Twenty healthy and purely right-handed volunteers (11 female, 9 male) underwent rTMS mapping for cortical face processing function using 5 Hz/10 pulses. Both hemispheres were investigated randomly with an interval of 2 weeks between mapping sessions. Fifty-two predetermined cortical spots of the whole hemispheres were mapped after baseline measurement. The task consisted of 80 portraits of popular persons, which had to be named while rTMS was applied. Results: In 80% of all subjects rTMS elicited naming errors in the right middle middle frontal gyrus (mMFG). Concerning anomia errors, the highest error rate (35%) was achieved in the bilateral triangular inferior frontal gyrus (trIFG). With regard to similarly or wrongly named persons, we observed 10% error rates mainly in the bilateral frontal lobes. Conclusion: It seems feasible to map the cortical face processing function and to generate face processing impairment via rTMS. The observed localizations are well in accordance with the contemporary literature, and the mapping did not interfere with rTMS-induced language impairment. The clinical usefulness of preoperative mapping has to be evaluated subsequently. PMID:28167906

  12. Identifying children with autism spectrum disorder based on their face processing abnormality: A machine learning framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbo; Li, Ming; Yi, Li

    2016-08-01

    The atypical face scanning patterns in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been repeatedly discovered by previous research. The present study examined whether their face scanning patterns could be potentially useful to identify children with ASD by adopting the machine learning algorithm for the classification purpose. Particularly, we applied the machine learning method to analyze an eye movement dataset from a face recognition task [Yi et al., 2016], to classify children with and without ASD. We evaluated the performance of our model in terms of its accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of classifying ASD. Results indicated promising evidence for applying the machine learning algorithm based on the face scanning patterns to identify children with ASD, with a maximum classification accuracy of 88.51%. Nevertheless, our study is still preliminary with some constraints that may apply in the clinical practice. Future research should shed light on further valuation of our method and contribute to the development of a multitask and multimodel approach to aid the process of early detection and diagnosis of ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 888-898. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Putting the face in context: Body expressions impact facial emotion processing in human infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purva Rajhans

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Body expressions exert strong contextual effects on facial emotion perception in adults. Specifically, conflicting body cues hamper the recognition of emotion from faces, as evident on both the behavioral and neural level. We examined the developmental origins of the neural processes involved in emotion perception across body and face in 8-month-old infants by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs. We primed infants with body postures (fearful, happy that were followed by either congruent or incongruent facial expressions. Our results revealed that body expressions impact facial emotion processing and that incongruent body cues impair the neural discrimination of emotional facial expressions. Priming effects were associated with attentional and recognition memory processes, as reflected in a modulation of the Nc and Pc evoked at anterior electrodes. These findings demonstrate that 8-month-old infants possess neural mechanisms that allow for the integration of emotion across body and face, providing evidence for the early developmental emergence of context-sensitive facial emotion perception.

  14. Development of coffee maker service robot using speech and face recognition systems using POMDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiharto, Widodo; Meiliana; Santoso Gunawan, Alexander Agung

    2016-07-01

    There are many development of intelligent service robot in order to interact with user naturally. This purpose can be done by embedding speech and face recognition ability on specific tasks to the robot. In this research, we would like to propose Intelligent Coffee Maker Robot which the speech recognition is based on Indonesian language and powered by statistical dialogue systems. This kind of robot can be used in the office, supermarket or restaurant. In our scenario, robot will recognize user's face and then accept commands from the user to do an action, specifically in making a coffee. Based on our previous work, the accuracy for speech recognition is about 86% and face recognition is about 93% in laboratory experiments. The main problem in here is to know the intention of user about how sweetness of the coffee. The intelligent coffee maker robot should conclude the user intention through conversation under unreliable automatic speech in noisy environment. In this paper, this spoken dialog problem is treated as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). We describe how this formulation establish a promising framework by empirical results. The dialog simulations are presented which demonstrate significant quantitative outcome.

  15. Exploring the effects of antisocial personality traits on brain potentials during face processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M Pfabigan

    Full Text Available Antisocial individuals are characterized to display self-determined and inconsiderate behavior during social interaction. Furthermore, recognition deficits regarding fearful facial expressions have been observed in antisocial populations. These observations give rise to the question whether or not antisocial behavioral tendencies are associated with deficits in basic processing of social cues. The present study investigated early visual stimulus processing of social stimuli in a group of healthy female individuals with antisocial behavioral tendencies compared to individuals without these tendencies while measuring event-related potentials (P1, N170. To this end, happy and angry faces served as feedback stimuli which were embedded in a gambling task. Results showed processing differences as early as 88-120 ms after feedback onset. Participants low on antisocial traits displayed larger P1 amplitudes than participants high on antisocial traits. No group differences emerged for N170 amplitudes. Attention allocation processes, individual arousal levels as well as face processing are discussed as possible causes of the observed group differences in P1 amplitudes. In summary, the current data suggest that sensory processing of facial stimuli is functionally intact but less ready to respond in healthy individuals with antisocial tendencies.

  16. Neural activation during processing of aversive faces predicts treatment outcome in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Katrin; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Richter, Anne; Naundorf, Karina; Dornhof, Lina; Weinfurtner, Christopher E J; König, Friederike; Walaszek, Bernadeta; Schubert, Florian; Müller, Christian A; Gutwinski, Stefan; Seissinger, Annette; Schmitz, Lioba; Walter, Henrik; Beck, Anne; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kiefer, Falk; Heinz, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Neuropsychological studies reported decoding deficits of emotional facial expressions in alcohol-dependent patients, and imaging studies revealed reduced prefrontal and limbic activation during emotional face processing. However, it remains unclear whether this reduced neural activation is mediated by alcohol-associated volume reductions and whether it interacts with treatment outcome. We combined analyses of neural activation during an aversive face-cue-comparison task and local gray matter volumes (GM) using Biological Parametric Mapping in 33 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 33 matched healthy controls. Alcoholics displayed reduced activation toward aversive faces-neutral shapes in bilateral fusiform gyrus [FG; Brodmann areas (BA) 18/19], right middle frontal gyrus (BA46/47), right inferior parietal gyrus (BA7) and left cerebellum compared with controls, which were explained by GM differences (except for cerebellum). Enhanced functional activation in patients versus controls was found in left rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial frontal gyrus (BA10/11), even after GM reduction control. Increased ACC activation correlated significantly with less (previous) lifetime alcohol intake [Lifetime Drinking History (LDH)], longer abstinence and less subsequent binge drinking in patients. High LDH appear to impair treatment outcome via its neurotoxicity on ACC integrity. Thus, high activation of the rostral ACC elicited by affective faces appears to be a resilience factor predicting better treatment outcome. Although no group differences were found, increased FG activation correlated with patients' higher LDH. Because high LDH correlated with worse task performance for facial stimuli in patients, elevated activation in the fusiform 'face' area may reflect inefficient compensatory activation. Therapeutic interventions (e.g. emotion evaluation training) may enable patients to cope with social stress and to decrease relapses after detoxification.

  17. The Near-Race and Other-Race Effect in Taiwanese Adults: Exploring the Featural versus Configural Face Discrimination Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Fong Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Other-race-effect (ORE refers to the observation that we can recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces (Meissner & Brigham, 2001. Yet, whether featural or configural face processing might contribute to other-race effect is still unclear. In the present study, we tested Taiwanese adults with faces of four ethnic groups (Taiwanese, Philippine, Caucasian, African and each with four levels of discriminability: Easy (change configuration and component: change identity, Medium (change component: change eyes, Hard-I (change configuration: widen eye spacing, and Hard-II (change configuration: mouth moved up. We adopted the visual paired-comparison task with two-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC procedure. The overall results showed that accuracy decreased and response time increased as the stimulus difficulty increased for each race. The accuracy was highest and the response time was lowest for the Taiwanese easy condition, which suggests an own-race advantage. In addition, the pattern of response time for Philippine faces was similar to that of Taiwanese faces and was shorter than Caucasian faces in the medium and Hard-I conditions. In conclusion, our study had two main findings. First, Philippine faces were seen as more like own-race faces rather than other-race faces. Second, both featural and configural face processing contribute to the other-race-effect.

  18. The effect of affective context on visuocortical processing of neutral faces in social anxiety - An ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Wieser

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that verbal context information alters the neural processing of ambiguous faces such as faces with no apparent facial expression. In social anxiety, neutral faces may be implicitly threatening for socially anxious individuals due to their ambiguous nature, but even more so if these neutral faces are put in self-referential negative contexts. Therefore, we measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs in response to neutral faces which were preceded by affective verbal information (negative, neutral, positive. Participants with low social anxiety (LSA; n = 23 and high social anxiety (HSA; n = 21 were asked to watch and rate valence and arousal of the respective faces while continuous EEG was recorded. ERP analysis revealed that HSA showed elevated P100 amplitudes in response to faces, but reduced structural encoding of faces as indexed by reduced N170 amplitudes. In general, affective context led to an enhanced early posterior negativity (EPN for negative compared to neutral facial expressions. Moreover, HSA compared to LSA showed enhanced late positive potentials (LPP to negatively contextualized faces, whereas in LSA this effect was found for faces in positive contexts. Also, HSA rated faces in negative contexts as more negative compared to LSA. These results point at enhanced vigilance for neutral faces regardless of context in HSA, while structural encoding seems to be diminished (avoidance. Interestingly, later components of sustained processing (LPP indicate that LSA show enhanced visuocortical processing for faces in positive contexts (happy bias, whereas this seems to be the case for negatively contextualized faces in HSA (threat bias. Finally, our results add further new evidence that top-down information in interaction with individual anxiety levels can influence early-stage aspects of visual perception.

  19. Neural processing of familiar and unfamiliar children’s faces: effects of experienced love withdrawal, but no effects of neutral and threatening priming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther eHeckendorf

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the face of a potential threat to his or her child, a parent’s caregiving system becomes activated, motivating the parent to protect and care for the child. However, the neural correlates of these responses are not yet well understood. The current study was a pilot study to investigate the processing of subliminally presented threatening primes and their effects on neural responses to familiar and unfamiliar children’s faces. In addition, we studied potential moderating effects of empathy and childhood experiences of love-withdrawal. A total of 45 students participated in an fMRI experiment in which they were shown pictures of familiar children (pictures morphed to resemble the participant like an own child would and unfamiliar children preceded by neutral and threatening primes. Participants completed a modified version of the Children’s Report of Parental Behavior Inventory to measure parental love withdrawal, and the Empathic Concern scale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index to measure affective empathy. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find evidence for subliminal priming effects. However, we did find enhanced activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (involved in self-referential processing and in face processing areas (infero-lateral occipital cortex and fusiform areas in response to the familiar child, indicating preferential processing of these faces. Effects of familiarity in face processing areas were larger for participants reporting more love withdrawal, suggesting enhanced attention to and processing of these highly attachment relevant stimuli. Unfamiliar faces elicited enhanced activity in bilateral superior temporal gyrus and other regions associated with theory of mind (ToM, which may indicate more effortful ToM processing of these faces. We discuss the potential difference between a familiarity and a caregiving effect triggered by the morphed faces, and emphasize the need for replication in parents with

  20. Down Syndrome and Automatic Processing of Familiar and Unfamiliar Emotional Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Guadalupe E.; Lopez, Ernesto O.

    2010-01-01

    Participants with Down syndrome (DS) were required to participate in a face recognition experiment to recognize familiar (DS faces) and unfamiliar emotional faces (non DS faces), by using an affective priming paradigm. Pairs of emotional facial stimuli were presented (one face after another) with a short Stimulus Onset Asynchrony of 300…

  1. Configural and featural processing during face perception: A new stimulus set

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Belle, Goedele; De Smet, Michael; De Graef, Peter; Van Gool, Luc; Verfaillie, Karl

    2009-01-01

    .... In all faces, extrafacial cues have been eliminated or standardized. The stimulus set also contains a color-coded division of each face in areas of interest, which is useful for eye movement research on face scanning strategies...

  2. Designing a Low-Resolution Face Recognition System for Long-Range Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Y.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Most face recognition systems deal well with high-resolution facial images, but perform much worse on low-resolution facial images. In low-resolution face recognition, there is a specific but realistic surveillance scenario: a surveillance camera monitoring a large area. In this scenario, usually

  3. Predicting performance of a face recognition system based on image quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present a generative model to capture the relation between facial image quality features (like pose, illumination direction, etc) and face recognition performance. Such a model can be used to predict the performance of a face recognition system. Since the model is based sole

  4. Don't look at me in anger! Enhanced processing of angry faces in anticipation of public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Matthias J; Pauli, Paul; Reicherts, Philipp; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    Anxiety is supposed to enhance the processing of threatening information. Here, we investigated the cortical processing of angry faces during anticipated public speaking. To elicit anxiety, a group of participants was told that they would have to perform a public speech. As a control condition, another group was told that they would have to write a short essay. During anticipation of these tasks, participants saw facial expressions (angry, happy, and neutral) while electroencephalogram was recorded. Event-related potential analysis revealed larger N170 amplitudes for angry compared to happy and neutral faces in the anxiety group. The early posterior negativity as an index of motivated attention was also enhanced for angry compared to happy and neutral faces in participants anticipating public speaking. These results indicate that fear of public speaking influences early perceptual processing of faces such that especially the processing of angry faces is facilitated.

  5. The impact of beliefs about face recognition ability on memory retrieval processes in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Joyce E; Flowe, Heather D; Hall, Louise C; Williams, Louise C; Ryder, Hannah L

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether beliefs about face recognition ability differentially influence memory retrieval in older compared to young adults. Participants evaluated their ability to recognise faces and were also given information about their ability to perceive and recognise faces. The information was ostensibly based on an objective measure of their ability, but in actuality, participants had been randomly assigned the information they received (high ability, low ability or no information control). Following this information, face recognition accuracy for a set of previously studied faces was measured using a remember-know memory paradigm. Older adults rated their ability to recognise faces as poorer compared to young adults. Additionally, negative information about face recognition ability improved only older adults' ability to recognise a previously seen face. Older adults were also found to engage in more familiarity than item-specific processing than young adults, but information about their face recognition ability did not affect face processing style. The role that older adults' memory beliefs have in the meta-cognitive strategies they employ is discussed.

  6. Infants’ visual processing of faces and objects: Age-related changes in interest, and stability of individual differences

    OpenAIRE

    Robledo, Marybel; Kolling, Thorsten; Deák, Gedeon O

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal measures of infant visual processing of faces and objects were collected from a sample of healthy infants (N=40) every month from 6 to 9 months of age. Infants performed two habituation tasks each month, one with novel female faces as stimuli, and another with novel complex objects. Different individual faces and objects served as habituation (i.e., visual learning) and dishabituation (i.e., novelty response) stimuli. Measures included overall looking time to the habituation stim...

  7. Observer's Mood Manipulates Level of Visual Processing: Evidence from Face and Nonface Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Mokhtari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For investigating the effect of observer's mood on level of processing of visual stimuli, happy or sad mood was induced in two groups of participants through asking them to deliberate one of their sad or happy memories while listening to a congruent piece of music. This was followed by a computer-based task that required counting some features (arcs or lines of emotional schematic faces (with either sad or happy expressions for group 1, and counting same features of meaningless combined shapes for group 2. Reaction time analysis indicated there is a significant difference in RTs after listening to the sad music compared with happy music for group 1; participants with sad moods were significantly slower when they worked on local levels of schematic faces with sad expressions. Happy moods did not show any specific effect on reaction time of participants who were working on local details of emotionally expressive faces. Sad moods or happy moods had no significant effect on reaction time of working on parts of meaningless shapes. It seems that sad moods as a contextual factor elevate the ability of sad expression to grab the attention and block fast access to the local parts of the holistic meaningful shapes.

  8. Non-intrusive gesture recognition system combining with face detection based on Hidden Markov Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Wang, Yuanqing; Xu, Liujing; Cao, Liqun; Han, Lei; Zhou, Biye; Li, Minggao

    2014-11-01

    A non-intrusive gesture recognition human-machine interaction system is proposed in this paper. In order to solve the hand positioning problem which is a difficulty in current algorithms, face detection is used for the pre-processing to narrow the search area and find user's hand quickly and accurately. Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is used for gesture recognition. A certain number of basic gesture units are trained as HMM models. At the same time, an improved 8-direction feature vector is proposed and used to quantify characteristics in order to improve the detection accuracy. The proposed system can be applied in interaction equipments without special training for users, such as household interactive television

  9. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of medial prefrontal cortex modulates face expressions processing in a priming task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattavelli, G; Cattaneo, Z; Papagno, C

    2011-04-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the right somatosensory cortex (rSC) are known to be involved in emotion processing and face expression recognition, although the possibility of segregated circuits for specific emotions in these regions remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) together with a priming paradigm to modulate the activation state of the mPFC and the rSC during emotional expressions discrimination. This novel paradigm allows analyzing how TMS interacts with the ongoing activity of different neuronal populations following prime processing. Participants were asked to discriminate between angry and happy faces that were preceded by a congruent prime (a word expressing the same emotion), an incongruent prime (a word expressing the opposite emotion) or a neutral prime. In TMS trials, a single pulse was delivered over the mPFC, rSC or Vertex (control site) between prime and target presentation. TMS applied over the mPFC significantly affected the priming effect, by selectively increasing response latencies in congruent trials. This indicates that the mPFC contains different neural representations for angry and happy expressions. TMS over rSC did not significantly affect the priming effect, suggesting that rSC is not involved in processing verbal emotional stimuli.

  10. A visual processing advantage for young-adolescent deaf observers: Evidence from face and object matching tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M.; Bindemann, Markus

    2017-01-01

    It is unresolved whether the permanent auditory deprivation that deaf people experience leads to the enhanced visual processing of faces. The current study explored this question with a matching task in which observers searched for a target face among a concurrent lineup of ten faces. This was compared with a control task in which the same stimuli were presented upside down, to disrupt typical face processing, and an object matching task. A sample of young-adolescent deaf observers performed with higher accuracy than hearing controls across all of these tasks. These results clarify previous findings and provide evidence for a general visual processing advantage in deaf observers rather than a face-specific effect. PMID:28117407

  11. A visual processing advantage for young-adolescent deaf observers: Evidence from face and object matching tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M; Bindemann, Markus

    2017-01-24

    It is unresolved whether the permanent auditory deprivation that deaf people experience leads to the enhanced visual processing of faces. The current study explored this question with a matching task in which observers searched for a target face among a concurrent lineup of ten faces. This was compared with a control task in which the same stimuli were presented upside down, to disrupt typical face processing, and an object matching task. A sample of young-adolescent deaf observers performed with higher accuracy than hearing controls across all of these tasks. These results clarify previous findings and provide evidence for a general visual processing advantage in deaf observers rather than a face-specific effect.

  12. Acute serotonin 2A receptor blocking alters the processing of fearful faces in the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornboll, Bettina; Macoveanu, Julian; Rowe, James;

    2013-01-01

    blockade reduced the neural response to fearful faces in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), independently of 5-HT2A receptor occupancy or neocortical 5-HT2A receptor BPp . The medial OFC also showed increased functional coupling with the left amygdala during processing of fearful faces depending...

  13. A Spatial Frequency Account of the Detriment that Local Processing of Navon Letters Has on Face Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Peter J.; Lewis, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    Five minutes of processing the local features of a Navon letter causes a detriment in subsequent face-recognition performance (Macrae & Lewis, 2002). We hypothesize a perceptual after effect explanation of this effect in which face recognition is less accurate after adapting to high-spatial frequencies at high contrasts. Five experiments were…

  14. The design and implementation of effective face detection and recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yigui

    2011-06-01

    In the paper, a face detection and recognition system (FDRS) based on video sequences and still image is proposed. It uses the AdaBoost algorithm to detect human face in the image or frame, adopts Discrete Cosine Transforms (DCT) for feature extraction and recognition in face image. The related technologies are firstly outlined. Then, the system requirements and UML use case diagram are described. In addition, the paper mainly introduces the design solution and key procedures. The FDRS's source-code is built in VC++, Standard Template Library (STL) and Intel Open Source Computer Vision Library (OpenCV).

  15. Emotion processing in chimeric faces: hemispheric asymmetries in expression and recognition of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indersmitten, Tim; Gur, Ruben C

    2003-05-01

    Since the discovery of facial asymmetries in emotional expressions of humans and other primates, hypotheses have related the greater left-hemiface intensity to right-hemispheric dominance in emotion processing. However, the difficulty of creating true frontal views of facial expressions in two-dimensional photographs has confounded efforts to better understand the phenomenon. We have recently described a method for obtaining three-dimensional photographs of posed and evoked emotional expressions and used these stimuli to investigate both intensity of expression and accuracy of recognizing emotion in chimeric faces constructed from only left- or right-side composites. The participant population included 38 (19 male, 19 female) African-American, Caucasian, and Asian adults. They were presented with chimeric composites generated from faces of eight actors and eight actresses showing four emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, and fear, each in posed and evoked conditions. We replicated the finding that emotions are expressed more intensely in the left hemiface for all emotions and conditions, with the exception of evoked anger, which was expressed more intensely in the right hemiface. In contrast, the results indicated that emotional expressions are recognized more efficiently in the right hemiface, indicating that the right hemiface expresses emotions more accurately. The double dissociation between the laterality of expression intensity and that of recognition efficiency supports the notion that the two kinds of processes may have distinct neural substrates. Evoked anger is uniquely expressed more intensely and accurately on the side of the face that projects to the viewer's right hemisphere, dominant in emotion recognition.

  16. SAR processing using SHARC signal processing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxtable, Barton D.; Jackson, Christopher R.; Skaron, Steve A.

    1998-09-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is uniquely suited to help solve the Search and Rescue problem since it can be utilized either day or night and through both dense fog or thick cloud cover. Other papers in this session, and in this session in 1997, describe the various SAR image processing algorithms that are being developed and evaluated within the Search and Rescue Program. All of these approaches to using SAR data require substantial amounts of digital signal processing: for the SAR image formation, and possibly for the subsequent image processing. In recognition of the demanding processing that will be required for an operational Search and Rescue Data Processing System (SARDPS), NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and NASA/Stennis Space Center are conducting a technology demonstration utilizing SHARC multi-chip modules from Boeing to perform SAR image formation processing.

  17. Social cognition, face processing, and oxytocin receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylissa M. Slane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has provided evidence of a link between behavioral measures of social cognition (SC and neural and genetic correlates. Differences in face processing and variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene have been associated with SC deficits and autism spectrum disorder (ASD traits. Much work has examined the qualitative differences between those with ASD and typically developing (TD individuals, but very little has been done to quantify the natural variation in ASD-like traits in the typical population. The present study examines this variation in TD children using a multidimensional perspective involving behavior assessment, neural electroencephalogram (EEG testing, and OXTR genotyping. Children completed a series of neurocognitive assessments, provided saliva samples for sequencing, and completed a face processing task while connected to an EEG. No clear pattern emerged for EEG covariates or genotypes for individual OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. However, SNPs rs2254298 and rs53576 consistently interacted such that the AG/GG allele combination of these SNPs was associated with poorer performance on neurocognitive measures. These results suggest that neither SNP in isolation is risk-conferring, but rather that the combination of rs2254298(A/G and rs53576(G/G confers a deleterious effect on SC across several neurocognitive measures.

  18. Earth System Governance: Facing the Challenges of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Camargo Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available YOUNG, Oran R. Institutional Dynamics: Emergent Patterns in International Environmental Governance. Cambridge (Massachusets, USA: The MIT Press, 2010. Earth System Governance Series. 225p. (Paperback; alkaline paper. ISBN 978-0-262-51440-8.

  19. Public engagement and the changing face of health system planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, John; Sears, Nancy A; Born, Karen

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the emerging citizens' assembly model of public engagement on health system planning and management. The characteristics that distinguish this model from more traditional approaches such as surveys and town hall meetings are elaborated using the case study of the recent Citizens' Regional Health Assembly. The paper concludes by suggesting the possibility of a new type of relationship between health system decision-makers, providers and the community.

  20. Performance Evaluation on the Effect of Combining DCT and LBP on Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasari Haritha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a face recognition algorithm based on doubly truncated multivariate Gaussian mixture model with Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and Local binary pattern (LBP. Here, the input face image is transformed to the local binary pattern domain. The obtained local binary pattern image is divided into non-overlapping blocks. Then from each block the DCT coefficients are computed and feature vector is extracted. Assigning that the feature vector follows a doubly truncated multivariate Gaussian mixture distribution, the face image is modelled. By using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm the model parameters are estimated. The initialization of the model parameters is done by using either K-means algorithm or hierarchical clustering algorithm and moment method of estimation. The face recognition system is developed with the likelihood function under Bayesian frame. The efficiency of the developed face recognition system is evaluated by conducting experimentation with JNTUK and Yale face image databases. The performance measures like half total error rate, recognition rates are computed along with plotting the ROC curves. A comparative study of the developed algorithm with some of the earlier existing algorithm revealed that this system perform better since, it utilizes local and global information of the face.

  1. Increased N250 amplitudes for other-race faces reflect more effortful processing at the individual level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzmann, Grit

    2016-07-01

    The N250 and N250r (r for repetition, signaling a difference measure of priming) has been proposed to reflect the activation of perceptual memory representations for individual faces. Increased N250r and N250 amplitudes have been associated with higher levels of familiarity and expertise, respectively. In contrast to these observations, the N250 amplitude has been found to be larger for other-race than own-race faces in recognition memory tasks. This study investigated if these findings were due to increased identity-specific processing demands for other-race relative to own-race faces and whether or not similar results would be obtained for the N250 in a repetition priming paradigm. Only Caucasian participants were available for testing and completed two tasks with Caucasian, African-American, and Chinese faces. In a repetition priming task, participants decided whether or not sequentially presented faces were of the same identity (individuation task) or same race (categorization task). Increased N250 amplitudes were found for African-American and Chinese faces relative to Caucasian faces, replicating previous results in recognition memory tasks. Contrary to the expectation that increased N250 amplitudes for other-race face would be confined to the individuation task, both tasks showed similar results. This could be due to the fact that face identity information needed to be maintained across the sequential presentation of prime and target in both tasks. Increased N250 amplitudes for other-race faces are taken to represent increased neural demands on the identity-specific processing of other-race faces, which are typically processed less holistically and less on the level of the individual.

  2. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  3. Face detection by aggregated Bayesian network classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.V.; Worring, M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    A face detection system is presented. A new classification method using forest-structured Bayesian networks is used. The method is used in an aggregated classifier to discriminate face from non-face patterns. The process of generating non-face patterns is integrated with the construction of the aggr

  4. Non-rigid, but not rigid, motion interferes with the processing of structural face information in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguinness, Corrina; Newell, Fiona N

    2015-04-01

    There is growing evidence to suggest that facial motion is an important cue for face recognition. However, it is poorly understood whether motion is integrated with facial form information or whether it provides an independent cue to identity. To provide further insight into this issue, we compared the effect of motion on face perception in two developmental prosopagnosics and age-matched controls. Participants first learned faces presented dynamically (video), or in a sequence of static images, in which rigid (viewpoint) or non-rigid (expression) changes occurred. Immediately following learning, participants were required to match a static face image to the learned face. Test face images varied by viewpoint (Experiment 1) or expression (Experiment 2) and were learned or novel face images. We found similar performance across prosopagnosics and controls in matching facial identity across changes in viewpoint when the learned face was shown moving in a rigid manner. However, non-rigid motion interfered with face matching across changes in expression in both individuals with prosopagnosia compared to the performance of control participants. In contrast, non-rigid motion did not differentially affect the matching of facial expressions across changes in identity for either prosopagnosics (Experiment 3). Our results suggest that whilst the processing of rigid motion information of a face may be preserved in developmental prosopagnosia, non-rigid motion can specifically interfere with the representation of structural face information. Taken together, these results suggest that both form and motion cues are important in face perception and that these cues are likely integrated in the representation of facial identity.

  5. System dynamics model of the support-surrounding rock system in fully mechanized mining with large mining height face and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yong; Tu Shihao; Zhang Xiaogang; Li Bo

    2013-01-01

    Fully mechanized mining with large mining height (FMMLMH) is widely used in thick coal seam mining face for its higher recovery ratio, especially where the thickness is less than 7.0 m. However, because of the great mining height and intense rock pressure, the coal wall rib spalling, roof falling and the instabil-ity of support occur more likely in FMMLMH working face, and the above three types of disasters interact with each other with complicated relationships. In order to get the relationship between each two of coal wall, roof, floor and support, and reduce the occurrence probability of the three types of disasters, we established the system dynamics (SD) model of the support-surrounding rock system which is composed of‘coal wall-roof-floor-support’ (CW-R-F-S) in a FMMLMH working face based on the condition of No. 15104 working face in Sijiazhuang coal mine. With the software of Vensim, we also simulated the inter-action process between each two factors of roof, floor, coal wall and the support. The results show that the SD model of ‘CW-R-F-S’ system can reveal the complicated and interactive relationship clearly between the support and surrounding rock in the FMMLMH working face. By increasing the advancing speed of working face, the support resistance or the length of support guard, or by decreasing the tip-to-face distance, the stability of ‘CW-R-F-S’ system will be higher and the happening probability of the disasters such as coal wall rib spalling, roof falling or the instability of support will be lower. These research findings have been testified in field application in No. 15104 working face, which can provide a new approach for researching the interaction relationship of support and surrounding rock.

  6. Neural correlates of three types of negative life events during angry face processing in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollier-Briant, Fanny; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Lemaitre, Hervé; Miranda, Ruben; Vulser, Hélène; Goodman, Robert; Penttilä, Jani; Struve, Maren; Fadai, Tahmine; Kappel, Viola; Poustka, Luise; Grimmer, Yvonne; Bromberg, Uli; Conrod, Patricia; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Juergen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Lawrence, Claire; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Frouin, Vincent; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Schumann, Gunter; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Artiges, Eric

    2016-12-01

    Negative life events (NLE) contribute to anxiety and depression disorders, but their relationship with brain functioning in adolescence has rarely been studied. We hypothesized that neural response to social threat would relate to NLE in the frontal-limbic emotional regions. Participants (N = 685) were drawn from the Imagen database of 14-year-old community adolescents recruited in schools. They underwent functional MRI while viewing angry and neutral faces, as a probe to neural response to social threat. Lifetime NLEs were assessed using the 'distress', 'family' and 'accident' subscales from a life event dimensional questionnaire. Relationships between NLE subscale scores and neural response were investigated. Links of NLE subscales scores with anxiety or depression outcomes at the age of 16 years were also investigated. Lifetime 'distress' positively correlated with ventral-lateral orbitofrontal and temporal cortex activations during angry face processing. 'Distress' scores correlated with the probabilities of meeting criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder or Major Depressive Disorder at the age of 16 years. Lifetime 'family' and 'accident' scores did not relate with neural response or follow-up conditions, however. Thus, different types of NLEs differentially predicted neural responses to threat during adolescence, and differentially predicted a de novo internalizing condition 2 years later. The deleterious effect of self-referential NLEs is suggested. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Personal Investigations Processing System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PIPS is a system that maintains the Security/Suitability Investigations Index (SII) for OPM. It contains over 11 million background investigation records of Federal...

  8. The methane rating system to determine coal face methane conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, A.P.; van Vuuren, J.J. [Itasca Africa (Pty) Ltd, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2001-07-01

    Methane Rating was developed from a need in South Africa to measure coal seam gas contents, as well as emission rates into the cutting zone for mechanical miners. These are then combined and compared to the average and normal conditions to provide a risk assessment tool for continuous miner operations. The last two years have seen widespread acceptance of Methane Rating as a practical and simple means of identifying seam gas contents and emission rates during mining, and of rating the changing methane conditions. The system uses proven direct methods of methane measurement to quantify the contents and emissions, combined with an innovative rating system. Each new result is compared with the expected average or normal conditions to determine its Methane Rating between 1 and 5. The present South African national database of over 340 individual samples from 31 mines shows methane contents can normally be expected between 0,2 m{sup 3}/t and 1,4 m{sub 3}/t, with emission rates during coal cutting of 20 l/t/min to 80 l/t/min. The highest risk rated mines are presently in the Secunda and eastern Witbank areas, with the lowest risk rated mines to the west of Witbank. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Sex Differences in Face Processing: Are Women Less Lateralized and Faster than Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, Ornella; Fiori, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of sex on hemispheric asymmetry and cooperation in a face recognition task. We used a masked priming paradigm in which the prime stimulus was centrally presented; it could be a bisymmetric face or a hemi-face in which facial information was presented in the left or the right visual field and…

  10. Risk for Bipolar Disorder is Associated with Face-Processing Deficits across Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Melissa A.; Skup, Martha; Rich, Brendan A.; Blair, Karina S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, James R.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the risks for face-emotion labeling deficits and bipolar disorder (BD) among youths is examined. Findings show that youths at risk for BD did not show specific face-emotion recognition deficits. The need to provide more intense emotional information for face-emotion labeling of patients and at-risk youths is also discussed.

  11. Risk for Bipolar Disorder is Associated with Face-Processing Deficits across Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Melissa A.; Skup, Martha; Rich, Brendan A.; Blair, Karina S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, James R.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the risks for face-emotion labeling deficits and bipolar disorder (BD) among youths is examined. Findings show that youths at risk for BD did not show specific face-emotion recognition deficits. The need to provide more intense emotional information for face-emotion labeling of patients and at-risk youths is also discussed.

  12. Influence of spatial frequency and emotion expression on face processing in patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Miseon; Kim, Do-Won; Yoon, Sunkyung; Park, Gewnhi; Im, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-06-01

    Deficits in facial emotion processing is a major characteristic of patients with panic disorder. It is known that visual stimuli with different spatial frequencies take distinct neural pathways. This study investigated facial emotion processing involving stimuli presented at broad, high, and low spatial frequencies in patients with panic disorder. Eighteen patients with panic disorder and 19 healthy controls were recruited. Seven event-related potential (ERP) components: (P100, N170, early posterior negativity (EPN); vertex positive potential (VPP), N250, P300; and late positive potential (LPP)) were evaluated while the participants looked at fearful and neutral facial stimuli presented at three spatial frequencies. When a fearful face was presented, panic disorder patients showed a significantly increased P100 amplitude in response to low spatial frequency compared to high spatial frequency; whereas healthy controls demonstrated significant broad spatial frequency dependent processing in P100 amplitude. Vertex positive potential amplitude was significantly increased in high and broad spatial frequency, compared to low spatial frequency in panic disorder. Early posterior negativity amplitude was significantly different between HSF and BSF, and between LSF and BSF processing in both groups, regardless of facial expression. The possibly confounding effects of medication could not be controlled. During early visual processing, patients with panic disorder prefer global to detailed information. However, in later processing, panic disorder patients overuse detailed information for the perception of facial expressions. These findings suggest that unique spatial frequency-dependent facial processing could shed light on the neural pathology associated with panic disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Seeing a haptically explored face: visual facial-expression aftereffect from haptic adaptation to a face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumiya, Kazumichi

    2013-10-01

    Current views on face perception assume that the visual system receives only visual facial signals. However, I show that the visual perception of faces is systematically biased by adaptation to a haptically explored face. Recently, face aftereffects (FAEs; the altered perception of faces after adaptation to a face) have been demonstrated not only in visual perception but also in haptic perception; therefore, I combined the two FAEs to examine whether the visual system receives face-related signals from the haptic modality. I found that adaptation to a haptically explored facial expression on a face mask produced a visual FAE for facial expression. This cross-modal FAE was not due to explicitly imaging a face, response bias, or adaptation to local features. Furthermore, FAEs transferred from vision to haptics. These results indicate that visual face processing depends on substrates adapted by haptic faces, which suggests that face processing relies on shared representation underlying cross-modal interactions.

  14. Mathematical model of electric hydraulic and powered support control system at a plough mining face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; HAN Xiao; SUN Jing-jing

    2008-01-01

    Given the actual working of a fully mechanized plough at a mining face, we have proposed a formula for running con-straints between powered supports and a coal plough under assumed geological conditions of the coal face and, on this basis, estab-lished an automatic control model of powered supports for the coal plough face. We introduced the working principle of the pow-ered support control system of the plough at the mining face. We established three advanced characteristics of this control system: response speed, reliability and easy maintenance of the system. As well, we briefly introduced, the principal function of primary and subordinate controllers and the realization of the communication system by a Single Bus. Ten controllers were constructed and tested in our laboratorium. The results show that the control model is practical and meets actual conditions. It provides a theoretical basis for designing a computer control system for a powered support system of a plough at a mining face.

  15. Fusion of Visible and Thermal Descriptors Using Genetic Algorithms for Face Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hermosilla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present a new face recognition system based on the fusion of visible and thermal features obtained from the most current local matching descriptors by maximizing face recognition rates through the use of genetic algorithms. The article considers a comparison of the performance of the proposed fusion methodology against five current face recognition methods and classic fusion techniques used commonly in the literature. These were selected by considering their performance in face recognition. The five local matching methods and the proposed fusion methodology are evaluated using the standard visible/thermal database, the Equinox database, along with a new database, the PUCV-VTF, designed for visible-thermal studies in face recognition and described for the first time in this work. The latter is created considering visible and thermal image sensors with different real-world conditions, such as variations in illumination, facial expression, pose, occlusion, etc. The main conclusions of this article are that two variants of the proposed fusion methodology surpass current face recognition methods and the classic fusion techniques reported in the literature, attaining recognition rates of over 97% and 99% for the Equinox and PUCV-VTF databases, respectively. The fusion methodology is very robust to illumination and expression changes, as it combines thermal and visible information efficiently by using genetic algorithms, thus allowing it to choose optimal face areas where one spectrum is more representative than the other.

  16. Fusion of Visible and Thermal Descriptors Using Genetic Algorithms for Face Recognition Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Gabriel; Gallardo, Francisco; Farias, Gonzalo; San Martin, Cesar

    2015-07-23

    The aim of this article is to present a new face recognition system based on the fusion of visible and thermal features obtained from the most current local matching descriptors by maximizing face recognition rates through the use of genetic algorithms. The article considers a comparison of the performance of the proposed fusion methodology against five current face recognition methods and classic fusion techniques used commonly in the literature. These were selected by considering their performance in face recognition. The five local matching methods and the proposed fusion methodology are evaluated using the standard visible/thermal database, the Equinox database, along with a new database, the PUCV-VTF, designed for visible-thermal studies in face recognition and described for the first time in this work. The latter is created considering visible and thermal image sensors with different real-world conditions, such as variations in illumination, facial expression, pose, occlusion, etc. The main conclusions of this article are that two variants of the proposed fusion methodology surpass current face recognition methods and the classic fusion techniques reported in the literature, attaining recognition rates of over 97% and 99% for the Equinox and PUCV-VTF databases, respectively. The fusion methodology is very robust to illumination and expression changes, as it combines thermal and visible information efficiently by using genetic algorithms, thus allowing it to choose optimal face areas where one spectrum is more representative than the other.

  17. Optimizing the Face Paradigm of BCI System by Modified Mismatch Negative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sijie; Jin, Jing; Daly, Ian; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Many recent studies have focused on improving the performance of event-related potential (ERP) based brain computer interfaces (BCIs). The use of a face pattern has been shown to obtain high classification accuracies and information transfer rates (ITRs) by evoking discriminative ERPs (N200 and N400) in addition to P300 potentials. Recently, it has been proved that the performance of traditional P300-based BCIs could be improved through a modification of the mismatch pattern. In this paper, a mismatch inverted face pattern (MIF-pattern) was presented to improve the performance of the inverted face pattern (IF-pattern), one of the state of the art patterns used in visual-based BCI systems. Ten subjects attended in this experiment. The result showed that the mismatch inverted face pattern could evoke significantly larger vertex positive potentials (p < 0.05) and N400s (p < 0.05) compared to the inverted face pattern. The classification accuracy (mean accuracy is 99.58%) and ITRs (mean bit rate is 27.88 bit/min) of the mismatch inverted face pattern was significantly higher than that of the inverted face pattern (p < 0.05). PMID:27774046

  18. Optimizing the face Paradigm of BCI system by modified Mismatch Negative paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siejie Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies have focused on improving the performance of event-related potential (ERP based brain computer interfaces (BCIs. The use of a face pattern has been shown to obtain high classification accuracies and information transfer rates (ITRs by evoking discriminative ERPs (N200 and N400 in addition to P300 potentials. Recently, it has been proved that the performance of traditional P300-based BCIs could be improved through a modification of the mismatch pattern. In this paper, a mismatch inverted face pattern (MIF-pattern was presented to improve the performance of the inverted face pattern (IF-pattern, one of the state of the art patterns used in visual-based BCI systems. Ten subjects attended in this experiment. The result showed that the mismatch inverted face pattern could evoke significantly larger vertex positive potentials (p<0.05 and N400s (p<0.05 compared to the inverted face pattern. The classification accuracy (mean accuracy is 99.58% and ITRs (mean bit rate is 27.88 bit/min of the mismatch inverted face pattern was significantly higher than that of the inverted face pattern (p<0.05.

  19. Real-time camera-based face detection using a modified LAMSTAR neural network system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girado, Javier I.; Sandin, Daniel J.; DeFanti, Thomas A.; Wolf, Laura K.

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes a cost-effective, real-time (640x480 at 30Hz) upright frontal face detector as part of an ongoing project to develop a video-based, tetherless 3D head position and orientation tracking system. The work is specifically targeted for auto-stereoscopic displays and projection-based virtual reality systems. The proposed face detector is based on a modified LAMSTAR neural network system. At the input stage, after achieving image normalization and equalization, a sub-window analyzes facial features using a neural network. The sub-window is segmented, and each part is fed to a neural network layer consisting of a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM). The output of the SOM neural networks are interconnected and related by correlation-links, and can hence determine the presence of a face with enough redundancy to provide a high detection rate. To avoid tracking multiple faces simultaneously, the system is initially trained to track only the face centered in a box superimposed on the display. The system is also rotationally and size invariant to a certain degree.

  20. Characteristics of faces and centrifugal blowers in a system for air distribution control in a mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilenko, V.I.; Frolov, M.A. (Novocherkasskii Politekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1990-04-01

    Analyzes operation of ventilation systems of underground coal mines on the example of the Rostovugol' mines in the USSR. Systems with types VTs and VTsD main centrifugal blowers are evaluated. Mathematical formulae and functions that characterize ventilation of longwall faces and mining levels are derived and plotted. Static and dynamic characteristics of working faces and the main centrifugal blowers are analyzed. A method for optimization of ventilation systems of underground coal mines is developed; its accuracy was verified on the basis of statistical data from Rostovugol'. 6 refs.

  1. Relation between facial affect recognition and configural face processing in antipsychotic-free schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, Eric; Jouve, Elisabeth; Guillaume, Fabrice; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Blin, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Deficit in facial affect recognition is a well-documented impairment in schizophrenia, closely connected to social outcome. This deficit could be related to psychopathology, but also to a broader dysfunction in processing facial information. In addition, patients with schizophrenia inadequately use configural information-a type of processing that relies on spatial relationships between facial features. To date, no study has specifically examined the link between symptoms and misuse of configural information in the deficit in facial affect recognition. Unmedicated schizophrenia patients (n = 30) and matched healthy controls (n = 30) performed a facial affect recognition task and a face inversion task, which tests aptitude to rely on configural information. In patients, regressions were carried out between facial affect recognition, symptom dimensions and inversion effect. Patients, compared with controls, showed a deficit in facial affect recognition and a lower inversion effect. Negative symptoms and lower inversion effect could account for 41.2% of the variance in facial affect recognition. This study confirms the presence of a deficit in facial affect recognition, and also of dysfunctional manipulation in configural information in antipsychotic-free patients. Negative symptoms and poor processing of configural information explained a substantial part of the deficient recognition of facial affect. We speculate that this deficit may be caused by several factors, among which independently stand psychopathology and failure in correctly manipulating configural information. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Conformism in the food processing techniques of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Susan

    2009-09-01

    Researchers of "culture" have long been interested in the role of social learning in establishing patterns of behavioral variation in wild animals, but very few studies examine this issue using a developmental approach. This 7-year study examines the acquisition of techniques used to process Luehea candida fruits in a wild population of white-faced capuchin monkeys, Cebus capucinus, residing in and near Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. The two techniques for extracting seeds (pounding or scrubbing) were approximately equal in efficiency, and subjects experimented with both techniques before settling on one technique-typically the one they most frequently observed. In a sample of 106 subjects that had already settled on a preferred technique, the females adopted the maternal technique significantly more often than expected by chance, but the males did not. Using a longitudinal approach, I examined the acquisition of Luehea processing techniques during the first 5 years of life. Regression analysis revealed that the technique most frequently observed (measured as proportion of Luehea processing bouts observed that used pounding as opposed to scrubbing) significantly predicted the technique adopted by female observers, particularly in the second year of life; the amount of impact of the observed technique on the practiced technique was somewhat less significant for male observers. These results held true for (a) observations of maternal technique only, (b) observations of technique used by all individuals other than the mother, and (c) observations of maternal and non-maternal techniques combined.

  3. Collaborative Systems Thinking: A Response to the Problems Faced by Systems Engineering's 'Middle Tier'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phfarr, Barbara B.; So, Maria M.; Lamb, Caroline Twomey; Rhodes, Donna H.

    2009-01-01

    Experienced systems engineers are adept at more than implementing systems engineering processes: they utilize systems thinking to solve complex engineering problems. Within the space industry demographics and economic pressures are reducing the number of experienced systems engineers that will be available in the future. Collaborative systems thinking within systems engineering teams is proposed as a way to integrate systems engineers of various experience levels to handle complex systems engineering challenges. This paper uses the GOES-R Program Systems Engineering team to illustrate the enablers and barriers to team level systems thinking and to identify ways in which performance could be improved. Ways NASA could expand its engineering training to promote team-level systems thinking are proposed.

  4. High-accuracy and robust face recognition system based on optical parallel correlator using a temporal image sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Ishikawa, Mami; Ohta, Maiko; Kodate, Kashiko

    2005-09-01

    Face recognition is used in a wide range of security systems, such as monitoring credit card use, searching for individuals with street cameras via Internet and maintaining immigration control. There are still many technical subjects under study. For instance, the number of images that can be stored is limited under the current system, and the rate of recognition must be improved to account for photo shots taken at different angles under various conditions. We implemented a fully automatic Fast Face Recognition Optical Correlator (FARCO) system by using a 1000 frame/s optical parallel correlator designed and assembled by us. Operational speed for the 1: N (i.e. matching a pair of images among N, where N refers to the number of images in the database) identification experiment (4000 face images) amounts to less than 1.5 seconds, including the pre/post processing. From trial 1: N identification experiments using FARCO, we acquired low error rates of 2.6% False Reject Rate and 1.3% False Accept Rate. By making the most of the high-speed data-processing capability of this system, much more robustness can be achieved for various recognition conditions when large-category data are registered for a single person. We propose a face recognition algorithm for the FARCO while employing a temporal image sequence of moving images. Applying this algorithm to a natural posture, a two times higher recognition rate scored compared with our conventional system. The system has high potential for future use in a variety of purposes such as search for criminal suspects by use of street and airport video cameras, registration of babies at hospitals or handling of an immeasurable number of images in a database.

  5. Cortisol-induced enhancement of emotional face processing in social phobia depends on symptom severity and motivational context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Peer, Jacobien M; Spinhoven, Philip; van Dijk, J Gert; Roelofs, Karin

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the effects of cortisol administration on approach and avoidance tendencies in 20 patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured during a reaction time task, in which patients evaluated the emotional expression of photographs of happy and angry faces by making an approaching (flexion) or avoiding (extension) arm movement. Patients showed significant avoidance tendencies for angry but not for happy faces, both in the placebo and cortisol condition. Moreover, ERP analyses showed a significant interaction of condition by severity of social anxiety on early positive (P150) amplitudes during avoidance compared to approach, indicating that cortisol increases early processing of social stimuli (in particular angry faces) during avoidance. This result replicates previous findings from a non-clinical sample of high anxious individuals and demonstrates their relevance for clinical SAD. Apparently the cortisol-induced increase in processing of angry faces in SAD depends on symptom severity and motivational context.

  6. Priming the Secure Attachment Schema Affects the Emotional Face Processing Bias in Attachment Anxiety: An fMRI Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qingting; Chen, Xu; Hu, Jia; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Our study explored how priming with a secure base schema affects the processing of emotional facial stimuli in individuals with attachment anxiety. We enrolled 42 undergraduate students between 18 and 27 years of age, and divided them into two groups: attachment anxiety and attachment secure. All participants were primed under two conditions, the secure priming using references to the partner, and neutral priming using neutral references. We performed repeated attachment security priming combined with a dual-task paradigm and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants' reaction times in terms of responding to the facial stimuli were also measured. Attachment security priming can facilitate an individual's processing of positive emotional faces; for instance, the presentation of the partner's name was associated with stronger activities in a wide range of brain regions and faster reaction times for positive facial expressions in the subjects. The current finding of higher activity in the left-hemisphere regions for secure priming rather than neutral priming is consistent with the prediction that attachment security priming triggers the spread of the activation of a positive emotional state. However, the difference in brain activity during processing of both, positive and negative emotional facial stimuli between the two priming conditions appeared in the attachment anxiety group alone. This study indicates that the effect of attachment secure priming on the processing of emotional facial stimuli could be mediated by chronic attachment anxiety. In addition, it highlights the association between higher-order processes of the attachment system (secure attachment schema priming) and early-stage information processing system (attention), given the increased attention toward the effects of secure base schema on the processing of emotion- and attachment-related information among the insecure population. Thus, the following study has applications in providing

  7. Brief Report: Face Configuration Accuracy and Processing Speed Among Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Faja, Susan; Webb, Sara Jane; Merkle, Kristen; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the accuracy and speed of face processing employed by high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Two behavioral experiments measured sensitivity to distances between features and face recognition when performance depended on holistic versus featural information. Results suggest adults with ASD were less accurate, but responded as quickly as controls for both tasks. In contrast to previous findings with children, adults with ASD demonstrated a...

  8. Face verification system for Android mobile devices using histogram based features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Sho; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Chen, Qiu

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a face verification system that runs on Android mobile devices. In this system, facial image is captured by a built-in camera on the Android device firstly, and then face detection is implemented using Haar-like features and AdaBoost learning algorithm. The proposed system verify the detected face using histogram based features, which are generated by binary Vector Quantization (VQ) histogram using DCT coefficients in low frequency domains, as well as Improved Local Binary Pattern (Improved LBP) histogram in spatial domain. Verification results with different type of histogram based features are first obtained separately and then combined by weighted averaging. We evaluate our proposed algorithm by using publicly available ORL database and facial images captured by an Android tablet.

  9. Systems perspectives on mRNA processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adrienne E McKee; Pamela A Silver

    2007-01-01

    The application of genomic technologies to the study of mRNA processing is increasingly conducted in metazoan organisms in order to understand the complex events that occur during and after transcription. Large-scale systems analyses of mRNA-protein interactions and mRNA dynamics have revealed specificity in mRNA transcription, splicing, transport, translation, and turnover, and have begun to make connections between the different layers of mRNA processing. Here, we review global studies of post-transcriptional processes and discuss the challenges facing our understanding of mRNA regulation in metazoan organisms. In parallel, we examine genome-scale investigations that have expanded our knowledge of RNA-binding proteins and the networks of mRNAs that they regulate.

  10. Importance of the inverted control in measuring holistic face processing with the composite effect and part-whole effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor eMcKone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Holistic coding for faces is shown in several illusions that demonstrate integration of the percept across the entire face. The illusions occur upright but, crucially, not inverted. Converting the illusions into experimental tasks that measure their strength – and thus index degree of holistic coding – is often considered straightforward yet in fact relies on a hidden assumption, namely that there is no contribution to the experimental measure from secondary cognitive factors. For the composite effect, a relevant secondary factor is size of the "spotlight" of visuospatial attention. The composite task assumes this spotlight can be easily restricted to the target half (e.g., top half of the compound face stimulus. Yet, if this assumption were not true then a large spotlight, in the absence of holistic perception, could produce a false composite effect, present even for inverted faces and contributing partially to the score for upright faces. We review evidence that various factors can influence spotlight size: race/culture (Asians often prefer a more global distribution of attention than Caucasians; sex (females can be more global; appearance of the join or gap between face halves; and location of the eyes, which typically attract attention. Results from 5 experiments then show inverted faces can sometimes produce large false composite effects, and imply that whether this happens or not depends on complex interactions between causal factors. We also report, for both identity and expression, that only top-half-face targets (containing eyes produce valid composite measures. A sixth experiment demonstrates an example of a false inverted part-whole effect, where encoding-specificity is the secondary cognitive factor. We conclude the inverted face control should be tested in all composite and part-whole studies, and an effect for upright faces should be interpreted as a pure measure of holistic processing only when the experimental design produces

  11. Congenital prosopagnosia: multistage anatomical and functional deficits in face processing circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Dinkelacker, V; Grüter, M.; Klaver, P; Grüter, T.; Specht, Karsten; Weis, S.; Kennerknecht, I.; Elger, C. E.; Fernandez, G.

    2010-01-01

    Face recognition is a primary social skill which depends on a distributed neural network. A pronounced face recognition deficit in the absence of any lesion is seen in congenital prosopagnosia. This study investigating 24 congenital prosopagnosic subjects and 25 control subjects aims at elucidating its neural basis with fMRI and voxel-based morphometry. We found a comprehensive behavioral pattern, an impairment in visual recognition for faces and buildings that spared long-term memory for fac...

  12. Development of animation processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsumi [Nuclear Energy Data Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Watanabe, Tadashi; Machida, Masahiko; Kaburaki, Hideo

    1995-03-01

    Computer and network environment for image processing has been developed and maintained by the computing and information systems center under the course of establishing a distributed processing environment. A server workstation was introduced for image processing. An animation processing system, in which simulation results are consecutively visualized on the server workstation and automatically recorded on a video tape, has been developed. In this report, a system construction, visualization in the workstation using a visualization tool, control of video tape recorder and workstation, and production of animation video are described with some examples. (author).

  13. Effects of stacking fault energy on defect formation process in face-centered cubic metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Taira; Yang, Yingjuan; Hirabayashi, Junichi; Itakura, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Katsuyuki

    2016-05-01

    To elucidate the effect of stacking fault energies (SFEs) on defect formation by the collision cascade process for face-centred cubic metals, we used six sets of interatomic potentials with different SFEs while keeping the other properties almost identical. Molecular dynamic simulations of the collision cascade were carried out using these potentials with primary knock-on atom energies (EPKA) of 10 and 20 keV at 100 K. Neither the number of residual defects nor the size distributions for both self-interstitial atom (SIA) type and vacancy type clusters were affected by the difference in the SFE. In the case of EPKA = 20 keV, the ratio of glissile SIA clusters increased as the SFE decreased, which was not expected by a prediction based on the classical dislocation theory. The trend did not change after annealing at 1100 K for 100 ps. For vacancy clusters, few stacking fault tetrahedrons (SFTs) formed before the annealing. However, lower SFEs tended to increase the SFT fraction after the annealing, where large vacancy clusters formed at considerable densities. The findings of this study can be used to characterise the defect formation process in low SFE metals such as austenitic stainless steels.

  14. Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin eDuke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift towards a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked.

  15. Paranoid males have reduced lateralisation for processing of negative emotions: an investigation using the chimeric faces test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Victoria J; McKay, Ryan T

    2014-01-01

    Reduced strength of lateralisation in patients with schizophrenia has been reported in a number of studies. However the exact nature of this relationship remains unclear. In this study, lateralisation for processing emotional faces was measured using the chimeric faces test and examined in relation to paranoia in a non-clinical sample. For males only, those with higher scores on a paranoia questionnaire had reduced lateralisation for processing negative facial emotion. For females there were no significant relationships. These findings suggest that atypical patterns of lateralisation for processing emotional stimuli may be implicated in, or associated with, increased levels of paranoia.

  16. Helical Face Gear Development Under the Enhanced Rotorcraft Drive System Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Gregory F.; Slaughter, Stephen C.; Fisher, David J.; Lewicki, David G.; Fetty, Jason

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Army goals for the Enhanced Rotorcraft Drive System Program are to achieve a 40 percent increase in horsepower to weight ratio, a 15 dB reduction in drive system generated noise, 30 percent reduction in drive system operating, support, and acquisition cost, and 75 percent automatic detection of critical mechanical component failures. Boeing s technology transition goals are that the operational endurance level of the helical face gearing and related split-torque designs be validated to a TRL 6, and that analytical and manufacturing tools be validated. Helical face gear technology is being developed in this project to augment, and transition into, a Boeing AH-64 Block III split-torque face gear main transmission stage, to yield increased power density and reduced noise. To date, helical face gear grinding development on Northstar s new face gear grinding machine and pattern-development tests at the NASA Glenn/U.S. Army Research Laboratory have been completed and are described.

  17. Investigation of New Techniques for Face detection

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Abdallah Sabry

    2007-01-01

    The task of detecting human faces within either a still image or a video frame is one of the most popular object detection problems. For the last twenty years researchers have shown great interest in this problem because it is an essential pre-processing stage for computing systems that process human faces as input data. Example applications include face recognition systems, vision systems for autonomous robots, human computer interaction systems (HCI), surveillance systems, biometric based a...

  18. Neural circuitry of masked emotional face processing in youth with bipolar disorder, severe mood dysregulation, and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A; Brotman, Melissa A; Bones, Brian L; Chen, Gang; Rosen, Brooke H; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2014-04-01

    Youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with severe, non-episodic irritability (severe mood dysregulation, SMD) show face-emotion labeling deficits. These groups differ from healthy volunteers (HV) in neural responses to emotional faces. It is unknown whether awareness is required to elicit these differences. We compared activation in BD (N=20), SMD (N=18), and HV (N=22) during "Aware" and "Non-aware" priming of shapes by emotional faces. Subjects rated how much they liked the shape. In aware, a face (angry, fearful, happy, neutral, blank oval) appeared (187 ms) before the shape. In non-aware, a face appeared (17 ms), followed by a mask (170 ms), and shape. A Diagnosis-by-Awareness-by-Emotion ANOVA was not significant. There were significant Diagnosis-by-Awareness interactions in occipital regions. BD and SMD showed increased activity for non-aware vs. aware; HV showed the reverse pattern. When subjects viewed angry or neutral faces, there were Emotion-by-Diagnosis interactions in face-emotion processing regions, including the L precentral gyrus, R posterior cingulate, R superior temporal gyrus, R middle occipital gyrus, and L medial frontal gyrus. Regardless of awareness, BD and SMD differ in activation patterns from HV and each other in multiple brain regions, suggesting that BD and SMD are distinct developmental mood disorders.

  19. Neural circuitry of masked emotional face processing in youth with bipolar disorder, severe mood dysregulation, and healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Youth with bipolar disorder (BD and those with severe, non-episodic irritability (severe mood dysregulation, SMD show face-emotion labeling deficits. These groups differ from healthy volunteers (HV in neural responses to emotional faces. It is unknown whether awareness is required to elicit these differences. We compared activation in BD (N = 20, SMD (N = 18, and HV (N = 22 during “Aware” and “Non-aware” priming of shapes by emotional faces. Subjects rated how much they liked the shape. In aware, a face (angry, fearful, happy, neutral, blank oval appeared (187 ms before the shape. In non-aware, a face appeared (17 ms, followed by a mask (170 ms, and shape. A Diagnosis-by-Awareness-by-Emotion ANOVA was not significant. There were significant Diagnosis-by-Awareness interactions in occipital regions. BD and SMD showed increased activity for non-aware vs. aware; HV showed the reverse pattern. When subjects viewed angry or neutral faces, there were Emotion-by-Diagnosis interactions in face-emotion processing regions, including the L precentral gyrus, R posterior cingulate, R superior temporal gyrus, R middle occipital gyrus, and L medial frontal gyrus. Regardless of awareness, BD and SMD differ in activation patterns from HV and each other in multiple brain regions, suggesting that BD and SMD are distinct developmental mood disorders.

  20. Face processing in depersonalization: an fMRI study of the unfamiliar self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketay, Sarah; Hamilton, Holly K; Haas, Brian W; Simeon, Daphne

    2014-04-30

    Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is characterized by a core sense of unfamiliarity. Nine DPD participants and 10 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing self and unfamiliar faces. Compared with control subjects, the DPD group exhibited significantly greater activation in several brain regions in response to self vs. stranger faces. Implications are discussed.

  1. The Processing of Human Emotional Faces by Pet and Lab Dogs: Evidence for Lateralization and Experience Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Anjuli L A; Randi, Dania; Müller, Corsin A; Huber, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    From all non-human animals dogs are very likely the best decoders of human behavior. In addition to a high sensitivity to human attentive status and to ostensive cues, they are able to distinguish between individual human faces and even between human facial expressions. However, so far little is known about how they process human faces and to what extent this is influenced by experience. Here we present an eye-tracking study with dogs emanating from two different living environments and varying experience with humans: pet and lab dogs. The dogs were shown pictures of familiar and unfamiliar human faces expressing four different emotions. The results, extracted from several different eye-tracking measurements, revealed pronounced differences in the face processing of pet and lab dogs, thus indicating an influence of the amount of exposure to humans. In addition, there was some evidence for the influences of both, the familiarity and the emotional expression of the face, and strong evidence for a left gaze bias. These findings, together with recent evidence for the dog's ability to discriminate human facial expressions, indicate that dogs are sensitive to some emotions expressed in human faces.

  2. Face Recognition for Access Control Systems Combining Image-Difference Features Based on a Probabilistic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Shotaro; Kage, Hiroshi; Hirai, Takashi; Sumi, Kazuhiko

    We propose a probabilistic face recognition algorithm for Access Control System(ACS)s. Comparing with existing ACSs using low cost IC-cards, face recognition has advantages in usability and security that it doesn't require people to hold cards over scanners and doesn't accept imposters with authorized cards. Therefore face recognition attracts more interests in security markets than IC-cards. But in security markets where low cost ACSs exist, price competition is important, and there is a limitation on the quality of available cameras and image control. Therefore ACSs using face recognition are required to handle much lower quality images, such as defocused and poor gain-controlled images than high security systems, such as immigration control. To tackle with such image quality problems we developed a face recognition algorithm based on a probabilistic model which combines a variety of image-difference features trained by Real AdaBoost with their prior probability distributions. It enables to evaluate and utilize only reliable features among trained ones during each authentication, and achieve high recognition performance rates. The field evaluation using a pseudo Access Control System installed in our office shows that the proposed system achieves a constant high recognition performance rate independent on face image qualities, that is about four times lower EER (Equal Error Rate) under a variety of image conditions than one without any prior probability distributions. On the other hand using image difference features without any prior probabilities are sensitive to image qualities. We also evaluated PCA, and it has worse, but constant performance rates because of its general optimization on overall data. Comparing with PCA, Real AdaBoost without any prior distribution performs twice better under good image conditions, but degrades to a performance as good as PCA under poor image conditions.

  3. Design of an Active Multispectral SWIR Camera System for Skin Detection and Face Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Steiner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric face recognition is becoming more frequently used in different application scenarios. However, spoofing attacks with facial disguises are still a serious problem for state of the art face recognition algorithms. This work proposes an approach to face verification based on spectral signatures of material surfaces in the short wave infrared (SWIR range. They allow distinguishing authentic human skin reliably from other materials, independent of the skin type. We present the design of an active SWIR imaging system that acquires four-band multispectral image stacks in real-time. The system uses pulsed small band illumination, which allows for fast image acquisition and high spectral resolution and renders it widely independent of ambient light. After extracting the spectral signatures from the acquired images, detected faces can be verified or rejected by classifying the material as “skin” or “no-skin.” The approach is extensively evaluated with respect to both acquisition and classification performance. In addition, we present a database containing RGB and multispectral SWIR face images, as well as spectrometer measurements of a variety of subjects, which is used to evaluate our approach and will be made available to the research community by the time this work is published.

  4. Face recognition increases during saccade preparation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lin

    Full Text Available Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition.

  5. Face recognition increases during saccade preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Rizak, Joshua D; Ma, Yuan-ye; Yang, Shang-chuan; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xin-tian

    2014-01-01

    Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition.

  6. Comparison between Face and Object Processing in Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An event related potentials study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khorrami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Incapability in face perception and recognition is one of the main issues in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Event related potential (ERP studies have revealed controversial insights on autistic brain responses to faces and objects. The current investigation examined the ERP components of young children with ASD compared to a typically developing (TD group when looking at the upright and inverted images of faces and cars.Fourteen children and adolescents aged between 9 and 17 diagnosed as having ASD were compared with 18 age- gender matched normally developing individuals. All participants' ERPs were recorded while they were seeing the images of human faces and objects in both upright and inverted positions. The ERP components including N170 (latency and amplitude were compared between the two groups in two conditions of upright and inverted using the repeated measure analysis method.The processing speed for upright faces was faster than the inverted faces in the TD group; however, the difference was not significant. A significant difference was observed in terms of N170 latency between the two groups for different stimulus categories such as objects and faces(p<0.05. Moreover, inverted vs. upright stimuli in both groups elicited a greater response in terms of N170 amplitude in both groups, and this effect was significantly prominent in the right hemisphere (p<0.05. The N170 amplitude turned out to be greater for the inverted vs. upright stimuli irrespective of the stimuli type and group.These data suggest youths with ASD have difficulty processing information, particularly in face perception regardless of the stimuli orientation.

  7. Application of Fuzzy-PID Control System in Full-Mechanized Coal Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Kui; TANG Pei-rong; YANG Wei-min

    2005-01-01

    The control system, which includes structure, the composition of software and hardware, the form of PID control system and its systematic closed-loop, was used in No.4236 full-mechanized coal face of Xinlongzhuang mine.The typical fuzzy PID control system structure was investigated, and a simplified fuzzy PID control system was taken the place of the complex three-dimension fuzzy controller. Based on the parameter relation between fuzzy controller and normal PID controller, a common method of parameter adjustment of PID controller was summed up and the computer simulation was realized. This system can overcome the problems of large delay, nonlinear, poor running environment and great load change in the full-mechanized coal face. The simulating investigation indicates that the designing method of fuzzy controller is simple and feasible.

  8. Predicting Performance of a Face Recognition System Based on Image Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation, we focus on several aspects of models that aim to predict performance of a face recognition system. Performance prediction models are commonly based on the following two types of performance predictor features: a) image quality features; and b) features derived solely from

  9. Accuracy of two face-bow/semi-adjustable articulator systems in transferring the maxillary occlusal cant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Nazir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The precision of an arbitrary face-bow in accurately transferring the orientation of the maxillary cast to the articulator has been questioned because the maxillary cast is mounted in relation to arbitrary measurements and anatomic landmarks that vary among individuals. Aim: This study was intended to evaluate the sagittal inclination of mounted maxillary casts on two semi-adjustable articulator/face-bow systems in comparison to the occlusal cant on lateral cephalograms. Materials and Methods: Maxillary casts were mounted on the Hanau and Girrbach semi-adjustable articulators following face-bow transfer with their respective face-bows. The sagittal inclination of these casts was measured in relation to the fixed horizontal reference plane using physical measurements. Occlusal cant was measured on lateral cephalograms. SPSS software (version 11.0, Chicago, IL, USA was used for statistical analysis. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey′s tests were used to evaluate the results (P < 0.05. Results: Comparison of the occlusal cant on the articulators and cephalogram revealed statistically significant differences. Occlusal plane was steeper on Girrbach Artex articulator in comparison to the Hanau articulator. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was found that the sagittal inclination of the mounted maxillary cast achieved with Hanau articulator was closer to the cephalometric occlusal cant as compared to that of the Girrbach articulator. Among the two articulators and face-bow systems, the steepness of sagittal inclination was greater on Girrbach semi-adjustable articulator. Different face-bow/articulator systems could result in different orientation of the maxillary cast, resulting in variation in stability, cuspal inclines and cuspal heights.

  10. Effects of diazepam on BOLD activation during the processing of aversive faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Ben, Cristina M; Ferreira, Cesar A Q; Sanchez, Tiago A; Alves-Neto, Wolme C; Guapo, Vinicius G; de Araujo, Draulio B; Graeff, Frederico G

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to measure, using fMRI, the effect of diazepam on the haemodynamic response to emotional faces. Twelve healthy male volunteers (mean age = 24.83 ± 3.16 years), were evaluated in a randomized, balanced-order, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. Diazepam (10 mg) or placebo was given 1 h before the neuroimaging acquisition. In a blocked design covert face emotional task, subjects were presented with neutral (A) and aversive (B) (angry or fearful) faces. Participants were also submitted to an explicit emotional face recognition task, and subjective anxiety was evaluated throughout the procedures. Diazepam attenuated the activation of right amygdala and right orbitofrontal cortex and enhanced the activation of right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to fearful faces. In contrast, diazepam enhanced the activation of posterior left insula and attenuated the activation of bilateral ACC to angry faces. In the behavioural task, diazepam impaired the recognition of fear in female faces. Under the action of diazepam, volunteers were less anxious at the end of the experimental session. These results suggest that benzodiazepines can differentially modulate brain activation to aversive stimuli, depending on the stimulus features and indicate a role of amygdala and insula in the anxiolytic action of benzodiazepines.

  11. Mars Aqueous Processing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is a novel technology for recovering oxygen, iron, and other constituents from lunar and Mars soils. The closed-loop...

  12. Mars Aqueous Processing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is an innovative method to produce useful building materials from Martian regolith. Acids and bases produced from the regolith...

  13. Task demands modulate decision and eye movement responses in the chimeric face test: examining the right hemisphere processing account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eCoronel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large and growing body of work, conducted in both brain-intact and brain-damaged populations, has used the free viewing chimeric face test as a measure of hemispheric dominance for the extraction of emotional information from faces. These studies generally show that normal right-handed individuals tend to perceive chimeric faces as more emotional if the emotional expression is presented on the half of the face to the viewer’s left (left hemiface. However, the mechanisms underlying this lateralized bias remain unclear. Here, we examine the extent to which this bias is driven by right hemisphere processing advantages versus default scanning biases in a unique way -- by changing task demands. In particular, we compare the original task with one in which right-hemisphere-biased processing cannot provide a decision advantage. Our behavioral and eye-movement data are inconsistent with the predictions of a default scanning bias account and support the idea that the left hemiface bias found in the chimeric face test is largely due to strategic use of right hemisphere processing mechanisms.

  14. Handbook of signal processing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Deprettere, Ed; Leupers, Rainer; Takala, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Signal Processing Systems is organized in three parts. The first part motivates representative applications that drive and apply state-of-the art methods for design and implementation of signal processing systems; the second part discusses architectures for implementing these applications; the third part focuses on compilers and simulation tools, describes models of computation and their associated design tools and methodologies. This handbook is an essential tool for professionals in many fields and researchers of all levels.

  15. Childhood Adversity Is Associated with Adult Theory of Mind and Social Affiliation, but Not Face Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Germine

    Full Text Available People vary substantially in their ability to acquire and maintain social ties. Here, we use a combined epidemiological and individual differences approach to understand the childhood roots of adult social cognitive functioning. We assessed exposure to 25 forms of traumatic childhood experiences in over 5000 adults, along with measures of face discrimination, face memory, theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Retrospectively-reported experiences of parental maltreatment in childhood (particularly physical abuse were the most broadly and robustly associated with adult variations in theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Adult variations in face discrimination and face memory, on the other hand, were not significantly associated with exposure to childhood adversity. Our findings indicate domains of social cognition that may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of adverse childhood environments, and suggest mechanisms whereby environmental factors might influence the development of social abilities.

  16. Abnormal social reward processing in autism as indexed by pupillary responses to happy faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepeta Leigh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD typically show impaired eye contact during social interactions. From a young age, they look less at faces than typically developing (TD children and tend to avoid direct gaze. However, the reason for this behavior remains controversial; ASD children might avoid eye contact because they perceive the eyes as aversive or because they do not find social engagement through mutual gaze rewarding. Methods We monitored pupillary diameter as a measure of autonomic response in children with ASD (n = 20, mean age = 12.4 and TD controls (n = 18, mean age = 13.7 while they looked at faces displaying different emotions. Each face displayed happy, fearful, angry or neutral emotions with the gaze either directed to or averted from the subjects. Results Overall, children with ASD and TD controls showed similar pupillary responses; however, they differed significantly in their sensitivity to gaze direction for happy faces. Specifically, pupillary diameter increased among TD children when viewing happy faces with direct gaze as compared to those with averted gaze, whereas children with ASD did not show such sensitivity to gaze direction. We found no group differences in fixation that could explain the differential pupillary responses. There was no effect of gaze direction on pupil diameter for negative affect or neutral faces among either the TD or ASD group. Conclusions We interpret the increased pupillary diameter to happy faces with direct gaze in TD children to reflect the intrinsic reward value of a smiling face looking directly at an individual. The lack of this effect in children with ASD is consistent with the hypothesis that individuals with ASD may have reduced sensitivity to the reward value of social stimuli.

  17. GIPSY : Groningen Image Processing System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, R. J.; Ekers, R. D.; Terlouw, J. P.; Vogelaar, M. G. R.

    2011-01-01

    GIPSY is an acronym of Groningen Image Processing SYstem. It is a highly interactive software system for the reduction and display of astronomical data. It supports multi-tasking using a versatile user interface, it has an advanced data structure, a powerful script language and good display faciliti

  18. Artificial faces are harder to remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Pacella, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    Observers interact with artificial faces in a range of different settings and in many cases must remember and identify computer-generated faces. In general, however, most adults have heavily biased experience favoring real faces over synthetic faces. It is well known that face recognition abilities are affected by experience such that faces belonging to "out-groups" defined by race or age are more poorly remembered and harder to discriminate from one another than faces belonging to the "in-group." Here, we examine the extent to which artificial faces form an "out-group" in this sense when other perceptual categories are matched. We rendered synthetic faces using photographs of real human faces and compared performance in a memory task and a discrimination task across real and artificial versions of the same faces. We found that real faces were easier to remember, but only slightly more discriminable than artificial faces. Artificial faces were also equally susceptible to the well-known face inversion effect, suggesting that while these patterns are still processed by the human visual system in a face-like manner, artificial appearance does compromise the efficiency of face processing.

  19. An Approach to Face Recognition of 2-D Images Using Eigen Faces and PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna Mishra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Face detection is to find any face in a given image. Face recognition is a two-dimension problem used for detecting faces. The information contained in a face can be analysed automatically by this system like identity, gender, expression, age, race and pose. Normally face detection is done for a single image but it can also be extended for video stream. As the face images are normally upright, they can be described by a small set of 2-D characteristics views. Here the face images are projected to a feature space or face space to encode the variation between the known face images. The projected feature space or the face space can be defined as ‘eigenfaces’ and can be formed by eigenvectors of the face image set. The above process can be used to recognize a new face in unsupervised manner. This paper introduces an algorithm which is used for effective face recognition. It takes into consideration not only the face extraction but also the mathematical calculations which enable us to bring the image into a simple and technical form. It can also be implemented in real-time using data acquisition hardware and software interface with the face recognition systems. Face recognition can be applied to various domains including security systems, personal identification, image and film processing and human computer interaction.

  20. Dissociating positive and negative influences of verbal processing on the recognition of pictures of faces and objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Kazuyo; Burton, A Mike; Brandimonte, Maria A; Lloyd-Jones, Toby J

    2012-03-01

    Four experiments investigated the role of verbal processing in the recognition of pictures of faces and objects. We used (a) a stimulus-encoding task where participants learned sequentially presented pictures in control, articulatory suppression, and describe conditions and then engaged in an old-new picture recognition test and (b) a poststimulus-encoding task where participants learned the stimuli without any secondary task and then either described or not a single item from memory before the recognition test. The main findings were as follows: First, verbalization influenced picture recognition. Second, there were contrasting influences of verbalization on the recognition of faces, compared with objects, that were driven by (a) the stage of processing during which verbalization took place (as assessed by the stimulus-encoding and poststimulus-encoding tasks), (b) whether verbalization was subvocal (whereby one goes through the motions of speaking but without making any sound) or overt, and (c) stimulus familiarity. During stimulus encoding there was a double dissociation whereby subvocal verbalization interfered with the recognition of faces but not objects, while overt verbalization benefited the recognition of objects but not faces. In addition, stimulus familiarity provided an independent and beneficial influence on performance. Post stimulus encoding, overt verbalization interfered with the recognition of both faces and objects, and this interference was apparent for unfamiliar but not familiar stimuli. Together these findings extend work on verbalization to picture recognition and place important parameters on stimulus and task constraints that contribute to contrasting beneficial and detrimental effects of verbalization on recognition memory.

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Cooperative E-Learning Performance in Face to Face Tutoring (Ant Colony System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mohammed Mustafa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigational analysis and evaluation of cooperative learning phenomenon is an interdisciplinary and challenging educational research issue. Educationalists have been interesting in modeling of human's cooperative learning to investigate its analogy with some learning aspects of observed social insect behavior. Specifically, this paper presents realistic modeling inspired from interdisciplinary integrated fields of ecology, education ,and animal behavior learning sciences. Presented modeling considers cooperative behavioral learning at ant colony system (ACS. That's motivated by qualitative simulation results obtained after running of an ACS algorithm searching for optimal solution of Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP. In the context of computational intelligence ; cooperative ACS algorithm reaches optimal TSP solution analogously to convergence process of Hebbian coincidence learning paradigm. Moreover, suggested mathematical modeling presents diversity of positive interdependence aspect observed during human's interactive cooperative learning. Interestingly, presented analysis and evaluation of mathematically modeled practical insights of adopted phenomenon, may shed light on promising future enhancement of cooperative learning performance.

  2. System Engineering Process Realization Toolkit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA faces many systems engineering challenges as it seeks to conduct exploration and science missions concurrently. One such challenge is implementing a repeatable...

  3. Age-related changes in emotional face processing across childhood and into young adulthood: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Vergés, Alvaro; Kujawa, Autumn; Fitzgerald, Kate D; Monk, Christopher S; Phan, K Luan

    2016-01-01

    Socio-emotional processing is an essential part of development, and age-related changes in its neural correlates can be observed. The late positive potential (LPP) is a measure of motivated attention that can be used to assess emotional processing; however, changes in the LPP elicited by emotional faces have not been assessed across a wide age range in childhood and young adulthood. We used an emotional face matching task to examine behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) in 33 youth aged 7-19 years old. Younger children were slower when performing the matching task. The LPP elicited by emotional faces but not control stimuli (geometric shapes) decreased with age; by contrast, an earlier ERP (the P1) decreased with age for both faces and shapes, suggesting increased efficiency of early visual processing. Results indicate age-related attenuation in emotional processing that may stem from greater efficiency and regulatory control when performing a socio-emotional task. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Eye-Tracking, Autonomic, and Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Face Processing in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer B.; Hirsch, Suzanna B.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Redcay, Elizabeth; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty with social-emotional cues. This study examined the neural, behavioral, and autonomic correlates of emotional face processing in adolescents with ASD and typical development (TD) using eye-tracking and event-related potentials (ERPs) across two different paradigms. Scanning of…

  5. Eye-Tracking, Autonomic, and Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Face Processing in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer B.; Hirsch, Suzanna B.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Redcay, Elizabeth; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty with social-emotional cues. This study examined the neural, behavioral, and autonomic correlates of emotional face processing in adolescents with ASD and typical development (TD) using eye-tracking and event-related potentials (ERPs) across two different paradigms. Scanning of…

  6. CUDA-based Real-time Face Recognition System%基于CUDA的实时人脸识别系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铎

    2015-01-01

    通过对人脸识别系统的2个关键部分的优化,实现一种快速高效的人脸识别系统。在面部检测阶段改进图像积分的并行算法;在面部识别阶段尝试算法的并行化,并且把测试阶段的一部分进行了并行化。与传统的CPU识别程序相比,CUDA平台改进程序可在面部检测阶段实现22.42倍的加速比,在面部识别阶段实现1668.56倍的加速比。实验数据表明,本文提出的人脸识别系统具有很高的实时性能。%Through the optimization of the two important part of face recognition system, we proposed a CUDA-based real-time face recognition system. In the face detection phase with Viola-Jones cascade classifier, we implemented and improved novel par-allel methodologies of image integral, calculation scan window processing and the amplification and correction of classifiers. In the face recognition phase, we explored the parallelizing of the algorithm and parallelized some part of the testing phase. In compari-son with traditional CPU program, the proposed approach running on an NVIDIA GTX 570 graphics card could respectively a-chieve 22. 42 times speedup in detection phase and 1668. 56 times speedup in recognition phase. The recognition speed will in-crease until it reaches the hardware resource limit. The experimental results demonstrate that the system achieves a good real-time performance.

  7. A novel thermal face recognition approach using face pattern words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2010-04-01

    A reliable thermal face recognition system can enhance the national security applications such as prevention against terrorism, surveillance, monitoring and tracking, especially at nighttime. The system can be applied at airports, customs or high-alert facilities (e.g., nuclear power plant) for 24 hours a day. In this paper, we propose a novel face recognition approach utilizing thermal (long wave infrared) face images that can automatically identify a subject at both daytime and nighttime. With a properly acquired thermal image (as a query image) in monitoring zone, the following processes will be employed: normalization and denoising, face detection, face alignment, face masking, Gabor wavelet transform, face pattern words (FPWs) creation, face identification by similarity measure (Hamming distance). If eyeglasses are present on a subject's face, an eyeglasses mask will be automatically extracted from the querying face image, and then masked with all comparing FPWs (no more transforms). A high identification rate (97.44% with Top-1 match) has been achieved upon our preliminary face dataset (of 39 subjects) from the proposed approach regardless operating time and glasses-wearing condition.e

  8. Face Recognition Based on Facial Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sharif

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Commencing from the last decade several different methods have been planned and developed in the prospect of face recognition that is one of the chief stimulating zone in the area of image processing. Face recognitions processes have various applications in the prospect of security systems and crime investigation systems. The study is basically comprised of three phases, i.e., face detection, facial features extraction and face recognition. The first phase is the face detection process where region of interest i.e., features region is extracted. The 2nd phase is features extraction. Here face features i.e., eyes, nose and lips are extracted out commencing the extracted face area. The last module is the face recognition phase which makes use of the extracted left eye for the recognition purpose by combining features of Eigenfeatures and Fisherfeatures.

  9. Computer-Assisted Face Processing Instruction Improves Emotion Recognition, Mentalizing, and Social Skills in Students with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Linda Marie; Wall, Carla Anne; Fogel, Adam; Shic, Frederick

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the extent to which a computer-based social skills intervention called FaceSay was associated with improvements in affect recognition, mentalizing, and social skills of school-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). FaceSay offers students simulated practice with eye gaze, joint attention, and facial recognition skills. This randomized control trial included school-aged children meeting educational criteria for autism (N = 31). Results demonstrated that participants who received the intervention improved their affect recognition and mentalizing skills, as well as their social skills. These findings suggest that, by targeting face-processing skills, computer-based interventions may produce changes in broader cognitive and social-skills domains in a cost- and time-efficient manner.

  10. Neural systems and hormones mediating attraction to infant and child faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lizhu; Ma, Xiaole; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Weihua; Xu, Lei; Becker, Benjamin; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-01-01

    We find infant faces highly attractive as a result of specific features which Konrad Lorenz termed "Kindchenschema" or "baby schema," and this is considered to be an important adaptive trait for promoting protective and caregiving behaviors in adults, thereby increasing the chances of infant survival. This review first examines the behavioral support for this effect and physical and behavioral factors which can influence it. It then provides details of the increasing number of neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies investigating the neural circuitry underlying this baby schema effect in parents and non-parents of both sexes. Next it considers potential hormonal contributions to the baby schema effect in both sexes and the neural effects associated with reduced responses to infant cues in post-partum depression, anxiety and drug taking. Overall the findings reviewed reveal a very extensive neural circuitry involved in our perception of cuteness in infant faces, with enhanced activation compared to adult faces being found in brain regions involved in face perception, attention, emotion, empathy, memory, reward and attachment, theory of mind and also control of motor responses. Both mothers and fathers also show evidence for enhanced responses in these same neural systems when viewing their own as opposed to another child. Furthermore, responses to infant cues in many of these neural systems are reduced in mothers with post-partum depression or anxiety or have taken addictive drugs throughout pregnancy. In general reproductively active women tend to rate infant faces as cuter than men, which may reflect both heightened attention to relevant cues and a stronger activation in their brain reward circuitry. Perception of infant cuteness may also be influenced by reproductive hormones with the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin being most strongly associated to date with increased attention and attraction to infant cues in both sexes.

  11. Neural systems and hormones mediating attraction to infant and child faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhu eLuo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We find infant faces highly attractive as a result of specific features which Konrad Lorenz termed Kindchenschema or baby schema, and this is considered to be an important adaptive trait for promoting protective and caregiving behaviors in adults, thereby increasing the chances of infant survival. This review first examines the behavioral support for this effect and physical and behavioral factors which can influence it. It next reviews the increasing number of neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies investigating the neural circuitry underlying this baby schema effect in both parents and non-parents of both sexes. Next it considers potential hormonal contributions to the baby schema effect in both sexes and then neural effects associated with reduced responses to infant cues in post-partum depression, anxiety and drug taking. Overall the findings reviewed reveal a very extensive neural circuitry involved in our perception of cutenessin infant faces with enhanced activation compared to adult faces being found in brain regions involved in face perception, attention, emotion, empathy, memory, reward and attachment, theory of mind and also control of motor responses.Both mothers and fathers also show evidence for enhanced responses in these same neural systems when viewing their own as opposed to another child. Furthermore, responses to infant cues in many of these neural systems are reduced in mothers with post-partum depression or anxiety or have taken addictive drugs throughout pregnancy. In general reproductively active women tend to rate infant faces as cuter than men, which may reflect both heightened attention to relevant cues and a stronger activation in their brain reward circuitry. Perception of infant cuteness may also be influenced by reproductive hormones with the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin being most strongly associated to date with increased attention andattractionto infant cues in both sexes.

  12. Solution to avoid unwanted trips for PV systems connected to LV network facing voltage sags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Thi Minh, Chau; Tran-Quoc, Tuan; Kieny, Christophe [IDEA, Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Bacha, Seddik [Grenoble Electric Engineering Laboratory, Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Cabanac, Philippe; Grenard, Sebastien [Electricite de France, Clamart (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Goulielmakis, David [Schneider Electric, Grenoble (France). Projects and Engineering Center

    2011-07-01

    Most of photovoltaic (PV) systems connected to low voltage (LV) distribution networks have a single-phase connection. The analysis of the behavior of these single-phase connection. The analysis of the behavior of these single-phase PV inverters facing voltage sags caused by short circuits is of major concern. These behaviors depend on fault types, fault location, types of grid architecture, grid protection systems (with or without auto-recloser system) and PV protection types. Therefore, the first investigation of this work is to study comprehensively the behaviors of PV systems connected to real LV networks facing voltage sags in different scenarios by taking into account the real network protection. Furthermore, future power systems with a large share of PV systems connected could be severely affected if several of the PV systems are tripping at the same instant. From these results of simulation, unwanted trip cases, due to the disconnection protection of PV systems are identified. Finally, a simple efficient solution by using the voltage-time characteristic for PV system is proposed. The validation by simulations shows the efficiency of the proposed solution. (orig.)

  13. Frontal Face Detection using Haar Wavelet Coefficients and Local Histogram Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Setyawan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Face detection is the main building block on which all automatic systems dealing with human faces is built. For example, a face recognition system must rely on face detection to process an input image and determine which areas contain human faces. These areas then become the input for the face recognition system for further processing. This paper presents a face detection system designed to detect frontal faces. The system uses Haar wavelet coefficients and local histogram correlation as differentiating features. Our proposed system is trained using 100 training images. Our experiments show that the proposed system performed well during testing, achieving a detection rate of 91.5%.

  14. Turbine Blade Image Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Neal S.; Snyder, Wesley E.; Rajala, Sarah A.

    1983-10-01

    A vision system has been developed at North Carolina State University to identify the orientation and three dimensional location of steam turbine blades that are stacked in an industrial A-frame cart. The system uses a controlled light source for structured illumination and a single camera to extract the information required by the image processing software to calculate the position and orientation of a turbine blade in real time.

  15. Fast and Accurate 3D Face Recognition Using Registration to an Intrinsic Coordinate System and Fusion of Multiple Region classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a new robust approach for 3D face registration to an intrinsic coordinate system of the face. The intrinsic coordinate system is defined by the vertical symmetry plane through the nose, the tip of the nose and the slope of the bridge of the nose. In addition, we propose a 3D

  16. An Approach to Face Recognition of 2-D Images Using Eigen Faces and PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna Mishra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Face detection is to find any face in a given image. Face recognition is a two-dimension problem used fordetecting faces. The information contained in a face can be analysed automatically by this system likeidentity, gender, expression, age, race and pose. Normally face detection is done for a single image but itcan also be extended for video stream. As the face images are normally upright, they can be described by asmall set of 2-D characteristics views. Here the face images are projected to a feature space or face spaceto encode the variation between the known face images. The projected feature space or the face space canbe defined as ‘eigenfaces’ and can be formed by eigenvectors of the face image set. The above process canbe used to recognize a new face in unsupervised manner. This paper introduces an algorithm which is usedfor effective face recognition. It takes into consideration not only the face extraction but also themathematical calculations which enable us to bring the image into a simple and technical form. It can alsobe implemented in real-time using data acquisition hardware and software interface with the facerecognition systems. Face recognition can be applied to various domains including security systems,personal identification, image and film processing and human computer interaction.

  17. Accelerating Tacit Knowledge Building of Client-Facing Consultants: Can Organizations Better Support These Learning Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Robert J.; Janson, Annick

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine factors which influence how tacit knowledge is built and applied by client-facing consultants. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative methods (interviews, thematic analysis) were used to gather and analyse data from 15 consultants in an agricultural extension context. Findings: Twenty-six factors about how…

  18. How love and sex can influence recognition of faces and words: a processing model account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, J.

    2010-01-01

    A link between romantic love and face recognition and sexual desire and verbal recognition is suggested. When in love, people typically focus on a long-term perspective which enhances global perception, whereas when experiencing sexual encounters they focus on the present which enhances a perception

  19. Alterations in neural processing of emotional faces in adolescent anorexia nervosa patients - an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfärlea, Anca; Greimel, Ellen; Platt, Belinda; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Dieler, Alica C

    2016-09-01

    The present study explored the neurophysiological correlates of perception and recognition of emotional facial expressions in adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) patients using event-related potentials (ERPs). We included 20 adolescent girls with AN and 24 healthy girls and recorded ERPs during a passive viewing task and three active tasks requiring processing of emotional faces in varying processing depths; one of the tasks also assessed emotion recognition abilities behaviourally. Despite the absence of behavioural differences, we found that across all tasks AN patients exhibited a less pronounced early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to all facial expressions compared to controls. The EPN is an ERP component reflecting an automatic, perceptual processing stage which is modulated by the intrinsic salience of a stimulus. Hence, the less pronounced EPN in anorexic girls suggests that they might perceive other people's faces as less intrinsically relevant, i.e. as less "important" than do healthy girls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Do I have my attention? Speed of processing advantages for the self-face are not driven by automatic attention capture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Keyes

    Full Text Available We respond more quickly to our own face than to other faces, but there is debate over whether this is connected to attention-grabbing properties of the self-face. In two experiments, we investigate whether the self-face selectively captures attention, and the attentional conditions under which this might occur. In both experiments, we examined whether different types of face (self, friend, stranger provide differential levels of distraction when processing self, friend and stranger names. In Experiment 1, an image of a distractor face appeared centrally - inside the focus of attention - behind a target name, with the faces either upright or inverted. In Experiment 2, distractor faces appeared peripherally - outside the focus of attention - in the left or right visual field, or bilaterally. In both experiments, self-name recognition was faster than other name recognition, suggesting a self-referential processing advantage. The presence of the self-face did not cause more distraction in the naming task compared to other types of face, either when presented inside (Experiment 1 or outside (Experiment 2 the focus of attention. Distractor faces had different effects across the two experiments: when presented inside the focus of attention (Experiment 1, self and friend images facilitated self and friend naming, respectively. This was not true for stranger stimuli, suggesting that faces must be robustly represented to facilitate name recognition. When presented outside the focus of attention (Experiment 2, no facilitation occurred. Instead, we report an interesting distraction effect caused by friend faces when processing strangers' names. We interpret this as a "social importance" effect, whereby we may be tuned to pick out and pay attention to familiar friend faces in a crowd. We conclude that any speed of processing advantages observed in the self-face processing literature are not driven by automatic attention capture.

  1. Handbook of signal processing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S; Leupers, Rainer; Takala, Jarmo

    2010-01-01

    The Handbook is organized in four parts. The first part motivates representative applications that drive and apply state-of-the art methods for design and implementation of signal processing systems; the second part discusses architectures for implementing these applications; the third part focuses on compilers and simulation tools; and the fourth part describes models of computation and their associated design tools and methodologies.

  2. VLSI mixed signal processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, A.; Premkumar, A. B.

    1993-01-01

    An economical and efficient VLSI implementation of a mixed signal processing system (MSP) is presented in this paper. The MSP concept is investigated and the functional blocks of the proposed MSP are described. The requirements of each of the blocks are discussed in detail. A sample application using active acoustic cancellation technique is described to demonstrate the power of the MSP approach.

  3. E-Learning versus Face-to-Face Learning: An Economic Analysis of Higher Educational Systems in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Fazlollahtabar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional engineering educational system was compared with the e-learning engineering educational system on the economic dimension using hypothesis testing approach. The comparison involved trend analysis and prediction based on costs and benefits of the two systems. Interestingly, the analysis revealed that the traditional system had greater advantage on the economic dimension. Several factors support the e-learning system despite the associated economic disadvantage. The final analysis provided results in favor of a blended system which takes advantage of the traditional and e-learning systems.

  4. Comparison of Knowledge and Attitudes Using Computer-Based and Face-to-Face Personal Hygiene Training Methods in Food Processing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Ginger D.; LaBorde, Luke F.; Radhakrishna, Rama B.; Brown, J. Lynne; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2006-01-01

    Computer-based training is increasingly favored by food companies for training workers due to convenience, self-pacing ability, and ease of use. The objectives of this study were to determine if personal hygiene training, offered through a computer-based method, is as effective as a face-to-face method in knowledge acquisition and improved…

  5. The Facial Expressive Action Stimulus Test. A test battery for the assessment of face memory, face and object perception, configuration processing, and facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, Beatrice; Huis In 't Veld, Elisabeth M J; Van den Stock, Jan

    2015-01-01

    There are many ways to assess face perception skills. In this study, we describe a novel task battery FEAST (Facial Expressive Action Stimulus Test) developed to test recognition of identity and expressions of human faces as well as stimulus control categories. The FEAST consists of a neutral and emotional face memory task, a face and shoe identity matching task, a face and house part-to-whole matching task, and a human and animal facial expression matching task. The identity and part-to-whole matching tasks contain both upright and inverted conditions. The results provide reference data of a healthy sample of controls in two age groups for future users of the FEAST.

  6. Forward Osmosis System And Process

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang

    2013-08-22

    A forward osmosis fluid purification system includes a cross-flow membrane module with a membrane, a channel on each side of the membrane which allows a feed solution and a draw solution to flow through separately, a feed side, a draw side including a draw solute, where the draw solute includes an aryl sulfonate salt. The system can be used in a process to extract water from impure water, such as wastewater or seawater. The purified water can be applied to arid land.

  7. Condensation Processes in Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, D. I.; Moore, J. N.

    2005-12-01

    We model condensation processes in geothermal systems to understand how this process changes fluid chemistry. We assume two processes operate in geothermal systems: 1) condensation of a vapor phase derived by boiling an aqueous geothermal fluid into a cool near surface water and 2) condensation of a magmatic vapor by a deep circulating meteoric thermal fluid. It is assumed that the condensation process has two stages. Initially the condensing fluid is under saturated in gaseous species. Condensation of the vapor phase continues until the pressure on the fluid equals the sum of the partial pressures of water and the dissolved gaseous species. At that time bubbles flux through the condensing fluid. In time the fluid and fluxing gas phase come to equilibrium. Calculation shows that during the second stage of the condensation process the liquid phase becomes enriched in more soluble gaseous species like CO2 and H2S, and depleted in less soluble species like CH4 and N2. Stage 2 condensation processes can therefore be monitored by ratios of more and less condensable species like CO2/N2. Condensation of vapor released by boiling geothermal fluids results in liquids with high concentrations of H2S and CO2 like is seen in geothermal system steam-heated waters. Condensation of a magmatic vapor into circulating meteoric water has been proposed, but not well demonstrated. We compare to our models the Cerro Prieto, Mexico gas analysis data set collected over twelve years time by USGS personnel. It was assumed for modeling that the Cerro Prieto geothermal fluids are circulating meteoritic fluids with N2/Ar ratios about 40 to which is added a magmatic vapor with N2/Ar ratio = 400. The Cerro Prieto analyses show a strong correlation between N2/Ar and CO2/N2 as predicted by calculation. Two dimensional image plots of well N2/Ar + CO2/N2 show a bull's-eye pattern on the geothermal field. Image plots of analyses collected over a year or less time show N2/Ar and CO2/N2 hot spots

  8. Preliminary evidence for the interaction of the oxytocin receptor gene (oxtr) and face processing in differentiating prenatal smoking patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Suena H; Estabrook, Ryne; O'Brien, T Caitlin; Pine, Daniel S; Burns, James L; Jacob, Suma; Cook, Edwin H; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal smoking cessation has been described as an empathic action "for the baby," but this has not been empirically demonstrated. We capitalized on a genetically-characterized extant dataset with outstanding measurement of prenatal smoking patterns and maternal face processing data (as an indicator of empathy) to test this hypothesis, and explore how empathy and smoking patterns may be moderated by a genetic substrate of empathy, the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Participants were 143 Caucasian women from the East Boston family study with repeated prospective reports of smoking level, adjusted based on repeated cotinine bioassays. Salivary DNA and face processing (Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy-2) were assessed 14 years later at an adolescent follow-up of offspring. Two-thirds of participants reported smoking prior to pregnancy recognition. Of these, 21% quit during pregnancy; 56% reduced smoking, and 22% smoked persistently at the same level. A significant interaction between face processing and OXTR variants previously associated with increased sensitivity to social context, rs53576GG and rs2254298A, was found (β = -.181; p = .015); greater ability to identify distress in others was associated with lower levels of smoking during pregnancy for rs53576(GG)/rs2254298(A) individuals (p = .013), but not for other genotypes (p = .892). Testing this "empathy hypothesis of prenatal smoking cessation" in larger studies designed to examine this question can elucidate whether interventions to enhance empathy can improve prenatal smoking cessation rates.

  9. Fundamentals of process intensification: A process systems engineering view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Sales Cruz, Alfonso Mauricio; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the fundamentals of process intensification from a process systems engineering point of view. The concept of process intensification, including process integration, is explained together with the drivers for applying process intensification, which can be achieved...... intensification using a systems approach....

  10. When health systems are barriers to health care: challenges faced by uninsured Mexican kidney patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierans, Ciara; Padilla-Altamira, Cesar; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Ibarra-Hernandez, Margarita; Mercado, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease disproportionately affects the poor in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). Mexico exemplifies the difficulties faced in supporting Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) and providing equitable patient care, despite recent attempts at health reform. The objective of this study is to document the challenges faced by uninsured, poor Mexican families when attempting to access RRT. The article takes an ethnographic approach, using interviewing and observation to generate detailed accounts of the problems that accompany attempts to secure care. The study, based in the state of Jalisco, comprised interviews with patients, their caregivers, health and social care professionals, among others. Observations were carried out in both clinical and social settings. In the absence of organised health information and stable pathways to renal care, patients and their families work extraordinarily hard and at great expense to secure care in a mixed public-private healthcare system. As part of this work, they must navigate challenging health and social care environments, negotiate treatments and costs, resource and finance healthcare and manage a wide range of formal and informal health information. Examining commonalities across pathways to adequate healthcare reveals major failings in the Mexican system. These systemic problems serve to reproduce and deepen health inequalities. A system, in which the costs of renal care are disproportionately borne by those who can least afford them, faces major difficulties around the sustainability and resourcing of RRTs. Attempts to increase access to renal therapies, therefore, need to take into account the complex social and economic demands this places on those who need access most. This paper further shows that ethnographic studies of the concrete ways in which healthcare is accessed in practice provide important insights into the plight of CKD patients and so constitute an important source of evidence in that effort.

  11. When health systems are barriers to health care: challenges faced by uninsured Mexican kidney patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara Kierans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease disproportionately affects the poor in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs. Mexico exemplifies the difficulties faced in supporting Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT and providing equitable patient care, despite recent attempts at health reform. The objective of this study is to document the challenges faced by uninsured, poor Mexican families when attempting to access RRT. METHODS: The article takes an ethnographic approach, using interviewing and observation to generate detailed accounts of the problems that accompany attempts to secure care. The study, based in the state of Jalisco, comprised interviews with patients, their caregivers, health and social care professionals, among others. Observations were carried out in both clinical and social settings. RESULTS: In the absence of organised health information and stable pathways to renal care, patients and their families work extraordinarily hard and at great expense to secure care in a mixed public-private healthcare system. As part of this work, they must navigate challenging health and social care environments, negotiate treatments and costs, resource and finance healthcare and manage a wide range of formal and informal health information. CONCLUSIONS: Examining commonalities across pathways to adequate healthcare reveals major failings in the Mexican system. These systemic problems serve to reproduce and deepen health inequalities. A system, in which the costs of renal care are disproportionately borne by those who can least afford them, faces major difficulties around the sustainability and resourcing of RRTs. Attempts to increase access to renal therapies, therefore, need to take into account the complex social and economic demands this places on those who need access most. This paper further shows that ethnographic studies of the concrete ways in which healthcare is accessed in practice provide important insights into the plight of CKD patients and so

  12. XCPU2 process management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionkov, Latchesar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van Hensbergen, Eric [IBM AUSTIN RESEARCH LAB

    2009-01-01

    Xcpu2 is a new process management system that allows the users to specify custom file system for a running job. Most cluster management systems enforce single software distribution running on all nodes. Xcpu2 allows programs running on the cluster to work in environment identical to the user's desktop, using the same versions of the libraries and tools the user installed locally, and accessing the configuration file in the same places they are located on the desktop. Xcpu2 builds on our earlier work with the Xcpu system. Like Xcpu, Xcpu2's process management interface is represented as a set of files exported by a 9P file server. It supports heterogeneous clusters and multiple head nodes. Unlike Xcpu, it uses pull instead of push model. In this paper we describe the Xcpu2 clustering model, its operation and how the per-job filesystem configuration can be used to solve some of the common problems when running a cluster.

  13. Smart Bank Locker Access System Using Iris ,Fingerprints,Face Recognization Along With Password Authentication And Billing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asst.Prof.T.A.More

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In today's modern world, security plays an important role. For that purpose, we proposed advance security systems for banking locker system and the bank customers. This specialized security is proposed through four different modules in combination i.e. face detection technique, Password verification, finger prints and Iris verification .All these steps are followed in the sequence if anything goes wrong he or she is unable to access the system. We are also providing some additional billing with it i.e. it will always for after 1 transaction. It will give the intimation of first transaction is complete and you are left with prescribed number transaction mentioned in system.

  14. NDMAS System and Process Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Hull

    2012-10-01

    Experimental data generated by the Very High Temperature Reactor Program need to be more available to users in the form of data tables on Web pages that can be downloaded to Excel or in delimited text formats that can be used directly for input to analysis and simulation codes, statistical packages, and graphics software. One solution that can provide current and future researchers with direct access to the data they need, while complying with records management requirements, is the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). This report describes the NDMAS system and its components, defines roles and responsibilities, describes the functions the system performs, describes the internal processes the NDMAS team uses to carry out the mission, and describes the hardware and software used to meet Very High Temperature Reactor Program needs.

  15. Aging and the perception of emotion: processing vocal expressions alone and with faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Melissa; Murray, Janice; Ruffman, Ted

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether the difficulties older adults experience when recognizing specific emotions from facial expressions also occur with vocal expressions of emotion presented in isolation or in combination with facial expressions. When matching vocal expressions of six emotions to emotion labels, older adults showed worse performance on sadness and anger. When matching vocal expressions to facial expressions, older adults showed worse performance on sadness, anger, happiness, and fear. Older adults' poorer performance when matching faces to voices was independent of declines in fluid ability. Results are interpreted with reference to the neuropsychology of emotion recognition and the aging brain.

  16. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  17. Long-Range Reduced Predictive Information Transfers of Autistic Youths in EEG Sensor-Space During Face Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, Ali; Hossein-Zadeh, Gholam-Ali; Khorrami, Anahita

    2016-03-01

    The majority of previous functional/effective connectivity studies conducted on the autistic patients converged to the underconnectivity theory of ASD: "long-range underconnectivity and sometimes short-rang overconnectivity". However, to the best of our knowledge the total (linear and nonlinear) predictive information transfers (PITs) of autistic patients have not been investigated yet. Also, EEG data have rarely been used for exploring the information processing deficits in autistic subjects. This study is aimed at comparing the total (linear and nonlinear) PITs of autistic and typically developing healthy youths during human face processing by using EEG data. The ERPs of 12 autistic youths and 19 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects were recorded while they were watching upright and inverted human face images. The PITs among EEG channels were quantified using two measures separately: transfer entropy with self-prediction optimality (TESPO), and modified transfer entropy with self-prediction optimality (MTESPO). Afterwards, the directed differential connectivity graphs (dDCGs) were constructed to characterize the significant changes in the estimated PITs of autistic subjects compared with HC ones. By using both TESPO and MTESPO, long-range reduction of PITs of ASD group during face processing was revealed (particularly from frontal channels to right temporal channels). Also, it seemed the orientation of face images (upright or upside down) did not modulate the binary pattern of PIT-based dDCGs, significantly. Moreover, compared with TESPO, the results of MTESPO were more compatible with the underconnectivity theory of ASD in the sense that MTESPO showed no long-range increase in PIT. It is also noteworthy that to the best of our knowledge it is the first time that a version of MTE is applied for patients (here ASD) and it is also its first use for EEG data analysis.

  18. Morphology, Growth Process and Symmetry of {0001} Face on Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The {0001} face develops on the habit of self-frequency doubling laser crystal Yb: YAl3(BO3)4 (YbYAB) only under high growth rate condition, and its morphology is rough. To study the growth mechanism of {0001} face, we have observed the growth morphology on {0001} polishing section by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A series of AFM images captured in different growth durations on the {0001} polishing section reflect the crystal growth process. It is shown that the growth morphology on the {0001} polishing section was rough with many hillocks at the first growth stage, and it can become smooth finally, although the growth morphology on the {0001} face developed naturally on YbYAB crystal habit is always rough. On the smooth {0001} surface formed at the last growth stage, there are some triangular pits. This fact is different from that of hillocks in most crystal growth morphologies. AFM can easily distinguish the pits or hillocks on the surface, but differential interfere contrast microscopy (DIC) can not do. The orientation of the triangular pits is just the opposite to the triangular {0001} faces. The chemical etching pattern is also composed of this kind of triangular pits. These growth morphology and etching pattern of the {0001} faces show 3m symmetry, but the point group of YbYAB crystal is 32. The symmetric contradiction between morphology and point group does not exist for quartz, although which has the same point group as YbYAB. From quartz {0001} surface morphology we can distinguish the right form or left form of the crystal, but from YbYAB {0001} surface morphology we can not do. The reason for the symmetric contradiction between YbYAB {0001} surface morphology and its point group is not known yet.

  19. Understanding Process Performance Measurement Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica MilanoviÊ Glavan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current state of Process Performance Measurement Systems (PPMS by means of a systematic review of literature. The PPMS literature is reviewed using a systematic approach. Based on an extensive literature review only twelve articles that contain the term PPMS in the title were found. The literature analysis showed that PPMS is a relatively new topic in the area of performance measurement. In order to understand PPMS, it was crucial to explain the concepts of business process management, business performance measurement and Performance Measurement System (PMS which are well known and used in the literature and practice. PPMS is a special type of PMS that should be used in process-oriented organizations. Limitations of this research lie in the fact that all the conclusions were derived only from the literature, not empirical research. The results presented in the paper continue towards providing an updated overview of the current state of performance measurement, especially PPMS in order to identify the existing research gaps on which ongoing and future research efforts regarding this topic can be focused.

  20. Dynamic security assessment processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei

    The architecture of dynamic security assessment processing system (DSAPS) is proposed to address online dynamic security assessment (DSA) with focus of the dissertation on low-probability, high-consequence events. DSAPS upgrades current online DSA functions and adds new functions to fit into the modern power grid. Trajectory sensitivity analysis is introduced and its applications in power system are reviewed. An index is presented to assess transient voltage dips quantitatively using trajectory sensitivities. Then the framework of anticipatory computing system (ACS) for cascading defense is presented as an important function of DSAPS. ACS addresses various security problems and the uncertainties in cascading outages. Corrective control design is automated to mitigate the system stress in cascading progressions. The corrective controls introduced in the dissertation include corrective security constrained optimal power flow, a two-stage load control for severe under-frequency conditions, and transient stability constrained optimal power flow for cascading outages. With state-of-the-art computing facilities to perform high-speed extended-term time-domain simulation and optimization for large-scale systems, DSAPS/ACS efficiently addresses online DSA for low-probability, high-consequence events, which are not addressed by today's industrial practice. Human interference is reduced in the computationally burdensome analysis.

  1. A systems process of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, K V

    1997-01-01

    Functional systems theory was used to consider the process of reinforcement of the actions on the body of reinforcing factors, i.e., the results of behavior satisfying the body's original needs. The systems process of reinforcement includes reverse afferentation entering the CNS from receptors acted upon by various parameters of the desired results, and mechanisms for comparing reverse afferentation with the apparatus which accepts the results of the action and the corresponding emotional component. A tight interaction between reinforcement and the dominant motivation is generated on the basis of the hologram principle. Reinforcement forms an apparatus for predicting a desired result, i.e. a result-of-action acceptor. Reinforcement procedures significant changes in the activities of individual neurons in the various brain structures involved in dominant motivation, transforming their spike activity for a burst pattern to regular discharges; there are also molecular changes in neuron properties. After preliminary reinforcement, the corresponding motivation induces the ribosomal system of neurons to start synthesizing special effector molecules, which organize molecular engrams of the acceptor of the action's result. Sensory mechanisms of reinforcement are considered, with particular reference to the information role of emotions.

  2. Calculation of cell face velocity of non-staggered grid system

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wang

    2012-07-28

    In this paper, the cell face velocities in the discretization of the continuity equation, the momentum equation, and the scalar equation of a non-staggered grid system are calculated and discussed. Both the momentum interpolation and the linear interpolation are adopted to evaluate the coefficients in the discretized momentum and scalar equations. Their performances are compared. When the linear interpolation is used to calculate the coefficients, the mass residual term in the coefficients must be dropped to maintain the accuracy and convergence rate of the solution. © Shanghai University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.

  3. [The systems process of reinforcement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, K V

    1996-01-01

    The process of reinforcement is considered in the context of the general theory of functional systems as an important part of behavioural act organization closely interacting with the dominant motivation. It is shown that reinforcement substantially changes the activities of separate neurons in different brain structures involved in dominant motivation. After a preliminary reinforcement under the influence of corresponding motivation the ribosomal apparatus of neurons begins to synthesize special molecular engrams of the action acceptor. The sensory mechanisms of reinforcement and, especially, the role of emotions are considered in details in the paper.

  4. Can the usage of human growth hormones affect facial appearance and the accuracy of face recognition systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jake; Martin, Michael; Bourlai, Thirimachos

    2014-06-01

    In law enforcement and security applications, the acquisition of face images is critical in producing key trace evidence for the successful identification of potential threats. The goal of the study is to demonstrate that steroid usage significantly affects human facial appearance and hence, the performance of commercial and academic face recognition (FR) algorithms. In this work, we evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art FR algorithms on two unique face image datasets of subjects before (gallery set) and after (probe set) steroid (or human growth hormone) usage. For the purpose of this study, datasets of 73 subjects were created from multiple sources found on the Internet, containing images of men and women before and after steroid usage. Next, we geometrically pre-processed all images of both face datasets. Then, we applied image restoration techniques on the same face datasets, and finally, we applied FR algorithms in order to match the pre-processed face images of our probe datasets against the face images of the gallery set. Experimental results demonstrate that only a specific set of FR algorithms obtain the most accurate results (in terms of the rank-1 identification rate). This is because there are several factors that influence the efficiency of face matchers including (i) the time lapse between the before and after image pre-processing and restoration face photos, (ii) the usage of different drugs (e.g. Dianabol, Winstrol, and Decabolan), (iii) the usage of different cameras to capture face images, and finally, (iv) the variability of standoff distance, illumination and other noise factors (e.g. motion noise). All of the previously mentioned complicated scenarios make clear that cross-scenario matching is a very challenging problem and, thus, further investigation is required.

  5. Investigation of thermal protection system by forward-facing cavity and opposing jet combinatorial configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Haibo; Liu Weiqiang

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the usage of the forward-facing cavity and opposing jet combinatorial configuration as the thermal protection system (TPS) for hypersonic vehicles.A hemispherecone nose-tip with the combinatorial configuration is investigated numerically in hypersonic free stream.Some numerical results are validated by experiments.The flow field parameters,aerodynamic force and surface heat flux distribution are obtained.The influence of the opposing jet stagnation pressure on cooling efficiency of the combinatorial TPS is discussed.The detailed numerical results show that the aerodynamic heating is reduced remarkably by the combinatorial system.The recirculation region plays a pivotal role for the reduction of heat flux.The larger the stagnation pressure of opposing jet is,the more the heating reduction is.This kind of combinatorial system is suitable to be the TPS for the high-speed vehicles which need long-range and long time flight.

  6. Enhancement of Security and Privacy in Biometric Passport Inspection System Using Face, Fingerprint, and Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. NARENDIRA KUMAR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The biometric passports are to prevent the illegal entry of traveler into a specific country and limit the use of counterfeit documents by more accurate identification of an individual. Biometric Passports have been introduced in many countries to improve the security in Inspection Systems and enhance procedures and systems that prevent identity and passport fraud. The deployment of biometric technologies, countries need to test and evaluate its systems since the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO provides the guidelines, but the implementation is up to each issuing country. The paper also provides a cryptographic security analysis of the e-passport using face fingerprint, and iris biometric that are intended to provide improved security in protecting biometric information of the e-passport bearer.

  7. Discussion on the Processing Method of Face Gear for the Oscillating Tooth Face Gear Transmission%活齿端面齿轮传动端面齿轮加工方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳华; 王军; 詹华西

    2012-01-01

    The principle of the oscillating tooth face gear transmission is analysed, the structure differences between face gear and bevel gear are compared, and the realization processing method of face gear is discussed by improving the bevel gear shaper.%通过分析活齿端面齿轮传动的原理,对其中端面齿轮齿面模型与锥齿轮的结构差异进行了比较,并由此探讨了对锥齿轮刨齿机进行改造以实现端面齿加工的方法.

  8. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...

  9. Effect of surface segregation and mobility on erosion of plasma-facing materials in magnetic fusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • We integrated collisional and thermal processes to study tungsten erosion by carbon ions. • We analyzed effects of radiation enhanced diffusion and surface segregation. • Self-consistent simulations allowed explaining experimental results. • Difference in tungsten erosion at various temperatures was explained. - Abstract: The present work studies the combined effects of collisional sputtering and mixing processes of carbon impurities in tungsten plasma-facing material integrated with thermal processes including surface segregation and diffusion. We used our ITMC-DYN package, which includes description of all collisional and thermal processes, for the analysis of recent experimental results of tungsten erosion and carbon implantation at various target temperatures. Self-consistent integrated modeling predicted thermal processes effects on erosion/deposition dynamics and defined decisive parameters range and their importance. Critical parameters were estimated based on available experimental data. The integrated simulation reproduced the experimental results and predicted the transition from enhanced tungsten erosion to significant carbon coverage on the tungsten surface. These effects for wider range of system conditions with C/H ions irradiation and for reactor conditions can be predicted by including detailed modeling of chemical erosion processes in a self-consistent manner.

  10. Social Movements Facing the Processes of Globalization: Beyond the Paradigms of Class and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Alfaro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on a particular expression of globalization and regionalization that entails social, political, cultural and economic dimensions: social movements. I argue that current social movements are not necessarily articulated only in terms of class struggle-as the major labor movements were for the last two centuries. Neither do they articulate their protests only in terms of identity and recognition-such as women's movements did in the 1960s. Social movements are now most commonly organized around a discourse that combines those two dimensions. Contemporary social movements are expanding from the structural economic and industrial system (and thus abandoning the form of traditional class struggles to cultural and identity grounds. New social movements are now seen more and more as symbolic challengers, because power-that affects everyday life and tries to manipulate and give social meaning to things-is being contested by individuals in both the public and private spheres. Thus movements have a more symbolic function: they are a new kind of media, fighting for symbolic and cultural stakes, and for a different meaning and orientation of social action. However, constructing a collective identity within a social movement is not definitive. A movement's identity is constructed on an everyday basis, and within the process of globalization, the contact and social interaction with others -with the other, which allows the definition of one's own identity-is not only possible but also necessary. This paper considers the Zapatista rebellion in Chiapas as an empirical approach to social movements expanding from regional, local mobilizations and discourse, to more global oriented contentious activities. I argue that the Zapatista movement's identity in 1994 was quite different from the one it has now: the Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN, or Zapatista National Liberation Army discourse has been transformed, from having an ethnic

  11. 3-D Face Recognition System using Additional Feature Lines in Nearest Feature Line Method in Eigenspace Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The additional feature lines can be acquired by projecting each feature point to other feature lines in the same class without increasing the number of feature points. With these additional lines, the system will have the ability to capture more variations of face images, so it can increase the recognition rate of the system. The authors also propose KL-TSubspace1 and KL-TSubspace2 as methods in transforming the 3-D face images from its spatial domain to their eigenspace domain. The experiments use the 3-D human faces of Indonesian people in various expressions and positions. Then, the system is applied to recognize unknown face images with different viewpoints. Experimental results shown that the system using KL-TSubspace2 and Modified Nearest Feature Line method can have the highest recognition rate of 99.17%.

  12. Early processing of emotional faces in a Go/NoGo task: lack of N170 right-hemispheric specialisation in children with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Madlen; Stadelmann, Stephanie; Brandeis, Daniel; Jaeger, Sonia; Matuschek, Tina; Weis, Steffi; Kalex, Virgenie; Hiemisch, Andreas; von Klitzing, Kai; Döhnert, Mirko

    2015-09-01

    Emotionally biased information processing towards sad and away from happy information characterises individuals with major depression. To learn more about the nature of these dysfunctional modulations, developmental and neural aspects of emotional face processing have to be considered. By combining measures of performance (attention control, inhibition) in an emotional Go/NoGo task with an event-related potential (ERP) of early face processing (N170), we obtained a multifaceted picture of emotional face processing in a sample of children and adolescents (11-14 years) with major depression (MDD, n = 26) and healthy controls (CTRL, n = 26). Subjects had to respond to emotional faces (fearful, happy or sad) and withhold their response to calm faces or vice versa. Children of the MDD group displayed shorter N170 latencies than children of the CTRL group. Typical right lateralisation of the N170 was observed for all faces in the CTRL but not for happy and calm faces in the MDD group. However, the MDD group did not differ in their behavioural reaction to emotional faces, and effects of interference by emotional information on the reaction to calm faces in this group were notably mild. Although we could not find a typical pattern of emotional bias, the results suggest that alterations in face processing of children with major depression can be seen at early stages of face perception indexed by the N170. The findings call for longitudinal examinations considering effects of development in children with major depression as well as associations to later stages of processing.

  13. Motivated Reasoning and Political Parties: Evidence for Increased Processing in the Face of Party Cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Skov, Martin; Serritzlew, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    Extant research in political science has demonstrated that citizens’ opinions on policies are influenced by their attachment to the party sponsoring them. At the same time, little evidence exists illuminating the psychological processes through which such party cues are filtered. From...... the psychological literature on source cues, we derive two possible hypotheses: (1) party cues activate heuristic processing aimed at minimizing the processing effort during opinion formation, and (2) party cues activate group motivational processes that compel citizens to support the position of their party....... As part of the latter processes, the presence of party cues would make individuals engage in effortful motivated reasoning to produce arguments for the correctness of their party’s position. Following psychological research, we use response latency to measure processing effort and, in support...

  14. Flexible Process Notations for Cross-organizational Case Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slaats, Tijs

    2016-01-01

    frustration and inefficiency because they do not allow workers to use their expert experience to make the best judgements on how to solve the unique challenges they are faced with. However some structuring of their work is still required to ensure that laws and business rules are being followed. IT Systems...... for process control have a large role to play in structuring and organizing such processes, however most of these systems have been developed with a focus on production work and fail to support the more flexible processes required by knowledge workers. The problem arises at the core of these systems...... of the process and techniques for runtime adaptation. This dissertation reports on the results of the Technologies for Flexible Cross-organizational Case Management Systems (FLExCMS) research project which was started in cooperation between ITU and the company Exformatics A/S. The goals of the project were...

  15. Fusiform gyrus dysfunction is associated with perceptual processing efficiency to emotional faces in adolescent depression: a model-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Cheing Ho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While the extant literature has focused on major depressive disorder (MDD as being characterized by abnormalities in processing affective stimuli (e.g., facial expressions, little is known regarding which specific aspects of cognition influence the evaluation of affective stimuli, and what are the underlying neural correlates. To investigate these issues, we assessed 26 adolescents diagnosed with MDD and 37 well-matched healthy controls (HCL who completed an emotion identification task of dynamically morphing faces during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We analyzed the behavioral data using a sequential sampling model of response time (RT commonly used to elucidate aspects of cognition in binary perceptual decision making tasks: the Linear Ballistic Accumulator (LBA model. Using a hierarchical Bayesian estimation method, we obtained group-level and individual-level estimates of LBA parameters on the facial emotion identification task. While the MDD and HCL groups did not differ in mean RT, accuracy, or group-level estimates of perceptual processing efficiency (i.e., drift rate parameter of the LBA, the MDD group showed significantly reduced responses in left fusiform gyrus compared to the HCL group during the facial emotion identification task. Furthermore, within the MDD group, fMRI signal in the left fusiform gyrus during affective face processing was significantly associated with greater individual-level estimates of perceptual processing efficiency. Our results therefore suggest that affective processing biases in adolescents with MDD are characterized by greater perceptual processing efficiency of affective visual information in sensory brain regions responsible for the early processing of visual information. The theoretical, methodological, and clinical implications of our results are discussed.

  16. Selection of materials for tokamak plasma facing elements based on a liquid tin capillary pore system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyublinski, I. E.; Vertkov, A. V.; Zharkov, M. Yu; Sevryukov, O. N.; Dzhumaev, P. S.; Shumskiy, V. A.; Ivannikov, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    Capillary-Pore Systems (CPS) filled by liquid metals are considered as an alternative solution of materials choice for plasma facing component of tokamak reactor. Tin is viewed as one of the candidates for CPS because it has lower corrosiveness than gallium and lower saturated vapour pressure compared to lithium. The corrosion resistance of Mo, Nb and W in pure liquid tin was investigated. The corrosion tests were carried out in the static isothermal conditions at a temperature up to 1050°C. As a result of the corrosion study, it was found that Mo does not corrode in liquid Sn, as opposed to Nb and is compatible with liquid tin in temperatures of up to approx. 1000°C. This allows considering Mo as an alloy base material of the in-vessel tokamak elements based on liquid tin capillary pore systems.

  17. Simulation of a free-surface and seepage face using boundary-fitted coordinate system method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Kun; Leap, Darrell I.

    1997-09-01

    The boundary-fitted coordinate (BFC) system method is applied to simulate steady groundwater seepage with a free-surface and seepage face using the finite-difference method. The BFC system method eliminates the difficulty of fitting finite-difference grids to a changeable free-surface which is not known a priori but will be obtained as part of a solution. Also, grid generation with this approach is simpler than with the finite-element method. At each iterative sweep, the changeable free-surface becomes a part of the boundary-fitted grid lines, making boundary condition implementation easy and accurate. An example problem demonstrating the simulation procedure and numerical results compares very well with the analytical solution.

  18. Counter-facing plasma focus system as an efficient and long-pulse EUV light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, H.; Hayashi, K.; Kuroda, Y.; Nose, H.; Hotozuka, K.; Nakajima, M.; Horioka, K.

    2011-04-01

    A plasma focus system composed of a pair of counter-facing coaxial plasma guns is proposed as a long-pulse and efficient EUV light source. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrated that with an assist of breakdown and outer electrode connections, current sheets evolved into a configuration for stable plasma confinement at the center of the electrode. The current sheets could successively compress and confine the high energy density plasma every half period of the discharge current, enabling highly repetitive light emissions in extreme ultraviolet region with time duration in at least ten microseconds for Xe plasma. Also, we confirmed operations of our system for Li plasma. We estimated the highest EUV energy in Li plasma operation at 93mJ/4π sr per 2% bandwidth per pulse.

  19. Rapid prototyping of SoC-based real-time vision system: application to image preprocessing and face detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jridi, Maher; Alfalou, Ayman

    2017-05-01

    By this paper, the major goal is to investigate the Multi-CPU/FPGA SoC (System on Chip) design flow and to transfer a know-how and skills to rapidly design embedded real-time vision system. Our aim is to show how the use of these devices can be benefit for system level integration since they make possible simultaneous hardware and software development. We take the facial detection and pretreatments as case study since they have a great potential to be used in several applications such as video surveillance, building access control and criminal identification. The designed system use the Xilinx Zedboard platform. The last is the central element of the developed vision system. The video acquisition is performed using either standard webcam connected to the Zedboard via USB interface or several camera IP devices. The visualization of video content and intermediate results are possible with HDMI interface connected to HD display. The treatments embedded in the system are as follow: (i) pre-processing such as edge detection implemented in the ARM and in the reconfigurable logic, (ii) software implementation of motion detection and face detection using either ViolaJones or LBP (Local Binary Pattern), and (iii) application layer to select processing application and to display results in a web page. One uniquely interesting feature of the proposed system is that two functions have been developed to transmit data from and to the VDMA port. With the proposed optimization, the hardware implementation of the Sobel filter takes 27 ms and 76 ms for 640x480, and 720p resolutions, respectively. Hence, with the FPGA implementation, an acceleration of 5 times is obtained which allow the processing of 37 fps and 13 fps for 640x480, and 720p resolutions, respectively.

  20. Encoding and Retrieving Faces and Places: Distinguishing Process- and Stimulus-Specific Differences in Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Steven E.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Among the most fundamental issues in cognitive neuroscience is how the brain may be organized into process-specific and stimulus-specific regions. In the episodic memory domain, most functional neuroimaging studies have focused on the former dimension, typically investigating the neural correlates of various memory processes. Thus, there is little…

  1. Amygdala activation during emotional face processing in adolescents with affective disorders: the role of underlying depression and anxiety symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bulk, Bianca G.; Meens, Paul H. F.; van Lang, Natasja D. J.; de Voogd, E. L.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Crone, Eveline A.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders are often first diagnosed during adolescence and it is known that they persist into adulthood. Previous studies often tried to dissociate depressive and anxiety disorders, but high comorbidity makes this difficult and maybe even impossible. The goal of this study was to use neuroimaging to test what the unique contribution is of depression and anxiety symptomatology on emotional processing and amygdala activation, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. We included 25 adolescents with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and 26 healthy adolescents. Participants performed an emotional face processing task while in the MRI scanner. We were particularly interested in the relation between depression/anxiety symptomatology and patterns of amygdala activation. There were no significant differences in activation patterns between the control group and the clinical group on whole brain level and ROI level. However, we found that dimensional scores on an anxiety but not a depression subscale significantly predicted brain activation in the right amygdala when processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are a better predictor for differentiating activation patterns in the amygdala than depression symptoms. Although the current study includes a relatively large sample of treatment naïve adolescents with depression/anxiety disorders, results might be influenced by differences between studies in recruitment strategies or methodology. Future research should include larger samples with a more equal distribution of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. To conclude, this study shows that abnormal amygdala responses to emotional faces in depression and anxiety seems to be more dependent on anxiety symptoms than on depression symptoms, and thereby highlights the need for more research to better characterize clinical groups in future studies. PMID:24926249

  2. Amygdala activation during emotional face processing in adolescents with affective disorders: the role of underlying depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G Van Den Bulk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDepressive and anxiety disorders are often first diagnosed during adolescence and it is known that they persist into adulthood. Previous studies often tried to dissociate depressive and anxiety disorders, but high comorbidity makes this difficult and maybe even impossible. The goal of this study was to use neuroimaging to test what the unique contribution is of depression and anxiety symptomatology on emotional processing and amygdala activation, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. We included 25 adolescents with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and 26 healthy adolescents. Participants performed an emotional face processing task while in the MRI scanner. We were particularly interested in the relation between depression/anxiety symptomatology and patterns of amygdala activation. There were no significant differences in activation patterns between the control group and the clinical group on whole brain level and ROI level. However, we found that dimensional scores on an anxiety but not a depression subscale significantly predicted brain activation in the right amygdala when processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are a better predictor for differentiating activation patterns in the amygdala than depression symptoms. Although the current study includes a relatively large sample of treatment naïve adolescents with depression/anxiety disorders, results might be influenced by differences between studies in recruitment strategies or methodology. Future research should include larger samples with a more equal distribution of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. To conclude, this study shows that abnormal amygdala responses to emotional faces in depression and anxiety seems to be more dependent on anxiety symptoms than on depression symptoms, and thereby highlights the need for more research to better characterize clinical groups in future

  3. Differential activation of the amygdala and the 'social brain' during fearful face-processing in Asperger Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Chris; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; O'Riordan, Michelle; Bullmore, Edward T

    2007-01-01

    Impaired social cognition is a core feature of autism. There is much evidence showing people with autism use a different cognitive style than controls for face-processing. We tested if people with autism would show differential activation of social brain areas during a face-processing task. Thirteen adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome (HFA/AS) and 13 matched controls. We used fMRI to investigate 'social brain' activity during perception of fearful faces. We employed stimuli known to reliably activate the amygdala and other social brain areas, and ROI analyses to investigate brain areas responding to facial threat as well as those showing a linear response to varying threat intensities. We predicted: (1) the HFA/AS group would show differential activation (as opposed to merely deficits) of the social brain compared to controls and (2) that social brain areas would respond to varied intensity of fear in the control group, but not the HFA/AS group. Both predictions were confirmed. The controls showed greater activation in the left amygdala and left orbito-frontal cortex, while the HFA/AS group showed greater activation in the anterior cingulate gyrus and superior temporal cortex. The control group also showed varying responses in social brain areas to varying intensities of fearful expression, including differential activations in the left and right amygdala. This response in the social brain was absent in the HFA/AS group. HFA/AS are associated with different patterns of activation of social brain areas during fearful emotion processing, and the absence in the HFA/AS brain of a response to varying emotional intensity.

  4. Sexual health promotion on social networking sites: a process evaluation of The FaceSpace Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong; Gold, Judy; Pedrana, Alisa; Chang, Shanton; Howard, Steve; Ilic, Olivia; Hellard, Margaret; Stoove, Mark

    2013-07-01

    This article reports findings from an evaluation of reach and engagement of The FaceSpace Project, a novel sexual health promotion project delivered through social networking sites that targeted young people aged 16-29 years. Multiple methods were used to evaluate project reach and engagement. The evaluation focussed on quantitative data (online usage statistics, online surveys), complemented by available qualitative data (project team meeting notes). The project reached 900 fans who were mostly between 18 and 34 years of age. The most successful ways of increasing audience reach were via Facebook advertisements and tagging photos of young people attending a music festival on the project Facebook page. Peaks in Facebook page interactions (comments and "likes") coincided with recruitment peaks and when videos were posted. However, video views varied greatly between postings. Feedback from the project team for increasing engagement in future social networking site interventions included having one centralized Facebook page and using episodic videos. This evaluation is among the first to assess the use of social networking sites for sexual health promotion and provides information to inform the implementation and evaluation of future projects using new media. Social networking sites offer great potential to reach and engage young people for sexual health promotion. However, further work is required to improve implementation and promote audience reach and engagement as well as to determine effectiveness of social networking sites in changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Face Perception System becomes Species-Specific at 3 Months: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Elisa; Meary, David; Pascalis, Olivier; Simion, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating own- vs. other-species preferences in 3-month-old infants. The infants' eye movements were recorded during a visual preference paradigm to assess whether they show a preference for own-species faces when contrasted with other-species faces. Human and monkey faces, equated for all low-level perceptual…

  6. Reactor plasma facing component designs based on liquid metal concepts supported in porous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarés, F. L.; Oyarzabal, E.; Martin-Rojo, A. B.; Tafalla, D.; de Castro, A.; Soleto, A.

    2017-01-01

    The use of liquid metals (LMs) as plasma facing components in fusion devices was proposed as early as 1970 for a field reversed concept and inertial fusion reactors. The idea was extensively developed during the APEX Project, at the turn of the century, and it is the subject at present of the biennial International Symposium on Lithium Applications (ISLA), whose fourth meeting took place in Granada, Spain at the end of September 2015. While liquid metal flowing concepts were specially addressed in USA research projects, the idea of embedding the metal in a capillary porous system (CPS) was put forwards by Russian teams in the 1990s, thus opening the possibility of static concepts. Since then, many ideas and accompanying experimental tests in fusion devices and laboratories have been produced, involving a large fraction of countries within the international fusion community. Within the EUROFusion Roadmap, these activities are encompassed into the working programs of the plasma facing components (PFC) and divertor tokamak test (DTT) packages. In this paper, a review of the state of the art in concepts based on the CPS set-up for a fusion reactor divertor target, aimed at preventing the ejection of the liquid metal by electro-magnetic (EM) forces generated under plasma operation, is described and required R+D activities on the topic, including ongoing work at CIEMAT specifically oriented to filling the remaining gaps, are stressed.

  7. Familiar Face Detection in 180ms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Gobbini, M. Ida

    2015-01-01

    The visual system is tuned for rapid detection of faces, with the fastest choice saccade to a face at 100ms. Familiar faces have a more robust representation than do unfamiliar faces, and are detected faster in the absence of awareness and with reduced attentional resources. Faces of family and close friends become familiar over a protracted period involving learning the unique visual appearance, including a view-invariant representation, as well as person knowledge. We investigated the effect of personal familiarity on the earliest stages of face processing by using a saccadic-choice task to measure how fast familiar face detection can happen. Subjects made correct and reliable saccades to familiar faces when unfamiliar faces were distractors at 180ms—very rapid saccades that are 30 to 70ms earlier than the earliest evoked potential modulated by familiarity. By contrast, accuracy of saccades to unfamiliar faces with familiar faces as distractors did not exceed chance. Saccades to faces with object distractors were even faster (110 to 120 ms) and equivalent for familiar and unfamiliar faces, indicating that familiarity does not affect ultra-rapid saccades. We propose that detectors of diagnostic facial features for familiar faces develop in visual cortices through learning and allow rapid detection that precedes explicit recognition of identity. PMID:26305788

  8. Three faces of entropy for complex systems: Information, thermodynamics, and the maximum entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Stefan; Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf

    2017-09-01

    There are at least three distinct ways to conceptualize entropy: entropy as an extensive thermodynamic quantity of physical systems (Clausius, Boltzmann, Gibbs), entropy as a measure for information production of ergodic sources (Shannon), and entropy as a means for statistical inference on multinomial processes (Jaynes maximum entropy principle). Even though these notions represent fundamentally different concepts, the functional form of the entropy for thermodynamic systems in equilibrium, for ergodic sources in information theory, and for independent sampling processes in statistical systems, is degenerate, H (p ) =-∑ipilogpi . For many complex systems, which are typically history-dependent, nonergodic, and nonmultinomial, this is no longer the case. Here we show that for such processes, the three entropy concepts lead to different functional forms of entropy, which we will refer to as SEXT for extensive entropy, SIT for the source information rate in information theory, and SMEP for the entropy functional that appears in the so-called maximum entropy principle, which characterizes the most likely observable distribution functions of a system. We explicitly compute these three entropy functionals for three concrete examples: for Pólya urn processes, which are simple self-reinforcing processes, for sample-space-reducing (SSR) processes, which are simple history dependent processes that are associated with power-law statistics, and finally for multinomial mixture processes.

  9. 人脸识别中面部图像处理算法研究%Research on Image Processing Algorithm of Face in Face Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩增锟

    2012-01-01

    在人脸图像定位的前提上,利用灰度信息实现了人脸面部主要器官如眼睛、鼻子和嘴巴的定位.采用双三次插值法对图像进行旋转和缩放.另外,采用直方图增强的方法对图像灰度值进行归一化处理.%On the premise of face location, this paper apply the grey-scale information to locate major facial organs, such as eyes, nose and mouth. Bi-cubic interpolation, needs to be introduced in image rotation and zoom during the preprocessing phase of face images; moreover, grey value of the image is normalized by adopting histogram enhancement.

  10. Process algebra for Hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a process algebra obtained by extending a combination of the process algebra with continuous relative timing from Baeten and Middelburg [Process Algebra with Timing, Springer, Chap. 4, 2002] and the process algebra with propositional signals from Baeten and Bergstra [Theoretical Computer

  11. Process algebra for hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a process algebra obtained by extending a combination of the process algebra with continuous relative timing from Baeten and Middelburg (Process Algebra with Timing, Springer,Berlin, 2002, Chapter 4), and the process algebra with propositional signals from Baeten and Bergstra(Theoret. Com

  12. Face-Emotion Processing in Offspring at Risk for Panic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.; Klein, Rachel G.; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Moulton, John L., III; Lissek, Shmuel; Guardino, Mary; Woldehawariat, Girma

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Panic disorder (PD) has been linked to perturbed processing of threats. This study tested the hypotheses that offspring of parents with PD and offspring with anxiety disorders display relatively greater sensitivity and attention allocation to fear provocation. Method: Offspring of adults with PD, major depressive disorder (MDD), or no…

  13. A Lack of Left Visual Field Bias when Individuals with Autism Process Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Eva M.; Best, Catherine A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Strauss, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    It has been established that typically developing individuals have a bias to attend to facial information in the left visual field (LVF) more than in the right visual field. This bias is thought to arise from the right hemisphere's advantage for processing facial information, with evidence suggesting it to be driven by the configural demands of…

  14. Processing of masked and unmasked emotional faces under different attentional conditions: an electrophysiological investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia eDel Zotto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the interactions between non-spatial selective attention, awareness and emotion processing, we carried out an ERP study using a backward masking paradigm, in which angry, fearful, happy and neutral facial expressions were presented, while participants attempted to detect the presence of one or the other category of facial expressions in the different experimental blocks. ERP results showed that negative emotions enhanced an early N170 response over temporal-occipital leads in both masked and unmasked conditions, independently of selective attention. A later effect arising at the P2 was linked to awareness. Finally, selective attention was found to affect the N2 and N3 components over occipito-parietal leads. Our findings reveal that i the initial processing of facial expressions arises prior to attention and awareness; ii attention and awareness give rise to temporally distinct periods of activation independently of the type of emotion with only a partial degree of overlap; and iii selective attention appears to be influenced by the emotional nature of the stimuli, which in turn impinges on unconscious processing at a very early stage. This study confirms previous reports that negative facial expressions can be processed rapidly, in absence of visual awareness and independently of selective attention. On the other hand, attention and awareness may operate in a synergistic way, depending on task demand.

  15. Liquid Metals as Plasma-facing Materials for Fusion Energy Systems: From Atoms to Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Howard A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Koel, Bruce E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Bernasek, Steven L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Carter, Emily A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Debenedetti, Pablo G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2017-06-23

    The objective of our studies was to advance our fundamental understanding of liquid metals as plasma-facing materials for fusion energy systems, with a broad scope: from atoms to tokamaks. The flow of liquid metals offers solutions to significant problems of the plasma-facing materials for fusion energy systems. Candidate metals include lithium, tin, gallium, and their eutectic combinations. However, such liquid metal solutions can only be designed efficiently if a range of scientific and engineering issues are resolved that require advances in fundamental fluid dynamics, materials science and surface science. In our research we investigated a range of significant and timely problems relevant to current and proposed engineering designs for fusion reactors, including high-heat flux configurations that are being considered by leading fusion energy groups world-wide. Using experimental and theoretical tools spanning atomistic to continuum descriptions of liquid metals, and bridging surface chemistry, wetting/dewetting and flow, our research has advanced the science and engineering of fusion energy materials and systems. Specifically, we developed a combined experimental and theoretical program to investigate flows of liquid metals in fusion-relevant geometries, including equilibrium and stability of thin-film flows, e.g. wetting and dewetting, effects of electromagnetic and thermocapillary fields on liquid metal thin-film flows, and how chemical interactions and the properties of the surface are influenced by impurities and in turn affect the surface wetting characteristics, the surface tension, and its gradients. Because high-heat flux configurations produce evaporation and sputtering, which forces rearrangement of the liquid, and any dewetting exposes the substrate to damage from the plasma, our studies addressed such evaporatively driven liquid flows and measured and simulated properties of the different bulk phases and material interfaces. The range of our studies

  16. A study of fuzzy logic ensemble system performance on face recognition problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, A.; Lipinskiy, L.

    2017-02-01

    Some problems are difficult to solve by using a single intelligent information technology (IIT). The ensemble of the various data mining (DM) techniques is a set of models which are able to solve the problem by itself, but the combination of which allows increasing the efficiency of the system as a whole. Using the IIT ensembles can improve the reliability and efficiency of the final decision, since it emphasizes on the diversity of its components. The new method of the intellectual informational technology ensemble design is considered in this paper. It is based on the fuzzy logic and is designed to solve the classification and regression problems. The ensemble consists of several data mining algorithms: artificial neural network, support vector machine and decision trees. These algorithms and their ensemble have been tested by solving the face recognition problems. Principal components analysis (PCA) is used for feature selection.

  17. Some scientific problems facing research on hydrological processes in an inland river basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ersi KANG; Rensheng CHEN; Zhihui ZHANG; Xibin JI; Bowen JIN

    2008-01-01

    The challenge is put forward to scientific hydrology by the advancement of water sciences; that is, how should we carry out a multidisciplinary, integrated and cooperative research on hydrological processes in the basin, regional and global scales, in order to better under-stand the role water plays in the changes of the natural resources and environment of the earth, and to under-stand the hydrosphere and its interactions with the atmo-sphere, lithosphere and biosphere. How the changes and transformation of the components of the water cycle and water balance occur in an inland river basin has yet to be understood. We also need to understand what the inter-actions of water cycle, ecosystems and environment are, and what the responses and feedback of the changes to global change and to human activities are. The water cycle in an inland river basin characterizes the runoff genera-tion region of the mountains upstream, the artificial oases region of water resources exploitation and utilization mid-stream and the natural desert oases region of runoff dis-sipating downstream. The mountain hydrological processes are discussed from water cycle, energy balance, water balance and ecological processes. The interactions of water and vegetation are discussed in relation to eco-hydrology, and the hydrological processes in the ground water-soil-vegetation layer are discussed from the concept of the critical zone newly put forward abroad. The basic frame is put forward to carry out the field measurement, experiment and studies of hydrological processes in a typ-ical inland river basin.

  18. Making Faces - State-Space Models Applied to Multi-Modal Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue

    2005-01-01

    The two main focus areas of this thesis are State-Space Models and multi modal signal processing. The general State-Space Model is investigated and an addition to the class of sequential sampling methods is proposed. This new algorithm is denoted as the Parzen Particle Filter. Furthermore, the Ma...... application an information theoretic vector quantizer is also proposed. Based on interactions between particles, it is shown how a quantizing scheme based on an analytic cost function can be derived....

  19. Dynamics of contour, object and face processing in the human visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Tanskanen, Topi

    2008-01-01

    The neural basis of visual perception can be understood only when the sequence of cortical activity underlying successful recognition is known. The early steps in this processing chain, from retina to the primary visual cortex, are highly local, and the perception of more complex shapes requires integration of the local information. In Study I of this thesis, the progression from local to global visual analysis was assessed by recording cortical magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses to arra...

  20. Can We Distinguish Emotions from Faces? Investigation of Implicit and Explicit Processes of Peak Facial Expressions

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on facial expression recognition have focused on the moderate emotions; to date, few studies have been conducted to investigate the explicit and implicit processes of peak emotions. In the current study, we used transiently peak intense expression images of athletes at the winning or losing point in competition as materials, and investigated the diagnosability of peak facial expressions at both implicit and explicit levels. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed t...

  1. Development of Human Face Detection System Based on Real-time Camera Image%摄像头实时图像人脸检测系统开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅琪; 刘羽

    2013-01-01

    人脸检测是计算机视觉领域中一个重要的研究热点,也是人脸识别、表情识别等研究的基础.论文首先通过截取摄像头实时图像,然后通过转换彩色空间、人脸肤色建模、图像处理和人脸定位算法实现了人脸检测功能.详细介绍了基于摄像头的人脸图像采集开发和人脸检测等主要步骤,并由此开发了摄像头实时图像的人脸检测系统.试验结果表明,论文提出的方法是可行的.%Human face detection is an important research in the field of computer vision.It also is a basic research of face recognition and expression recognition etc.Firstly,the camera real-time image is captured,and then the face detection function is realized through conversing of color space,skin color model,image processing and face location algorithm are built.The main steps of developing the face images acquisition based on camera and face detection are introduced in detail.At last,the face detection system based on real-time camera image is developed.The test results show that,the proposed method is feasible.

  2. Design of the vapor diffusion characteristics of the exterior facing of the facade thermal insulation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Veliborka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Various facade facings - systems made of thermal insulation materials with the finishing facade renders which are directly applied to the facade walls are simple for construction and are applied in the newly built structures and they are also suitable for the application in the cases of the energy revitalization of the existing buildings. The exterior walls, and especially their outer layers, are exposed to various atmospheric influences. They cause different effects in the walls, one of them being the occurrence of the water vapor condensation. In the walls with the facade thermal insulation systems, the occurrence of the water vapor condensation may be caused by the vapor diffusion characteristics of the exterior render. At certain temperatures and humidity of the external and internal air, there are several conditions for the occurrence of the water vapor condensation in the wall with the facade thermal insulation system, when the exterior render is of higher relative resistance to the water vapor diffusion. Therefore, it is useful to determine the vapor diffusion characteristics, that is, highest values of the relative resistance to the water vapor diffusion of the exterior renders which will not cause the condensation of the water vapor in the wall, or at least those that will not cause the impermissible dampening of the wall material, and will allow for the possibility of moisture drying.

  3. Learning to Discriminate Face Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although visual feature leaning has been well studied, we still know little about the mechanisms of perceptual learning of complex object. Here, human perceptual learning in discrimination of in-depth orientation of face view was studied using psychophysics, EEG and fMRI. We trained subjects to discriminate face orientations around a face view (i.e. 30° over eight daily sessions, which resulted in a significant improvement in sensitivity to the face view orientation. This improved sensitivity was highly specific to the trained orientation and persisted up to six months. Different from perceptual learning of simple visual features, this orientation-specific learning effect could completely transfer across changes in face size, visual field and face identity. A complete transfer also occurred between two partial face images that were mutually exclusive but constituted a complete face. However, the transfer of the learning effect between upright and inverted faces and between a face and a paperclip object was very weak. Before and after training, we measured EEG and fMRI BOLD signals responding to both the trained and the untrained face views. Analyses of ERPs and induced gamma activity showed that face view discrimination training led to a larger reduction of N170 latency at the left occipital-temporal area and a concurrent larger decrease of induced gamma activity at the left frontal area with the trained face view, compared with the untrained ones. BOLD signal amplitude and MVPA analyses showed that, in face-selective cortical areas, training did not lead to a significant amplitude change, but induced a more reliable spatial pattern of neural activity in the left FFA. These results suggest that the visual system had learned how to compute face orientation from face configural information more accurately and that a large amount of plastic changes took place at a level of higher visual processing where size-, location-, and identity

  4. Compensatory premotor activity during affective face processing in subclinical carriers of a single mutant Parkin allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Silke; Sack, Benjamin; Pohl, Anna; Münte, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter; Klein, Christine; Binkofski, Ferdinand

    2012-04-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease suffer from significant motor impairments and accompanying cognitive and affective dysfunction due to progressive disturbances of basal ganglia-cortical gating loops. Parkinson's disease has a long presymptomatic stage, which indicates a substantial capacity of the human brain to compensate for dopaminergic nerve degeneration before clinical manifestation of the disease. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence that increased motor-related cortical activity can compensate for progressive dopaminergic nerve degeneration in carriers of a single mutant Parkin or PINK1 gene, who show a mild but significant reduction of dopamine metabolism in the basal ganglia in the complete absence of clinical motor signs. However, it is currently unknown whether similar compensatory mechanisms are effective in non-motor basal ganglia-cortical gating loops. Here, we ask whether asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers show altered patterns of brain activity during processing of facial gestures, and whether this might compensate for latent facial emotion recognition deficits. Current theories in social neuroscience assume that execution and perception of facial gestures are linked by a special class of visuomotor neurons ('mirror neurons') in the ventrolateral premotor cortex/pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 44/6). We hypothesized that asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers would show increased activity in this area during processing of affective facial gestures, replicating the compensatory motor effects that have previously been observed in these individuals. Additionally, Parkin mutation carriers might show altered activity in other basal ganglia-cortical gating loops. Eight asymptomatic heterozygous Parkin mutation carriers and eight matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and a subsequent facial emotion recognition task. As predicted, Parkin mutation carriers showed significantly stronger activity in

  5. Face recognition system for set-top box-based intelligent TV

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Won Oh; Kim, Yeong Gon; Hong, Hyung Gil; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2014-01-01

    .... Because of this, negligible research has been conducted regarding face recognition for conventional TVs with supplementary STBs, even though many such studies have been conducted with smart TVs...

  6. Method for Face Identification with Facial Action Coding System: FACS Based on Eigen Value Decomposion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Method for face identification based on eigen value decomposition together with tracing trajectories in the eigen space after the eigen value decomposition is proposed. The proposed method allows person to person differences due to faces in the different emotions. By using the well known action unit approach, the proposed method admits the faces in the different emotions. Experimental results show that recognition performance depends on the number of targeted peoples. The face identification rate is 80% for four peoples of targeted number while 100% is achieved for the number of targeted number of peoples is two.

  7. Thermal plasma processed ferro-magnetically ordered face-centered cubic iron at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Suyog A.; Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Das, A. K.; Mathe, V. L.

    2014-10-01

    Here, we report tailor made phase of iron nanoparticles using homogeneous gas phase condensation process via thermal plasma route. It was observed that crystal lattice of nano-crystalline iron changes as a function of operating parameters of the plasma reactor. In the present investigation iron nanoparticles have been synthesized in presence of argon at operating pressures of 125-1000 Torr and fixed plasma input DC power of 6 kW. It was possible to obtain pure fcc, pure bcc as well as the mixed phases for iron nanoparticles in powder form as a function of operating pressure. The as synthesized product was characterized for understanding the structural and magnetic properties by using X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The data reveal that fcc phase is ferromagnetically ordered with high spin state, which is unusual whereas bcc phase is found to be ferromagnetic as usual. Finally, the structural and magnetic properties are co-related.

  8. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1993-07-01

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included.

  9. In situ observation of deformation processes in nanocrystalline face-centered cubic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobler, Aaron; Brandl, Christian; Hahn, Horst; Kübel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The atomistic mechanisms active during plastic deformation of nanocrystalline metals are still a subject of controversy. The recently developed approach of combining automated crystal orientation mapping (ACOM) and in situ straining inside a transmission electron microscope was applied to study the deformation of nanocrystalline Pd x Au1- x thin films. This combination enables direct imaging of simultaneously occurring plastic deformation processes in one experiment, such as grain boundary motion, twin activity and grain rotation. Large-angle grain rotations with ≈39° and ≈60° occur and can be related to twin formation, twin migration and twin-twin interaction as a result of partial dislocation activity. Furthermore, plastic deformation in nanocrystalline thin films was found to be partially reversible upon rupture of the film. In conclusion, conventional deformation mechanisms are still active in nanocrystalline metals but with different weighting as compared with conventional materials with coarser grains.

  10. Seeing the talker’s face supports executive processing of speech in steady state noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmit eMishra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Listening to speech in noise depletes cognitive resources, affecting speech processing. The present study investigated how remaining resources or cognitive spare capacity (CSC can be deployed by young adults with normal hearing. We administered a test of CSC (CSCT, Mishra et al., 2013 along with a battery of established cognitive tests to 20 participants with normal hearing. In the CSCT, lists of two-digit numbers were presented with and without visual cues in quiet, as well as in steady-state and speech-like noise at a high intelligibility level. In low load conditions, two numbers were recalled according to instructions inducing executive processing (updating, inhibition and in high load conditions the participants were additionally instructed to recall one extra number, which was the always the first item in the list. In line with previous findings, results showed that CSC was sensitive to memory load and executive function but generally not related to working memory capacity. Furthermore, CSCT scores in quiet were lowered by visual cues, probably due to distraction. In steady-state noise, the presence of visual cues improved CSCT scores, probably by enabling better encoding. Contrary to our expectation, CSCT performance was disrupted more in steady-state than speech-like noise, although only without visual cues, possibly because selective attention could be used to ignore the speech-like background and provide an enriched representation of target items in working memory similar to that obtained in quiet. This interpretation is supported by a consistent association between CSCT scores and updating skills.

  11. Investigating the Difficulties and Problems Faced by the English Language Students of Al Quds Open University in Legal Translation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Maher Mahmoud Al-Nakhalah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following experimental descriptive method, the paper explores the difficulties and problems faced by the English language students of Al Quds Open University in legal translation process; that is, while translating legal terms/documents from Arabic to English and from English to Arabic. A test was designed by the researcher in order to explore and investigate the difficulties and problems faced by the students. The test included four questions: 1 Translating English legal paragraph, 2 Translating Arabic legal paragraph, 3 Translating ten Arabic legal terms and 4 Translating ten English legal terms. The test was applied on the English language students of Al Quds Open University in Gaza Region in Palestine during the second course of the academic year 2010/2011. The samples of the study were chosen and selected randomly. Following suitable statistical methods, the paper offers the obtained results with critical discussion. Possible solutions, recommendations and suggestions to overcome these difficulties and problems also form important parts of the discussion in the paper.

  12. An FPGA-based design of a modular approach for integral images in a real-time face detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hau T.; Rakvic, Ryan N.; Broussard, Randy P.; Ives, Robert W.

    2009-05-01

    The first step in a facial recognition system is to find and extract human faces in a static image or video frame. Most face detection methods are based on statistical models that can be trained and then used to classify faces. These methods are effective but the main drawback is speed because a massive number of sub-windows at different image scales are considered in the detection procedure. A robust face detection technique based on an encoded image known as an "integral image" has been proposed by Viola and Jones. The use of an integral image helps to reduce the number of operations to access a sub-image to a relatively small and fixed number. Additional speedup is achieved by incorporating a cascade of simple classifiers to quickly eliminate non-face sub-windows. Even with the reduced number of accesses to image data to extract features in Viola-Jones algorithm, the number of memory accesses is still too high to support realtime operations for high resolution images or video frames. The proposed hardware design in this research work employs a modular approach to represent the "integral image" for this memory-intensive application. An efficient memory manage strategy is also proposed to aggressively utilize embedded memory modules to reduce interaction with external memory chips. The proposed design is targeted for a low-cost FPGA prototype board for a cost-effective face detection/recognition system.

  13. Applications of text processing using natural processing system in Printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tadashi

    DAI NIPPON PRINTING CO., Ltd. developed a natural language processing system for the automatic indexing and assorting readable kana characters to kanji characters, which is called ruby. This system based on the automatic indexing system called INDEXER produced by NTT Communications and Information Processing Laboratories and NTT Data Communications Co., Ltd. This paper describes some applications using the system. This system creates kana characters for kanji characters which is