WorldWideScience

Sample records for face multiple barriers

  1. Nanomedicine Faces Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Debbage

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted nanoparticles have the potential to improve drug delivery efficiencies by more than two orders of magnitude, from the ~ 0.1% which is common today. Most pharmacologically agents on the market today are small drug molecules, which diffuse across the body’s blood-tissue barriers and distribute not only into the lesion, but into almost all organs. Drug actions in the non-lesion organs are an inescapable part of the drug delivery principle, causing “side-effects” which limit the maximally tolerable doses and result in inadequate therapy of many lesions. Nanoparticles only cross barriers by design, so side-effects are not built into their mode of operation. Delivery rates of almost 90% have been reported. This review examines the significance of these statements and checks how far they need qualification. What type of targeting is required? Is a single targeting sufficient? What new types of clinical challenge, such as immunogenicity, might attend the use of targeted nanoparticles?

  2. Barriers faced by Romanian SMEs in exporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana BOŞCOR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the most important barriers faced by Romanians SMEs in the process of exporting. The research was based on a focus group including 12 managers from different exporting companies from Brasov. The most important barriers encountered by companies were linked to currency fluctuations, methods of payment, lack of specialized staff, lack of financial resources and a low level of government support. Results from the study revealed that companies should have access at financing in order to invest in new technologies and to create higher quality products that could meet the requirements of the foreign buyers. In order to reduce the export barriers, small and medium sized exporters should create partnerships for reducing the costs of promotion in foreign markets. The government should also increase its support by offering exporters access at financing and market information at lower costs.

  3. Management of erectile dysfunction: barriers faced by general practitioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wah-YunLow; Chirk-JennNg; Ngiap-ChuanTan; Wan-YuenChoo; Hui-MengTan

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To explore the barriers faced by general practitioners (GPs) in the management of patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). Methods: This was a qualitative analysis of focus group discussions and in-depth interviews involving 28 Malaysian GPs. Results: GPs' perception of ED being not a serious condition was a major determinant of their prescribing practice. Doctor's age (younger), gender (female), short consultation time and lack of experience were cited as barriers. The GPs' prescribing habits were heavily influenced by the feedback from the first few patients under treatment, the uncertainty of etiology of ED without proper assessment and the profit margin with bulk purchase. Other barriers include Patients' coexisting medical conditions, older age, lower socio-economic status, unrealistic expectations and inappropriate use of the anti-impoteneet drugs. Cardiovascular side effects and cost were two most important drug barriers. Conclusion: The factors influencing the management of ED among the general practitioners were multiple and complex. An adequate understanding of how these factors (doctors, patientsand drugs) interact can assist in the formulation and implementation of strategies that encourage GPs to identify and manage ED patients.

  4. Multiple Face Location Using Motion Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Face location is a difficult problem for face recognition and multiple face location is more challenging. In this paper, two new methods are presented for multiple face location via motion analysis techniques. The first method is based on motion segmentation. The authors introduce a new segmentation method by computing optical flow only on the Motion Zero-Crossing Boundary (MZCB) followed by a simple clustering method to segment each person. Then an intuitive but effective location algorithm is applied to locate each face. The second method is derived from the Hough Transform (HT). After modeling a head outline as a curve consisting of circle segments, a modified HT is used to find the center of each face. Finally, the two methods are compared and the future research directions are given.

  5. Realistic face modeling based on multiple deformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Xun; WANG Guo-yin

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the assumption that the human face belongs to a linear class, a multiple-deformation model is proposed to recover face shape from a few points on a single 2D image. Compared to the conventional methods, this study has the following advantages. First, the proposed modified 3D sparse deforming model is a noniterative approach that can compute global translation efficiently and accurately. Subsequently, the overfitting problem can be alleviated based on the proposed multiple deformation model. Finally, by keeping the main features, the texture generated is realistic. The comparison results show that this novel method outperforms the existing methods by using ground truth data and that realistic 3D faces can be recovered efficiently from a single photograph.

  6. Barriers in health care access faced by children with intellectual disabilities living in rural Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubin Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intellectual disability from a pre-existing community development project in the Sahadoli Kadim block of rural Uttar Pradesh. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the local practitioners frequented by these caregivers. Results: Barriers identified were grouped under cognitive, structural and financial barriers which were found to be consistent with the Health Care Access Barrier Model (Carrillo, et al., 2011; WHO, 2011. Cognitive barriers included caregivers being unable to identify the complex health needs of their children. Caregivers lacked appropriate knowledge of intellectual disability, with doctors failing to educate them. Structural and financial barriers encompassed poor availability of healthcare providers and contributed to poor access to specialists. Caregivers had no information about government financial aid and healthcare providers did not refer them to these. Conclusion: Children with intellectual disabilities are forced to live with a poor quality of life because of cognitive, structural and financial barriers they face in accessing health care. Results are specific to children with intellectual disability in rural Sahadoli Kadim and could be used to inform policies and strategies to reduce disparities in health care access for these children.

  7. Janus faces of microglia in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Patricia; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of neurological disability in young adults. The disease is characterized by inflammatory reactions, demyelination and axonal loss in the brain, spinal cord and optic nerves. Microglia seem to play an important role in the inflammatory processes in MS,

  8. Face detection based on multiple kernel learning algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Cao, Siming; He, Jun; Yu, Lejun

    2016-09-01

    Face detection is important for face localization in face or facial expression recognition, etc. The basic idea is to determine whether there is a face in an image or not, and also its location, size. It can be seen as a binary classification problem, which can be well solved by support vector machine (SVM). Though SVM has strong model generalization ability, it has some limitations, which will be deeply analyzed in the paper. To access them, we study the principle and characteristics of the Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) and propose a MKL-based face detection algorithm. In the paper, we describe the proposed algorithm in the interdisciplinary research perspective of machine learning and image processing. After analyzing the limitation of describing a face with a single feature, we apply several ones. To fuse them well, we try different kernel functions on different feature. By MKL method, the weight of each single function is determined. Thus, we obtain the face detection model, which is the kernel of the proposed method. Experiments on the public data set and real life face images are performed. We compare the performance of the proposed algorithm with the single kernel-single feature based algorithm and multiple kernels-single feature based algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is illustrated. Keywords: face detection, feature fusion, SVM, MKL

  9. Multiple barriers in forced rupture of protein complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Hyeon, Changbong

    2012-01-01

    Curvatures in the most probable rupture force ($f^*$) versus log-loading rate ($\\log{r_f}$) observed in dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) on biomolecular complexes are interpreted using a one-dimensional free energy profile with multiple barriers or a single barrier with force-dependent transition state. Here, we provide a criterion to select one scenario over another. If the rupture dynamics occurs by crossing a single barrier in a physical free energy profile describing unbinding, the exponent $\

  10. Unified framework of face hallucination across multiple modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiang; Liu, Junhui; Li, Wenmin

    2015-02-01

    Face hallucination in a single modality environment has been heavily studied, in real-world environments under multiple modalities is still in its early stage. This paper presents a unified framework to solve face hallucination problem across multiple modalities i.e. different expressions, poses, illuminations. Almost all of the state-of-the-art face superresolution methods only generate a single output with the same modality of the low-resolution input. Our proposed framework is able to generate multiple outputs of different new modalities from only a single low-resolution input. It includes a global transformation with diagonal loading for modeling the mappings among different new facial modalities, and a local position-patch based method with weights compensation for incorporating image details. Experimental results illustrate the superiority of our framework.

  11. A color based face detection system using multiple templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 卜佳俊; 陈纯

    2003-01-01

    A color based system using multiple templates was developed and implemented for detecting human faces in color images. The algorithm consists of three image processing steps. The first step is human skin color statistics. Then it separates skin regions from non-skin regions. After that, it locates the frontal human face(s) within the skin regions. In the first step, 250 skin samples from persons of different ethnicities are used to determine the color distribution of human skin in chromatic color space in order to get a chroma chart showing likelihoods of skin colors. This chroma chart is used to generate, from the original color image, a gray scale image whose gray value at a pixel shows its likelihood of representing the skin. The algorithm uses an adaptive thresholding process to achieve the optimal threshold value for dividing the gray scale image into separate skin regions from non skin regions. Finally, multiple face templates matching is used to determine if a given skin region represents a frontal human face or not. Test of the system with more than 400 color images showed that the resulting detection rate was 83%, which is better than most color-based face detection systems. The average speed for face detection is 0.8 second/image (400×300 pixels) on a Pentium 3 (800MHz) PC.

  12. A color based face detection system using multiple templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 卜佳酸; 陈纯

    2003-01-01

    A color based system using multiple templates was developed and implemented for detecting hu-man faces in color images.The algorithm comsists of three image processing steps.The first step is human skin color statistics.Then it separates skin regions from non-skin regions.After that,it locates the frontal human face(s) within the skin regions.In the first step,250 skin samples from persons of different ethnicities are used to determine the color distribution of human skin in chromatic color space in order to get a chroma chart showing likelihoods of skin colors.This chroma chart is used to generate,from the original color image,a gray scale image whose gray value at a pixel shows its likelihood of representing the shin,The algorithm uses an adaptive thresholding process to achieve the optimal threshold value for dividing the gray scale image into sep-arate skin regions from non skin regions.Finally,multiple face templates matching is used to determine if a given skin region represents a frontal human face or not.Test of the system with more than 400 color images showed that the resulting detection rate was 83%,which is better than most colou-based face detection sys-tems.The average speed for face detection is 0.8 second/image(400×300pixels) on a Pentium 3(800MHz) PC.

  13. Barriers Facing Physicians Practicing Evidence-Based Medicine in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Almaie, Sameeh M.; Al-Baghli, Nadira

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Tremendous advances in health care have been made through the development of evidence-based medicine (EBM). Studies show that physicians face barriers in practice, preventing the effective use of the best evidence available. Insight into these barriers should pave the way for an action plan to remove them. The aim of this study was…

  14. Multiple pyogenic granulomas on the face after landmine injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, Vedat; Aliagaoglu, Cihangir; Yildiz, Abdullah; Emsen, Murat

    2008-01-01

    In this report, we present a 13-year-old male patient with multiple pyogenic granulomas (PG) on the face after landmine injury. To the best of our knowledge, PG after landmine injury has not been reported previously. The case has been reported in view of its rarity and its etiology.

  15. Exploring manifold structure of face images via multiple graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Masheal

    2013-12-24

    Geometric structure in the data provides important information for face image recognition and classification tasks. Graph regularized non-negative matrix factorization (GrNMF) performs well in this task. However, it is sensitive to the parameters selection. Wang et al. proposed multiple graph regularized non-negative matrix factorization (MultiGrNMF) to solve the parameter selection problem by testing it on medical images. In this paper, we introduce the MultiGrNMF algorithm in the context of still face Image classification, and conduct a comparative study of NMF, GrNMF, and MultiGrNMF using two well-known face databases. Experimental results show that MultiGrNMF outperforms NMF and GrNMF for most cases.

  16. The Effect of Fearful Expressions on Multiple Face Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Jin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available How does the visual system realize dynamic tracking? This topic has become popular within cognitive science in recent years. The classical theory argues that multiple object tracking is accomplished via pre-attention visual indexes as part of a cognitively impenetrable low-level visual system. The present research aimed to investigate whether and how tracking processes are influenced by facial expressions that convey abundant social information about one’s mental state and situated environment. The results showed that participants tracked fearful faces more effectively than neutral faces. However, this advantage was only present under the low-attentional load condition, and distractor face emotion did not impact tracking performance. These findings imply that visual tracking is not driven entirely by low-level vision and encapsulated by high-level representations; rather, that facial expressions, a kind of social information, are able to influence dynamic tracking. Furthermore, the effect of fearful expressions on multiple face tracking is mediated by the availability of attentional resources.

  17. Multiple Kernel Learning in Fisher Discriminant Analysis for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Zhang Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent applications and developments based on support vector machines (SVMs have shown that using multiple kernels instead of a single one can enhance classifier performance. However, there are few reports on performance of the kernel‐based Fisher discriminant analysis (kernel‐based FDA method with multiple kernels. This paper proposes a multiple kernel construction method for kernel‐based FDA. The constructed kernel is a linear combination of several base kernels with a constraint on their weights. By maximizing the margin maximization criterion (MMC, we present an iterative scheme for weight optimization. The experiments on the FERET and CMU PIE face databases show that, our multiple kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (MKFD achieves high recognition performance, compared with single‐kernel‐based FDA. The experiments also show that the constructed kernel relaxes parameter selection for kernel‐based FDA to some extent.

  18. Leveraging Billions of Faces to Overcome Performance Barriers in Unconstrained Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Taigman, Yaniv

    2011-01-01

    We employ the face recognition technology developed in house at face.com to a well accepted benchmark and show that without any tuning we are able to considerably surpass state of the art results. Much of the improvement is concentrated in the high-valued performance point of zero false positive matches, where the obtained recall rate almost doubles the best reported result to date. We discuss the various components and innovations of our system that enable this significant performance gap. These components include extensive utilization of an accurate 3D reconstructed shape model dealing with challenges arising from pose and illumination. In addition, discriminative models based on billions of faces are used in order to overcome aging and facial expression as well as low light and overexposure. Finally, we identify a challenging set of identification queries that might provide useful focus for future research.

  19. Barriers Teachers Face in Integrating ICT during English Lessons: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Kumutha; Yamat, Hamidah

    2014-01-01

    The government has assured all Malaysians that no one; both in rural and urban areas; would be deprived of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development. This calls for a need for teachers nationwide to make necessary adjustments to the teaching and learning process. This paper takes a closer look at the barriers faced by teachers…

  20. Numerical investigation into effect of rear barrier pillar on stress distribution around a longwall face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠明和; 李学华; 姚强岭; 李冬伟; 种照辉; 周健

    2015-01-01

    Numerical investigation was performed to examine the effect of rear barrier pillar on stress distribution around a longwall face. Salamon theoretical formula was used to calculate the parameters of the caving zone, which was later assigned to double yield constitutive model in FLAC3D. Numerical results demonstrate that high stress concentration zone exists above the region where the second open-off cut intersects with the rear barrier pillar due to stress transfer and plastic zone expansion. It is also found that the maximum vertical stresses with varied distance to the seam floor are all within the projective plane of the rear barrier pillar and their positions concentrate on the barrier pillar adjacent to the connection corner of the second open-off cut. In addition, position of the maximum vertical stresses abruptly transfer from the connection corner adjacent to former panel to that adjacent to current panel along the panel direction.

  1. Transparent face recognition in an unconstrained environment using a Sparse representation from multiple still images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.M. Ben Schouten; Dr. Johan Tangelder

    2006-01-01

    In a real-world environment a face detector can be applied to extract multiple face images from multiple video streams without constraints on pose and illumination. The extracted face images will have varying image quality and resolution. Moreover, also the detected faces will not be precisely

  2. Transparent face recognition in an unconstrained environment using a Sparse representation from multiple still images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangelder, Johan; Schouten, Ben

    2006-01-01

    In a real-world environment a face detector can be applied to extract multiple face images from multiple video streams without constraints on pose and illumination. The extracted face images will have varying image quality and resolution. Moreover, also the detected faces will not be precisely align

  3. Epstein Barr Virus and Blood Brain Barrier in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune neurodegenerative disease. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with MS pathogenesis. However, mechanism for the EBV-MS connection is unclear. The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a separation of circulating blood and the brain extracellular fluid in the central nervous system. BBB contains both endothelial cells as well as astrocytes. Interestingly EBV is able to infect both kinds of cells. Because EBV is able to transfer infection from one cell type to another cell type, it is thus hypothesized that EBV uses

  4. Safety-net Hospitals Face More Barriers Yet Use Fewer Strategies to Reduce Readmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Jose F; Joynt, Karen E; Zhou, Xiner; Orav, Endel J; Jha, Ashish K

    2017-03-01

    US hospitals that care for vulnerable populations, "safety-net hospitals" (SNHs), are more likely to incur penalties under the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, which penalizes hospitals with higher-than-expected readmissions. Understanding whether SNHs face unique barriers to reducing readmissions or whether they underuse readmission-prevention strategies is important. We surveyed leadership at 1600 US acute care hospitals, of whom 980 participated, between June 2013 and January 2014. Responses on 28 questions on readmission-related barriers and strategies were compared between SNHs and non-SNHs, adjusting for nonresponse and sampling strategy. We further compared responses between high-performing SNHs and low-performing SNHs. We achieved a 62% response rate. SNHs were more likely to report patient-related barriers, including lack of transportation, homelessness, and language barriers compared with non-SNHs (P-valuesbarriers, SNHs were less likely to use e-tools to share discharge summaries (70.1% vs. 73.7%, Pcommunicate (31.5% vs. 39.8%, Pbarriers to reducing readmissions, SNHs were less likely to use readmission-reduction strategies. This combination of higher barriers and lower use of strategies may explain why SNHs have higher rates of readmissions and penalties under the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program.

  5. Reorientation of health services: enablers and barriers faced by organisations when increasing health promotion capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, K; Judd, J; Devine, S; Watt, K

    2016-04-20

    Issue addressed: Primary healthcare settings are important providers of health promotion approaches. However, organisational challenges can affect their capacity to deliver these approaches. This review identified the common enablers and barriers health organisations faced and it aimed to explore the experiences health organisations, in particular Aboriginal organisations, had when increasing their health promotion capacity.Methods: A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature was conducted. Articles published between 1990-2014 that focused on a health care-settings approach and discussed factors that facilitated or hindered an organisation's ability to increase health promotion capacity were included.Results: Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative (n = 18) and quantitative (n = 7) study designs were included. Only one article described the experiences of an Aboriginal health organisation. Enablers included: management support, skilled staff, provision of external support to the organisation, committed staffing and financial resources, leadership and the availability of external partners to work with. Barriers included: lack of management support, lack of dedicated health promotion staff, staff lacking skills or confidence, competing priorities and a lack of time and resources allocated to health promotion activities.Conclusions: While the literature highlighted the importance of health promotion work, barriers can limit the delivery of health promotion approaches within primary healthcare organisations. A gap in the literature exists about how Aboriginal health organisations face these challenges.So what?: Primary healthcare organisations wanting to increase their health promotion capacity can pre-empt the common barriers and strengthen identified enablers through the shared learnings outlined in this review.

  6. Multiple host barriers restrict poliovirus trafficking in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon K Kuss

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available RNA viruses such as poliovirus have high mutation rates, and a diverse viral population is likely required for full virulence. We previously identified limitations on poliovirus spread after peripheral injection of mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor (PVR, and we hypothesized that the host interferon response may contribute to the viral bottlenecks. Here, we examined poliovirus population bottlenecks in PVR mice and in PVR mice that lack the interferon alpha/beta receptor (PVR-IFNAR-/-, an important component of innate immunity. To monitor population dynamics, we developed a pool of ten marked polioviruses discriminated by a novel hybridization-based assay. Following intramuscular or intraperitoneal injection of the ten-virus pool, a major bottleneck was observed during transit to the brain in PVR mice, but was absent in PVR-IFNAR-/- mice, suggesting that the interferon response was a determinant of the peripheral site-to-brain bottleneck. Since poliovirus infects humans by the fecal-oral route, we tested whether bottlenecks exist after oral inoculation of PVR-IFNAR-/- mice. Despite the lack of a bottleneck following peripheral injection of PVR-IFNAR-/- mice, we identified major bottlenecks in orally inoculated animals, suggesting physical barriers may contribute to the oral bottlenecks. Interestingly, two of the three major bottlenecks we identified were partially overcome by pre-treating mice with dextran sulfate sodium, which damages the colonic epithelium. Overall, we found that viral trafficking from the gut to other body sites, including the CNS, is a very dynamic, stochastic process. We propose that multiple host barriers and the resulting limited poliovirus population diversity may help explain the rare occurrence of viral CNS invasion and paralytic poliomyelitis. These natural host barriers are likely to play a role in limiting the spread of many microbes.

  7. Combination of multiple measurement cues for visual face tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarakis, Nikolaos; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Visual face tracking is an important building block for all intelligent living and working spaces, as it is able to locate persons without any human intervention or the need for the users to carry sensors on themselves. In this paper we present a novel face tracking system built on a particle...

  8. AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE BARRIERS FACING BLACK AND MINORITY ETHNICS WITHIN THE UK CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vian Ahmed

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK construction industry is one of the largest employers, positioned as the country’s top employer with over two million employees and projected to continue growth as far as 2011. However, it is facing ongoing skills shortages in a number of professional areas and tends to lack an ethnic diversity of workers compared to the White community of workers across the whole economy. The government’s Ethnic Minority Employment Task Force shows that for any given level of qualification, a Black or ethnic minority person is less likely to be employed, than a similarly qualified White person. Current research into issues surrounding ethnicity, from academia to employment is scarce, particularly in entry and process development within the construction industry. The aim of this paper is to outline the findings from perceptional and experiential barriers of Black and Minority Ethnics (BMEs students and employees, in order to identify perceptional and actual barriers that lead to the under-representation of BMEs within the construction industry; and also to suggest how better knowledge flow mechanisms could lead to a more balanced development, particularly in terms of ethnic diversification in the UK construction industry. The aim was achieved by adopting qualitative and quantitative methods including questionnaire surveys of undergraduate students in a construction related program, employees working within the construction industry and interviews with company directors and human resource managers. The image of the construction industry is found to be one of the major barriers for entry into the industry. Language and cultures form additional barriers for a range of ethnic groupings. Support, in the form of recruitment events, training, mentoring, professional networking, as well as work placement and experience schemes, can smooth entry, retention and progression within the construction industry.

  9. Final disposal in deep boreholes using multiple geological barriers. Digging deeper for safety. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracke, Guido; Hurst, Stephanie; Merkel, Broder; Mueller, Birgit; Schilling, Frank

    2016-03-15

    The proceedings of the workshop on final disposal in deep boreholes using multiple geological barriers - digging deeper for safety include contributions on the following topics: international status and safety requirements; geological and physical barriers; deep drilling - shaft building; technical barriers and emplacement technology for high P/T conditions; recovery (waste retrieval); geochemistry and monitoring.

  10. Multiple deep convolutional neural networks averaging for face alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Yang, Hua; Yin, Zhouping

    2015-05-01

    Face alignment is critical for face recognition, and the deep learning-based method shows promise for solving such issues, given that competitive results are achieved on benchmarks with additional benefits, such as dispensing with handcrafted features and initial shape. However, most existing deep learning-based approaches are complicated and quite time-consuming during training. We propose a compact face alignment method for fast training without decreasing its accuracy. Rectified linear unit is employed, which allows all networks approximately five times faster convergence than a tanh neuron. An eight learnable layer deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) based on local response normalization and a padding convolutional layer (PCL) is designed to provide reliable initial values during prediction. A model combination scheme is presented to further reduce errors, while showing that only two network architectures and hyperparameter selection procedures are required in our approach. A three-level cascaded system is ultimately built based on the DCNNs and model combination mode. Extensive experiments validate the effectiveness of our method and demonstrate comparable accuracy with state-of-the-art methods on BioID, labeled face parts in the wild, and Helen datasets.

  11. A face recognition algorithm based on multiple individual discriminative models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2005-01-01

    Abstract—In this paper, a novel algorithm for facial recognition is proposed. The technique combines the color texture and geometrical configuration provided by face images. Landmarks and pixel intensities are used by Principal Component Analysis and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis to associate...... facial image corresponds to a person in the database. Each projection is also able to visualizing the most discriminative facial features of the person associated to the projection. The performance of the proposed method is tested in two experiments. Results point out the proposed technique...... as an accurate and robust tool for facial identification and unknown detection....

  12. Face image analysis using a multiple features fitting strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Romdhani, Sami

    2005-01-01

    The main contribution of this thesis is a novel algorithm for fitting a Three-Dimensional Morphable Model of faces to a 2D input image. This fitting algorithm enables the estimation of the 3D shape, the texture, the 3D pose and the light direction from a single input image. Generally, the algorithms tackling the problem of 3D shape estimation from image data use only the pixels intensity as input to drive the estimation process. This was previously achieved using either a simple model, such as ...

  13. Beauty is better pursued: effects of attractiveness in multiple-face tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang Hong; Chen, Wenfeng

    2012-01-01

    Using the multiple-object tracking paradigm, this study examines how spontaneous appraisal for facial beauty affects distributed attention to multiple faces in dynamic displays. Observers tracked attractive faces more effectively than unattractive faces in this task. Tracking performance was only affected by target attractiveness, suggesting an absence of appraisal for distractor attractiveness. Attractive male faces also produced stronger binding of face identity and location for female participants. Together, the results suggest that facial attractiveness was appraised during tracking even though this was task irrelevant. Contrary to the theory that multiple-object tracking is driven by encapsulated low-level vision, our results show that the content of target representation is not only penetrable by social cognition but also modulates the course of tracking operations.

  14. Learning a sparse representation from multiple still images for on-line face recognition in an unconstrained environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangelder, Johan; Schouten, Ben

    2006-01-01

    In a real-world environment a face detector can be applied to extract multiple face images from multiple video streams without constraints on pose and illumination. The extracted face images will have varying image quality and resolution. Moreover, also the detected faces will not be precisely align

  15. Evaluation of Schottky barrier height on 4H-SiC m-face \\{ 1\\bar{1}00\\} for Schottky barrier diode wall integrated trench MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Ishimori, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Akimasa; Kojima, Takahito; Takei, Manabu; Kimura, Hiroshi; Harada, Shinsuke

    2017-04-01

    We proposed an Schottky barrier diode wall integrated trench MOSFET (SWITCH-MOS) for the purposes of shrinking the cell pitch and suppressing the forward degradation of the body diode. A trench Schottky barrier diode (SBD) was integrated into a trench gate MOSFET with a wide shielding p+ region that protected the trench bottoms of both the SBD and the MOS gate from high electrical fields in the off state. The SBD was placed on the trench sidewall of the \\{ 1\\bar{1}00\\} plane (m-face). Static and transient simulations revealed that SWITCH-MOS sufficiently suppressed the bipolar current that induced forward degradation, and we determined that the optimum Schottky barrier height (SBH) was from 0.8 to 2.0 eV. The SBH depends on the crystal planes in 4H-SiC, but the SBH of the m-face was unclear. We fabricated a planar m-face SBD for the first time, and we obtained SBHs from 1.4 to 1.8 eV experimentally with titanium or nickel as a Schottky metal.

  16. Finding Medical Care for Colorectal Cancer Symptoms: Experiences among Those Facing Financial Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Maria D.; Siminoff, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Financial barriers can substantially delay medical care seeking. Using patient narratives provided by 252 colorectal cancer patients, we explored the experience of financial barriers to care seeking. Of the 252 patients interviewed, 84 identified financial barriers as a significant hurdle to obtaining health care for their colorectal cancer…

  17. Improving the safety net for single mothers who face serious barriers to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Rebecca M

    2007-01-01

    Rebecca Blank explores a weakness of the welfare reforms of the mid-1990s--the failure of the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families program to address the plight of so-called "hard to employ" single mothers and their children. TANF has moved many women on the welfare caseload into work, but the services it provides are not intensive or flexible enough to meet the needs of women with multiple disadvantages who find it difficult to get and keep full-time employment. Blank notes that many of these women have lost welfare benefits because of their failure to find work. Increasingly, studies show that the number of single mothers who are neither working nor on welfare has grown significantly over the past ten years. Such "disconnected" women now make up 20 to 25 percent of all low-income single mothers, and reported income in these families is extremely low. Disconnected women are likely to report multiple and serious barriers to work, including low education, learning disabilities, health problems, or a history of domestic violence or substance abuse. Counting both longer-term welfare recipients and women who are neither working nor on welfare, Blank estimates that about 2.2 million women who head families are not able to find jobs or, if they do, cannot keep them. And almost 4 million children are in the care of these severely challenged single mothers. Blank proposes a Temporary and Partial Work Waiver Program to provide more effective employment assistance and other supports for these women and their children. The program she proposes would recognize that some women might be able to work only part-time or be temporarily unable to work. It would supplement their earnings while also offering referral to services that both address their own work barriers and provide help for their children. The support, however, would be temporary. Women would be regularly reassessed for their readiness to return to work or work more hours. Such a program, Blank notes, would require

  18. Method of multiple internal reflections in description of tunneling evolution through barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Olkhovsky, Vladislav S

    2000-01-01

    A method of a non-stationary description of tunneling of a particle through the one-dimensional and spherically symmetric rectangular barriers on the basis of analisis of multiple internal reflections of wave packets in relation on the barrier boundaries, named as the Method of multiple internal reflections, is presented at the first time. For the one-dimensional problem the applicability of this method is proved, its specific features are analyzed. For the spherically symmetric problem the amplitudes of the transmitted and reflected wave packets, times of tunneling and reflection in relation to the barrier are calculated using this method. The effect of Hartman-Fletcher is analyzed.

  19. From rhetoric to reality: barriers faced by Health For All initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Dina; Springett, Jane

    2006-07-01

    The last two decades have witnessed an upsurge in the development and implementation of 'Health For All-type' initiatives in many parts of the world. However, despite the popularity of the approach, barriers and constraints to the fulfillment of their remit still persist, making it difficult for them to achieve the potential originally envisaged. Drawing upon considerable empirical work while evaluating the European Healthy City projects and English Health Action Zones, this paper explores the differences between barriers and constraints and then focuses on barriers as they manifest themselves in England. It distinguishes between cultural barriers, stemming from different philosophical, organisational, and professional/experiential cultures, and political barriers, stemming from both party political and realpolitik concerns. It discusses how these barriers often operate together, compounding their individual impacts, with detrimental effects for Health For All initiatives. Consequently, while the prevailing rhetoric appears to promote an alternative, and more appropriate, vision of how health can be maintained and enhanced, these barriers effectively function to sustain the hegemony of the status quo which was, and is, based on a different and outdated vision. We argue that acknowledging the continuous persistence of these barriers is an essential first step towards turning the prevailing health-related rhetoric into reality.

  20. Giant viruses: The difficult breaking of multiple epistemological barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal

    2016-10-01

    The discovery of the first "giant virus", Mimivirus, in 2003 could solely have been that of an exceptional freak, a blind alley of evolution as occasionally encountered in biology, albeit without conceptual significance. On the contrary, once broken this epistemological barrier, additional unrelated families of giant viruses such as the Pandoraviruses, the Pithoviruses and most recently Mollivirus, were quickly unraveled, suggesting that an entire chapter of microbiology had been ignored since Pasteur and Ivanovski. In this article, we examine to what extent the giant viruses challenge previous definitions of viruses, the diversity of forms they could take, and how they might have evolved from extinct ancestral cellular lineages. Inspired by the epistemology of Gaston Bachelard, we will also suggest the reasons for which giant viruses laid hidden in plain sight for more than a century. Finally, we propose a new definition for "viruses" that paradoxically emphasize the fact that they do not encode a single universally shared macromolecule or biochemical function.

  1. 3D face recognition based on multiple keypoint descriptors and sparse representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing methods for 3D face recognition. However, 3D scans often suffer from the problems of missing parts, large facial expressions, and occlusions. To be useful in real-world applications, a 3D face recognition approach should be able to handle these challenges. In this paper, we propose a novel general approach to deal with the 3D face recognition problem by making use of multiple keypoint descriptors (MKD and the sparse representation-based classification (SRC. We call the proposed method 3DMKDSRC for short. Specifically, with 3DMKDSRC, each 3D face scan is represented as a set of descriptor vectors extracted from keypoints by meshSIFT. Descriptor vectors of gallery samples form the gallery dictionary. Given a probe 3D face scan, its descriptors are extracted at first and then its identity can be determined by using a multitask SRC. The proposed 3DMKDSRC approach does not require the pre-alignment between two face scans and is quite robust to the problems of missing data, occlusions and expressions. Its superiority over the other leading 3D face recognition schemes has been corroborated by extensive experiments conducted on three benchmark databases, Bosphorus, GavabDB, and FRGC2.0. The Matlab source code for 3DMKDSRC and the related evaluation results are publicly available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/3dmkdsrcface/3dmkdsrc.htm.

  2. Multiple External Representations: Bridges or Barriers to Climate Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    The continuous barrage of science related headlines and other media sources warn us of the need to heed the imperative for a science literate society. Climate change, genetics, evolution are a few of the charged and complex scientific topics requiring public understanding of the science to fully grasp the enormous reach of these topics in our daily lives. For instance, our global climate is changing as evidenced by the analysis of Earth observing satellite data, in-situ data, and proxy data records. How we as a global society decide to address the needs associated with a changing climate are contingent upon having a population that understands how the climate system functions, and can therefore make informed decisions on how to mitigate the effects of climate change. Communication in science relies heavily on the use of multiple representations to support the claims presented. However, these multiple representations require spatial and temporal skills to interpret information portrayed in them, and how a person engages with complex text and the multiple representations varies with the level of expertise one has with the content area. For example, a climatologist will likely identify anomalous data more quickly than a novice when presented with a graph of temperature change over time. These representations are used throughout textbooks as well as popular reading materials such as newspapers and magazines without much consideration for how a reader engages with complex text, diagrams, images, and graphs. If the ability to read and interact with scientific text found in popular literature is perceived as a worthy goal of scientific literacy, then it is imperative that readers understand the relationship between multiple representations and the text while interacting with the science literature they are reading. For example, in climate related articles multiple representations not only support the content, but they are part of the content not to be overlooked by a

  3. Barriers faced by healthcare professionals when managing falls in older people in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Annaletchumy; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Tan, Maw Pin; Low, Wah Yun

    2015-11-05

    To explore the barriers faced by healthcare professionals (HCPs) in managing falls among older people (aged above 60 years) who have a high risk of falling. The study used a qualitative methodology, comprising 10 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions. A semistructured topic guide was used to facilitate the interviews, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked for accuracy. Data were analysed thematically using WeftQDA software. 20 HCPs who managed falls in older people. This study was conducted at the Primary Care Clinic in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia. Four categories of barriers emerged-these were related to perceived barriers for older people, HCPs' barriers, lack of caregiver support and healthcare system barriers. HCPs perceived that older people normalised falls, felt stigmatised, were fatalistic, as well as in denial regarding falls-related advice. HCPs themselves trivialised falls and lacked the skills to manage falls. Rehabilitation was impeded by premature decisions to admit older people to nursing homes. Lastly, there was a lack of healthcare providers as well as a dearth of fall education and training on fall prevention for HCPs. This study identified barriers that explain poor fall management in older people with a high risk of falls. The lack of structured fall prevention guidelines and insufficient training in fall management made HCPs unable to advise patients on how to prevent falls. The findings of this study warrant evidence-based structured fall prevention intervention targeted to patients as well as to HCPs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. APPLICATION OF BINARY DESCRIPTORS TO MULTIPLE FACE TRACKING IN VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Oleinik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with the problem of multiple face tracking in a video stream. The primary application of the implemented tracking system is the automatic video surveillance. The particular operating conditions of surveillance cameras are taken into account in order to increase the efficiency of the system in comparison to existing general-purpose analogs. Method. The developed system is comprised of two subsystems: detector and tracker. The tracking subsystem does not depend on the detector, and thus various face detection methods can be used. Furthermore, only a small portion of frames is processed by the detector in this structure, substantially improving the operation rate. The tracking algorithm is based on BRIEF binary descriptors that are computed very efficiently on modern processor architectures. Main Results. The system is implemented in C++ and the experiments on the processing rate and quality evaluation are carried out. MOTA and MOTP metrics are used for tracking quality measurement. The experiments demonstrated the four-fold processing rate gain in comparison to the baseline implementation that processes every video frame with the detector. The tracking quality is on the adequate level when compared to the baseline. Practical Relevance. The developed system can be used with various face detectors (including slow ones to create a fully functional high-speed multiple face tracking solution. The algorithm is easy to implement and optimize, so it may be applied not only in full-scale video surveillance systems, but also in embedded solutions integrated directly into cameras.

  5. Permeability of the blood–brain barrier predicts conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modvig, Signe; Simonsen, Helle J.; Frederiksen, Jette L.; Larsson, Henrik B. W.

    2015-01-01

    Optic neuritis is an acute inflammatory condition that is highly associated with multiple sclerosis. Currently, the best predictor of future development of multiple sclerosis is the number of T2 lesions visualized by magnetic resonance imaging. Previous research has found abnormalities in the permeability of the blood–brain barrier in normal-appearing white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis and here, for the first time, we present a study on the capability of blood–brain barrier permeability in predicting conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis and a direct comparison with cerebrospinal fluid markers of inflammation, cellular trafficking and blood–brain barrier breakdown. To this end, we applied dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T to measure blood–brain barrier permeability in 39 patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis, all referred for imaging as part of the diagnostic work-up at time of diagnosis. Eighteen healthy controls were included for comparison. Patients had magnetic resonance imaging and lumbar puncture performed within 4 weeks of onset of optic neuritis. Information on multiple sclerosis conversion was acquired from hospital records 2 years after optic neuritis onset. Logistic regression analysis showed that baseline permeability in normal-appearing white matter significantly improved prediction of multiple sclerosis conversion (according to the 2010 revised McDonald diagnostic criteria) within 2 years compared to T2 lesion count alone. There was no correlation between permeability and T2 lesion count. An increase in permeability in normal-appearing white matter of 0.1 ml/100 g/min increased the risk of multiple sclerosis 8.5 times whereas having more than nine T2 lesions increased the risk 52.6 times. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of permeability in normal-appearing white matter gave a cut-off of 0.13 ml/100 g/min, which predicted conversion to multiple sclerosis with a

  6. Permeability of the blood-brain barrier predicts conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Stig P; Modvig, Signe; Simonsen, Helle J; Frederiksen, Jette L; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2015-09-01

    Optic neuritis is an acute inflammatory condition that is highly associated with multiple sclerosis. Currently, the best predictor of future development of multiple sclerosis is the number of T2 lesions visualized by magnetic resonance imaging. Previous research has found abnormalities in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in normal-appearing white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis and here, for the first time, we present a study on the capability of blood-brain barrier permeability in predicting conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis and a direct comparison with cerebrospinal fluid markers of inflammation, cellular trafficking and blood-brain barrier breakdown. To this end, we applied dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T to measure blood-brain barrier permeability in 39 patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis, all referred for imaging as part of the diagnostic work-up at time of diagnosis. Eighteen healthy controls were included for comparison. Patients had magnetic resonance imaging and lumbar puncture performed within 4 weeks of onset of optic neuritis. Information on multiple sclerosis conversion was acquired from hospital records 2 years after optic neuritis onset. Logistic regression analysis showed that baseline permeability in normal-appearing white matter significantly improved prediction of multiple sclerosis conversion (according to the 2010 revised McDonald diagnostic criteria) within 2 years compared to T2 lesion count alone. There was no correlation between permeability and T2 lesion count. An increase in permeability in normal-appearing white matter of 0.1 ml/100 g/min increased the risk of multiple sclerosis 8.5 times whereas having more than nine T2 lesions increased the risk 52.6 times. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of permeability in normal-appearing white matter gave a cut-off of 0.13 ml/100 g/min, which predicted conversion to multiple sclerosis with a sensitivity of

  7. Multiple scales combined principle component analysis deep learning network for face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lei; Fan, Chunxiao; Ming, Yue

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that higher level features can represent the abstract semantics of original data. We propose a multiple scales combined deep learning network to learn a set of high-level feature representations through each stage of convolutional neural network for face recognition, which is named as multiscaled principle component analysis (PCA) Network (MS-PCANet). There are two main differences between our model and the traditional deep learning network. On the one hand, we get the prefixed filter kernels by learning the principal component of images' patches using PCA, nonlinearly process the convolutional results by using simple binary hashing, and pool them using spatial pyramid pooling method. On the other hand, in our model, the output features of several stages are fed to the classifier. The purpose of combining feature representations from multiple stages is to provide multiscaled features to the classifier, since the features in the latter stage are more global and invariant than those in the early stage. Therefore, our MS-PCANet feature compactly encodes both holistic abstract information and local specific information. Extensive experimental results show our MS-PCANet model can efficiently extract high-level feature presentations and outperform state-of-the-art face/expression recognition methods on multiple modalities benchmark face-related datasets.

  8. What are the barriers faced by patients using insulin? A qualitative study of Malaysian health care professionals’ views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee YK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yew Kong Lee,1 Chirk Jenn Ng,1 Ping Yein Lee,2 Ee Ming Khoo,1 Khatijah Lim Abdullah,3 Wah Yun Low,4 Azah Abdul Samad,5 Wei Seng Chen61Department of Primary Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Family Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Department of Nursing Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 4Faculty of Medicine Dean's Office, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 5Klinik Kesihatan Pantai, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 6Klinik Alam Medic, Puchong, Selangor, MalaysiaBackground: Patients with type 2 diabetes often require insulin as the disease progresses. However, health care professionals frequently encounter challenges when managing patients who require insulin therapy. Understanding how health care professionals perceive the barriers faced by patients on insulin will facilitate care and treatment strategies.Objective: This study explores the views of Malaysian health care professionals on the barriers faced by patients using insulin.Methods: Semi-structured qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with health care professionals involved in diabetes care using insulin. Forty-one health care professionals participated in the study, consisting of primary care doctors (n = 20, family medicine specialists (n = 10, government policymakers (n = 5, diabetes educators (n = 3, endocrinologists (n = 2, and one pharmacist. We used a topic guide to facilitate the interviews, which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a thematic approach.Results: Five themes were identified as barriers: side effects, patient education, negative perceptions, blood glucose monitoring, and patient adherence to treatment and follow-up. Patients perceive that insulin therapy causes numerous negative side effects. There is a lack of patient education on proper glucose monitoring and how to optimize

  9. Barriers and facilitators adolescent females living with HIV face in accessing contraceptive services: a qualitative assessment of providers’ perceptions in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill M Hagey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Avoiding unintended pregnancies is important for the health of adolescents living with HIV and has the additional benefit of preventing potential vertical HIV transmission. Health facility providers represent an untapped resource in understanding the barriers and facilitators adolescents living with HIV face when accessing contraception. By understanding these barriers and facilitators to contraceptive use among adolescent females living with HIV, this study aimed to understand how best to promote contraception within this marginalized population. Methods: We conducted structured in-depth interviews with 40 providers at 21 Family AIDS Care & Education Services - supported clinics in Homabay, Kisumu and Migori counties in western Kenya from July to August 2014. Our interview guide explored the providers’ perspectives on contraceptive service provision to adolescent females living with HIV with the following specific domains: contraception screening and counselling, service provision, commodity security and clinic structure. Transcripts from the interviews were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Results: According to providers, interpersonal factors dominated the barriers adolescent females living with HIV face in accessing contraception. Providers felt that adolescent females fear disclosing their sexual activity to parents, peers and providers, because of repercussions of perceived promiscuity. Furthermore, providers mentioned that adolescents find seeking contraceptive services without a male partner challenging, because some providers and community members view adolescents unaccompanied by their partners as not being serious about their relationships or having multiple concurrent relationships. On the other hand, providers noted that institutional factors best facilitated contraception for these adolescents. Integration of contraception and HIV care allows easier access to contraceptives by removing the stigma of coming

  10. Barriers and facilitators adolescent females living with HIV face in accessing contraceptive services: a qualitative assessment of providers' perceptions in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagey, Jill M; Akama, Eliud; Ayieko, James; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; Patel, Rena C

    2015-01-01

    Avoiding unintended pregnancies is important for the health of adolescents living with HIV and has the additional benefit of preventing potential vertical HIV transmission. Health facility providers represent an untapped resource in understanding the barriers and facilitators adolescents living with HIV face when accessing contraception. By understanding these barriers and facilitators to contraceptive use among adolescent females living with HIV, this study aimed to understand how best to promote contraception within this marginalized population. We conducted structured in-depth interviews with 40 providers at 21 Family AIDS Care & Education Services - supported clinics in Homabay, Kisumu and Migori counties in western Kenya from July to August 2014. Our interview guide explored the providers' perspectives on contraceptive service provision to adolescent females living with HIV with the following specific domains: contraception screening and counselling, service provision, commodity security and clinic structure. Transcripts from the interviews were analyzed using inductive content analysis. According to providers, interpersonal factors dominated the barriers adolescent females living with HIV face in accessing contraception. Providers felt that adolescent females fear disclosing their sexual activity to parents, peers and providers, because of repercussions of perceived promiscuity. Furthermore, providers mentioned that adolescents find seeking contraceptive services without a male partner challenging, because some providers and community members view adolescents unaccompanied by their partners as not being serious about their relationships or having multiple concurrent relationships. On the other hand, providers noted that institutional factors best facilitated contraception for these adolescents. Integration of contraception and HIV care allows easier access to contraceptives by removing the stigma of coming to a clinic solely for contraceptive services. Youth

  11. The protective role of ethnic identity for urban adolescent males facing multiple stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna L; Aiyer, Sophie M; Durkee, Myles I; Tolan, Patrick H

    2014-10-01

    Having a connection to one's ethnic heritage is considered a protective factor in the face of discrimination; however, it is unclear whether the protective effects are persistent across multiple stressors. Furthermore, the dimensions of ethnic identity that reflect group pride/connection (affirmation) and exploration of the meaning of group membership (achievement) may operate differently in the face of stress. The present study examined the moderating role of ethnic identity affirmation and achievement on concurrent and longitudinal relationships between exposure to stress (discrimination, family hardship, exposure to violence) and antisocial behavior in a sample of 256 Black and Latino male youth (70% Black) living in low-income urban neighborhoods. Using regression analysis, concurrent associations were examined at age 18, and longitudinal associations were tested 18 months later. We found that, among youth experiencing discrimination, high levels of achievement and low levels of affirmation predicted greater aggressive behavior and delinquency. Low affirmation also predicted more criminal offending in the face of discrimination. The two dimensions operated similarly in the context of family stress, in which case high levels of affirmation and achievement predicted lower levels of antisocial behavior. The findings suggest a differential role of the two dimensions of ethnic identity with respect to discrimination; furthermore, the coping skills that may be promoted as youth make meaning of their ethnic group membership may serve as cultural assets in the face of family stress.

  12. When health systems are barriers to health care: challenges faced by uninsured Mexican kidney patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierans, Ciara; Padilla-Altamira, Cesar; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Ibarra-Hernandez, Margarita; Mercado, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease disproportionately affects the poor in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). Mexico exemplifies the difficulties faced in supporting Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) and providing equitable patient care, despite recent attempts at health reform. The objective of this study is to document the challenges faced by uninsured, poor Mexican families when attempting to access RRT. The article takes an ethnographic approach, using interviewing and observation to generate detailed accounts of the problems that accompany attempts to secure care. The study, based in the state of Jalisco, comprised interviews with patients, their caregivers, health and social care professionals, among others. Observations were carried out in both clinical and social settings. In the absence of organised health information and stable pathways to renal care, patients and their families work extraordinarily hard and at great expense to secure care in a mixed public-private healthcare system. As part of this work, they must navigate challenging health and social care environments, negotiate treatments and costs, resource and finance healthcare and manage a wide range of formal and informal health information. Examining commonalities across pathways to adequate healthcare reveals major failings in the Mexican system. These systemic problems serve to reproduce and deepen health inequalities. A system, in which the costs of renal care are disproportionately borne by those who can least afford them, faces major difficulties around the sustainability and resourcing of RRTs. Attempts to increase access to renal therapies, therefore, need to take into account the complex social and economic demands this places on those who need access most. This paper further shows that ethnographic studies of the concrete ways in which healthcare is accessed in practice provide important insights into the plight of CKD patients and so constitute an important source of evidence in that effort.

  13. When health systems are barriers to health care: challenges faced by uninsured Mexican kidney patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara Kierans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease disproportionately affects the poor in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs. Mexico exemplifies the difficulties faced in supporting Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT and providing equitable patient care, despite recent attempts at health reform. The objective of this study is to document the challenges faced by uninsured, poor Mexican families when attempting to access RRT. METHODS: The article takes an ethnographic approach, using interviewing and observation to generate detailed accounts of the problems that accompany attempts to secure care. The study, based in the state of Jalisco, comprised interviews with patients, their caregivers, health and social care professionals, among others. Observations were carried out in both clinical and social settings. RESULTS: In the absence of organised health information and stable pathways to renal care, patients and their families work extraordinarily hard and at great expense to secure care in a mixed public-private healthcare system. As part of this work, they must navigate challenging health and social care environments, negotiate treatments and costs, resource and finance healthcare and manage a wide range of formal and informal health information. CONCLUSIONS: Examining commonalities across pathways to adequate healthcare reveals major failings in the Mexican system. These systemic problems serve to reproduce and deepen health inequalities. A system, in which the costs of renal care are disproportionately borne by those who can least afford them, faces major difficulties around the sustainability and resourcing of RRTs. Attempts to increase access to renal therapies, therefore, need to take into account the complex social and economic demands this places on those who need access most. This paper further shows that ethnographic studies of the concrete ways in which healthcare is accessed in practice provide important insights into the plight of CKD patients and so

  14. Optimal design for an end face engagement worm gear with multiple worm-wheel meshing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xingqiao; Zhu, Weibing; Chen, Yonghong; Chen, Shouan; Wang, Jinge

    2017-01-01

    To solve the problem for lacking a special mechanical transmission that could provide multiple outputs with high transmission efficiency and good lubrication in the modern industrial, a novel worm gear, named end face engagement worm gear, with multiple worm-wheel meshing is proposed for the first time. The essential parameters for the worm gear are optimized to enhance lubrication and meshing properties. Moreover, analysis of variance(ANOVA) is applied to determine the optimum levels and to determine the influence of parameters. The ANOVA results show that the novel end face engagement worm gear with multiple worm wheels provides high lubrication(the lubrication angle is more than 89°) and meshing performance(the induce normal curvature is less than 0.0002 mm-1). The interaction between center distance and roller slant distance most strongly influences the lubrication angle(contributed 51.6%), followed by the parameters of center distance(contributed 25.0%), roller slant distance(contributed 16.4%), tooth angle of gear, gear ratio, and roller radius. In addition, roller radius most strongly influences the induced normal curvature(contributed 39.4%), followed by roller slant distance(contributed 15.2%), tooth angle of the gear(contributed 9.0%), center distance, and gear ratio. The proposed worm gear helps to enrich the no-backlash high precision worm drive and the optimal design method can provide a useful reference on performance improvement of other worm gear.

  15. The ugly face of tourism: Marine debris pollution linked to visitation in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott P; Verlis, Krista M

    2017-04-15

    Marine debris is one of the most significant issues facing oceans worldwide. The sources of this debris vary depending on proximity to urban centres and the nature of activities within an area. This paper examines the influence of tourism in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and its contribution to litter levels in the region. By conducting beach debris surveys on occupied and unoccupied islands, this study found that debris was prevalent throughout the region with significant differences in material types between locations. The greatest source of debris from publically accessible islands was tourist-related, with this source also influencing debris loads on nearby uninhabited islands. A focus on debris at Heron Island, showed that sites close to amenities had greater levels of tourist-sourced items like cigarette butts. These findings indicate the contribution of tourists to this problem and that working with operators and managers is needed to minimise visitor impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Canonical and non-canonical barriers facing antimiR cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Christopher J; Saltzman, W Mark; Slack, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    Once considered genetic "oddities", microRNAs (miRNAs) are now recognized as key epigenetic regulators of numerous biological processes, including some with a causal link to the pathogenesis, maintenance, and treatment of cancer. The crux of small RNA-based therapeutics lies in the antagonism of potent cellular targets; the main shortcoming of the field in general, lies in ineffective delivery. Inhibition of oncogenic miRNAs is a relatively nascent therapeutic concept, but as with predecessor RNA-based therapies, success hinges on delivery efficacy. This review will describes the canonical (e.g. pharmacokinetics and clearance, cellular uptake, endosome escape, etc.) and non-canonical (e.g. spatial localization and accessibility of miRNA, technical limitations of miRNA inhibition, off-target impacts, etc.) challenges to the delivery of antisense-based anti-miRNA therapeutics (i.e. antimiRs) for the treatment of cancer. Emphasis will be placed on how the current leading antimiR platforms-ranging from naked chemically modified oligonucleotides to nanoscale delivery vehicles-are affected by and overcome these barriers. The perplexity of antimiR delivery presents both engineering and biological hurdles that must be overcome in order to capitalize on the extensive pharmacological benefits of antagonizing tumor-associated miRNAs.

  17. The Over-Barrier Resonant States and Multi-Channel Scattering in Multiple Quantum Wells

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    A Polupanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an explicit numerical method for accurate calculation of the scattering matrix and its poles, and apply this method to describe the multi-channel scattering in the multiple quantum-wells structures. The S-matrix is continued analytically to the unphysical region of complex energy values. Results of calculations show that there exist one or more S-matrix poles, corresponding to the over-barrier resonant states critical for the effect of the absolute reflection of holes in the energy range where only the heavy ones may propagate over barriers in a structure. Light- and heavy-hole states are described by the Luttinger Hamiltonian matrix. In contrast to the single quantum-well case, at some parameters of a multiple quantum-wells structure the number of S-matrix poles may exceed that of the absolute reflection peaks, and at different values of parameters the absolute reflection peak corresponds to different resonant states. The imaginary parts of the S-matrix poles and hence the lifetimes of resonant states as well as the widths of resonant peaks of absolute reflection depend drastically on the quantum-well potential depth. In the case of shallow quantum wells there is in fact a long-living over-barrier resonant hole state.

  18. Bridges or Barriers? Conceptualization of the Role of Multiple Identity Gateway Groups in Intergroup Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon Levy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern era of globalization has been accompanied by a massive growth in interconnections between groups, and has led to the sharing of multiple identities by individuals and groups. Following these developments, research has focused on the issue of multiple identities, and has shed important light on how individuals who hold these complex forms of identity feel and behave, and on the reactions they elicit from members of other groups. However, the potential of groups with such multiple identities (e.g., biracials, immigrants, etc. to affect the intergroup relations between the groups that represent the respective sources of the different identities (e.g., Blacks and Whites, country of origin and country of residence, etc. has not been examined to date. Accordingly, in this paper, we first systematically explore the potential of groups in which people identify with multiple social categories, or groups that are perceived as such by others, to play a role in intergroup dynamics. Next, we offer a theoretical framework outlining what functions groups of people with shared multiple identities may serve (as bridges or barriers by proposing how their presence may facilitate or deteriorate intergroup relations. Finally, we present recent empirical research examining how groups of people with shared multiple identities can act as gateways and bridge the cleft between two separate groups that represent the respective sources of their different identities, and discuss the theoretical and practical implications for the field of intergroup relations.

  19. Adult attachment, hostile conflict, and relationship adjustment among couples facing multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crangle, Cassandra J; Hart, Tae L

    2017-07-12

    Couples facing multiple sclerosis (MS) report significantly elevated rates of relationship distress, yet the effects of attachment have never been examined in this population. We examined whether hostile conflict mediated the dyadic effects of attachment on relationship adjustment in couples facing MS and whether these associations were moderated by gender or role. We also explored whether dyadic adjustment mediated the relationship between attachment and hostile conflict. The study was cross-sectional and included 103 couples in which one partner had been diagnosed with MS. Participants completed the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and Aversive Interactions Scale, as well as demographic variables. We used the actor-partner interdependence model for data analysis. There were significant actor and partner effects of greater anxious attachment and worse dyadic adjustment. Actor and partner effects of anxious attachment were significantly mediated by greater hostile conflict. Gender significantly moderated the effects between avoidant attachment and dyadic adjustment. The actor effect was significant for males and females; the partner effect was only significant for females. The actor effect for females but not males was significantly mediated by greater hostile conflict. Role was not a significant moderator. Exploratory analyses also showed that dyadic adjustment mediated the relationship between anxious and avoidant attachment and hostile conflict. Findings highlight the important effects of attachment on relationship adjustment in MS couples. Both hostile conflict and dyadic adjustment appear to be mechanisms through which insecure attachment has a detrimental effect. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Despite higher-than-normal rates of marital distress and separation/divorce, the effects of attachment on relationship adjustment among couples facing multiple sclerosis have never been examined

  20. Permeability of the blood-brain barrier predicts conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig P; Modvig, Signe; Simonsen, Helle Juhl

    2015-01-01

    Optic neuritis is an acute inflammatory condition that is highly associated with multiple sclerosis. Currently, the best predictor of future development of multiple sclerosis is the number of T2 lesions visualized by magnetic resonance imaging. Previous research has found abnormalities in the per...... reflecting cellular permeability of the blood-brain barrier, whereas T2 lesion count may more reflect the length of the subclinical pre-relapse phase.See Naismith and Cross (doi:10.1093/brain/awv196) for a scientific commentary on this article.......Optic neuritis is an acute inflammatory condition that is highly associated with multiple sclerosis. Currently, the best predictor of future development of multiple sclerosis is the number of T2 lesions visualized by magnetic resonance imaging. Previous research has found abnormalities...... years after optic neuritis onset. Logistic regression analysis showed that baseline permeability in normal-appearing white matter significantly improved prediction of multiple sclerosis conversion (according to the 2010 revised McDonald diagnostic criteria) within 2 years compared to T2 lesion count...

  1. Barrier potential design criteria in multiple-quantum-well-based solar-cell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaidat, Jihad M.; Shum, Kai; Wang, W. B.; Alfano, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The barrier potential design criteria in multiple-quantum-well (MQW)-based solar-cell structures is reported for the purpose of achieving maximum efficiency. The time-dependent short-circuit current density at the collector side of various MQW solar-cell structures under resonant condition was numerically calculated using the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The energy efficiency of solar cells based on the InAs/Ga(y)In(1-y)As and GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As MQW structues were compared when carriers are excited at a particular solar-energy band. Using InAs/Ga(y)In(1-y)As MQW structures it is found that a maximum energy efficiency can be achieved if the structure is designed with barrier potential of about 450 meV. The efficiency is found to decline linearly as the barrier potential increases for GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As MQW-structure-based solar cells.

  2. Multiplication of shearless barriers for chaotic transport in order to improve confined plasmas in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Caroline G.L.; Roberto, M. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, R. Egydio de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil); Caldas, I.L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: We present a study that deals with meandering curves which arise after the reconnection process (or overlap) of resonances (1), that occurs only in non-twist discrete maps (2). Meandering curves formed by this kind of process play the role of barriers for chaotic transport in phase space, because inside the meandering region there is a special torus, called shearless torus, known as the strongest torus in a dynamical system (1). We introduce an extra perturbation in the Standard Non-twist Map (3), and we call this new map Labyrinthic Standard Non-twist Map (4). The labyrinthic map proposed in this work shows multiple reconnection processes of resonances, presenting multiple barriers for chaotic transport. Having applications in important areas such as the physics of thermonuclear plasmas confined in tokamaks for the extraction of clean energy. (1) D. del-Castillo-Negrete, J. M. Greene, P. J. Morrison, Physica D 91, 1 (1996) (2) A.J. Lichtenberg and M.A. Lieberman, Regular and Chaotic Dynamics (Springer, New York, 1992) (3) D. Del-Castillo-Negrete and P. J. Morrison, Phys. Fluids A 5, 948 (1993) (4) Caroline G. L. Martins; R. Egydio de Carvalho; I. L. Caldas; M. Roberto. Labyrinthic standard non-twist map. Journal of Physics A, Mathematical and Theoretical, v. 44, p. 045102 (2011). (author)

  3. Barriers and facilitators associated with colonoscopy completion in individuals with multiple chronic conditions: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Shahnaz Sultan,1–4 Melissa R Partin,1,2 Phalgoon Shah,5 Jennifer LeLaurin,4 Ivette Magaly Freytes,4 Chandylen L Nightingale,6 Susan F Fesperman,4 Barbara A Curbow,7 Rebecca J Beyth3,4,8 1Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System, 2Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, 4Center of Innovation on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, FL, 5Department of Medicine, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI, 6Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC, 7Department of Community and Behavioral Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 8Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, FL, USA Background: A recommendation to undergo a colonoscopy, an invasive procedure that requires commitment and motivation, planning (scheduling and finding a driver and preparation (diet restriction and laxative consumption, may be uniquely challenging for individuals with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs. This qualitative study aimed to describe the barriers and facilitators to colonoscopy experienced by such patients.Materials and methods: Semistructured focus groups were conducted with male Veterans who were scheduled for outpatient colonoscopy and either failed to complete the procedure or completed the examination. Focus group recordings were transcribed and analyzed by an inductive grounded approach using constant comparative analysis.Results: Forty-four individuals aged 51–83 years participated in this study (23 adherent and 21 nonadherent. Participants had an average of 7.4 chronic conditions (range 2–14. The five most common chronic conditions were hypertension (75%, hyperlipidemia (75

  4. Development and validation of risk profiles of West African rural communities facing multiple natural hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare-Kyei, Daniel; Renaud, Fabrice G; Kloos, Julia; Walz, Yvonne; Rhyner, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    West Africa has been described as a hotspot of climate change. The reliance on rain-fed agriculture by over 65% of the population means that vulnerability to climatic hazards such as droughts, rainstorms and floods will continue. Yet, the vulnerability and risk levels faced by different rural social-ecological systems (SES) affected by multiple hazards are poorly understood. To fill this gap, this study quantifies risk and vulnerability of rural communities to drought and floods. Risk is assessed using an indicator-based approach. A stepwise methodology is followed that combines participatory approaches with statistical, remote sensing and Geographic Information System techniques to develop community level vulnerability indices in three watersheds (Dano, Burkina Faso; Dassari, Benin; Vea, Ghana). The results show varying levels of risk profiles across the three watersheds. Statistically significant high levels of mean risk in the Dano area of Burkina Faso are found whilst communities in the Dassari area of Benin show low mean risk. The high risk in the Dano area results from, among other factors, underlying high exposure to droughts and rainstorms, longer dry season duration, low caloric intake per capita, and poor local institutions. The study introduces the concept of community impact score (CIS) to validate the indicator-based risk and vulnerability modelling. The CIS measures the cumulative impact of the occurrence of multiple hazards over five years. 65.3% of the variance in observed impact of hazards/CIS was explained by the risk models and communities with high simulated disaster risk generally follow areas with high observed disaster impacts. Results from this study will help disaster managers to better understand disaster risk and develop appropriate, inclusive and well integrated mitigation and adaptation plans at the local level. It fulfills the increasing need to balance global/regional assessments with community level assessments where major decisions

  5. Dual-target cost in visual search for multiple unfamiliar faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestry, Natalie; Menneer, Tamaryn; Cave, Kyle R; Godwin, Hayward J; Donnelly, Nick

    2017-08-01

    The efficiency of visual search for one (single-target) and either of two (dual-target) unfamiliar faces was explored to understand the manifestations of capacity and guidance limitations in face search. The visual similarity of distractor faces to target faces was manipulated using morphing (Experiments 1 and 2) and multidimensional scaling (Experiment 3). A dual-target cost was found in all experiments, evidenced by slower and less accurate search in dual- than single-target conditions. The dual-target cost was unequal across the targets, with performance being maintained on one target and reduced on the other, which we label "preferred" and "non-preferred" respectively. We calculated the capacity for each target face and show reduced capacity for representing the non-preferred target face. However, results show that the capacity for the non-preferred target can be increased when the dual-target condition is conducted after participants complete the single-target conditions. Analyses of eye movements revealed evidence for weak guidance of fixations in single-target search, and when searching for the preferred target in dual-target search. Overall, the experiments show dual-target search for faces is capacity- and guidance-limited, leading to superior search for 1 face over the other in dual-target search. However, learning faces individually may improve capacity with the second face. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Communication: Effective spectroscopic Hamiltonian for multiple minima with above barrier motion: Isomerization in HO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George L; Kellman, Michael E

    2010-09-14

    We present a two-dimensional potential surface for the isomerization in the hydroperoxyl radical HO(2) and calculate the vibrational spectrum. We then show that a simple effective spectroscopic fitting Hamiltonian is capable of reproducing large scale vibrational spectral structure above the isomerization barrier. Polyad breaking with multiple resonances is necessary to adequately describe the spectral features of the system. Insight into the dynamical nature of isomerization related to the effective Hamiltonian is gained through classical trajectories on the model potential. Contrary to physical intuition, the bend mode is not a "reaction mode," but rather isomerization requires excitation in both stretch and bend. The dynamics reveals a Farey tree formed from the 2:1 and 3:1 resonances, corresponding to the resonance coupling terms in the effective Hamiltonian, with the prominent 5:2 (2:1+3:1) feature dividing the tree into parts that we call the 3:1 and 2:1 portions.

  7. Distinct representations of configural and part information across multiple face- selective regions of the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golijeh eGolarai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several regions of the human brain respond more strongly to faces than to other visual stimuli, such as regions in the amygdala (AMG, superior temporal sulcus (STS, and the fusiform face area (FFA. It is unclear if these brain regions are similar in representing the configuration or natural appearance of face parts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy adults who viewed natural or schematic faces with internal parts that were either normally configured or randomly rearranged. Response amplitudes were reduced in the AMG and STS when subjects viewed stimuli whose configuration of parts were digitally rearranged, suggesting representation of the 1st order configuration of face parts. In contrast, response amplitudes in the FFA showed little modulation whether face parts were rearranged or if the natural face parts were replaced with lines. Instead, FFA responses were reduced only when both configural and part information were reduced, revealing an interaction between these factors, suggesting distinct representation of 1st order face configuration and parts in the AMG and STS vs. the FFA.

  8. Gruppenleistungen beim Review von Multiple-Choice-Fragen - Ein Vergleich von face-to-face und virtuellen Gruppen mit und ohne Moderation [Review of multiple-choice-questions and group performance - A comparison of face-to-face and virtual groups with and without facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüttpelz-Brauns, Katrin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Multiple choice questions (MCQs are often used in exams of medical education and need careful quality management for example by the application of review committees. This study investigates whether groups communicating virtually by email are similar to face-to-face groups concerning their review process performance and whether a facilitator has positive effects.Methods: 16 small groups of students were examined, which had to evaluate and correct MCQs under four different conditions. In the second part of the investigation the changed questions were given to a new random sample for the judgement of the item quality.Results: There was no significant influence of the variables “form of review committee” and “facilitation”. However, face-to-face and virtual groups clearly differed in the required treatment times. The test condition “face to face without facilitation” was generally valued most positively concerning taking over responsibility, approach to work, sense of well-being, motivation and concentration on the task.Discussion: Face-to-face and virtual groups are equally effective in the review of MCQs but differ concerning their efficiency. The application of electronic review seems to be possible but is hardly recommendable because of the long process time and technical problems.[german] Einleitung: Multiple-Choice-Fragen (MCF werden in vielen Prüfungen der medizinischen Ausbildung verwendet und bedürfen aus diesem Grund einer sorgfältigen Qualitätssicherung, beispielsweise durch den Einsatz von Review-Komitees. Anhand der vorliegenden empirischen Studie soll erforscht werden, ob virtuell per E-Mail kommunizierende Review-Komitees vergleichbar sind mit face-to-face Review-Komitees hinsichtlich ihrer Leistung beim Review-Prozess und ob sich Moderation positiv auswirkt.Methodik: 16 Kleingruppen von Psychologie-Studenten hatten die Aufgabe unter vier verschiedenen Versuchsbedingungen MCF zu bewerten und zu

  9. More than just a pretty face and a hot body: multiple cues in mate-choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonason, Peter K; Raulston, Tara; Rotolo, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Mate preferences have been well studied in social and evolutionary psychology. In two studies (N = 490), using two different measurement techniques, we examined mate preferences for the body and the face in the context of other traits. Results replicated prior research on mate preferences across the sex of the participant and mating duration but clarified the nature of preferences for physical attractiveness. Generally, physical attractiveness was a necessity in short-term mating and for men and traits like kindness were a necessity in long-term mating and for women. Men wanted a short-term mate who had a good body, likely because that body advertises fertility whereas both sexes wanted a mate with a nice face for a long-term mate, which is likely because the face is a cue based on structural properties related to health. Sex and mating-duration differences on preferences for attractive faces and bodies were robust to differences in measurement technique.

  10. Biomarkers Indicative of Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Waubant

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption is one of the hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS. It is incompletely understood whether BBB disruption is the initial MS event leading to MS lesion formation or whether it is merely a consequence of cellular infiltration in the central nervous system (CNS. The presence of gadolinium enhancing (Gd+ lesions on serial brain MRI scans is frequently used to evaluate BBB disruption. The presence of Gd enhancement has therefore been used as a reference for most works evaluating promising biomarkers of BBB disruption that are reviewed here. These promising biomarkers include cytokines and chemokines, and their receptors, cell surface markers, and matrix metalloproteinases and their natural inhibitors. At this time, none of these markers have been shown as sensitive as the presence of Gd enhancement to reflect BBB disruption. However, MRI scanning is not only unpractical and expensive; it may also under represent the overall extent of BBB disruption. Developing new MS biomarkers that are sensitive and specific for BBB disruption could 1 improve the monitoring of disease activity; 2 improve the monitoring of response to MS therapies which target BBB disruption; and 3 advance our understanding of dynamic MS processes participating in BBB disruption.

  11. Ground Vibration Isolation of Multiple Scattering by Using Rows of Tubular Piles as Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-miao Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formal solution for the multiple scattering of plane harmonic waves by a group of arbitrary configuration tubular piles in an elastic total space is derived. Each order of scattering satisfies prescribed boundary conditions at the interface of tubular piles, which is delivered as the sum of incident and scattering waves. The first order performs the scattering wave by each scattered pile and the subsequent orders resulted from the excitation of each pile of first order of scattering from the remaining tubular piles. Advanced scattering orders can be regarded as the same manners. Several series of scattering coefficients are figured out with the aids of addition theorem so that the exact steady-state solution for the scattered displacement and stress is obtained. Particularly, when internal diameter of tubular piles tends to be infinitely small, it degenerates to a solid pile problem. By imposing the normalized displacement amplitudes and transmissibility indices, the influences of specific parameters such as scattering orders, internal and external diameter ratio of piles, pile material rigidity, position and distances between tubular pile and pile rows, and pile numbers are discussed. Certain recommended conclusions have been drawn as the guidelines of practical engineering design for discontinuous barrier of tubular piles.

  12. Fingolimod prevents blood-brain barrier disruption induced by the sera from patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Nishihara

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Effect of fingolimod in multiple sclerosis (MS is thought to involve the prevention of lymphocyte egress from lymphoid tissues, thereby reducing autoaggressive lymphocyte infiltration into the central nervous system across blood-brain barrier (BBB. However, brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs represent a possible additional target for fingolimod in MS patients by directly repairing the function of BBB, as S1P receptors are also expressed by BMECs. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fingolimod on BMECs and clarified whether fingolimod-phosphate restores the BBB function after exposure to MS sera. METHODS: Changes in tight junction proteins, adhesion molecules and transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER in BMECs were evaluated following incubation in conditioned medium with or without fingolimod/fingolimod-phosphate. In addition, the effects of sera derived from MS patients, including those in the relapse phase of relapse-remitting (RR MS, stable phase of RRMS and secondary progressive MS (SPMS, on the function of BBB in the presence of fingolimod-phosphate were assessed. RESULTS: Incubation with fingolimod-phosphate increased the claudin-5 protein levels and TEER values in BMECs, although it did not change the amount of occludin, ICAM-1 or MelCAM proteins. Pretreatment with fingolimod-phosphate restored the changes in the claudin-5 and VCAM-1 protein/mRNA levels and TEER values in BMECs after exposure to MS sera. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with fingolimod-phosphate prevents BBB disruption caused by both RRMS and SPMS sera via the upregulation of claudin-5 and downregulation of VCAM-1 in BMECs, suggesting that fingolimod-phosphate is capable of directly modifying the BBB. BMECs represent a possible therapeutic target for fingolimod in MS patients.

  13. Sera from remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients disrupt the blood-brain barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Shimizu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathological destruction of blood-brain barrier (BBB has been thought to be the initial key event in the process of developing multiple sclerosis (MS. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for the malfunction of BBB by sera from relapse-remitting MS (RRMS and secondary progressive MS (SPMS patients. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of sera from the patients in the relapse phase of RRMS (RRMS-R, stable phase of RRMS (RRMS-S and SPMS on the expression of tight junction proteins and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1, and on the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs. RESULTS: Sera from the RRMS-R or SPMS patients decreased the claudin-5 protein expression and the TEER in BMECs. In RRMS-R, this effect was restored after adding an MMP inhibitor, and the MMP-2/9 secretion by BMECs was significantly increased after the application of patients' sera. In SPMS, the immunoglobulin G (IgG purified from patients' sera also decreased the claudin-5 protein expression and the TEER in BMECs. The sera and purified IgG from all MS patients increased the VCAM-1 protein expression in BMECs. CONCLUSIONS: The up-regulation of autocrine MMP-2/9 by BMECs after exposure to sera from RRMS-R patients or the autoantibodies against BMECs from SPMS patients can compromise the BBB. Both RRMS-S and SPMS sera increased the VCAM-1 expression in the BBB, thus indicating that targeting the VCAM-1 in the BBB could represent a possible therapeutic strategy for even the stable phase of MS and SPMS.

  14. DEWA: A Multiaspect Approach for Multiple Face Detection in Complex Scene Digital Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawan Hadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for detecting faces in a digital image with unconstrained background has been developed. The approach is composed of three phases: segmentation phase, filtering phase and localization phase. In the segmentation phase, we utilized both training and non-training methods, which are implemented in user selectable color space. In the filtering phase, Minkowski addition-based objects removal has been used for image cleaning. In the last phase, an image processing method and a data mining method are employed for grouping and localizing objects, combined with geometric-based image analysis. Several experiments have been conducted using our special face database that consists of simple objects and complex objects. The experiment results demonstrated that the detection accuracy is around 90% and the detection speed is less than 1 second in average.

  15. DEWA: A Multiaspect Approach for Multiple Face Detection in Complex Scene Digital Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawan Hadi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for detecting faces in a digital image with unconstrained background has been developed. The approach is composed of three phases: segmentation phase, filtering phase and localization phase. In the segmentation phase, we utilized both training and non-training methods, which are implemented in user selectable color space. In the filtering phase, Minkowski addition-based objects removal has been used for image cleaning. In the last phase, an image processing method and a data mining method are employed for grouping and localizing objects, combined with geometric-based image analysis. Several experiments have been conducted using our special face database that consists of simple objects and complex objects. The experiment results demonstrated that the detection accuracy is around 90% and the detection speed is less than 1 second in average.

  16. Multiple Schottky Barrier-Limited Field-Effect Transistors on a Single Si Nanowire with an Intrinsic Doping Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Jorge L; Keiper, Timothy D; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Peng

    2017-03-09

    In comparison to conventional (channel-limited) field-effect transistors (FETs), Schottky barrier-limited FETs possess some unique characteristics which make them attractive candidates for some electronic and sensing applications. Consequently, modulation of the nano Schottky barrier at a metal-semiconductor interface promises higher performance for chemical and biomolecular sensor applications when compared to conventional FETs with Ohmic contacts. However, the fabrication and optimization of devices with a combination of ideal Ohmic and Schottky contacts as the source and drain respectively present many challenges. We address this issue by utilizing Si nanowires (NWs) synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition process which yields a pronounced doping gradient along the length of the NWs. Devices with a series of metal contacts on a single Si NW are fabricated in a single lithography and metallization process. The graded doping profile of the NW is manifested in monotonic increases in the channel and junction resistances and variation of the nature of the contacts from Ohmic to Schottky of increasing effective barrier height along the NW. Hence multiple single Schottky junction-limited FETs with extreme asymmetry and high reproducibility are obtained on an individual NW. A definitive correlation between increasing Schottky-barrier height and enhanced gate modulation is revealed. Having access to systematically varying Schottky barrier contacts on the same NW device provides an ideal platform for identifying optimal device characteristics for sensing and electronic applications.

  17. ART access-related barriers faced by HIV-positive persons linked to care in southern Ghana: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankomah, Augustine; Ganle, John Kuumuori; Lartey, Margaret Yaa; Kwara, Awewura; Nortey, Priscilla Awo; Okyerefo, Michael Perry Kweku; Laar, Amos Kankponang

    2016-12-07

    Timely and enduring access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) by HIV-infected individuals has been shown to substantially reduce HIV transmission risk, HIV-related morbidity and mortality. However, there is evidence that in addition to limited supply of antiretrovirals (ARVs) and linkage to ART in many low-income countries, HIV+ persons often encounter barriers in accessing ART-related services even in contexts where these services are freely available. In Ghana, limited research evidence exists regarding the barriers HIV+ persons already linked to ART face. This paper explores ART access-related barriers that HIV+ persons linked to care in southern Ghana face. A mixed method study design, involving a cross-sectional survey and qualitative in-depth interviews, was conducted to collect data from four healthcare providers and a total of 540 adult HIV+ persons receiving ART at four treatment centres in Ghana. We used univariate analysis to generate descriptive tabulations for key variables from the survey. Data from qualitative in-depth interviews were thematically analysed. Results from the survey and in-depth interviews were brought together to illuminate the challenges of the HIV+ persons. All (100%) the HIV+ persons interviewed were ARV-exposed and linked to ART. Reasons for taking ARVs ranged from beliefs that they will suppress the HIV virus, desire to maintain good health and prolong life, and desire to prevent infection in unborn children, desire both to avoid death and to become good therapeutic citizens (abide by doctors' advice). Despite this, more than half of the study participants (63.3%) reported seven major factors as barriers hindering access to ART. These were high financial costs associated with accessing and receiving ART (26%), delays associated with receiving care from treatment centres (24%), shortage of drugs and other commodities (23%), stigma (8.8%), fear of side effects of taking ARVs (7.9%), job insecurity arising from regular leave of absence

  18. Effect of phone call versus face-to-face follow-up on recurrent suicide attempts prevention in individuals with a history of multiple suicide attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Ghafur; Amini, Mohsen; Mahaki, Behzad; Bagherian-Sararoudi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the efficacy of different ways of communications on prevention of suicidal reattempt, we compared the efficacy of phone call versus face-to-face follow-up in patients with previous attempt. Materials and Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 55 suicide reattempters who were admitted to the poisoning emergency were divided into phone call (29 patients) and face-to-face (26 patients) groups randomly. They were followed at 8 occasions: 2nd and 4th weeks, and the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 8th months. The suicidal reattempt, suicidal thought, hope, and interest of the patients were assessed on each occasion, and the patients were guided to visit by a therapist, if needed. The findings were analyzed by Mann–Whitney, Chi-square, Cochran, Friedman, and independent t-tests using SPSS 20. Results: The status of “hope” and “interest” improved in both groups, but it showed more significant difference in the face-to-face group. Suicidal thoughts in both groups decreased over time, and this was more significant in the face-to-face group. However, we did not found any significant difference in the frequency of the suicidal reattempts between two groups. Conclusion: Face-to-face versus phone call follow-up of suicide attempters can significantly alleviate suicidal thoughts and improve hopes and interests. PMID:28028524

  19. Tools to support interpreting multiple regression in the face of multicollinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraha, Amanda; Turner, Heather; Nimon, Kim; Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Henson, Robin K

    2012-01-01

    While multicollinearity may increase the difficulty of interpreting multiple regression (MR) results, it should not cause undue problems for the knowledgeable researcher. In the current paper, we argue that rather than using one technique to investigate regression results, researchers should consider multiple indices to understand the contributions that predictors make not only to a regression model, but to each other as well. Some of the techniques to interpret MR effects include, but are not limited to, correlation coefficients, beta weights, structure coefficients, all possible subsets regression, commonality coefficients, dominance weights, and relative importance weights. This article will review a set of techniques to interpret MR effects, identify the elements of the data on which the methods focus, and identify statistical software to support such analyses.

  20. Angle-resolved soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in a monatomic Fe layer facing an MgO(0 0 1) tunnel barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamiya, K. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science (IMSS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Koide, T. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science (IMSS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)]. E-mail: tsuneharu.koide@kek.jp; Ishida, Y. [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Osafune, Y. [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Fujimori, A. [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); NanoElectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Katayama, T. [NanoElectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yuasa, S. [NanoElectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    The electronic and magnetic states of a monatomic Fe(0 0 1) layer directly facing an MgO(0 0 1) tunnel barrier were studied by angle-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Fe L {sub 2,3} edges in the longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) arrangements. A strong XMCD reveals no oxidation of the 1-ML Fe, showing its crucial role in giant tunnel magnetoresistance effects in Fe/MgO/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions. Sum-rule analyses of the angle-resolved XMCD give values of a spin moment, in-plane and out-of-plane orbital and magnetic dipole moments. Argument is given on their physical implication.

  1. One stone, two birds: managing multiple common warts on hands and face by local hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lanting; Qi, Ruiqun; Hong, Yuxiao; Huo, Wei; Chen, Hong-Duo; Gao, Xing-Hua

    2015-01-01

    A man developed with multiple warts on his hands and the inner canthus of his left eye. We applied local hyperthermia on a single target lesion on his hand at a surface temperature of 44 °C for 30 minutes on Days 1, 2, 3, 17, and 18. All the lesions treated with or without heat cleared 8 weeks after the last treatment. Treatment of a target lesion resolved all other untreated lesions, a fact suggestive that local hyperthermia could induce activation of specific immunity against human papillomavirus on the lesional skin, which lead to resolution of all the warts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Evaluation of a Multimedia Intervention for Children and Families Facing Multiple Military Deployments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flittner O'Grady, Allison; Thomaseo Burton, E; Chawla, Neelu; Topp, David; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

    2016-02-01

    Repeated military deployments have been a common experience for many military families in the past 15 years. While there has been an increase in research and intervention focused on the effects on families of military deployments, much of this work has not focused specifically on the particular needs of young children. Talk, Listen, Connect: Multiple Deployments (TLC-II MD), a multimedia kit designed for home use, is among the first interventions directed toward young children. Created by Sesame Workshop and using popular Sesame Street characters, TLC-II MD was designed to support and equip families with young children with skills to address challenges associated with multiple deployments. This study utilized a randomized experimental design to evaluate the impact of TLC-II MD relative to a control condition using a Sesame Workshop multimedia kit not tailored to military families. Parents in both groups reported that children enjoyed the video overall and watched it repeatedly. Also in both groups, caregivers' depressive symptoms and children's aggressive behaviors declined significantly over time. Caregivers in the test group reported significantly larger increases in comfort discussing the deployment with their child and stronger perceptions that the DVD helped children to cope. Thus, the resilience-oriented materials were helpful to both groups, but those tailored to military families were significantly more likely to be perceived as helpful. Findings offer evidence regarding the ability of multimedia self-administered interventions to assist military families.

  3. The multiple faces of calcineurin signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans: Development, behaviour and aging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jin Il Lee; Sutapa Mukherjee; Kyoung–Hye Yoon; Meenakshi Dwivedi; Jaya Bandyopadhyay

    2013-06-01

    Calcineurin, a well-conserved protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B), is a Ca2+-calmodulin–dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is known to be involved in a myriad of cellular processes and signal transduction pathways. The biological role of calcineurin has been extensively studied in diverse groups of organisms. Homologues of mammalian and Drosophila calcineurin subunits exist in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. The C. elegans counterpart of the catalytic subunit, calcineurin A, cna-1/tax-6, and the regulatory subunit, calcineurin B, cnb-1, are known to express ubiquitously in multiple tissues including neurons. The characterization of C. elegans calcineurin mutants facilitates identification of its physiological functions and signaling pathways. Genetic interactions between cna-1/tax-6 and cnb-1 mutants with a number of mutants involved in several signaling pathways have exemplified the pivotal role of calcineurin in regulating nematode development, behaviour and lifespan (aging). The present review has been aimed to provide a succinct summary of the multiple functions of calcineurin in C. elegans relating to its development, fertility, proliferation, behaviour and lifespan. Analyses of cna-1/tax-6 and cnb-1 interacting proteins and regulators of the phosphatase in this fascinating worm model have an immense scope to identify potential drug targets in various parasitic nematodes, which cause many diseases inflicting huge economic loss; and also for many human diseases, particularly neurodegenerative and myocardial diseases.

  4. DAG tales: the multiple faces of diacylglycerol--stereochemistry, metabolism, and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Thomas Oliver; Lass, Achim

    2015-10-01

    The neutral lipids diacylglycerols (DAGs) are involved in a plethora of metabolic pathways. They function as components of cellular membranes, as building blocks for glycero(phospho)lipids, and as lipid second messengers. Considering their central role in multiple metabolic processes and signaling pathways, cellular DAG levels require a tight regulation to ensure a constant and controlled availability. Interestingly, DAG species are versatile in their chemical structure. Besides the different fatty acid species esterified to the glycerol backbone, DAGs can occur in three different stereo/regioisoforms, each with unique biological properties. Recent scientific advances have revealed that DAG metabolizing enzymes generate and distinguish different DAG isoforms, and that only one DAG isoform holds signaling properties. Herein, we review the current knowledge of DAG stereochemistry and their impact on cellular metabolism and signaling. Further, we describe intracellular DAG turnover and its stereochemistry in a 3-pool model to illustrate the spatial and stereochemical separation and hereby the diversity of cellular DAG metabolism.

  5. Young women facing multiple and intersecting stressors of modernity, gender orders and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Maria; Bengs, Carita; Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt; Ohman, Ann

    2010-11-01

    This article aims to explore stressors experienced by Swedish adolescent girls and young women, specifically understood in relation to social context and gender theory. Interviews were conducted with 40 young Swedish women, aged 16-25 years, who had sought help at a youth health centre for stress problems. Using qualitative content analysis we identified three clusters of stressors: "the stressors of modernity", "the stressors of gendered orders", and "the stressors of youth". The results revealed that multiple and intersecting discourse-shaped stressors and demands connected to essential life spheres contribute not only to experiences of distress but also to feelings of constraint. Gendered individualism and healthism proved to be essential in understanding the young women's experienced stress. Failing social support from adults, gendered demands and responsibility taking were also illuminated. This calls for a broad contextualized and gender-sensitive approach to young women's stress and health problems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamics of mechanical systems with multiple sliding contacts: new faces of Painlev\\'e's paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Várkonyi, Péter L

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of finite degree-of-freedom, planar mechanical systems with multiple sliding, unilateral frictional point contacts. A complete classification of systems with 2 sliding contacts is given. The contact-mode based approach of rigid body mechanics is combined with linear stability analysis using a compliant contact model to determine the feasibility and the stability of every possible contact mode in each class. Special forms of non-stationary contact dynamics including "impact without collision" and "reverse chattering" are also investigated. Many types of solution inconsistency and the indeterminacy are identified and new phenomena related to Painlev\\'e"s non-existence and non-uniqueness paradoxes are discovered. Among others, we show that the non-existence paradox is not fully resolvable by considering impulsive contact forces. These results contribute to a growing body of evidence that rigid body mechanics cannot be developed into a complete and self-consistent theory in the presenc...

  7. The Multiple Faces of RAGE - Opportunities for Therapeutic Intervention in Aging and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Shekhtman, Alexander; Schmidt, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This review focuses on the multi-ligand receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE). The accumulation of the multiple ligands of RAGE in cellular stress milieux links RAGE to the pathobiology of chronic disease and natural aging. Areas Covered In this review, we present a discussion on the ligands of RAGE and the implications of these ligand families in disease. We review the recent literature on the role of ligand-RAGE interaction in the consequences of natural aging; the macro- and microvascular complications of diabetes; obesity and insulin resistance; autoimmune disorders and chronic inflammation; tumors and Alzheimer’s disease. We discuss the mechanisms of RAGE signaling through its intracellular binding effector molecule, the formin DIAPH1. Physico-chemical evidence by which the RAGE cytoplasmic domain binds to the FH1 (formin homology 1) domain of DIAPH1, and the consequences, is also reviewed. Expert Opinion We discuss the modalities of RAGE antagonism currently in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Finally, we present the rationale behind potentially targeting the RAGE cytoplasmic domain-DIAPH1 interaction as a logical strategy for therapeutic intervention in the pathological settings of chronic diseases and aging in which RAGE ligands accumulate and signal. PMID:26558318

  8. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of ripple formation by sputtering: Effects of multiple defects and Ehrlich-Schwoebel barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yohei; Chan, Wai Lun; Chason, Eric

    2012-02-01

    Periodic structures known as sputter ripples have been produced on many surfaces but many aspects of their formation are not understood. We have developed Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations to model ripple formation based on the same sputtering and diffusion processes found in a widely-used continuum model. In the current work, we extend the simulations to include the effects of multiple defect production and barriers to interlayer diffusion to determine if these can account for experimental measurements which find more rapid ripple growth than predicted theoretically.

  9. Expression robust 3D face recognition via mesh-based histograms of multiple order surface differential quantities

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a mesh-based approach for 3D face recognition using a novel local shape descriptor and a SIFT-like matching process. Both maximum and minimum curvatures estimated in the 3D Gaussian scale space are employed to detect salient points. To comprehensively characterize 3D facial surfaces and their variations, we calculate weighted statistical distributions of multiple order surface differential quantities, including histogram of mesh gradient (HoG), histogram of shape index (HoS) and histogram of gradient of shape index (HoGS) within a local neighborhood of each salient point. The subsequent matching step then robustly associates corresponding points of two facial surfaces, leading to much more matched points between different scans of a same person than the ones of different persons. Experimental results on the Bosphorus dataset highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method and its robustness to facial expression variations. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. Multiplicação in vitro dos porta-enxertos de Prunus sp. 'Barrier' e 'Cadaman' In vitro multiplication of 'Barrier' and 'Cadaman' Prunus sp. rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Couto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estabelecer a melhor concentração de sais do meio MS e da citocinina BAP para a multiplicação dos porta-enxertos de Prunus sp. 'Barrier' e 'Cadaman'. Segmentos nodais foram introduzidos em tubos de ensaio contendo 10 mL de meio de cultura com variações na concentração de sais (MS; ½MS; e 2/3MS combinadas com cinco concentrações de BAP (0; 1,5; 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 miM. Utilizou-se um fatorial 2x3x5, distribuído em blocos casualizados, compostos por quatro repetições contendo cinco tubos de ensaio cada uma, sendo inoculado um segmento nodal por tubo. As avaliações foram realizadas após cinco semanas de cultivo em ambiente com intensidade luminosa de 20 miE m-2 s-1, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e temperatura de 24 ± 4ºC. Verificou-se maior número médio de gemas e de brotações para a cultivar Barrier. À medida que se reduziu a concentração de sais do meio de cultura, obteve-se maior número de brotações, porém com menor tamanho. As regressões polinomiais das variáveis número de gemas, brotações por explante e comprimento das brotações apresentaram um ajustamento quadrático para níveis de BAP, atingindo os pontos de máximo 31,2 gemas/explante; 4,6 brotações por explante, e 8,1 mm de comprimento nas concentrações 3,3; 3,1, e 3,1 miM de BAP, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to establish the best salt and BAP concentration in MS medium for multiplication of 'Barrier' and 'Cadaman' Prunus sp. rootstocks. Nodal segments were introduced in test tubes with 10 mL of MS medium supplemented with different salt concentrations (MS; ½MS; and 2/3MS arranged with five BAP concentrations (0; 1.5; 2.5; 3.5; and 4.5 muM. It was applied a factorial 2x3x5, in a complete randomized block design with four replications composed by five test tubes each one. It was inoculated one nodal segment for each test tub. The evaluations was carried out after five weeks in room culture with

  11. Distinct representations of configural and part information across multiple face-selective regions of the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Golijeh eGolarai; Dara eGhahremani; Eberhardt, Jennifer L.; John D E Gabrieli

    2015-01-01

    Several regions of the human brain respond more strongly to faces than to other visual stimuli, such as regions in the amygdala (AMG), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the fusiform face area (FFA). It is unclear if these brain regions are similar in representing the configuration or natural appearance of face parts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy adults who viewed natural or schematic faces with internal parts that were either normally configured or randomly rearr...

  12. Influence of Mg-doped barriers on semipolar (202xAF1) multiple-quantum-well green light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chia-Yen; Yan, Qimin; Zhao, Yuji; Fujito, Kenji; Feezell, Daniel; Van de Walle, Chris G.; Speck, James S.; DenBaars, Steven P.; Nakamura, Shuji

    2011-10-01

    We report the effects of Mg doping in the barriers of semipolar (202¯1) multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with long emission wavelengths (>500 nm). With moderate Mg doping concentrations (3 × 1018-5 × 1018 cm-3) in the barriers, the output power was enhanced compared to those with undoped barriers, which suggests that hole transport in the active region is a limiting factor for device performance. Improved hole injection due to Mg doping in the barriers is demonstrated by dichromatic LED experiments and band diagram simulations. With Mg-doped AlGaN barriers, double-quantum-well LEDs with orange to red emission (λ > 600 nm) were also demonstrated.

  13. Nanocrystalline cellulose-dispersed AKD emulsion for enhancing the mechanical and multiple barrier properties of surface-sized paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luming; Lu, Sheng; Li, Juanjuan; Zhang, Fengshan; Cha, Ruitao

    2016-01-20

    In this study, we employed nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) as an efficient dispersant to perpare alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) emulsion. The particle size and zeta potential of AKD/NCC emulsion were measured, which were approximately 5 μm and -50 mV, respectively. The surface-sized paper possessed multiple barriers properties. The air permeability of surface-sized paper was 0.29 μm/Pas and the sizing degree reached 42 s when the amount of sizing was 12.58 g/m(2) with a 96.83% decrease and a 40.00%, increase, respectively. Furthermore, the mechanical properties were optimal when the amount of sizing was about 8 g/m(2). AKD/NCC emulsion acted as a good reinforcing agent in surface-sized paper.

  14. Upright or inverted, entire or exploded: right-hemispheric superiority in face recognition withstands multiple spatial manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Prete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The ability to identify faces has been interpreted as a cerebral specialization based on the evolutionary importance of these social stimuli, and a number of studies have shown that this function is mainly lateralized in the right hemisphere. The aim of this study was to assess the right-hemispheric specialization in face recognition in unfamiliar circumstances.Methods. Using a divided visual field paradigm, we investigated hemispheric asymmetries in the matching of two subsequent faces, using two types of transformation hindering identity recognition, namely upside-down rotation and spatial “explosion” (female and male faces were fractured into parts so that their mutual spatial relations were left intact, as well as their combination.Results. We confirmed the right-hemispheric superiority in face processing. Moreover, we found a decrease of the identity recognition for more extreme “levels of explosion” and for faces presented upside-down (either as sample or target stimuli than for faces presented upright, as well as an advantage in the matching of female compared to male faces.Discussion. We conclude that the right-hemispheric superiority for face processing is not an epiphenomenon of our expertise, because we are not often exposed to inverted and “exploded” faces, but rather a robust hemispheric lateralization. We speculate that these results could be attributable to the prevalence of right-handedness in humans and/or to early biases in social interactions.

  15. Farmer responses to multiple stresses in the face of global change: Assessing five case studies to enhance adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Feola, G.; Lerner, A. M.; Jain, M.; Montefrio, M.

    2013-12-01

    The global challenge of sustaining agricultural livelihoods and yields in the face of growing populations and increasing climate change is the topic of intense research. The role of on-the-ground decision-making by individual farmers actually producing food, fuel, and fiber is often studied in individual cases to determine its environmental, economic, and social effects. However, there are few efforts to link across studies in a way that provides opportunities to better understand empirical farmer behavior, design effective policies, and be able to aggregate from case studies to a broader scale. Here we synthesize existing literature to identify four general factors affecting farmer decision-making: local technical and socio-cultural contexts; actors and institutions involved in decision-making; multiple stressors at broader scales; and the temporal gradient of decision-making. We use these factors to compare five cases that illustrate agricultural decision-making and its impacts: cotton and castor farming in Gujarat, India; swidden cultivation of upland rice in the Philippines; potato cultivation in Andean Colombia; winegrowing in Northern California; and maize production in peri-urban central Mexico. These cases span a geographic and economic range of production systems, but we find that we are able to make valid comparisons and draw lessons common across all cases by using the four factors as an organizing principle. We also find that our understanding of why farmers make the decisions they do changes if we neglect to examine even one of the four general factors guiding decision-making. This suggests that these four factors are important to understanding farmer decision-making, and can be used to guide the design and interpretation of future studies, as well as be the subject of further research in and of themselves to promote an agricultural system that is resilient to climate and other global environmental changes.

  16. Fast and Accurate 3D Face Recognition Using Registration to an Intrinsic Coordinate System and Fusion of Multiple Region classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a new robust approach for 3D face registration to an intrinsic coordinate system of the face. The intrinsic coordinate system is defined by the vertical symmetry plane through the nose, the tip of the nose and the slope of the bridge of the nose. In addition, we propose a 3D

  17. Distinct representations of configural and part information across multiple face-selective regions of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golarai, Golijeh; Ghahremani, Dara G; Eberhardt, Jennifer L; Gabrieli, John D E

    2015-01-01

    Several regions of the human brain respond more strongly to faces than to other visual stimuli, such as regions in the amygdala (AMG), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the fusiform face area (FFA). It is unclear if these brain regions are similar in representing the configuration or natural appearance of face parts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy adults who viewed natural or schematic faces with internal parts that were either normally configured or randomly rearranged. Response amplitudes were reduced in the AMG and STS when subjects viewed stimuli whose configuration of parts were digitally rearranged, suggesting that these regions represent the 1st order configuration of face parts. In contrast, response amplitudes in the FFA showed little modulation whether face parts were rearranged or if the natural face parts were replaced with lines. Instead, FFA responses were reduced only when both configural and part information were reduced, revealing an interaction between these factors, suggesting distinct representation of 1st order face configuration and parts in the AMG and STS vs. the FFA.

  18. Population growth rates of reef sharks with and without fishing on the great barrier reef: robust estimation with multiple models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizue Hisano

    Full Text Available Overfishing of sharks is a global concern, with increasing numbers of species threatened by overfishing. For many sharks, both catch rates and underwater visual surveys have been criticized as indices of abundance. In this context, estimation of population trends using individual demographic rates provides an important alternative means of assessing population status. However, such estimates involve uncertainties that must be appropriately characterized to credibly and effectively inform conservation efforts and management. Incorporating uncertainties into population assessment is especially important when key demographic rates are obtained via indirect methods, as is often the case for mortality rates of marine organisms subject to fishing. Here, focusing on two reef shark species on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, we estimated natural and total mortality rates using several indirect methods, and determined the population growth rates resulting from each. We used bootstrapping to quantify the uncertainty associated with each estimate, and to evaluate the extent of agreement between estimates. Multiple models produced highly concordant natural and total mortality rates, and associated population growth rates, once the uncertainties associated with the individual estimates were taken into account. Consensus estimates of natural and total population growth across multiple models support the hypothesis that these species are declining rapidly due to fishing, in contrast to conclusions previously drawn from catch rate trends. Moreover, quantitative projections of abundance differences on fished versus unfished reefs, based on the population growth rate estimates, are comparable to those found in previous studies using underwater visual surveys. These findings appear to justify management actions to substantially reduce the fishing mortality of reef sharks. They also highlight the potential utility of rigorously characterizing uncertainty, and

  19. Quantitation of blood-brain barrier defect by magnetic resonance imaging and gadolinium-DTPA in patients with multiple sclerosis and brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Stubgaard, M; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini;

    1990-01-01

    In this study quantitation of the degree of deficiency of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with multiple sclerosis or brain tumors, by using MRI, is shown to be possible. As a measure of permeability of the BBB to Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) the flux per unit of distribution volume per unit...

  20. The impact of farmers’ participation in field trials in creating awareness and stimulating compliance with the World Health Organization’s farm-based multiple-barrier approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Schou, Torben Wilde;

    2016-01-01

    The results of a study aimed as assessing the extent to which urban vegetable farmers’ participation in field trials can impact on their awareness and engender compliance with the World Health Organization’s farm-based multiple-barrier approach are presented in this paper. Both qualitative...

  1. Evaluation of face-validity of multiple choice questions in special lessons of dentistry at Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H Toodehzaiem

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation is an important part of all educational activities and considering of these evaluations help us to improve all educational institutes . The aim of this study was evaluation of face validity of multiple choice questions in faculty of dentistry in second semester of 1385-1386 at Shahid Sadughi University of medical sciences. Methods : In this study, for evaluating of face validity, all of the multiple choice questions were examined with a check list which were considered and the percentage of face validity established . Then data were analyzed. Results : Introduction page, time of the exam and name of the professor(s were written in all of the exams. The independency of the questions and the lack of vague words in the question's stem were 100%. The percentage of each professor's contribution in the exam and the length of the choices for each question were 8.7% and 27.7% respectively. Conclusion : Face validity of the questions was 92-99.7%. According to this investigation it is concluded that some of the professors need to pass the question plan courses.

  2. Analysis of Multiple-Impact Ballistic Performance of a Tempered Glass Laminate with a Strike Face Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    strengthened glass as exterior or strike faces. Initial impact by a single projectile typically produces a quasi-symmetrical crater exhibiting the typical...during subsequent impacts. Should an impact from a second projectile occur on the damaged glass , loosely constrained fragments would be forced in a...Should an impact from a second projectile occur on the damaged glass , loosely constrained fragments would be forced in a direction away from the strike

  3. Barriers to cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womeodu, R J; Bailey, J E

    1996-01-01

    Many barriers to cancer screening have been summarized and discussed. Barriers have been documented in all patient populations, but some groups such as ethnic minorities and the elderly face unique barriers. The barriers to cancer screening, are multifactorial, but much of the responsibility for change must lie with health care providers and the health care delivery industry. This is not to free the patient of all responsibility, but some significant barriers are beyond their direct control. Take, for example, socioeconomic status, disease knowledge, and culturally related perceptions and myths about cancer detection and treatment. The health care industry must do a better job identifying and overcoming these barriers. The significant effects of provider counseling and advice must not be underestimated. Patients must first be advised, and then further actions must be taken if they reject the screening advice. Did they refuse adherence to recommendations because they do not view themselves as susceptible, because of overwhelming personal barriers, or because of a fatalistic attitude toward cancer detection and treatment? If that is the case, physicians and health care institutions must attempt to change perceptions, educate, and personalize the message so that patients accept their disease susceptibility [table: see text]. Multiple patient and provider risk factors have been identified that can be used to target patients particularly at high risk for inadequate cancer screening and providers at high risk for performing inadequate screening. Research has clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions to improve tracking of patient and physician compliance with screening recommendations. Further research is needed to show the impact of managed-care penetration and payer status on screening efforts, and incentive schemes need to be tested that reward institutions and third-party payers who develop uniform standards and procedures for cancer screening. The

  4. Face Image Analysis Based on Multiple Separated Component Sparse Coding%基于多分离部件稀疏编码的人脸图像分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟锋; 刘红丽; 王延江

    2013-01-01

    Considering the different contributions of different facial components to face analysis, e. g. eyes, mouth etc. , a face analysis based on multi-component sparse coding is proposed. Firstly, some facial components which play important role to face analysis are selected. Then, the dictionaries of multiple components are learnt by using multi-view sparse coding algorithm, and the sparse codes of each face image are computed based on the dictionary. The final decision is made through pooling the sparse codes into support vector machines and least squares classifiers. Face analysis experiments include face recognition, facial expression recognition, face recognition with occlusion, and facial expression recognition with occlusion. The experimental results show that the proposed method based on multi-component sparse coding learns optimal weights of different facial components and outperforms single facial component method and simple multi-component fusion method.%考虑到不同部件(眼睛,嘴等)对人脸分析的贡献差别,提出基于多部件稀疏编码的人脸图像分析方法。首先,选取对人脸(表情)分析影响较大的几个人脸部件,然后,利用多视角稀疏编码方法学习各部件的字典,并计算相应的稀疏编码,最后,将稀疏编码输入分类器(支持向量机和最小均方误差)进行判决。分别在数据库JAFFE和Yale上进行人脸(表情)识别及有遮挡的人脸(表情)识别实验。实验结果表明,基于多部件稀疏编码的人脸分析能较好地调节各部件的权重,优于各单一部件和简单的多部件融合方法的性能。

  5. Virtual Professional Learning Communities: Teachers' Perceptions of Virtual Versus Face-to-Face Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Tom J.; Parker, Joyce M.; Eberhardt, Jan; Koehler, Matthew J.; Lundeberg, Mary A.

    2013-06-01

    Research suggests that professional development that engages teachers in instructional inquiry over an extended time through collaborative professional learning communities (PLCs) is effective in improving instruction and student achievement. Still, most professional development is offered as short-duration workshops that are not effective in changing practice. Barriers to the implementation of PLCs include lack of shared meeting time and a shortage of teachers who share the same subject areas or common goals and interests. Convening teachers from multiple districts can alleviate this problem, but teachers are reluctant to travel for meetings due to time and cost restraints. Video-conferencing software offers a solution to these barriers while serving to foster the sense of community needed for PLCs to be effective. The researchers describe the use of Virtual PLCs in which two groups of teachers met monthly for one school year to collaboratively analyze evidence collected as part of their teacher inquiry plans. With help from a facilitator, these groups developed a relationship similar to other groups meeting face-to-face as part of the same professional development program. Analysis of the reflections of teacher-participants and facilitators revealed that teachers prefer face-to-face meetings, but that the virtual and face-to-face meetings provided teachers with similar social interactions in the PLC experience. The findings suggest that teachers perceive videoconferencing as an effective tool for facilitating PLCs when distance and time are practical barriers to face-to-face meetings. Practical considerations for developing and facilitating virtual PLCs are also discussed.

  6. Toward design of multiple-property inorganic-organic hybrid compounds based on face-sharing octahedral iodoplumbate chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shun-Ping; Ren, Xiao-Ming

    2011-09-07

    In this review article, we have illustrated the strategies developed to achieve inorganic-organic hybrid compounds with technologically important physical properties. A series of target inorganic-organic hybrid compounds have been accomplished by incorporating the functional organic components (with a large hyperpolarizability and luminophore Schiff base cation) into the highly polarizable one-dimensional (1-D) iodoplumbate chain network. The effect of substituent features in the phenyl ring of the Schiff base cation on its molecular conformation as well as the crystal packing structure of the hybrid compound will be discussed and the multiple physical properties (ferroelectricity, NLO and multiple band emission) will also be mentioned. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  7. Usage problems and social barriers faced by persons with a wheelchair and other aids. Qualitative study from the ergonomics perspective in persons disabled by rheumatoid arthritis and other conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Saray, Patricia; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Ramos-Lira, Luciana; Sánchez-Monroy, David; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the usage and accessibility problems faced by the disabled (whether in pain or not) users of assistive devices (conventional wheelchairs), identify physical barriers that limit their mobility, and recognize the socio-cultural practices excluding them from the design process of such devices. Another main purpose of this paper is to improve the ergonomic criteria that influence the design and manufacture of assistive devices. 15 patients with any of the following diagnoses: ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis, or amputees using wheelchairs in Mexico and Colombia. Qualitative study. Thematic analysis with a theoretical industrial design approach to employing usability testing for ergonomic analysis. We identified 6 issues associated with usability problems from the patient's standpoint: barriers for use of wheelchairs (usability and acceptability), creative adaptations, potential use of technical devices, independence, body perception and assistive devices, and architectural barriers. The ergonomic and usability requirements and the resulting level of independence vary across wheelchair users with chronic pain and those whose disability does not involve pain. The latter are more independent in their movements and decisions. User input is essential in the design of assistive devices. The proposal of "design from and for the user" must rely on both engineering and medical perspective on the ergonomy as well as the user interpretation of the environment and the experience of the disease. Thus we can arrive at a "user-centered design". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Implementation of multiple-domain covering computerized decision support systems in primary care: a focus group study on perceived barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, M.; Weenink, J.W.; Weijden, T. van der; Westert, G.P.; Kool, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the widespread availability of computerized decision support systems (CDSSs) in various healthcare settings, evidence on their uptake and effectiveness is still limited. Most barrier studies focus on CDSSs that are aimed at a limited number of decision points within selected smal

  9. Implementation of multiple-domain covering computerized decision support systems in primary care : A focus group study on perceived barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, M.; Weenink, Jan-Willem; van der Weijden, Trudy; Westert, G.P.; Kool, Rudolf B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread availability of computerized decision support systems (CDSSs) in various healthcare settings, evidence on their uptake and effectiveness is still limited. Most barrier studies focus on CDSSs that are aimed at a limited number of decision points within selected small

  10. Addressing barriers to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B and C in the face of persisting fiscal constraints in Europe: report from a high level conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodoridis, G; Thomas, H C; Golna, C; Bernardi, M; Carballo, M; Cornberg, M; Dalekos, G; Degertekin, B; Dourakis, S; Flisiak, R; Goldberg, D; Gore, C; Goulis, I; Hadziyannis, S; Kalamitsis, G; Kanavos, P; Kautz, A; Koskinas, I; Leite, B R; Malliori, M; Manolakopoulos, S; Matičič, M; Papaevangelou, V; Pirona, A; Prati, D; Raptopoulou-Gigi, M; Reic, T; Robaeys, G; Schatz, E; Souliotis, K; Tountas, Y; Wiktor, S; Wilson, D; Yfantopoulos, J; Hatzakis, A

    2016-02-01

    In the WHO-EURO region, around 28 million people are currently living with chronic viral hepatitis, and 120,000 people die every year because of it. Lack of awareness and understanding combined with the social stigma and discrimination exacerbate barriers related to access to prevention, diagnosis and treatment services for those most in need. In addition, the persisting economic crisis has impacted on public health spending, thus posing challenges on the sustainable investment in promotion, primary and secondary prevention, diagnosis and treatment of viral hepatitis across European countries. The Hepatitis B and C Public Policy Association in cooperation with the Hellenic Center for Disease Prevention and Control together with 10 partner organizations discussed at the Athens High Level Meeting held in June 2014 recent policy developments, persisting and emerging challenges related to the prevention and management of viral hepatitis and the need for a de minimis framework of urgent priorities for action, reflected in a Call to Action (Appendix S1). The discussion confirmed that persisting barriers do not allow the full realisation of the public health potential of diagnosing and preventing hepatitis B and C, treating hepatitis B and curing hepatitis C. Such barriers are related to (a) lack of evidence-based knowledge of hepatitis B and C, (b) limited access to prevention, diagnosis and treatment services with poor patient pathways, (c) declining resources and (d) the presence of social stigma and discrimination. The discussion also confirmed the emerging importance of fiscal constraints on the ability of policymakers to adequately address viral hepatitis challenges, particularly through increasing coverage of newer therapies. In Europe, it is critical that public policy bodies urgently agree on a conceptual framework for addressing the existing and emerging barriers to managing viral hepatitis. Such a framework would ensure all health systems share a common

  11. Quantitation of blood-brain barrier defect by magnetic resonance imaging and gadolinium-DTPA in patients with multiple sclerosis and brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Stubgaard, M; Frederiksen, J L;

    1990-01-01

    In this study quantitation of the degree of deficiency of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with multiple sclerosis or brain tumors, by using MRI, is shown to be possible. As a measure of permeability of the BBB to Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) the flux per unit of distribution volume per unit......, and the results were comparable to results obtained from similar studies using positron emission tomography. The improved possibility of quantitating the defect of the BBB by MRI may give new information about pathogenesis or etiology, and leads to improved methods in monitoring the efficacy of treatments...

  12. Improved characteristics of ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes with step-graded quantum barriers close to waveguide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xuefen; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong

    2016-09-01

    Ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes (LDs) with step-graded quantum barriers (QBs) instead of conventional first and last QBs close to waveguide layers are proposed. The characteristics of this type of laser diodes are numerically investigated by using the software PICS3D and it is found that the performances of these LDs are greatly improved. The results indicates that the structure with step-graded QBs exhibits higher output light power, slope efficiency and emission intensity, as well as lower series resistance and threshold current density under the identical condition, compared with conventional LD structure.

  13. Investigating the Multiple Food Sources and N Chemistry of Invasive Earthworms at the Rhinelander, WI, Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, S. M.; Filley, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 can directly and indirectly alter biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems through changes to plant productivity, tissue chemistry, and associated feedbacks to microbial and faunal communities. At the Rhinelander free air CO2 enrichment site (FACE), Rhinelander WI, we examined the consumption and movement of plant tissue and soil by invasive earthworm species using a multi-proxy stable isotope and amino acid chemistry analysis of plant and soil, as well as fecal matter extracted from invasive earthworms present at the site. Using an isotopic mixing model that exploits the 13C-depleted CO2 source and a previous 15N labeling in the FACE experiment, we determined potential sources to the earthworm fecal matter and the movement of amino compounds. For epigeic, surface dwelling earthworms, the stable isotope modeling showed the largest contribution to the C and N in fecal matter was from leaf litter (up to 80%) which was depleted in amino acid C under elevated CO2 conditions. Fecal matter from the endogeic, mineral soil dwelling earthworms was primarily derived from 0-5 cm soil (up to 56%) and fine root tissue (up to 70%). Additionally, amino acid C in this group of earthworms had a proportionately greater relative concentration compared to the epigeic species and the 0-5cm soil. Here we demonstrate that earthworms are incorporating multiple sources (leaf litter, root, and soil) into their fecal matter, which then get deposited throughout the soil profile, where nutrients could become available for plant use.

  14. The Use of Apps for Health in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson's Disease and Stroke - Barriers and Facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winberg, C; Kylberg, M; Pettersson, C; Harnett, T; Hedvall, P-O; Mattsson, T; Månsson Lexell, E

    2017-01-01

    The importance of mobile health has increased during recent years but few studies have described the use of apps among persons with neurological disabilities. The aim of this paper was to describe how persons ageing with a neurological disability experience barriers and facilitators in relation to using apps in everyday life. A qualitative approach was used. 16 persons with neurological disorders participated in two group discussions. Data were analyzed by content analysis. The analysis formed four categories; Impairments make apps harder to use, Use of apps is increased by learnability and sharing, Valuating the information in an app, and Apps act supportive and motivating. The participants used apps in the same way as persons without disabilities. Impairments and trustworthiness were perceived as barriers, which need to be acknowledged when developing apps for this population. Use of apps was facilitated by the possibility to share data and to connect with others. Apps may have the potential to improve self-management for persons ageing with disabilities but further research is needed.

  15. Behavior and major barriers faced by non-injectable drug users with HBV/HCV seeking treatment for hepatitis and drug addiction in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Monica; Cavalcanti, Sabine; Gliksman, Louis; Adlaf, Edward; Hacker, Mariana de Andrea Vilas-Boas; Bertoni, Neilane; Massard, Elize; Bastos, Francisco Inácio

    2011-12-01

    Drug users (DU) are a marginalized group and at risk for viral hepatitis, who seldom access health services. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 111 DU with chronic HBV/HCV and 15 in-depth interviews with health professionals/policymakers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Most interviewees were male, non-white, with a low educational background, unemployed and/or living on less than $245 a month (minimun wage). In the last 6 months, 61.8% of interviewees snorted cocaine, 64.7% at least once a week. Half of the interviewees had a stable partner and 38.3% of those with occasional partners never/almost never using condoms. Addiction treatment seeking was found to be associated with: being white (OR:5.5), high-school degree (OR:8.7), and employment (OR:5.7). Hepatitis treatment seeking was high (80.9%), and access to low-threshold, user-friendly health services was key for treatment seeking behaviors (OR:3.6). Missed opportunities for hepatitis treatment seem to be associated with structural (uneven political/financial support to hepatitis programs) and patient-related barriers (severe addiction and non-adherence). Those most in need were less likely to access treatment, calling for renewed strategies, in order to curb hepatitis among impoverished drug users and their sexual partners.

  16. Immunohistochemical features of progesterone receptors expression of placental barrier in women with multiple pregnancies resulting from assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Zadorozhna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal disorders are one of the main known causes of miscarriage and preterm birth in multiple pregnancies resulting from assisted reproductive technology (ART. Progesterone and the number of its receptors play an important role in the preservation and prolongation of pregnancy and it is the pressing issue of our time. The study of placentas, as the main site of synthesis of progesterone, has high informative potential and it is the most important diagnostic object, and information received by its research is essential for the full conclusion on the causes, mechanisms, close and long-term effects of multiple pregnancy pathology. Aim. The aim of our study was to investigate immunohistochemical features of placentas from women with dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies in spontaneous fertilization and after use of assisted reproductive technology (ART. Methods and results. According to this goal we examined 94 women, 44 of whom had multiple pregnancies due to ART, 42 with separate multiple pregnancy and 38 women with a singleton pregnancy. We carried out clinical and statistical analysis of the course of pregnancy and childbirth in the studied groups. During the study it was found that multiple pregnancies due to assisted reproduction belong to the high risk of gestation, at which premature births occur much more frequently than in singleton pregnancies. We were the first to carry out the immunohistochemical study of placentas in which the highest expression of progesterone receptors in the nuclei of cells of decidua (45% related to the parent structure of the placenta from women with multiple pregnancies caused by ART is found. It is also found that with increasing gestational age, there has been a significant decrease in the expression of the activity of progesterone receptors (from 45 to 2.5%, regardless of the method of conception and the number of fetuses. Conclusions. The results of the study point to the definitive link of structures of

  17. A Review on Multiple Survey Report of Cloud Adoption and its Major Barriers in the Perspective of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Masudul Islam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is called globalization for computer and internet. Either directly or indirectly we are using cloud technology almost every day. Today cloud computing is getting popular in every developed country, but it's not over all officially adopted in most of the 3rd world developing country like Bangladesh. This paper will show some categorize survey of continuous progress, advantages, disadvantages, dependencies, maturity of cloud computing from 2012 to till now. Also we will show recent ranking of cloud adoption in different country. Also our main target will review major barriers to adopt cloud. Finally we will propose some initial steps to adopt cloud technology in our country by studying previous trade-off factors of survey report.

  18. Evaluating barriers for reverse logistics implementation under a multiple stakeholders' perspective analysis using grey decision making approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzon, Marina; Govindan, Kannan; Rodriguez, Carlos Manuel Taboada

    2017-01-01

    In the past few decades, an interest in reverse logistics has attracted the attention of industries and also has become a subject of interest for researchers. However, while reverse logistics is becoming a mandatory element of the supply chain in developed countries particularly due to legislation...... issues, the subject is still in a state of infancy in emerging economies such as Brazil. In these connections, impediments to reverse logistics implementation must be considered and analyzed, as well as the many different perspectives from the key stakeholders for their development. The objective...... of this research is to evaluate the interrelationship among reverse logistics barriers from the perspectives of the most important stakeholders in the Brazilian context. For this purpose, a Multi-Criteria Decision Making tool named grey-based Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (grey-DEMATEL) was used...

  19. Cell-to-cell transmission can overcome multiple donor and target cell barriers imposed on cell-free HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Peng; Agosto, Luis M; Ilinskaya, Anna; Dorjbal, Batsukh; Truong, Rosaline; Derse, David; Uchil, Pradeep D; Heidecker, Gisela; Mothes, Walther

    2013-01-01

    Virus transmission can occur either by a cell-free mode through the extracellular space or by cell-to-cell transmission involving direct cell-to-cell contact. The factors that determine whether a virus spreads by either pathway are poorly understood. Here, we assessed the relative contribution of cell-free and cell-to-cell transmission to the spreading of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We demonstrate that HIV can spread by a cell-free pathway if all the steps of the viral replication cycle are efficiently supported in highly permissive cells. However, when the cell-free path was systematically hindered at various steps, HIV transmission became contact-dependent. Cell-to-cell transmission overcame barriers introduced in the donor cell at the level of gene expression and surface retention by the restriction factor tetherin. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies that efficiently inhibit cell-free HIV were less effective against cell-to-cell transmitted virus. HIV cell-to-cell transmission also efficiently infected target T cells that were relatively poorly susceptible to cell-free HIV. Importantly, we demonstrate that the donor and target cell types influence critically the extent by which cell-to-cell transmission can overcome each barrier. Mechanistically, cell-to-cell transmission promoted HIV spread to more cells and infected target cells with a higher proviral content than observed for cell-free virus. Our data demonstrate that the frequently observed contact-dependent spread of HIV is the result of specific features in donor and target cell types, thus offering an explanation for conflicting reports on the extent of cell-to-cell transmission of HIV.

  20. Cell-to-cell transmission can overcome multiple donor and target cell barriers imposed on cell-free HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhong

    Full Text Available Virus transmission can occur either by a cell-free mode through the extracellular space or by cell-to-cell transmission involving direct cell-to-cell contact. The factors that determine whether a virus spreads by either pathway are poorly understood. Here, we assessed the relative contribution of cell-free and cell-to-cell transmission to the spreading of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. We demonstrate that HIV can spread by a cell-free pathway if all the steps of the viral replication cycle are efficiently supported in highly permissive cells. However, when the cell-free path was systematically hindered at various steps, HIV transmission became contact-dependent. Cell-to-cell transmission overcame barriers introduced in the donor cell at the level of gene expression and surface retention by the restriction factor tetherin. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies that efficiently inhibit cell-free HIV were less effective against cell-to-cell transmitted virus. HIV cell-to-cell transmission also efficiently infected target T cells that were relatively poorly susceptible to cell-free HIV. Importantly, we demonstrate that the donor and target cell types influence critically the extent by which cell-to-cell transmission can overcome each barrier. Mechanistically, cell-to-cell transmission promoted HIV spread to more cells and infected target cells with a higher proviral content than observed for cell-free virus. Our data demonstrate that the frequently observed contact-dependent spread of HIV is the result of specific features in donor and target cell types, thus offering an explanation for conflicting reports on the extent of cell-to-cell transmission of HIV.

  1. Soluble CD40 ligand contributes to blood-brain barrier breakdown and central nervous system inflammation in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hiroki; Mori, Masahiro; Uchida, Tomohiko; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Ohtani, Ryohei; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2017-04-15

    Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is reported to disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum sCD40L levels were measured in 29 multiple sclerosis (MS), 29 neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and 27 disease control (DC) patients. In MS, serum sCD40L levels were higher than in DCs and positively correlated with the CSF/serum albumin ratio (Qalb). In NMOSD, CSF sCD40L levels were significantly increased compared to DCs, and were correlated to Qalb, CSF cell counts, protein concentrations, and interleukin-6 levels. sCD40L could be involved in BBB disruption in MS, whereas it may contribute to CNS inflammation in NMOSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring the impact of financial barriers on secondary prevention of heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Kirnvir K; King-Shier, Kathryn; Manns, Braden J; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Stone, James A; Campbell, David J T

    2017-02-14

    Patients with coronary artery disease experience various barriers which impact their ability to optimally manage their condition. Financial barriers may result in cost related non-adherence to medical therapies and recommendations, impacting patient health outcomes. Patient experiences regarding financial barriers remain poorly understood. Therefore, we used qualitative methods to explore the experience of financial barriers to care among patients with heart disease. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of participants in Alberta, Canada with heart disease (n = 13) who perceived financial barriers to care. We collected data using semi-structured face-to-face or telephone interviews inquiring about patients experience of financial barriers and the strategies used to cope with such barriers. Multiple analysts performed inductive thematic analysis and findings were bolstered by member checking. The aspects of care to which participants perceived financial barriers included access to: medications, cardiac rehabilitation and exercise, psychological support, transportation and parking. Some participants demonstrated the ability to successfully self-advocate in order to effectively navigate within the healthcare and social service systems. Financial barriers impacted patients' ability to self-manage their cardiovascular disease. Financial barriers contributed to non-adherence to essential medical therapies and health recommendations, which may lead to adverse patient outcomes. Given that it is such a key skill, enhancing patients' self-advocacy and navigation skills may assist in improving patient health outcomes.

  3. Combining multiple measurement and isotope techniques to help target erosion hot-spots in the Great Barrier Reef catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Rebecca; Croke, Jacky; Bainbridge, Zoe; Wilkinson, Scott; Hancock, Gary; Austin, Jen; Kuhnert, Petra

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable evidence that the amount of sediment reaching the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, has increased since agricultural development commenced in the 1870's. This is having deleterious effects on freshwater and marine ecosystems. However, understanding the primary source and processes driving the increased sediment delivery has been challenging due to the large size and hydrogeomorphic diversity of adjacent catchments. This paper presents the results from several projects that employed a diverse range of measurement techniques all aimed at understanding the spatial and temporal changes in sediment yield from the 130,000 km2 Burdekin catchment, Australia. Cosmogenic nuclides (10Be) were combined with contemporary sediment flux monitoring to help identify high risk sub-catchments that have anthropogenically accelerated erosion. Within the sub-catchments, fallout radionuclides (137Cs, 7Pb and 7Be) were uses to determine the dominant erosion process (surface vs sub-surface erosion). Long term monitoring of improved grazing land management (using nested flumes and gauges), were used to evaluate the effectiveness of land management changes on sediment yields at paddock and catchment scales over 10 years. The results suggest that the Bowen and Upper Burdekin sub-catchments are the dominant anthropogenic source of sediment to the GBR having an accelerated erosion factor of 7.47 (± 3.71) and 3.64 (± 0.5), respectively. Within these sub-catchments, most of the fine sediment is coming from vertical channel walls (50%) or horizontal sub-surface soils (~42%). Remediating these catchments and reducing sediment delivery is likely to take greater than 10 years, and will require a range of approaches including pasture and rangeland management, as well as targeted erosion control in highly gullied landscapes. Together, these data sets help elucidate the often complex sediment delivery processes to the GBR. This helps policy and management determine where to

  4. Barriers to SCM implementing

    OpenAIRE

    M.E. Rosli; B. Md Dero; A. R. Ismail; M. N. Ab Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the barriers faced by Malaysian manufacturing companies in successfullyimplementing the Supply Chain Management (SCM). The study has highlighted some pertinent factorsperforming the barriers that are most frequently reported by the studied companies. Sixteen companies, fromservice and manufacturing companies were studied over a period of two years to assess their SCM practicesthrough survey and interview processes.Design/methodology/approach: This part discusses t...

  5. Stifled Voices: Barriers to Help-Seeking Behavior for South African Childhood Sexual Assault Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Tillman, Shaquita; Marks, Alison

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa, females under the age of 18 comprise approximately 40% of the rapes and other forms of sexual assault that occur. However, South African girls face multiple barriers to seeking help in the aftermath of sexual assault. This literature review provides an overview of childhood sexual assault in South African girls and addresses…

  6. Stifled Voices: Barriers to Help-Seeking Behavior for South African Childhood Sexual Assault Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Tillman, Shaquita; Marks, Alison

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa, females under the age of 18 comprise approximately 40% of the rapes and other forms of sexual assault that occur. However, South African girls face multiple barriers to seeking help in the aftermath of sexual assault. This literature review provides an overview of childhood sexual assault in South African girls and addresses…

  7. Face pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begin in other places in the body. Abscessed tooth (ongoing throbbing pain on one side of the lower face that ... face, and aggravated by eating. Call a dentist. Pain is persistent, ... by other unexplained symptoms. Call your primary provider.

  8. Hierarchical Spatio-Temporal Probabilistic Graphical Model with Multiple Feature Fusion for Binary Facial Attribute Classification in Real-World Face Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkus, Meltem; Precup, Doina; Clark, James J; Arbel, Tal

    2016-06-01

    Recent literature shows that facial attributes, i.e., contextual facial information, can be beneficial for improving the performance of real-world applications, such as face verification, face recognition, and image search. Examples of face attributes include gender, skin color, facial hair, etc. How to robustly obtain these facial attributes (traits) is still an open problem, especially in the presence of the challenges of real-world environments: non-uniform illumination conditions, arbitrary occlusions, motion blur and background clutter. What makes this problem even more difficult is the enormous variability presented by the same subject, due to arbitrary face scales, head poses, and facial expressions. In this paper, we focus on the problem of facial trait classification in real-world face videos. We have developed a fully automatic hierarchical and probabilistic framework that models the collective set of frame class distributions and feature spatial information over a video sequence. The experiments are conducted on a large real-world face video database that we have collected, labelled and made publicly available. The proposed method is flexible enough to be applied to any facial classification problem. Experiments on a large, real-world video database McGillFaces [1] of 18,000 video frames reveal that the proposed framework outperforms alternative approaches, by up to 16.96 and 10.13%, for the facial attributes of gender and facial hair, respectively.

  9. Evaluation of virus reduction efficiency in wastewater treatment unit processes as a credit value in the multiple-barrier system for wastewater reclamation and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshihiro; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Makoto; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Satoshi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-12-01

    The virus reduction efficiency of each unit process is commonly determined based on the ratio of virus concentration in influent to that in effluent of a unit, but the virus concentration in wastewater has often fallen below the analytical quantification limit, which does not allow us to calculate the concentration ratio at each sampling event. In this study, left-censored datasets of norovirus (genogroup I and II), and adenovirus were used to calculate the virus reduction efficiency in unit processes of secondary biological treatment and chlorine disinfection. Virus concentration in influent, effluent from the secondary treatment, and chlorine-disinfected effluent of four municipal wastewater treatment plants were analyzed by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach, and the probabilistic distributions of log reduction (LR) were estimated by a Bayesian estimation algorithm. The mean values of LR in the secondary treatment units ranged from 0.9 and 2.2, whereas those in the free chlorine disinfection units were from -0.1 and 0.5. The LR value in the secondary treatment was virus type and unit process dependent, which raised the importance for accumulating the data of virus LR values applicable to the multiple-barrier system, which is a global concept of microbial risk management in wastewater reclamation and reuse.

  10. A Qualitative Study of Multiple Health Behaviors in Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence regarding inflammatory pathways, elevated cardiovascular risk, and negative effects of secondary conditions on disability progression provide a strong rationale for promoting multiple health behaviors in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, many unanswered questions remain about the best ways to design multiple behavior change interventions for adults with MS. We sought to identify facilitators and barriers to engaging in multiple health behaviors (physical activity, nutrition, and sleep) and to gain further insights into how to develop multiple health behavior change interventions based on preferences of adults with MS. Methods: Focus groups and one-on-one interviews were conducted with 17 participants with MS. Results: Five qualitative themes were identified as either facilitating or hindering engagement in multiple health behaviors: 1) roles, priorities, and preferences; 2) sense of duty; 3) the fatigue and mobility problem; 4) taking control; and 5) resiliency. Participants identified advantages and disadvantages of delivery formats (eg, face-to-face group vs. telephone), frequency of contacts, and intervention strategies based on their individual circumstances and obligations. Participants felt that discussing the benefits of engaging in multiple health behaviors, developing action plans, accommodating preferences, and addressing health problems would be helpful strategies to include in a multiple behavior change intervention. Conclusions: These findings indicate that there may be common facilitators and barriers that can be targeted to promote multiple behavior changes. Future research should explore the best ways to tailor multiple behavior change interventions to preferences, symptoms, psychological traits, and social cognitions. PMID:27803640

  11. Multiple barriers against successful care provision for depressed patients in general internal medicine in a Japanese rural hospital: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saitoh Akiyoshi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A general internist has an important role in primary care, especially for the elderly in rural areas of Japan. Although effective intervention models for depressed patients in general practice and primary care settings have been developed in the US and UK medical systems, there is little information regarding even the recognition rate and prescription rate of psychotropic medication by general internists in Japan. The present study surveyed these data cross-sectionally in a general internal medicine outpatient clinic of a Japanese rural hospital. Methods Patients were consecutively recruited and evaluated for major depressive disorder or any mood disorder using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ. Physicians who were blinded to the results of the PHQ were asked to diagnose whether the patients had any mental disorders, and if so, whether they had mood disorders or not. Data regarding prescription of psychotropic medicines were collected from medical records. Results Among 312 patients, 27 (8.7% and 52 (16.7% were identified with major depressive disorder and any mood disorder using the PHQ, respectively. Among those with major depressive disorder, 21 (77.8% were recognized by physicians as having a mental disorder, but only three (11.1% were diagnosed as having a mood disorder. Only two patients with major depressive disorder (7.4% had been prescribed antidepressants. Even among those (n = 15 whom physicians diagnosed with a mood disorder irrespective of the PHQ results, only four (26.7% were prescribed an antidepressant. Conclusions Despite a high prevalence of depression, physicians did not often recognize depression in patients. In addition, most patients who were diagnosed by physicians as having a mood disorder were not prescribed antidepressants. Multiple barriers to providing appropriate care for depressed patients exist, such as recognizing depression, prescribing appropriate medications, and appropriately referring

  12. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search ...

  13. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? ... Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos Learn More PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What ...

  14. Multibiometrics for face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond; Deravi, Farzin; Tao, Qian

    2008-01-01

    Fusion is a popular practice to combine multiple sources of biometric information to achieve systems with greater performance and flexibility. In this paper various approaches to fusion within a multibiometrics context are considered and an application to the fusion of 2D and 3D face information is

  15. Multibiometrics for face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Deravi, Farzin; Tao, Q.

    Fusion is a popular practice to combine multiple sources of biometric information to achieve systems with greater performance and flexibility. In this paper various approaches to fusion within a multibiometrics context are considered and an application to the fusion of 2D and 3D face information is

  16. Face Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Last November, surgeons in France successfully performed the world's first face transplant surgery. Ten days later, Chen Huanran in Beijing began soliciting patients who were ready to accept a face transplant, searching for China's first such patient through an advertisement on his website and other channels. Chen, chief orthopedic surgeon at the Plastic Surgery Hospital under the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, has conducted more than 300 transsexual operations and was considered one of the top com...

  17. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  18. 面孔多次与单次呈现对女性再认优势的调节%Multiple Times Appearance and Single Time Appearance of Faces Regulating Women's Recognition Advantage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋重清; 陈晓宇

    2015-01-01

    本研究采用"学习—再认"的范式,招募58名大学生作为参与者,研究不同频次的面孔呈现方式,对不同性别参与者的面孔再认成绩的影响.实验结果发现:加工阶段多次呈现的面孔的再认成绩好于单次呈现面孔的再认成绩;学习阶段面孔多次呈现条件下,女性的面孔再认成绩好于男性的面孔再认成绩.实验结果说明:在面孔呈现总时长相等的情况下,学习阶段多次呈现面孔,可以使个体对面孔进行多次编码,有利于随后的面孔再认;面孔再认成绩可能依赖于加工阶段对面孔编码的精细程度;相比于男性,女性的较好语言能力和较丰富的面孔经验有助于其在加工阶段对面孔进行精细加工,进而使其获得面孔再认优势.%Based on the"Learning-recognition" paradigm,the study recruited 58 university students (29 fe-males) taking part in the experiment to explore the influence of different facial appearance frequency on their facial recognition performance.The results showed that the facial recognition performance was better when faces were appeared multiple times than single time.And there were also an interaction between dif-ferent facial appearance frequency and the gender of participants on the facial recognition performance.In the condition of multiple times appearance of faces during learning,females' facial recognition performance was better than males'.The results suggested in the case that the total length of face appearance time was equal,multiple times appearance of faces during learning could make the individual to code face many times,which was conducive to the subsequent facial recognition.The facial recognition performance might rely on the precision stage of face encoding during learning.And compared with males,females' better a-bility of language and richer face experience were conducive to the precision processing of faces during learning and then made them gain face recognition advantage.

  19. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, and ... to hear what they have to say. What is PTSD? → How does PTSD affect loved ones? → Am ...

  20. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... traumatic event — like combat, an assault, or a disaster — it's normal to feel scared, keyed up, or sad at first. But if it's been months or years since the trauma and you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In ...

  1. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...

  2. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    performed within normal range on at least one test of visual categorisation, strongly suggesting that their abnormal performance with words and faces does not represent a generalised visuo-perceptual deficit. Our results suggest that posterior areas in both hemispheres may be critical for both reading...

  3. Quantified Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The article presents three contemporary art projects that, in various ways, thematise questions regarding numerical representation of the human face in relation to the identification of faces, for example through the use of biometric video analysis software, or DNA technology. The Dutch...... and critically examine bias in surveillance technologies, as well as scientific investigations, regarding the stereotyping mode of the human gaze. The American artist Heather Dewey-Hagborg creates three-dimensional portraits of persons she has “identified” from their garbage. Her project from 2013 entitled....... The three works are analysed with perspectives to historical physiognomy and Francis Galton's composite portraits from the 1800s. It is argued that, rather than being a statistical compression like the historical composites, contemporary statistical visual portraits (composites) are irreversible...

  4. The multiple faces of the human immune system : Modern life causes low-grade inflammation and thereby provokes conflict between the selfish immune system and the selfish brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruimboom, Leo

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes the multiple ways by which the human immune system can react upon direct and indirect challenges, such as infection and wounds on the one hand, and chronic stress factors, such as smoking, on the other. The human defense system exhibits a type of selfish behaviour during both a

  5. Fusion of Local and Global Features Using Multiple Kernel Learning for Face Recognition%多核学习融合局部和全局特征的人脸识别算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨赛; 赵春霞; 刘凡

    2016-01-01

    A new face recognition algorithm via bag-of-words(BoW)is proposed.In specific,it uses BoW and the global pattern of BoW respectively as the local feature and global feature of face images.Multiple kernel learning is adopted to fuse the local and global features.Extensive experiments were carried out on four face databases,i.e.AR,FERET,CMU PIE and LFW.The results show that our method can effectively solve the small training size problem and is more robust to expression changes,position variations and occlusion.%提出一种基于词袋模型的新的人脸识别算法.该方法将词袋模型和词袋模型的全局模式分别作为人脸图像的局部特征和全局特征描述,最后使用多核学习方法将二者进行融合.AR、FERET、CMU PIE以及LFW公开人脸数据库上的实验结果表明,本文方法能够更好的解决小样本问题,并且对人脸的表情变化、姿态变化以及面部遮挡具有更优良的鲁棒性.

  6. Barriers and facilitators of Hispanic older adult mental health service utilization in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Erin De; Woods-Giscombe, Cheryl L; Beeber, Linda S

    2015-01-01

    Mental health providers in the USA encounter the challenge and opportunity to engage the rapidly growing population of Hispanic older adults in evidence-based mental health treatments. This population underutilizes mental health services, despite comparable or slightly higher rates of mental illness compared with non-Hispanic White older adults. This review identified barriers and facilitators of mental health service use by Hispanic older adults in the USA to identify practice, policy, and research implications. Hispanic older adults face multiple compounding barriers to mental health service use. Issues related to identification of needs, availability of services, accessibility of services, and acceptability of mental healthcare treatment are discussed.

  7. Holistic crowding of Mooney faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M; Whitney, David

    2009-06-29

    An object or feature is generally more difficult to identify when other objects are presented nearby, an effect referred to as crowding. Here, we used Mooney faces to examine whether crowding can also occur within and between holistic face representations (C. M. Mooney, 1957). Mooney faces are ideal stimuli for this test because no cues exist to distinguish facial features in a Mooney face; to find any facial feature, such as an eye or a nose, one must first holistically perceive the image as a face. Through a series of six experiments we tested the effect of crowding on Mooney face recognition. Our results demonstrate crowding between and within Mooney faces and fulfill the diagnostic criteria for crowding, including eccentricity dependence and lack of crowding in the fovea, critical flanker spacing consistent with less than half the eccentricity of the target, and inner-outer flanker asymmetry. Further, our results show that recognition of an upright Mooney face is more strongly impaired by upright Mooney face flankers than inverted ones. Taken together, these results suggest crowding can occur selectively between high-level representations of faces and that crowding must occur at multiple levels in the visual system.

  8. Enhanced carrier injection in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells LED with polarization-induced electron blocking barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengguo; Liu, Hongfei; Chua, Soo Jin

    2016-03-01

    In this report, we designed a light emitting diode (LED) structure in which an N-polar p-GaN layer is grown on top of Ga-polar In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN quantum wells (QWs) on an n-GaN layer. Numerical simulation reveals that the large polarization field at the polarity inversion interface induces a potential barrier in the conduction band, which can block electron overflow out of the QWs. Compared with a conventional LED structure with an Al0.2Ga0.8N electron blocking layer (EBL), the proposed LED structure shows much lower electron current leakage, higher hole injection, and a significant improvement in the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). These results suggest that the polarization induced barrier (PIB) is more effective than the AlGaN EBL in suppressing electron overflow and improving hole transport in GaN-based LEDs.

  9. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, W T; Callaghan, G M; Ruckstuhl, L E

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers.

  10. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William T.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Ruckstuhl, L. E.

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers. PMID:22478314

  11. FACE RECOGNITION FROM FRONT-VIEW FACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuLifang; ShenLansun

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents a face normalization algorithm based on 2-D face model to rec-ognize faces with variant postures from front-view face.A 2-D face mesh model can be extracted from faces with rotation to left or right and the corresponding front-view mesh model can be estimated according to facial symmetry.Then based on the relationship between the two mesh models,the nrmalized front-view face is formed by gray level mapping.Finally,the face recognition will be finished based on Principal Component Analysis(PCA).Experiments show that better face recognition performance is achieved in this way.

  12. FACE RECOGNITION FROM FRONT-VIEW FACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Lifang; Shen Lansun

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents a face normalization algorithm based on 2-D face model to recognize faces with variant postures from front-view face. A 2-D face mesh model can be extracted from faces with rotation to left or right and the corresponding front-view mesh model can be estimated according to the facial symmetry. Then based on the inner relationship between the two mesh models, the normalized front-view face is formed by gray level mapping. Finally, the face recognition will be finished based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Experiments show that better face recognition performance is achieved in this way.

  13. Barriers to involvement in physical activities of persons with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Ron; Shalev, Anat

    2016-03-01

    Participating in physical activities could be essential for reducing the multiple risk factors for health problems that persons with severe mental illness (SMI) may suffer. However, people with SMI are significantly less active than the general population. To develop knowledge about factors related to the perceived barriers hindering this population's participation in physical activities and the benefits this participation would have, a study was conducted in Israel with 86 people with mental illness living in community mental health facilities prior to their participation in a health promotion program. A mixed method was implemented and included: a scale designed to measure participants' perceptions of the barriers to and benefits of involvement in physical activities; instruments focusing on bio-psycho-social factors that may affect the level of barriers experienced; and personal interviews. The findings revealed high ranking for accessibility barriers hindering the participation in physical activities. Bio-psycho-social factors stemming from the participants' mental health, such as level of depression, were correlated with higher ranking of accessibility barriers. Bio-psycho-social factors reflecting positive mental health and health, such as positive appraisal of body weight, were correlated with lower ranking of accessibility barriers. Other barriers may include organizational and broader systemic barriers in the mental health facilities where the participants reside. These findings illuminate the need to consider the unique challenges that persons with mental illness may face in any attempt to advance their involvement in physical activity.

  14. Rapidly Developed Multiple Face and Neck Skin Cancers in a Patient with Sjögren’s Syndrome: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Lean San; Lai, Ji-Ching; Lian, Je Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 76 Final Diagnosis: Skin cancer Symptoms: Skin Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Sjögren’s syndrome is a chronic, systemic disorder of an autoimmune nature, and its primary etiopathogenetic events are not known. Previous studies have found elevated incidence of malignancies in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome. However, there are few reports regarding the association of Sjögren’s syndrome with skin cancers, especially with multiple skin cancers developed within a short time. Case Report: We reported an unusual case of a patient with primary Sjögren’s syndrome who suffered from rapidly developed facial and neck skin cancers within two years. Conclusions: Sjögren’s syndrome associated with skin cancer is rare. Our case report suggests that Sjögren’s syndrome patients require continuous follow-up with conventional cancer examination, including skin biopsy for suspected skin lesions. PMID:28373638

  15. LANGUAGE BARRIERS: FEEDBACK FROM THE IT INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Sareen Kaur Bhar; Nor Azlah Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Meaningful interaction process between human beings necessitates effective communication especially in organisations that have rapid information exchange demands. It is perceived that most IT organisations that face communication and language barriers have lost businesses due to higher product defect rates, lack of focus on business objectives, stifled innovation and dissatisfied customers and poor customer services. This study looks at the language barriers faced by employees working in var...

  16. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  17. Face-to-face: Perceived personal relevance amplifies face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublatzky, Florian; Pittig, Andre; Schupp, Harald T; Alpers, Georg W

    2017-05-01

    The human face conveys emotional and social information, but it is not well understood how these two aspects influence face perception. In order to model a group situation, two faces displaying happy, neutral or angry expressions were presented. Importantly, faces were either facing the observer, or they were presented in profile view directed towards, or looking away from each other. In Experiment 1 (n = 64), face pairs were rated regarding perceived relevance, wish-to-interact, and displayed interactivity, as well as valence and arousal. All variables revealed main effects of facial expression (emotional > neutral), face orientation (facing observer > towards > away) and interactions showed that evaluation of emotional faces strongly varies with their orientation. Experiment 2 (n = 33) examined the temporal dynamics of perceptual-attentional processing of these face constellations with event-related potentials. Processing of emotional and neutral faces differed significantly in N170 amplitudes, early posterior negativity (EPN), and sustained positive potentials. Importantly, selective emotional face processing varied as a function of face orientation, indicating early emotion-specific (N170, EPN) and late threat-specific effects (LPP, sustained positivity). Taken together, perceived personal relevance to the observer-conveyed by facial expression and face direction-amplifies emotional face processing within triadic group situations. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Lesões múltiplas de osteoma cutis na face: terapêutica minimamente invasiva em pacientes com sequela de acne - relato de casos Multiple injuries of osteoma skin in the face: therapeutical least invasive in patients with acne sequela - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Göedert Leite Duarte

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoma cutis é a formação óssea no interior da pele, podendo ser primária ou secundária. Única ou múltipla, de tamanhos variados e acometendo ambos os sexos, é uma lesão cutânea rara, de etiopatogenia e classificação ainda discutidas. Nosso objetivo foi relatar o diagnóstico e a terapêutica minimamente invasiva de lesões múltiplas de osteoma cutis na face em pacientes com sequelas de acne. Fizemos a retirada dos osteomas com agulhas BD 0,70 x 25 22G1, sem anestésicos tópicos ou injetáveis no local. As pequenas incisões foram deixadas expostas, com pomada cicatrizante. Obteve-se um excelente resultado estético em 15 dias.Osteoma cutis is a bone formation in the dermis can to be primary or secondary forms. Only, multiples, many forms, occurring on either sex, they are a rare cutaneous disease. The pathogenesis and classification remains unclear. Our objective was the diagnostic and small invasive surgery treatment of the osteoma cutis multiple of the face, in patients as a sequel of acne. To remove the osteoma we used needle BD 0,70x25 22G1, without anesthetic topic or inject able site. The small wounds were exposed with scarring balsam. We got an excellent esthetic result after 15 days.

  19. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  20. Barriers to and facilitators of research utilization: a survey of registered nurses in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ping Wang

    Full Text Available AIMS: This survey aims to describe the perception of barriers to and facilitators of research utilization by registered nurses in Sichuan province, China, and to explore the factors influencing the perceptions of the barriers to and facilitators of research utilization. METHODS: A cross sectional survey design and a double cluster sampling method were adopted. A total of 590 registered nurses from 3 tertiary level hospitals in Sichuan province, China, were recruited in a period from September 2006 to January 2007. A modified BARRUERS Scale and a Facilitators Scale were used. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, rank transformation test, and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Barriers related to the setting subscale were more influential than barriers related to other subscales. The lack of authority was ranked as the top greatest barrier (15.7%, followed by the lack of time (13.4% and language barrier (15.0%. Additional barriers identified were the reluctance of patients to research utilization, the lack of funding, and the lack of legal protection. The top three greatest facilitators were enhancing managerial support (36.9%, advancing education to increase knowledge base (21.1%, and increasing time for reviewing and implementing (17.5%, while cooperation of patients to research utilization, establishing a panel to evaluate researches, and funding were listed as additional facilitators. Hospital, educational background, research experience, and knowledge on evidence-based nursing were the factors influencing perceptions of the barriers and facilitators. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses in China are facing a number of significant barriers in research utilization. Enhancing managerial support might be the most promising facilitator, given Chinese traditional culture and existing health care system. Hospital, educational background, research experience and knowledge on evidence-based nursing should be taken into account to promote research

  1. Barriers in Concurrent Separation Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobor, Aquinas; Gherghina, Cristian

    We develop and prove sound a concurrent separation logic for Pthreads-style barriers. Although Pthreads barriers are widely used in systems, and separation logic is widely used for verification, there has not been any effort to combine the two. Unlike locks and critical sections, Pthreads barriers enable simultaneous resource redistribution between multiple threads and are inherently stateful, leading to significant complications in the design of the logic and its soundness proof. We show how our logic can be applied to a specific example program in a modular way. Our proofs are machine-checked in Coq.

  2. The Multiple Faces of Reflexive Research Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Müller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reflexive research can be grouped into five clusters with circular relations between two elements x ↔ x, namely circular relations between observers, between scientific building blocks like concepts, theories or models, between systemic levels, between rules and rule systems or as circular relations or x ↔ y between these four components. By far the most important cluster is the second cluster which becomes reflexive through a re-entry operation RE into a scientific element x and which establishes its circular formation as x(x. Many of the research problems in these five clusters in reflexivity research are still unexplored and pose grand challenges for future research.

  3. The multiple faces of leukocyte interstitial migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lämmermann, Tim; Germain, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics within tissues is critical for successful innate and adaptive immune responses. Homeostatic trafficking and coordinated infiltration into and within sites of inflammation and infection rely on signaling in response to extracellular cues that in turn controls a variety of intracellular protein networks regulating leukocyte motility, migration, chemotaxis, positioning, and cell–cell interaction. In contrast to mesenchymal cells, leukocytes migrate in an amoeboid fashion by rapid cycles of actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and their migration in tissues is generally referred to as low adhesive and nonproteolytic. The interplay of actin network expansion, contraction, and adhesion shapes the exact mode of amoeboid migration, and in this review, we explore how leukocyte subsets potentially harness the same basic biomechanical mechanisms in a cell-type-specific manner. Most of our detailed understanding of these processes derives from in vitro migration studies in three-dimensional gels and confined spaces that mimic geometrical aspects of physiological tissues. We summarize these in vitro results and then critically compare them to data from intravital imaging of leukocyte interstitial migration in mouse tissues. We outline the technical challenges of obtaining conclusive mechanistic results from intravital studies, discuss leukocyte migration strategies in vivo, and present examples of mode switching during physiological interstitial migration. These findings are also placed in the context of leukocyte migration defects in primary immunodeficiencies. This overview of both in vitro and in vivo studies highlights recent progress in understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that shape robust leukocyte migration responses in physiologically complex and heterogeneous environments. PMID:24573488

  4. The Multiple Faces of Effective Grand Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan N. Groves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective national leaders throughout history have deliberately developed grand strategies and successfully implemented them to attain their political goals, while also integrating and accomplishing economic, social, defense, and sometimes religious objectives. Not all leaders have been successful, however, as this process is immensely complex and can be adversely affected by the actions of other leaders around their region and the world. It bears examination, then, to determine what factors contribute to successful grand strategies and why many leaders fail to reach their stated ends. This article utilizes a historic case study approach and explores three key areas of grand strategy: universal principles, Clausewitzian approaches, and indirect approaches. I handle each separately and in distinct fashion, though some connective tissue does interlace across sections. Additionally, the unifying argument is that thoughtful, rational leaders, who weigh the costs and benefits associated with each course of action available to them, still must heed the truths embedded in these three sections to attain their objectives. Not doing so often leads to failure, unrealized goals, and a nation gone awry.

  5. Attractive faces temporally modulate visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyo eNakamura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial attractiveness is an important biological and social signal on social interaction. Recent research has demonstrated that an attractive face captures greater spatial attention than an unattractive face does. Little is known, however, about the temporal characteristics of visual attention for facial attractiveness. In this study, we investigated the temporal modulation of visual attention induced by facial attractiveness by using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP. Fourteen male faces and two female faces were successively presented for 160 ms respectively, and participants were asked to identify two female faces embedded among a series of multiple male distractor faces. Identification of a second female target (T2 was impaired when a first target (T1 was attractive compared to neutral or unattractive faces, at 320 ms SOA; identification was improved when T1 was attractive compared to unattractive faces at 640 ms SOA. These findings suggest that the spontaneous appraisal of facial attractiveness modulates temporal attention.

  6. Barriers Approach to Innovation in Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Hsuan Chuang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in academic libraries is not a brand new issue. Academic libraries can benefit from successful innovation, since innovation is a key contributor to gaining and sustaining competitive advantage for survival. Building on two case studies, 28 participants from leadership teams to practitioners are involved, the qualitative findings identified the specific two types of barriers that academic libraries face by applying a barriers approach to innovation, that’s, environmental and organizational barriers. Especially, seven dimensions of two types of barriers to innovation are found.

  7. European cinema: face to face with Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Elsaesser

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different debate

  8. Mapping Teacher-Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…

  9. U-Th age distribution of coral fragments from multiple rubble ridges within the Frankland Islands, Great Barrier Reef: Implications for past storminess history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Entao; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Leonard, Nicole D.; Clark, Tara R.; Roff, George

    2016-07-01

    Prograded coral rubble ridges have been widely used as archives for reconstructing long-term storm or storminess history. Chronologies of ridge systems in previous studies are often based on a limited number of low-resolution radiocarbon or optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages per ridge (usually only one age per ridge), which carry intrinsic age uncertainties and make interpretation of storm histories problematic. To test the fidelity of storm ridges as palaeo-storm archives, we used high-precision U-Th dating to examine whether different samples from a single ridge are temporally constrained. We surveyed three transects of ridge systems from two continental islands (Normanby Island and High Island) within the Frankland Islands, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and obtained 96 U-Th dates from coral rubble samples collected from within and between different ridges. Our results revealed significant differences in age ranges between the two islands. The steeper and more defined rubble ridges present on Normanby Island revealed that the majority of U-Th ages (over 60%) from a single ridge clustered within a narrow age range (∼100 years). By contrast, the lower and less defined ridges on High Island, which were more likely formed during both storm and non-storm high-energy events, revealed significant scatter in age distribution (>>200 years) with no notable clustering. The narrower age ranges obtained from the steeper and more defined rubble ridges suggest that previous approaches of using either limited samples from a single ridge or low-precision dating methods to establish chronologies are generally valid at centennial to millennial timescales, although caution must be taken to use such approaches for storm history reconstruction on shorter timescales (e.g. decadal). The correlation between U-Th mortality ages of coral rubble and historical stormy periods highlights the possibility of using coral rubble age distribution from rubble ridges to reconstruct the long

  10. Evolution of an intermittent lagoon-barrier system with rising sea level: observations and projections from the Muni-Pomadze lagoon, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Vollum, Sian

    2016-04-01

    Intermittently closed lagoon-barrier systems are a transitory environment between land and sea that are influenced by fluvial and marine processes as well as human activities. Fluvial processes dominate most of the time, when the barrier is closed. However, when the barrier is breached an ephemeral connection between the lagoon and the ocean develops and estuarine-like conditions ensue. As sea level rises, the evolution of these systems from intermittently closed to open is dependent on multiple processes including barrier breaching, fragmentation and overwashing. Human intervention, often to prevent flooding, also has an impact. The Muni-Pomadze lagoon in central Ghana is a small, intermittently closed lagoon-barrier system that supports a local fishing community. A beach-barrier separates the lagoon from the ocean, impounding river water and sediment behind it for most of the year. At the end of a rainy season the barrier may be breached, either naturally or by human intervention to prevent flooding of dwellings on the barrier. Field observation, digital mapping and GIS analysis of the shoreline has enabled an understanding of how the barrier is evolving with rising sea level. The shore face of the barrier has shifted landwards with an average retreat rate of 0.22 m/yr. Small washover fans, developed at low points along the lagoon side of the barrier have developed. However, aerial photos reveal that these fans have remained stable since 1972 (earliest available air photos). The small size and stability of these fans suggests that overwashing is not an important factor in the evolution of the barrier and that the barrier is being eroded rather not moving landward. Erosion is particularly prevalent at the breach end of the barrier with an average rate of loss of 3 metres per year and palm trees that were providing stability to the barrier have been washed away. Unconsolidated sands forming a transient, spit-like feature have replaced the stable barrier, which

  11. Robust Face Image Matching under Illumination Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chyuan-Huei Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Face image matching is an essential step for face recognition and face verification. It is difficult to achieve robust face matching under various image acquisition conditions. In this paper, a novel face image matching algorithm robust against illumination variations is proposed. The proposed image matching algorithm is motivated by the characteristics of high image gradient along the face contours. We define a new consistency measure as the inner product between two normalized gradient vectors at the corresponding locations in two images. The normalized gradient is obtained by dividing the computed gradient vector by the corresponding locally maximal gradient magnitude. Then we compute the average consistency measures for all pairs of the corresponding face contour pixels to be the robust matching measure between two face images. To alleviate the problem due to shadow and intensity saturation, we introduce an intensity weighting function for each individual consistency measure to form a weighted average of the consistency measure. This robust consistency measure is further extended to integrate multiple face images of the same person captured under different illumination conditions, thus making our robust face matching algorithm. Experimental results of applying the proposed face image matching algorithm on some well-known face datasets are given in comparison with some existing face recognition methods. The results show that the proposed algorithm consistently outperforms other methods and achieves higher than 93% recognition rate with three reference images for different datasets under different lighting conditions.

  12. Safety-relevant hydrogeological properties of the claystone barrier of a Swiss radioactive waste repository: An evaluation using multiple lines of evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautschi, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    In Switzerland, the Opalinus Clay - a Jurassic (Aalenian) claystone formation - has been proposed as the first-priority host rock for a deep geological repository for both low- and intermediate-level and high-level radioactive wastes. An extensive site and host rock investigation programme has been carried out during the past 30 years in Northern Switzerland, comprising extensive 2D and 3D seismic surveys, a series of deep boreholes within and around potential geological siting regions, experiments in the international Mont Terri Rock Laboratory, compilations of data from Opalinus Clay in railway and motorway tunnels and comparisons with similar rocks. The hydrogeological properties of the Opalinus Clay that are relevant from the viewpoint of long-term safety are described and illustrated. The main conclusions are supported by multiple lines of evidence, demonstrating consistency of conclusions based on hydraulic properties, porewater chemistry, distribution of natural tracers across the Opalinus Clay as well as small- and large-scale diffusion models and the derived conceptual understanding of solute transport.

  13. Identifying professional education gaps and barriers in multiple myeloma patient care: findings of the Managing Myeloma Continuing Educational Initiative Advisory Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raje, Noopur; Faiman, Beth; Harvey, R Donald; Kurtin, Sandra E; Lonial, Sagar; Kumar, Shaji K; Cohen, Adam D; Conde, Miguel A; Giralt, Sergio A; Recine, Marie Sabo; Tombler, Eugene R; Stadtmauer, Edward; Jagannath, Sundar; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2014-10-01

    Advances in the past decade and a half have led to unprecedented improved outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma (MM), and this disease appears to be transitioning to one more characteristic of a chronic disease in large part due to rapid translation of clinical insights into practice at the community level. Although evidence-based guidelines and consensus recommendations remain an important resource for managing cancer patients, they do not fill the gap between the principles of disease management today and the translation of tailoring treatment for individual patient needs. Thus, there is a continuing need for concise, focused educational activities and resources that facilitate improved knowledge and understanding of appropriate, individualized therapeutic strategies for assessing and caring for patients with MM. The next several years will truly be a time of shifting paradigms in the treatment of MM in which new agents will be approved, response criteria will be updated, and new approaches to risk assessment and monitoring minimal residual disease will evolve and enter practice. New groundbreaking therapeutic approaches, such as immunotherapy, might result in significant changes in how MM is treated and managed over the entire life cycle of the disease. Even the definition of the disease might be further amended as insights grow regarding who should be treated and who might benefit more from observation. As such, oncology clinicians will have to carefully review and update their management approaches accordingly even as they begin to focus even more on the survivorship needs of their MM patients.

  14. A survey of real face modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyue; Dai, Yugang; He, Xiangzhen; Wan, Fucheng

    2017-09-01

    The face model has always been a research challenge in computer graphics, which involves the coordination of multiple organs in faces. This article explained two kinds of face modeling method which is based on the data driven and based on parameter control, analyzed its content and background, summarized their advantages and disadvantages, and concluded muscle model which is based on the anatomy of the principle has higher veracity and easy to drive.

  15. Normal composite face effects in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotti, Federica; Wu, Esther; Yang, Hua; Jiahui, Guo; Duchaine, Bradley; Cook, Richard

    2017-08-10

    Upright face perception is thought to involve holistic processing, whereby local features are integrated into a unified whole. Consistent with this view, the top half of one face appears to fuse perceptually with the bottom half of another, when aligned spatially and presented upright. This 'composite face effect' reveals a tendency to integrate information from disparate regions when faces are presented canonically. In recent years, the relationship between susceptibility to the composite effect and face recognition ability has received extensive attention both in participants with normal face recognition and participants with developmental prosopagnosia. Previous results suggest that individuals with developmental prosopagnosia may show reduced susceptibility to the effect suggestive of diminished holistic face processing. Here we describe two studies that examine whether developmental prosopagnosia is associated with reduced composite face effects. Despite using independent samples of developmental prosopagnosics and different composite procedures, we find no evidence for reduced composite face effects. The experiments yielded similar results; highly significant composite effects in both prosopagnosic groups that were similar in magnitude to the effects found in participants with normal face processing. The composite face effects exhibited by both samples and the controls were greatly diminished when stimulus arrangements were inverted. Our finding that the whole-face binding process indexed by the composite effect is intact in developmental prosopagnosia indicates that other factors are responsible for developmental prosopagnosia. These results are also inconsistent with suggestions that susceptibility to the composite face effect and face recognition ability are tightly linked. While the holistic process revealed by the composite face effect may be necessary for typical face perception, it is not sufficient; individual differences in face recognition ability

  16. Face activated neurodynamic cortical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susac, Ana; Ilmoniemi, Risto J; Ranken, Doug; Supek, Selma

    2011-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that complex visual stimuli, such as faces, activate multiple brain regions, yet little is known on the dynamics and complexity of the activated cortical networks during the entire measurable evoked response. In this study, we used simulated and face-evoked empirical MEG data from an oddball study to investigate the feasibility of accurate, efficient, and reliable spatio-temporal tracking of cortical pathways over prolonged time intervals. We applied a data-driven, semiautomated approach to spatio-temporal source localization with no prior assumptions on active cortical regions to explore non-invasively face-processing dynamics and their modulation by task. Simulations demonstrated that the use of multi-start downhill simplex and data-driven selections of time intervals submitted to the Calibrated Start Spatio-Temporal (CSST) algorithm resulted in improved accuracy of the source localization and the estimation of the onset of their activity. Locations and dynamics of the identified sources indicated a distributed cortical network involved in face processing whose complexity was task dependent. This MEG study provided the first non-invasive demonstration, agreeing with intracranial recordings, of an early onset of the activity in the fusiform face gyrus (FFG), and that frontal activation preceded parietal for responses elicited by target faces.

  17. Barriers to effective diagnosis and management of a bleeding patient with undiagnosed bleeding disorder across multiple specialties: results of a quantitative case-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reding MT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mark T Reding,1 David L Cooper21Center for Bleeding and Clotting Disorders, University of Minnesota Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, 2Medical Affairs, Novo Nordisk Inc, Princeton, NJ, USABackground: Bleeding symptoms commonly seen by multiple physician specialties may belie undiagnosed congenital or acquired bleeding disorders. Acquired hemophilia is a potentially life-threatening cause of unexplained acute bleeding manifested by an abnormal activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT that does not correct with 1:1 mixing with normal plasma.Methods: Practicing physicians (hematology/oncology, emergency medicine, geriatrics, internal medicine, rheumatology, obstetrics and gynecology, critical care medicine, and general surgery completed an online survey based on a hypothetical case scenario.Results: Excluding surgeons and obstetrician/gynecologist respondents, 302 physicians (about 50 per specialty were presented with an older adult woman complaining of recurrent epistaxis. Nearly 90% ordered a complete blood count and coagulation studies (aPTT, prothrombin time [PT]/international normalized ratio [INR]. Despite a prolonged aPTT of 42 seconds, <50% of nonhematologists would repeat the aPTT, and <45% would consult a hematologist; emergency medicine physicians were least likely (10% and rheumatologists were most likely (43% to consult. After presentation weeks later with bruising and abdominal/back pain, ≥90% of physicians within each specialty ordered a complete blood count or PT/INR/aPTT. Despite an aPTT of 63 seconds, the majority did not repeat the aPTT. At this point, approximately 75% of internal medicine and geriatric physicians indicated they would consult a hematologist, versus 47% in emergency medicine and 50% in critical care. All participants preferred abdominal computed tomography (80%–84%. After 12 hours of additional observation, 73% to 94% of respondents consulted a hematologist. Complete blood count revealed anemia and an a

  18. Face-Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Face-lift By Mayo Clinic Staff A face-lift (rhytidectomy) is a cosmetic surgical procedure to improve the look of your face and neck. During a face-lift, facial soft tissues are lifted, excess skin is ...

  19. Breaching barriers to collaboration in public spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Mitchell, Robb

    2014-01-01

    Technology provoking disparate individuals to collaborate or share experiences in the public space faces a difficult barrier, namely the ordinary social order of urban places. We employed the notion of the breaching experiment to explore how this barrier might be overcome. We analyse responses to...... of life in public spaces. Arising from this, we argue for the importance of qualities such as availability, facilitation, perspicuous settings, and perspicuous participants to encourage and support co-located strangers to collaborate and share experiences.......Technology provoking disparate individuals to collaborate or share experiences in the public space faces a difficult barrier, namely the ordinary social order of urban places. We employed the notion of the breaching experiment to explore how this barrier might be overcome. We analyse responses...

  20. The biological significance of brain barrier mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Habgood, Mark D; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    properties. In the blood-brain barrier proper, this is combined with a paucity of vesicular transport that is a characteristic of other vascular beds. Without such a diffusional restrain, the cellular transport mechanisms in the barrier interfaces would be ineffective. Superimposed on these physical....... In addition, such studies, if applied to brain pathologies such as stroke, trauma, or multiple sclerosis, will aid in defining the contribution of brain barrier pathology to these conditions, either causative or secondary....

  1. LANGUAGE BARRIERS: FEEDBACK FROM THE IT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareen Kaur Bhar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Meaningful interaction process between human beings necessitates effective communication especially in organisations that have rapid information exchange demands. It is perceived that most IT organisations that face communication and language barriers have lost businesses due to higher product defect rates, lack of focus on business objectives, stifled innovation and dissatisfied customers and poor customer services. This study looks at the language barriers faced by employees working in various fields related to Information Technology in Malaysia. A questionnaire was distributed to IT employees working in various international and national companies in Malaysia, and sixty two IT employees’ responses were accepted. The employees had to rate the effects of each language barrier on them in the context of the workplace. Based on these findings, barriers faced by IT employees in this field can now be better understood and steps can be taken by both the industry and education sectors to overcome these barriers. It will also aid these employees to be better communicators in facing the challenges in their industry and increase their competitiveness on a global scale. We conclude that future research should more explicitly consider the different configurations of language skills that are needed by IT staff.

  2. A will without a way: barriers and facilitators to exercise during pregnancy of low-income, African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krans, Elizabeth E; Chang, Judy C

    2011-11-30

    The objective of the authors in this study was to identify pregnant, low-income African American women's barriers and facilitators to exercise during pregnancy. A series of six focus groups with pregnant African American women were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Focus group transcripts were qualitatively analyzed for major themes and independently coded for barriers and facilitators to exercise during pregnancy. A total of 34 pregnant, African American women participated in six focus groups from June through October of 2007. The majority of women were single (94%), had only a high school education (67%), received Medicaid (100%) and had a mean body mass index of 33 kg/m(2). All participants believed that exercise was beneficial during their pregnancy. However, participants faced multiple barriers including: (1) individual, (2) information, (3) resource, and (4) socio-cultural. African American women also described two facilitators to increase exercise during pregnancy: (1) group exercise classes, and (2) increasing the number of safe, low-cost exercise facilities in their communities. African American women living in low socioeconomic communities face several barriers to exercise during pregnancy. Targeted interventions to overcome barriers and facilitate exercise for this patient population should focus on increasing education from providers regarding the type and frequency of exercise recommended during pregnancy, enhancing social support networks with group exercise programs, and providing affordable and convenient locations to exercise.

  3. Solid-phase based on-chip DNA purification through a valve-free stepwise injection of multiple reagents employing centrifugal force combined with a hydrophobic capillary barrier pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hainan; Tran, Hong Hanh; Chung, Bong Hyun; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2013-03-21

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple technique for sequentially introducing multiple sample liquids into microchannels driven by centrifugal force combined with a hydrophobic barrier pressure and apply the technique for performing solid-phase based on-chip DNA purification. Three microchannels with varying widths, all equipped with independent sample reservoirs at the inlets, were fabricated on a hydrophobic elastomer, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). First, glass beads were packed inside the reaction chamber, and a whole cell containing the DNA extract was introduced into the widest channel by applying centrifugal force for physical adsorption of the DNA onto the glass beads. Next, washing and elution solutions were sequentially introduced into the intermediate and narrowest microchannels, respectively, by gradually increasing the amount of centrifugal force. Through a precise manipulation of the centrifugal force, the DNA adsorbed onto the glass beads was successfully washed and eluted in a continuous manner without the need to introduce each solution manually. A stepwise injection of liquids was successfully demonstrated using multiple ink solutions, the results of which corresponded well with the theoretical analyses. As a practical application, the D1S80 locus of human genomic DNA, which is widely used for forensic purposes, was successfully purified using the microdevice introduced in this study, as demonstrated through successful target amplification. This will pave the way for the construction of a control-free valve system for realizing on-chip DNA purification, which is one of the most labor-intensive and hard-to-miniaturize components, on a greatly simplified and miniaturized platform employing hydrophobic PDMS.

  4. Evaluating face trustworthiness: a model based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander; Baron, Sean G; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N

    2008-06-01

    Judgments of trustworthiness from faces determine basic approach/avoidance responses and approximate the valence evaluation of faces that runs across multiple person judgments. Here, based on trustworthiness judgments and using a computer model for face representation, we built a model for representing face trustworthiness (study 1). Using this model, we generated novel faces with an increased range of trustworthiness and used these faces as stimuli in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study (study 2). Although participants did not engage in explicit evaluation of the faces, the amygdala response changed as a function of face trustworthiness. An area in the right amygdala showed a negative linear response-as the untrustworthiness of faces increased so did the amygdala response. Areas in the left and right putamen, the latter area extended into the anterior insula, showed a similar negative linear response. The response in the left amygdala was quadratic--strongest for faces on both extremes of the trustworthiness dimension. The medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus also showed a quadratic response, but their response was strongest to faces in the middle range of the trustworthiness dimension.

  5. The hierarchical brain network for face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Zonglei; Fang, Huizhen; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified multiple cortical regions that are involved in face processing in the human brain. However, few studies have characterized the face-processing network as a functioning whole. In this study, we used fMRI to identify face-selective regions in the entire brain and then explore the hierarchical structure of the face-processing network by analyzing functional connectivity among these regions. We identified twenty-five regions mainly in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortex that showed a reliable response selective to faces (versus objects) across participants and across scan sessions. Furthermore, these regions were clustered into three relatively independent sub-networks in a face-recognition task on the basis of the strength of functional connectivity among them. The functionality of the sub-networks likely corresponds to the recognition of individual identity, retrieval of semantic knowledge and representation of emotional information. Interestingly, when the task was switched to object recognition from face recognition, the functional connectivity between the inferior occipital gyrus and the rest of the face-selective regions were significantly reduced, suggesting that this region may serve as an entry node in the face-processing network. In sum, our study provides empirical evidence for cognitive and neural models of face recognition and helps elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying face recognition at the network level.

  6. Self-face recognition in social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-06-01

    The concept of "social self" is often described as a representation of the self-reflected in the eyes or minds of others. Although the appearance of one's own face has substantial social significance for humans, neuroimaging studies have failed to link self-face recognition and the likely neural substrate of the social self, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). We assumed that the social self is recruited during self-face recognition under a rich social context where multiple other faces are available for comparison of social values. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the modulation of neural responses to the faces of the self and of a close friend in a social context. We identified an enhanced response in the ventral MPFC and right occipitoparietal sulcus in the social context specifically for the self-face. Neural response in the right lateral parietal and inferior temporal cortices, previously claimed as self-face-specific, was unaffected for the self-face but unexpectedly enhanced for the friend's face in the social context. Self-face-specific activation in the pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, and self-face-specific reduction of activation in the left middle temporal gyrus and the right supramarginal gyrus, replicating a previous finding, were not subject to such modulation. Our results thus demonstrated the recruitment of a social self during self-face recognition in the social context. At least three brain networks for self-face-specific activation may be dissociated by different patterns of response-modulation in the social context, suggesting multiple dynamic self-other representations in the human brain.

  7. Central nervous system penetration for small molecule therapeutic agents does not increase in multiple sclerosis- and Alzheimer's disease-related animal models despite reported blood-brain barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ziqiang; Zhang, Jinqiang; Liu, Houfu; Li, Yi; Zhao, Yonggang; Yang, Eric

    2010-08-01

    Therapy for central nervous system (CNS) diseases requires drugs that can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). BBB disruption has been reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the related animal models as evidenced by increased infiltration of inflammatory cells or increased staining of Igs in the central nervous system. Although CNS penetration of therapeutic agents under pathological conditions has rarely been investigated, it is commonly assumed that BBB disruption may lead to enhanced CNS penetration and also provide a "window of opportunity" through which drugs that do not normally cross BBB are able to do so. In this article, we have compared brain penetration of eight small molecules in naive animals and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, streptozotocin-induced mice, and TASTPM transgenic mice. The tool compounds are lipophilic transcellular drugs [GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)-A, GSK-B, GSK-C, and naproxen], lipophilic P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates (amprenavir and loperamide), and hydrophilic paracellular compounds (sodium fluorescein and atenolol). Our data showed that rate and extent of CNS penetration for lipophilic transcellular drugs and P-gp substrates are similar in naive and all tested animal models. The brain penetration for paracellular drugs in EAE mice is transiently increased but similar to that in naive mice at steady state. Our data suggest that, despite reported BBB disruption, CNS penetration for small molecule therapeutic agents does not increase in MS- and AD-related animal models.

  8. Consumer Mobile Health Apps: Current State, Barriers, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Cheng-Kai; Liebovitz, David M

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the current state, barriers, and future directions of consumer-facing applications (apps). There are currently more than 165,000 mobile health apps publicly available in major app stores, the vast majority of which are designed for patients. The top 2 categories are wellness management and disease management apps, whereas other categories include self-diagnosis, medication reminder, and electronic patient portal apps. Apps specific to physical medicine and rehabilitation also are reviewed. These apps have the potential to provide low-cost, around-the-clock access to high-quality, evidence-based health information to end users on a global scale. However, they have not yet lived up to their potential due to multiple barriers, including lack of regulatory oversight, limited evidence-based literature, and concerns of privacy and security. The future directions may consist of improving data integration into the health care system, an interoperable app platform allowing access to electronic health record data, cloud-based personal health record across health care networks, and increasing app prescription by health care providers. For consumer mobile health apps to fully contribute value to health care delivery and chronic disease management, all stakeholders within the ecosystem must collaborate to overcome the significant barriers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 49 CFR 587.14 - Deformable face component dimensions and material specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deformable face component dimensions and material... BARRIERS Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.14 Deformable face component dimensions and material... and materials of the individual components are listed separately below. All dimensions allow a...

  10. Panel workload assessment in US primary care: accounting for non-face-to-face panel management activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Brian; Tuan, Wen-Jan; White, Jennifer; Schumacher, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of primary care provider (PCP) workload is an important consideration in establishing optimal PCP panel size. However, no widely acceptable measure of PCP workload exists that incorporates the effort involved with both non-face-to-face patient care activities and face-to-face encounters. Accounting for this gap is critical given the increase in non-face-to-face PCP activities that has accompanied electronic health records (EHRs) (eg, electronic messaging). Our goal was to provide a comprehensive assessment of perceived PCP workload, accounting for aspects of both face-to-face and non-face-to-face encounters. Internal medicine, family medicine, and pediatric PCPs completed a self-administered survey about the perceived workload involved with face-to-face and non-face-to-face panel management activities as well as the perceived challenge associated with caring for patients with particular biomedical, demographic, and psychosocial characteristics (n = 185). Survey results were combined with EHR data at the individual patient and PCP service levels to assess PCP panel workload, accounting for face-to-face and non-face-to-face utilization. Of the multiple face-to-face and non-face-to-face activities associated with routine primary care, PCPs considered hospital admissions, obstetric care, hospital discharges, and new patient preventive health visits to be greater workload than non-face-to-face activities such as telephone calls, electronic communication, generating letters, and medication refills. Total workload within PCP panels at the individual patient level varied by overall health status, and the total workload of non-face-to-face panel management activities associated with routine primary care was greater than the total workload associated with face-to-face encounters regardless of health status. We used PCP survey results coupled with EHR data to assess PCP workload associated with both face-to-face as well as non-face-to-face panel management

  11. Filaggrin and Skin Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezic, Sanja; Jakasa, Ivone

    2016-01-01

    The skin barrier function is greatly dependent on the structure and composition of the uppermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), which is made up of flattened anucleated cells surrounded by highly organized and continuous lipid matrix. The interior of the corneocytes consists mainly of keratin filaments aggregated by filaggrin (FLG) protein. Next, together with several other proteins, FLG is cross-linked into a mechanically robust cornified cell envelope providing a scaffold for the extracellular lipid matrix. In addition to its role for the SC structural and mechanical integrity, FLG degradation products account in part for the water-holding capacity and maintenance of acidic pH of the SC, both crucial for the epidermal barrier homoeostasis by regulating activity of multiple enzymes that control desquamation, lipid synthesis and inflammation. The major determinant of FLG expression in the skin are loss-of-function mutations in FLG, the strongest genetic risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD), an inflammatory skin disease characterized by a reduced skin barrier function. The prevalence of FLG mutations varies greatly among different populations and ranges from about 10% in Northern Europeans to less than 1% in the African populations. An impaired skin barrier facilitates absorption of potentially hazardous chemicals, which might cause adverse effects in the skin, such as contact dermatitis, or systemic toxicity after their passage into blood. In another direction, a leaky epidermal barrier will lead to enhanced loss of water from the skin. A recent study has shown that even subtle increase in epidermal water loss in newborns increases the risk for AD. Although there are multiple modes of action by which FLG might affect skin barrier it is still unclear whether and how FLG deficiency leads to the reduced skin barrier function. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge in this field obtained from clinical studies, and animal and in vitro models

  12. Impaired face recognition is associated with social inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Suzanne N; VanDerKlok, Ross M; Heckers, Stephan; Blackford, Jennifer U

    2016-02-28

    Face recognition is fundamental to successful social interaction. Individuals with deficits in face recognition are likely to have social functioning impairments that may lead to heightened risk for social anxiety. A critical component of social interaction is how quickly a face is learned during initial exposure to a new individual. Here, we used a novel Repeated Faces task to assess how quickly memory for faces is established. Face recognition was measured over multiple exposures in 52 young adults ranging from low to high in social inhibition, a core dimension of social anxiety. High social inhibition was associated with a smaller slope of change in recognition memory over repeated face exposure, indicating participants with higher social inhibition showed smaller improvements in recognition memory after seeing faces multiple times. We propose that impaired face learning is an important mechanism underlying social inhibition and may contribute to, or maintain, social anxiety.

  13. Altered permeability barrier structure in cholesteatoma matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, Viggo; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars; Rasmussen, Gurli

    2002-01-01

    The stratum corneum of the cholesteatoma epithelium comprises the greater part of the cholesteatoma matrix. The permeability barrier that militates against diffusion and penetration of infectious and toxic agents into and through the epithelium is situated here. The multiple long sheets of lamellar...... lipid structures filling the intercellular spaces mainly control the barrier function. The barrier in cholesteatoma epithelium is several times thicker than in unaffected skin but presents distinctive features of a defective barrier as seen in other scaling skin diseases. The intercellular spaces appear...

  14. About (above) a face - a face

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This text intents to unfold some considerations regardind the perception of the image of the Lóri’s face, from the book Uma aprendizagem ou o livro dos prazeres, published by Clarice Lispector in 1969. For that, will be studied the politicians devices who involve the apprehension of the face as a qualifying of the subject and, at the same time, its relation with the lenguage.

  15. About (above a face - a face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cervelin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This text intents to unfold some considerations regardind the perception of the image of the Lóri’s face, from the book Uma aprendizagem ou o livro dos prazeres, published by Clarice Lispector in 1969. For that, will be studied the politicians devices who involve the apprehension of the face as a qualifying of the subject and, at the same time, its relation with the lenguage.

  16. Perceived Sodium Reduction Barriers Among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Which Barriers Are Important and Which Patients Experience Barriers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleman, Yvette; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W; van der Boog, Paul J M; van Dijk, Sandra

    2017-09-08

    The purposes of this study were to assess the importance of perceived sodium reduction barriers among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and identify associated sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. A total of 156 patients with CKD completed a questionnaire assessing sodium reduction barriers (18 self-formulated items), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), perceived autonomy support (Modified Health Care Climate Questionnaire), and self-efficacy (Partners in Health Questionnaire). Factor analysis was used to identify barrier domains. Correlation coefficients were computed to examine relationships between barrier domains and patient characteristics. Nine barrier domains were identified. Barriers perceived as important were as follows: high sodium content in products, lack of sodium feedback, lack of goal setting and discussing strategies for sodium reduction, and not experiencing CKD-related symptoms (mean scores > 3.0 on 5-point scales, ranging from 1 'no barrier' to 5 'very important barrier'). Other barriers (knowledge, attitude, coping skills when eating out, and professional support) were rated as moderately important (rated around midpoint), and the barrier 'intrinsic motivation' was rated as somewhat important (mean score = 1.9). Sodium reduction barrier domains were not associated with gender and kidney function, but were associated with age, level of education, number of comorbidities, perceived autonomy support, depressive symptoms, and self-efficacy (range r = 0.17-0.35). Patients with lower self-efficacy and perceived autonomy support scores experienced most sodium reduction barriers. Patients with CKD experience multiple important sodium reduction barriers and could benefit from support strategies that target various sodium reduction barriers and strengthen beliefs regarding self-efficacy and autonomy support. Additionally, environmental interventions should be implemented to reduce sodium levels in processed

  17. Computer Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Learning in Online versus Face to Face Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Richard; Paul, Ravi; Bradley, John

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationships between changes to computer self-efficacy (CSE) and computer anxiety and the impact on performance on computer-related tasks in both online and face-to-face mediums. While many studies have looked at these factors individually, relatively few have included multiple measures of these…

  18. Computer Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Learning in Online versus Face to Face Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Richard; Paul, Ravi; Bradley, John

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationships between changes to computer self-efficacy (CSE) and computer anxiety and the impact on performance on computer-related tasks in both online and face-to-face mediums. While many studies have looked at these factors individually, relatively few have included multiple measures of these…

  19. Changing Faces: Native Journalists Break through Barriers in New Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Hernandez, Juan A.

    2008-01-01

    According to a 2008 "newsroom census" by the American Society of Newspaper Editors (ASNE), the total number of full-time journalists at daily newspapers decreased by 4.4% last year--about 2,400 journalists left daily reporting jobs because of buyouts or layoffs. Despite this trend, the percentage of minority journalists increased slightly since…

  20. The composite face illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer; Gray, Katie L H; Cook, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Few findings in cognitive science have proved as influential as the composite face effect. When the top half of one face is aligned with the bottom half of another, and presented upright, the resulting composite arrangement induces a compelling percept of a novel facial configuration. Findings obtained using composite face procedures have contributed significantly to our understanding of holistic face processing, the detrimental effects of face inversion, the development of face perception, and aberrant face perception in clinical populations. Composite paradigms continue to advance our knowledge of face perception, as exemplified by their recent use for investigating the perceptual mechanisms underlying dynamic face processing. However, the paradigm has been the subject of intense scrutiny, particularly over the last decade, and there is a growing sense that the composite face illusion, whilst easy to illustrate, is deceptively difficult to measure and interpret. In this review, we provide a focussed overview of the existing composite face literature, and identify six priorities for future research. Addressing these gaps in our knowledge will aid the evaluation and refinement of theoretical accounts of the illusion.

  1. The Intersection of Online and Face-to-Face Teaching: Implications for Virtual School Teacher Practice and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett Dikkers, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-method study reports perspectives of virtual school teachers on the impact of online teaching on their face-to-face practice. Data from a large-scale survey of teachers in the North Carolina Virtual Public School (n = 214), focus groups (n = 7), and interviews (n = 5) demonstrate multiple intersections between online and face-to-face…

  2. Eco-Innovation in Global Hotel Chains: Designs, Barriers, Incentives and Motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Oliveira Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article aims to verify the reality of eco-innovations developed by global hotel chains, highlighting the innovative designs employed by these organizations, the barriers and incentives faced by these companies and motivations to invest in innovations for this purpose. This multiple case study, of qualitative, descriptive and sectional nature used the thematic content analysis, using the NVivo® software to analyze some of the data obtained and supported on the triangulation of information to increase the reliability of the results. The data sources were empirical research, gathered through interviews and questionnaires, and documentary research. We found that the chains under study develop a large number of ecoinnovations in their companies, and most of them are end-of-pipe. In the respondents´ view, there are more barriers than incentives for the development of this type of innovation and the development is driven in large part as a mean to gain competitive advantage.

  3. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF TRANSPARENT BARRIER MODIFIED WITH ORGANIC PCMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał MUSIAŁ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources are increasingly often applied in civil engineering as a mean to reduce buildings energy demand for heating. One of the ways to reduce HVAC energy demand is to limit heat transfer and excessive solar gain through building's glazed barriers. Preliminary results of the research conducted on organic PCM-modified transparent barrier are presented in this paper. Multiple publications concerning PCMs application in structural materials have recently appeared. Most of them are focused on modification of structure of non-transparent sections of buildings' envelope. Augmenting a glazed barrier with PCMs increases its heat capacity and thermal resistance. The most important feature of the assembly is the thermal buffer, a product of PCM's considerable value of specific latent heat. Research were conducted on a triple-pane transparent rectangular barrier, that constituted one of the faces of cubic chamber. Internal volume of the chamber was 1m3. The applied PCM was a mixture of saturated and non-saturated hydrocarbons. The described assembly was subjected to temperature and radiation that occur in Poland during winter. Glazing temperature, melted/total PCM ratio were measured, as well as energy demand for keeping internal temperature at constant level. Measurements were made in steady states, for various PCM layer thickness. The influence of the modification on energy demand was determined, along with the most effective and rational thickness of PCM layer to be applied. Conducted research enabled to develop a basis for further investigation of PCMs application in civil engineering.

  4. Security barriers with automated reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, James O; Baird, Adam D; Tullis, Barclay J; Nolte, Roger Allen

    2015-04-07

    An intrusion delaying barrier includes primary and secondary physical structures and can be instrumented with multiple sensors incorporated into an electronic monitoring and alarm system. Such an instrumented intrusion delaying barrier may be used as a perimeter intrusion defense and assessment system (PIDAS). Problems with not providing effective delay to breaches by intentional intruders and/or terrorists who would otherwise evade detection are solved by attaching the secondary structures to the primary structure, and attaching at least some of the sensors to the secondary structures. By having multiple sensors of various types physically interconnected serves to enable sensors on different parts of the overall structure to respond to common disturbances and thereby provide effective corroboration that a disturbance is not merely a nuisance or false alarm. Use of a machine learning network such as a neural network exploits such corroboration.

  5. Semantic information can facilitate covert face recognition in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, Davide; Schmalzl, Laura; Coltheart, Max; Palermo, Romina

    2010-11-01

    People with congenital prosopagnosia have never developed the ability to accurately recognize faces. This single case investigation systematically investigates covert and overt face recognition in "C.," a 69 year-old woman with congenital prosopagnosia. Specifically, we: (a) describe the first assessment of covert face recognition in congenital prosopagnosia using multiple tasks; (b) show that semantic information can contribute to covert recognition; and (c) provide a theoretical explanation for the mechanisms underlying covert face recognition.

  6. A randomized, multicentre study of directed daylight exposure times of 11/2 vs. 21/2 h in daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolaevulinate in patients with multiple thin actinic keratoses of the face and scalp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Fabricius, S.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    in a randomized multicentre study. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with a total of 1572 thin AKs of the face and scalp were randomized to either 11/2- or 21/2-h exposure groups. After gentle lesion preparation and application of a sunscreen of sun protection factor 20, MAL was applied to the entire...

  7. Oracle ADF Faces cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gawish, Amr

    2014-01-01

    This is a cookbook that covers more than 80 different recipes to teach you about different aspects of Oracle ADF Faces. It follows a practical approach and covers how to build your components for reuse in different applications. This book will also help you in tuning the performance of your ADF Faces application. If you are an ADF developer who wants to harness the power of Oracle ADF Faces to create exceptional user interfaces and reactive applications, this book will provide you with the recipes needed to do just that. You will not need to be familiar with Oracle ADF Faces, but you should be

  8. Disability inclusion in primary health care in Nepal: an explorative study of perceived barriers to access governmental health services.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, S. van; Cornielje, H.; Wagle, P.; Veldman, E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Persons with disabilities face additional barriers in accessing primary healthcare services, especially in developing countries. Consequently the prevalence of secondary health conditions is higher among this population. This study aims to explore the perceived barriers to access primary

  9. Generalization of affective learning about faces to perceptually similar faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verosky, Sara C; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    Different individuals have different (and different-looking) significant others, friends, and foes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether these social face environments can shape individual face preferences. First, participants learned to associate faces with positive, neutral, or negative behaviors. Then, they evaluated morphs combining novel faces with the learned faces. The morphs (65% and 80% novel faces) were within the categorical boundary of the novel faces: They were perceived as those faces in a preliminary study. Moreover, a second preliminary study showed that following the learning, the morphs' categorization as similar to the learned faces was indistinguishable from the categorization of actual novel faces. Nevertheless, in the main experiment, participants evaluated morphs of "positive" faces more positively than morphs of "negative" faces. This learning generalization effect increased as a function of the similarity of the novel faces to the learned faces. The findings suggest that general learning mechanisms based on similarity can account for idiosyncratic face preferences.

  10. Eccrine cylindroma of the face and scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Manicketh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindroma is a benign skin adnexal tumor of eccrine differentiation. Clinically, they are disfiguring lesions that can mimic a malignancy. Cylindromas can be single or multiple and commonly involve the scalp (turban tumor and face. Multiple cylindromas can have a syndromic association as seen in Brooke–Spiegler syndrome and familial cylindromatosis. We present a case of non familial cylindroma of the face that clinically mimicked a basal cell carcinoma. The histopathology was confirmatory. Herein we also highlight the utility of a simple and inexpensive histochemical stain Periodic Acid Schiff in supporting the diagnosis.

  11. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  12. Social judgments from faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Dotsch, Ron

    2013-06-01

    People make rapid and consequential social judgments from minimal (non-emotional) facial cues. There has been rapid progress in identifying the perceptual basis of these judgments using data-driven, computational models. In contrast, our understanding of the neural underpinnings of these judgments is rather limited. Meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies find a wide range of seemingly inconsistent responses in the amygdala that co-vary with social judgments from faces. Guided by computational models of social judgments, these responses can be accounted by positing that the amygdala (and posterior face selective regions) tracks face typicality. Atypical faces, whether positively or negatively evaluated, elicit stronger responses in the amygdala. We conclude with the promise of data-driven methods for modeling neural responses to social judgments from faces.

  13. Patient-Reported Barriers to Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Edward J.; Nachega, Jean B.; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Penazzato, Martina; Appolo, Tsitsi; Ford, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    adherence than feeling well (9.3%, 95% CI 7.2%–11.4%). Health service–related barriers, including distance to clinic (adults 17.5%, 95% CI 13.0%–21.9%) and stock outs (adults 16.1%, 95% CI 11.7%–20.4%), were also frequently reported. Limitations of this review relate to the fact that included studies differed in approaches to assessing adherence barriers and included variable durations of follow up. Studies that report self-reported adherence will likely underestimate the frequency of non-adherence. For children, barriers were mainly reported by caregivers, which may not correspond to the most important barriers faced by children. Conclusions Patients on ART face multiple barriers to adherence, and no single intervention will be sufficient to ensure that high levels of adherence to treatment and virological suppression are sustained. For maximum efficacy, health providers should consider a more triaged approach that first identifies patients at risk of poor adherence and then seeks to establish the support that is needed to overcome the most important barriers to adherence. PMID:27898679

  14. Barriers and Supports in the Job Search: Preliminary Findings from a Survey of Older Job Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Menachem; And Others

    The older job seeker faces both external and internal barriers in finding employment. External barriers include such economic and societal obstacles as age discrimination, rapid technological changes and the shifting demands of the job market. Internal barriers include diminishing job seeking motivation and limited job seeking skills. A conceptual…

  15. A survey of language barriers from the perspective of pediatric oncologists, interpreters, and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbe, Marisa; Simon, Christian; Angiolillo, Anne; Ruccione, Kathy; Kodish, Eric D

    2006-11-01

    Oncologists in the US increasingly face the challenge of communicating with non-English speaking parents of children with cancer. This study explores this challenge from the perspectives of a sample of pediatric oncologists, interpreters, and Spanish-speaking parents of children with newly diagnosed leukemia. Thirty-seven oncologists and 17 professional language interpreters based at two non-profit pediatric hospitals in the US were surveyed on the topic of language barriers in pediatric care. Seventeen parents who communicated with their child's oncologist through an interpreter were also surveyed. All groups expressed considerable concern over the process of communicating across a language barrier. For oncologists, these concerns included the accuracy and completeness of interpretations, complexity of information, and loss of confidence and control over the communication process. For interpreters, they included complexity of information, information overload, and lack of clinician sensitivity toward the cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds of limited English proficiency (LEP) families. Parent concerns included difficulties comprehending information and anxiety over the possibility of missing out on important information. All groups provided multiple suggestions for improving communication across a language barrier. Oncologists, interpreters, and parents expressed considerable concern over the process of communicating across a language barrier. Some of these concerns could be minimized through efforts to boost interpreter accuracy and completeness, including the use of more simple, easy to understand language. Other issues, such as differences in culture and socioeconomic background, warrant consideration of the intercultural knowledge and skills of interpreters. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Health visitors' perceptions of barriers to health and wellbeing in European migrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Hayley Teshome; Day, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 the population of European migrant workers and their families living in the UK has increased. In 2012 a small qualitative pilot study was conducted involving interviews with eight health visiting professionals working in a Merseyside borough in the north west of England. Health visitors were asked about their perceptions of barriers to health and wellbeing faced by European migrant families and common challenges experienced in practice. Interviews were analysed thematically and interpreted using a constructivist approach. Multiple perceptions emerged regarding migrant families'barriers to health and wellbeing; housing; language; and health service access, knowledge and attitudes. Health visitors provided confirmation of their important role within the public health agenda, identifying vulnerability and challenging inequalities particularly among minority ethnic and lower socio-economic groups. This study highlights areas for future consideration by public health and other agencies, particularly wider determinants of health and barriers in accessing health, public and community services. However, further quantitative and qualitative research is needed to investigate the needs, inequalities, service use and barriers to health and wellbeing experienced by European migrants.

  17. Autostereoscopic three-dimensional projector based on two parallax barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu-Hong; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Gu, Jun; Zhao, Wu-Xiang; Li, Da-Hai

    2009-10-15

    An autostereoscopic 3D projector using several 2D projectors, a projection screen, and two parallax barriers is proposed. Parallax barrier 1 facing the 2D projectors collimates the images that have aberrations on the edge of the projection screen. Parallax barrier 2 facing viewers acts as the parallax barrier in ordinary autostereoscopic 3D displays. The operation principle of the system, the calculation equations for the parallax barriers, and the capture and correction of parallax images are described in detail. A 60-inch autostereoscopic 3D projector prototype having four 2D projectors was developed. The presentation of 3D static, animation, and video images is realized by the prototype. The prototype's stereoscopic images without aberrations and with a little cross talk are sharp. Especially, its 3D resolution is the same as its 2D resolution.

  18. Examplers based image fusion features for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    James, Alex Pappachen

    2012-01-01

    Examplers of a face are formed from multiple gallery images of a person and are used in the process of classification of a test image. We incorporate such examplers in forming a biologically inspired local binary decisions on similarity based face recognition method. As opposed to single model approaches such as face averages the exampler based approach results in higher recognition accu- racies and stability. Using multiple training samples per person, the method shows the following recognition accuracies: 99.0% on AR, 99.5% on FERET, 99.5% on ORL, 99.3% on EYALE, 100.0% on YALE and 100.0% on CALTECH face databases. In addition to face recognition, the method also detects the natural variability in the face images which can find application in automatic tagging of face images.

  19. Comparing online and face-to-face dissonance-based eating disorder prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdar, Kasey; Kelly, Nichole R; Palmberg, Allison A; Lydecker, Janet A; Thornton, Laura; Tully, Carrie E; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2014-01-01

    Disordered eating behavior is common in college women. Thus, it is important to develop programs to reduce eating disorder (ED) risk. Studies suggest that dissonance-based (DB) prevention programs successfully reduce ED risk factors; however, face-to-face DB groups lack anonymity and convenience. One way to address these barriers is to adapt DB programs for online use. Few studies have examined the feasibility of this delivery mode. This study compared the efficacy of an online DB program with a face-to-face DB program and an assessment-only condition. Undergraduate women (N = 333) recruited from a participant pool at a public university in the mid-Atlantic United States participated (n = 107 face-to-face DB, n = 112 online DB, n = 114 assessment-only). It was hypothesized that: (a) participants in the face-to-face and online DB conditions would report greater decreases in thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and ED symptoms at post-testing relative to participants in the assessment-only control group, and (b) online and face-to-face programs would yield comparable results. Modified intent-to-treat analyses indicated that participants in both conditions manifested less body dissatisfaction at post-test compared with assessment-only participants; there were no significant differences in outcomes between the two modes of program delivery. These findings indicate that DB ED prevention programs can be successfully adapted for online use. Future studies should continue to refine online adaptations of such programs and examine their effects with samples that include older and younger women, and men.

  20. Handbook of Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Stan Z

    2011-01-01

    This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems

  1. Face Search at Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayong; Otto, Charles; Jain, Anil K

    2016-06-20

    rsons of interest among the billions of shared photos on these websites. Despite significant progress in face recognition, searching a large collection of unconstrained face images remains a difficult problem. To address this challenge, we propose a face search system which combines a fast search procedure, coupled with a state-of-the-art commercial off the shelf (COTS) matcher, in a cascaded framework. Given a probe face, we first filter the large gallery of photos to find the top-k most similar faces using features learned by a convolutional neural network. The k retrieved candidates are re-ranked by combining similarities based on deep features and those output by the COTS matcher. We evaluate the proposed face search system on a gallery containing 80 million web-downloaded face images. Experimental results demonstrate that while the deep features perform worse than the COTS matcher on a mugshot dataset (93.7% vs. 98.6% TAR@FAR of 0.01%), fusing the deep features with the COTS matcher improves the overall performance (99.5% TAR@FAR of 0.01%). This shows that the learned deep features provide complementary information over representations used in state-of-the-art face matchers. On the unconstrained face image benchmarks, the performance of the learned deep features is competitive with reported accuracies. LFW database: 98.20% accuracy under the standard protocol and 88.03% TAR@FAR of 0.1% under the BLUFR protocol; IJB-A benchmark: 51.0% TAR@FAR of 0.1% (verification), rank 1 retrieval of 82.2% (closed-set search), 61.5% FNIR@FAR of 1% (open-set search). The proposed face search system offers an excellent trade-off between accuracy and scalability on galleries with millions of images. Additionally, in a face search experiment involving photos of the Tsarnaev brothers, convicted of the Boston Marathon bombing, the proposed cascade face search system could find the younger brother's (Dzhokhar Tsarnaev) photo at rank 1 in 1 second on a 5M gallery and at rank 8 in 7

  2. Weighted Attribute Fusion Model for Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sakthivel, S

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing a face based on its attributes is an easy task for a human to perform as it is a cognitive process. In recent years, Face Recognition is achieved with different kinds of facial features which were used separately or in a combined manner. Currently, Feature fusion methods and parallel methods are the facial features used and performed by integrating multiple feature sets at different levels. However, this integration and the combinational methods do not guarantee better result. Hence to achieve better results, the feature fusion model with multiple weighted facial attribute set is selected. For this feature model, face images from predefined data set has been taken from Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL) and applied on different methods like Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based Eigen feature extraction technique, Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) based feature extraction technique, Histogram Based Feature Extraction technique and Simple Intensity based features. The extracted feature set obt...

  3. Toward a Social Psychophysics of Face Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Rachael E; Schyns, Philippe G

    2017-01-03

    As a highly social species, humans are equipped with a powerful tool for social communication-the face. Although seemingly simple, the human face can elicit multiple social perceptions due to the rich variations of its movements, morphology, and complexion. Consequently, identifying precisely what face information elicits different social perceptions is a complex empirical challenge that has largely remained beyond the reach of traditional methods. In the past decade, the emerging field of social psychophysics has developed new methods to address this challenge, with the potential to transfer psychophysical laws of social perception to the digital economy via avatars and social robots. At this exciting juncture, it is timely to review these new methodological developments. In this article, we introduce and review the foundational methodological developments of social psychophysics, present work done in the past decade that has advanced understanding of the face as a tool for social communication, and discuss the major challenges that lie ahead.

  4. Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stula, R.T.; Albert, T.E.; Kirstein, B.E.; Lester, D.H.

    1980-09-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed.

  5. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk......Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... analysis with operational safety management....

  6. Extremal surface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C. [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2014-03-13

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy.

  7. Comparison of face Recognition Algorithms on Dummy Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruni Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the age of rising crime face recognition is enormously important in the contexts of computer vision, psychology, surveillance, fraud detection, pattern recognition, neural network, content based video processing, etc. Face is a non intrusive strong biometrics for identification and hence criminals always try to hide their facial organs by different artificial means such as plastic surgery, disguise and dummy. The availability of a comprehensive face database is crucial to test the performance of these face recognition algorithms. However, while existing publicly-available face databases contain face images with a wide variety of poses, illumination, gestures and face occlusions but there is no dummy face database is available in public domain. The contributions of this research paper are: i Preparation of dummy face database of 110 subjects ii Comparison of some texture based, feature based and holistic face recognition algorithms on that dummy face database, iii Critical analysis of these types of algorithms on dummy face database.

  8. Is Face Distinctiveness Gender Based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…

  9. Low dimensional representation of face space by face-selective inferior temporal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Sina; Dehaqani, Mohammad-Reza A; Esteky, Hossein

    2017-05-01

    The representation of visual objects in primate brain is distributed and multiple neurons are involved in encoding each object. One way to understand the neural basis of object representation is to estimate the number of neural dimensions that are needed for veridical representation of object categories. In this study, the characteristics of the match between physical-shape and neural representational spaces in monkey inferior temporal (IT) cortex were evaluated. Specifically, we examined how the number of neural dimensions, stimulus behavioral saliency and stimulus category selectivity of neurons affected the correlation between shape and neural representational spaces in IT cortex. Single-unit recordings from monkey IT cortex revealed that there was a significant match between face space and its neural representation at lower neural dimensions, whereas the optimal match for the non-face objects was observed at higher neural dimensions. There was a statistically significant match between the face and neural spaces only in the face-selective neurons, whereas a significant match was observed for non-face objects in all neurons regardless of their category selectivity. Interestingly, the face neurons showed a higher match for the non-face objects than for the faces at higher neural dimensions. The optimal representation of face space in the responses of the face neurons was a low dimensional map that emerged early (~150 ms post-stimulus onset) and was followed by a high dimensional and relatively late (~300 ms) map for the non-face stimuli. These results support a multiplexing function for the face neurons in the representation of very similar shape spaces, but with different dimensionality and timing scales. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Barriers to Initiating and Continuing Mental Health Treatment Among Soldiers in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naifeh, James A; Colpe, Lisa J; Aliaga, Pablo A; Sampson, Nancy A; Heeringa, Steven G; Stein, Murray B; Ursano, Robert J; Fullerton, Carol S; Nock, Matthew K; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2016-09-01

    U.S. Army soldiers with mental disorders report a variety of barriers to initiating and continuing treatment. Improved understanding of these barriers can help direct mental health services to soldiers in need. A representative sample of 5,428 nondeployed Regular Army soldiers participating in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers completed a self-administered questionnaire and consented to linking self-administered questionnaire data with administrative records. We examined reported treatment barriers (perceived need, structural reasons, attitudinal reasons) among respondents with current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, mental disorders who either did not seek treatment in the past year (n = 744) or discontinued treatment (n = 145). About 82.4% of soldiers who did not initiate treatment and 69.5% of those who discontinued treatment endorsed at least two barriers; 69.8% of never-treated soldiers reported no perceived need. Attitudinal reasons were cited more frequently than structural reasons among never-treated soldiers with perceived need (80.7% vs. 62.7%) and those who discontinued treatment (71.0% vs. 37.8%). Multivariate associations with sociodemographic, Army career, and mental health predictors varied across barrier categories. These findings suggest most soldiers with mental disorders do not believe they need treatment and those who do typically face multiple attitudinal and, to a lesser extent, structural barriers.

  11. PCA Based Rapid and Real Time Face Recognition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T R Chandrashekar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Economical and efficient that is used in various applications is face Biometric which has been a popular form biometric system. Face recognition system is being a topic of research for last few decades. Several techniques are proposed to improve the performance of face recognition system. Accuracy is tested against intensity, distance from camera, and pose variance. Multiple face recognition is another subtopic which is under research now a day. Speed at which the technique works is a parameter under consideration to evaluate a technique. As an example a support vector machine performs really well for face recognition but the computational efficiency degrades significantly with increase in number of classes. Eigen Face technique produces quality features for face recognition but the accuracy is proved to be comparatively less to many other techniques. With increase in use of core processors in personal computers and application demanding speed in processing and multiple face detection and recognition system (for example an entry detection system in shopping mall or an industry, demand for such systems are cumulative as there is a need for automated systems worldwide. In this paper we propose a novel system of face recognition developed with C# .Net that can detect multiple faces and can recognize the faces parallel by utilizing the system resources and the core processors. The system is built around Haar Cascade based face detection and PCA based face recognition system with C#.Net. Parallel library designed for .Net is used to aide to high speed detection and recognition of the real time faces. Analysis of the performance of the proposed technique with some of the conventional techniques reveals that the proposed technique is not only accurate, but also is fast in comparison to other techniques.

  12. Barriers to participation in vocational orientation programmes among prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien Brosens

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the barriers to prisoners’ participation in vocational education, as well as the predictors of different types of barriers. Survey data derived from a project in a remand prison in Belgium (N=468 provided the empirical evidence for the analyses. The results indicate that facing situational and informational barriers are most common. Based on the different kinds of barriers, various types of non-participants can be distinguished and multinomial logistic regression analyses are conducted to identify in what way participants of vocational education differ from various types of non-participants. For instance, prisoners with a poor understanding of the Dutch language and those who never/rarely receive visitors participate less in vocational education as they are more likely to be confronted with informational barriers. We conclude this article by discussing paths for future research and implications for policy and practice to anticipate the barriers for those who want to participate in vocational education.

  13. A Case Study: Are Traditional Face-To-Face Lectures Still Relevant When Teaching Engineering Courses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LillAnne Jackson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this rapidly changing age, with virtually all information available on the Internet including courses, students may not find any reason to physically attend the lectures. In spite of the many benefits the online lectures and materials bring to teaching, this drift from the traditional (norm face-to-face lectures is also creating further barriers, such as difficulty in communicating and building personal relationships, between students and instructor. In this paper we carry out a study that presents and analyzes factors that motivate students to attend a (1 face-to-face instruction in-class versus an (2 online class. This study is based on an anonymous and voluntary survey that was conducted in the School of Engineering at University of Victoria, BC, Canada. This paper presents and shares the detailed results and analysis of this survey that also includes some interesting and useful comments from the students. Based on the results, analysis and comments the paper suggests methodologies of how to improve face-to-face in-class instructions to make them more relevant to the current global information age.

  14. A new face

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasilic, D.

    2012-01-01

    The ethical barriers seem to pose the greatest challenge to performing facial transplantation with proponents and critics fiercely debating their positions. Chapter 1 outlines the main ethical issues and events that have preluded clinical facial transplantation. In particular, human hand transplanta

  15. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carré, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”. PMID:22276184

  16. Consciousness of Social Face: the development and validation of a scale measuring desire to gain face versus fear of losing face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-An; Cao, Qing; Grigoriou, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a scale that measures two distinct needs for individuals to manage their social "face". Scale development process resulted in an 11-item Consciousness of Social Face (CSF) scale made up of the following two correlated dimensions: desire to gain face and fear of losing face. The two-factor correlated structure of CSF scale was stable across multiple samples of both students and non-students subjects. The construct validity of CSF scale, including convergent validity, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity was also demonstrated by examining relationships with other personality or demographical variables.

  17. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audienc......´s interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  18. Graphene as a Coating for Plasma Facing Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marcos; Rojas, Richard; Kulcisnki, Gerald; Lagally, Max; Santarius, John

    2016-10-01

    Graphene has been a source of interest for multiple applications because of its unusual electronic and mechanical properties. A number of experimental studies have established that defect-free graphene is an excellent chemical-barrier material, but there have been no reports of graphene proposed as a protective coating against ion and/or neutral interactions with material surfaces. In the presence of such irradiation, plasma facing components (PFC's) tend to develop ``fuzz/grass'' structures that lead to the sputtering of wall material, diminishing the lifetime of the PFC's and plasma performance. We have shown that graphene can reduce or eliminate changes on surface morphology due to energetic helium. In the case of graphene-covered tungsten, our results show that, compared to the uncovered W, graphene suppresses these morphologies that form on the surface of hot W. Using Raman spectroscopy as a diagnostic, the graphene coating shows little sign of damage after being irradiated, indicating that there is little to no sputtering of carbon impurities from the surface. We have also determined that the mass losses in W have been reduced significantly. Both decreases in impurities can lead to an improved plasma performance and longer lifetimes for PFC's. This work has been supported by GERS and TEAM-Science at the UW-Madison.

  19. Barriers to screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BRCA) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the USA, and mammography is an effective means for the early detection of BRCA. Identifying the barriers to screening mammography can inform research, policy and practice aiming to increase mammography adherence. A literature review was conducted to determine common barriers to screening mammography adherence. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched to identify studies published between 2000 and 2012 that examined barriers associated with reduced mammography adherence. Three thematic groups of barriers, based on social ecology, were identified from the literature: healthcare system-level, social and individual-level barriers. Researchers must consider screening behaviour in context and, therefore, should simultaneously consider each level of barriers when attempting to understand screening behaviour and create interventions to increase mammography adherence.

  20. Generating virtual training samples for sparse representation of face images and face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong; Wang, Yu

    2016-03-01

    There are many challenges in face recognition. In real-world scenes, images of the same face vary with changing illuminations, different expressions and poses, multiform ornaments, or even altered mental status. Limited available training samples cannot convey these possible changes in the training phase sufficiently, and this has become one of the restrictions to improve the face recognition accuracy. In this article, we view the multiplication of two images of the face as a virtual face image to expand the training set and devise a representation-based method to perform face recognition. The generated virtual samples really reflect some possible appearance and pose variations of the face. By multiplying a training sample with another sample from the same subject, we can strengthen the facial contour feature and greatly suppress the noise. Thus, more human essential information is retained. Also, uncertainty of the training data is simultaneously reduced with the increase of the training samples, which is beneficial for the training phase. The devised representation-based classifier uses both the original and new generated samples to perform the classification. In the classification phase, we first determine K nearest training samples for the current test sample by calculating the Euclidean distances between the test sample and training samples. Then, a linear combination of these selected training samples is used to represent the test sample, and the representation result is used to classify the test sample. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms some state-of-the-art face recognition methods.

  1. Review on Matching Infrared Face Images to Optical Face Images using LBP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamakhaya Argulewar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In biometric research and many security areas, it is very difficult task to match the images which is captured by different devices. Large gap exist between them because they relates with different classes. Matching optical face images to infrared face images is one of the difficult task in face biometric. Large difference exists between infrared and optical face images because they belong to multiple classes. Converting the samples of multimodality into common feature space is the main objective of this project. Different class of images is relating by coordinating separate feature for classes .It is mainly used in heterogeneous face recognition. The new method has been developing for identification of heterogeneous face identification. Training set contains the images from different modalities. Initially the infrared image is preprocessed by applying Gaussian filter, difference of Gaussian and CSDN filters are apply on infrared face image. After preprocessing next step to extracting the feature by using LBP(local binary pattern feature extraction then relevance machine classifier is used to identify the best matching optical image from the corresponding infrared images from the optical images dataset. By processing this technique our system efficiently match the infrared and optical face images.

  2. Conjunction Faces Alter Confidence-Accuracy Relations for Old Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, Mark Tippens; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    The authors used a state-trace methodology to investigate the informational dimensions used to recognize old and conjunction faces (made by combining parts of separately studied faces). Participants in 3 experiments saw faces presented for 1 s each. They then received a recognition test; faces were presented for varying brief durations and…

  3. Pedagogical Characteristics of Online and Face-to-Face Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuensch, Karl; Aziz, Shahnaz; Ozan, Erol; Kishore, Masao; Tabrizi, M. H. Nassehzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Currently, many students have had experience with both face-to-face and online classes. We asked such students at 46 different universities in the United States to evaluate the pedagogical characteristics of their most recently completed face-to-face class and their most recently completed online class. The results show that students rate online…

  4. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…

  5. Real Time Face Quality Assessment for Face Log Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....

  6. Cluster-based distributed face tracking in camera networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Josiah; Medeiros, Henry; Park, Johnny; Kak, Avinash C

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed multicamera face tracking system suitable for large wired camera networks. Unlike previous multicamera face tracking systems, our system does not require a central server to coordinate the entire tracking effort. Instead, an efficient camera clustering protocol is used to dynamically form groups of cameras for in-network tracking of individual faces. The clustering protocol includes cluster propagation mechanisms that allow the computational load of face tracking to be transferred to different cameras as the target objects move. Furthermore, the dynamic election of cluster leaders provides robustness against system failures. Our experimental results show that our cluster-based distributed face tracker is capable of accurately tracking multiple faces in real-time. The overall performance of the distributed system is comparable to that of a centralized face tracker, while presenting the advantages of scalability and robustness.

  7. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  8. Two Faces of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Conger, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the inconsistency between Japanese exploitation of world natural resources and gestures to provide leadership in ecologically innovative technology. Explores Japanese culture, power structure, population trends, environmental ethics, industrialism, and international business practices as they relate to the philosophical face of…

  9. Bayesian Face Sketch Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nannan; Gao, Xinbo; Sun, Leiyu; Li, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Exemplar-based face sketch synthesis has been widely applied to both digital entertainment and law enforcement. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian framework for face sketch synthesis, which provides a systematic interpretation for understanding the common properties and intrinsic difference in different methods from the perspective of probabilistic graphical models. The proposed Bayesian framework consists of two parts: the neighbor selection model and the weight computation model. Within the proposed framework, we further propose a Bayesian face sketch synthesis method. The essential rationale behind the proposed Bayesian method is that we take the spatial neighboring constraint between adjacent image patches into consideration for both aforementioned models, while the state-of-the-art methods neglect the constraint either in the neighbor selection model or in the weight computation model. Extensive experiments on the Chinese University of Hong Kong face sketch database demonstrate that the proposed Bayesian method could achieve superior performance compared with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of both subjective perceptions and objective evaluations.

  10. Facing Up to Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elizabeth Kubler

    1972-01-01

    Doctor urges that Americans accept death as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' deaths, are also discussed. (PD)

  11. Autonomous Face Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    and Rhea Diamond. "From Piecemeal to Configurational Repre- sentation of Faces," Science, 195:312-314 (Jan 1977). 3. Damasio , Antonio R...34Prosopagnosia," Trends in Neuroscience, 8:132-135 (1985). 4. Damasio , Antonio R. and others. "Prosopagnosia: Anatomic Basis and Behav- ioral Mechanisms

  12. PrimeFaces blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.

  13. Facing Up to Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elizabeth Kubler

    1972-01-01

    Doctor urges that Americans accept death as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' deaths, are also discussed. (PD)

  14. A barrier radar concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Ball, C.; Weissman, I.

    A description is given of a low power, light-weight radar that can be quickly set up and operated on batteries for extended periods of time to detect airborne intruders. With low equipment and operating costs, it becomes practical to employ a multiplicity of such radars to provide an unbroken intrusion fence over the desired perimeter. Each radar establishes a single transmitted fan beam extending vertically from horizon to horizon. The beam is generated by a two-face array antenna built in an A-frame configuration and is shaped, through phasing of the array elements, to concentrate the transmitter power in a manner consistent with the expected operating altitude ceiling of the targets of interest. The angular width of this beam in the dimension transverse to the fan depends on the radar transmission frequency and the antenna aperture dimension, but is typically wide enough so that a target at the maximum altitude or range will require tens of seconds to pass through the beam. A large number of independent samples of radar data will thus be available to provide many opportunities for target detection.

  15. Tacit Knowledge Barriers within Franchise Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland, Denise M.; Githens, Rod P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews knowledge management in the context of a franchise business operation, with a focus on tacit knowledge barriers. In a franchise organization, the transfer of knowledge occurs on multiple levels and has an added level of complexity because of the number of partners and relationships. Tacit knowledge transfer should occur…

  16. Age-Dependent Face Detection and Face Categorization Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Claus-Christian Carbon; Martina Grüter; Thomas Grüter

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, ...

  17. Comparing Student Assessments and Perceptions of Online and Face-to-Face Versions of an Introductory Linguistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Palmer, Chris C.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the issue of whether linguistics is better suited for a face-to-face (F2F) environment than an online teaching environment. Specifically, it examines assessment scores and student perceptions of the effectiveness of an introductory linguistics course at an undergraduate state university that has been taught multiple times in…

  18. Face aftereffects predict individual differences in face recognition ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Hugh W; McKone, Elinor; Edwards, Mark; Susilo, Tirta

    2012-01-01

    Face aftereffects are widely studied on the assumption that they provide a useful tool for investigating face-space coding of identity. However, a long-standing issue concerns the extent to which face aftereffects originate in face-level processes as opposed to earlier stages of visual processing. For example, some recent studies failed to find atypical face aftereffects in individuals with clinically poor face recognition. We show that in individuals within the normal range of face recognition abilities, there is an association between face memory ability and a figural face aftereffect that is argued to reflect the steepness of broadband-opponent neural response functions in underlying face-space. We further show that this correlation arises from face-level processing, by reporting results of tests of nonface memory and nonface aftereffects. We conclude that face aftereffects can tap high-level face-space, and that face-space coding differs in quality between individuals and contributes to face recognition ability.

  19. Adjudicating between face-coding models with individual-face fMRI responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan D Carlin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The perceptual representation of individual faces is often explained with reference to a norm-based face space. In such spaces, individuals are encoded as vectors where identity is primarily conveyed by direction and distinctiveness by eccentricity. Here we measured human fMRI responses and psychophysical similarity judgments of individual face exemplars, which were generated as realistic 3D animations using a computer-graphics model. We developed and evaluated multiple neurobiologically plausible computational models, each of which predicts a representational distance matrix and a regional-mean activation profile for 24 face stimuli. In the fusiform face area, a face-space coding model with sigmoidal ramp tuning provided a better account of the data than one based on exemplar tuning. However, an image-processing model with weighted banks of Gabor filters performed similarly. Accounting for the data required the inclusion of a measurement-level population averaging mechanism that approximates how fMRI voxels locally average distinct neuronal tunings. Our study demonstrates the importance of comparing multiple models and of modeling the measurement process in computational neuroimaging.

  20. Human faces are slower than chimpanzee faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Burrows

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While humans (like other primates communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles. The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce "visemes" (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds. Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech? METHODOLOGY/PRINICIPAL FINDINGS: Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on

  1. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither sing...

  2. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  3. Barriers Non-Traditional Age Freshmen Women Encounter as They Seek Entrance to Four-Year Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wanda Young Cadman

    Barriers faced by 42 nontraditional age women (age 35 or above) enrolled as freshman in four state institutions in Oregon were studied, based on a demographic survey and interviews. The following types of barriers were identified: (1) social barriers, constraints brought about through economics, age, family or community attitudes, or sex-role…

  4. Automated Face Recognition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    atestfOl.feature-vectjJ -averageljJ); for(j=l; <num-coefsj++) for(i= 5 num-train-faces;i++) sdlQjI -(btrainhil.feaure..vecU1- veagU (btraintil.feature- vecU ... vecU ])* (atest(O1.feature-vecUJ - btrain[iI.feature- vecU ]) + temp; btrain(ii.distance = sqrt ( (double) temp); I**** Store the k-nearest neighbors rank

  5. Auto Industry Faces Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A number of indicators show that China's auto industry is facing a new round of large-scale restructuring. When the global auto industry was undergoing reorganization 10 years ago, China's auto industry was in its early stages, acting in a relatively closed market, and thus it missed out on that important event. However, the situation is different today. In the past decade, China's auto industry has grown at a rapid pace. While the world's major transnational companies are

  6. Decoding of faces and face components in face-sensitive human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Nichols

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.

  7. Imprinting and flexibility in human face cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowska, Urszula M.; Terraube, Julien; Kaminski, Gwenaël

    2016-01-01

    Faces are an important cue to multiple physiological and psychological traits. Human preferences for exaggerated sex typicality (masculinity or femininity) in faces depend on multiple factors and show high inter-subject variability. To gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying facial femininity preferences in men, we tested the interactive effect of family structure (birth order, sibling sex-ratio and number of siblings) and parenthood status on these preferences. Based on a group of 1304 heterosexual men, we have found that preference for feminine faces was not only influenced by sibling age and sex, but also that fatherhood modulated this preference. Men with sisters had a weaker preference for femininity than men with brothers, highlighting a possible effect of a negative imprinting-like mechanism. What is more, fatherhood increased strongly the preference for facial femininity. Finally, for fathers with younger sisters only, the more the age difference increased between them, the more femininity preference increased. Overall our findings bring new insight into how early-acquired experience at the individual level may determine face preference in adulthood, and what is more, how these preferences are flexible and potentially dependent on parenthood status in adult men. PMID:27680495

  8. Face Shape Variation Among Sundanese People from Western Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WOLLY CANDRAMILA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The face is an important visual stimulus in daily life and each face identifies a particular person. The bone structure of the skull along with various soft tissues and coloration influence perception of the face. Facial averageness, and bilateral symmetry are the two most commonly used criterion of facial attractiveness, yet, both may be perceived differently based on hormonal status of the person observed. Facial perceptions may also differ according to cultural norms. In this research, we examined variations in face-shape among Sundanese male and female adults aged 18 to 40. We applied geometric-morphometric methods to analyze the landmark-based morphological variations in the frontal and lateral views of subjects’ faces. We identified five types of female frontal face views and four of male. We also identified five types each of female and male lateral face views. The trichion, gonion and gnathion were three most variable landmarks among the face views in our study, and highly determined the shape of the individuals’ faces. Multiple face type variation may refer to many categories of attractive faces since there is no exactly perfect category in the assessment of facial attractiveness by the viewers. Therefore, we believe that the configuration of facial features cannot constitute the sole visual criterion of facial attractiveness.

  9. Biointrusion test plan for the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, S.O.; Cadwell, L.L.; Brandt, C.A.; Downs, J.L.; Rossi, R.E.; Gee, G.W.

    1994-04-01

    This document provides a testing and monitoring plan for the biological component of the prototype barrier slated for construction at the Hanford Site. The prototype barrier is an aboveground structure engineered to demonstrate the basic features of an earthen cover system. It is designed to permanently isolate waste from the biosphere. The features of the barrier include multiple layers of soil and rock materials and a low-permeability asphalt sublayer. The surface of the barrier consists of silt loam soil, covered with plants. The barrier sides are reinforced with rock or coarse earthen-fill to protect against wind and water erosion. The sublayers inhibit plant and animal intrusion and percolation of water. A series of tests will be conducted on the prototype barrier over the next several years to evaluate barrier performance under extreme climatic conditions. Plants and animals will play a significant role in the hydrologic and water and wind erosion characteristics of the prototype barrier. Studies on the biological component of the prototype barrier will include work on the initial revegetation of the surface, continued monitoring of the developing plant community, rooting depth and dispersion in the context of biointrusion potential, the role of plants in the hydrology of the surface and toe regions of the barrier, the role of plants in stabilizing the surface against water and wind erosion, and the role of burrowing animals in the hydrology and water and wind erosion of the barrier.

  10. Nested barriers to low-carbon infrastructure investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Ilmi; Hogarth, J. Ryan; Miller, Alan

    2016-12-01

    Low-carbon, 'green' economic growth is necessary to simultaneously improve human welfare and avoid the worst impacts of climate change and environmental degradation. Infrastructure choices underpin both the growth and the carbon intensity of the economy. This Perspective explores the barriers to investing in low-carbon infrastructure and some of the policy levers available to overcome them. The barriers to decarbonizing infrastructure 'nest' within a set of barriers to infrastructure development more generally that cause spending on infrastructure--low-carbon or not--to fall more than 70% short of optimal levels. Developing countries face additional barriers such as currency and political risks that increase the investment gap. Low-carbon alternatives face further barriers, such as commercialization risk and financial and public institutions designed for different investment needs. While the broader barriers to infrastructure investment are discussed in other streams of literature, they are often disregarded in literature on renewable energy diffusion or climate finance, which tends to focus narrowly on the project costs of low- versus high-carbon options. We discuss how to overcome the barriers specific to low-carbon infrastructure within the context of the broader infrastructure gap.

  11. Face-space: A unifying concept in face recognition research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Tim; Lewis, Michael B; Hills, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    The concept of a multidimensional psychological space, in which faces can be represented according to their perceived properties, is fundamental to the modern theorist in face processing. Yet the idea was not clearly expressed until 1991. The background that led to the development of face-space is explained, and its continuing influence on theories of face processing is discussed. Research that has explored the properties of the face-space and sought to understand caricature, including facial adaptation paradigms, is reviewed. Face-space as a theoretical framework for understanding the effect of ethnicity and the development of face recognition is evaluated. Finally, two applications of face-space in the forensic setting are discussed. From initially being presented as a model to explain distinctiveness, inversion, and the effect of ethnicity, face-space has become a central pillar in many aspects of face processing. It is currently being developed to help us understand adaptation effects with faces. While being in principle a simple concept, face-space has shaped, and continues to shape, our understanding of face perception.

  12. Age-dependent face detection and face categorization performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Grüter, Martina; Grüter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, featural and relational nature, reflecting difficult real world face processing conditions. We found that performance in the assessment of gender and age from Mooney faces increases up to about age 15, and decreases from 65 years on. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of classic and recent findings from face development literature.

  13. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Multiple Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Multiple Pregnancy Page ... Multiple Pregnancy FAQ188, July 2015 PDF Format Multiple Pregnancy Pregnancy How does multiple pregnancy occur? What are ...

  14. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  15. A comparative study of face processing using scrambled faces

    OpenAIRE

    Taubert, Jessica; Aagten-Murphy, David; Parr, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    It is a widespread assumption that all primate species process faces in the same way because the species are closely related and they engage in similar social interactions. However, this approach ignores potentially interesting and informative differences that may exist between species. This paper describes a comparative study of holistic face processing. Twelve subjects (six chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and six rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate whole faces (faces wit...

  16. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  17. Interpersonal self-support and attentional disengagement from emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling-Xiang; Shi, Xu-Liang; Zhang, Ran-Ran; Hollon, Steven D

    2015-01-08

    Prior studies have shown that interpersonal self-support is related to emotional symptoms. The present study explored the relationship between interpersonal self-support and attentional disengagement from emotional faces. A spatial cueing task was administrated to 21 high and 24 low interpersonal self-support Chinese undergraduate students to assess difficulty in shifting away from emotional faces. The Sidak corrected multiple pairwise tests revealed that the low interpersonal self-support group had greater response latencies on negative faces than neutral faces or positive faces in the invalid cues condition, F(2, 41) = 5.68, p interpersonal self-support group responded more slowly than the high interpersonal self-support group to negative faces, F(1, 42) = 7.63, p interpersonal self-support is related to difficulty disengaging from negative emotional information and suggest that interpersonal self-support may refer to emotional dispositions, especially negative emotional dispositions.

  18. The Need for More Research on Language Barriers in Health Care: A Proposed Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Elizabeth; Chen, Alice HM; Karliner, Leah S; Agger-Gupta, Niels; Mutha, Sunita

    2006-01-01

    Many U.S. residents who speak little English may face language barriers when seeking health care. This article describes what is currently known about language barriers in health care and outlines a research agenda based on mismatches between the current state of knowledge of language barriers and what health care stakeholders need to know. Three broad areas needing more research are discussed: the ways in which language barriers affect health and health care, the efficacy of linguistic access service interventions, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. In each of these areas, we outline specific research questions and recommendations. PMID:16529570

  19. Many Faces of Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Antić Gaber

    2013-12-01

    The title “Many faces of migration”, connecting contributions in this special issue, is borrowed from the already mentioned Gallup Institute’s report on global migration (Esipova, 2011. The guiding principle in the selection of the contributions has been their diversity, reflected also in the list of disciplines represented by the authors: sociology, geography, ethnology and cultural anthropology, history, art history, modern Mediterranean studies, gender studies and media studies. Such an approach necessarily leads not only to a diverse, but at least seemingly also incompatib

  20. Faced with a dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    's legal right to choose TOP and considerations about the foetus' right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how physicians...... counsel women/couples after prenatal diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The midwives' practice in relation to late TOP was characterised by an acknowledgement of the growing ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late TOP. Other professions as well as structural...

  1. Multiple sclerosis; Multiple Sklerose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Shariat, K. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Kostopoulos, P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Neurologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [German] Die Multiple Sklerose (MS) ist die haeufigste chronisch-entzuendliche Erkrankung des Myelins mit eingesprengten Laesionen im Bereich der weissen Substanz des zentralen Nervensystems. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) hat bei der Diagnosestellung und Verlaufskontrolle eine Schluesselrolle. Dieser Artikel befasst sich mit Hauptcharakteristika der MR-Bildbebung. (orig.)

  2. BARRIERS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN INDONESIAN MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraidah Mohd Zain

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the barriers faced by Indonesian manufacturing organizations in the implementation of TQM. Out of a total sample size of 364 selected organizations identified for a multi-response survey, 78 organizations responded. The analysis identified 11 pertinent factors acting as barriers that are most frequently faced by the local organizations. These are issues related to human resource, management, attitude towards quality, organizational culture, interdepartmental relation, material, machine and equipment, information, method and training.

  3. [Vascular endothelial Barrier Function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A N; Puchinyan, D M; Norkin, I A

    2015-01-01

    Endothelium is an important regulator of selective permeability of the vascular wall for different molecules and cells. This review summarizes current data on endothelial barrier function. Endothelial glycocalyx structure, its function and role in the molecular transport and leukocytes migration across the endothelial barrier are discussed. The mechanisms of transcellular transport of macromolecules and cell migration through endothelial cells are reviewed. Special section of this article addresses the structure and function of tight and adherens endothelial junction, as well as their importance for the regulation of paracellular transport across the endothelial barrier. Particular attention is paid to the signaling mechanism of endothelial barrier function regulation and the factors that influence on the vascular permeability.

  4. Barriers to Effective Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Jack E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the following barriers which interfere with listening efficiency: content, speaker, medium, distractions, mindset, language, listening speed, and feedback. Suggests ways to combat these obstacles to accurate comprehension. (MM)

  5. Aging changes in the face

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004004.htm Aging changes in the face To use the sharing ... face with age References Brodie SE, Francis JH. Aging and disorders of the eye. In: Fillit HM, ...

  6. Role of topical emollients and moisturizers in the treatment of dry skin barrier disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodén, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Emollients and moisturizing creams are used to break the dry skin cycle and to maintain the smoothness of the skin. The term 'moisturizer' is often used synonymously with emollient, but moisturizers often contain humectants in order to hydrate the stratum corneum. Dryness is frequently linked to an impaired barrier function observed, for example, in atopic skin, psoriasis, ichthyosis, and contact dermatitis. Dryness and skin barrier disorders are not a single entity, but are characterized by differences in chemistry and morphology in the epidermis. Large differences also exist between moisturizing creams. Moisturizers have multiple functions apart from moistening the skin. Similar to other actives, the efficacy is likely to depend on the dosage, where compliance is a great challenge faced in the management of skin diseases. Strong odor from ingredients and greasy compositions may be disagreeable to the patients. Furthermore, low pH and sensory reactions, from lactic acid and urea for example, may reduce patient acceptance. Once applied to the skin, the ingredients can stay on the surface, be absorbed into the skin, be metabolized, or disappear from the surface by evaporation, sloughing off, or by contact with other materials. In addition to substances considered as actives, e.g. fats and humectants, moisturizers contain substances conventionally considered as excipients (e.g. emulsifiers, antioxidants, preservatives). Recent findings indicate that actives and excipients may have more pronounced effects in the skin than previously considered. Some formulations may deteriorate the skin condition, whereas others improve the clinical appearance and skin barrier function. For example, emulsifiers may weaken the barrier. On the other hand, petrolatum has an immediate barrier-repairing effect in delipidized stratum corneum. Moreover, one ceramide-dominant lipid mixture improved atopic dermatitis and decreased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in an open-label study in

  7. ANALYSIS OF BARRIERS IN LISTENING COMPREHENSION AMONG JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setia Muljanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper identifies barriers and difficulties in listening comprehension faced by junior high school students. The research questions were what barriers did students encounter and how did they used strategies to overcome those barriers. This study used a qualitative method and was a case study involving 40 students and one English teacher. The data were obtained by ways of conducting a test of listening taken from TOEIC test. The tests indicated that the results scores were not quite satisfactory. This is primarily caused by speech delivery of the native speaker which was too fast. This means that students faced listening barriers especially in processing information. The data also indicated that students were also nervous when doing the test as habitual barrier. Strategies used to overcome these barriers are by making students get used to listen and use English and making them familiar with certain contexts in real life.

  8. Teaching English Language Learners: Strategies for Overcoming Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Sara R.; Bosh, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    The number of English language learners (ELLs) in today's classrooms is increasing. In this article, the authors identify four perceived barriers beginning and veteran teachers face in teaching literacy to ELLs: the lack of understanding of the role of literacy in other cultures, the teacher's inability to differentiate instruction to meet the…

  9. Avoiding Communication Barriers in the Classroom: The APEINTA Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Ana; Jiménez, Javier; Revuelta, Pablo; Moreno, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Education is a fundamental human right, however unfortunately not everybody has the same learning opportunities. For instance, if a student has hearing impairments, s/he could face communications barriers in the classroom, which could affect his/her learning process. APEINTA is a Spanish educational project that aims for inclusive education for…

  10. Medical marijuana users continue to experience legal barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2006-04-01

    Four recent developments highlight that people continue to face significant legal and administrative barriers to using marijuana for medical purposes--despite the existence of the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations (MMAR), enacted by the federal government, as a result of court rulings, to enable people who require marijuana for medical purposes to exercise their constitutional right to such medicine.

  11. Barriers to Dance Training for Young People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aujla, Imogen J.; Redding, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Dance is a viable and enjoyable activity -- and potential career -- for young people with disabilities, yet they face several barriers to participation and training. The aim of this article, by Imogen J. Aujla of the University of Bedfordshire and Emma Redding of Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance, is to review the literature on…

  12. Barriers and Perceptions of Natural Resource Careers by Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Nia A.; Jacobson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Using a framework based on social cognitive career theory, we conducted 38 interviews and four focus groups with college students to identify motivations and barriers faced by underrepresented groups to natural resource careers. Interviews revealed career satisfaction as the most important goal for both natural resource and a comparison of liberal…

  13. Barriers to Dance Training for Young People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aujla, Imogen J.; Redding, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Dance is a viable and enjoyable activity -- and potential career -- for young people with disabilities, yet they face several barriers to participation and training. The aim of this article, by Imogen J. Aujla of the University of Bedfordshire and Emma Redding of Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance, is to review the literature on…

  14. FaceID: A face detection and recognition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, M.B.; Rao, N.S.V.; Olman, V.; Uberbacher, E.C.; Mann, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    A face detection system that automatically locates faces in gray-level images is described. Also described is a system which matches a given face image with faces in a database. Face detection in an Image is performed by template matching using templates derived from a selected set of normalized faces. Instead of using original gray level images, vertical gradient images were calculated and used to make the system more robust against variations in lighting conditions and skin color. Faces of different sizes are detected by processing the image at several scales. Further, a coarse-to-fine strategy is used to speed up the processing, and a combination of whole face and face component templates are used to ensure low false detection rates. The input to the face recognition system is a normalized vertical gradient image of a face, which is compared against a database using a set of pretrained feedforward neural networks with a winner-take-all fuser. The training is performed by using an adaptation of the backpropagation algorithm. This system has been developed and tested using images from the FERET database and a set of images obtained from Rowley, et al and Sung and Poggio.

  15. A novel thermal face recognition approach using face pattern words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2010-04-01

    A reliable thermal face recognition system can enhance the national security applications such as prevention against terrorism, surveillance, monitoring and tracking, especially at nighttime. The system can be applied at airports, customs or high-alert facilities (e.g., nuclear power plant) for 24 hours a day. In this paper, we propose a novel face recognition approach utilizing thermal (long wave infrared) face images that can automatically identify a subject at both daytime and nighttime. With a properly acquired thermal image (as a query image) in monitoring zone, the following processes will be employed: normalization and denoising, face detection, face alignment, face masking, Gabor wavelet transform, face pattern words (FPWs) creation, face identification by similarity measure (Hamming distance). If eyeglasses are present on a subject's face, an eyeglasses mask will be automatically extracted from the querying face image, and then masked with all comparing FPWs (no more transforms). A high identification rate (97.44% with Top-1 match) has been achieved upon our preliminary face dataset (of 39 subjects) from the proposed approach regardless operating time and glasses-wearing condition.e

  16. Enabling dynamics in face analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibeklioğlu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Most of the approaches in automatic face analysis rely solely on static appearance. However, temporal analysis of expressions reveals interesting patterns. For a better understanding of the human face, this thesis focuses on temporal changes in the face, and dynamic patterns of expressions. In addit

  17. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Veldhuis, Raymond; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  18. On the Existence of Compositional Barrier Certificates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael; Pappas, George J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a necessary and sufficient condition for the compositional verification of a continuous system with additively separable barrier functions. The compositional safety verification enables the verification of an interconnection of subsystems. The idea behind the compositional...... analysis is to allow the verification of systems with a high dimension, by the verification of multiple lower dimensional subproblems. In the compositional safety analysis, a particular structure is imposed on the barrier certificate, restricting the applicability of the method. We show an example...... for the compositional safety analysis that enables the verification of the counterexample, by imposing a less restrictive structure of the barrier function. This shows that the counterexample can be solved with a compositional method, but at an increased computational complexity....

  19. Deconstructing Barriers: Perceptions of Students Labeled with Learning Disabilities in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhart, Hazel

    2008-01-01

    This phenomenological study investigated barriers to higher education faced by 11 college students labeled with learning disabilities (LD) using their voice as the primary data. Data were analyzed and interpreted through a disability theory perspective revealing barriers stemmed largely from external social causes rather than individual pathology.…

  20. Mobile Devices and the Teacher Perceived Barriers Impacting Effective Integration in the K-5 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Tina S.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study explored the teacher perceived barriers of using mobile devices in the K-5 classroom. Research confirms teachers face various types of variables and become reluctant to use technology within their curriculum driven lessons. This study sought to understand what teachers perceive as barriers, and how the…

  1. Barriers to Providing the Sexuality Education That Teachers Believe Students Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Madsen, Nikki; Oliphant, Jennifer A.; Sieving, Renee E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sexuality education teachers' perspectives are important to gain a full understanding of the issues surrounding teaching this subject. This study uses a statewide sample of public school teachers to examine what sexuality education content is taught, what barriers teachers face, and which barriers are associated with teaching…

  2. Barriers to Accommodation Use for Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Michael James

    2013-01-01

    Students with disabilities at the postsecondary level face a number of different barriers to accommodation use. Past research has shown that students with disabilities that use accommodations obtain greater academic achievement and higher graduation rates. Limited research has been conducted to identify barriers to accommodation use, and the…

  3. Free-Energy Barriers and Reaction Mechanisms for the Electrochemical Reduction of CO on the Cu(100) Surface, Including Multiple Layers of Explicit Solvent at pH 0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Xiao, Hai; Goddard, William A

    2015-12-03

    The great interest in the photochemical reduction from CO2 to fuels and chemicals has focused attention on Cu because of its unique ability to catalyze formation of carbon-containing fuels and chemicals. A particular goal is to learn how to modify the Cu catalysts to enhance the production selectivity while reducing the energy requirements (overpotential). To enable such developments, we report here the free-energy reaction barriers and mechanistic pathways on the Cu(100) surface, which produces only CH4 (not C2H4 or CH3OH) in acid (pH 0). We predict a threshold potential for CH4 formation of -0.52 V, which compares well to experiments at low pH, -0.45 to -0.50 V. These quantum molecular dynamics simulations included ∼5 layers of explicit water at the water/electrode interface using enhanced sampling methodology to obtain the free energies. We find that that chemisorbed hydroxyl-methylene (CH-OH) is the key intermediate determining the selectivity for methane over methanol.

  4. Measuring Schottky barrier height at graphene/SiC junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, D.; Hudy, L.; Rajput, S.; Li, L.

    2014-03-01

    When graphene is interfaced with a semiconductor, a Schottky junction forms with rectifying properties. In this work, we measured the Schottky barrier heights of graphene/SiC Schottky diodes using current-voltage (I-V) measurement. Chemical vapor deposited graphene was transferred onto semiconductor surfaces of opposite polarization: the hydrogen-terminated Si- and C-faces of α-SiC, which was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. The Schottky barrier height is found to be sensitive to the polarization of the substrate and surface preparation. On the Si-face, a barrier of 0.47 eV is found. These results will be compared with earlier work as well as our in situ scanning tunneling spectroscopy results. Supported by DOE (DE-FG02-07ER46228).

  5. En-face optical coherence tomography revival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradu, Adrian; Kapinchev, Konstantin; Barnes, Frederick; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2016-03-01

    Quite recently, we introduced a novel Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) method, termed as Master Slave OCT (MS-OCT), especially to deliver en-face images. MS-OCT operates like a time domain OCT, selecting signal from a selected depth only while scanning the laser beam across the sample. Time domain OCT allows real time production of an en-face image, although relatively slowly. As a major advance, the Master Slave method allows collection of signals from any number of depths, as required by the user. MS-OCT is an OCT method that does not require resampling of data and can be used to deliver en-face images from several depths simultaneously. However, as the MS-OCT method requires important computational resources, the number of multiple depth en-face images produced in real-time is limited. Here, we demonstrate that taking advantage of the parallel processing feature of the MS-OCT technology by harnessing the capabilities of graphics processing units (GPU)s, information from 384 depth positions is acquired in one raster with real time display of 40 en-face OCT images. These exhibit comparable resolution and sensitivity to the images produced using the traditional Fourier domain based method. The GPU facilitates versatile real time selection of parameters, such as the depth positions of the 40 images out of a set of 384 depth locations, as well as their axial resolution. Here, we present in parallel with the 40 en-face OCT images of a human tooth, a confocal microscopy lookalike image, together with two B-scan OCT images along rectangular directions.

  6. Face Processing: Models For Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Matthew A.; Pentland, Alexander P.

    1990-03-01

    The human ability to process faces is remarkable. We can identify perhaps thousands of faces learned throughout our lifetime and read facial expression to understand such subtle qualities as emotion. These skills are quite robust, despite sometimes large changes in the visual stimulus due to expression, aging, and distractions such as glasses or changes in hairstyle or facial hair. Computers which model and recognize faces will be useful in a variety of applications, including criminal identification, human-computer interface, and animation. We discuss models for representing faces and their applicability to the task of recognition, and present techniques for identifying faces and detecting eye blinks.

  7. Facing the Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2014-01-01

    China's rise signifies a gradual transformation of the international system from unipolarity to a non-unipolar world. ,4s an organization of small and middle powers, ASEAN faces strategic uncertainties brought about by the power transition in the system. Deepening economic interdependence between...... ASEAN and China has amplified the economic cost for the ASEAN states to use traditional military means to deal with China s rise. Applying institutional balancing theory, this paper examines how ASEAN has adopted various institutional instruments, such as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the East Asia...... Summit (EAS), the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and the ASEAN Community, to constrain and shape China's behaviour in the region in the post-Cold War era. It argues that due to globalization and economic interdependence, the power transition in the 21st century is different from...

  8. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Mendell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available C’est avec grand plaisir que je contribue la préface de ce numéro d’Interventions économiques dédié à la pertinence de la pensée de Karl Polanyi au début du 21ème siècle. Je suis très reconnaissante aux éditeurs, Diane Gabrielle Tremblay, Jean-Marc Fontan et Jean Louis Laville d’avoir pris l’initiative de préparer ce numéro pour le 11ème colloque international de l’Institut Karl Polanyi, qui correspond aussi au 20ème anniversaire de l’Institut, établi à l’Université Concordia en 1988. Interve...

  9. Barriers to female sex addiction treatment in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuffar, Manpreet K; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-12-01

    Background Over the last 20 years, behavioral addictions (e.g., addictions to gambling, playing video games, work, etc.) have become more accepted among both public and scientific communities. Addiction to sex is arguably a more controversial issue, but this does not take away from the fact that some individuals seek professional help for problematic excessive sex, irrespective of how the behavior is conceptualized. Empirical evidence suggests that among treatment seekers, men are more likely than women to seek help for sex addiction (SA). Methods Using the behavioral addiction literature and the authors' own expertise in researching female SA, this paper examines potential barriers to the treatment for female sex addicts. Results Four main types of barriers for female sex addicts not seeking treatment were identified. These comprised (a) individual barriers, (b) social barriers, (c) research barriers, and (d) treatment barriers. Conclusions Further research is needed to either confirm or disconfirm the identified barriers that female sex addicts face when seeking treatment, and if conformation is found, interested stakeholders should provide better awareness and/or see ways in which such barriers can be overcome to aid better uptake of SA services.

  10. Barrier-free communication in maternity care of allophone migrants: BRIDGE study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origlia Ikhilor, Paola; Hasenberg, Gabriele; Kurth, Elisabeth; Stocker Kalberer, Barbara; Cignacco, Eva; Pehlke-Milde, Jessica

    2017-08-23

    To describe communication and access barriers encountered by allophone women of different migration backgrounds in the Swiss maternity care services, from the perspective of users, healthcare professionals and intercultural interpreters. In addition to the challenges of maternal adjustment, pregnant migrant women must also deal with an unfamiliar health service system. Some must overcome language barriers and the stress of uncertain residence status. Limited access to maternity care increases perinatal morbidity and mortality. Almost 10% of foreigners speak none of Switzerland's official languages. Factors that facilitate or hinder communication between migrant women and perinatal healthcare professionals are under-studied and must be understood if we are to overcome those barriers in clinical practice. Qualitative exploratory study with quantitative sub-study. Participants will be drawn from German to speaking regions of Switzerland. We will conduct focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews with users in their own language (Albanian and Tigrinya) and with healthcare professionals and intercultural interpreters (March-June 2016), then perform Thematic Analysis on the data. In the sub-study, midwives will report their experience of using a telephone interpreting service during postnatal home visits in a questionnaire (October 2013-March 2016). Data will be analysed with descriptive statistics. Our study will reveal patterns in communications between allophone migrant women and healthcare providers and communication barriers. By incorporating multiple perspectives, we will describe the challenges all parties face. Our results will inform those who draft recommendations to improve provision of maternity care to allophone women and their families. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: BernUAS NCT02695316. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Hedging Double Barriers with Singles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbuelz, A.

    2000-01-01

    Double barrier options provide risk managers with good-deal flexibility in tailoring portfolio returns.Their hedges offer full protection only if unwound along the barriers.This work provides non-dynamic hedges that project the risk of double barriers on to single barriers.Non-dynamic hedges overcom

  12. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurter, Roger P. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

  13. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurter, R.P.

    1992-09-15

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

  14. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  15. Comparing Face Detection and Recognition Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Korra, Jyothi

    2016-01-01

    This paper implements and compares different techniques for face detection and recognition. One is find where the face is located in the images that is face detection and second is face recognition that is identifying the person. We study three techniques in this paper: Face detection using self organizing map (SOM), Face recognition by projection and nearest neighbor and Face recognition using SVM.

  16. Elektronická komunikace vs. komunikace face to face

    OpenAIRE

    Pipková, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with new forms of communication particularly electronic ones. The main goal is to distinguish electronic communication from face to face communication in a way that differs from traditional media theories. By using examples of the most important medium in electronic communication, Internet, it is shown that nowadays we have such forms of electronic communication that surpass the traditional classification of oral/written communication, immediate/mediate communication, face t...

  17. Trade Barriers and Countermeasures for Export of China’s Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijing; WU

    2013-01-01

    At present,export of China’s agricultural products is faced with many trade barriers,especially technological barriers.Trade barriers include(1)technological barriers(such as quarantine and inspection barrier,identity certification/authentication barrier and labeling rules barrier);(2)trade remedy barrier;(3)other non-tariff barriers(NTB).Through positioning and analysis of trade barriers of China’s agricultural products,it is known that technological barriers should not be deemed unreasonable totally.Some barriers also have certain positive significance.To respond to trade barriers,it comes up with countermeasures and recommendations from the perspective of agricultural producers and government.Agricultural producers should actively improve product quality,abide by requirement of importers,and treat quarantine and inspection in a rational manner;government should supply information and issue early warning,assist domestic producers in responding to lawsuits,and take advantage of WTO platform to solve trade disputes.

  18. [A review of face illusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Akiyoshi

    2012-07-01

    A variety of "face illusions," including the gaze illusion, face inversion effects, geometrical illusions, reversible figures, and other interesting phenomena related to face perception, are reviewed in the present report, with many sample images. The "gaze illusion" or the illusion of eye direction includes the Wollaston illusion, the luminance-induced gaze shift, the Bogart illusion, the eye-shadow-dependent gaze illusion, the Mona Lisa effect, etc. "Face inversion effects" refer to the Thatcher illusion, the fat face-thin illusion, underestimation of the upright face, the nose-shortening illusion of the inverted face, etc. "Geometrical illusions" include the Lee-Freire illusion, Yang's iris illusion, overestimation of the farther eye, the eye-shadow-dependent eye-size illusion, etc. "Reversible figures" contain the whole-part reversible figure, Rubin's vase-face illusion, or hybrid images. "Other interesting phenomena" include the flashed face distortion effect, the presidential illusion, predominance of the mouth or eyebrows over eye expression, the eye direction aftereffect, etc. It is suggested that some of these phenomena are highly specific to face perception.

  19. The effect of familiarity on face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Face adaptation techniques have been used extensively to investigate how faces are processed. It has even been suggested that face adaptation is functional in calibrating the visual system to the diet of faces to which an observer is exposed. Yet most adaptation studies to date have used unfamiliar faces: few have used faces with real world familiarity. Familiar faces have more abstractive representations than unfamiliar faces. The experiments in this thesis therefore examined face adaptation...

  20. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, B. D.; Dzhelyova, M.; Perrett, D. I.; Barraclough, N. E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces, respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs) were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice (2-IFC) adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals. PMID:23801979

  1. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, B D; Dzhelyova, M; Perrett, D I; Barraclough, N E

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces, respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs) were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice (2-IFC) adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals.

  2. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D Keefe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals.

  3. Face-n-Food: Gender Differences in Tuning to Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Scheffler, Klaus; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    Faces represent valuable signals for social cognition and non-verbal communication. A wealth of research indicates that women tend to excel in recognition of facial expressions. However, it remains unclear whether females are better tuned to faces. We presented healthy adult females and males with a set of newly created food-plate images resembling faces (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Females not only more readily recognized the images as a face (they reported resembling a face on images, on which males still did not), but gave on overall more face responses. The findings are discussed in the light of gender differences in deficient face perception. As most neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and psychosomatic disorders characterized by social brain abnormalities are sex specific, the task may serve as a valuable tool for uncovering impairments in visual face processing. PMID:26154177

  4. Comings and Goings: The Multiple Faces of Latin American Diasporas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert V. Kemper

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available – Displacements and Diasporas: Asians in the Americas, edited by Wanni W. Anderson and Robert G. Lee. New Brunswick, NJ and London: Rutgers University Press, 2005. – Indigenous Mexican Migrants in the United States, edited by Jonathan Fox and Gaspar Rivera-Salgado. Distributed by Lynn Rienner Publishers for the Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, UCSD, and the Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, UCSD, 2004. – Diáspora michoacana, edited by Gustavo López Castro. Zamora: El Colegio de Michoacán y el Gobierno del Estado de Michoacán, 2003. – The Japanese in Latin America, by Daniel M. Masterson (with Sayaka FunadaClassen. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2004. – Jewish Diaspora in Latin America and the Caribbean: Fragments of Memory, edited by Kristin Ruggiero. Brighton, East Sussex: Sussex Academic Press, 2005.

  5. The Multiple Faces of Peer Review in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Kenneth

    2002-04-01

    I use autobiographical narratives to describe and analyse my involvement in peer review activities in science education and to illustrate their historical, social and cultural constitution. I explore ways in which peer review and science education have interrelated in 30-plus years in which I have been a science educator. I employ cultural sociology and activity theory to identify patterns of coherence and coexisting contradictions that create tensions able to catalyse improvements in science education. I argue that early career science educators need a gradual induction into peer review activities, preferably increasing their effectiveness by coparticipating with more experienced colleagues. Also, I critically examine my roles as a peer reviewer, within various contexts that include being an editor of journals and a book series, an examiner of dissertations and an advisor of graduate students, and as a reviewer of applications for tenure and promotion. In so doing I probe power relationships between the reviewer and the reviewed and explore the possibility that peer review is hegemonic. Finally, I present strategies for science educators to reach a collective understanding of how to enact peer review equitably.

  6. Learning to Discriminate Face Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although visual feature leaning has been well studied, we still know little about the mechanisms of perceptual learning of complex object. Here, human perceptual learning in discrimination of in-depth orientation of face view was studied using psychophysics, EEG and fMRI. We trained subjects to discriminate face orientations around a face view (i.e. 30° over eight daily sessions, which resulted in a significant improvement in sensitivity to the face view orientation. This improved sensitivity was highly specific to the trained orientation and persisted up to six months. Different from perceptual learning of simple visual features, this orientation-specific learning effect could completely transfer across changes in face size, visual field and face identity. A complete transfer also occurred between two partial face images that were mutually exclusive but constituted a complete face. However, the transfer of the learning effect between upright and inverted faces and between a face and a paperclip object was very weak. Before and after training, we measured EEG and fMRI BOLD signals responding to both the trained and the untrained face views. Analyses of ERPs and induced gamma activity showed that face view discrimination training led to a larger reduction of N170 latency at the left occipital-temporal area and a concurrent larger decrease of induced gamma activity at the left frontal area with the trained face view, compared with the untrained ones. BOLD signal amplitude and MVPA analyses showed that, in face-selective cortical areas, training did not lead to a significant amplitude change, but induced a more reliable spatial pattern of neural activity in the left FFA. These results suggest that the visual system had learned how to compute face orientation from face configural information more accurately and that a large amount of plastic changes took place at a level of higher visual processing where size-, location-, and identity

  7. Facing the Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Baker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely, provocative, and theoretically sophisticated, the essays comprising In the Face of Crises: Anglophone Literature in the Postmodern World situate their work amid several critical global concerns: the devastation wreaked by global capitalism following the worldwide financial crash, the financial sector’s totalizing grip upon the world economy, the challenge to traditional definitions of “human nature” and identity posed by technologies of the body and of warfare, the quest of indigenous communities for healing from the continuing traumatic effects of colonization, and the increasing corporatization of the academy as an apparatus of the neo-liberal state – to specify only a few. Edited by Professors Ljubica Matek and Jasna Poljak Rehlicki, these essays deploy a broad range of contemporary theories, representing recent developments in cultural studies, the new economic criticism, postcolonial film studies, feminism and gender studies, and the new historicism. The eleven essays selected by Matek and Rehlicki offer convincing support for their claim that humanistic research delving into Anglophone literature, far from being a “non-profitable” pursuit in an increasingly technologized society, affords clarifying insights into contemporary “economic, cultural, and social processes in the globalizing and globalized culture of the West” (ix.

  8. Face au risque

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Christian; November, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Ce volume collectif sur le risque inaugure la collection L'ÉQUINOXE. Ancré dans l'histoire pour mesurer les continuités et les ruptures, il illustre la manière dont les sciences humaines évaluent et mesurent les enjeux collectifs du risque sur les plans politiques, scientifiques, énergétiques, juridiques et éthiques. Puisse-t-il nourrir la réflexion sur la culture et la prévention du risque. Ses formes épidémiques, écologiques, sociales, terroristes et militaires nourrissent les peurs actuelles, structurent les projets sécuritaires et constituent - sans doute - les défis majeurs à notre modernité. Dans la foulée de la richesse scientifique d'Equinoxe, L'ÉQUINOXE hérite de son esprit en prenant à son tour le pari de contribuer - non sans risque - à enrichir en Suisse romande et ailleurs le champ éditorial des sciences humaines dont notre société a besoin pour forger ses repères. Après Face au risque suivra cet automne Du sens des Lumières. (MICHEL PORRET Professeur Ordinaire à la F...

  9. Multi-feature fusion for thermal face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yin; Lv, Mingsong; Wei, Yangjie; Guan, Nan; Yi, Wang

    2016-07-01

    Human face recognition has been researched for the last three decades. Face recognition with thermal images now attracts significant attention since they can be used in low/none illuminated environment. However, thermal face recognition performance is still insufficient for practical applications. One main reason is that most existing work leverage only single feature to characterize a face in a thermal image. To solve the problem, we propose multi-feature fusion, a technique that combines multiple features in thermal face characterization and recognition. In this work, we designed a systematical way to combine four features, including Local binary pattern, Gabor jet descriptor, Weber local descriptor and Down-sampling feature. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms methods that leverage only a single feature and is robust to noise, occlusion, expression, low resolution and different l1 -minimization methods.

  10. Investigation of the prominent barriers to lean manufacturing implementation in Malaysian food and beverages industry using Rasch Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusaini, N. S.; Ismail, A.; Rashid, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on the prominent barriers to lean manufacturing implementation in Malaysian Food and Beverages Industry. A survey was carried out to determine the most prominent barriers of lean manufacturing implementation that are currently being faced in this industry. The amount of barriers identified for this study is twenty seven. Out of 1309 available organizations, a total of 300 organizations have been randomly selected as respondents, and 53 organizations responded. From the variable map, the analysis shows that, the negative perception towards lean manufacturing top the list as the most agreeable barrier, while the technical barriers came after it. It can also be seen from the variable map that averagely, lack of vision and direction is the barrier that is being faced. Finally, this is perhaps the first attempt in investigating the prominent barriers to Lean Manufacturing implementation in Malaysian food and beverages industry using Rasch Model.

  11. Face adaptation improves gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic.

  12. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-06-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training ('better' trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics' everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits.

  13. Multi—pose Color Face Recognition in a Complex Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUChangren; WANGRunsheng

    2003-01-01

    Face recognition has wider application fields. In recurrent references, most of the algorithms that deal with the face recognition in the static images are with simple background, and only used for ID picture recogni-tion. It is necessary to study the whole process of multi-pose face recognition in a clutter background. In this pa-per an automatic multi-pose face recognition system with multi-feature is proposed. It consists of several steps: face detection, detection and location of the face organs, feature extraction for recognition, recognition decision. In face de-tection the combination of skin-color and multi-verification which consists of the analysis of the shape, local organ fea-tures and head model is applied to improve the perfor-mance. In detection and location of the face organ feature points, with the analysis of multiple features and their pro-jections, the combination of an iterative search with a con-fidence function and template matching at the candidate points is adopted to improve the performance of accuracy and speed. In feature extraction for recognition, geome-try normalization based on three-point afflne transform is adopted to conserve the information to a maximum con-tent before the feature extraction of principal component analysis (PCA). In recognition decision, a hierarchical face model with the division of the face poses is introduced to reduce its retrieval space and thus to cut its time consump-tion. In addition, a fusion decision is applied to improve the face recognition performance. Also, pose recognition result can be got simultaneously. The new approach is ap-plied to 420 color images which consist of multi-pose faces with two visible eyes in a complex background, and the results are satisfactory.

  14. Miliary Osteoma Cutis of the Face: A Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Emre

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoma cutis (cutaneous ossification (OC is a rare disorder with true bone formation within the skin. Multiple miliary osteoma cutis of the face (MMOCF is a cause of acquired OC, is characterized by multiple, small, and primary osteomas in the skin tissue of the face and is a benign extraskeletal and rare bone formation. To date, 52 cases with MMOCF have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a 56-year-old female patient presented with multiple small, firm, skin-colored papules on the forehead and face lasting for 4 years. She had no history of preexisting acne or any local inflammatory disease at the lesional sites. The skin biopsy revealed osteoid formation with central degeneration and calcification in the dermis. Depending on these clinical and histopathological findings, the patient was diagnosed as MMOCF.

  15. Coping with Multiple Stresses in Rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire H. Quinn

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to investigate how local communities cope with and adapt to multiple stresses in rural semiarid South Africa. In semiarid regions water scarcity is one of a number of stresses that shape livelihood vulnerability. With climate change, it is predicted that rainfall in South Africa will become more uncertain and variable in the future, exposing more people to water insecurity. At the same time, the impacts of disease, a lack of institutional capacity, and limited livelihood opportunities can combine to limit adaptive capacity. Therefore, adaptation to changing climate should not be viewed in isolation but instead in the context of social, economic, and political conditions, all of which shape local community vulnerability and people's ability to cope with and adapt to change. This study uses a qualitative-quantitative-qualitative framework, including the use of a stated preference survey, to identify the drivers of agroecosystem change, to understand the capacity of households to cope with droughts, and to determine the ability of local institutions to respond to crises. The analysis suggests that the capacity of the agroecosystem to remain productive during droughts is decreasing, individual/household adaptive capacity remains low, and institutional capacity faces considerable barriers that prevent it from supporting households to adapt to multiple stresses. This research adds weight to the claim that vulnerability reflects multiple forces and processes, and that multiple stresses, that are agroecological, socioeconomic, and institutional in nature, need to be examined to understand vulnerability and to prevent maladaptation.

  16. Export Barriers for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: A Literature Review based on Leonidou’s Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Narayanan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to understand the barriers faced by small and medium-sized enterprises in their path to internationalization. The intention of this paper is to provide an overview about the barriers faced by SMEs in their path to internationalization and discuss in detail different approaches taken by SMEs to overcome these barriers. This article is a literature review on the barriers faced by SMEs in internationalization and new approaches in this domain based on Leonidou’s (1995, 1998, 2004 model of export barrier classification. Modern approaches by SMEs are effective in handling most of the traditional challenges posed in internationalization. Firms have evolved in handling internal barriers by finding dynamic solutions from within. SMEs need support from governmental and policy makers to overcome external barriers. Indications on the work to be done in overcoming certain barriers which impede the internationalization of SMEs are more in the context of external barriers. The originality of this work is in creating a framework of barriers and finding solutions to some of the identified barriers.

  17. [Neural basis of self-face recognition: social aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki

    2012-07-01

    Considering the importance of the face in social survival and evidence from evolutionary psychology of visual self-recognition, it is reasonable that we expect neural mechanisms for higher social-cognitive processes to underlie self-face recognition. A decade of neuroimaging studies so far has, however, not provided an encouraging finding in this respect. Self-face specific activation has typically been reported in the areas for sensory-motor integration in the right lateral cortices. This observation appears to reflect the physical nature of the self-face which representation is developed via the detection of contingency between one's own action and sensory feedback. We have recently revealed that the medial prefrontal cortex, implicated in socially nuanced self-referential process, is activated during self-face recognition under a rich social context where multiple other faces are available for reference. The posterior cingulate cortex has also exhibited this activation modulation, and in the separate experiment showed a response to attractively manipulated self-face suggesting its relevance to positive self-value. Furthermore, the regions in the right lateral cortices typically showing self-face-specific activation have responded also to the face of one's close friend under the rich social context. This observation is potentially explained by the fact that the contingency detection for physical self-recognition also plays a role in physical social interaction, which characterizes the representation of personally familiar people. These findings demonstrate that neuroscientific exploration reveals multiple facets of the relationship between self-face recognition and social-cognitive process, and that technically the manipulation of social context is key to its success.

  18. Holistic processing predicts face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J; Cheung, Olivia S; Gauthier, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face-recognition research. In the study reported here, we demonstrated that holistic processing predicts face-recognition abilities on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and on a perceptual face-identification task. Our findings validate a large body of work that relies on the assumption that holistic processing is related to face recognition. These findings also reconcile the study of face recognition with the perceptual-expertise work it inspired; such work links holistic processing of objects with people's ability to individuate them. Our results differ from those of a recent study showing no link between holistic processing and face recognition. This discrepancy can be attributed to the use in prior research of a popular but flawed measure of holistic processing. Our findings salvage the central role of holistic processing in face recognition and cast doubt on a subset of the face-perception literature that relies on a problematic measure of holistic processing.

  19. Winning Faces Vary By Ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2016-01-01

    for others. Utilizing research on ideological stereotypes and the determinants of facial preferences, we focus on the relationship between the facial dominance of the source and the ideology of the receiver. Across five studies, we demonstrate that a dominant face is a winning face when the audience...... is conservative but backfires and decreases success when the audience is liberal. On the other hand, a non-dominant face constitutes a winning face among liberal audiences but backfires among conservatives. These effects seemingly stem from deep-seated psychological responses and shape both the election...

  20. Study of Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kaushik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of both face recognition and detection techniques is carried out using the algorithms like Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Line Edge Map (LEM. These algorithms show different rates of accuracy under different conditions. The automatic recognition of human faces presents a challenge to the pattern recognition community. Typically, human faces are different in shapes with minor similarity from person to person. Furthermore, lighting condition changes, facial expressions and pose variations further complicate the face recognition task as one of the difficult problems in pattern analysis.

  1. Barriers to the adoption of ergonomic innovations to control musculoskeletal disorders and improve performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Newenhouse, Astrid C; Chapman, Larry J

    2013-01-01

    Despite a growing number of published articles describing studies of ergonomic interventions, little is known about the barriers potential adopters face when deciding whether or not to adopt such innovations. To this end, the purpose of this paper is to examine the barriers identified by potential adopters of ergonomic innovations and compare barriers identified by individuals not interested in adopting to those identified by individuals planning to adopt. Eight hundred forty-eight fresh market vegetable farmers were mailed surveys measuring the adoption of and barriers to the adoption of several ergonomic innovations as part of a multi-year intervention study. Barriers such as cost, lack of information, never having seen the innovation used and not being able to try out the innovation were among the barriers identified. The barriers identified were moderated by whether or not the respondents were likely to adopt. Implications for diffusing ergonomic and safety innovations are discussed.

  2. Support or Barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum; Lønsmann, Dorte

    This study offers a critical look at how corporate-level language management influences front-line language practices among employees in three multinational corporations (MNCs) headquartered in Scandinavia. Based on interview and document data, we examine, firstly, what front-line practices emplo...... to a discussion of how a company’s language policy may be seen as both support and a barrier....

  3. Overcoming Language Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Buda, Yvonne

    1976-01-01

    Many family physicians in Canada experience language and cultural barriers between themselves and their patients. Several aspects of the ensuing problems are described and some practical suggestions for solutions are made. The importance of health education for new Canadians in the family physician's office as well as through the media and community projects is stressed. Imagesp68-ap68-bp70-a PMID:21308059

  4. Barriers to obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Marina; Taylor, Valerie; Wharton, Sean; Sharma, Arya M

    2008-05-01

    Obesity, one of the most prevalent health problems in the Western world, is a chronic and progressive condition. Therefore, as with other chronic diseases, patients with obesity require lifelong treatment. Long-term efficacy and effectiveness of obesity treatments is notoriously poor. This may in part be attributable to the substantial barriers that undermine long-term obesity management strategies. These can include lack of recognition of obesity as a chronic condition, low socioeconomic status, time constraints, intimate saboteurs, and a wide range of comorbidities including mental health, sleep, chronic pain, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive and endocrine disorders. Furthermore, medications used to treat some of these disorders may further undermine weight-loss efforts. Lack of specific obesity training of health professionals, attitudes and beliefs as well as coverage and availability of obesity treatments can likewise pose important barriers. Health professionals need to take care to identify, acknowledge and address these barriers where possible to increase patient success as well as compliance and adherence with treatments. Failure to do so may further undermine the sense of failure, low self esteem and self efficacy already common among obese individuals. Addressing treatment barriers can save resources and increase the prospect of long-term success.

  5. Teaching On-Line versus Face-to-Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Ferguson, David; Caris, Mieke

    2002-01-01

    Investigates and describes the current instructor experience of teaching college courses over the Web versus in face-to-face formats in terms of teaching strategies, social issues, and media effects. Discusses communication styles, relationship between students and instructors, instructor workload, and discussion patterns, and proposes a model…

  6. Effects of aging on face identification and holistic face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Yaroslav; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2013-08-09

    Several studies have shown that face identification accuracy is lower in older than younger adults. This effect of aging might be due to age differences in holistic processing, which is thought to be an important component of human face processing. Currently, however, there is conflicting evidence as to whether holistic face processing is impaired in older adults. The current study therefore re-examined this issue by measuring response accuracy in a 1-of-4 face identification task and the composite face effect (CFE), a common index of holistic processing, in older adults. Consistent with previous reports, we found that face identification accuracy was lower in older adults than in younger adults tested in the same task. We also found a significant CFE in older adults that was similar in magnitude to the CFE measured in younger subjects with the same task. Finally, we found that there was a significant positive correlation between the CFE and face identification accuracy. This last result differs from the results obtained in a previous study that used the same tasks and which found no evidence of an association between the CFE and face identification accuracy in younger adults. Furthermore, the age difference was found with subtraction-, regression-, and ratio-based estimates of the CFE. The current findings are consistent with previous claims that older adults rely more heavily on holistic processing to identify objects in conditions of limited processing resources.

  7. Registration of 3D Face Scans with Average Face Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Alyuz, N.; Akarun, L.

    2008-01-01

    The accuracy of a 3D face recognition system depends on a correct registration that aligns the facial surfaces and makes a comparison possible. The best results obtained so far use a costly one-to-all registration approach, which requires the registration of each facial surface to all faces in the g

  8. Addressee Identification In Face-to-Face Meetings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanovic, N.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Nijholt, Antinus; McCarthy, D.; Wintner, S.

    We present results on addressee identification in four-participants face-to-face meetings using Bayesian Network and Naive Bayes classifiers. First, we investigate how well the addressee of a dialogue act can be predicted based on gaze, utterance and conversational context features. Then, we explore

  9. Cyber- and Face-to-Face Bullying: Who Crosses Over?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hwayeon Helene; Braithwaite, Valerie; Ahmed, Eliza

    2016-01-01

    A total of 3956 children aged 12-13 years who completed the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC Wave 5) were studied about their experiences of traditional face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying in the last month. In terms of prevalence, sixty percent of the sample had been involved in traditional bullying as the victim and/or the…

  10. Finding Hope in the Face-to-Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgoose, Jennifer Y C; Edgoose, Julian M

    2017-05-01

    What does it mean to look into the face of a patient who looks back? Face-to-face encounters are at the heart of the patient-clinician relationship but their singular significance is often lost amid the demands of today's high-tech, metric-driven health care systems. Using the framework provided by the philosopher and Holocaust survivor Emmanuel Levinas, the authors explore the unique responsibility and potential for hope found only in face-to-face encounters. Revisiting this most fundamental attribute of medicine is likely our greatest chance to reclaim who we are as clinicians and why we do what we do. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  11. Moving beyond the language barrier: the communication strategies used by international medical graduates in intercultural medical encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Parul; Krieger, Janice L

    2011-07-01

    To understand the communication strategies international medical graduates use in medical interactions to overcome language and cultural barriers. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 international physicians completing their residency training in internal medicine in a large hospital in Midwestern Ohio. The interview explored (a) barriers participants encountered while communicating with their patients regarding language, affect, and culture, and (b) communication convergence strategies used to make the interaction meaningful. International physicians use multiple convergence strategies when interacting with their patients to account for the intercultural and intergroup differences, including repeating information, changing speaking styles, and using non-verbal communication. Understanding barriers to communication faced by international physicians and recognizing accommodation strategies they employ in the interaction could help in training of future international doctors who come to the U.S. to practice medicine. Early intervention could reduce the time international physicians spend navigating through the system and trying to learn by experimenting with different strategies which will allow these physicians to devote more time to patient care. We recommend developing a training manual that is instructive of the socio-cultural practices of the region where international physician will start practicing medicine. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Social Barriers to Effective Communication in Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sanecka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some communication barriers apply particularly to elderly people. The social barriers to effective communication in old age are the barriers caused by stereotypes of old age/elderly people and the barriers arising from limitations in using mass communication by seniors. Stereotypes of old age/elderly people embrace views regarding old people’s communication skills and the ideas about the correct way of communication with them. Therefore the communication problems of old people are correlated with the little and poor communication processes they are participating in. This seems to be a result of impetuses of poor quality sent to seniors by their communication partners. Not only face to face communication but also mass communication is very important for the elderly population. Therefore limitations in using new technologies and new communication channels as well as a limited presence in the mass media of content created by seniors and for seniors have an impact on their life, their well-being, and their interpersonal relationships. These problems are especially important when we faced with the ever growing population of elderly people.

  13. Understanding barriers to glycaemic control from the patient's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janes R

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To better understand barriers to glycaemic control from the patient's perspective. METHODS: An interpretative phenomenological approach was used to study the experiences of 15 adults with Type 2 diabetes. Participants each gave a semi-structured interview of their experiences of living with diabetes. Interviews were transcribed, and themes extracted and organised using a patientcentred framework. FINDINGS: Participants' stories confirmed many of the barriers in the literature, particularly those related to context, such as family, finances, work. Barriers also related to negative emotional reactions to diabetes: fear of new events (diagnosis, starting pills/insulin; guilt about getting diabetes and not controlling it; and shame about having diabetes. Barriers also related to unscientific beliefs and personal beliefs. There were additional barriers related to poor clinician-patient relationships. Overall, participants had a poor understanding of diabetes, and complained that their clinician simply 'told them what to do'. CONCLUSION: Using a patient-centred approach, this study identified many barriers to glycaemic control. We suggest that a key barrier is clinician ignorance of their patients' fears, beliefs, expectations, context; of what constitutes a positive therapeutic relationship; and of the limitations of a biomedical approach to patient non-adherence. Faced with both a worsening diabetes epidemic and increasing health care workforce shortages, clinicians urgently need to understand that it is they, not their patients, who must change their approach if diabetes care is to be improved.

  14. Facing the Audience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    and audience. Dialogic theory is applied toward an exploration of how humans make meaning (semiosis) on the basis of previous experience or knowledge. Three main Bakhtinian concepts are discussed in an attempt to gain understand theoretical understanding of the hybrid animated film: heteroglossia (multiple......This chapter explores machinima as a "hybrid animated film" or "hybrid text", with focus on the combination of machinima animation and live-action imagery. Machinima is used as an example of how "novel" or new forms of text evolve. The meaning-making processes of machinima filmmakers and audiences...... linguistic and cultural evolutions, and may even propel them. This essay concerns the dialogic theories on language and culture inspired by the Russian literary philosopher M. M. Bakhtin (1895-1975) applied to understanding machinima (realtime animation), which is seen as an example of “hybrid animated film...

  15. 人脸识别考勤系统联合信息平台提高首台手术准时率%Application of face recognition based time attendance system combined with multiple communication systems to operating room to boost punctual start of the first surgery of the day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗忠梅; 曹阳慧; 张相云; 周淑云; 雷菊红

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨人脸识别考勤系统联合信息系统提高首台手术准时率的效果.方法 选择2012年1~4月首台手术的1 790例作为观察组,采取人脸识别考勤系统联合手术麻醉信息系统、短信提醒系统、手术信息显示系统多部门协作进行管理.选择2011年1~4月首台手术1 548例作为对照组,采取巡回护士电话催促手术医生到位、护士长登记上报的方式管理.结果 观察组首台手术准时率较对照组显著上升,因手术医生迟到造成首台手术未准时开台率显著下降(均P<0.01).结论 加强首台手术准时开始工作的管理非常必要,人脸识别考勤系统及各信息平台优势明显,提高了首台手术的准时率.%Objective To explore whether the application of face recognition based time attendance system combined with multiple communication systems improve punctual start of the first surgery of the day. Methods A total of 1790 cases receiving their surgery as the first one of the day from January to April of 2012 were assigned into an observation group, for which a face recognition based time attendance system combined with surgical anesthesia system, text messaging system, operation information display system were applied and multi-sector collaboration was achieved. Totally , 1548 cases as counterparts from January to April in 2011 were taken as the control group, for which, circulating nurses made phone calls to push surgeons to be on time for the first surgery. For surgeons who failed to arrive on time, the head nurses wrote down their names and frequency of delays and reported to supervising departments. Results The rate of on-time start of the first operation in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group, rate of delayed start of the first surgery due to surgeons being late dropped significantly (P<0. 01 for both). Conclusion It is very necessary to reinforce on-time start of the first operation of the day

  16. Barrier mechanisms in the Drosophila blood-brain barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Samantha Jane Hindle; Roland Jerome Bainton

    2014-01-01

    The invertebrate blood-brain barrier field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through GPCR signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate blood-brain barrier has recently been shown to require coordinated funct...

  17. It isn't all about language: communication barriers for Latinas using contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Shelly; Kohler, Connie; Askelson, Natoshia M; Ortiz, Cristina; Losch, Mary

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about barriers that Latinas in the United States face in preventing unintended pregnancies beyond those of language and cost. This study examined factors inhibiting contraceptive use among 18- to 30-year-old Latinas in the Midwest. Individual interviews (N = 31) were conducted in Spanish with Latinas residing across the state. The interview protocol included questions about contraceptives and unintended pregnancies. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and coded for themes related to barriers. The majority of the barriers were related to communication but not English proficiency. Respondents talked about specific situations and experiences in which communication presented obstacles to using contraceptives. While language and cost are important barriers, attention needs to be paid to the other communication issues that women face related to culture, religion, partners, family, and spontaneity. Health care providers need to address the range of communication barriers that affect Latinas' contraceptive use. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

  19. Non-face-to-face physical activity interventions in older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andre Matthias; Khoo, Selina

    2014-03-10

    Physical activity is effective in preventing chronic diseases, increasing quality of life and promoting general health in older adults, but most older adults are not sufficiently active to gain those benefits. A novel and economically viable way to promote physical activity in older adults is through non-face-to-face interventions. These are conducted with reduced or no in-person interaction between intervention provider and program participants. The aim of this review was to summarize the scientific literature on non-face-to-face physical activity interventions targeting healthy, community dwelling older adults (≥ 50 years). A systematic search in six databases was conducted by combining multiple key words of the three main search categories "physical activity", "media" and "older adults". The search was restricted to English language articles published between 1st January 2000 and 31st May 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were screened for additional publications. Seventeen articles describing sixteen non-face-to-face physical activity interventions were included in the review. All studies were conducted in developed countries, and eleven were randomized controlled trials. Sample size ranged from 31 to 2503 participants, and 13 studies included 60% or more women. Interventions were most frequently delivered via print materials and phone (n=11), compared to internet (n=3) and other media (n=2). Every intervention was theoretically framed with the Social Cognitive Theory (n=10) and the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (n=6) applied mostly. Individual tailoring was reported in 15 studies. Physical activity levels were self-assessed in all studies. Fourteen studies reported significant increase in physical activity. Eight out of nine studies conducted post-intervention follow-up analysis found that physical activity was maintained over a longer time. In the six studies where intervention dose was assessed the results varied considerably. One

  20. Community pharmacists' perceptions of barriers to communication with migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer A; Watson, Margaret C; Walker, Leighton; Denison, Alan; Vanes, Neil; Moffat, Mandy

    2012-06-01

    Effective communication by pharmacists is essential to ensure patient safety in terms of provision and use of medications by patients. Global migration trends mean community pharmacists increasingly encounter patients with a variety of first languages. The aim of this study was to explore community pharmacists' perceptions of communication barriers during the provision of care to A8 (nationals from central/Eastern European states) migrants. A qualitative face-to-face interview study of purposively sampled community pharmacists, North East Scotland. Participants (n = 14) identified a number of barriers to providing optimal care to A8 migrants including: communication (information gathering and giving); confidentiality when using family/friends as translators; the impact of patient healthcare expectations on communication and the length of the consultation; and frustration with the process of the consultation. Several barriers were specific to A8 migrants but most seemed pertinent to any group with limited English proficiency and reflect those found in studies of healthcare professionals caring for more traditional UK migrant populations. Further research is needed using objective outcome measures, such as consultation recordings, to measure the impact of these perceived barriers on pharmacist-patient consultations. Language and cultural barriers impact on the quality of pharmacist-patient communication and thus may have patient safety and pharmacist training implications. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. Adaptation to Climate Change: Barriers in the Turkish Local Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Balaban

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the greatest environmental challenges that we face today. A certain level of climate change is now unavoidable. Along with mitigation efforts to curb further global warming, we have to take actions to adapt to the changing climatic conditions. Cities are on the front lines of climate change impacts. Therefore, the role of cities in climate change adaptation has been widely acknowledged in the last two decades. There are various obstacles that prevent city governments to develop adaptation policies. While some of these obstacles are universal, some of them are context-specific. Based on the review of key policy documents and interviews with public officials, this paper focuses on analyzing the main barriers that prevent Turkish cities to develop and implement effective adaptation policies. The research results indicate that cities in Turkey face very similar barriers with their international counterparts in adaptation policymaking. Among the main barriers in the Turkish local context are lack of institutional and technical capacity as well as awareness and coordination problems among actors of climate policy. Due to such barriers, “municipal voluntarism”, which mostly leads to voluntary and spontaneous actions, is the prevailing approach to climate policy development in Turkish cities. A series of reforms should be enacted by the central government to help cities overcome the barriers to climate change adaptation.

  2. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2010-01-01

    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is t

  3. Age-invariant face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Unsang; Tong, Yiying; Jain, Anil K

    2010-05-01

    One of the challenges in automatic face recognition is to achieve temporal invariance. In other words, the goal is to come up with a representation and matching scheme that is robust to changes due to facial aging. Facial aging is a complex process that affects both the 3D shape of the face and its texture (e.g., wrinkles). These shape and texture changes degrade the performance of automatic face recognition systems. However, facial aging has not received substantial attention compared to other facial variations due to pose, lighting, and expression. We propose a 3D aging modeling technique and show how it can be used to compensate for the age variations to improve the face recognition performance. The aging modeling technique adapts view-invariant 3D face models to the given 2D face aging database. The proposed approach is evaluated on three different databases (i.g., FG-NET, MORPH, and BROWNS) using FaceVACS, a state-of-the-art commercial face recognition engine.

  4. Newborns' Mooney-Face Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Irene; Simion, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether newborns detect a face on the basis of a Gestalt representation based on first-order relational information (i.e., the basic arrangement of face features) by using Mooney stimuli. The incomplete 2-tone Mooney stimuli were used because they preclude focusing both on the local features (i.e., the fine…

  5. PrimeFaces beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Siva Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A guide for beginner's with step-by-step instructions and an easy-to-follow approach.PrimeFaces Beginners Guide is a simple and effective guide for beginners, wanting to learn and implement PrimeFaces in their JSF-based applications. Some basic JSF and jQuery skills are required before you start working through the book.

  6. Parallel Processing in Face Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Ulla; Leuthold, Hartmut; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined face perception models with regard to the functional and temporal organization of facial identity and expression analysis. Participants performed a manual 2-choice go/no-go task to classify faces, where response hand depended on facial familiarity (famous vs. unfamiliar) and response execution depended on facial expression…

  7. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, Pinar; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Biggelaar , van den Olivier

    2011-01-01

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss th

  8. Modeling Social Perception of Faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, A.T.; Oosterhof, N.N.

    2011-01-01

    The face is our primary source of visual information for identifying people and reading their emotional and mental states. With the exception of prosopagnosics (who are unable to recognize faces) and those suffering from such disorders of social cognition as autism, people are extremely adept at the

  9. Barriers to Electronic Health Record Adoption: a Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Kristof, Caitlin; Jones, Beau; Mitchell, Erica; Martinez, Angelica

    2016-12-01

    Federal efforts and local initiatives to increase adoption and use of electronic health records (EHRs) continue, particularly since the enactment of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act. Roughly one in four hospitals not adopted even a basic EHR system. A review of the barriers may help in understanding the factors deterring certain healthcare organizations from implementation. We wanted to assemble an updated and comprehensive list of adoption barriers of EHR systems in the United States. Authors searched CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar, and accepted only articles relevant to our primary objective. Reviewers independently assessed the works highlighted by our search and selected several for review. Through multiple consensus meetings, authors tapered articles to a final selection most germane to the topic (n = 27). Each article was thoroughly examined by multiple authors in order to achieve greater validity. Authors identified 39 barriers to EHR adoption within the literature selected for the review. These barriers appeared 125 times in the literature; the most frequently mentioned barriers were regarding cost, technical concerns, technical support, and resistance to change. Despite federal and local incentives, the initial cost of adopting an EHR is a common existing barrier. The other most commonly mentioned barriers include technical support, technical concerns, and maintenance/ongoing costs. Policy makers should consider incentives that continue to reduce implementation cost, possibly aimed more directly at organizations that are known to have lower adoption rates, such as small hospitals in rural areas.

  10. The Importance of Formalizing Computational Models of Face Adaptation Aftereffects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Face adaptation is widely used as a means to probe the neural representations that support face recognition. While the theories that relate face adaptation to behavioral aftereffects may seem conceptually simple, our work has shown that testing computational instantiations of these theories can lead to unexpected results. Instantiating a model of face adaptation not only requires specifying how faces are represented and how adaptation shapes those representations but also specifying how decisions are made, translating hidden representational states into observed responses. Considering the high-dimensionality of face representations, the parallel activation of multiple representations, and the non-linearity of activation functions and decision mechanisms, intuitions alone are unlikely to succeed. If the goal is to understand mechanism, not simply to examine the boundaries of a behavioral phenomenon or correlate behavior with brain activity, then formal computational modeling must be a component of theory testing. To illustrate, we highlight our recent computational modeling of face adaptation aftereffects and discuss how models can be used to understand the mechanisms by which faces are recognized. PMID:27378960

  11. Neural correlates of recognition memory for emotional faces and scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keightley, Michelle L; Chiew, Kimberly S; Anderson, John A E; Grady, Cheryl L

    2011-01-01

    We examined the influence of emotional valence and type of item to be remembered on brain activity during recognition, using faces and scenes. We used multivariate analyses of event-related fMRI data to identify whole-brain patterns, or networks of activity. Participants demonstrated better recognition for scenes vs faces and for negative vs neutral and positive items. Activity was increased in extrastriate cortex and inferior frontal gyri for emotional scenes, relative to neutral scenes and all face types. Increased activity in these regions also was seen for negative faces relative to positive faces. Correct recognition of negative faces and scenes (hits vs correct rejections) was associated with increased activity in amygdala, hippocampus, extrastriate, frontal and parietal cortices. Activity specific to correctly recognized emotional faces, but not scenes, was found in sensorimotor areas and rostral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that emotional valence and type of visual stimulus both modulate brain activity at recognition, and influence multiple networks mediating visual, memory and emotion processing. The contextual information in emotional scenes may facilitate memory via additional visual processing, whereas memory for emotional faces may rely more on cognitive control mediated by rostrolateral prefrontal regions.

  12. Randomized, double-blinded, vehicle-controlled, split-face study to evaluate the effects of topical application of a Gold Silk Sericin/Niacinamide/Signaline complex on biophysical parameters related to skin ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardesca, E; Ardigo, M; Cameli, N; Mariano, M; Agozzino, M; Matts, P J

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of topical application of a Gold Silk Sericin (GSS) complex on biophysical parameters related to skin ageing. A range of non-invasive bioengineering methods were deployed in an 8-week randomized, double-blinded, vehicle-controlled, split-face study among 40 female subjects aged 40-70. Endpoints measured included expert grades of skin condition, stratum corneum (SC) hydration, SC barrier function, elasticity and surface topography. The GSS complex produced significant single-variable (P < 0.05) improvements in SC hydration, barrier function, elasticity and surface topography compared with the Vehicle control. The GSS complex examined in this study represents an interesting new cosmetic topical technology with which to address multiple aspects of aged/photoaged female facial skin. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  13. Priming with threatening faces modulates the self-face advantage by enhancing the other-face processing rather than suppressing the self-face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lili; Qi, Mingming; Li, Haijiang; Hitchman, Glenn; Yang, Juan; Liu, Yijun

    2015-05-22

    Social emotional information influences self-processing in everyday activities, but few researchers have investigated this process. The current ERP study adopted a prime paradigm to investigate how socially threatening faces impact on the self-face processing advantage. After being primed with emotional faces (happy, angry or neutral), participants judged whether the target face (self, friend, and stranger) was familiar or unfamiliar. Results showed an interaction effect between the prime face and the target face at posterior P3, suggesting that after priming with happy and neutral faces, self-faces elicited larger P3 amplitudes than friend-faces and stranger-faces; however, after priming with angry faces, the P3 amplitudes were not significantly different between self-face and friend-face. Moreover, the P3 amplitudes of self-faces did not differ between priming with angry and neutral faces; however, the P3 amplitude of both friend-faces and stranger-faces showed enhanced responses after priming with angry faces compared to priming with neutral faces. We suggest that the self-face processing advantage (self vs. friend) could be weakened by priming with threatening faces, through enhancement of the other-faces processing rather than suppression of self-faces processing in angry vs. neutral face prime.

  14. Deconstructing barriers: perceptions of students labeled with learning disabilities in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhart, Hazel

    2008-01-01

    This phenomenological study investigated barriers to higher education faced by 11 college students labeled with learning disabilities (LD) using their voice as the primary data. Data were analyzed and interpreted through a disability theory perspective revealing barriers stemmed largely from external social causes rather than individual pathology. Barriers included being misunderstood by faculty, being reluctant to request accommodations for fear of invoking stigma, and having to work considerably longer hours than nonlabeled peers. Findings indicated barriers could be overcome through raising faculty awareness about LD issues, engaging the assistance of the college LD specialist, and participation in a LD democratic empowerment community on campus.

  15. Barriers to Teaching Introductory Physical Geography Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. RITTER

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Learning geography online is becoming an option for more students but not without controversy. Issues of faculty resources, logistics, professional recognition, and pedagogical concerns are cited as barriers to teaching online. Offering introductory physical geography online presents special challenges. As a general education course, an introductory physical geography course has a diverse population of students with disparate educational needs and goals that impacts its ability to be delivered online. Online learning is further complicated when lab courses require specialized laboratory equipment and fieldwork. A survey of geography departments in the United States was conducted to determine barriers to the deployment of introductory physical geography lab courses. Lack of faculty interest, faculty resources, and pedagogical concerns were found to be the most important barriers to deploying online physical geography lab courses. Knowing the challenges faced by geography departments offering online courses provides insight into where valuable support services and resources can best be used to address them. Recent advances in blogging, podcasting, lecture capture, web conferencing, and augmented reality are offered as solutions to the concerns expressed by survey respondents.

  16. Emotion-independent face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Liyanage C.; Esther, Kho G. P.

    2000-12-01

    Current face recognition techniques tend to work well when recognizing faces under small variations in lighting, facial expression and pose, but deteriorate under more extreme conditions. In this paper, a face recognition system to recognize faces of known individuals, despite variations in facial expression due to different emotions, is developed. The eigenface approach is used for feature extraction. Classification methods include Euclidean distance, back propagation neural network and generalized regression neural network. These methods yield 100% recognition accuracy when the training database is representative, containing one image representing the peak expression for each emotion of each person apart from the neutral expression. The feature vectors used for comparison in the Euclidean distance method and for training the neural network must be all the feature vectors of the training set. These results are obtained for a face database consisting of only four persons.

  17. Effective indexing for face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochenkov, I.; Sochenkova, A.; Vokhmintsev, A.; Makovetskii, A.; Melnikov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Face recognition is one of the most important tasks in computer vision and pattern recognition. Face recognition is useful for security systems to provide safety. In some situations it is necessary to identify the person among many others. In this case this work presents new approach in data indexing, which provides fast retrieval in big image collections. Data indexing in this research consists of five steps. First, we detect the area containing face, second we align face, and then we detect areas containing eyes and eyebrows, nose, mouth. After that we find key points of each area using different descriptors and finally index these descriptors with help of quantization procedure. The experimental analysis of this method is performed. This paper shows that performing method has results at the level of state-of-the-art face recognition methods, but it is also gives results fast that is important for the systems that provide safety.

  18. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  19. Learning faces: similar comparator faces do not improve performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P Jones

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that comparison of two similar faces can aid subsequent discrimination between them. However, the fact that discrimination between two faces is facilitated by comparing them directly does not demonstrate that comparison produces a general improvement in the processing of faces. It remains an open question whether the opportunity to compare a "target" face to similar faces can facilitate the discrimination of the exposed target face from other nonexposed faces. In Experiment 1, selection of a target face from an array of novel foils was not facilitated by intermixed exposure to the target and comparators of the same sex. Experiment 2 also found no advantage for similar comparators (morphed towards the target over unmorphed same sex comparators, or over repeated target exposure alone. But all repeated exposure conditions produced better performance than a single brief presentation of the target. Experiment 3 again demonstrated that repeated exposure produced equivalent learning in same sex and different sex comparator conditions, and also showed that increasing the number of same sex or different sex comparators failed to improve identification. In all three experiments, exposure to a target alongside similar comparators failed to support selection of the target from novel test stimuli to a greater degree than exposure alongside dissimilar comparators or repeated target exposure alone. The current results suggest that the facilitatory effects of comparison during exposure may be limited to improving discrimination between exposed stimuli, and thus our results do not support the idea that providing the opportunity for comparison is a practical means for improving face identification.

  20. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurter, R.P.

    1990-10-10

    This invention is comprised of a barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yearns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

  1. [The cultural barrier in care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djadaoudjee, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    French cultural diversity is evident within French hospitals, where nurses are confronted with communication problems resulting from the language barrier. While communication is indeed essential, there is another important aspect of caring for a patient for behind the language barrier lies a cultural barrier which must be taken into account in order to provide high-quality care.

  2. Thermal barrier coating materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Clarke

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved thermal barrier coatings (TBCs will enable future gas turbines to operate at higher gas temperatures. Considerable effort is being invested, therefore, in identifying new materials with even better performance than the current industry standard, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ. We review recent progress and suggest that an integrated strategy of experiment, intuitive arguments based on crystallography, and simulation may lead most rapidly to the development of new TBC materials.

  3. Timeliness vaccination of measles containing vaccine and barriers to vaccination among migrant children in East China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reported coverage rates of first and second doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV are almost 95% in China, while measles cases are constantly being reported. This study evaluated the vaccine coverage, timeliness, and barriers to immunization of MCV1 and MCV2 in children aged from 8-48 months. METHODS: We assessed 718 children aged 8-48 months, of which 499 children aged 18-48 months in September 2011. Face to face interviews were administered with children's mothers to estimate MCV1 and MCV2 coverage rate, its timeliness and barriers to vaccine uptake. RESULTS: The coverage rates were 76.9% for MCV1 and 44.7% for MCV2 in average. Only 47.5% of surveyed children received the MCV1 timely, which postpone vaccination by up to one month beyond the stipulated age of 8 months. Even if coverage thus improves with time, postponed vaccination adds to the pool of unprotected children in the population. Being unaware of the necessity for vaccination and its schedule, misunderstanding of side-effect of vaccine, and child being sick during the recommended vaccination period were significant preventive factors for both MCV1 and MCV2 vaccination. Having multiple children, mother's education level, household income and children with working mothers were significantly associated with delayed or missing MCV1 immunization. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid future outbreaks, it is crucial to attain high coverage levels by timely vaccination, thus, accurate information should be delivered and a systematic approach should be targeted to high-risk groups.

  4. Barriers to completing TB diagnosis in Yemen: services should respond to patients' needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Anderson de Cuevas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND: Obtaining a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB is a prerequisite for accessing specific treatment, yet one third of estimated new cases are missed worldwide by National Programmes. This study investigated economic, geographical, socio-cultural and health system factors hindering adults' attendance and completion of the TB diagnostic process in Yemen, to inform interventions designed to improve patient access to services. METHODOLOGY: The study employed a mixed methods design comprising a cross-sectional survey and In-Depth-Interviews (IDIs and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs among patients abandoning the diagnosis or registering for treatment. Adults with cough of ≥ 2 weeks attending a large governmental referral centre in Sana'a, Yemen, between 2009 and 2010, were eligible to participate. RESULTS: 497 and 446 (89.7% participants were surveyed the first and second day of attending the services and 48 IDIs and 12 FGDs were also conducted. The majority of patients were disadvantaged and had poor literacy (61% illiterate, had travelled from rural areas (47% and attended with companions (84%. Key barriers for attendance identified were clinic and transport costs (augmented by companions, distance from home, a preference for private services, strong social stigma and a lack of understanding of the diagnostic process. There were discrepancies between patient- and doctor-reported diagnosis and 46% of patients were unaware that TB treatment is free. Females faced more difficulties to attend than men. The laboratory practice of providing first-day negative smear results and making referrals to the private sector also discouraged patients from returning. Strategies to bring TB diagnostic services closer to communities and address the multiple barriers patients face to attend, will be important to increase access to TB diagnosis and care.

  5. Training of familiar face recognition and visual scan paths for faces in a child with congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzl, Laura; Palermo, Romina; Green, Melissa; Brunsdon, Ruth; Coltheart, Max

    2008-07-01

    In the current report we describe a successful training study aimed at improving recognition of a set of familiar face photographs in K., a 4-year-old girl with congenital prosopagnosia (CP). A detailed assessment of K.'s face-processing skills showed a deficit in structural encoding, most pronounced in the processing of facial features within the face. In addition, eye movement recordings revealed that K.'s scan paths for faces were characterized by a large percentage of fixations directed to areas outside the internal core features (i.e., eyes, nose, and mouth), in particular by poor attendance to the eye region. Following multiple baseline assessments, training focused on teaching K. to reliably recognize a set of familiar face photographs by directing visual attention to specific characteristics of the internal features of each face. The training significantly improved K.'s ability to recognize the target faces, with her performance being flawless immediately after training as well as at a follow-up assessment 1 month later. In addition, eye movement recordings following training showed a significant change in K.'s scan paths, with a significant increase in the percentage of fixations directed to the internal features, particularly the eye region. Encouragingly, not only was the change in scan paths observed for the set of familiar trained faces, but it generalized to a set of faces that was not presented during training. In addition to documenting significant training effects, our study raises the intriguing question of whether abnormal scan paths for faces may be a common factor underlying face recognition impairments in childhood CP, an issue that has not been explored so far.

  6. Optimizing Barrier Removal to Restore Connectivity in Utah's Weber Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, M.; Null, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Instream barriers, such as dams, culverts and diversions are economically important for water supply, but negatively affect river ecosystems and disrupt hydrologic processes. Removal of uneconomical and aging in-stream barriers to improve habitat connectivity is increasingly used to restore river connectivity. Most past barrier removal projects focused on individual barriers using a score-and-rank technique, ignoring cumulative change from multiple, spatially-connected barrier removals. Similarly, most water supply models optimize either human water use or aquatic connectivity, failing to holistically represent human and environmental benefits. In this study, a dual objective optimization model identified in-stream barriers that impede aquatic habitat connectivity for trout, using streamflow, temperature, and channel gradient as indicators of aquatic habitat suitability. Water scarcity costs are minimized using agricultural and urban economic penalty functions to incorporate water supply benefits and a budget monetizes costs of removing small barriers like culverts and road crossings. The optimization model developed is applied to a case study in Utah's Weber basin to prioritize removal of the most environmentally harmful barriers, while maintaining human water uses. The dual objective solution basis was developed to quantify and graphically visualize tradeoffs between connected quality-weighted habitat for Bonneville cutthroat trout and economic water uses. Modeled results include a spectrum of barrier removal alternatives based on budget and quality-weighted reconnected habitat that can be communicated with local stakeholders. This research will help prioritize barrier removals and future restoration decisions. The modeling approach expands current barrier removal optimization methods by explicitly including economic and environmental water uses.

  7. Modeling human dynamics of face-to-face interaction networks

    CERN Document Server

    Starnini, Michele; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2013-01-01

    Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of inter-conversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here we present a simple model that reproduces quantitatively most of the relevant features of empirical face-to-face interaction networks. The model describes agents which perform a random walk in a two dimensional space and are characterized by an attractiveness whose effect is to slow down the motion of people around them. The proposed framework sheds light on the dynamics of human interactions and can improve the modeling of dynamical processes taking place on the ensuing dynamical social networks.

  8. Temporal networks of face-to-face human interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Barrat, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The ever increasing adoption of mobile technologies and ubiquitous services allows to sense human behavior at unprecedented levels of details and scale. Wearable sensors are opening up a new window on human mobility and proximity at the finest resolution of face-to-face proximity. As a consequence, empirical data describing social and behavioral networks are acquiring a longitudinal dimension that brings forth new challenges for analysis and modeling. Here we review recent work on the representation and analysis of temporal networks of face-to-face human proximity, based on large-scale datasets collected in the context of the SocioPatterns collaboration. We show that the raw behavioral data can be studied at various levels of coarse-graining, which turn out to be complementary to one another, with each level exposing different features of the underlying system. We briefly review a generative model of temporal contact networks that reproduces some statistical observables. Then, we shift our focus from surface ...

  9. Ethical considerations in face transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles S; Gander, Brian; Cunningham, Michael; Furr, Allen; Vasilic, Dalibor; Wiggins, Osborne; Banis, Joseph C; Vossen, Marieke; Maldonado, Claudio; Perez-Abadia, Gustavo; Barker, John H

    2007-10-01

    Human face transplantation is now a clinical reality. The surgical techniques necessary to perform these procedures have been used routinely in reconstructive microsurgery for many years. From an immunological standpoint since face and hand contain mostly the same tissues it is reasonable to assume that the same immunosuppressive regimen found to be effective in human hand transplants should also work in face transplantation. It is the ethical issues associated with the risks and benefits of performing facial transplantation that have posed the greatest challenges leading up to performing this new procedure. In this editorial, we will review some of the main events that have led to the recently performed human face transplants, specifically focusing on the key ethical issues at the center of this debate. We will discuss how the research and clinical experience in human hand transplantation laid the foundation for performing face transplantation and describe the research and the ethical guidelines upon which a team at the University of Louisville based their position "to move ahead" in spite of much criticism. Finally we will outline some of the key arguments against face transplantation, and conclude with a discussion on what comes next now that the first human face transplants have been performed.

  10. Multithread Face Recognition in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshina Ranjan Kisku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faces are highly challenging and dynamic objects that are employed as biometrics evidence in identity verification. Recently, biometrics systems have proven to be an essential security tools, in which bulk matching of enrolled people and watch lists is performed every day. To facilitate this process, organizations with large computing facilities need to maintain these facilities. To minimize the burden of maintaining these costly facilities for enrollment and recognition, multinational companies can transfer this responsibility to third-party vendors who can maintain cloud computing infrastructures for recognition. In this paper, we showcase cloud computing-enabled face recognition, which utilizes PCA-characterized face instances and reduces the number of invariant SIFT points that are extracted from each face. To achieve high interclass and low intraclass variances, a set of six PCA-characterized face instances is computed on columns of each face image by varying the number of principal components. Extracted SIFT keypoints are fused using sum and max fusion rules. A novel cohort selection technique is applied to increase the total performance. The proposed protomodel is tested on BioID and FEI face databases, and the efficacy of the system is proven based on the obtained results. We also compare the proposed method with other well-known methods.

  11. Barriers to Mental Health Treatment: Results from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, L. H.; Alonso, J.; Mneimneh, Z.; Wells, J. E.; Al-Hamzawi, A.; Borges, G.; Bromet, E.; Bruffaerts, R.; de Girolamo, G.; de Graaf, R.; Florescu, S.; Gureje, O.; Hinkov, H. R.; Hu, C.; Huang, Y.; Hwang, I.; Jin, R.; Karam, E. G.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Levinson, D.; Matschinger, H.; O’Neill, S.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sagar, R.; Sampson, N. A.; Sasu, C.; Stein, D.; Takeshima, T.; Viana, M. C.; Xavier, M.; Kessler, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine barriers to initiation and continuation of mental health treatment among individuals with common mental disorders. Methods Data are from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Representative household samples were interviewed face-to-face in 24 countries. Reasons to initiate and continue treatment were examined in a subsample (n= 63,678) and analyzed at different levels of clinical severity. Results Among those with a DSM-IV disorder in the past twelve months, low perceived need was the most common reason for not initiating treatment and more common among moderate and mild than severe cases. Women and younger people with disorders were more likely to recognize a need for treatment. Desire to handle the problem on one’s own was the most common barrier among respondents with a disorder who perceived a need for treatment (63.8%). Attitudinal barriers were much more important than structural barriers both to initiating and continuing treatment. However, attitudinal barriers dominated for mild-moderate cases and structural barriers for severe cases. Perceived ineffectiveness of treatment was the most commonly reported reason for treatment dropout (39.3%) followed by negative experiences with treatment providers (26.9% of respondents with severe disorders). Conclusions Low perceived need and attitudinal barriers are the major barriers to seeking and staying in treatment among individuals with common mental disorders worldwide. Apart from targeting structural barriers, mainly in countries with poor resources, increasing population mental health literacy is an important endeavor worldwide. PMID:23931656

  12. CONTRIBUTION OF QUADRATIC RESIDUE DIFFUSERS TO EFFICIENCY OF TILTED PROFILE PARALLEL HIGHWAY NOISE BARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Monazzam ، P. Nassiri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation on the acoustic performance of tilted profile parallel barriers with quadratic residue diffuser (QRD tops and faces. A 2D boundary element method (BEM is used to predict the barrier insertion loss. The results of rigid and with absorptive coverage are also calculated for comparisons. Using QRD on the top surface and faces of all tilted profile parallel barrier models introduced here is found to improve the efficiency of barriers compared with rigid equivalent parallel barrier at the examined receiver positions. Applying a QRD with frequency design of 400 Hz on 5 degrees tilted parallel barrier improves the overall performance of its equivalent rigid barrier by 1.8 dB(A. Increase in the treated surfaces with reactive elements shifts the effective performance toward lower frequencies. It is found that by tilting the barriers from 0 to 10 degrees in parallel set up, the degradation effects in parallel barriers is reduced but the absorption effect of fibrous materials and also diffusivity of the quadratic residue diffuser is reduced significantly. In this case all the designed barriers have better performance with 10 degrees tilting in parallel set up. The most economic traffic noise parallel barrier which produces significantly high performance, is achieved by covering the top surface of the barrier closed to the receiver by just a QRD with frequency design of 400 Hz and tilting angle of 10 degrees. The average A-weighted insertion loss in this barrier is predicted to be 16.3 dB (A.

  13. Part-based set matching for face recognition in surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fei; Wang, Guijin; Lin, Xinggang

    2013-12-01

    Face recognition in surveillance is a hot topic in computer vision due to the strong demand for public security and remains a challenging task owing to large variations in viewpoint and illumination of cameras. In surveillance, image sets are the most natural form of input by incorporating tracking. Recent advances in set-based matching also show its great potential for exploring the feature space for face recognition by making use of multiple samples of subjects. In this paper, we propose a novel method that exploits the salient features (such as eyes, noses, mouth) in set-based matching. To represent image sets, we adopt the affine hull model, which can general unseen appearances in the form of affine combinations of sample images. In our proposal, a robust part detector is first used to find four salient parts for each face image: two eyes, nose, and mouth. For each part, we construct an affine hull model by using the local binary pattern histograms of multiple samples of the part. We also construct an affine model for the whole face region. Then, we find the closest distance between the corresponding affine hull models to measure the similarity between parts/face regions, and a weighting scheme is introduced to combine the five distances (four parts and the whole face region) to obtain the final distance between two subjects. In the recognition phase, a nearest neighbor classifier is used. Experiments on the public ChokePoint dataset and our dataset demonstrate the superior performance of our method.

  14. Technological Barriers in the Use of Electrochemical Microsensors and Microbiosensors for in vivo Analysis of Neurological Relevant Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Bogdan

    2012-09-01

    In this paper is presented an overview of the technological barriers faced by the in vivo brain analysis with microelectrodes. Numerous microsensors and enzymatic microbiosensors have been developed for the real time monitoring of neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, drugs and diverse other biological relevant substances. A clear understanding of the working principle, advantages and limitations is essential for the acquisition of valid data in neurological investigations. Some of the aspects presented here refer to: microelectrode insertion and positioning related to possibilities to minimize tissue damage, spatial and temporal resolution of the measurements, actual controversies in data interpretation and sensor calibration, simultaneous detection of multiple analytes, interferences and state of the art in the development of wireless devices.

  15. Beyond the Therapeutic Hour: An Exploratory Pilot Study of Using Technology to Enhance Alliance and Engagement within Face-to-Face Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Penelope; Simpson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and investigate the capacity for a novel, technologically advanced system (goACT) to enhance face-to-face psychotherapy. Specifically, we explore the capacity for goACT to enhance therapeutic alliance (TA) and engagement, and reduce distress. Using a mixed-methods, multiple-baseline design we present the first study to…

  16. Implementation of renewable technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Zimbabwe country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETS) have over the years become an integral part of the energy supply chain in most developed countries. Recent projections show that 13.5% of the world's primary energy supply comes from renewable and this figure has an aggregated annual growth rate of 16%. Wind has the highest annual growth rate of 22% while the least annual growth rate of 2% is for hydropower. The main push for renewable like wind in the OECD countries are environmental concerns and the business aspect in power generation. The situation is however completely different in Africa, where the thrust for RETs is developmental based. Although the continent has abundant renewable energy resources like solar, biomass, wind and hydro potential, they have remained largely unexploited. Several efforts have been made to help African countries like Zimbabwe to exploit such resources. The main objectives of this country study included review of Zimbabwe's development of past RETs, establish barriers related lessons learnt from such projects and currently running RETs projects, identify barriers experienced by other projects and then select a few barrier removal projects and then develop them with the help of all stake holders in the country. The methodology of this study involved a review of past RETs projects to establish barriers faced and barriers related lessons learnt. An examination of the policy instruments related to RETs was done to establish how they promote the dissemination of the technologies as well as their adequacy. A survey of all possible RETs projects in the country was carried out and in this survey the end-users were visited and interviewed by the research team. An initial workshop, which was attended by all stake holders, was held in November 1999. An Advisory committee on RETs in Zimbabwe was then set up comprising of various stake holders from government, the private sector, research institutions, interviewed end-users and the NGO community

  17. Barrier mechanisms in the Drosophila blood-brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Jane Hindle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate blood-brain barrier field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through GPCR signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate blood-brain barrier has recently been shown to require coordinated function of all layers of the compound barrier structure, analogous to signaling between the layers of the vertebrate neurovascular unit. These findings strengthen the notion that many blood-brain barrier mechanisms are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, and suggest that novel findings in invertebrate model organisms will have a significant impact on the understanding of vertebrate BBB functions. In this vein, important roles in coordinating localized and systemic signaling to dictate organism development and growth are beginning to show how the blood-brain barrier can govern whole animal physiologies. This includes novel functions of blood-brain barrier gap junctions in orchestrating synchronized neuroblast proliferation, and of blood-brain barrier secreted antagonists of insulin receptor signaling. These advancements and others are pushing the field forward in exciting new directions. In this review, we provide a synopsis of invertebrate blood-brain barrier anatomy and physiology, with a focus on insights from the past 5 years, and highlight important areas for future study.

  18. Bracing Zonohedra With Special Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Gyula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of simpler preliminary design gives useful input for more complicated three-dimensional building frame structure. A zonohedron, as a preliminary structure of design, is a convex polyhedron for which each face possesses central symmetry. We considered zonohedron as a special framework with the special assumption that the polygonal faces can be deformed in such a way that faces remain planar and centrally symmetric, moreover the length of all edges remains unchanged. Introducing some diagonal braces we got a new mechanism. This paper deals with the flexibility of this kind of mechanisms, and investigates the rigidity of the braced framework. The flexibility of the framework can be characterized by some vectors, which represent equivalence classes of the edges. A necessary and sufficient condition for the rigidity of the braced rhombic face zonohedra is posed. A real mechanical construction, based on two simple elements, provides a CAD prototype of these new mechanisms.

  19. Face Recognition using Curvelet Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Rami

    2011-01-01

    Face recognition has been studied extensively for more than 20 years now. Since the beginning of 90s the subject has became a major issue. This technology is used in many important real-world applications, such as video surveillance, smart cards, database security, internet and intranet access. This report reviews recent two algorithms for face recognition which take advantage of a relatively new multiscale geometric analysis tool - Curvelet transform, for facial processing and feature extraction. This transform proves to be efficient especially due to its good ability to detect curves and lines, which characterize the human's face. An algorithm which is based on the two algorithms mentioned above is proposed, and its performance is evaluated on three data bases of faces: AT&T (ORL), Essex Grimace and Georgia-Tech. k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) and Support vector machine (SVM) classifiers are used, along with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reduction. This algorithm shows good results, ...

  20. Face Recognition in Various Illuminations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh D. Parmar,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Face Recognition (FR under various illuminations is very challenging. Normalization technique is useful for removing the dimness and shadow from the facial image which reduces the effect of illumination variations still retaining the necessary information of the face. The robust local feature extractor which is the gray-scale invariant texture called Local Binary Pattern (LBP is helpful for feature extraction. K-Nearest Neighbor classifier is utilized for the purpose of classification and to match the face images from the database. Experimental results were based on Yale-B database with three different sub categories. The proposed method has been tested to robust face recognition in various illumination conditions. Extensive experiment shows that the proposed system can achieve very encouraging performance in various illumination environments.

  1. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  2. Covert Face Recognition without Prosopagnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Ellis

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment is reported where subjects were presented with familiar or unfamiliar faces for supraliminal durations or for durations individually assessed as being below the threshold for recognition. Their electrodermal responses to each stimulus were measured and the results showed higher peak amplitude skin conductance responses for familiar than for unfamiliar faces, regardless of whether they had been displayed supraliminally or subliminally. A parallel is drawn between elevated skin conductance responses to subliminal stimuli and findings of covert recognition of familiar faces in prosopagnosic patients, some of whom show increased electrodermal activity (EDA to previously familiar faces. The supraliminal presentation data also served to replicate similar work by Tranel et al (1985. The results are considered alongside other data indicating the relation between non-conscious, “automatic” aspects of normal visual information processing and abilities which can be found to be preserved without awareness after brain injury.

  3. More Than a Pretty Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The various facial make up designs in the Sichuan Opera are Chinese art treasures With the flick of a wrist,the intricate patterns painted on the opera performer’s face magically shift;the audience,awed

  4. Face recognition using Krawtchouk moment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Sheeba Rani; D Devaraj

    2012-08-01

    Feature extraction is one of the important tasks in face recognition. Moments are widely used feature extractor due to their superior discriminatory power and geometrical invariance. Moments generally capture the global features of the image. This paper proposes Krawtchouk moment for feature extraction in face recognition system, which has the ability to extract local features from any region of interest. Krawtchouk moment is used to extract both local features and global features of the face. The extracted features are fused using summed normalized distance strategy. Nearest neighbour classifier is employed to classify the faces. The proposed method is tested using ORL and Yale databases. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to recognize images correctly, even if the images are corrupted with noise and possess change in facial expression and tilt.

  5. Face and Emotion Recognition in MCDD versus PDD-NOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herba, Catherine M.; de Bruin, Esther; Althaus, Monika; Verheij, Fop; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder (MCDD) children differ from PDD-NOS and autistic children on a symptom level and on psychophysiological functioning. Children with MCDD (n = 21) and PDD-NOS (n = 62) were compared on two facets of social-cognitive functioning: identification of neutral faces and facial…

  6. Unified Model in Identity Subspace for Face Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pin Liao; Li Shen; Yi-Qiang Chen; Shu-Chang Liu

    2004-01-01

    Human faces have two important characteristics: (1) They are similar objects and the specific variations of each face are similar to each other; (2) They are nearly bilateral symmetric. Exploiting the two important properties, we build a unified model in identity subspace (UMIS) as a novel technique for face recognition from only one example image per person. An identity subspace spanned by bilateral symmetric bases, which compactly encodes identity information, is presented. The unified model, trained on an obtained training set with multiple samples per class from a known people group A, can be generalized well to facial images of unknown individuals,and can be used to recognize facial images from an unknown people group B with only one sample per subject.Extensive experimental results on two public databases (the Yale database and the Bern database) and our own database (the ICT-JDL database) demonstrate that the UMIS approach is significantly effective and robust for face recognition.

  7. Local Relation Map: A Novel Illumination Invariant Face Recognition Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Zhichao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel illumination invariant face recognition approach is proposed. Different from most existing methods, an additive term as noise is considered in the face model under varying illuminations in addition to a multiplicative illumination term. High frequency coefficients of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT are discarded to eliminate the effect caused by noise. Based on the local characteristics of the human face, a simple but effective illumination invariant feature local relation map is proposed. Experimental results on the Yale B, Extended Yale B and CMU PIE demonstrate the outperformance and lower computational burden of the proposed method compared to other existing methods. The results also demonstrate the validity of the proposed face model and the assumption on noise.

  8. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  9. 3D Face Appearance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}......We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}...

  10. Carbon-Type Analysis and Comparison of Original and Reblended FACE Diesel Fuels (FACE 2, FACE 4, and FACE 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.; O' Hagan, Molly J.

    2012-10-01

    This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel blends, FD-2B, FD 4B, and FD-7B, and makes comparison of the new blends with the original FACE diesel blends, FD 2A, FD 4A, and FD-7A, respectively. Generally, FD-2A and FD-2B are more similar than the A and B blends of FD-4 and FD-7. The aromatic carbon content is roughly equivalent, although the new FACE blends have decreased monoaromatic content and increased di- and tri-cycloaromatic content, as well as a higher overall aromatic content, than the original FACE blends. The aromatic components of the new FACE blends generally have a higher alkyl substitution with longer alkyl substituents. The naphthenic and paraffinic contents remained relatively consistent. Based on aliphatic methyl and methylene carbon ratios, cetane numbers for FD-2A and -2B, and FD-7A and -7B are predicted to be consistent, while the cetane number for FD-4B is predicted to be higher than FD-4A. Overall, the new FACE fuel blends are fairly consistent with the original FACE fuel blends, but there are observable differences. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information on reformulated FACE diesel blends, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of the team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the use of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  11. The Barriers Perceived to Prevent the Successful Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice by Speech and Language Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Siobhan; Pettigrew, Catharine M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is currently a paucity of research investigating what speech and language therapists, in particular, perceive are the greatest barriers to implementing evidence-based practice. Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived barriers that are faced by speech and language therapists in southern Ireland when…

  12. The Barriers Perceived to Prevent the Successful Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice by Speech and Language Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Siobhan; Pettigrew, Catharine M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is currently a paucity of research investigating what speech and language therapists, in particular, perceive are the greatest barriers to implementing evidence-based practice. Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived barriers that are faced by speech and language therapists in southern Ireland when…

  13. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst...

  14. [Barrier methods of contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, A; Edelman, D A

    1982-01-01

    Vaginal methods of contraception were the earliest types used and some references to them date back to antiquity. Most of the vaginal contraceptive agents identified by the ancient Greeks, Indians, Japanese, and Chinese have been found in modern laboratory tests to have spermicidal properties, but it is doubtful that the methods were fully reliable or were used by many people. During the 19th century the condom, vaginal spermicides, and diaphragm became available. The development of nonoxynol-9 and other nonirritating but effective spermicidal agents improved vaginal contraceptives greatly by the 1950s, but starting in the 1960s newer methods began to replace the vaginal methods. Interest in barrier methods has been reawakened somewhat by concern about the health effects of hormonal methods. At present all barrier methods leave something to be desired. Failure rates of 3-30% for barrier methods in general have been estimated, but the higher rates are believed due to incorrect or inconsistent use. Theoretical failure rates of condoms and diaphragms have been estimated at 3/100 women-years, but in actual use failure rates may reach 15 for condoms and 13 for diaphragms used with spermicides. Use-effectiveness rates are greatly influenced by motivation. For a variety of reasons, the acceptability of barrier methods is low, especially in developing countries. New developments in spermicidal agents include sperm inhibitors, which impede the fertilizing capacity of sperm rather than attempting a spermicidal effect; a number of such agents have been studied and have proven more effective in animal tests than conventional spermicides. Neosampoon, a new spermicidal foam, has attracted an increasing number of users, especially in developing countries. A new condom, made of thin polymers and containing a standard dose of nonoxynol-9, has been designed to dissolve in the vaginal fluid. Further studies are needed of its acceptability, efficacy, and side effects before it becomes

  15. Technical barrier challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思佳

    2014-01-01

    according to a famouse report,the foreign Technical Barriers to Trade(TBT)have some effects on the exports of the People’s Republic of China.Major findings are as follows:(1)TBT makes it more difficult for China to export;(2)TBT increases the costs of Chinese export commodities;(3)TBT causes friction and confilicts in the international trade;(4)SOME developed countries have moved their phase-outs to China and other developing countries,which have become victims of TBT.

  16. Support or Barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum; Lønsmann, Dorte

    This study offers a critical look at how corporate-level language management influences front-line language practices among employees in three multinational corporations (MNCs) headquartered in Scandinavia. Based on interview and document data, we examine, firstly, what front-line practices...... employees use to cross language boundaries in their everyday work, and, secondly, how these practices relate to top-down language management in the case companies. Our findings show that employees are often dependent on ad hoc and informal solutions in cross- language situations, which leads us...... to a discussion of how a company’s language policy may be seen as both support and a barrier....

  17. Statistical Model-Based Face Pose Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Xinliang; YANG Jie; LI Feng; WANG Huahua

    2007-01-01

    A robust face pose estimation approach is proposed by using face shape statistical model approach and pose parameters are represented by trigonometric functions. The face shape statistical model is firstly built by analyzing the face shapes from different people under varying poses. The shape alignment is vital in the process of building the statistical model. Then, six trigonometric functions are employed to represent the face pose parameters. Lastly, the mapping function is constructed between face image and face pose by linearly relating different parameters. The proposed approach is able to estimate different face poses using a few face training samples. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy.

  18. Sensory competition in the face processing areas of the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Nagy

    Full Text Available The concurrent presentation of multiple stimuli in the visual field may trigger mutually suppressive interactions throughout the ventral visual stream. While several studies have been performed on sensory competition effects among non-face stimuli relatively little is known about the interactions in the human brain for multiple face stimuli. In the present study we analyzed the neuronal basis of sensory competition in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study using multiple face stimuli. We varied the ratio of faces and phase-noise images within a composite display with a constant number of peripheral stimuli, thereby manipulating the competitive interactions between faces. For contralaterally presented stimuli we observed strong competition effects in the fusiform face area (FFA bilaterally and in the right lateral occipital area (LOC, but not in the occipital face area (OFA, suggesting their different roles in sensory competition. When we increased the spatial distance among pairs of faces the magnitude of suppressive interactions was reduced in the FFA. Surprisingly, the magnitude of competition depended on the visual hemifield of the stimuli: ipsilateral stimulation reduced the competition effects somewhat in the right LOC while it increased them in the left LOC. This suggests a left hemifield dominance of sensory competition. Our results support the sensory competition theory in the processing of multiple faces and suggests that sensory competition occurs in several cortical areas in both cerebral hemispheres.

  19. Cross-correlation in face discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, William A.; Loffler, Gunter; Tucha, Lara

    2013-01-01

    An extensive body of literature suggests that face perception depends critically upon specialised face processing mechanisms. Although it seems clear that specialised face processing is required to explain face recognition, face discrimination is a simpler task that could possibly be solved with a g

  20. Optimum Barrier Height for SiC Schottky Barrier Diode

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abd El-Latif; Alaa El-Din Sayed Hafez

    2013-01-01

    The study of barrier height control and optimization for Schottky barrier diode (SBD) from its physical parameters have been introduced using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. SBD is the rectifying barrier for electrical conduction across the metal semiconductor (MS) junction and, therefore, is of vital importance to the successful operation of any semiconductor device. 4H-SiC is used as a semiconductor material for its good electrical characteristics with high-power semiconductor ...

  1. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerdane, Youcef; Laporte, Pierre

    2005-06-01

    égime UVX ultra-bref (CELIA)... Dans le domaine que l'on peut appeler, au sens large, “travail des matériaux”, on distinguera particulièrement les avancées dans le domaine de la microlithographie “prévues” par road map, avec l'arrivée semble-t-il inéluctable des technologies UVX à 13,5 nm. Les enjeux économiques favorisent des avancées technologiques multiples (optiques multicouches en réflexion, sources...). Par ailleurs l'aptitude des technologies femto pour l'ablation quasi athermique (micro-usinage) et le dépôt de couches minces spécifiques se confirme tout à fait. Enfin, à fluence plus faible, l'outil laser reste un instrument de choix pour l'étude de l'interaction photon-surface : désorption sous illumination laser à excimères à 157 nm et photoémission/photoconductivité du diamant sous éclairement ultra-bref de l'infrarouge à l'UVX. Nous tenons à remercier les membres du comité d'organisation, le comité scientifique et les différents partenaires, institutionnels et industriels, qui par leur soutien ont permis que le colloque UVX puisse se dérouler. Ce colloque a été parrainé par plusieurs départements du CNRS, la Délégation Générale de l'Armement (DGA), le CEA DRECAM, le CEA DAM, le Conseil Général de la Loire, l'Université Jean MONNET de Saint-Étienne, Saint-Étienne Métropole, la ville de Saint-Étienne, Le Pôle Optique Rhône-Alpes, la Société Française d'Optique et le Groupement de Recherche “SAXO” du CNRS. À tous, nous donnons rendez-vous à Caen pour UVX-2006. Youcef OUERDANE Pierre LAPORTE

  2. Higgs vacua behind barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Tamarit, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Scenarios in which the Higgs vacuum arises radiatively and separated from the origin by a potential barrier at zero temperature are known to be attainable in models with extra singlet scalars, which in the limit of zero barrier height give rise to Coleman-Weinberg realizations of electroweak symmetry breaking. However, this requires large values of Higgs-portal couplings or a large number N of singlets. This is quantified in detail by considering, for varying N, the full two-loop effective potential at zero temperature, as well as finite temperature effects including the dominant two-loop corrections due to the singlets. Despite the large couplings, two-loop effects near the electroweak scale are under control, and actually better behaved in models with larger couplings yet fewer singlets. Strong first-order phase transitions are guaranteed even in the Coleman-Weinberg scenarios. Cubic Higgs couplings and Higgs associated-production cross sections exhibit deviations from the Standard Model predictions which c...

  3. Stability of barrier buckets with zero RF-barrier separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-03-01

    A barrier bucket with very small separation between the rf barriers (relative to the barrier widths) or even zero separation has its synchrotron tune decreasing rather slowly from a large value towards the boundary of the bucket. As a result, large area at the bucket edges can become unstable under the modulation of rf voltage and/or rf phase. In addition, chaotic regions may form near the bucket center and extend outward under increasing modulation. Application is made to those barrier buckets used in the process of momentum mining at the Fermilab Recycler Ring.

  4. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  5. Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple myeloma is a cancer that begins in plasma cells, a type of white blood cell. These cells ... bones. No one knows the exact causes of multiple myeloma, but it is more common in older people ...

  6. Structural invariance and age-related performance differences in face cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Andrea; Sommer, Werner; Herzmann, Grit; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2010-12-01

    Perceiving and memorizing faces swiftly and correctly are important social competencies. The organization of these interpersonal abilities and how they change across the life span are still poorly understood. We investigated changes in the mean and covariance structure of face cognition abilities across the adult life span. A sample of 448 participants, with age ranging from 18 to 88 years, completed a battery of 15 face cognition tasks. After establishing a measurement model of face cognition that distinguishes between face perception, face memory, and the speed of face cognition, we used multiple group models and age-weighted measurement models to explore age-related changes. The modeling showed that the loadings and intercepts of all measures are age invariant. The factor means showed substantial decrements with increasing age. Age-related decrements in performance were strongest for the speed of face cognition but were also salient for face perception and face memory. The onset of age decrements is apparent in the 60s for face perception, in the late 40s for face memory, and in the early 30s for speed of face cognition. Implications of these findings on a theoretical and methodological level are discussed, and potential consequences for applied settings are considered.

  7. Ethnicity identification from face images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.

    2004-08-01

    Human facial images provide the demographic information, such as ethnicity and gender. Conversely, ethnicity and gender also play an important role in face-related applications. Image-based ethnicity identification problem is addressed in a machine learning framework. The Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) based scheme is presented for the two-class (Asian vs. non-Asian) ethnicity classification task. Multiscale analysis is applied to the input facial images. An ensemble framework, which integrates the LDA analysis for the input face images at different scales, is proposed to further improve the classification performance. The product rule is used as the combination strategy in the ensemble. Experimental results based on a face database containing 263 subjects (2,630 face images, with equal balance between the two classes) are promising, indicating that LDA and the proposed ensemble framework have sufficient discriminative power for the ethnicity classification problem. The normalized ethnicity classification scores can be helpful in the facial identity recognition. Useful as a "soft" biometric, face matching scores can be updated based on the output of ethnicity classification module. In other words, ethnicity classifier does not have to be perfect to be useful in practice.

  8. Atypical face gaze in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepagnier, Cheryl; Sebrechts, Marc M; Peterson, Rebecca

    2002-06-01

    An eye-tracking study of face and object recognition was conducted to clarify the character of face gaze in autistic spectrum disorders. Experimental participants were a group of individuals diagnosed with Asperger's disorder or high-functioning autistic disorder according to their medical records and confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Controls were selected on the basis of age, gender, and educational level to be comparable to the experimental group. In order to maintain attentional focus, stereoscopic images were presented in a virtual reality (VR) headset in which the eye-tracking system was installed. Preliminary analyses show impairment in face recognition, in contrast with equivalent and even superior performance in object recognition among participants with autism-related diagnoses, relative to controls. Experimental participants displayed less fixation on the central face than did control-group participants. The findings, within the limitations of the small number of subjects and technical difficulties encountered in utilizing the helmet-mounted display, suggest an impairment in face processing on the part of the individuals in the experimental group. This is consistent with the hypothesis of disruption in the first months of life, a period that may be critical to typical social and cognitive development, and has important implications for selection of appropriate targets of intervention.

  9. When memory leads the brain to take scenes at face value: Face areas are reactivated at test by scenes that were paired with faces at study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Walker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first use of the event related optical signal (EROS as a brain imaging tool for the study of long-term memory, we examined relational or associative aspects of memory, widely presumed to involve the interplay among multiple brain regions in representing and reactivating different elements of a given event. Here, we found that a brain region known to be involved in face processing (the posterior superior temporal sulcus, STS was active not only when viewing faces during the study phase but also when viewing scenes at test that, through prior learning, were associated with specific faces. These findings, demonstrating the activation of stimulus-specific cortical regions in the absence of stimuli of that type, based on learned relations, reveal cortical substrates of the reactivation of relational memories.

  10. Barriers to increasing market-oriented activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren

    product development. Despite the increasing evidence of a positive relationship between above average business performance and a high level of market-oriented activity, normative recommendations on how to increase the level of market-oriented activity is sparse. The scientific contribution of the present...... research is to expand the understanding of what factors inhibit the increase of market-oriented activity and how these factors may interact. Identifying and describing the barriers is considered the first and necessary step in attempting to reach a higher level of market-oriented activity......Introduction: The Danish food processing industry faces a situation in which intensified competition in its primary markets and product categories forces several companies to rethink their relative focus in terms of marketing rather than production, or, in other words, in terms of value adding...

  11. Silicon Carbide Schottky Barrier Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian H.; Sheng, Kuang; Lebron-Velilla, Ramon C.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the status of SiC Schottky barrier diode development. The fundamental of Schottky barrier diodes is first provided, followed by the review of high-voltage SiC Schottky barrier diodes, junction-barrier Schottky diodes, and merged-pin-Schottky diodes. The development history is reviewed ad the key performance parameters are discussed. Applications of SiC SBDs in power electronic circuits as well as other areas such as gas sensors, microwave and UV detections are also presented, followed by discussion of remaining challenges.

  12. Translating barriers into potential improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Hansen, Karina Birch; Valsdottir, Thora

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore potential barriers to seafood consumption by The aim of this study is to explore potential barriers to seafood consumption by young adults and the parents of young children. Knowledge of these barriers will be used to assist the development of new...... to lead to practical input The present study combines qualitative methods to lead to practical input for NPD focusing on overcoming the barriers that keep consumers from choosing existing healthy seafood products. The importance of the consumers' confidence in their ability to successfully prepare...

  13. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  14. Optimizing Face Recognition Using PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abdullah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Principle Component Analysis PCA is a classical feature extraction and data representation technique widely used in pattern recognition. It is one of the most successful techniques in face recognition. But it has drawback of high computational especially for big size database. This paper conducts a study to optimize the time complexity of PCA (eigenfaces that does not affects the recognition performance. The authors minimize the participated eigenvectors which consequently decreases the computational time. A comparison is done to compare the differences between the recognition time in the original algorithm and in the enhanced algorithm. The performance of the original and the enhanced proposed algorithm is tested on face94 face database. Experimental results show that the recognition time is reduced by 35% by applying our proposed enhanced algorithm. DET Curves are used to illustrate the experimental results.

  15. Optimizing Face Recognition Using PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abdullah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Principle Component Analysis PCA is a classical feature extraction and data representation technique widely used in pattern recognition. It is one of the most successful techniques in face recognition. But it has drawback of high computational especially for big size database. This paper conducts a study to optimize the time complexity of PCA (eigenfaces that does not affects the recognition performance. The authorsminimize the participated eigenvectors which consequently decreases the computational time. A comparison is done to compare the differences between the recognition time in the original algorithm and in the enhanced algorithm. The performance of the original and the enhanced proposed algorithm is tested on face94 face database. Experimental results show that the recognition time is reduced by 35% by applying our proposed enhanced algorithm. DET Curves are used to illustrate the experimental results.

  16. Countermeasures and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Johannes [Oersted - DTU, Automation, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-10-01

    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  17. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst......The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... groups, the sociology of work needs to develop a better understanding of the way in which linguistic diversity influences the formation of social capital, i.e. resources such as the trust and reciprocity inherent in social relations in such workplaces. Drawing on theories about intergroup contact...

  18. Eye-tracking analysis of face observing and face recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Iskra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Images are one of the key elements of the content of the World Wide Web. One group of web images are also photos of people. When various institutions (universities, research organizations, companies, associations, etc. present their staff, they should include photos of people for the purpose of more informative presentation. The fact is, that there are many specifies how people see face images and how do they remember them. Several methods to investigate person’s behavior during use of web content can be performed and one of the most reliable method among them is eye tracking. It is very common technique, particularly when it comes to observing web images. Our research focused on behavior of observing face images in process of memorizing them. Test participants were presented with face images shown at different time scale. We focused on three main face elements: eyes, mouth and nose. The results of our analysis can help not only in web presentation, which are, in principle, not limited by time observation, but especially in public presentations (conferences, symposia, and meetings.

  19. Socio-cultural and knowledge-based barriers to tuberculosis diagnosis for women in Bhopal, India

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: In India, only one woman is diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) for every 2.4 men. Previous studies have indicated gender disparities in care-seeking behavior and TB diagnosis; however, little is known about the specific barriers women face. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize socio-cultural and knowledge-based barriers that affected TB diagnosis for women in Bhopal, India. Materials and Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 affected women and 6 health-care wor...

  20. Saving Face and Group Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Mao, Lei; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    their self- but also other group members' image. This behavior is frequent even in the absence of group identity. When group identity is more salient, individuals help regardless of whether the least performer is an in-group or an out-group. This suggests that saving others' face is a strong social norm.......Are people willing to sacrifice resources to save one's and others' face? In a laboratory experiment, we study whether individuals forego resources to avoid the public exposure of the least performer in their group. We show that a majority of individuals are willing to pay to preserve not only...

  1. Embedded Face Detection and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel Günlü

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to increase security in open or public spaces has in turn given rise to the requirement to monitor these spaces and analyse those images on‐site and on‐time. At this point, the use of smart cameras ‐ of which the popularity has been increasing ‐ is one step ahead. With sensors and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs, smart cameras generate ad hoc results by analysing the numeric images transmitted from the sensor by means of a variety of image‐processing algorithms. Since the images are not transmitted to a distance processing unit but rather are processed inside the camera, it does not necessitate high‐ bandwidth networks or high processor powered systems; it can instantaneously decide on the required access. Nonetheless, on account of restricted memory, processing power and overall power, image processing algorithms need to be developed and optimized for embedded processors. Among these algorithms, one of the most important is for face detection and recognition. A number of face detection and recognition methods have been proposed recently and many of these methods have been tested on general‐purpose processors. In smart cameras ‐ which are real‐life applications of such methods ‐ the widest use is on DSPs. In the present study, the Viola‐Jones face detection method ‐ which was reported to run faster on PCs ‐ was optimized for DSPs; the face recognition method was combined with the developed sub‐region and mask‐based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform. As the employed DSP is a fixed‐point processor, the processes were performed with integers insofar as it was possible. To enable face recognition, the image was divided into sub‐ regions and from each sub‐region the robust coefficients against disruptive elements ‐ like face expression, illumination, etc. ‐ were selected as the features. The discrimination of the selected features was enhanced via LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis and then employed for

  2. [Endoscopy and face-lift].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardour, J C; Abbou, R

    2017-08-02

    For many years, the face-lift has not been the only intervention for facial rejuvenation. It is necessary today to specify the type of face-lift, cervico-facial lifting, frontal lifting or facelift. We will consider in this article the frontal lift and centro-facial lift and its possible execution assisted by endoscopy with therefore minimal scars, hidden in the scalp. We will consider successively its technique, its indications and its results highlighting a very long hold over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavats, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  4. Face Recognition in Uncontrolled Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhey Shyam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method of facial image representation for face recognition in uncontrolled environment. It is named as augmented local binary patterns (A-LBP that works on both, uniform and non-uniform patterns. It replaces the central non-uniform pattern with a majority value of the neighbouring uniform patterns obtained after processing all neighbouring non-uniform patterns. These patterns are finally combined with the neighbouring uniform patterns, in order to extract discriminatory information from the local descriptors. The experimental results indicate the vitality of the proposed method on particular face datasets, where the images are prone to extreme variations of illumination.

  5. A Survey: Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sharif

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the existing techniques of face recognition are to be encountered along with their pros and cons to conduct a brief survey. The most general methods include Eigenface (Eigenfeatures, Hidden Markov Model (HMM, geometric based and template matching approaches. This survey actually performs analysis on these approaches in order to constitute face representations which will be discussed as under. In the second phase of the survey, factors affecting the recognition rates and processes are also discussed along with the solutions provided by different authors.

  6. Embedded Face Detection and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel Günlü

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to increase security in open or public spaces has in turn given rise to the requirement to monitor these spaces and analyse those images on-site and on-time. At this point, the use of smart cameras – of which the popularity has been increasing – is one step ahead. With sensors and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs, smart cameras generate ad hoc results by analysing the numeric images transmitted from the sensor by means of a variety of image-processing algorithms. Since the images are not transmitted to a distance processing unit but rather are processed inside the camera, it does not necessitate high-bandwidth networks or high processor powered systems; it can instantaneously decide on the required access. Nonetheless, on account of restricted memory, processing power and overall power, image processing algorithms need to be developed and optimized for embedded processors. Among these algorithms, one of the most important is for face detection and recognition. A number of face detection and recognition methods have been proposed recently and many of these methods have been tested on general-purpose processors. In smart cameras – which are real-life applications of such methods – the widest use is on DSPs. In the present study, the Viola-Jones face detection method – which was reported to run faster on PCs – was optimized for DSPs; the face recognition method was combined with the developed sub-region and mask-based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform. As the employed DSP is a fixed-point processor, the processes were performed with integers insofar as it was possible. To enable face recognition, the image was divided into sub-regions and from each sub-region the robust coefficients against disruptive elements – like face expression, illumination, etc. – were selected as the features. The discrimination of the selected features was enhanced via LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis and then employed for recognition. Thanks to its

  7. Primary Care Provider Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening Barriers: Implications for Designing Quality Improvement Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Schumacher, Jessica R.; Potvien, Aaron; Kim, David H.; Pfau, Patrick R.; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Maureen A.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is underutilized. Increasing CRC screening rates requires interventions targeting multiple barriers at each level of the healthcare organization (patient, provider, and system). We examined groups of primary care providers (PCPs) based on perceptions of screening barriers and the relationship to CRC screening rates to inform approaches for conducting barrier assessments prior to designing and implementing quality improvement interventions. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study linking EHR and survey data. PCPs with complete survey responses for questions addressing CRC screening barriers were included (N = 166 PCPs; 39,430 patients eligible for CRC screening). Cluster analysis identified groups of PCPs. Multivariate logistic regression estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for predictors of membership in one of the PCP groups. Results. We found two distinct groups: (1) PCPs identifying multiple barriers to CRC screening at patient, provider, and system levels (N = 75) and (2) PCPs identifying no major barriers to screening (N = 91). PCPs in the top half of CRC screening performance were more likely to identify multiple barriers than the bottom performers (OR, 4.14; 95% CI, 2.43–7.08). Conclusions. High-performing PCPs can more effectively identify CRC screening barriers. Targeting high-performers when conducting a barrier assessment is a novel approach to assist in designing quality improvement interventions for CRC screening.

  8. Incorporating Online Discussion in Face to Face Classroom Learning: A New Blended Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenli; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses an innovative blended learning strategy which incorporates online discussion in both in-class face to face, and off-classroom settings. Online discussion in a face to face class is compared with its two counterparts, off-class online discussion as well as in-class, face to face oral discussion, to examine the advantages and…

  9. A Comparison of Online and Face-to-Face Approaches to Teaching Introduction to American Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsen, Toby; Evans, Michael; Fleming, Anna McCaghren

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a large study comparing four different approaches to teaching Introduction to American Government: (1) traditional, a paper textbook with 100% face-to-face lecture-style teaching; (2) breakout, a paper textbook with 50% face-to-face lecture-style teaching and 50% face-to-face small-group breakout discussion…

  10. Barriers to Sexuality for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, James; Unruh, Deanne; Lindstrom, Lauren; Scanlon, David

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) experience multiple barriers that may prevent them from understanding and exploring their own sexuality. These barriers prevent them from achieving the same autonomy and quality of life as their peers. This research synthesis focuses on 13 articles published between 2000 and 2013…

  11. Adolescents' Views of Food and Eating: Identifying Barriers to Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T.; Trew, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity.…

  12. Barriers to Sexuality for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, James; Unruh, Deanne; Lindstrom, Lauren; Scanlon, David

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) experience multiple barriers that may prevent them from understanding and exploring their own sexuality. These barriers prevent them from achieving the same autonomy and quality of life as their peers. This research synthesis focuses on 13 articles published between 2000 and 2013…

  13. Adolescents' Views of Food and Eating: Identifying Barriers to Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T.; Trew, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity.…

  14. Reverse logistics barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzon, Marina; Govindan, Kannan; Rodriguez, C. M. T.

    2015-01-01

    In this article it is revealed that planned change approaches operate with multiple drivers for change, but often neglect critique as a relevant driver for change. This is in contradistinction to approaches within the social sciences, where critique is often seen as a relevant approach to creatin...

  15. KOr.U Face Lift: Personal Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Giuseppe; Ruvolo, Vittorio; Pagliarulo, Valentina

    2015-03-01

    Facial aging is the union of multiple effects such as exposure to the sun, ambiental stress, smog, tobacco. It reflects the dynamic, cumulative effects of time on the skin, soft tissues, and deep structural components of the face showing skin textural changes and loss of facial volume. There are a multitude of techniques currently used to perform face lifts, but the unique objective is to achieve a good and safe result. This paper describes a new safe approach to midfacial rejuvenation that combines the elements of superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) plication, about four vectors, with a blepharoplasty to achieve long-lasting improvement of the aging midface and a more natural effect. Plication of the SMAS over the suture, provides three vectors of elevation beneath the skin in midface rhytidectomy linked to the Lorè's fascia and the third vector of elevation of platysma behind the ear. This new technique, called KOr.U technique, was used in 31 patients between October 2010 and October 2012, producing effective long-lasting results, returning a volume of midface with no injury. This simplified approach is safe and can be easily performed under local anesthesia as an isolated midface procedure, avoiding the facial nerve.

  16. Image Region Selection and Ensemble for Face Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Geng; Zhi-Hua Zhou

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a novel framework for face recognition, namely Selective Ensemble of Image Regions (SEIR), is proposed. In this framework, all possible regions in the face image are regarded as a certain kind of features. There are two main steps in SEIR: the first step is to automatically select several regions from all possible candidates; the second step is to construct classifier ensemble from the selected regions. An implementation of SEIR based on multiple eigenspaces, namely SEME, is also proposed in this paper. SEME is analyzed and compared with eigenface, PCA + LDA, eigenfeature, and eigenface + eigenfeature through experiments. The experimental results show that SEME achieves the best performance.

  17. Investigation of Effects of Face Rotation on Race Processing: An ERPs Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalan, Benoit; Veujoz, Mathieu; Boitout, Alexis; Leleu, Arnaud; Camus, Odile; Lalonde, Robert; Rebai, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Recent ERP research has indicated that the processing of faces of other races (OR) and same race (SR) as the perceiver differs at the perceptual level, more precisely for the N170 component. The purpose of the present study was to continue the investigation of the race-of-face processing across multiple orientations. Event-related brain potentials…

  18. A wavelet-based method for multispectral face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Zhang, Chaoyang; Zhou, Zhaoxian

    2012-06-01

    A wavelet-based method is proposed for multispectral face recognition in this paper. Gabor wavelet transform is a common tool for orientation analysis of a 2D image; whereas Hamming distance is an efficient distance measurement for face identification. Specifically, at each frequency band, an index number representing the strongest orientational response is selected, and then encoded in binary format to favor the Hamming distance calculation. Multiband orientation bit codes are then organized into a face pattern byte (FPB) by using order statistics. With the FPB, Hamming distances are calculated and compared to achieve face identification. The FPB algorithm was initially created using thermal images, while the EBGM method was originated with visible images. When two or more spectral images from the same subject are available, the identification accuracy and reliability can be enhanced using score fusion. We compare the identification performance of applying five recognition algorithms to the three-band (visible, near infrared, thermal) face images, and explore the fusion performance of combing the multiple scores from three recognition algorithms and from three-band face images, respectively. The experimental results show that the FPB is the best recognition algorithm, the HMM yields the best fusion result, and the thermal dataset results in the best fusion performance compared to other two datasets.

  19. Artificial faces are harder to remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Pacella, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    Observers interact with artificial faces in a range of different settings and in many cases must remember and identify computer-generated faces. In general, however, most adults have heavily biased experience favoring real faces over synthetic faces. It is well known that face recognition abilities are affected by experience such that faces belonging to "out-groups" defined by race or age are more poorly remembered and harder to discriminate from one another than faces belonging to the "in-group." Here, we examine the extent to which artificial faces form an "out-group" in this sense when other perceptual categories are matched. We rendered synthetic faces using photographs of real human faces and compared performance in a memory task and a discrimination task across real and artificial versions of the same faces. We found that real faces were easier to remember, but only slightly more discriminable than artificial faces. Artificial faces were also equally susceptible to the well-known face inversion effect, suggesting that while these patterns are still processed by the human visual system in a face-like manner, artificial appearance does compromise the efficiency of face processing.

  20. 'If an Eye Is Washed Properly, It Means It Would See Clearly': A Mixed Methods Study of Face Washing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Rural Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Aiemjoy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Face cleanliness is a core component of the SAFE (Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness, and Environmental improvements strategy for trachoma control. Understanding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to face washing may be helpful for designing effective interventions for improving facial cleanliness.In April 2014, a mixed methods study including focus groups and a quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted in the East Gojjam zone of the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Participants were asked about face washing practices, motivations for face washing, use of soap (which may reduce bacterial load, and fly control strategies.Overall, both knowledge and reported practice of face washing was high. Participants reported they knew that washing their own face and their children's faces daily was important for hygiene and infection control. Although participants reported high knowledge of the importance of soap for face washing, quantitative data revealed strong variations by community in the use of soap for face washing, ranging from 4.4% to 82.2% of households reporting using soap for face washing. Cost and forgetfulness were cited as barriers to the use of soap for face washing. Keeping flies from landing on children was a commonly cited motivator for regular face washing, as was trachoma prevention.Interventions aiming to improve facial cleanliness for trachoma prevention should focus on habit formation (to address forgetfulness and address barriers to the use of soap, such as reducing cost. Interventions that focus solely on improving knowledge may not be effective for changing face-washing behaviors.

  1. Ordering, materiality and multiplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Duim, René; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór

    2013-01-01

    In this article we discuss how ANT has been translated into tourism research and show how it has impacted the field by presenting three concepts integral to the ANT approach: ordering, materiality and multiplicity. We first introduce ANT and draw attention to current ANT studies in tourism......, followed by a discussion of how newer approaches within post-ANT urge us to face the ontological politics, which we engage in when performing tourism research. In conclusion we argue that ANT enables a radical new way at looking at tourism, tourism destinations and objects and investigations...... into the ontological condition of tourism....

  2. Iontophoretic Transport Across a Multiple Membrane System

    OpenAIRE

    Molokhia, Sarah A.; Zhang, Yanhui; Higuchi, William I.; Li, S. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the iontophoretic transport behavior across multiple membranes of different barrier properties. Spectra/Por® (SP) and Ionac membranes were the synthetic membranes and sclera was the biomembrane in this model study. The barrier properties of SP membranes were determined individually in passive and iontophoresis transport experiments with tetraethylammonium ion (TEA), chloride ion (Cl), and mannitol as the model permeants. Passive and iontop...

  3. ELECTROSTATICALLY ENHANCED BARRIER FILTER COLLECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Erjavec; Michael D. Mann; Ryan Z. Knutson; Michael L. Swanson; Michael E. Collings

    2003-06-01

    This work was performed through the University of North Dakota (UND) Chemical Engineering Department with assistance from UND's Energy & Environmental Research Center. This research was undertaken in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Technology Center Program Solicitation No. DE-PS26-99FT40479, Support of Advanced Coal Research at U.S. Universities and Colleges. Specifically, this research was in support of the UCR Core Program and addressees Topic 1, Improved Hot-Gas Contaminant and Particulate Removal Techniques, introducing an advanced design for particulate removal. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) offers the potential for very high efficiency and clean electric generation. In IGCC, the product gas from the gasifier needs to be cleaned of particulate matter to avoid erosion and high-temperature corrosion difficulties arising with the turbine blades. Current methods involve cooling the gases to {approx}100 C to condense alkalis and remove sulfur and particulates using conventional scrubber technology. This ''cool'' gas is then directed to a turbine for electric generation. While IGCC has the potential to reach efficiencies of over 50%, the current need to cool the product gas for cleaning prior to firing it in a turbine is keeping IGCC from reaching its full potential. The objective of the current project was to develop a highly reliable particulate collector system that can meet the most stringent turbine requirements and emission standards, can operate at temperatures above 1500 F, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, is compatible with various sorbent injection schemes for sulfur and alkali control, can be integrated into a variety of configurations for both pressurized gasification and combustion, increases allowable face velocity to reduce filter system capital cost, and is cost-competitive with existing technologies. The collector being developed is a new concept in particulate control called

  4. Barriers to Participation in Tourism in the Disabled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaganek Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physical activity is critical to effective rehabilitation in people with disabilities and, consequently, is of high importance in their lives. However, participation of the disabled in physical activity, including tourism, is a much more complex issue than in the case in able-bodied individuals. Material and methods. This paper aims to fill the gap and familiarise the reader with barriers faced by the disabled who engage in tourism. The study group consisted of randomly selected 460 participants with certificates specifying the degree of their disability. The group included 55 (12% individuals with visual impairments, 203 (44.1% individuals with hearing impairments, and 202 (43.9% individuals with locomotor system disabilities. Results. The data derived from interviews made with people with physical dysfunctions, designed with a view to achieving the aims of the study, were used to develop logistic regression models. Conclusions. On average, the greatest and smallest numbers of barriers were reported by individuals with severe disabilities and those who had large families, respectively. Younger disabled people most often complained about the equipment barriers to participation in tourism. Older respondents were mostly challenged with social barriers. Of all the determinants analysed in the study, the perception of barriers to participation in tourism most often depended on the subjects’ degree of disability.

  5. Family Physicians’ Barriers to Cancer Screening in Extremely Obese Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Jeanne M.; Fyffe, Denise C.; Vega, Marielos L.; Piasecki, Alicja K.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela A.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    Extremely obese women are less likely than nonobese women to receive breast and cervical cancer screening examinations. Reasons for this disparity are unclear and may stem from patient and/or physician barriers. This sequential mixed-methods study used individual in-depth interviews of 15 family physicians followed by a mail survey of 255 family physicians (53% response rate) to understand the barriers they faced in performing cancer screening examinations in extremely obese women. Barriers fell into three main areas: (i) difficulty doing pelvic and breast exams; (ii) inadequate equipment; and (iii) challenges overcoming patient barriers and refusal. This led some physicians to avoid performing breast and pelvic examinations on extremely obese women. Having more knowledge about specific examination techniques was associated with less difficulty in palpating lumps on breast and pelvic examinations (P equipment and supplies, and providing resources to assist physicians in dealing with patient barriers and refusal, may be fruitful in increasing cancer screening rates in extremely obese patients. Future research studies testing the effectiveness of these strategies are needed to improve cancer outcomes in this high-risk population. PMID:20019676

  6. Lactation Consultants' Perceived Barriers to Providing Professional Breastfeeding Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Erica H; Coulter, Martha; Jevitt, Cecilia M; Perrin, Kay M; Dabrow, Sharon; Klasko-Foster, Lynne B; Daley, Ellen M

    2017-08-01

    Addressing suboptimal breastfeeding initiation and duration rates is a priority in the United States. To address challenges to improving these rates, the voices of the providers who work with breastfeeding mothers should be heard. Research aim: The purpose of this study was to explore lactation consultants' perceived barriers to managing early breastfeeding problems. This qualitative study was conducted with a grounded theory methodological approach. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 International Board Certified Lactation Consultants across Florida. Lactation consultants were from a range of practice settings, including hospitals, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children clinics, private practice, and pediatric offices. Data were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in Atlas.ti. A range of barriers was identified and grouped into the following categories/themes: indirect barriers (social norms, knowledge, attitudes); direct occupational barriers (institutional constraints, lack of coordination, poor service delivery); and direct individual barriers (social support, mother's self-efficacy). A model was developed illustrating the factors that influence the role enactment of lactation consultants in managing breastfeeding problems. Inadequate support for addressing early breastfeeding challenges is compounded by a lack of collaboration among various healthcare providers and the family. Findings provide insight into the professional management issues of early breastfeeding problems faced by lactation consultants. Team-based, interprofessional approaches to breastfeeding support for mothers and their families are needed; improving interdisciplinary collaboration could lead to better integration of lactation consultants who are educated and experienced in providing lactation support and management of breastfeeding problems.

  7. Informal export barriers and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Porto, Guido G.

    2004-01-01

    The author investigates the poverty impacts of informal export barriers like transport costs, cumbersome customs practices, costly regulations, and bribes. He models these informal barriers as export taxes that distort the efficient allocation of resources. In low-income agricultural economies, this distortion lowers wages and household agricultural income, thereby leading to higher pover...

  8. Barriers to Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales, Rosemary Butler AM, has put the issue of barriers to women in public life at the top of the political agenda in Wales. She has held sessions with women across Wales to find out what those barriers are and how they can be tackled. On International Women's Day in February, she invited…

  9. Barriers to Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales, Rosemary Butler AM, has put the issue of barriers to women in public life at the top of the political agenda in Wales. She has held sessions with women across Wales to find out what those barriers are and how they can be tackled. On International Women's Day in February, she invited…

  10. BARRIERS OF STRATEGIC ALLIANCES ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav M. Sannikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available General barriers of organization of different types of strategic alliances have beenconsidered in the article. There are several recommendations for overcoming themin cases of international alliances, and in case of work in one state. The article also identified goals and tasks of single coordination center of alliance to overcome organization barriers.

  11. Spanning trees crossing few barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asano, T.; Berg, M. de; Cheong, O.; Guibas, L.J.; Snoeyink, J.; Tamaki, H.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding low-cost spanning trees for sets of n points in the plane, where the cost of a spanning tree is defined as the total number of intersections of tree edges with a given set of m barriers. We obtain the following results: (i) if the barriers are possibly intersecting

  12. Face recognition, a landmarks tale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, Gerrit Maarten

    2009-01-01

    Face recognition is a technology that appeals to the imagination of many people. This is particularly reflected in the popularity of science-fiction films and forensic detective series such as CSI, CSI New York, CSI Miami, Bones and NCIS. Although these series tend to be set in the present, their a

  13. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing ...

  14. Saving Face and Group Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Mao, Lei; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    Are people willing to sacrifice resources to save one's and others' face? In a laboratory experiment, we study whether individuals forego resources to avoid the public exposure of the least performer in their group. We show that a majority of individuals are willing to pay to preserve not only th...

  15. Face-Sealing Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervo, John N.

    1992-01-01

    Valve plate made to translate as well as rotate. Valve opened and closed by turning shaft and lever. Interactions among lever, spring, valve plate, and face seal cause plate to undergo combination of translation and rotation so valve plate clears seal during parts of opening and closing motions.

  16. Facing a dark winter. Albania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truijen, A.

    2007-11-15

    Albania is once again facing a dark winter. The country has already been suffering power cuts lasting a couple of hours a day for the past seventeen years, Drought, increased power consumption and political maladministration are the factors underlying the electricity problems that have now mushroomed into a national crisis.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Face Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Abraham

    2015-06-01

    The major objective of this article was to report quantitatively the degree of human face symmetry for reported images taken from the Internet. From the original image of a certain person that appears in the center of each triplet, 2 symmetric combinations were constructed that are based on the left part of the image and its mirror image (left-left) and on the right part of the image and its mirror image (right-right). By applying a computer software that enables to determine length, surface area, and perimeter of any geometric shape, the following measurements were obtained for each triplet: face perimeter and area; distance between the pupils; mouth length; its perimeter and area; nose length and face length, usually below the ears; as well as the area and perimeter of the pupils. Then, for each of the above measurements, the value C, which characterizes the degree of symmetry of the real image with respect to the combinations right-right and left-left, was calculated. C appears on the right-hand side below each image. A high value of C indicates a low symmetry, and as the value is decreasing, the symmetry is increasing. The magnitude on the left relates to the pupils and compares the difference between the area and perimeter of the 2 pupils. The major conclusion arrived at here is that the human face is asymmetric to some degree; the degree of asymmetry is reported quantitatively under each portrait.

  18. Face recognition, a landmarks tale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Face recognition is a technology that appeals to the imagination of many people. This is particularly reflected in the popularity of science-fiction films and forensic detective series such as CSI, CSI New York, CSI Miami, Bones and NCIS. Although these series tend to be set in the present, their ap

  19. The Face of the Moon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保

    2001-01-01

    Have you ever seen the man in the moon?If you look closelyat the moon on some nights, you can see the face of the man in themoon. Some people say that they can see an old man carryingsticks. Others see a girl reading a book. These pictures are madeby the mountains (山脉) and plains (平原) of the moon.

  20. Repetition priming from moving faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Bruce, Vicki

    2004-06-01

    Recent experiments have suggested that seeing a familiar face move provides additional dynamic information to the viewer, useful in the recognition of identity. In four experiments, repetition priming was used to investigate whether dynamic information is intrinsic to the underlying face representations. The results suggest that a moving image primes more effectively than a static image, even when the same static image is shown in the prime and the test phases (Experiment 1). Furthermore, when moving images are presented in the test phase (Experiment 2), there is an advantage for moving prime images. The most priming advantage is found with naturally moving faces, rather than with those shown in slow motion (Experiment 3). Finally, showing the same moving sequence at prime and test produced more priming than that found when different moving sequences were shown (Experiment 4). The results suggest that dynamic information is intrinsic to the face representations and that there is an advantage to viewing the same moving sequence at prime and test.

  1. Continuing Education: Facing the Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Marianne

    1986-01-01

    Examines a number of issues facing the Australian library and information services community in the area of continuing education, including recommendations of the Library Association of Australia, the cost of continuing education activities, the role and responsibility of schools of library and information studies, and notions of coordination.…

  2. Towards automatic forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Veldhuis, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology and experimental results for evidence evaluation in the context of forensic face recognition. In forensic applications, the matching score (hereafter referred to as similarity score) from a biometric system must be represented as a Likelihood Ratio (LR). In our

  3. The Two Faces of Micropolitics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Demystifies the two "faces" of micropolitics. "Policy micropolitics" distinguishes between micropolitics and management and focuses on the relationship between school micropolitics and the wider macropolitical context. "Management micropolitics" makes no clear micropolitics/management distinction and focuses on educators' strategies to pursue…

  4. Cool Styles for Your Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    GLASSES are a part of modern fashion. The right spectacle frames can not only add some demureness to you, but also perfect your face. To choose suitable frames for yourself, you must first know your own features. Comb all your hair backwards to show your entire features clearly in front of the

  5. Face Recognition With Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Ninth Annual Cognitive Science Society Conference, Volume unknown:461-473 (1987). 8. Damasio , Antonio R. "Prosopagnosia," Trends in Neuroscience, 8:132...is also supported by the work of J. C. Meadows and A. R. Damasio in their studies of individuals who have lost the ability to recognize faces, a

  6. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing ...

  7. Multiple Gliomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Multiple gliomas are well-recognized but uncommon tumors. The incidence of multiple gliomas according to some reports ranges from 0.5% to 20% of all gliomas diagnosed. Multiple gliomas can be divided into two categories. One is by location of the lesions (multifocal and multicentric). The second type is by the time of the lesions occur (synchronous and metachronous). The lesions generally show hypo, or isodensity on CT; a hypo- or isointense signal on T1-weighted images, and a hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images. Glioblastoma is the most frequent histotype. The prognosis of multiple gliomas remains unfavorable. The treatment of multiple gliomas includes surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Distinction between multicentric and multifocal gliomas is difficult. This report reviews in detail the aspects of multiple gliomas mentioned above.

  8. Barriers to Neurosurgical Training in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Need for a Phased Approach to Global Surgery Efforts to Improve Neurosurgical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Elie; Yee, Philip; Hodaie, Mojgan

    2017-02-01

    Neurosurgery in low-income countries is faced with multiple challenges. Although the most common challenges include infrastructure and physical resource deficits, an underemphasized barrier relates to the methods and components of surgical training. The role of important aspects, including didactic surgical training, surgical decision-making, workshops, conferences, and assessment methods, has not been duly studied. Knowledge of these issues is a crucial step to move closer to strengthening surgical capacity in low-income countries. We designed an online survey to assess self-perceived and objectively measured barriers to neurosurgical training in various Sub-Saharan African countries. Key outcomes included perception toward adequacy of neurosurgery training and barriers to neurosurgical training at each individual site. Only 37% of responders felt that their training program adequately prepared them for handling incoming neurosurgical cases. Top perceived limitations of neurosurgery training included lack of physical resources (25% of all responses), lack of practical workshops (22%), lack of program structure (18%), and lack of topic-specific lectures (10%). Our results show that most responders believe their training program is inadequate and are interested in improving it through international collaborations. This implies that activities directed at strengthening surgical capacity must address this important necessity. One important strategy is the use of online educational tools. In consideration of the observed limitations in care, resources, and training, we recommend a phased approach to neurosurgical growth in low-income settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Mixing Online and Face-to-Face Therapy: How to Benefit From Blended Care in Mental Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Jobke; van der Vaart, Rosalie; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C

    2016-02-09

    Blended care, a combination of online and face-to-face therapy, is increasingly being applied in mental health care to obtain optimal benefit from the advantages these two treatment modalities have. Promising results have been reported, but a variety in descriptions and ways of operationalizing blended care exists. Currently, what type of "blend" works for whom, and why, is unclear. Furthermore, a rationale for setting up blended care is often lacking. In this viewpoint paper, we describe postulates for blended care and provide an instrument (Fit for Blended Care) that aims to assist therapists and patients whether and how to set up blended care treatment. A review of the literature, two focus groups (n=5 and n=5), interviews with therapists (n=14), and interviews with clients (n=2) were conducted to develop postulates of eHealth and blended care and an instrument to assist therapists and clients in setting up optimal blended care. Important postulates for blended care are the notion that both treatment modalities should complement each other and that set up of blended treatment should be based on shared decision making between patient and therapist. The "Fit for Blended Care" instrument is presented which addresses the following relevant themes: possible barriers to receiving blended treatment such as the risk of crisis, issues in communication (at a distance), as well as possible facilitators such as social support. More research into the reasons why and for whom blended care works is needed. To benefit from blended care, face-to-face and online care should be combined in such way that the potentials of both treatment modalities are used optimally, depending on patient abilities, needs, and preferences. To facilitate the process of setting up a personalized blended treatment, the Fit for Blended Care instrument can be used. By applying this approach in research and practice, more insight into the working mechanisms and optimal (personal) "blends" of online and

  10. Task-invariant brain responses to the social value of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander; Said, Christopher P; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N; Engell, Andrew D

    2011-10-01

    In two fMRI experiments (n = 44) using tasks with different demands-approach-avoidance versus one-back recognition decisions-we measured the responses to the social value of faces. The face stimuli were produced by a parametric model of face evaluation that reduces multiple social evaluations to two orthogonal dimensions of valence and power [Oosterhof, N. N., & Todorov, A. The functional basis of face evaluation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 105, 11087-11092, 2008]. Independent of the task, the response within regions of the occipital, fusiform, and lateral prefrontal cortices was sensitive to the valence dimension, with larger responses to low-valence faces. Additionally, there were extensive quadratic responses in the fusiform gyri and dorsal amygdala, with larger responses to faces at the extremes of the face valence continuum than faces in the middle. In all these regions, participants' avoidance decisions correlated with brain responses, with faces more likely to be avoided evoking stronger responses. The findings suggest that both explicit and implicit face evaluation engage multiple brain regions involved in attention, affect, and decision making.

  11. Face to Face : The Perception of Automotive Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhager, Sonja; Slice, Dennis E; Schaefer, Katrin; Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Thorstensen, Truls; Grammer, Karl

    2008-12-01

    Over evolutionary time, humans have developed a selective sensitivity to features in the human face that convey information on sex, age, emotions, and intentions. This ability might not only be applied to our conspecifics nowadays, but also to other living objects (i.e., animals) and even to artificial structures, such as cars. To investigate this possibility, we asked people to report the characteristics, emotions, personality traits, and attitudes they attribute to car fronts, and we used geometric morphometrics (GM) and multivariate statistical methods to determine and visualize the corresponding shape information. Automotive features and proportions are found to covary with trait perception in a manner similar to that found with human faces. Emerging analogies are discussed. This study should have implications for both our understanding of our prehistoric psyche and its interrelation with the modern world.

  12. Item Nonresponse in Face-to-Face Interviews with Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haunberger Sigrid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined item nonresponse and its respondent and interviewer correlates by means of a population-based, panel survey of children aged 8 to 11 who were surveyed using standardised, face-to-face interviews. Using multilevel, logistic analyses with cross-level interactions, this article aims to examine which effects of item nonresponse are subject to children as respondents or to the interviewers and the interview setting. Depending on the type of question, we found different effects for respondent and interviewer variables, as well as interaction effects between child age/interviewer age as well as child gender/interviewer gender. However, interviewer variance is for the most part not significant.

  13. Face detection by aggregated Bayesian network classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.V.; Worring, M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    A face detection system is presented. A new classification method using forest-structured Bayesian networks is used. The method is used in an aggregated classifier to discriminate face from non-face patterns. The process of generating non-face patterns is integrated with the construction of the aggr

  14. Recognizing Faces with Partial Occlusion using Inpainting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vijayalakshmi A

    2017-01-01

    .... In this paper, a hybrid inpainting approach is followed to recover the lost region of a face. This approach increases the recognition rate of faces that are occluded. Experimental result on hybrid inpainting proves that the recognition rate on faces increases on comparison with existing methods on occluded faces.

  15. Holistic Processing of Static and Moving Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Humans' face ability develops and matures with extensive experience in perceiving, recognizing, and interacting with faces that move most of the time. However, how facial movements affect 1 core aspect of face ability--holistic face processing--remains unclear. Here we investigated the influence of rigid facial motion on holistic and part-based…

  16. Repetition suppression to faces in the fusiform face area: A personal and dynamic journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Richard N

    2016-07-01

    I review a number of fMRI studies that investigate the effects of repeating faces on responses in the fusiform face area (FFA). These studies show that repetition suppression (RS), as well as repetition enhancement (RE), are sensitive to multiple factors, including pre-existing stimulus representations, cognitive task, lag between repetitions and spatial attention. Parallel EEG studies provide additional constraints on the timing of these repetition effects. Together, the results suggest that RS is not a unitary phenomenon, but likely subsumes multiple mechanisms that operate under different conditions. These mechanisms of course need to relate to single-cell data and known physiological mechanisms; but to make further progress, I believe we need dynamical neural network models that relate these mechanisms to the properties of neural populations that are measured by fMRI and EEG data. One example model is sketched, in which RS reflects an acceleration of neural dynamics, owing to reduced prediction error within a recurrent visual processing hierarchy.

  17. Interhemispheric disconnection effects in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, J; ter Horst, R

    1988-01-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis reported less left ear numbers but more right ear numbers than controls in a dichotic listening test. The multiple sclerosis patients were also relatively impaired on three learning tasks; one of these, a test for paired-associate learning of names and faces, correlated with left ear findings; the results are interpreted as supporting a hypothesised disconnection mechanism. PMID:3236021

  18. Face Detection and Face Recognition in Android Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian DOSPINESCU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the smartphone’s camera enables us to capture high quality pictures at a high resolution, so we can perform different types of recognition on these images. Face detection is one of these types of recognition that is very common in our society. We use it every day on Facebook to tag friends in our pictures. It is also used in video games alongside Kinect concept, or in security to allow the access to private places only to authorized persons. These are just some examples of using facial recognition, because in modern society, detection and facial recognition tend to surround us everywhere. The aim of this article is to create an appli-cation for smartphones that can recognize human faces. The main goal of this application is to grant access to certain areas or rooms only to certain authorized persons. For example, we can speak here of hospitals or educational institutions where there are rooms where only certain employees can enter. Of course, this type of application can cover a wide range of uses, such as helping people suffering from Alzheimer's to recognize the people they loved, to fill gaps persons who can’t remember the names of their relatives or for example to automatically capture the face of our own children when they smile.

  19. Face-to-face transfer of wafer-scale graphene films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Libo; Ni, Guang-Xin; Liu, Yanpeng; Liu, Bo; Castro Neto, Antonio H; Loh, Kian Ping

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted worldwide interest since its experimental discovery, but the preparation of large-area, continuous graphene film on SiO2/Si wafers, free from growth-related morphological defects or transfer-induced cracks and folds, remains a formidable challenge. Growth of graphene by chemical vapour deposition on Cu foils has emerged as a powerful technique owing to its compatibility with industrial-scale roll-to-roll technology. However, the polycrystalline nature and microscopic roughness of Cu foils means that such roll-to-roll transferred films are not devoid of cracks and folds. High-fidelity transfer or direct growth of high-quality graphene films on arbitrary substrates is needed to enable wide-ranging applications in photonics or electronics, which include devices such as optoelectronic modulators, transistors, on-chip biosensors and tunnelling barriers. The direct growth of graphene film on an insulating substrate, such as a SiO2/Si wafer, would be useful for this purpose, but current research efforts remain grounded at the proof-of-concept stage, where only discontinuous, nanometre-sized islands can be obtained. Here we develop a face-to-face transfer method for wafer-scale graphene films that is so far the only known way to accomplish both the growth and transfer steps on one wafer. This spontaneous transfer method relies on nascent gas bubbles and capillary bridges between the graphene film and the underlying substrate during etching of the metal catalyst, which is analogous to the method used by tree frogs to remain attached to submerged leaves. In contrast to the previous wet or dry transfer results, the face-to-face transfer does not have to be done by hand and is compatible with any size and shape of substrate; this approach also enjoys the benefit of a much reduced density of transfer defects compared with the conventional transfer method. Most importantly, the direct growth and spontaneous attachment of graphene on the underlying

  20. Kernel learning algorithms for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun-Bao; Pan, Jeng-Shyang

    2013-01-01

    Kernel Learning Algorithms for Face Recognition covers the framework of kernel based face recognition. This book discusses the advanced kernel learning algorithms and its application on face recognition. This book also focuses on the theoretical deviation, the system framework and experiments involving kernel based face recognition. Included within are algorithms of kernel based face recognition, and also the feasibility of the kernel based face recognition method. This book provides researchers in pattern recognition and machine learning area with advanced face recognition methods and its new