WorldWideScience

Sample records for face increasing competition

  1. Competition increases in the face of strong regional ties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoetgen, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The current fuel market exhibits a large surplus production capacity and is strongly influenced by regional ties, with imports of fabricated fuel serving to supplement domestic production or to keep domestic vendors competitive. In the future, the market is set to become increasingly competitive, especially in Europe and the United States. (author)

  2. Facing competitive pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinrich, H.

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the problems facing the electric power industry and professional personnel as a result of economic downturn and the resulting down sizing of individual companies and utilities. The author proposes that the most efficient use of technology will have greater impact in making a utility more competitive than reducing the head count

  3. Face inversion increases attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Forster, Michael; Schlageter, Lena; Paul, Matthew A

    2017-07-01

    Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensory competition in the face processing areas of the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Nagy

    Full Text Available The concurrent presentation of multiple stimuli in the visual field may trigger mutually suppressive interactions throughout the ventral visual stream. While several studies have been performed on sensory competition effects among non-face stimuli relatively little is known about the interactions in the human brain for multiple face stimuli. In the present study we analyzed the neuronal basis of sensory competition in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study using multiple face stimuli. We varied the ratio of faces and phase-noise images within a composite display with a constant number of peripheral stimuli, thereby manipulating the competitive interactions between faces. For contralaterally presented stimuli we observed strong competition effects in the fusiform face area (FFA bilaterally and in the right lateral occipital area (LOC, but not in the occipital face area (OFA, suggesting their different roles in sensory competition. When we increased the spatial distance among pairs of faces the magnitude of suppressive interactions was reduced in the FFA. Surprisingly, the magnitude of competition depended on the visual hemifield of the stimuli: ipsilateral stimulation reduced the competition effects somewhat in the right LOC while it increased them in the left LOC. This suggests a left hemifield dominance of sensory competition. Our results support the sensory competition theory in the processing of multiple faces and suggests that sensory competition occurs in several cortical areas in both cerebral hemispheres.

  5. Facing the petrochemical competition. Are you prepared?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    The factors that impact petrochemical supply, demand and economics were discussed. Petrochemicals are the basis for most commodities consumed in today's society. The demand for these products is determined by the economy and by the population. Recent changes in the world's political structure will have an impact on the petrochemical industry. There is evidence that petrochemical activity is shifting to the developing regions of the world as a result of the fall of communism, the fall of some dictatorships and the privatization of state enterprises. In 1980, the world's economic strength was in Western Europe, North America, and Japan, with 78 per cent of the world's GDP. It was forecast that by 2010, these three areas will only account for 70 per cent of the world's GDP. Shifting population and economies will increase per capita incomes in Eastern Europe, South America, and Asia. These areas will see an increase in purchases of petrochemicals products. Demand for base petrochemicals is expected to increase by 106 million tons over the next ten years. However, to survive in a competitive market, companies will have to develop programs to reduce costs, integrate and be prepared to take advantage of opportunities created by the supply/demand cycles

  6. Facing the challenges of a competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollins, P.

    2001-01-01

    British Energy is one of the world's largest nuclear generating companies. This paper describes the business environment in which the company competes, its strategic responses to the challenges it faces, and gives some conclusions regarding the priorities for the nuclear generation industry if it is to thrive as a mainstream source of energy. (author)

  7. Face recognition increases during saccade preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Rizak, Joshua D; Ma, Yuan-ye; Yang, Shang-chuan; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xin-tian

    2014-01-01

    Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition.

  8. Customer relationship management captures intellectual capital for increased competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Van Zyl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, with regards to tangible assets, the corporate playing field has become more or less level with competing organisations producing very similar products and services. The key differentiator for an organisation's offerings now depends upon an organisation's ability to capture and leverage intellectual capital (IC, and especially customer IC. Customers are an invaluable source of two kinds of IC: transactional and innovative. An organisation must implement customer relationship management (CRM initiatives in order to develop and maintain good relationships with customers and in so doing, be able to capture IC. This IC will enable an organisation to be more responsive to new and changing customer needs and preferences and to be better able to customize products and services according to more specific customer profiles: ultimately leading to increased market share, profitability and overall strategic competitiveness. The purpose of this article is to determine how good customer relationships allow for the capture and subsequent leveraging of customer IC for increased competitiveness. In order to fulfill this purpose, the concept of CRM is explored as well as how CRM allows for the capture of both transactional and innovative capital. The strategic benefits of the application of customer IC are then explored, together with an exposition of the CRM implementation challenges facing those organisations that wish to implement a CRM program to capture and leverage customer IC for increased competitiveness. This exploration involved an examination of contemporary literature, theories and business cases and subsequently revealed that CRM is a vital discipline/philosophy that must be implemented by any organisation wishing to achieve greater market efficiency and competitiveness. This competitiveness can only be achieved through the carefully managed unlocking, sharing and leveraging of both transactional and innovative customer intellectual capital.

  9. Clusters - Tourism Activity Increase Competitiveness Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen IORDACHE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism represents one of those areas with the greatest potential of global expansion. Tourism development strategy in terms of maximizing its positive effects on regional economic increase and implicitly on the national one starts from the premise that in global economy value is created in regions which are defined as particular geographical entities, separated by geographical reasons and not as political-administrative structures, and economic increase is centrally cumulated and valued according to the economic policy and the national legal system.Regional economic system approach based on “cluster” concept is explained by the fact that the regional activities portfolio is based on an inter and intra-industry networking grouped by cluster, in which is created the value that increases as the activity results are leading to the final consumers.This type of communication aims to highlight the tourism role as a factor in regional development, the clustering process significance in obtaining some competitiveness advantages, clusters development in tourism beginnings, and also the identification methodology used to select one touristic area to create the cluster.

  10. Competition increases binding errors in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Stephen M; Ferber, Susanne

    2012-04-20

    When faced with maintaining multiple objects in visual working memory, item information must be bound to the correct object in order to be correctly recalled. Sometimes, however, binding errors occur, and participants report the feature (e.g., color) of an unprobed, non-target item. In the present study, we examine whether the configuration of sample stimuli affects the proportion of these binding errors. The results demonstrate that participants mistakenly report the identity of the unprobed item (i.e., they make a non-target response) when sample items are presented close together in space, suggesting that binding errors can increase independent of increases in memory load. Moreover, the proportion of these non-target responses is linearly related to the distance between sample items, suggesting that these errors are spatially specific. Finally, presenting sample items sequentially decreases non-target responses, suggesting that reducing competition between sample stimuli reduces the number of binding errors. Importantly, these effects all occurred without increases in the amount of error in the memory representation. These results suggest that competition during encoding can account for some of the binding errors made during VWM recall.

  11. Increasing Global Competitiveness: A Case for the Pakistan Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Shamyla Chaudry

    2007-01-01

    The issue of global competitiveness is critical for developing countries. This paper looks at the drivers that influence industrial competitiveness and provides a comparison of these drivers for Pakistan, India and China. The analysis shows that Pakistan lags behind China and India in most of the main components of the industrial competitiveness index. The analysis also presents a series of micro and macro level policy recommendations aimed at increasing Pakistan’s industrial competitiveness.

  12. How did the Turkish Industry Respond to Increased Competitive Pressures, 1998-2007?

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhan Yilmaz; Rauf Gonenc

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how Turkish manufacturing industry responded to increased competitive pressures that it has faced over the past decade. Pressures arose both from growing trade competition from low-cost countries which have similar trade specialisation patterns to Turkey’s, and from strong trend real currency appreciation that Turkey has experienced during this period. In response, Turkish manufacturers increased their productivity, differentiated products, moderated wage growth and drew o...

  13. Increased Efficiency of Face Recognition System using Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Muraleedharan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was inspired by the need of a flexible and cost effective biometric security system. The flexibility of the wireless sensor network makes it a natural choice for data transmission. Swarm intelligence (SI is used to optimize routing in distributed time varying network. In this paper, SI maintains the required bit error rate (BER for varied channel conditions while consuming minimal energy. A specific biometric, the face recognition system, is discussed as an example. Simulation shows that the wireless sensor network is efficient in energy consumption while keeping the transmission accuracy, and the wireless face recognition system is competitive to the traditional wired face recognition system in classification accuracy.

  14. Reading the face of a leader: women with low facial masculinity are perceived as competitive

    OpenAIRE

    Silberzahn, Raphael; Menges, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    In competitive settings, people prefer leaders with masculine faces. But is facial masculinity a trait that is similarly desired in men and women leaders? Across three studies, we discovered that people indeed prefer men and women leaders who have faces with masculine traits. But surprisingly, we find that people also prefer women with low facial masculinity as leaders in competitive contexts (Study 1). Our findings indicate that low facial masculinity in women, but not in men is perceived to...

  15. New faces and functions in a competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadari, S.V.; Hammerly, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    With the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 888/889 mandating open access of the nation's transmission network, the US electric utility industry begins its most significant transformation. Once highly regulated and organized into vertically integrated entities, the industry today is being restructured into a competitive arena made up of veterans as well as new players from other industries. All participants are facilitating change through the establishment of new business processes and information flow and in the development of the functions that will support a deregulated marketplace. They must take advantage of the advances in technology in designing and implementing the new applications and the systems that need to go with them. This article analyzes the implications of this massive change from the perspective of the various participants and shows how their roles are affected by the changes

  16. Local competition increases people’s willingness to harm others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Barclay, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Why should organisms incur a cost in order to inflict a (usually greater) cost on others? Such costly harming behavior may be favored when competition for resources occurs locally, because it increases individuals' fitness relative to close competitors. However, there is no explicit experimental...... evidence supporting the prediction that people are more willing to harm others under local versus global competition. We illustrate this prediction with a game theoretic model, and then test it in a series of economic games. In these experiments, players could spend money to make others lose more. We...... manipulated the scale of competition by awarding cash prizes to the players with the highest payoffs per set of social partners (local competition) or in all the participants in a session (global competition). We found that, as predicted, people were more harmful to others when competition was local (study 1...

  17. Increase in competitiveness of housing-and-communal services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnik, Oksana

    2017-10-01

    The problems, interfering effective activity of housing-and-communal complex are considered in the article. Some factors of the increase in competitiveness and the importance of transactional expenses are revealed. The assessment of competitiveness of the organizations of the sphere of housing-and-communal services is considered as the set of the following basic elements organizational and administrative, marketing, financial, production, indicators of quality, indicators of development, labor indicators interconnected with processes of the organization. The author proves that the increase in competitiveness is possible by carrying out organizational and administrative, innovative, technological, economic transformations, increasing quality of services, reducing costs for production and realization of services, providing new services.

  18. Investment opportunities in an increasingly competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Four topic areas are considered: (1) The global context for energy investments, (2) Strategic investments in the gas chain, (3) Conventional and changing approaches to investing in gas and power, (4) New areas of opportunity. The presentation considers the challenging global context for investments and the current oil price outlook and more specifically the backdrop to the growth in demand for gas and its increasing availability and the implications of factors such as energy market liberalization. It notes the regional nature of gas and power markets and considers the issue of stranded supply and demand. It identifies an increasing trend towards investments up and down the gas chain by both traditional and new players and explores BP Amoco's own corporate response. The presentation then briefly reviews four major gas investments which BP Amoco has either already taken or is considering. It then discusses investments in gas to power and the growing environmental agenda, which is bringing a range of new and non-traditional investment opportunities

  19. Investment opportunities in an increasingly competitive environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Martin

    1999-07-01

    Four topic areas are considered: (1) The global context for energy investments, (2) Strategic investments in the gas chain, (3) Conventional and changing approaches to investing in gas and power, (4) New areas of opportunity. The presentation considers the challenging global context for investments and the current oil price outlook and more specifically the backdrop to the growth in demand for gas and its increasing availability and the implications of factors such as energy market liberalization. It notes the regional nature of gas and power markets and considers the issue of stranded supply and demand. It identifies an increasing trend towards investments up and down the gas chain by both traditional and new players and explores BP Amoco's own corporate response. The presentation then briefly reviews four major gas investments which BP Amoco has either already taken or is considering. It then discusses investments in gas to power and the growing environmental agenda, which is bringing a range of new and non-traditional investment opportunities.

  20. WAYS TO INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT IN MODERN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bech

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this paper it is necessary to analyze the types of competition in the transport market in order to find ways to improve the competitiveness of railway transport and to determine the ensuring equal conditions for all market participants by eliminating discrimination in competition. Methodology. Analysis of recent research and publications on the subject was held by the authors. The question of the development of competition, increased competitiveness in railway transport was investigated. Attention is drawn to the fact that due to the decline in traffic volumes on all modes of transport competition may significantly change the usual sphere the effective use of different modes of transport. Every mode of transport occupies a particular segment of the transport market, taking into account its technical and economic features, weakly competing, and in some cases do not compete with each other (except the road transport. However, it is entirely possible competition inside these segments.Findings. The problems of management of competitiveness, including the transport market, which required extensive analysis and serious scientific study, were identified. Originality. As a result of this work the features of transport and production of transport in modern conditions were structured. The dependences of passenger turnover and freight turnover by mode of transport over the past decade were shown. The question of additional profits by providing the cargo owners a range of service was examined. The optimal combination of cost and quality of such services at each transportation company promotes increasing its competitive status. Practical value. Competition between enterprises of the industry put the aim of improving the competitiveness of not only railway subsystems directly involved in technology movement of cargoes and the movement of passengers, but also the organization of infrastructure in the first place – subsystems to expand services

  1. Power distribution faced with the challenges posed by competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelier, J.P.; Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of liberalization, the increasing share of decentralized electricity generation, the aging of electrical infrastructures, ambitious generation objectives and technological evolution are the key drivers that require substantial investments in the distribution grid. The most urgent challenges are to adapt the network architecture and operation, modernize and improve metering equipment, renovate existing facilities. The Energy Regulatory Commission sets the price to be paid by users of the distribution grid; this price is set rather low, in order to encourage the system operator to make productivity gains. But resultant low income may deprive the operator of the financial resources needed to adapt the system to the new conditions. (authors)

  2. Increased competition does not lead to increased phylogenetic overdispersion in a native grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jonathan A; Lamb, Eric G; Hall, Jocelyn C; Cardinal-McTeague, Warren M; Cahill, James F

    2013-09-01

    That competition is stronger among closely related species and leads to phylogenetic overdispersion is a common assumption in community ecology. However, tests of this assumption are rare and field-based experiments lacking. We tested the relationship between competition, the degree of relatedness, and overdispersion among plants experimentally and using a field survey in a native grassland. Relatedness did not affect competition, nor was competition associated with phylogenetic overdispersion. Further, there was only weak evidence for increased overdispersion at spatial scales where plants are likely to compete. These results challenge traditional theory, but are consistent with recent theories regarding the mechanisms of plant competition and its potential effect on phylogenetic structure. We suggest that specific conditions related to the form of competition and trait conservatism must be met for competition to cause phylogenetic overdispersion. Consequently, overdispersion as a result of competition is likely to be rare in natural communities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF INCREASING COMPETITIVENESS OF UKRAINIAN BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Modern business conditions and comprehensive economic globalization put the banking institutions at the forefront of the task of achieving and maintaining a high level of competitiveness both on the domestic and on the external financial markets, as banks serve as the main intermediaries in the whole complex of relationships between different economic subjects. To achieve and maintain the competitiveness of banks it is important to create an effective management mechanism, which determines the relevance of the chosen topic. Purpose. The purpose of the work is to summarize the existing theoretical aspects concerning the competitiveness of banks and develop organizational and economic approaches to its enhancement and implementation in banking practice. Results. The article generalizes the notion of competitiveness as an economic category and defines the main approaches of scientists to its interpretation. The role and importance of foreign capital in the banking system and its impact on the competitiveness of banks are considered, and the share of foreign capital in the authorized capital of banks for the period of 2008-2017 is calculated. On the basis of the comparative analysis, the impact on the competitiveness of the largest banking institutions of Ukraine on the performance indicators, such as volumes of assets, liabilities of banks and capital adequacy, was investigated. The possibility of increasing the efficiency of the mechanism of ensuring competitiveness according to the process approach is outlined. By means of the Microsoft Office Visio software system, the Bank’s own Banking Business Management business process was built to ensure the bank’s viability and its structural analysis according to the IDEF0 standard of the SADT methodology. Conclusions. The relationship between the analysis of the bank’s position and the development of its development strategy is important for the understanding and effective management

  4. Strategic Wholesale Pricing for an Incumbent Supplier Facing with a Competitive Counterpart

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jianwu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a wholesale pricing strategy for an incumbent supplier facing with a competitive counterpart. We propose a profit function which considers both the present loss and future loss from a wholesale price and then study the optimal wholesale prices for different objectives about this profit function for the incumbent supplier. First, we achieve an optimal wholesale price for the incumbent supplier to maximize his expected profit. Then, to reduce the risk originating from the fluctuati...

  5. Strategic wholesale pricing for an incumbent supplier facing with a competitive counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianwu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a wholesale pricing strategy for an incumbent supplier facing with a competitive counterpart. We propose a profit function which considers both the present loss and future loss from a wholesale price and then study the optimal wholesale prices for different objectives about this profit function for the incumbent supplier. First, we achieve an optimal wholesale price for the incumbent supplier to maximize his expected profit. Then, to reduce the risk originating from the fluctuation in the competitive supplier's wholesale price, we integrate the conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) measure in financial risk management into this study and derive an optimal wholesale price to maximize CVaR about profit for the incumbent supplier. Besides, the properties of the two optimal wholesale prices are discussed. Finally, some management insights are suggested for the incumbent supplier in a competitive setting.

  6. Strategic Wholesale Pricing for an Incumbent Supplier Facing with a Competitive Counterpart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwu Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a wholesale pricing strategy for an incumbent supplier facing with a competitive counterpart. We propose a profit function which considers both the present loss and future loss from a wholesale price and then study the optimal wholesale prices for different objectives about this profit function for the incumbent supplier. First, we achieve an optimal wholesale price for the incumbent supplier to maximize his expected profit. Then, to reduce the risk originating from the fluctuation in the competitive supplier’s wholesale price, we integrate the conditional value-at-risk (CVaR measure in financial risk management into this study and derive an optimal wholesale price to maximize CVaR about profit for the incumbent supplier. Besides, the properties of the two optimal wholesale prices are discussed. Finally, some management insights are suggested for the incumbent supplier in a competitive setting.

  7. Soil amendment with biochar increases the competitive ability of legumes via increased potassium availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oram, N.J.; Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Ouwehand, G.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, Liesje; Jeffery, S.; van Groeningen, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Soil amendment with biochar is currently proposed as a management strategy to improve soil quality and enhance plant productivity. Relatively little is known about how biochar affects plant competition, although it has been suggested that it can increase the competitive ability of legumes. This

  8. Nuclear power faces up to competition. A textbook on current controversial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goering, R.W.; Oesterwind, D.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear power plants should face up to competition in the energy sector, and nuclear power reactor technology should at last be discussed without bias. The criteria to be applied are: environmental effects, availability, economics, safety and general acceptance. For decades now nuclear power plant operation has been proving to meet the first three of the above criteria. But although the engineered safety concepts and the available operating data proved successful and reliable, the safety philosophy underlying nuclear reactor technology still could not win general acceptance among the population. There have been considerable advances in engineered nuclear safety over the last few years. Reactors have been designed on the basis of a novel safety philosophy. Such novel concepts deserve a new approach for assessment, taking into account the worldwide population explosion, increasing energy consumption, and rising environmental hazards. The book in hand reviews and explains the advanced safety concepts, so that readers can get insight into the safety qualities of novel reactor types and thus criteria for novel assessment. (orig.) [de

  9. Supplier relationship management leverages intellectual capital for increased competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Van Zyl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate how supplier relationship management (SRM enables the capture and creation of intellectual capital, thereby attaining and sustaining a strategic competitive advantage and increasing supply chain profitability. In order to achieve this purpose, a large part of the article is devoted to exploring the relatively new and unknown field of SRM. It is shown that an organisation must possess a thorough understanding of good supplier characteristics and of the drivers, benefits and requirements for the successful implementation of SRM, in order to enable that organisation to leverage their supplier relationships to ensure the capture of supplier expertise, patents, experiences etc. (i.e. their intellectual capital. The article then explores how the integration of technology in SRM applications can improve the efficiency of supplier collaboration and intellectual capital capture and creation. It is then demonstrated how efficient and collaborative supplier relationships improve supply chain profitability and competitiveness. Lastly, the article explores the implementation pitfalls and trends of SRM that must be constantly considered and monitored by an organisation in order to continually capture and create intellectual capital and reap the full benefits of SRM. This exploration involved an examination of contemporary literature, theories and business cases and subsequently revealed that SRM is a vital discipline/philosophy that must be implemented by any organisation wishing to achieve greater supply chain efficiency and competitiveness. This competitiveness can only be achieved through the mutual unlocking, sharing and leveraging of intellectual capital.

  10. Regions Competitiveness Increase by Improving Conditions for Industry and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiraskova Eliska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main field of study regarding location theories is to define location factors and to determine the optimal location assuming rational behaviour of economic entities. The issue is to find outwhat place is suitable for localization of the economic entity in order to maximize its profits in relation to its spatial orientation. In the theoretical part, location theories for industry andservices with the impact of location factors are first briefly described. Mainly their development and significance in the competitive environment is discussed because the right selection of location factors can actually help to increase the competitiveness of regions. This paper analyses the actual soft regional and local location factors in individual economic sectors and focuses on thesecondary and tertiary sector because the primary sector is affected by other than the examined factors. The aim of this paper is to identify factors that affect industry and are more important to the service sector. Identifying these factors can actually help to attract new businesses and to increase regions competitiveness. It is, therefore, necessary to determine the key factors that have stimulating effects on the development of individual regions.

  11. Increasing competitiveness with intercompany integration of logistics and marketing functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Topolšek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers of different scientific disciplines, such as management strategies, organizational theories and marketing, have in the past explored relations of mutual influences and the importance of cooperation between different functions in a company. The increased focus on the logistics function has potential to increase competitiveness. This is especially true for globally aimed production companies. In any company, logistics functions cooperate with various related functions such as production, marketing, procurement, engineering or developing new products as well as with financial functions. Each of the aforementioned connections or cooperation among logistics and its complementary functions can have a decisive effect on the company's competitiveness. Using a survey, we determined which activities in the surveyed companies are performed by the logistical function together with the marketing function and which activities they suggest should be performed together but are currently not, meaning they are co-dependent. Since interfunctional integration between logistics and marketing increases the success of a company, we also examined the connection between the current joint performance of activities and the suggested joint performance of activities among the before mentioned sectors, connected to the effectiveness of the company. To examine the mentioned connections among the logistical and marketing functions, Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM were performed.

  12. Dynamic Eye Tracking Based Metrics for Infant Gaze Patterns in the Face-Distractor Competition Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtola, Eero; Stjerna, Susanna; Yrttiaho, Santeri; Nelson, Charles A.; Leppänen, Jukka M.; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop new standardized eye tracking based measures and metrics for infants’ gaze dynamics in the face-distractor competition paradigm. Method Eye tracking data were collected from two samples of healthy 7-month-old (total n = 45), as well as one sample of 5-month-old infants (n = 22) in a paradigm with a picture of a face or a non-face pattern as a central stimulus, and a geometric shape as a lateral stimulus. The data were analyzed by using conventional measures of infants’ initial disengagement from the central to the lateral stimulus (i.e., saccadic reaction time and probability) and, additionally, novel measures reflecting infants gaze dynamics after the initial disengagement (i.e., cumulative allocation of attention to the central vs. peripheral stimulus). Results The results showed that the initial saccade away from the centrally presented stimulus is followed by a rapid re-engagement of attention with the central stimulus, leading to cumulative preference for the central stimulus over the lateral stimulus over time. This pattern tended to be stronger for salient facial expressions as compared to non-face patterns, was replicable across two independent samples of 7-month-old infants, and differentiated between 7 and 5 month-old infants. Conclusion The results suggest that eye tracking based assessments of infants’ cumulative preference for faces over time can be readily parameterized and standardized, and may provide valuable techniques for future studies examining normative developmental changes in preference for social signals. Significance Standardized measures of early developing face preferences may have potential to become surrogate biomarkers of neurocognitive and social development. PMID:24845102

  13. Dynamic eye tracking based metrics for infant gaze patterns in the face-distractor competition paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Ahtola

    Full Text Available To develop new standardized eye tracking based measures and metrics for infants' gaze dynamics in the face-distractor competition paradigm.Eye tracking data were collected from two samples of healthy 7-month-old (total n = 45, as well as one sample of 5-month-old infants (n = 22 in a paradigm with a picture of a face or a non-face pattern as a central stimulus, and a geometric shape as a lateral stimulus. The data were analyzed by using conventional measures of infants' initial disengagement from the central to the lateral stimulus (i.e., saccadic reaction time and probability and, additionally, novel measures reflecting infants gaze dynamics after the initial disengagement (i.e., cumulative allocation of attention to the central vs. peripheral stimulus.The results showed that the initial saccade away from the centrally presented stimulus is followed by a rapid re-engagement of attention with the central stimulus, leading to cumulative preference for the central stimulus over the lateral stimulus over time. This pattern tended to be stronger for salient facial expressions as compared to non-face patterns, was replicable across two independent samples of 7-month-old infants, and differentiated between 7 and 5 month-old infants.The results suggest that eye tracking based assessments of infants' cumulative preference for faces over time can be readily parameterized and standardized, and may provide valuable techniques for future studies examining normative developmental changes in preference for social signals.Standardized measures of early developing face preferences may have potential to become surrogate biomarkers of neurocognitive and social development.

  14. Time pressure increases cooperation in competitively framed social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Jeremy; Rand, David G

    2014-01-01

    What makes people willing to pay costs to benefit others? Does such cooperation require effortful self-control, or do automatic, intuitive processes favor cooperation? Time pressure has been shown to increase cooperative behavior in Public Goods Games, implying a predisposition towards cooperation. Consistent with the hypothesis that this predisposition results from the fact that cooperation is typically advantageous outside the lab, it has further been shown that the time pressure effect is undermined by prior experience playing lab games (where selfishness is the more advantageous strategy). Furthermore, a recent study found that time pressure increases cooperation even in a game framed as a competition, suggesting that the time pressure effect is not the result of social norm compliance. Here, we successfully replicate these findings, again observing a positive effect of time pressure on cooperation in a competitively framed game, but not when using the standard cooperative framing. These results suggest that participants' intuitions favor cooperation rather than norm compliance, and also that simply changing the framing of the Public Goods Game is enough to make it appear novel to participants and thus to restore the time pressure effect.

  15. Time pressure increases cooperation in competitively framed social dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Cone

    Full Text Available What makes people willing to pay costs to benefit others? Does such cooperation require effortful self-control, or do automatic, intuitive processes favor cooperation? Time pressure has been shown to increase cooperative behavior in Public Goods Games, implying a predisposition towards cooperation. Consistent with the hypothesis that this predisposition results from the fact that cooperation is typically advantageous outside the lab, it has further been shown that the time pressure effect is undermined by prior experience playing lab games (where selfishness is the more advantageous strategy. Furthermore, a recent study found that time pressure increases cooperation even in a game framed as a competition, suggesting that the time pressure effect is not the result of social norm compliance. Here, we successfully replicate these findings, again observing a positive effect of time pressure on cooperation in a competitively framed game, but not when using the standard cooperative framing. These results suggest that participants' intuitions favor cooperation rather than norm compliance, and also that simply changing the framing of the Public Goods Game is enough to make it appear novel to participants and thus to restore the time pressure effect.

  16. Strategic Management Planning of Soybean Store Hadijanto Trisno with the Purpose of Developing Business and Facing Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Tedjalaksana, Retta Margaretta; Aldianto, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Every development demand a change, include in business world. Small businesses that are still using traditional management system face a challenge to maintaining the business continuity and facing competition in this modern era. Soybean Store Hadijanto Trisno, a hereditary business is facing some issues in running the business, which are company doesn't have functional division, lack of workers and transport during peak hours, and no database system. Those business issues are explored throu...

  17. Knowledge in Value Creation Process for Increasing Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ZÁVODSKÁ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare companies by using value creation model and to determine knowledge in these processes. The framework for the value creation process shows problems of case companies in different phases of this process. Knowledge is compared in each of the individual phases of the process and its role in different types of companies. There is identified role of knowledge for increasing competitive advantage. The methodology involves case study from which data are derived and analyzed. The analysis shows that the framework for the value creation process can be used as an analytical tool for value overview in different phases and there is a need for different approaches to improve business and create new value for customers. Based on the analyzed problems, proposed recommendations for improvement are made. These recommendations are based on providing value innovation for customers (end users of software product. Value innovation of software product is considered as crucial for improvement of the companies in machinery industry. Company A has created new value through remote service. This remote service provides several advantages. Customers can prevent problems in machines by implementing software product which is still analyzing and evaluating data from machines. Company B and C were not able to create major value innovation for several years.

  18. Knowledge in Value Creation Process for Increasing Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika ŠRAMOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare companies by using value creation model and to determine knowledge in these processes. The framework for the value creation process shows problems of case companies in different phases of this process. Knowledge is compared in each of the individual phases of the process and its role in different types of companies. There is identified role of knowledge for increasing competitive advantage. The methodology involves case study from which data are derived and analyzed. The analysis shows that the framework for the value creation process can be used as an analytical tool for value overview in different phases and there is a need for different approaches to improve business and create new value for customers. Based on the analyzed problems, proposed recommendations for improvement are made. These recommendations are based on providing value innovation for customers (end users of software product. Value innovation of software product is considered as crucial for improvement of the companies in machinery industry. Company A has created new value through remote service. This remote service provides several advantages. Customers can prevent problems in machines by implementing software product which is still analyzing and evaluating data from machines. Company B and C were not able to create major value innovation for several years.

  19. High epitope expression levels increase competition between T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almut Scherer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Both theoretical predictions and experimental findings suggest that T cell populations can compete with each other. There is some debate on whether T cells compete for aspecific stimuli, such as access to the surface on antigen-presenting cells (APCs or for specific stimuli, such as their cognate epitope ligand. We have developed an individual-based computer simulation model to study T cell competition. Our model shows that the expression level of foreign epitopes per APC determines whether T cell competition is mainly for specific or aspecific stimuli. Under low epitope expression, competition is mainly for the specific epitope stimuli, and, hence, different epitope-specific T cell populations coexist readily. However, if epitope expression levels are high, aspecific competition becomes more important. Such between-specificity competition can lead to competitive exclusion between different epitope-specific T cell populations. Our model allows us to delineate the circumstances that facilitate coexistence of T cells of different epitope specificity. Understanding mechanisms of T cell coexistence has important practical implications for immune therapies that require a broad immune response.

  20. Increasing Students' Perceived Sociopolitical Empowerment through Online and Face-to-Face Community Psychology Seminars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescato, Donata; Solimeno, Andrea; Mebane, Minou Ella; Tomai, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Community psychology theorists underline the importance of promoting sociopolitical empowerment, but few studies have been conducted on the evaluation of the efficacy of empowering programs among university students. The authors report two studies: the first, with 216 psychology majors, compared the efficacy of face-to-face and online community…

  1. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Methods Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. Key Results While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. Conclusions The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. PMID:25301818

  2. Does increased salinity influence the competitive outcome of two producer species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, C; Anselmo, E; Soares, A; Lopes, I

    2017-02-01

    Within the context of global climate changes, it is expected that low-lying coastal freshwater ecosystems will face seawater intrusion with concomitant increase in salinity levels. Increased salinity may provoke disruption of competitive relationships among freshwater species. However, species may be capable of acclimating to salinity, which, in turn, may influence the resilience of ecosystems. Accordingly, this work aimed at assessing the effects of multigenerational exposure to low levels of salinity in the competitive outcome of two species of green microalgae: Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris. To attain this, three specific objectives were delineated: (1) compare the toxicity of natural seawater (SW) and NaCl (as a surrogate of SW) to the two microalgae, (2) determine the capacity of the two microalgae species to acclimate to low salinity levels, and (3) assess the influence of exposure to low salinity levels in the competitive outcome of the two microalgae. Results revealed SW to be slightly less toxic than NaCl for the two microalgae. The EC 25,72 h for growth rate was 4.63 and 10.3 mS cm -1 for R. subcapitata and 6.94 and 15.4 mS cm -1 for C. vulgaris, respectively for NaCl and SW. Both algae were capable of acclimating to low levels of salinity, but C. vulgaris seemed to acclimate faster than R. subcapitata. When exposed in competition, under control conditions, the growth rates of C. vulgaris were lower than those of R. subcapitata. However, C. vulgaris was capable of acquiring competitive advantage equaling or surpassing the growth rate of R. subcapitata with the addition of NaCl or SW, respectively. The multigenerational exposure to low levels of salinity influenced the competitive outcome of the two algae both under control and salinity exposure. These results suggest that long-term exposure to low salinity stress can cause shifts in structure of algae communities and, therefore, should not be neglected since algae are at the basis

  3. Price drop and increasing competition; Sinkende Preise und mehr Wettbewerb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, Joachim

    2012-01-06

    Competition in the German PV sector is getting harder. German wholesale providers are dropping their prices, strengthening their marketing activities and expanding their range of services. This is the result of an enquiry made by SONNE WIND and WAeRME in November 2011.

  4. Increasing the Competitive Edge in Math and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettlewell, Janet S., Ed.; Henry, Ronald J., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The U. S. is losing its competitive edge in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Thomas Friedman warns that America is not producing enough young people in STEM fields that are essential for entrepreneurship and innovation in the 21st century (The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century, 2005). Blue ribbon…

  5. Increasing the competitiveness of e-vehicles in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figenbaum, Erik; Fearnley, Nils; Pfaffenbichler, Paul; Hjorthol, Randi; Kolbenstvedt, Marika; Jellinek, Reinhard; Emmerling, Bettina; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Ramjerdi, Farideh; Vagane, Liva; Moller Iversen, Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This paper is concerned with incentives for the take-up and use of e-vehicles that are in place in different European countries. Especially, it analyses Norway and Austria, in order to establish and understand factors influencing the competitiveness of e-vehicles and potential market

  6. Expertise Effects in Face-Selective Areas are Robust to Clutter and Diverted Attention, but not to Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Van Gulick, Ana E; Tamber-Rosenau, Benjamin J; Ross, David A; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    Expertise effects for nonface objects in face-selective brain areas may reflect stable aspects of neuronal selectivity that determine how observers perceive objects. However, bottom-up (e.g., clutter from irrelevant objects) and top-down manipulations (e.g., attentional selection) can influence activity, affecting the link between category selectivity and individual performance. We test the prediction that individual differences expressed as neural expertise effects for cars in face-selective areas are sufficiently stable to survive clutter and manipulations of attention. Additionally, behavioral work and work using event related potentials suggest that expertise effects may not survive competition; we investigate this using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects varying in expertise with cars made 1-back decisions about cars, faces, and objects in displays containing one or 2 objects, with only one category attended. Univariate analyses suggest car expertise effects are robust to clutter, dampened by reducing attention to cars, but nonetheless more robust to manipulations of attention than competition. While univariate expertise effects are severely abolished by competition between cars and faces, multivariate analyses reveal new information related to car expertise. These results demonstrate that signals in face-selective areas predict expertise effects for nonface objects in a variety of conditions, although individual differences may be expressed in different dependent measures depending on task and instructions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Thinking outside the mainstream; Canadian NGL plants face global competition and decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, D.

    2005-01-01

    The nature of the natural gas liquids (NGL) market, and the future prospects of the Canadian NGL industry are discussed. In the short term, demand for NGLs like propane, ethane and condensate is up, the supply picture is good, and the profit margins for Canadian gas plants look positive. At the same time, staying competitive with oil-based naptha and global NGL imports is expected to become more difficult, and the longer term future is far from being without significant problems. Competition is likely to grow as the Canadian energy industry is increasingly looking to heavy oil and bitumen to meet coming energy demand needs; given that it takes about a thousand cubic feet of natural gas to produce each barrel of oil from the oilsands, serious impact on natural gas availability is inevitable, which in turn will affect the supply of NGLs. To reduce the pressure on natural gas, there is an urgent need to come up with other sources of heavy oil production; various options such as coal, nuclear power and even coal gasification are being investigated, albeit too slowly to arrest the decline of North American conventional gas production that started in 2001. Expert opinion is that the real hope for the NGL industry, as well as for the future of natural gas, is the stranded reserve in the Arctic which, however, is expected to flow soon from the Mackenzie Delta. While Arctic gas is expected to negate the impact of waterborne imports from other countries by the USA, the absence of overseas imports does not alter the fact that North America as a petrochemical manufacturer is no longer as competitive with other countries as it once was. The unpleasant reality is that new petrochemical plants are more likely to be built in the Far East and China, where both the feedstock as well as the labour, are much cheaper. 3 photos

  8. Increase of the competition on the electric power french market: 6000 MW for the concurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the energy market deregulation in France, EDF became wedded to three objectives: encourage the competition in France, contribute to the development of a unique energy market in Europe and and allowed the EDF group development in the same conditions of the concurrence. In this mind, EDF put 6000 MW for auction. An economic analysis of the EDF group policy facing the competition of the new energy de-regulated market is proposed. (A.L.B.)

  9. Technological innovation as a mean to increase economic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VASILE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporations must be able to adapt and evolve if they wish to survive. Businesses operate with the knowledge that their competitors will inevitably come to the market with a product that changes the basis of competition. The ability to change and adapt is essential to survival.(1 European Union and its member states set several frameworks to support companies to acquire knowledge and strengthen their competitiveness, as follows:- National Programs for R & D funding which support national actors;- Sectorial Operational Programs (either at national or regional level, in full compliance with national rules;- EU programs (e.g. Competitiveness and Innovation Program – CIP, R&D Framework Programs – FP;- Pan-European programs (e.g. EUREKA.Romania is participating to all programs and pan-European R & D frameworks. Furthermore, its innovation program within the National Plan for research facilitates company participation to knowledge development and technology development. Nevertheless Romania’s Innovation performance is still at one of the lowest level in Europe(2. The followings present how companies are considering their participation to R & D programs and the impact of an R & D project in a company.

  10. Bigger testes increase paternity in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, independently of the sperm competition level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellnow, N; Marie-Orleach, L; Zadesenets, K S; Schärer, L

    2018-02-01

    Hermaphroditic animals face the fundamental evolutionary optimization problem of allocating their resources to their male vs. female reproductive function (e.g. testes and sperm vs. ovaries and eggs), and this optimal sex allocation can be affected by both pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection. For example, local sperm competition (LSC) - the competition between related sperm for the fertilization of a partner's ova - occurs in small mating groups and can favour a female-biased sex allocation, because, under LSC, investment into sperm production is predicted to show diminishing fitness returns. Here, we test whether higher testis investment increases an individual's paternity success under sperm competition, and whether the strength of this effect diminishes when LSC is stronger, as predicted by sex allocation theory. We created two subsets of individuals of the simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignano - by sampling worms from either the highest or lowest quartile of the testis investment distribution - and estimated their paternity success in group sizes of either three (strong LSC) or eight individuals (weak LSC). Specifically, using transgenic focal individuals expressing a dominant green-fluorescent protein marker, we showed that worms with high testis investment sired 22% more offspring relative to those with low investment, corroborating previous findings in M. lignano and other species. However, the strength of this effect was not significantly modulated by the experienced group size, contrasting theoretical expectations of more strongly diminishing fitness returns under strong LSC. We discuss the possible implications for the evolutionary maintenance of hermaphroditism in M. lignano. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Seed Removal Increased by Scramble Competition with an Invasive Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Rebecca L; Koprowski, John L

    2015-01-01

    Competition for seeds has a major influence on the evolution of granivores and the plants on which they rely. The complexity of interactions and coevolutionary relationships vary across forest types. The introduction of non-native granivores has considerable potential to alter seed dispersal dynamics. Non-native species are a major cause of endangerment for native species, but the mechanisms are often unclear. As biological invasions continue to rise, it is important to understand mechanisms to build up strategies to mitigate the threat. Our field experiment quantified the impact of introduced Abert's squirrels (Sciurus aberti) on rates of seed removal within the range of critically endangered Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis), which consumes similar foods. In the presence of invasive Abert's squirrels, the time cones were removed was faster than when the invasive was excluded, accounting for a median removal time of cones available to red and Abert's squirrels that is 32.8% less than that of cones available only to the rare native red squirrels. Moreover, in the presence of Abert's squirrels, removal rates are higher at great distance from a territorial red squirrel larderhoard and in more open portions of the forest, which suggests differential patterns of seed dispersal. The impact on food availability as a result of cone removal by Abert's squirrels suggests the potential of food competition as a mechanism of endangerment for the Mount Graham red squirrel. Furthermore, the magnitude and differential spatial patterns of seed removal suggest that non-native granivores may have impacts on forest regeneration and structure.

  12. Seed Removal Increased by Scramble Competition with an Invasive Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Minor

    Full Text Available Competition for seeds has a major influence on the evolution of granivores and the plants on which they rely. The complexity of interactions and coevolutionary relationships vary across forest types. The introduction of non-native granivores has considerable potential to alter seed dispersal dynamics. Non-native species are a major cause of endangerment for native species, but the mechanisms are often unclear. As biological invasions continue to rise, it is important to understand mechanisms to build up strategies to mitigate the threat. Our field experiment quantified the impact of introduced Abert's squirrels (Sciurus aberti on rates of seed removal within the range of critically endangered Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis, which consumes similar foods. In the presence of invasive Abert's squirrels, the time cones were removed was faster than when the invasive was excluded, accounting for a median removal time of cones available to red and Abert's squirrels that is 32.8% less than that of cones available only to the rare native red squirrels. Moreover, in the presence of Abert's squirrels, removal rates are higher at great distance from a territorial red squirrel larderhoard and in more open portions of the forest, which suggests differential patterns of seed dispersal. The impact on food availability as a result of cone removal by Abert's squirrels suggests the potential of food competition as a mechanism of endangerment for the Mount Graham red squirrel. Furthermore, the magnitude and differential spatial patterns of seed removal suggest that non-native granivores may have impacts on forest regeneration and structure.

  13. THE MECHANISM FOR IMPLEMENTING THE STRATEGY OF COMPETITIVENESS INCREASE OF THE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Николай Петрович ГРИНЧЕНКО

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the organizational competitiveness increase, which is employed to enhance the organizational structure, has been performed in the research. The principles ensuring the product competitiveness have been pointed out. The involvement of the strategic marketing service organizational structure which aims to optimize the information flows for the development of the managerial decisions has been proved.  The generalized structure of strategic marketing services focused on medium-sized and large enterprises has been proposed. The proposed strategic marketing service develops strategic standards for all production parameters on the first stage of organizational product life cycle. Employing the innovation management methods, it prepares the exclusive values for all production parameters to turn them into an organizational competitiveness according to the following scheme: exclusive value, competitive advantages of products, competitiveness of products and organization competitiveness. Strategic Marketing Service together with top managers performs: the strategic vision and organization mission development, the tree of long-term objectives development, the strategy of the organization competitiveness improvement development, projects formation, control, and implementation. The Strategic Marketing Service Management is based on the strategic management functions implementation while performing the strategy of organizational competitiveness increase. The mechanism structure of the strategy of organizational competitiveness increase that will effectively perform the strategic management decisions and convert the exclusive values into the organizational competitiveness has been proposed.

  14. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-12-01

    A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridoux, F.; Vodosek, M.; Den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Competition traditionally refers to the actions that firms take in a product market to outperform rivals in attracting customers and generating revenues. Yet, competition extends beyond product markets to other arenas such as factor markets, where firms compete for resources, and the political

  16. Increasing competitiveness of wine producers in strategic alliances VOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Prokeš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main reasons for the formation of new regional association of wineries, based on a different origin for wines in the wine region of Moravia in the southeast part of the Czech Republic. This research aim is to create a plan for new development of such strategic alliances on the basis of results of localization factors. There coefficient of localization is used for identification of cluster. Results are compared with already operating on associations for the appellation in Austria DAC. They were traced changes in consumer preferences in the Czech wine market. Consumers are placing more emphasis on the selection of wine on its descent from a particular area, growing community and the individual grower. This paper specifically introduces new associations for appellation system VOC. This alliance is described in the context of the establishment, operation, development and expansion, respectively the possibility of involvement of additional organizations suppliers and research institutions. The application of the results of research was a plan for the establishment of new alliance VOC Modré Hory, where are associated 30 wine producers of wine in 5 villages around the center Velké Pavlovice. Based on the experience of newly emerging VOC system of appellations was setting up a plan of formation association with the proposed methodological approach. Open cooperation between associations VOC appellation and other entities involving suppliers, customers, research institutions and universities has the possibility of creating an institutionalized wine cluster. The plan to create a wine cluster was proposed to establish cooperation between the newly emerging associations of VOC at three sub-regions of South Moravia, in order to achieve competitive advantage.

  17. A comparison of the effectiveness of a game informed online learning activity and face to face teaching in increasing knowledge about managing aggression in health settings

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching ...

  18. Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler; Brotherton, Chloe

    2018-01-01

    for the face the be put into action. Based on an ethnographic study of Danish teenagers’ use of SnapChat we demonstrate how the face is used as a central medium for interaction with peers. Through the analysis of visual SnapChat messages we investigate how SnapChat requires the sender to put an ‘ugly’ face...... already secured their popular status on the heterosexual marketplace in the broad context of the school. Thus SnapChat functions both as a challenge to beauty norms of ‘flawless faces’ and as a reinscription of these same norms by further manifesting the exclusive status of the popular girl...

  19. Strategy Development for Incumbent Urban Universities: Moving Forward in an Increasingly Competitive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk

    2002-01-01

    Recently, many urban public universities have seen a drastic increase in competition. This project integrates Schumpeter's economic theories from 70 years ago with current strategic management theory in order to provide a framework for strategic response to that competition. This article explores all possible combinations of the high-low quality…

  20. PERMANENT INNOVATION - SOLUTION FOR THE INCREASE OF THE COMPETITIVENESS OF THE COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Corina FRÃSINEANU; Ioan FRÃSINEANU

    2011-01-01

    The economy based on knowledge imposes a careful administration of the innovation activity at the level of the companies parallel to the possibility of the formation of innovation networks - competitive poles - clusters. These types of cooperation between companies are aimed at maintaining and increasing the competitive advantage acquired at regional or national level

  1. Ensuring IT service continuity in the face of increasing threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vishwanath

    2014-01-01

    How is IT service continuity related to business continuity management? Is it just a glorified disaster recovery procedure? Will IT service continuity help increase the assurance of IT services from the business owner to the customer? This paper is an attempt at answering these and many such questions. It is presented as a case study of IT service continuity management implementation at Emirates Group IT, Dubai. It takes the reader through the need for the process as felt by the business, through the learning acquired during implementation, to the practices deployed for managing the process on an ongoing basis. It provides a detailed view of the kind of pitfalls that could be encountered during implementation of the IT service continuity management process in a large-scale enterprise.

  2. The evolution of increased competitive ability, innate competitive advantages, and novel biochemical weapons act in concert for a tropical invader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rui-Min; Zheng, Yu-Long; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Callaway, Ragan M; Barclay, Gregor F; Pereyra, Carlos Silva; Feng, Yu-Long

    2013-02-01

    There are many non-mutually exclusive mechanisms for exotic invasions but few studies have concurrently tested more than one hypothesis for the same species. Here, we tested the evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis in two common garden experiments in which Chromolaena odorata plants originating from native and nonnative ranges were grown in competition with natives from each range, and the novel weapons hypothesis in laboratory experiments with leachates from C. odorata. Compared with conspecifics originating from the native range, C. odorata plants from the nonnative range were stronger competitors at high nutrient concentrations in the nonnative range in China and experienced far more herbivore damage in the native range in Mexico. In both China and Mexico, C. odorata was more suppressed by species native to Mexico than by species native to China. Species native to China were much more inhibited by leaf extracts from C. odorata than species from Mexico, and this difference in allelopathic effects may provide a possible explanation for the biogeographic differences in competitive ability. Our results indicate that EICA, innate competitive advantages, and novel biochemical weapons may act in concert to promote invasion by C. odorata, and emphasize the importance of exploring multiple, non-mutually exclusive mechanisms for invasions. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Increase of retail competition and its impact in the industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Motta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, the industries were stronger than retailers,  due  to  its strong  brands  and  multinational  range, while  retailers  were small national companies. A research made with ten executives from the industries showed that in recent years this situation has changed. Pressured for the retailers, now stronger, the industries are having fall in its results.  In order to improve this situation, industries reviewed the marketing mix, customizing it to retailers needs. Products and prices were developed for each channel and trade marketing investments increased its values. Organizational structure was adapted to this approach, and industries implemented trade marketing.

  4. The "Virtual Face" of Planning: How to Use Higher Education Web Sites to Assess Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katrina A.; Wilson, Jeffery L.

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this article demonstrates how to investigate the competitive position of an institution's academic programs or services through an analysis of the Web sites of other higher education institutions. By using information from research/doctoral, master's, baccalaureate, and community colleges across 40 states, this study…

  5. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of a Game Informed Online Learning Activity and Face to Face Teaching in Increasing Knowledge about Managing Aggression in Health Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to…

  6. Increasing the competitiveness of wind energy. New technologies for advanced wind predictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The performance of thermal and nuclear power plants is assessed routinely and precisely, whereas the performance assessment of wind turbines is lagging far behind. This increases operational costs, reduces energy capture, and makes wind energy less competitive. The paper presents a technology and system with improved 24-h power forecasting, as well as condition monitoring of the rotor blades. The system can be employed by any wind power plant and offers potentials to increase the competitiveness of the power industry. (orig.)

  7. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  8. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  9. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  10. Resource quality or competition: why increase resource acceptance in the presence of conspecifics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeremy M; Nufio, César R; Papaj, Daniel R

    2011-07-01

    Some animal species increase resource acceptance rates in the presence of conspecifics. Such responses may be adaptive if the presence of conspecifics is a reliable indicator of resource quality. Similarly, these responses could represent an adaptive reduction in choosiness under high levels of scramble competition. Although high resource quality and high levels of scramble competition should both favor increased resource acceptance, the contexts in which the increase occurs should differ. In this paper, we tested the effect of social environment on egg-laying and aggressive behavior in the walnut fly, Rhagoletis juglandis, in multiple contexts to determine whether increased resource acceptance in the presence of conspecifics was better viewed as a response to increased host quality or increased competition. We found that grouped females oviposit more readily than isolated females when provided small (low-quality) artificial hosts but not when provided large (high-quality) artificial hosts, indicating that conspecific presence reduces choosiness. Increased resource acceptance was observed even when exposure to conspecifics was temporally or spatially separate from exposure to the resource. Finally, we found that individuals showed reduced aggression after being housed in groups, as expected under high levels of scramble competition. These results indicate that the pattern of resource acceptance in the presence of conspecifics may be better viewed as a response to increased scramble competition rather than as a response to public information about resource quality.

  11. The Role of Outsourcing and Engineering in Increasing Competitiveness of Processing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharko Marharyta V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to substantiate the directions of implementing the functions of control over the processing enterprise competitiveness with using engineering and outsourcing as a new approach to increasing the performance of enterprises operating under conditions of uncertainty and instability of the environment. The study determined that to increase the competitiveness of processing enterprises, their development should occur in two directions: engineering — inside the enterprise and outsourcing — outside it. This allows creating a unified corporate business culture. It is proposed to consider management of processing enterprise competitiveness as engineering problems of regulation of the competitive advantage level. Prospects for further research in this area are the integrated use of tasks of engineering and outsourcing as effective ways to improve the efficiency of processing enterprises, which will lead to the changing of the strategies direction: from costs reduction to creation of value in business operations.

  12. The Mechanisms to Consolidate Staff Efforts in the Targeting of Increasing the Competitive Potential of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legominova Svitlana V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The topicality of focusing efforts to improve the competitive potential of enterprise through intellectualization of its staff, using continuous training in accordance with technological regimes and modern trends, has been rationalized. The author has analyzed the structural features of intellectual capital, determining the need for their efficient interaction to gain competitive value. A combination of behavioristic and cognitive approaches has been proposed, using a holistic model of human resources management in order to ensure efficient management and consideration of specific characteristics of cognitive behavior. It has been proven that the competitive potential of enterprise is directly dependent on the accumulation and diffusion of knowledge, should be of permanent nature, ensuring a stable increase in the competitive potential of enterprise and creating the ground for the formation of leadership positions, thus determining the basic mainstreams of development.

  13. Does the EU Funding Increase Competitiveness of Firms by Supporting Organisational Changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Felipe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Competitive firms with a good economic performance contribute to social development and quality of life. Countries and regions support competitiveness of firms through public policies and public funds. The research concerns question whether financial support from public funds actually helped to increase competitiveness in firms through organisational changes. This paper explores the relationship between competitiveness of firms (measured by sales divided by employment with organisational structure changes and the amount of financial resources from the EU Structural Funds. The data were collected from the Czech Statistical Office and a survey among Czech firms. The estimates provide us with conclusion that only the European Social Funds assistance had a positive effect on productivity, but not organisational changes in firms.

  14. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to biotic plant-soil feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, W H Gera; de Boer, Wietse; ten Hooven, Freddy; van der Putten, Wim H

    2013-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF) and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat) with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota.

  15. Business Strategy of CV Jaya Sampurna in Facing Soft Drink Distributor Competition in Bekasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seri Nurmala

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available CV Jaya Sampurna is a soft drink distributor in Bekasi. Distributor company has a low profit margin, moreover the product sold is Fast Moving Consumers Goods with a very low profit margin (3.5%–5%. Therefore the company depends on a high volume of sales. Besides, there are many competitors in this industry, thus the business strategy is needed to improve the competitive advantage of the company. Given the conditions,this research was to identify the internal and the external factors, to identify the formulation of business strategy alternative, and to identify the recommendation of functional strategy for CV Jaya Sampurna. Research used descriptive method; and the type of research used was case study. Data were gathered from questionnaires and interview to three member of managers: Director, Operational Manager, and Finance Manager. Data wereanalyzed by using EFE, IFE, SWOT, IE, Grand Strategy Matrix and QSPM. The result of this research implies that the alternative strategy based on QSPM’s result was market penetration

  16. Non-invasive brain stimulation targeting the right fusiform gyrus selectively increases working memory for faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunyé, Tad T; Moran, Joseph M; Holmes, Amanda; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A

    2017-04-01

    The human extrastriate cortex contains a region critically involved in face detection and memory, the right fusiform gyrus. The present study evaluated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting this anatomical region would selectively influence memory for faces versus non-face objects (houses). Anodal tDCS targeted the right fusiform gyrus (Brodmann's Area 37), with the anode at electrode site PO10, and cathode at FP2. Two stimulation conditions were compared in a repeated-measures design: 0.5mA versus 1.5mA intensity; a separate control group received no stimulation. Participants completed a working memory task for face and house stimuli, varying in memory load from 1 to 4 items. Individual differences measures assessed trait-based differences in facial recognition skills. Results showed 1.5mA intensity stimulation (versus 0.5mA and control) increased performance at high memory loads, but only with faces. Lower overall working memory capacity predicted a positive impact of tDCS. Results provide support for the notion of functional specialization of the right fusiform regions for maintaining face (but not non-face object) stimuli in working memory, and further suggest that low intensity electrical stimulation of this region may enhance demanding face working memory performance particularly in those with relatively poor baseline working memory skills. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. A comparison of the effectiveness of a game informed online learning activity and face to face teaching in increasing knowledge about managing aggression in health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-12-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching received significantly higher ratings than the online activity. The study suggests that short online game informed learning activities may offer an effective alternative for health professional training where face to face training is not possible. Further research is needed on the longer term impact of both types of training on practice.

  18. Quality and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Inder Khosla; Kingshuk K. Sinha

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, the practitioner literature in operations management has seen a dramatic surge in articles on quality management. It reflects the increased emphasis on quality by U.S. firms, which has been attributed largely to increased competition faced by them. The question of how quality is influenced by competitive intensity, however, has not received much attention, either in the practitioner or the academic research literatures. The notion of competitive intensity itself has not been ...

  19. Assessing and Increasing the Competitiveness of Republic of Moldova Wine Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila ANTOHI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness is the capacity of countries to create an enabling environment for indigenous business development; using low-cost strategies, differentiation, substitution, leading to increased productivity; creating opportunities to penetrate foreign markets and added value through their form; citizens by providing jobs with high pay, increasing the purchasing power; contributing to economic growth and to establish a balanced social environment. Enhancing competitiveness of national economy is one of five strategic priorities of the Republic of Moldova, stated in the draft National Development Plan. The wine industry is one of the most important branches of national economy in Moldova. But for Moldova's wine production to be competitive on the world market, wine industry itself should become a branch of modern, efficient, with high economic efficiency, which will not be achieved without investment and without attracting high quality production.

  20. Assessment of Credit Risk Approaches in Relation with Competitiveness Increase of the Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipovová Eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on a presentation and analysis of selected methods of credit risk management in relation with competitiveness increase of the banking sector. The article is defined credit risk approaches under the Basel III gradually. Aim of this contribution constitutes various methods of credit risk management and effects of their usage on regulatory capital amount in respect of corporate exposures. Optimal equity amount in relation to the risk portfolio presents an essential prerequisite of performance and competitiveness growth of commercial banks. Gradually capital requirements using Standardized Approach and Internal Based Approach in a case of used and unused techniques of credit risk reduce has been quantified. We presume that sophisticated approach means significant saving for bank’s equity which increases competitiveness of banking sector also. Within the article, quantification of capital savings in case of Standardized (with and without assigned external ratings and Foundation Internal Based Approach at the selected credit portfolio has been effected.

  1. PERFECTION RUSSIAN TAX FEDERALISM AS THE FACTOR OF INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS OF INDUSTRIALLY ADVANCED REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Tatarkin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article problems of increase of competitiveness of industrially advanced regions are considered on the basis of optimization of system of differentiation of tax powers and tax incomes, stimulating authorities of different levels to develop own tax potential, to form economic sources for self-development and to carry out a responsible financial policy in interests of the population. The basic background of research became the ground of an opportunity to transfer the principles of a competition on mutual relations of authorities of a various level, thus determining economic advantages of decentralization control system of territory development.

  2. Commercial secret as an instrument of company competitive strategy effectiveness increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peskova Dinara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern companies are very much diversified in scale, sectoral affiliation, marketing behavior. There are many theoretical and applied studies in effective competitiveness strategies (see Porter, M. (2002, 1998, Kramer, M. (1998, Fatkhutdinov, R. A. (2000, Feigelson, V. M. (1996 and others.They present famous approaches and probably there is no need to repeat them in this article. We would like to feature a different concept (suggested by Yudanov A. and followers with terminology adopted from natural sciences and show the way the commercial secret can increase effectiveness of competitiveness strategy. We also perform valid methods of commercial secret protection.

  3. The evaluation of competitiveness and innovation factors in order to increase market share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukajlović Đurđica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Doing business in modern days is characterized by a large number of suppliers of products and / or services that can meet our needs in the same or similar manner. For this reason, each organization has to constantly monitor the competitiveness of the market, to innovate in order to maintain the existing place on the market or possibly reach new markets. The purpose of conducted research was to assess the factors which are important for achieving a competitive advantage, increasing innovative activities and to identify factors which are crucial for the entry and penetration into new markets, as well as to determine the correlation of these factors with different characteristics of organization (size, level and duration of business. The results have shown that marketing is recognized as the most important factor for achieving a competitive advantage. Innovative activities are usually of imitative character, while consumers and their needs and requirements are largely ignored.

  4. The gas release programs to increase competition in the European gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastres, Cedric

    2005-01-01

    Regulators have implemented asymmetric regulation measures, such as gas release programs and market share targets, because of European gas supply features and gas market specificities. Empirical experiences show in line with economic theory that these regulation measures favour entry and competition without deterring investments. If we look at impacts on competition, they are mitigated. Some positive effects result from the increase in consumption or in importation and transportation infrastructure developments. But these regulations can also encourage anti-competitive behaviours like collusion, cream-skimming, reverse cherry picking or inefficient entries. Gas release measures establish a link between the incumbent and its competitors. A system of constraints on operators capacities can also appear. Thus, pricing or quantity strategies are more complex. Equilibrium prices are more volatile and very different of competition mark-up. The incumbent, for high gas release quantities and low supplies, can increase its costs to make more profit. This Raising Rivals' Costs strategy often occur if the gas release price is closer to supply costs. This strategy does not impact on consumers surplus but decreases welfare. The regulator can restore incentives to efficiency by setting gas release proportion function of incumbent's supplies. This proportion must be high enough to have a positive impact on the market because of incumbent's incentives to efficiency and greater total quantities sold by the two operators. But, on another way, it must not be too high as it could, thus, increase the probability of Raising Rivals' Costs or favour collusive strategies. (author) [fr

  5. Mere Exposure and Racial Prejudice: Exposure to Other-Race Faces Increases Liking for Strangers of That Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; White, Benjamin; Wieneke, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    White participants were exposed to other-race or own-race faces to test the generalized mere exposure hypothesis in the domain of face perception, namely that exposure to a set of faces yields increased liking for similar faces that have never been seen. In Experiment 1, rapid supraliminal exposures to Asian faces increased White participants' subsequent liking for a different set of Asian faces. In Experiment 2, subliminal exposures to Black faces increased White participants' subsequent liking for a different set of Black faces. The findings are consistent with prominent explanations for mere exposure effects as well as with the familiar face overgeneralization hypothesis that prejudice derives in part from negative reactions to faces that deviate from the familiar own-race prototype.

  6. Increased phase synchronization during continuous face integration measured simultaneously with EEG and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottlow, Mara; Jann, Kay; Dierks, Thomas; Koenig, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Gamma zero-lag phase synchronization has been measured in the animal brain during visual binding. Human scalp EEG studies used a phase locking factor (trial-to-trial phase-shift consistency) or gamma amplitude to measure binding but did not analyze common-phase signals so far. This study introduces a method to identify networks oscillating with near zero-lag phase synchronization in human subjects. We presented unpredictably moving face parts (NOFACE) which - during some periods - produced a complete schematic face (FACE). The amount of zero-lag phase synchronization was measured using global field synchronization (GFS). GFS provides global information on the amount of instantaneous coincidences in specific frequencies throughout the brain. Gamma GFS was increased during the FACE condition. To localize the underlying areas, we correlated gamma GFS with simultaneously recorded BOLD responses. Positive correlates comprised the bilateral middle fusiform gyrus and the left precuneus. These areas may form a network of areas transiently synchronized during face integration, including face-specific as well as binding-specific regions and regions for visual processing in general. Thus, the amount of zero-lag phase synchronization between remote regions of the human visual system can be measured with simultaneously acquired EEG/fMRI. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxytocin increases bias, but not accuracy, in face recognition line-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Sarah; Bennetts, Rachel; Parris, Benjamin A; Bindemann, Markus; Udale, Robert; Bussunt, Amanda

    2015-07-01

    Previous work indicates that intranasal inhalation of oxytocin improves face recognition skills, raising the possibility that it may be used in security settings. However, it is unclear whether oxytocin directly acts upon the core face-processing system itself or indirectly improves face recognition via affective or social salience mechanisms. In a double-blind procedure, 60 participants received either an oxytocin or placebo nasal spray before completing the One-in-Ten task-a standardized test of unfamiliar face recognition containing target-present and target-absent line-ups. Participants in the oxytocin condition outperformed those in the placebo condition on target-present trials, yet were more likely to make false-positive errors on target-absent trials. Signal detection analyses indicated that oxytocin induced a more liberal response bias, rather than increasing accuracy per se. These findings support a social salience account of the effects of oxytocin on face recognition and indicate that oxytocin may impede face recognition in certain scenarios. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS OF BROILER TO INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS (Case Study at PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia, Tbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surip Prayugo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to (1 map the value chain in broiler at PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia, Tbk (CPI; (2 analyze the value chain governance in broiler at CPI; (3 analyze the margin of marketing at broiler industry both on farm or off farm; (3 analyze the gap between the expectation and the performance of consumers (farmers upon using products of CPI and (4 recognize factors influencing competitiveness in broiler industry; and (5 to formulate strategy for value chain upgrading at CPI in order to increase competitiveness of broiler. As revealed by the value chain analysis, the role of CPI in this value chain is highly significant. All poultry inputs (DOC, feed, veterinary medicine, and poultry equipments are supplied by CPI. As for downstream sector, CPI processes broiler into its derivatives. The type of value chain governance between feed supplier, DOC, and veterinary medicine, poultry equipment, and poultry derivates belongs to market value chain. Whereas the type of value chain governance between carcass supplier and restaurant belongs to captive value chain. Based on the margin of marketing analysis, the party that gains the lowest margin is farmer and the party that receives the highest margin is the processor. In gap analysis, the lowest attribute of competitiveness is the feed spending and the highest attribute is the spending on veterinary medicine for two months. Factors that influence the competitiveness in poultry industry are condition, demand, industry competition, main industries and supporting industries, and government’s role.Keywords: Value Chain, Competitiveness, Broiler, PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia, Tbk, Margin of Marketing Analysis, Gap Analysis, SWOT Analysis

  9. TAX COMPONENT OF FISCAL POLICY OF INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS OF NATIONAL ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Danilov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of using fiscal levers to regulate the national economy competitiveness. What kind of tax levers should be used in order to increase the competitiveness of the national economy is justified. Taxes are the main source of fiscal revenue of the country, which depends on the inherent principles of optimizing the tax system, determined Ukraine's withdrawal from the crisis and raising the country's competitiveness. It is proposed differentiation in income tax rates, depending on whether the company is engaged in innovation and investment activity or not. Changing the rate of value added tax in a downward will reduce the revenue of the country. For enterprises that are not exporting products to decrease the amount of working capital for a certain period Fiscal policy that promotes the removal of the country's financial and economic crisis and the increasing competitiveness of the state, should be challenging. In order to implement incentive effects of taxes set forth in the tax code, we propose a linear programming model of the budget (revenue and expenditure . Building the economic and mathematical optimization model with possible actions challenging the tax factors of individual taxes and the possibilities of using the proceeds of certain taxes on certain items of expenditure budget.

  10. Technological development and knowledge as a source of increasing competitive advantage in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milićević Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, in the era of knowledge economy a competitive advantage is based on technological development and innovation, as well as the exploitation of potential opportunities and possibilities for whose implementation knowledge is necessary. Constant investment in human capital increases productivity, employment and receives a direct source of innovation and longterm competitiveness. Human resources and their knowledge are the key to success for the economy and businesses, while incompetent workforce is one of the most important brake in their business. Development of competition in the domestic and international market, it became imperative for the development of a modern economy. In fact, knowledge is the capitalization of innovation through the creation of new products, services, processes, or labels, but that has no value and significance, if is not commercialized in the market. The aim of this paper is to show the level of competitiveness of the Serbian economy, measurable changes that occur in this direction and degree of easiness of doing business in Serbia, which should contribute to an increase in labor productivity.

  11. THE BRAND – AN INCREASING FACTOR OF A TOURIST DESTINATION’S COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen IORDACHE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in external pressures upon competitiveness makes companiesquickly adapt to the criteria of modern competition. One of these criteria is thebrand which has proven in developed economies the main competitiveadvantage and it influences to a certain extent the demand for any service. Inthese circumstances, the concern for a brand is a need, not a custom. Yet,the decisive influence shall belong to consumers – as their new life styleincludes the right to choose and to be somehow cynical when being able togive up a brand as soon as it does not fulfil its duties.Accomplishing the task to increase an area’s competitiveness requires theimprovement of actions meant to develop and promote an area as a touristdestination both nationally and internationally as well as to develop asustainable tourist industry. The sustainable growth of tourist promotion, thedesign and promotion of a tourist brand are a basic constituent both toachieve at normal, best levels the image of an area as a well-customizedtourist destination, different from other competitive destinations on thenational and international market, and to attract investors and other strategicpartners for the growth of tourist industry.

  12. Increasing the Value of Agricultural Products in the Face of Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Paper examined the increasing value of agricultural products in the face of global economic recession in Anambra State. The paper revealed that Anambra State is endowed with human and natural resources and if properly harnessed, can go a long way in arresting the food insecurity in the State and alleviate the ...

  13. Colleges Struggle to Dispose of Hazardous Wastes in Face of Rising Costs and Increased Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, Denise K.

    1989-01-01

    After years of being ignored by federal regulators because of the low volume of hazardous waste in question, colleges and universities are facing increased enforcement of environmental laws concerning waste disposal and storage, at great cost in money, facilities, and personnel. (MSE)

  14. Increased stem density and competition may diminish the positive effects of warming at alpine treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafeng; Pederson, Neil; Ellison, Aaron M; Buckley, Hannah L; Case, Bradley S; Liang, Eryuan; Julio Camarero, J

    2016-07-01

    The most widespread response to global warming among alpine treeline ecotones is not an upward shift, but an increase in tree density. However, the impact of increasing density on interactions among trees at treeline is not well understood. Here, we test if treeline densification induced by climatic warming leads to increasing intraspecific competition. We mapped and measured the size and age of Smith fir trees growing in two treelines located in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. We used spatial point-pattern and codispersion analyses to describe the spatial association and covariation among seedlings, juveniles, and adults grouped in 30-yr age classes from the 1860s to the present. Effects of competition on tree height and regeneration were inferred from bivariate mark-correlations. Since the 1950s, a rapid densification occurred at both sites in response to climatic warming. Competition between adults and juveniles or seedlings at small scales intensified as density increased. Encroachment negatively affected height growth and further reduced recruitment around mature trees. We infer that tree recruitment at the studied treelines was more cold-limited prior to 1950 and shifted to a less temperature-constrained regime in response to climatic warming. Therefore, the ongoing densification and encroachment of alpine treelines could alter the way climate drives their transitions toward subalpine forests. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Increasing Quality through Implementing the Quick Response Method to Achieve Competitiveness of the Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Branská

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Representatives of the European Union as well as particular countries realize that quality has become a decisive factor of competitiveness. Therefore, they intensively support the care for quality at the micro-economic level. It is provided through corporate quality management systems. It is a tool allowing companies to grow constantly through suitable application of modern methods applicable in the corporate management. One of the methods contributing to increasing the quality provided as well as to efficiency of actual processes is the Quick Response method. It is an approach enabling to increase the speed of response to the customers’ demands, with reasonable costs spent. Implementation of this method should contribute to fulfilling the basic principles of the quality management and higher competitiveness of the company.

  16. Competitive helping increases with the size of biological markets and invades defection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Pat

    2011-07-21

    Cooperation between unrelated individuals remains a puzzle in evolutionary biology. Recent work indicates that partner choice can select for high levels of helping. More generally, helping can be seen as but one strategy used to compete for partners within a broader biological market, yet giving within such markets has received little mathematical investigation. In the present model, individuals help others to attract attention from them and thus receive a larger share of any help actively or passively provided by those others. The evolutionarily stable level of helping increases with the size of the biological market and the degree of partner choice. Furthermore, if individuals passively produce some no-cost help to partners, competitive helping can then invade populations of non-helpers because helpers directly benefit from increasing their access to potential partners. This framework of competitive helping demonstrates how high helping can be achieved and why different populations may differ in helping levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of electronical business on increasing the competitive ability of the company

    OpenAIRE

    Baranauskas, Nerijus

    2014-01-01

    BARANAUSKAS, Nerijus. (2008) The Influence of Electronical Business on Increasing the Competitive Ability of the Company. MBA Graduation Paper. Kaunas: Kaunas Faculty of Humanities, Vilnius University. 58 p. (study contains 3 tables and 9 pictures) SUMMARY Global market internationalization processes started in the last decades of the 20th century when globalization has influenced a rapid development of information society as well as the use of information technologies in various business pro...

  18. Resource competition model predicts zonation and increasing nutrient use efficiency along a wetland salinity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmaster, Donald; Stagg, Camille L.

    2018-01-01

    A trade-off between competitive ability and stress tolerance has been hypothesized and empirically supported to explain the zonation of species across stress gradients for a number of systems. Since stress often reduces plant productivity, one might expect a pattern of decreasing productivity across the zones of the stress gradient. However, this pattern is often not observed in coastal wetlands that show patterns of zonation along a salinity gradient. To address the potentially complex relationship between stress, zonation, and productivity in coastal wetlands, we developed a model of plant biomass as a function of resource competition and salinity stress. Analysis of the model confirms the conventional wisdom that a trade-off between competitive ability and stress tolerance is a necessary condition for zonation. It also suggests that a negative relationship between salinity and production can be overcome if (1) the supply of the limiting resource increases with greater salinity stress or (2) nutrient use efficiency increases with increasing salinity. We fit the equilibrium solution of the dynamic model to data from Louisiana coastal wetlands to test its ability to explain patterns of production across the landscape gradient and derive predictions that could be tested with independent data. We found support for a number of the model predictions, including patterns of decreasing competitive ability and increasing nutrient use efficiency across a gradient from freshwater to saline wetlands. In addition to providing a quantitative framework to support the mechanistic hypotheses of zonation, these results suggest that this simple model is a useful platform to further build upon, simulate and test mechanistic hypotheses of more complex patterns and phenomena in coastal wetlands.

  19. Influence of Market Competition on Tetracycline Pricing and Impact of Price Increases on Clinician Prescribing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, John S; Margolis, David J; Brod, Bruce A

    2017-12-01

    Oral tetracyclines are commonly used for acne and other conditions. Recent generic price increases threaten access to these medications. Using the OptumInsight Clinformatics DataMart, we retrospectively evaluated the underlying factors behind these price increases for oral tetracylines using the framework of a competitive market and evaluated the impact of these price increases on prescribing practices. Between 2011 and 2013, the mean cost of doxycycline hyclate prescriptions increased from $7.16 to $139.89 and the mean out-of-pocket cost increased by $9.69. A comparable cost increase was not observed for doxycycline monohydrate or minocycline. There was no significant association between the cost of doxycycline hyclate and market concentration as assessed by the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (β = 0.030, 95% confidence interval -0.019 to 0.079, P = 0.213) and the market was highly concentrated throughout the study period. The percentage of prescriptions for doxycycline hyclate decreased by 1.9% from 2011 to 2013. This dramatic increase in the cost of doxycycline hyclate is not easily explained using the framework of a competitive market, suggesting that noncompetitive market forces may be responsible. In addition, clinicians have not altered their prescribing behavior in response to this price increase, suggesting that clinician or pharmacy level interventions could potentially increase the use of less costly substitutes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased amygdala responses to emotional faces after psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Leor; Demetriou, Lysia; Wall, Matthew B; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2017-12-27

    Recent evidence indicates that psilocybin with psychological support may be effective for treating depression. Some studies have found that patients with depression show heightened amygdala responses to fearful faces and there is reliable evidence that treatment with SSRIs attenuates amygdala responses (Ma, 2015). We hypothesised that amygdala responses to emotional faces would be altered post-treatment with psilocybin. In this open-label study, 20 individuals diagnosed with moderate to severe, treatment-resistant depression, underwent two separate dosing sessions with psilocybin. Psychological support was provided before, during and after these sessions and 19 completed fMRI scans one week prior to the first session and one day after the second and last. Neutral, fearful and happy faces were presented in the scanner and analyses focused on the amygdala. Group results revealed rapid and enduring improvements in depressive symptoms post psilocybin. Increased responses to fearful and happy faces were observed in the right amygdala post-treatment, and right amygdala increases to fearful versus neutral faces were predictive of clinical improvements at 1-week. Psilocybin with psychological support was associated with increased amygdala responses to emotional stimuli, an opposite effect to previous findings with SSRIs. This suggests fundamental differences in these treatments' therapeutic actions, with SSRIs mitigating negative emotions and psilocybin allowing patients to confront and work through them. Based on the present results, we propose that psilocybin with psychological support is a treatment approach that potentially revives emotional responsiveness in depression, enabling patients to reconnect with their emotions. ISRCTN, number ISRCTN14426797. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Global warming increases the interspecific competitiveness of the invasive plant alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Ismail, Mohannad; Ding, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Global warming could accelerate the spread of invasive species to higher latitudes and intensify their effects on native species. Here, we report results of two years of field surveys along a latitudinal gradient (21°N to 31°N) in southern China, to determine the species structure of the invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides community. We also performed a replacement series experiment (mono and mixed) to evaluate the effects of elevated temperature on the competitiveness of A. philoxeroides with the native co-occurring species Digitaria sanguinalis. In the field survey, we found that the dominance of A. philoxeroides increased with increasing of latitude gradient while cover of D. sanguinalis decreased. In monospecific plantings, artificial warming reduced the length of D. sanguinalis roots. In mixed plantings, warming reduced both A. philoxeroides abundance and D. sanguinalis stem length when A. philoxeroides was more prevalent in the planting. Warming also significantly reduced D. sanguinalis biomass, but increased that of A. philoxeroides. In addition, elevated temperatures significantly reduced the relative yield (RY) of D. sanguinalis, particularly when A. philoxeroides was planted in higher proportion in the plot. These results suggest that the invasiveness of A. philoxeroides increased with increasing latitude, and that warming may increase the effectiveness of its interspecific competition with D. sanguinalis. Hence, under global warming conditions, the harm to native species from A. philoxeroides would increase at higher latitudes. Our findings are critical for predicting the invasiveness of alien species under climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Oncogenic Nras has bimodal effects on stem cells that sustainably increase competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Bohin, Natacha; Wen, Tiffany; Ng, Victor; Magee, Jeffrey; Chen, Shann-Ching; Shannon, Kevin; Morrison, Sean J

    2013-12-05

    'Pre-leukaemic' mutations are thought to promote clonal expansion of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by increasing self-renewal and competitiveness; however, mutations that increase HSC proliferation tend to reduce competitiveness and self-renewal potential, raising the question of how a mutant HSC can sustainably outcompete wild-type HSCs. Activating mutations in NRAS are prevalent in human myeloproliferative neoplasms and leukaemia. Here we show that a single allele of oncogenic Nras(G12D) increases HSC proliferation but also increases reconstituting and self-renewal potential upon serial transplantation in irradiated mice, all prior to leukaemia initiation. Nras(G12D) also confers long-term self-renewal potential to multipotent progenitors. To explore the mechanism by which Nras(G12D) promotes HSC proliferation and self-renewal, we assessed cell-cycle kinetics using H2B-GFP label retention and 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Nras(G12D) had a bimodal effect on HSCs, increasing the frequency with which some HSCs divide and reducing the frequency with which others divide. This mirrored bimodal effects on reconstituting potential, as rarely dividing Nras(G12D) HSCs outcompeted wild-type HSCs, whereas frequently dividing Nras(G12D) HSCs did not. Nras(G12D) caused these effects by promoting STAT5 signalling, inducing different transcriptional responses in different subsets of HSCs. One signal can therefore increase HSC proliferation, competitiveness and self-renewal through bimodal effects on HSC gene expression, cycling and reconstituting potential.

  3. Evolutionary Modeling Predicts a Decrease in Postcopulatory Sperm Viability as a Response to Increasing Levels of Sperm Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engqvist, Leif

    Sperm competition has been found to have a strong influence on the evolution of many male and female reproductive traits. Theoretical models have shown that, with increasing levels of sperm competition, males are predicted to increase ejaculate investment, and there is ample empirical evidence

  4. LEAN MANAGEMENT AS A WAY OF INCREASE OF COMPETITIVENESS OF RUSSIAN ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia V. Khomyakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the possibility of increase of competitiveness of the domestic enterprises by means of Leanmanagement system is considered, and also theanalysis of introduction of the mentioned system atthe Russian enterprises is carried out. Besides, thekey conditions necessary for successful introductionof system are presented.Lean management is a world-spread way of solving theproblems, aimed at making the company competitive; itis the organized activity of staff of the company, focusedon reduction of expenses, maximizing value of production for the consumer and the added cost for business. Incontestable advantages of Lean management overa traditional approach are a powerful reason for transition to system of Lean production in order to increaseefficiency and competitiveness of the enterprise.One of the brightest Russian examples of Lean philosophy’s implementation - JSC KAMAZ which created its own production system «Production system «KAMAZ»(PSK. Economic effect of Lean implementation for2006-2011 is 19 004 million rubles.

  5. Electricity - A threat on competitiveness - Six answers to moderate price increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.; James, O.; Moragues, M.

    2012-01-01

    The fact that electricity price might increase of 30 per cent by 2016 in France is a bad news for the French industry. This increase is partly due to the increase of the cost of electricity produced by nuclear energy, but also to that of the specific tax (contribution to the electricity public service) which is supposed to finance the development of renewable energies. Until that moment, the French electricity is still competitive in Europe, but not in the world. Thus, the industry has several possibilities to moderate the impact of this increase: to secure electricity supplies, to become a hydroelectricity producer, to reduce their process' energy consumption, to regroup to be able to negotiate, to create an energy subsidiary company, and to exploit the production tool flexibility

  6. Increasing Competitiveness for an Otolaryngology Residency: Where We Are and Concerns about the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alyson B; Riedy, Katherine N; Grundfast, Kenneth M

    2015-11-01

    For graduating medical students, securing a residency in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery has become exceedingly difficult. This commentary explores the ways that applicants and residency programs are reacting to the increasing competitiveness in applying to, interviewing for, and matching to an otolaryngology residency. The commonly held perceptions of applicants are compared to perspectives held by residency program directors and resident selection committees. Unintended consequences of the growing trend for medical students to add a research year to their curriculum are presented. Some cautions and suggestions about how to improve the application and selection process are offered. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  7. Integrating novel chemical weapons and evolutionarily increased competitive ability in success of a tropical invader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Long; Feng, Yu-Long; Zhang, Li-Kun; Callaway, Ragan M; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Luo, Du-Qiang; Liao, Zhi-Yong; Lei, Yan-Bao; Barclay, Gregor F; Silva-Pereyra, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis and the novel weapons hypothesis (NWH) are two non-mutually exclusive mechanisms for exotic plant invasions, but few studies have simultaneously tested these hypotheses. Here we aimed to integrate them in the context of Chromolaena odorata invasion. We conducted two common garden experiments in order to test the EICA hypothesis, and two laboratory experiments in order to test the NWH. In common conditions, C. odorata plants from the nonnative range were better competitors but not larger than plants from the native range, either with or without the experimental manipulation of consumers. Chromolaena odorata plants from the nonnative range were more poorly defended against aboveground herbivores but better defended against soil-borne enemies. Chromolaena odorata plants from the nonnative range produced more odoratin (Eupatorium) (a unique compound of C. odorata with both allelopathic and defensive activities) and elicited stronger allelopathic effects on species native to China, the nonnative range of the invader, than on natives of Mexico, the native range of the invader. Our results suggest that invasive plants may evolve increased competitive ability after being introduced by increasing the production of novel allelochemicals, potentially in response to naïve competitors and new enemy regimes. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. A competitive trade-off limits the selective advantage of increased antibiotic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardin, Ylaine; Springer, Michael; Kishony, Roy

    2016-09-26

    In structured environments, antibiotic-producing microorganisms can gain a selective advantage by inhibiting nearby competing species 1 . However, despite their genetic potential 2,3 , natural isolates often make only small amounts of antibiotics, and laboratory evolution can lead to loss rather than enhancement of antibiotic production 4 . Here, we show that, due to competition with antibiotic-resistant cheater cells, increased levels of antibiotic production can actually decrease the selective advantage to producers. Competing fluorescently labelled Escherichia coli colicin producers with non-producing resistant and sensitive strains on solid media, we found that although producer colonies can greatly benefit from the inhibition of nearby sensitive colonies, this benefit is shared with resistant colonies growing in their vicinity. A simple model, which accounts for such local competitive and inhibitory interactions, suggests that the advantage of producers varies non-monotonically with the amount of production. Indeed, experimentally varying the amount of production shows a peak in selection for producers, reflecting a trade-off between benefit gained by inhibiting sensitive competitors and loss due to an increased contribution to resistant cheater colonies. These results help explain the low level of antibiotic production observed for natural species and can help direct laboratory evolution experiments selecting for increased or novel production of antibiotics.

  9. Support or competition? How online social networks increase physical activity: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Zhang, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify what features of online social networks can increase physical activity, we conducted a 4-arm randomized controlled trial in 2014 in Philadelphia, PA. Students (n = 790, mean age = 25.2 at an university were randomly assigned to one of four conditions composed of either supportive or competitive relationships and either with individual or team incentives for attending exercise classes. The social comparison condition placed participants into 6-person competitive networks with individual incentives. The social support condition placed participants into 6-person teams with team incentives. The combined condition with both supportive and competitive relationships placed participants into 6-person teams, where participants could compare their team's performance to 5 other teams' performances. The control condition only allowed participants to attend classes with individual incentives. Rewards were based on the total number of classes attended by an individual, or the average number of classes attended by the members of a team. The outcome was the number of classes that participants attended. Data were analyzed using multilevel models in 2014. The mean attendance numbers per week were 35.7, 38.5, 20.3, and 16.8 in the social comparison, the combined, the control, and the social support conditions. Attendance numbers were 90% higher in the social comparison and the combined conditions (mean = 1.9, SE = 0.2 in contrast to the two conditions without comparison (mean = 1.0, SE = 0.2 (p = 0.003. Social comparison was more effective for increasing physical activity than social support and its effects did not depend on individual or team incentives.

  10. Evolution of increased competitiveness in cows trades off with reduced milk yield, fertility and more masculine morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Cristina; Mazza, Serena; Guzzo, Nadia; Mantovani, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    In some species females compete for food, foraging territories, mating, and nesting sites. Competing females can exhibit morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations typical of males, which are commonly considered as secondary sexual traits. Competition and the development of traits increasing competitiveness require much energy and may exert adverse effects on fecundity and survival. From an evolutionary perspective, positive selection for increased competitiveness would then result in evolution of reduced values for traits related to fitness such as fecundity and survival. There is recent evidence for such evolutionary trade-offs involving male competition, but no study has considered competing females so far. Using data from competitions for dominance in cows (Bos taurus), we found negative genetic correlations between traits providing success in competition, that is, fighting ability and fitness traits related to milk production and with fertility (the inverse of parity-conception interval). Fighting ability also showed low but positive genetic correlations with "masculine" morphological traits, and negative correlations with "feminine" traits. A genetic change in traits over time has occurred due to selection on competitiveness, corresponding to an evolutionary process of "masculinization" counteracting the official selection for milk yield. Similar evolutionary trade-off between success in competition and fitness components may be present in various species experiencing female competition. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. The strategic role of partnerships between universities and private corporations as a driver for increasing workforce competitiveness in a global economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damoc Adrian-Ioan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A global economic context means increased competition as corporations face contenders from other countries, and there is a wider range of choices on the market available to consumers. This global competition drives economic actors to seek competitive edges to increase the efficiency of their operations; within this global economy, corporations seek these advantages, outsourcing their activities in order to make use of the opportunities of globalisation. The same situation can be encountered on the labour market. While the expansion of economic activities globally often means increased employment opportunities, it also means that job seekers from around the world need to become more competitive on the job market to attract better employment opportunities. Workforce competitiveness is determined by various factors, like availability and ease of access (i.e. job market legislation, level and quality of education, and cost. The level and quality of education are of particular concern, as it gauges the potential of the workforce, and is the cornerstone of the controversial “skills gap”, based on a common complaint of corporations regarding a shortage of skilled employees. Acknowledging the importance of this factor, numerous companies have concluded partnerships with local universities, leading to intimate connections between the business environment and education. Thus, in the same manner that supply and demand shape the markets for typical goods and determine the success of a market, these partnerships between universities and corporations influence the labour market, bringing together demand (i.e. the corporations seeking skilled employees and supply (universities and education centres training the future workforce. There are numerous long-term benefits that such partnerships can bring to a country’s education sector. As such, the present paper seeks to examine the strategic importance of partnerships between academia and industry as a key

  12. Competition - In front of China, the photovoltaic sector organizes itself; Concurrence - Face a la Chine, le photovoltaique s'organise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandes, C.

    2012-02-15

    Urged by the French President, EDF has taken Photowatt over. Photowatt used to be a leader in the fabrication of photovoltaic arrays. In other countries like Germany or the United States, measures are also implemented to face the competition with China in this sector. In Germany, banks are investing to save companies like Q-Cell. In the United States, manufacturers are asking their government to build up trade barriers

  13. MICRO FRANCHISING AS A TOOL FOR INCREASING SELF-EMPLOYMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS: CROATIAN EXAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Kukec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Franchising has been present in the global economy in its current format for more than a hundred years. Companies have used franchising for growing their business and geographical expansion by bridging the distance in partnership with local entrepreneurs. Micro franchising provides a proven business model and a chance for self-employment by exploiting all advantages of franchising on a far smaller scale than traditional franchising. This model also helps potential entrepreneurs with low income to cross certain barriers, establish a sustainable business and create opportunities for new employment with the mentorship of the franchisor. With micro franchising, franchise systems could open locations where franchising in the traditional format would (could not work and by doing so it could expand their business and gain competitiveness on the market, while at the same time enhancing employment and the development of entrepreneurship. This paper examines the micro-franchising situation in Croatia and checks if this model of growing business can help in increasing competitiveness of a company and at the same time enhance self-employment. Due to their pioneer work in the field of micro franchising in Croatia, Body Creator and Surf’n’Fries were chosen as practical examples.

  14. The informal economy employment impacts of trade liberalization & increased competition in export markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morocco and United States. The overall logic of such measures was that liberalization and privatization would stimulate trade, support the requested modernization of the production systems and infrastructures, and enhance public administrations and services as well. Positive impacts on income, employments...... and privatization processes were implemented at the international level by the WTO's, at regional level by the establishment of free trade agreements between individual states on the southern and eastern Mediterranean rim and the EU [under the Barcelona Process] and by bilateral agreements as the one signed between...... to focus on the impacts of restructuring in the formal textile and clothing sectors (TC) which is the major employer in three Maghrib countries: Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. The textile and clothing sectors have been particularly exposed to increased competition in foreign and/or domestic markets...

  15. Shaping the Organizational Culture in Conditions of Increasing the Competitiveness of Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rębisz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The organizational culture is one of key factors which can influence the organizational success in building the long-lasting domination of an enterprise. The article is an attempt to introduce and at the same time to present the understanding of the culture in terms of expected bearings which can explain why organizational individuals (or entire organizations promote only the behaviors which are in accordance with the value and the mission of the enterprises. The author draws attention to the level of expectations and behavior, which is usually the result of team work. A lot of attention has also been paid to the phenomenon of crossing of two relations: organizational culture with the function of leadership. The author has also discussed the role of a manager as a means of shaping and supporting an organization culture in conditions of increasing competition.

  16. Marketing Communications Mix of Universities - Communication With Students in an Increasing Competitive University Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašticová Martina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this period of increasing competition among universities and demographic decline in the Czech Republic, every manager working within the academic sphere must focus on optimizing the marketing activities of tertiary education. The aim of this study is to analyze the methods and styles of marketing communications universities and their faculties use when communicating with prospective students. The paper identifies procedures which help to optimize the choice, combination and connection of elements and activities of the marketing communications mix in relation with prospective students. A semi-structured interview and questionnaire method were used to achieve the research objective. The study concludes by discussing the research outcomes. Also, practical recommendations are discussed and interpreted and proposals are presented for further research into the marketing strategy of Czech universities and their faculties.

  17. Directions of Increasing Competition in Clothes and Textiles Industry on the Basis of Information Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daina Jansevičiūtė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the clothes and textile sector in Lithuanian economy is discussed and declining trends of the sector values for the economy warns about the problems of competitiveness in the current economic conditions. The main factors behind the decline in the competitiveness of the sector are provided; and directions of the development, which are associated with the intensified use of information technologies to create new competitive advantages of the sector, are analysed.Article in Lithuanian

  18. USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AS INCREASE FACTOR OF PRIVATE SECTOR COMPETITIVENESS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kuzioma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the international network of electronic communication helps the various economic agents to find new partners, to respond more quickly to the changing conditions, facilitate greater interaction of economic partners and establishment of the trusting and long-term relationships, reduce the transaction costs and the distance between the partners, while simultaneously increasing the economic benefits of their relationship. It justifies the fact that the widespread implementation of information and communication technologies in Ukraine might contribute to increasing the number of small businesses and private business organizations, as well as strengthening their competitive positions in the domestic and foreign markets. This article proves that the use of ICTs can enhance the effectiveness of the production and companies’ management system by increasing their access to the information, knowledge, financial services and other resources. As explained in this work, thanks to the use of ICTs, new opportunities are created for the small private enterprises to develop the existing and discover new types and directions of activity, which will contribute to the improvement of the well-being of the population. It also rationalizes that the expansion of the ICTs’ usage by the government and other public bodies may support the increase of the business environment transparency and simplification of the procedures for starting and running a business. It determines why the spread of information technology, especially in our country, requires governmental support, primarily on the development of information infrastructure and adaptation of the legislation to the conditions of the information economy.

  19. Effects of increasing and decreasing physiological arousal on anticipation timing performance during competition and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Smith, Mike; Bryant, Elizabeth; Eyre, Emma; Cook, Kathryn; Hankey, Joanne; Tallis, Jason; Clarke, Neil; Jones, Marc V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if the effects of changes in physiological arousal on timing performance can be accurately predicted by the catastrophe model. Eighteen young adults (8 males, 10 females) volunteered to participate in the study following ethical approval. After familiarisation, coincidence anticipation was measured using the Bassin Anticipation Timer under four incremental exercise conditions: Increasing exercise intensity and low cognitive anxiety, increasing exercise intensity and high cognitive anxiety, decreasing exercise intensity and low cognitive anxiety and decreasing exercise intensity and high cognitive anxiety. Incremental exercise was performed on a treadmill at intensities of 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% heart rate reserve (HRR) respectively. Ratings of cognitive anxiety were taken at each intensity using the Mental Readiness Form 3 (MRF3) followed by performance of coincidence anticipation trials at speeds of 3 and 8 mph. Results indicated significant condition × intensity interactions for absolute error (AE; p = .0001) and MRF cognitive anxiety intensity scores (p = .05). Post hoc analysis indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in AE across exercise intensities in low-cognitive anxiety conditions. In high-cognitive anxiety conditions, timing performance AE was significantly poorer and cognitive anxiety higher at 90% HRR, compared to the other exercise intensities. There was no difference in timing responses at 90% HRR during competitive trials, irrespective of whether exercise intensity was increasing or decreasing. This study suggests that anticipation timing performance is negatively affected when physiological arousal and cognitive anxiety are high.

  20. Negative plant-soil feedbacks increase with plant abundance, and are unchanged by competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Maron; Alyssa Laney Smith; Yvette K. Ortega; Dean E. Pearson; Ragan M. Callaway

    2016-01-01

    Plant-soil feedbacks and interspecific competition are ubiquitous interactions that strongly influence the performance of plants. Yet few studies have examined whether the strength of these interactions corresponds with the abundance of plant species in the field, or whether feedbacks and competition interact in ways that either ameliorate or exacerbate their...

  1. Reduced mycorrhizal responsiveness leads to increased competitive tolerance in an invasive exotic plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren P. Waller; Ragan M. Callaway; John N. Klironomos; Yvette K. Ortega; John L. Maron

    2016-01-01

    1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can exert a powerful influence on the outcome of plant–plant competition. Since some exotic plants interact differently with soil biota such as AM fungi in their new range, range-based shifts in AM responsiveness could shift competitive interactions between exotic and resident plants, although this remains poorly studied. 2. We...

  2. Behaviourally mediated indirect effects : interference competition increases predation mortality in foraging redshanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderman, J; Lind, J; Cresswell, W

    The effect of competition for a limiting resource on the population dynamics of competitors is usually assumed to operate directly through starvation, yet may also affect survival indirectly through behaviourally mediated effects that affect risk of predation. Thus, competition can affect more than

  3. Oxytocin increases bias, but not accuracy, in face recognition line-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Bate, Sarah; Bennetts, Rachel; Parris, Benjamin A.; Bindemann, Markus; Udale, Robert; Bussunt, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Previous work indicates that intranasal inhalation of oxytocin improves face recognition skills, raising the possibility that it may be used in security settings. However, it is unclear whether oxytocin directly acts upon the core face-processing system itself, or indirectly improves face recognition via affective or social salience mechanisms. In a double-blind procedure, 60 participants received either an oxytocin or placebo nasal spray before completing the One-in-Ten task – a standardized...

  4. Social anxiety is related to increased dwell time on socially threatening faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarov, Amit; Abend, Rany; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2016-03-15

    Identification of reliable targets for therapeutic interventions is essential for developing evidence-based therapies. Threat-related attention bias has been implicated in the etiology and maintenance of social anxiety disorder. Extant response-time-based threat bias measures have demonstrated limited reliability and internal consistency. Here, we examined gaze patterns of socially anxious and nonanxious participants in relation to social threatening and neutral stimuli using an eye-tracking task, comprised of multiple threat and neutral stimuli, presented for an extended time-period. We tested the psychometric properties of this task with the hope to provide a solid stepping-stone for future treatment development. Eye gaze was tracked while participants freely viewed 60 different matrices comprised of eight disgusted and eight neutral facial expressions, presented for 6000ms each. Gaze patterns on threat and neutral areas of interest (AOIs) of participants with SAD, high socially anxious students and nonanxious students were compared. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. Participants did not differ on first-fixation variables. However, overall, socially anxious students and participants with SAD dwelled significantly longer on threat faces compared with nonanxious participants, with no difference between the anxious groups. Groups did not differ in overall dwell time on neutral faces. Internal consistency of total dwell time on threat and neutral AOIs was high and one-week test-retest reliability was acceptable. Only disgusted facial expressions were used. Relative small sample size. Social anxiety is associated with increased dwell time on socially threatening stimuli, presenting a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Increasing the industrial potential of a region as a factor of improving the region’s competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Viktorovna Shamray

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the factors of increasing the region competitiveness by defining the industrial potential of its enterprises. Methods in the research the systemic structural functional situational economic analysis was widely used as well as modelling of the economic entities functioning. The main modeling method used in this work is the model of breakeven point widely known and tested in many enterprises. The dependence proposed by the author is of analytical character. Results the article considers different approaches to the definition of competitiveness the effect of the factors is described. The industrial potential of the enterprises is presented as one of the factors of regional competitiveness. The difference is described between the competitive advantage in commercial and production activities. The author suggests a methodology allowing to evaluate the competitiveness of industrial enterprises through the performance of production capacity the possibility of making managerial decisions based on the results of its application the results of the model testing are present. The possibility of applying the model at the regional level is shown. Scientific novelty the article presents the authorrsquos method allowing to calculate the potential growth of the enterprises competitiveness using the output capacities as the difference between the maximum and actual values of capacity. Practical significance the use of models in the practice of the company allows to evaluate the enterprise competitiveness identifying the marginal productivity of the equipment. Once it has been reached the questions arise how long the company will remain competitive in achieving 100 capacity utilization selection of areas of extensive growth due to the fact that the limits of intensive growth have been achieved. Testing of the model was carried out at the Volgograd baking enterprises it showed a high accuracy of the calculation the deviation of calculated

  6. Internationalization as a strategy to increase the competitiveness of the wine chain Gaucho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinval Oliveira Souza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the complexity of the competitive environment of the Brazilian wine industry, focusing on companies gaúcha through the perspective of the value chain, reporting the main challenges that are presented in relation to international competition. It also presents a case study conducted with two major players and their strategies of internationalization. Finally evaluate the constraints that hinder competitiveness in the global market, raising some issues that should be considered by companies seeking to expand its national participation in global markets.

  7. FACTORS INCREASING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF MILK PRODUCTION IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Kremyanskaya E. V.

    2016-01-01

    The study justifies the need for improving the competitiveness of milk production in the commodity market, identifies the key indicators of improving the competitiveness of milk, which include the quality and level of costs. A direct dependence of the efficiency of realization of milk and incentives of operators of machine milking (milkers) on the quality of the raw milk produced is defined by means of the method of statistical groupings. A correlation and regression analysis of the quality o...

  8. Negative plant-soil feedbacks increase with plant abundance, and are unchanged by competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, John L; Laney Smith, Alyssa; Ortega, Yvette K; Pearson, Dean E; Callaway, Ragan M

    2016-08-01

    Plant-soil feedbacks and interspecific competition are ubiquitous interactions that strongly influence the performance of plants. Yet few studies have examined whether the strength of these interactions corresponds with the abundance of plant species in the field, or whether feedbacks and competition interact in ways that either ameliorate or exacerbate their effects in isolation. We sampled soil from two intermountain grassland communities where we also measured the relative abundance of plant species. In greenhouse experiments, we quantified the direction and magnitude of plant-soil feedbacks for 10 target species that spanned a range of abundances in the field. In soil from both sites, plant-soil feedbacks were mostly negative, with more abundant species suffering greater negative feedbacks than rare species. In contrast, the average response to competition for each species was unrelated with its abundance in the field. We also determined how competitive response varied among our target species when plants competed in live vs. sterile soil. Interspecific competition reduced plant size, but the strength of this negative effect was unchanged by plant-soil feedbacks. Finally, when plants competed interspecifically, we asked how conspecific-trained, heterospecific-trained, and sterile soil influenced the competitive responses of our target species and how this varied depending on whether target species were abundant or rare in the field. Here, we found that both abundant and rare species were not as harmed by competition when they grew in heterospecific-trained soil compared to when they grew in conspecific-cultured soil. Abundant species were also not as harmed by competition when growing in sterile vs. conspecific-trained soil, but this was not the case for rare species. Our results suggest that abundant plants accrue species-specific soil pathogens to a greater extent than rare species. Thus, negative feedbacks may be critical for preventing abundant species from

  9. Chronic Co-species Housing Mice and Rats Increased the Competitiveness of Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Juan; Li, Lai-Fu; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Guo, Hui-Fen; Xia, Min; Zhang, Meng-Wei; Jing, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Xu

    2017-03-01

    Rats are predators of mice in nature. Nevertheless, it is a common practice to house mice and rats in a same room in some laboratories. In this study, we investigated the behavioral and physiological responsively of mice in long-term co-species housing conditions. Twenty-four male mice were randomly assigned to their original raising room (control) or a rat room (co-species-housed) for more than 6 weeks. In the open-field and light-dark box tests, the behaviors of the co-species-housed mice and controls were not different. In a 2-choice test of paired urine odors [rabbit urine (as a novel odor) vs. rat urine, cat urine (as a natural predator-scent) vs. rabbit urine, and cat urine vs. rat urine], the co-species-housed mice were more ready to investigate the rat urine odor compared with the controls and may have adapted to it. In an encounter test, the rat-room-exposed mice exhibited increased aggression levels, and their urines were more attractive to females. Correspondingly, the levels of major urinary proteins were increased in the co-species-housed mouse urine, along with some volatile pheromones. The serum testosterone levels were also enhanced in the co-species-housed mice, whereas the corticosterone levels were not different. The norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-HT levels in the right hippocampus and striatum were not different between the 2. Our findings indicate that chronic co-species housing results in adaptation in male mice; furthermore, it appears that long-term rat-odor stimuli enhance the competitiveness of mice, which suggests that appropriate predator-odor stimuli may be important to the fitness of prey animals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Maintaining Qubit Coherence in the face of Increased Superconducting Circuit Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hover, David; Weber, Steve; Rosenberg, Danna; Samach, Gabriel; Sears, Adam; Birenbaum, Jeffrey; Woods, Wayne; Yoder, Jonilyn; Racz, Livia; Kerman, Jamie; Oliver, William D.

    Maintaining qubit coherence in the face of increased superconducting circuit complexity is a challenge when designing an extensible quantum computing architecture. We consider this challenge in the context of inductively coupled, long-lived, capacitively-shunted flux qubits. Specifically, we discuss our efforts to mitigate the effects of radiation loss, parasitic chip-modes, cross-coupling, and Purcell decay. Our approach employs numerical modeling of the ideal Hamiltonian and electromagnetic analysis of the circuit, both of which are independently shown to be consistent with experimental results. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.

  11. Behavioral and neural evidence of increased attention to the bottom half of the face in deaf signers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Teresa V.; Letourneau, Susan M.; Maslin, Melissa T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the effects of deafness and sign language use on the distribution of attention across the top and bottom halves of faces. Methods In a composite face task, congenitally deaf signers and typically hearing controls made same/different judgments of the top or bottom halves of faces presented with the halves aligned or spatially misaligned, while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Results Both groups were more accurate when judging misaligned than aligned faces, which indicates holistic face processing. Misalignment affected all ERP components examined, with effects on the N170 resembling those of face inversion. Hearing adults were similarly accurate when judging the top and bottom halves of the faces, but deaf signers were more accurate when attending to the bottom than the top. Attending to the top elicited faster P1 and N170 latencies for both groups; within the deaf group, this effect was greatest for individuals who produced the highest accuracies when attending to the top. Conclusions These findings dovetail with previous research by providing behavioral and neural evidence of increased attention to the bottom half of the face in deaf signers, and by documenting that these effects generalize to a speeded task, in the absence of gaze shifts, with neutral facial expressions. PMID:23142816

  12. Increased fusiform area activation in schizophrenia during processing of spatial frequency-degraded faces, as revealed by fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, S M; All, S D; Kasi, R; Berten, S; Essex, B; Lathrop, K L; Little, D M

    2010-07-01

    People with schizophrenia demonstrate perceptual organization impairments, and these are thought to contribute to their face processing difficulties. We examined the neural substrates of emotionally neutral face processing in schizophrenia by investigating neural activity under three stimulus conditions: faces characterized by the full spectrum of spatial frequencies, faces with low spatial frequency information removed [high spatial frequency (HSF) condition], and faces with high spatial frequency information removed [low spatial frequency (LSF) condition]. Face perception in the HSF condition is more reliant on local feature processing whereas perception in the LSF condition requires greater reliance on global form processing. Past studies of perceptual organization in schizophrenia indicate that patients perform relatively more poorly with degraded stimuli but also that, when global information is absent, patients may perform better than controls because of their relatively increased ability to initially process individual features. Therefore, we hypothesized that people with schizophrenia (n=14) would demonstrate greater face processing difficulties than controls (n=13) in the LSF condition, whereas they would demonstrate a smaller difference or superior performance in the HSF condition. In a gender-discrimination task, behavioral data indicated high levels of accuracy for both groups, with a trend toward an interaction involving higher patient performance in the HSF condition and poorer patient performance in the LSF condition. Patients demonstrated greater activity in the fusiform gyrus compared to controls in both degraded conditions. These data suggest that impairments in basic integration abilities may be compensated for by relatively increased activity in this region.

  13. Creative Accounting Model for Increasing Banking Industries’ Competitive Advantage in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bank Indonesia demands that the national banks should improve their transparency of financial condition and performance for public in line with the development of their products and activities. Furthermore, the banks’ financial statements of Bank Indonesia have become the basis for determining the status of their soundness. In fact, they tend to practice earnings management in order that they can meet the crite-ria required by Bank Indonesia. For internal purposes, the initiative of earning management has a positive impact on the performance of management. However, for the users of financial statements, it may dif-fer, for example for the value of company, length of time the financial audit, and other aspects of tax evasion by the banks. This study tries to find out 1 the effect of GCG on Earnings Management, 2 the effect of earning management on Company value, theAudit Report Lag, and Taxation, and 3 the effect of Audit Report Lag on Corporate Value and Taxation. This is a quantitative research with the data collected from the bank financial statements, GCG implementation report, and the banks’ annual reports of 2003-2013. There were 41 banks taken using purposive sampling, as listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results showed that the implementation of GCG affects the occurrence of earning management. Accounting policy flexibility through earning management is expected to affect the length of the audit process and the accuracy of the financial statements presentation on public side. This research is expected to provide managerial implications in order to consider the possibility of earnings management practices in the banking industry. In the long term, earning management is expected to improve the banks’ competitiveness through an increase in the value of the company. Explicitly, earning management also affects the tax avoidance; therefore, the banks intend to pay lower taxes without breaking the existing legislation Taxation

  14. Creative Accounting Model for Increasing Banking Industries’ Competitive Advantage in Indonesia (P.197-207

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati Supriyati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bank Indonesia demands that the national banks should improve their transparency of financial condition and performance for public in line with the development of their products and activities. Furthermore, the banks’ financial statements of Bank Indonesia have become the basis for determining the status of their soundness. In fact, they tend to practice earnings management in order that they can meet the criteria required by Bank Indonesia. For internal purposes, the initiative of earning management has a positive impact on the performance of management. However, for the users of financial statements, it may differ, for example for the value of company, length of time the financial audit, and other aspects of tax evasion by the banks. This study tries to find out 1 the effect of GCG on Earnings Management, 2 the effect of earning management on Company value, the Audit Report Lag, and Taxation, and 3 the effect of Audit Report Lag on Corporate Value and Taxation. This is a quantitative research with the data collected from the bank financial statements, GCG implementation report, and the banks’ annual reports of 2003-2013. There were 41 banks taken using purposive sampling, as listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results showed that the implementation of GCG affects the occurrence of earning management. Accounting policy flexibility through earning management is expected to affect the length of the audit process and the accuracy of the financial statements presentation on public side. This research is expected to provide managerial implications in order to consider the possibility of earnings management practices in the banking industry. In the long term, earning management is expected to improve the banks’ competitiveness through an increase in the value of the company. Explicitly, earning management also affects the tax avoidance; therefore, the banks intend to pay lower taxes without breaking the existing legislation Taxation

  15. A Firm-Level Innovation Management Framework and Assessment Tool for Increasing Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Cohn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Innovation depends on much more than just technology and R&D. It is a means to an end – competitive success and higher market value – and it needs to be managed strategically and methodically for tangible corporate performance where it matters: in the market. This article introduces a comprehensive corporate innovation management framework (v-CIM and a targeted competitiveness assessment tool (i-TCA. Properly used by corporate leaders, this framework and its associated tool enable innovation managers to decide on priorities for competitive development, adopt appropriate innovation strategies to meet corporate goals, monitor progress, make adjustments, and help create and maintain a culture of innovation that is aligned with business goals.

  16. Challenges and Opportunities for North American Hardwood Manufacturers to Adopt Customization Strategies in an Era of Increased Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Nicholls

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Much of the North American wood products industry was severely impacted by the recession of 2008–2009. In addition, many sectors within this industry face intense global competition. Against this backdrop, we examine economic opportunities for hardwood manufacturers to achieve greater competitive advantage via product customization, through a literature review and synthesis. We also discuss several related themes including agility, lean manufacturing, and clustering. We found that, in globally competitive environments, hardwood producers must be agile to adapt to economic conditions and dynamic customer demand. We discuss how some sectors of the hardwood industry have effectively exhibited customized production, and subsequently fared relatively well in the current economy. We conclude the synthesis by evaluating the importance of supply chains to achieving customization for hardwood producers. In the future, supply chains will need to be configured to rapidly respond to changing consumer demands, and pressure to provide more services will likely extend further back up the supply chain to hardwood sawmills. It is expected that sustainability practices, including green supply chain management, will impact operational and economic performance of hardwood firms as well.

  17. Do auctions and forced divestitures increase competition? Evidence for retail gasoline markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.; Haan, M.A.; Heijnen, P.

    2014-01-01

    To foster competition, governments can intervene by auctioning licenses to operate, or by imposing divestitures. The Dutch government has done exactly that, organizing auctions to redistribute tenancy rights for highway gasoline stations and imposing divestitures of such stations on the four major

  18. Do auctions and forced divestitures increase competition? Evidence for retail gasoline markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.; Haan, M.A.; Heijnen, P.

    2008-01-01

    Where markets are insufficiently competitive, governments can intervene by auctioning licenses to operate or by forcing divestitures. The Dutch government has done exactly that, organizing auctions to redistribute tenancy rights for highway gasoline stations and forcing the divestiture of outlets of

  19. Instituting a Surgical Skills Competition Increases Technical Performance of Surgical Clerkship Students Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leraas, Harold J; Cox, Morgan L; Bendersky, Victoria A; Sprinkle, Shanna S; Gilmore, Brian F; Gunasingha, Rathnayaka M; Tracy, Elisabeth T; Sudan, Ranjan

    2017-10-04

    Surgical skills training varies greatly between institutions and is often left to students to approach independently. Although many studies have examined single interventions of skills training, no data currently exists about the implementation of surgical skills assessment as a component of the medical student surgical curriculum. We created a technical skills competition and evaluated its effect on student surgical skill development. Second-year medical students enrolled in the surgery clerkship voluntarily participated in a surgical skills competition consisting of knot tying, laparoscopic peg transfer, and laparoscopic pattern cut. Winning students were awarded dinner with the chair of surgery and a resident of their choice. Individual event times and combined times were recorded and compared for students who completed without disqualification. Disqualification included compromising cutting pattern, dropping a peg out of the field of vision, and incorrect knot tying technique. Timed performance was compared for 2 subsequent academic years using Mann-Whitney U test. Overall, 175 students competed and 71 students met qualification criteria. When compared by academic year, 2015 to 2016 students (n = 34) performed better than 2014 to 2015 students (n = 37) in pattern cut (133s vs 167s, p = 0.040), peg transfer (66s vs 101s, p skills competition improves student technical performance. Further research is needed regarding long-term benefits of surgical competitions for medical students. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sperm depletion as a consequence of increased sperm competition risk in the European bitterling, Rhodeus amarus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, C.; Pateman-Jones, C.; Zieba, G.; Przybylski, M.; Reichard, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 5 (2009), s. 1227-1233 ISSN 0003-3472 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : alternative mating tactics * European bitterling * mating system * sexual conflict * sexual selection * sneaking * sperm competition * sperm economy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.890, year: 2009

  1. A phi-competitive algorithm for collecting items with increasing weights from a dynamic queue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bienkowski, M.; Chrobak, M.; Dürr, Ch.; Hurand, M.; Jeż, A.; Jeż, Łukasz; Stachowiak, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 475, 4 March (2013), s. 92-102 ISSN 0304-3975 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : online algorithms * competitive analysis * buffer management Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.516, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397513000121

  2. Costly neighbours: Heterospecific competitive interactions increase metabolic rates in dominant species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janča, M.; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5177 (2017), č. článku 5177. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-07140S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : interference competition * intraspecific variation * terrestrial salamander * energy metabolism * natural selection * newts Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  3. Competition between Sphagnum magellanicum and Eriophorum angustifolium as affected by raised CO2 and increased N deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Klees, H.; Berendse, F.

    2002-01-01

    The competition between peat mosses (Sphagnum) and vascular plants as affected by raised CO2 and increased N deposition was studied in a glasshouse experiment by exposing peat monoliths with monocultures and mixtures of Sphagnummagellanicum and Eriophorumangustifolium to ambient (350 ppmv) or raised

  4. Successful Face Recognition Is Associated with Increased Prefrontal Cortex Activation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, John D.; Riley, Meghan E.; Grupe, Daniel W.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether deficits in visual information processing in autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) can be offset by the recruitment of brain structures involved in selective attention. During functional MRI, 12 children with ASD and 19 control participants completed a selective attention one-back task in which images of faces and houses were…

  5. Competition magnifies the impact of a pesticide in a warming world by reducing heat tolerance and increasing autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op de Beeck, Lin; Verheyen, Julie; Stoks, Robby

    2018-02-01

    There is increasing concern that standard laboratory toxicity tests may be misleading when assessing the impact of toxicants, because they lack ecological realism. Both warming and biotic interactions have been identified to magnify the effects of toxicants. Moreover, while biotic interactions may change the impact of toxicants, toxicants may also change the impact of biotic interactions. However, studies looking at the impact of biotic interactions on the toxicity of pesticides and vice versa under warming are very scarce. Therefore, we tested how warming (+4 °C), intraspecific competition (density treatment) and exposure to the pesticide chlorpyrifos, both in isolation and in combination, affected mortality, cannibalism, growth and heat tolerance of low- and high-latitude populations of the damselfly Ischnura elegans. Moreover, we addressed whether toxicant exposure, potentially in interaction with competition and warming, increased the frequency of autotomy, a widespread antipredator mechanism. Competition increased the toxicity of chlorpyrifos and made it become lethal. Cannibalism was not affected by chlorpyrifos but increased at high density and under warming. Chlorpyrifos reduced heat tolerance but only when competition was high. This is the first demonstration that a biotic interaction can be a major determinant of 'toxicant-induced climate change sensitivity'. Competition enhanced the impact of chlorpyrifos under warming for high-latitude larvae, leading to an increase in autotomy which reduces fitness in the long term. This points to a novel pathway how transient pesticide pulses may cause delayed effects on populations in a warming world. Our results highlight that the interplay between biotic interactions and toxicants have a strong relevance for ecological risk assessment in a warming polluted world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. THE STRATEGY OF INCREASING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF ROMANIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY BY TRANSITION TO ALTERNATIVE ENERGY IN INTERNATIONALIZATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA HAGIU,

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity and the increase of the variability grade of the business environment in general, and of the international business environment especially, represented determinant elements of the awareness of strategic issues of international competitiveness of firms and of the intensifying efforts to resolve the many different aspects of it. This paper is addressed to all those interested in the interesting and important issue of competitiveness in general and of the automotive industry competitiveness in particular. We stopped to the car industry as the automotive industry in Romania is one of the industries that have a high added value and a significant share of GDP. A role no less important had the fact that in the case of the automotive industry there are clear opportunities to improve competitiveness in the international market by focusing not only on low cost segments but also pointing to other market segments. The economic crisis has made Dacia sales to exports increase considerably, but the data show that with alleviate of the economic crisis the success of Dacia will begin to decrease. So it turns out that Dacia is a crisis car, and as the crisis will end, the manufacturer must rethink its strategy if it wants to maintain or increase sales. In the present paper we stoped to the transition to alternative energy sources strategy in the functioning of automobiles as a possible way to increase the competitiveness of Romanian automotive industry because all indicates are that alternative sources are the future and we should adapt trends better sooner rather than later.

  7. THE STRATEGY OF INCREASING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF ROMANIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY BY TRANSITION TO ALTERNATIVE ENERGY IN INTERNATIONALIZATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA HAGIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity and the increase of the variability grade of the business environment in general, and of the international business environment especially, represented determinant elements of the awareness of strategic issues of international competitiveness of firms and of the intensifying efforts to resolve the many different aspects of it. This paper is addressed to all those interested in the interesting and important issue of competitiveness in general and of the automotive industry competitiveness in particular. We stopped to the car industry as the automotive industry in Romania is one of the industries that have a high added value and a significant share of GDP. A role no less important had the fact that in the case of the automotive industry there are clear opportunities to improve competitiveness in the international market by focusing not only on low cost segments but also pointing to other market segments. The economic crisis has made Dacia sales to exports increase considerably, but the data show that with alleviate of the economic crisis the success of Dacia will begin to decrease. So it turns out that Dacia is a crisis car, and as the crisis will end, the manufacturer must rethink its strategy if it wants to maintain or increase sales. In the present paper we stoped to the transition to alternative energy sources strategy in the functioning of automobiles as a possible way to increase the competitiveness of Romanian automotive industry because all indicates are that alternative sources are the future and we should adapt trends better sooner rather than later

  8. The changing refinery/vendor relationship: One tool for increased competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, C.J.; Swett, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The historic relationship between many petroleum refineries and vendors was adversarial. However, during the past 10 years, many industrial firms have found that working together with vendors is critical to reducing costs and improving quality--the two key elements required to maintain a competitive position. As refiners have begun working with their vendors more like partners, numerous benefits have accrued to the refining industry. This paper analyzes how the refiner-vendor relationship has changed. Specifically, the authors address the following issues: the competitive threat that has forced a different approach to contracting services and goods; how right-sizing and capacity creep have contributed to the need to re-examine historic practices; key elements in a successful refinery/vendor relationship; how does it work in real life; and implementing a partnering program

  9. ROMANIAN TOURISM REVIVAL, A PRIORITY PREMISE IN INCREASING NATIONAL ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanita SUSU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC, the tourism industry has created five million new jobs, going to count globally over 260 million employees; approx. 10% of all new jobs in the world are generated by this industry. Where is Romania in this landscape? At the level of competitiveness, Romania fell five places in 2011-2013, reaching 68, from 63, behind Hungary, Poland and even Bulgaria. The reasons for departing from: Romanians' attitude towards tourists, ineffective marketing, the quality of the natural environment, transport deficiencies and ineffective police services (law enforcement, maintaining order. However, at the national level, we have all the necessary elements and we have all chances to become a competitive tourist destination domestically and internationally; in order for this chance to become a reality, we need to exploit the existing potential and transform Romania into an attractive tourist destination for both Romanian and foreigners, a performance target, as the natural conditions and materials are available.

  10. Men increase contributions to a public good when under sexual competition

    OpenAIRE

    Tognetti, Arnaud; Dubois, Dimitri; Faurie, Charlotte; Willinger, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Why humans cooperate in large groups and with non-kin remains a puzzle for researchers across the natural and social sciences. Investigating whether cooperation is sexually selected could contribute to an understanding of the evolution of human cooperation. Competition for access to mates could indeed select for cooperation. Using controlled laboratory experiments, we analyse whether and how the sex composition of a social environment, testosterone level, and relationship status affect contri...

  11. Type A personality and mortality: Competitiveness but not speed is associated with increased risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Tina; Rohrmann, Sabine; Richard, Aline; Bopp, Matthias; Faeh, David

    2017-07-01

    Type A behavior pattern (TABP) is a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, existing evidence is conflicting, also because studies did not examine underlying traits separately. In this study, we investigated whether all-cause and CVD mortality were associated with the Bortner Scale, a measure of TABP, in particular with its subscales competitiveness and speed. Information on Bortner Scale and covariates of 9921 participants was collected at baseline in two cross-sectional studies that were linked with mortality information, yielding a follow-up of up to 37 years. We analyzed the Bortner Scale and its two subscales competitiveness and speed. Applying Cox regression models, we investigated the association with all-cause, CVD, and specific CVD type mortality. During follow-up, 3469 deaths were observed (1118 CVD deaths). The total Bortner Scale was not associated with mortality, only its subscales. In women, competitiveness was positively associated with all-cause mortality (highest category vs. the lowest, HR 1.25 [95% CI 1.08,1.44]), CVD mortality (1.39 [1.07,1.81]), and ischemic heart disease mortality (intermediate category vs. the lowest, 1.46 [1.02,2.10]). In men, CVD mortality was inversely associated with speed (highest category vs. the lowest, 0.74 [0.59,0.93]). The subscales of the Bortner Scale may be associated with CVD in an opposed manner and may therefore have to be analyzed separately. More studies are needed to further investigate this association, also considering differences by sex. Persons scoring high in the competitiveness subscale ought to be screened and counselled in order to reduce their CVD risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. QUALITY COSTS AS THE FACTOR OF COMPETITIVENESS INCREASE AT DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Lazibat, Tonći; Matić, Božo

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the importance of quality costs as the factor of competitiveness at the world market. For this purpose it is given definition of quality costs, their structure and characteristics, and the control system-supervision, as the subsystem of quality system determined by international standards ISO 9000ff. There are also analyzed experiences in monitoring the quality costs in developed countries and countries in transition-transitional countries, with a special retrospect to the...

  13. ROLE OF RESOURCE-BASED ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT TO INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS OF TRADITIONALLY WOVEN SARONG CREATIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiyah Z.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to describe position of traditionally woven sarong creative industry in Donggala in business competition based on both internal aspects (strength and weakness and external ones (opportunity and threats, and role of resource-based entrepreneurship development to improve competitiveness of the traditionally woven sarong creative industry in Donggala. In order to meet the objectives, the study used SWOT and Moderating Regression Analysis (MRA. The findings showed that the strength of the Donggala woven sarong industry was the sarong had indigenous Central Sulawesi pattern, it was part of the rural society and was traditionally made. The weaknesses were the sarong pattern and design had yet been touched by modern technology, its color faded away easily during laundry and it was only sold in the local areas. The opportunities were the sarong may become alternative souvenir from Central Sulawesi and development of creative economy was widely discussed recently. The threat was there were various types and patterns of sarong in the market; and entrepreneurship was moderating variables between resource-based strategy and competitiveness of Donggala woven sarong creative industry; the level of significance was 0.001 and the R-Square was 0.803.

  14. The Improvement of HR-management as a Factor of Increasing of Companies’ Competitiveness in the Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyar Kateryna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In my article were researched market economy mechanisms for increasing the competitiveness of companies in the labour market. The paper target was to prove the need to use economic and administrative mechanisms to improve a level of competitiveness of the company in the labour market. Such researches become more important today, because after my empirical analyse of literature I can only conclude that not a lot of researchers studied in this field of science and the most theories suggest that only employees must be competitive on the labour market. But as a result of my research I can deny this one-sided view and can confirm that nowadays not just employees, but also employers compete with each other in the labour market. So, successful organizations must pay big attention to the processes of HR-management, which must be improved. But not enough attention is paid to the system of management and its impact on workers. It is important to form close links between existing system management with inherent for company effective economic management mechanisms in the companies with the level of competitiveness of the company in the labour market. So the results of my research showed that companies must develop economic and administrative mechanisms to improve their competitiveness in the labour market. These mechanisms are a set of applied styles and methods of management that have a direct impact on the loyalty of workers and consequently, enhance its competitiveness both inside the company and in external labour markets. So I can conclude that the paper target was achieved.

  15. Petrochemical industries diagnosis concerning competition, quality and productivity programs; Diagnostico de industrias petroquimicas face aos programas de competitividade, produtividade e qualidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Antunes, Adelaide Maria de; Chamas, Claudia Ines [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this study is to evaluate how brazilian petrochemical industries take technological and competitive strategies. New industrial policy emphasizes quality, productivity and competitiveness aspects. The sector company survival depends on fitting to competition patterns. (author) 6 refs.

  16. Petrochemical industries diagnosis concerning competition, quality and productivity programs; Diagnostico de industrias petroquimicas face aos programas de competitividade, produtividade e qualidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Antunes, Adelaide Maria de; Chamas, Claudia Ines [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this study is to evaluate how brazilian petrochemical industries take technological and competitive strategies. New industrial policy emphasizes quality, productivity and competitiveness aspects. The sector company survival depends on fitting to competition patterns. (author) 6 refs.

  17. Effects of Increased Competition on Quality of Primary Care in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Ellegård, Lina Maria; Kjellsson, Gustav

    quality is scarce, in particular regarding primary care. This paper adds evidence from recent reforms of Swedish primary care that affected competition in municipal markets differently depending on the pre- reform market structure. Using a difference-in-differences strategy, we demonstrate...... that the reforms led to substantially more entry of private care providers in municipalities where there were many patients per provider before the reforms. The effects on primary care quality in these municipalities are modest: we find small improvements in subjective measures of overall care quality......, but no significant effects on the rate of avoidable hospitalizations or patients’ satisfaction with access to care. We find no indications of quality reductions....

  18. Increased competition on the supply side of the Western European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golombek, R.; Gjelsvik, E.; Rosendahl, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes how the supply side of the Western European natural gas market may react if the demand side becomes competitive. The authors show--using a numerical model of the Western European natural gas market--that once the demand side of the market is liberalized, each gas-producing country has an incentive to break up its gas sellers. The model therefore suggests that there may be numerous producers in a liberalized natural gas market. Hence, in a liberalized market consumers will not be exploited by suppliers

  19. Ways of increasing of efficiency of the use of chemical gazogene cartridges at the mining of facing raw material

    OpenAIRE

    Кальчук, Сергій Володимирович; Лукащук, Олександр Вікторович

    2016-01-01

    The analysis and theoretical generalizations of influencing of the known methods of separation to the stone on the array of breeds is executed. Certain backlogs of increase of the OIR use of chemical gazogene cartridges. Offered ways of determination of optimum parameters of most effective their applications on the deposits of facing stone.

  20. Comparative assessment of maize, finger millet and sorghum for household food security in the face of increasing climatic risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurinda, J.; Mapfumo, P.; Wijk, van M.T.; Mtambanengwe, F.; Rufino, M.C.; Chikowo, R.; Giller, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Questions as to which crop to grow, where, when and with what management, will be increasingly challenging for farmers in the face of a changing climate. The objective of this study was to evaluate emergence, yield and financial benefits of maize, finger millet and sorghum, planted at different

  1. N.3142 National Assembly law proposition aiming to help the purchasing of households facing the petroleum products prices increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This text presents the problem of the households purchasing facing the increase of the petroleum products. It recalls the government policy, and criticizes the french government gap in favor of the households. In the second part it proposes to replace the ''floating TIPP'' and to reallocate a part of the exceptional incomes of the petroleum companies. (A.L.B.)

  2. Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE) increased respiration and humification in the mineral soil of a poplar plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoosbeek, M.R.; Vos, J.M.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Velthorst, E.J.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.

    2007-01-01

    Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE) studies conducted at the whole-tree and ecosystem scale indicate that there is a marked increase in primary production, mainly allocated into below-ground biomass. The enhanced carbon transfer to the root system may result in enhanced rhizodeposition and

  3. Meta-analysis reveals evolution in invasive plant species but little support for Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker-Quinn, Emmi; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Bailey, Joseph K

    2013-03-01

    Ecological explanations for the success and persistence of invasive species vastly outnumber evolutionary hypotheses, yet evolution is a fundamental process in the success of any species. The Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) hypothesis (Blossey and Nötzold 1995) proposes that evolutionary change in response to release from coevolved herbivores is responsible for the success of many invasive plant species. Studies that evaluate this hypothesis have used different approaches to test whether invasive populations allocate fewer resources to defense and more to growth and competitive ability than do source populations, with mixed results. We conducted a meta-analysis of experimental tests of evolutionary change in the context of EICA. In contrast to previous reviews, there was no support across invasive species for EICA's predictions regarding defense or competitive ability, although invasive populations were more productive than conspecific native populations under noncompetitive conditions. We found broad support for genetically based changes in defense and competitive plant traits after introduction into new ranges, but not in the manner suggested by EICA. This review suggests that evolution occurs as a result of plant introduction and population expansion in invasive plant species, and may contribute to the invasiveness and persistence of some introduced species.

  4. Does Competition Improve Public School Efficiency? A Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Kaustav

    2010-01-01

    Proponents of educational reform often call for policies to increase competition between schools. It is argued that market forces naturally lead to greater efficiencies, including improved student learning, when schools face competition. In many parts of the country, public schools experience significant competition from private schools; however,…

  5. A Nation at Risk: Increasing College Participation and Persistence Among African American Males to Stimulate U.S. Global Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriel A. Hilton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Today’s knowledge-based, global commerce requires continuous investment in human capital through postsecondary education for countries to be fiercely competitive. Countries, such as China and India, are experiencing growth in the number of people participating in postsecondary education; the United States has fallen behind. While America needs to focus on increasing college access and degree completion among underrepresented ethnic minorities, particularly in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM, educators and policymakers assert that this is particularly important for African American males. Increasing matriculation and graduation rates for African Americans is not only a matter of equity, but in the context of STEM, it has major implications for the competitiveness of the United States in the global economy. This article identifies strategies that educators and policymakers can employ to promote the participation of African American males in college in general, particularly in STEM.

  6. MANAGEMENT INSTRUMENTS USED FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE ENTERPRISE VALUE CHAIN IN ORDER TO INCREASE ITS COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Walas-Trêbacz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present stages realized in the process of improvement of the enterprise value chain and the characteristics of basic instruments used for searching directions to improve the efficiency of the enterprise value chain in order to increase its competitiveness in the market. The conducted analysis of the literature has allowed to explain the concept of the value chain. Furthermore, in the elaboration the scope of actions undertaken in the methodology to improve value c...

  7. Secondary Products (Markets, Competition, and Technological Improvements)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman

    1988-01-01

    Competitiveness, imports, exports, and technological improvements--these are issues facing secondary wood-product manufacturers. The major problems focus on increasing foreign imports and the inability of U.S. industries to repell the imports. How and where should we, as researchers, allocate our efforts to enhance the competitiveness of secondary forest industries in...

  8. Branding as a Factor in Increasing the Bank’s Competitiveness in the World Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkodinа Iryna V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the branding of banks in the world market for banking services in the context of fierce competition between financial institutions. The stages of brand formation were researched as a basis for building the bank's commodity policy. The main elements of brand to improve the market position of bank have been identified. The indicators for building strong bank brands have been reviewed and the efficiency of the contemporary marketing strategies has been determined. The most efficient innovative marketing strategies for branding are determined (subscription business models, chat bots, e-commerce, digital targeted advertising to improve the market position of bank in today’s environment. The need to develop new internet marketing tools, original and risk projects in order to create efficient content and to excel the competitors. Prospects for further research in this direction is to consider e-commerce as an innovation marketing strategy that should become an integral part of branding.

  9. State of otolaryngology match: has competition increased since the "early" match?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina; Sheeder, Jeanelle; Abaza, Mona

    2015-05-01

    To examine fluctuations in supply and demand of otolaryngology residency positions after the shift from an "early match" coordinated by the San Francisco match to a "conventional" matching process through the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP). To determine whether competition among otolaryngology residency positions have changed during this time frame. Database analysis. Matching statistics from 1998 to 2013 were obtained for all first-year residency positions through the NRMP. Matching statistics from 1998 to 2005 were obtained for otolaryngology residency positions through the San Francisco match. Univariate analysis was performed, with a P value less than .05 determined as significant. The number of otolaryngology positions and applicants remained proportional to the overall number of positions and applicants in the NRMP match. Otolaryngology applicants per position and the matching rate of all applicants did not change between the 2 time periods studied. The overall match rate of US seniors applying to otolaryngology did not change, while the match rate of non-US seniors decreased significantly following initiation of the conventional match. There was no significant change in United States Medical Licensing Exam step 1 scores or percentage of unfilled otolaryngology residency positions between the 2 time periods. When comparing the early versus conventional otolaryngology match time periods, the only major change was the decreased percentage of matching among non-US senior applicants. Despite a significant shift in match timing after 2006, the supply, demand, and competitiveness of otolaryngology residency positions have not changed significantly. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  10. POSSIBILITIES OF INCREASING THE DURABILITY OF CHAIN WHEELS OF ARMOURED-FACE CONVEYORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej N. WIECZOREK

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to demonstrate the possibility of replacing the materials of domestic and foreign production currently used for chain drums with alternative materials. ADIs were selected as materials that may replace the cast steels used so far. L35GSM cast steel, commonly used for mining chain wheels and austempered ductile iron, conforming with the requirements of EN-GJS-1400-1 quality grade were subjected to wear tests. On the basis of the experimental studies it has been observed that for almost all the combinations of destructive factors considered, the ADI in question was characterised by a wear resistance better than that in the case of the L35GSM cast steel used so far. In addition, it has been found that the ADI has favourable features predestining it for use in the production of chain drums for armoured-face conveyors.

  11. Misattribution of musical arousal increases sexual attraction towards opposite-sex faces in females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela M Marin

    Full Text Available Several theories about the origins of music have emphasized its biological and social functions, including in courtship. Music may act as a courtship display due to its capacity to vary in complexity and emotional content. Support for music's reproductive function comes from the recent finding that only women in the fertile phase of the reproductive cycle prefer composers of complex melodies to composers of simple ones as short-term sexual partners, which is also in line with the ovulatory shift hypothesis. However, the precise mechanisms by which music may influence sexual attraction are unknown, specifically how music may interact with visual attractiveness cues and affect perception and behaviour in both genders. Using a crossmodal priming paradigm, we examined whether listening to music influences ratings of facial attractiveness and dating desirability of opposite-sex faces. We also tested whether misattribution of arousal or pleasantness underlies these effects, and explored whether sex differences and menstrual cycle phase may be moderators. Our sample comprised 64 women in the fertile or infertile phase (no hormonal contraception use and 32 men, carefully matched for mood, relationship status, and musical preferences. Musical primes (25 s varied in arousal and pleasantness, and targets were photos of faces with neutral expressions (2 s. Group-wise analyses indicated that women, but not men, gave significantly higher ratings of facial attractiveness and dating desirability after having listened to music than in the silent control condition. High-arousing, complex music yielded the largest effects, suggesting that music may affect human courtship behaviour through induced arousal, which calls for further studies on the mechanisms by which music affects sexual attraction in real-life social contexts.

  12. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF COMPETITIVENESS AND INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN COMPETITION AND COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana GUTIUM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of interdependence and correlation between competition and competitiveness, and competition’s consequences. The author analysed some authors’ visions on competitiveness, and common features between theories of competition and competitiveness. Using the synthetic indicator elaborated by author has been evaluated the competitiveness of domestic goods on the internal and external market. At the end of this article, the author has developed proposals to increase competitiveness.

  13. A randomized, controlled trial of team-based competition to increase learner participation in quality-improvement education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Charles D; Moin, Tannaz; Fink, Arlene; Berry, Sandra H; Afsar-Manesh, Nasim; Mangione, Carol M; Kerfoot, B Price

    2016-04-01

    Several barriers challenge resident engagement in learning quality improvement (QI). We investigated whether the incorporation of team-based game mechanics into an evidence-based online learning platform could increase resident participation in a QI curriculum. Randomized, controlled trial. Tertiary-care medical center residency training programs. Resident physicians (n = 422) from nine training programs (anesthesia, emergency medicine, family medicine, internal medicine, ophthalmology, orthopedics, pediatrics, psychiatry and general surgery) randomly allocated to a team competition environment (n = 200) or the control group (n = 222). Specialty-based team assignment with leaderboards to foster competition, and alias assignment to de-identify individual participants. Participation in online learning, as measured by percentage of questions attempted (primary outcome) and additional secondary measures of engagement (i.e. response time). Changes in participation measures over time between groups were assessed with a repeated measures ANOVA framework. Residents in the intervention arm demonstrated greater participation than the control group. The percentage of questions attempted at least once was greater in the competition group (79% [SD ± 32] versus control, 68% [SD ± 37], P= 0.03). Median response time was faster in the competition group (P= 0.006). Differences in participation continued to increase over the duration of the intervention, as measured by average response time and cumulative percent of questions attempted (each Ponline course delivering QI content. Medical educators should consider game mechanics to optimize participation when designing learning experiences. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia’s reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiratama, Hadi; Yerido, Hezron; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Ginting, Rizqy R.; Wibawa, Gede

    2015-01-01

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  15. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia’s reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiratama, Hadi; Yerido, Hezron; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Ginting, Rizqy R.; Wibawa, Gede, E-mail: gwibawa@chem-eng.its.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS), Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  16. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia's reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiratama, Hadi; Yerido, Hezron; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Ginting, Rizqy R.; Wibawa, Gede

    2015-12-01

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  17. Coexistence via coevolution driven by reduced allelochemical effects and increased tolerance to competition between invasive and native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fangfang; Lankau, Richard; Peng, Shaolin

    2018-04-01

    Coevolution can promote long-term coexistence of two competing species if selection acts to reduce the fitness inequality between competitors and/or strengthen negative frequency dependence within each population. However, clear coevolution between plant competitors has been rarely documented. Plant invasions offer opportunities to capture the process of coevolution. Here we investigated how the developing relationship between an invasive forb, Alliaria petiolata, and a native competitor, Pilea pumila, may affect their long-term coexistence, by testing the competitive effects of populations of varying lengths of co-occurrence on each other across a chronosequence of invasion history. Alliaria petiolata and P. pumila tended to develop greater tolerance to competition over invasion history. Their coexistence was promoted more by increases in stabilizing relative to equalizing processes. These changes likely stem in part from reductions in allelopathic traits in the invader and evolution of tolerance in the native. These results suggested that some native species can evolve tolerance against the competitive effects of strong invaders, which likely promoted their persistence in invaded communities. However, the potential for coevolutionary rescue of competing populations is likely to vary across native species, and evolutionary processes should not be expected to compensate for the ecological consequences of exotic invasions. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Integrating Cloud-Based Strategies and Tools in Face-to-Face Training Sessions to Increase the Impact of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradel, Kathleen; Edson, Alden J.

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on the premise that face-to-face training can be augmented with cloud-based technology tools, to potentially extend viable training supports as higher education staff and faculty implement new content/skills in their jobs and classrooms. There are significant benefits to harnessing cloud-based tools that can facilitate both…

  19. Increasing Trustworthiness of Face Authentication in Mobile Devices by Modeling Gesture Behavior and Location Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerim Rexha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Personal mobile devices currently have access to a significant portion of their user’s private sensitive data and are increasingly used for processing mobile payments. Consequently, securing access to these mobile devices is a requirement for securing access to the sensitive data and potentially costly services. Face authentication is one of the promising biometrics-based user authentication mechanisms that has been widely available in this era of mobile computing. With a built-in camera capability on smartphones, tablets, and laptops, face authentication provides an attractive alternative of legacy passwords for its memory-less authentication process, which is so sophisticated that it can unlock the device faster than a fingerprint. Nevertheless, face authentication in the context of smartphones has proven to be vulnerable to attacks. In most current implementations, a sufficiently high-resolution face image displayed on another mobile device will be enough to circumvent security measures and bypass the authentication process. In order to prevent such bypass attacks, gesture recognition together with location is proposed to be additionally modeled. Gestures provide a faster and more convenient method of authentication compared to a complex password. The focus of this paper is to build a secure authentication system with face, location and gesture recognition as components. User gestures and location data are a sequence of time series; therefore, in this paper we propose to use unsupervised learning in the long short-term memory recurrent neural network to actively learn to recognize, group and discriminate user gestures and location. Moreover, a clustering-based technique is also implemented for recognizing gestures and location.

  20. Attention Capture by Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  1. Mindfulness training attenuates the increase in salivary cortisol concentration associated with competition in highly trained wheelchair-basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Luke A; Minahan, Clare L

    2018-02-01

    This study determined the effect of 8 wk of mindfulness training (MT) on salivary cortisol (sCort) and rate of salivary Immunoglobulin-A (sIgA) secretion in wheelchair-basketball players during a competition period. The mindful group completed 8 weeks of MT in addition to training and competition. sCort and rate of sIgA secretion were measured at baseline, at 2-week intervals, the end and 2 weeks following the intervention. A significant time and group interaction was observed for sCort (F = 3.297, P = 0.040, ES = 0.191); sCort increased in the control group from MT-BL to MT-2wk (P = 0.001) and remained significantly elevated at MT-4wk (P = 0.013) and MT-6wk (P = 0.002). sCort decreased from MT-6wk to MT-8wk (P  0.05). Mindful group sCort increased from MT-BL to MT-2wk (P = 0.042) but decreased to concentrations no different to MT-BL for the rest of the intervention period (P > 0.05). There were no group differences in rate of sIgA secretion during the intervention (P = 0.810). It was concluded that 8 weeks of MT attenuated the increase in sCort associated with the competition period.

  2. European cinema: face to face with Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, T.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  3. The Major Challenges Facing Teacher Education in an Increasingly Global Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paese, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    Central to schools of education are the professional preparation and development of future educators, who will be responsible for preparing citizens to function and live in a global community. Globalization and schooling have the potential to successfully or unsuccessfully affect the skills that students need to succeed in an increasingly global…

  4. Does more international transmission capacity increase competition in the Belgian electricity market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupper, G.; Delarue, E.; Delvaux, B.; Meeus, L.; Bekaert, D.; Willems, Bert; Proost, S.; D'haeseleer, W.; Deketelaere, K.; Belmans, R.

    2009-01-01

    From a national market perspective, taking transmission capacity into account reduces current concentration measures, although they remain fairly high even after substantial capacity increases. From an international perspective, a more efficient use of current transmission capacity by coupling

  5. Evaluation of ways and procedures to reduce construction cost and increase competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Construction cost inflation is affecting many state highway agencies including the Texas Department of : Transportation While some of this increase can be attributed to factors such as soaring cost of energy, : reports of large variations in cost of ...

  6. Evaluation of the challenges faced in increasing contraceptive access within a community college population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamme, Jacqueline; Edelman, Alison; Padua, Emily; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2017-01-01

    Research demonstrates removing barriers to access, decreasing costs and offering same-day placement of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) increases contraceptive uptake in young women. For those in community college (CC), LARC utilization might reduce the risk of dropout and improve degree completion. We identified a local school who had documented an unmet need for on-campus services through a recent student assessment. We then established an on-campus, same day contraceptive clinic at the CC as part of a clinical trial. We found that students did not use the service even after multiple attempts to increase awareness and we ended the study. Here, we report lessons learned from attempting research in this environment in addition to results from a follow-up survey to determine why students did not access the clinical resource. Students reported that they already had good access to contraception and preferred to get their healthcare off-campus. This study demonstrates the complexities of studying highly focused interventions to influence access to care in the current health care environment with ever changing regulations. NCT02735551 . Registered April 6, 2016.

  7. Morphological and phenological shoot plasticity in a Mediterranean evergreen oak facing long-term increased drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, Jean-Marc; Rambal, Serge; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesus; Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Rodríguez-Cortina, Raquel; Misson, Laurent; Joffre, Richard

    2012-06-01

    Mediterranean trees must adjust their canopy leaf area to the unpredictable timing and severity of summer drought. The impact of increased drought on the canopy dynamics of the evergreen Quercus ilex was studied by measuring shoot growth, leaf production, litterfall, leafing phenology and leaf demography in a mature forest stand submitted to partial throughfall exclusion for 7 years. The leaf area index rapidly declined in the throughfall-exclusion plot and was 19% lower than in the control plot after 7 years of treatment. Consequently, leaf litterfall was significantly lower in the dry treatment. Such a decline in leaf area occurred through a change in branch allometry with a decreased number of ramifications produced and a reduction of the leaf area supported per unit sapwood area of the shoot (LA/SA). The leafing phenology was slightly delayed and the median leaf life span was slightly longer in the dry treatment. The canopy dynamics in both treatments were driven by water availability with a 1-year lag: leaf shedding and production were reduced following dry years; in contrast, leaf turnover was increased following wet years. The drought-induced decrease in leaf area, resulting from both plasticity in shoot development and slower leaf turnover, appeared to be a hydraulic adjustment to limit canopy transpiration and maintain leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity under drier conditions.

  8. Narrowing the Gap: Explaining the Increasing Competitiveness of the Venezuelan Opposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krouwel, A.P.M.; Kutiyski, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to explain why electoral support for the Venezuelan opposition has increased substantially, using Venezuelan public opinion survey data from LAPOP and an opt-in sample collected through the online vote advice application Brújula Presidencial Venezuela. It analyzes why Venezuelans

  9. Increasing competitiveness of service companies: developing conceptual models for implementing Lean Management in service companies

    OpenAIRE

    Damrath, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Lean management is a philosophy focused on identifying and eliminating waste throughout a product’s entire value stream. It originates from the manufacturing system of Japanese automotive manufacturer Toyota and attracted due to its tremendous success widespread attention worldwide. Lean promises significant benefits in terms of waste reduction, and increased organizational and supply chain communication and integration.Generally, in terms of operations and improvements service companies are ...

  10. An Effort to Increase Organ Donor Registration Through Intergroup Competition and Electronic Word of Mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandi W; Hitt, Rose; Park, Hee Sun; Walther, Joseph; Liang, Yuhua Jake; Hsieh, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The effort to increase Web organ donation registrations in Michigan by enhancing 2 types of university campaigns with social media strategies informed by social identity theory is the focus of this research. The two campaigns focused on either ingroup or rivalry outgroup social identification, and each was enhanced with individually focused social media in the first year of the campaign and with electronic word of mouth in Year 2 of the campaign. Results indicated that individually focused social media such as Facebook ads worked well in rivalry campaigns (in which registrations increased two times over baseline) but not in ingroup identification campaigns (in which registrations decreased significantly over baseline when ads were introduced in the first year of each type of campaign). Electronic word-of-mouth strategies worked well in both ingroup identification campaigns (in which registrations increased two times over baseline) and rivalry campaigns (in which registrations rose almost eight times over baseline, when strategies were introduced in the second year of each type of campaign).

  11. Helping farmers face the increasing complexity of decision-making for crop protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio ROSSI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Community Directive 128/2009 on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides establishes a strategy for the use of plant protection products (PPPs in the European Community so as to reduce risks to human health and the environment. Integrated Pest Management (IPM is a key component of this strategy, which will become mandatory in 2014. IPM is based on dynamic processes and requires decision-making at strategic, tactical, and operational levels. Relative to decision makers in conventional agricultural systems, decision makers in IPM systems require more knowledge and must deal with greater complexity. Different tools have been developed for supporting decision-making in plant disease control and include warning services, on-site devices, and decision support systems (DSSs. These decision-support tools operate at different spatial and time scales, are provided to users both by public and private sources, focus on different communication modes, and can support multiple options for delivering information to farmers. Characteristics, weaknesses, and strengths of these tools are described in this review. Also described are recently developed DSSs, which are characterised by: i holistic treatment of crop management problems (including pests, diseases, fertilisation, canopy management and irrigation; ii conversion of complex decision processes into simple and easy-to-understand ‘decision supports’; iii easy and rapid access through the Internet; and iv two-way communication between users and providers that make it possible to consider context-specific information. These DSSs are easy-to-use tools that perform complex tasks efficiently and effectively. The delivery of these DSSs via the Internet increases user accessibility, allows the DSSs to be updated easily and continuously (so that new knowledge can be rapidly and efficiently provided to farmers, and allows users to maintain close contact with providers.

  12. Increased competition on the supply side of the Western European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golombek, R.; Gjelsvik, E.; Rosendahl, K.N.

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the impact of breaking up national gas sales consortia in Western Europe. A numerical model of the Western European natural gas market is used to show that once the demand side of the market is liberalized, each producing country has an incentive to break up its national gas sales consortium. The situation is not stable, however, since each country has an incentive to increase the number of domestic producers in response to more competitors. Consequently the model suggests that there may be a large number of producers in a completely liberalized natural gas market. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. CRM DEVELOPMENT IN HOSPITALITY COMPANIES FOR THE PURPOSE OF INCREASING THE COMPETITIVENESS IN THE TOURIST MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Ivanovic

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CRM as a trend in business and business philosophy consists of a series of complex and diverse business resources such as: modern technological resources, information resources, human resources and all other procedural resources which serve to improve services to end user and customer.Tourism as a service industry which business is based on selling services, has found great benefits and advantages in using CRM. Different kinds of CRM applications and systems have become extremely popular in all sectors. Thus, in the tourism sector, CRM has become one of the most important strategy in attracting and increasing tourist arrivals, in filling the tourist facilities and in satisfying the needs of guests.The main goals of CRM are to attract tourists, to meet a maximum of tourists (a new guarantee of return and achieve the most efficient promotion, increase the number of tourists and achieve customer loyalty. It enables more efficient marketing and sales and it improves the overall tourism industry and services aimed at tourists and their preferences. Implementation of CRM systems is very demanding and requires commitment at all levels of the company. Very big problem is the integration of CRM systems with existing information systems in the enterprise. It is often impossible to implement without the use of qualified personnel and software that has the task of bridging the gulf between the CRM and existing information systems to create an integrated system. It is desirable that the companies have been devoting increased funding for implementation of new technologies and that systems, in a short period of time, can realize a return on investment and greatly improve the business performance of enterprises. CRM gives the expected results only if it is fully integrated strategically and operationally in the business and in the information system of tourist enterprise. The fact is that this process and business philosophy will become important in the future

  14. Cluster as a Tool to Increase the Competitiveness and Innovative Activity of Enterprises of the Defense Industry Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina B. Dobrova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main goal of the publication is to make a comprehensive study of the possible application of the cluster approach to improve the competitiveness and innovation activity of enterprises of the defense industry complex.Methods: the methodology of the research is based on the collection and analysis of initial data and information, the article uses a systematic approach to the study of socio-economic processes and phenomena. The research is based on modern theory of competition, innovation, as well as the modern paradigm of cluster development of the economy. In preparing the study, practical materials from Corporation “Rostec”.Results: the article gives the notion of cluster, the prospects for the use of the cluster approach to enhance competitiveness and innovation enterprises of the military-industrial complex. It is noted that the activation of interaction with the “civil sector” is particularly relevant in the context of the reduction of the state defense order, and the theory and practice of cluster management offers a number of forms of cluster interaction between the enterprises of the defense industry and the civil sector. It is emphasized that the development of cluster mechanisms can solve a number of problems related to the insufficient financial stability of defense industry enterprises in the context of a reduction in the state defense order, low innovation activity and the lack of developed models of interaction with small innovative enterprises. Ultimately, the use of cluster mechanisms in the development of defense enterprises is intended to enhance the competitiveness of the complex, both nationally and globally. It is stated that the existing clusters are not able to fully solve a number of specific tasks related to the diversification of integrated defense industry structures. Attention is drawn to the fact that existing clusters are not able to fully solve a number of specific tasks related to the

  15. Allelopathic interactions of linoleic acid and nitric oxide increase the competitive ability of Microcystis aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hao; Lavoie, Michel; Fan, Xiaoji; Tan, Hana; Liu, Guangfu; Xu, Pengfei; Fu, Zhengwei; Paerl, Hans W; Qian, Haifeng

    2017-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of cyanobacterial blooms are increasing worldwide with major societal and economic costs. Interactions between toxic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algal competitors can affect toxic bloom formation, but the exact mechanisms of interspecies interactions remain unknown. Using metabolomic and proteomic profiling of co-cultures of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa with a green alga as well as of microorganisms collected in a Microcystis spp. bloom in Lake Taihu (China), we disentangle novel interspecies allelopathic interactions. We describe an interspecies molecular network in which M. aeruginosa inhibits growth of Chlorella vulgaris, a model green algal competitor, via the release of linoleic acid. In addition, we demonstrate how M. aeruginosa takes advantage of the cell signaling compound nitric oxide produced by C. vulgaris, which stimulates a positive feedback mechanism of linoleic acid release by M. aeruginosa and its toxicity. Our high-throughput system-biology approach highlights the importance of previously unrecognized allelopathic interactions between a broadly distributed toxic cyanobacterial bloom former and one of its algal competitors. PMID:28398349

  16. Allelopathic interactions of linoleic acid and nitric oxide increase the competitive ability of Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hao; Lavoie, Michel; Fan, Xiaoji; Tan, Hana; Liu, Guangfu; Xu, Pengfei; Fu, Zhengwei; Paerl, Hans W; Qian, Haifeng

    2017-08-01

    The frequency and intensity of cyanobacterial blooms are increasing worldwide with major societal and economic costs. Interactions between toxic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algal competitors can affect toxic bloom formation, but the exact mechanisms of interspecies interactions remain unknown. Using metabolomic and proteomic profiling of co-cultures of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa with a green alga as well as of microorganisms collected in a Microcystis spp. bloom in Lake Taihu (China), we disentangle novel interspecies allelopathic interactions. We describe an interspecies molecular network in which M. aeruginosa inhibits growth of Chlorella vulgaris, a model green algal competitor, via the release of linoleic acid. In addition, we demonstrate how M. aeruginosa takes advantage of the cell signaling compound nitric oxide produced by C. vulgaris, which stimulates a positive feedback mechanism of linoleic acid release by M. aeruginosa and its toxicity. Our high-throughput system-biology approach highlights the importance of previously unrecognized allelopathic interactions between a broadly distributed toxic cyanobacterial bloom former and one of its algal competitors.

  17. Vulnerability and Risk of Agro-ecosystems Facing Increased Salinity Intrusion in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, F.; Sebesvari, Z.; Nguyen, M. T.; Hagenlocher, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Vietnamese portion of the Mekong Delta increasingly suffers from salinity intrusion in its freshwater system, as exemplified by the historically high salinity levels recorded during the 2016 dry season. Although this exceptional situation was linked to the El Niño phenomena, many factors contribute to an increasing salinization of coastal areas. Salinity intrusion is a natural process in this tidal area but its extent is increasing and projected to worsen due to increased demand for water, diversion/storage of water flows in the Mekong river and its tributaries, land subsidence linked to groundwater over-abstraction, changes in land use and water management in coastal areas, and sea level rise. The Mekong Delta remains predominantly an agricultural landscape which contributes the majority of the rice, aquaculture, and fruit production of the country. These systems will need to be adapted to increased salinity levels. We will present results from two research projects, DeltAdapt and DELTAS, which were designed to allow understanding of, respectively (1) the main drivers of change of agro-ecosystems in coastal areas of the delta and (2) the relative vulnerabilities and risks deltaic social-ecological systems face with respect to various environmental hazards. We used the Global Delta Vulnerability Index developed within the DELTAS project to characterize the vulnerabilities and risks faced by coastal provinces of the delta with respect to salinity intrusion. The analysis allows us to understand which social, economic, and ecological variables index explain the relative vulnerability of the provinces. In addition, drivers of change (e.g. policy, economic, social, environmental) of coastal agro-ecosystems were systematically analyzed through 80 interviews and 7 focus group discussions in the provinces of Kien Giang and Soc Trang within the DeltAdapt project. This was combined with the analysis of Vietnamese policies to determine which are the important drivers of

  18. OPPORTUNITIES TO INCREASE OF ESTABLISHMENT´S COMPETITIVENESS APPLYING RESOURCES OF INFORMATION LOGISTICS IN THE CONCRETE COMPANY´S ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Ignáczová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article solves the problem about ensuring and managing of the information flow by the institution for higher education – the Technical University of Košice (TUKE and one of its faculty, the Faculty of Mining, Ecology, Process Control and Geotechnology (FBERG. It is paid attention to the university´s official website and its complicacy. TUKE homepage is chosen for the primary source of information and the article explains the opportunities of its improvement for the purpose of streamlining the information behavior of both organizations. The implementations of concrete solution´s offer expects an increasing of organizations´s competitiveness that will promote the status and awareness of the organizations in society.

  19. Increasing the competitiveness of maintenance contract rates by using an alternative methodology for the calculation of average vehicle maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carstens

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies tend to outsource transport to fleet management companies to increase efficiencies if transport is a non-core activity. The provision of fleet management services on contract introduces a certain amount of financial risk to the fleet management company, specifically fixed rate maintenance contracts. The quoted rate needs to be sufficient and also competitive in the market. Currently the quoted maintenance rates are based on the maintenance specifications of the manufacturer and the risk management approach of the fleet management company. This is usually reflected in a contingency that is included in the quoted maintenance rate. An alternative methodology for calculating the average maintenance cost for a vehicle fleet is proposed based on the actual maintenance expenditures of the vehicles and accepted statistical techniques. The proposed methodology results in accurate estimates (and associated confidence limits of the true average maintenance cost and can beused as a basis for the maintenance quote.

  20. Mutation of praR in Rhizobium leguminosarum enhances root biofilms, improving nodulation competitiveness by increased expression of attachment proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederix, Marijke; Edwards, Anne; Swiderska, Anna; Stanger, Andrew; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Williams, Alan; Abbruscato, Pamela; Sanchez-Contreras, Maria; Poole, Philip S; Downie, J Allan

    2014-08-01

    In Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, quorum-sensing is regulated by CinR, which induces the cinIS operon. CinI synthesizes an AHL, whereas CinS inactivates PraR, a repressor. Mutation of praR enhanced biofilms in vitro. We developed a light (lux)-dependent assay of rhizobial attachment to roots and demonstrated that mutation of praR increased biofilms on pea roots. The praR mutant out-competed wild-type for infection of pea nodules in mixed inoculations. Analysis of gene expression by microarrays and promoter fusions revealed that PraR represses its own transcription and mutation of praR increased expression of several genes including those encoding secreted proteins (the adhesins RapA2, RapB and RapC, two cadherins and the glycanase PlyB), the polysaccharide regulator RosR, and another protein similar to PraR. PraR bound to the promoters of several of these genes indicating direct repression. Mutations in rapA2, rapB, rapC, plyB, the cadherins or rosR did not affect the enhanced root attachment or nodule competitiveness of the praR mutant. However combinations of mutations in rapA, rapB and rapC abolished the enhanced attachment and nodule competitiveness. We conclude that relief of PraR-mediated repression determines a lifestyle switch allowing the expression of genes that are important for biofilm formation on roots and the subsequent initiation of infection of legume roots. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Behavior of households equipped with fuel oil heating facing the petroleum price sudden increase in 2000; Le comportement des menages equipes de chauffage au fioul face a la brutale augmentation du prix du petrole en 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This paper analyses the public attitudes facing the sudden increase of the fuel oil increase during the year 2000. This increase has got a great impact on the households equipped with fuel oil heating. The households adapted their strategy to obtain the best prices, to defer the deliveries or to reduce energy consumption by a improve of the heating performances. (A.L.B.)

  2. The social responsibility as the basis for effective management and the condition for increasing the modern organization competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the organization management based on the strategy of social responsibility implementation that supplies the conditions for a company's competitiveness development. The theoretical statements by the leading foreign researchers about the key role of social factors in an organization success and the main conditions of competitiveness such as human resources, staff competences, customers' pleasure, an organization's reputation, organizational and managing capacity, etc. The author discusses the idea of the new aim of the management paradigm is "social business" development in the economy. Despite the fact that entrepreneurship is still based on getting the economical benefit, the competitive area, the methods and the relationship between the profit and the competitiveness have changed in the post-industrial era. The change of the consuming society structure and the complication of the competitive area make us look for other sources of competitiveness, such as investments into the human resources. Such an approach to competitiveness is more and more spread among the foreign and national companies and allows to include social aspects management into the development strategy of a company. It is stated that a socially responsible company includes social goals in the production process, thus ensuring a competitive advantage in business. An important conclusion of the research is that socially responsible organizations create better conditions for the territories’ development where they provide the society with a generally higher welfare level.

  3. Product quality as the main factor of increase of competitiveness (on the example of JSC “Kazan helicopter plant”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafizov, I. I.; Nurullin, I. G.

    2017-09-01

    Planning for effective development, and timely research perspectives and opportunities, States, markets, regulations, competition and competitiveness of its production, helps to achieve the stable business success in the market. The relevance of the study of the production of high quality products is that the quality of goods and services should always comply with the requirements established in state regulations, standards, regulations or conditions.

  4. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  5. Human wagering behavior depends on opponents' faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J Schlicht

    Full Text Available Research in competitive games has exclusively focused on how opponent models are developed through previous outcomes and how peoples' decisions relate to normative predictions. Little is known about how rapid impressions of opponents operate and influence behavior in competitive economic situations, although such subjective impressions have been shown to influence cooperative decision-making. This study investigates whether an opponent's face influences players' wagering decisions in a zero-sum game with hidden information. Participants made risky choices in a simplified poker task while being presented opponents whose faces differentially correlated with subjective impressions of trust. Surprisingly, we find that threatening face information has little influence on wagering behavior, but faces relaying positive emotional characteristics impact peoples' decisions. Thus, people took significantly longer and made more mistakes against emotionally positive opponents. Differences in reaction times and percent correct were greatest around the optimal decision boundary, indicating that face information is predominantly used when making decisions during medium-value gambles. Mistakes against emotionally positive opponents resulted from increased folding rates, suggesting that participants may have believed that these opponents were betting with hands of greater value than other opponents. According to these results, the best "poker face" for bluffing may not be a neutral face, but rather a face that contains emotional correlates of trustworthiness. Moreover, it suggests that rapid impressions of an opponent play an important role in competitive games, especially when people have little or no experience with an opponent.

  6. Steady Increase In Prices For Oral Anticancer Drugs After Market Launch Suggests A Lack Of Competitive Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennette, Caroline S; Richards, Catherine; Sullivan, Sean D; Ramsey, Scott D

    2016-05-01

    The cost of treating cancer has risen to unprecedented heights, putting tremendous financial pressure on patients, payers, and society. Previous studies have documented the rising prices of cancer drugs at launch, but less critical attention has been paid to the cost of these drugs after launch. We used pharmacy claims for commercially insured individuals to examine trends in postlaunch prices over time for orally administered anticancer drugs recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In the period 2007-13, inflation-adjusted per patient monthly drug prices increased 5 percent each year. Certain market changes also played a role, with prices rising an additional 10 percent with each supplemental indication approved by the FDA and declining 2 percent with the FDA's approval of a competitor drug. Our findings suggest that there is currently little competitive pressure in the oral anticancer drug market. Policy makers who wish to reduce the costs of anticancer drugs should consider implementing policies that affect prices not only at launch but also later. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  7. Optics industry in Spain: a cluster approach to increasing competitiveness through collaboration in R&D and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Andrés F.

    2011-10-01

    The optics industry in Spain pooled together to create the Southern European Cluster in Photonics and Optics - SECPhO, founded in April 2009, with the mission to help the sector increase competitiveness, specially through collaboration. From 10 founding members, SECPhO no incorporates over 40 members, which is nearly 40% of the optics industry in the region. From the beginning of operations the cluster has focused on three strategic challenges: R&D+i and Productivity, Visibility and Internationalization, and Betterment and Retention of Talent. A brief summary of the clusters activities is given. In this article, the focus will be on R&D and innovation, through industry driven collaborative initiatives and the tools and actions that lead to successful partnerships. Topics discussed in this work are will be a cluster's role in promoting strategic change, the value chain approach to partnerships, international collaboration in projects and specific cluster activities. Some practical examples of initiatives relating to effective collaboration are described, focusing on one of the mayor challenges of our time: the greening of the planet. Examples will be addressed in smart cities, efficient LASER applications and lightweight optical sensors for civil security. In all cases the collaboration between the public and private sectors is shown.

  8. The Project Approach in Organization of Foreign Economic Activity as a Means of Increasing Competitiveness of Industrial Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarenko Vladimir Ye.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the organization of foreign economic activity of industrial enterprise in case of introduction of project approach to its management. New conditions of doing business in terms of aircraft building enterprises, consisting in the transition to production according to international standards, require a modern approach to the solution of the range of issues. In conditions of limited internal financial resources of company and high expenses connected with entering the foreign market, it is extremely important to define the priority directions of foreign economic activity and the most optimal mechanisms of its organization and management. The functioning of the sphere of foreign economic activity of industrial enterprise in case of introduction of project approach to management has been analyzed. The essence, features and the main parameters of project approach as a means of increasing the competitiveness of enterprise have been defined. Priorities of the large-scale enterprise development strategy have been analyzed and suggested by means of carrying out the project method of organization of foreign economic activity.

  9. The uranium industry: long term planning for short term competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vottero, X.

    2000-01-01

    Today, uranium producers face new challenges in terms of both production (new regulatory, environmental and social constraints) and market conditions (new sources of uranium supply, very low prices and tough competition). In such a context, long-term planning is not just a prerequisite to survive in the nuclear fuel cycle industry. In fact, it also contributes to sustaining nuclear electricity generation facing fierce competition from other energy sources in increasingly deregulated markets. (authors)

  10. A serious game skills competition increases voluntary usage and proficiency of a virtual reality laparoscopic simulator during first-year surgical residents' simulation curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beheiry, Mostafa; McCreery, Greig; Schlachta, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a serious game skills competition on voluntary usage of a laparoscopic simulator among first-year surgical residents' standard simulation curriculum. With research ethics board approval, informed consent was obtained from first-year surgical residents enrolled in an introductory surgical simulation curriculum. The class of 2013 served as a control cohort following the standard curriculum which mandates completion of six laparoscopic simulator skill tasks. For the 2014 competition cohort, the only change introduced was the biweekly and monthly posting of a leader board of the top three and ten fastest peg transfer times. Entry surveys were administered assessing attitudes towards simulation-based training and competition. Cohorts were observed for 5 months. There were 24 and 25 residents in the control and competition cohorts, respectively. The competition cohort overwhelmingly (76 %) stated that they were not motivated to deliberate practice by competition. Median total simulator usage time was 132 min (IQR = 214) in the competition cohort compared to 89 (IQR = 170) in the control cohort. The competition cohort completed their course requirements significantly earlier than the control cohort (χ 2  = 6.5, p = 0.01). There was a significantly greater proportion of residents continuing to use the simulator voluntarily after completing their course requirements in the competition cohort (44 vs. 4 %; p = 0.002). Residents in the competition cohort were significantly faster at peg transfer (194 ± 66 vs. 233 ± 53 s, 95 % CI of difference = 4-74 s; p = 0.03) and significantly decreased their completion time by 33 ± 54 s (95 % CI 10-56 s; paired t test, p = 0.007). A simple serious games skills competition increased voluntary usage and performance on a laparoscopic simulator, despite a majority of participants reporting they were not motivated by competition. Future directions should

  11. Implementation of Value Chain and Management Control in Order to Increase Competitive Advantages (Study at PT Industri Marmer Indonesia Tulungagung)

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya, Ditto Arief

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study are knowing wheter Company applies the value chain for their business, knowing wheter Company applies the management control for their business, knowing the influence of value chain to competitive advantages, and knowing the influence of management control to competitive advantages. The results of the research showed that there was a double function in the organization structure, campany's mission is the same with PT Gajah Perkasa Indonesia's mission and the company'...

  12. Toward Value Co-Creation: Increasing Women’s Presence in Management Positions through Competition against a Set Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Comeig

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite empirical evidence that women’s presence in management positions is a source of value co-creation for firms, these positions are still male-dominated. Some evidence from experimental economics suggests that one reason for this imbalance is that women shy away from competition. However, most of these studies have focused on competition systems that pit individuals against each other. We present an economic laboratory experiment that compares competition against others with competition against a set target. The crucial difference is that whereas the former involves competing against opponents, the latter does not. Our results show that significantly more women are willing to compete against a set target than against others. Furthermore, there is no reduction in men’s participation and no general efficiency reduction. Our findings suggest that firms that aim at value co-creation and sustainability through a gender-neutral promotion mechanism should introduce competition against a set target and reduce competition against others. This paper contributes to dispelling stereotypes about women’s reluctance to compete.

  13. Adolescent social instability stress increases aggression in a food competition task in adult male Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Mark J; Thompson, Madison A; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent social instability stress (SS; daily 1 hr isolation + new cage partners postnatal days 30-45; thereafter with original cage partner, also in the SS condition) and control (CTL) rats competed for access to a preferred food in five sessions against their cage partner. In the first session, SS pairs displayed more aggression (face whacks, p = .02; rear attacks, p = .03), were less likely to relinquish access to the food voluntarily (p = .03), spent more time at the feeder than CTL pairs (p = .06), but did not differ in latency to access the feeder (p = .41). Pairs were considered in dominant-submissive relationships (DSR) if one rat spent significantly more time at the feeder than the other; 8 of 12 SS and 8 of 12 CTL pairs displayed DSRs (remaining: no-DSR). Aggression increased from the 1st to 5th session (p food reward. These results add to evidence that SS in adolescence modifies the adult social repertoire of rats and highlight the importance of adolescent social experiences for adult behavior. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Barriers to Online Postsecondary Education Crumble: Enrollment in Traditional Face-to-Face Courses Declines as Enrollment in Online Courses Increases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dahli

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to expectations, total postsecondary enrollment in the United States (US) declined in Fall 2011. In fact, it continues to decline while online enrollment continues to increase. Students can more easily cross geographic boundaries as online access causes barriers to postsecondary education to crumble, and more than 50% of the demand for…

  15. INCREASED COMPETITIVENESS OF CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISES ON THE BASIS OF ORGANISATIONAL-ECONOMIC DECISIONS OF PERSONNEL POTENTIAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Emirbekova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The development of an algorithm for optimising the formation and use of human resources of a construction enterprise.Methods. The research basis consists in a generalised methodology  for personnel management, as well as specific methods for logical  and statistical analysis of management decision-making in  construction activities. The approaches, criteria, indicators and methods for assessing the effectiveness of human resource  management are studied alongside factors influencing the efficiency  resource potential management in a construction enterprise.Results. A quantitative methodology for the selection of qualified  staff for the implementation of construction projects is proposed.  The indicators of the effectiveness of the staff potential are  determined. Qualitative and quantitative data for the optimal  personnel formation for the construction project realisation are  systematised. An algorithm for optimising the personnel potential of  a construction enterprise is proposed. The use of this algorithm will  inform the choice of organisational and economic solutions for the  formation and effective use of qualified personnel at the expense of  combining professions, thereby reducing the cost and duration of construction work and increasing the resource efficiency and competitiveness of the construction enterprise.Conclusion. The labour potential of a construction enterprise can  significantly contribute to increased efficiency if it is used  appropriately and in an organised manner, using modern scientific  methods of management. Methods for building and organising the  activity of the personnel management system are proposed and a  mechanism for establishing relationships between the employer and employees that promote the most effective use of all types of resources for the development of the enterprise according to  strategic objectives is disclosed. The dominant role of the

  16. A Laboratory Exercise to Illustrate Increased Salivary Cortisol in Response to Three Stressful Conditions Using Competitive ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussmann, Mark F.; Vleck, Carol M; Farrar, Eugenia S.

    2007-01-01

    Perceived stress activates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in the release of glucocorticoids into the systemic circulation. Glucocorticoids cause the elevation of blood glucose, providing the necessary energy for the organism to cope with stress. Here, we outline a laboratory exercise that uses a competitive ELISA kit to…

  17. Development of innovative potential of the region as a way to increase Russian economy competitiveness in today's realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamkova S. P.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available the article explains the importance of the development of innovation as the economic competitiveness of regions of Russia. Considered term innovation potential of the region. The problems of development of innovative potential of the region and ways to solve them.

  18. Competition between the sperm of a single male can increase the evolutionary rate of haploid expressed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezawa, Kiyoshi; Innan, Hideki

    2013-07-01

    The population genetic behavior of mutations in sperm genes is theoretically investigated. We modeled the processes at two levels. One is the standard population genetic process, in which the population allele frequencies change generation by generation, depending on the difference in selective advantages. The other is the sperm competition during each genetic transmission from one generation to the next generation. For the sperm competition process, we formulate the situation where a huge number of sperm with alleles A and B, produced by a single heterozygous male, compete to fertilize a single egg. This "minimal model" demonstrates that a very slight difference in sperm performance amounts to quite a large difference between the alleles' winning probabilities. By incorporating this effect of paternity-sharing sperm competition into the standard population genetic process, we show that fierce sperm competition can enhance the fixation probability of a mutation with a very small phenotypic effect at the single-sperm level, suggesting a contribution of sperm competition to rapid amino acid substitutions in haploid-expressed sperm genes. Considering recent genome-wide demonstrations that a substantial fraction of the mammalian sperm genes are haploid expressed, our model could provide a potential explanation of rapid evolution of sperm genes with a wide variety of functions (as long as they are expressed in the haploid phase). Another advantage of our model is that it is applicable to a wide range of species, irrespective of whether the species is externally fertilizing, polygamous, or monogamous. The theoretical result was applied to mammalian data to estimate the selection intensity on nonsynonymous mutations in sperm genes.

  19. Non-Price Competition in the Port Sector: A Case Study of Ports in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Soner Esmer; Hong-Oanh Nguyen, Ph.D.; Yapa Mahinda Bandara, Ph.D.; Kazim Yeni, Ph.D.

    2016-01-01

    Although the port sector has been facing increasing competition, there is limited research on how ports compete using non-price competition strategies. There are a few studies on non-price competition in the port sector. However they mainly focus on the marketing aspect. This paper seeks to fill this gap in the literature, especially from a combined marketing-economic perspective. Especially the paper's main objective is to identify the determinants of non-price competition in the port sector...

  20. The Role of Global University Rankings in the Process of Increasing the Competitiveness of Russian Education in the Context of Globalization and the Export of Educational Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avralev, Nikita; Efimova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Article is devoted to the new conditions for the development of society characterized by the reconstruction of the course of higher education by increasing the competitiveness of Russian universities in the world scientific and educational space and the global university rankings as indicators of the implementation of the integration process and…

  1. Business Intelligence Solutions for Gaining Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence is the process for increasing the competitive advantage of a company by intelligent use of available data in decision-making. Only a revolutionary Business Intelligence solution, like the proposed portal-based, can solve the complex issues faced when evaluating decision support applications and ensures the availability of any business-critical information.

  2. Altered insular activation and increased insular functional connectivity during sad and happy face processing in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henje Blom, Eva; Connolly, Colm G; Ho, Tiffany C; LeWinn, Kaja Z; Mobayed, Nisreen; Han, Laura; Paulus, Martin P; Wu, Jing; Simmons, Alan N; Yang, Tony T

    2015-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and occurs commonly first during adolescence. The insular cortex (IC) plays an important role in integrating emotion processing with interoception and has been implicated recently in the pathophysiology of adult and adolescent MDD. However, no studies have yet specifically examined the IC in adolescent MDD during processing of faces in the sad-happy continuum. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the IC during sad and happy face processing in adolescents with MDD compared to healthy controls (HCL). Thirty-one adolescents (22 female) with MDD and 36 (23 female) HCL underwent a well-validated emotional processing fMRI paradigm that included sad and happy face stimuli. The MDD group showed significantly less differential activation of the anterior/middle insular cortex (AMIC) in response to sad versus happy faces compared to the HCL group. AMIC also showed greater functional connectivity with right fusiform gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus in the MDD compared to HCL group. Moreover, differential activation to sad and happy faces in AMIC correlated negatively with depression severity within the MDD group. Small age-range and cross-sectional nature precluded assessment of development of the AMIC in adolescent depression. Given the role of the IC in integrating bodily stimuli with conscious cognitive and emotional processes, our findings of aberrant AMIC function in adolescent MDD provide a neuroscientific rationale for targeting the AMIC in the development of new treatment modalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of late-stage pupal irradiation and increased irradiated: un-irradiated male ratio on mating competitiveness of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, M E H; Knols, B G J

    2009-06-01

    Competitiveness of released males in genetic control programmes is of critical importance. In this paper, we explored two scenarios to compensate for the loss of mating competitiveness after pupal stage irradiation in males of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis. First, competition experiments with a higher ratio of irradiated versus un-irradiated males were performed. Second, pupae were irradiated just prior to emergence and male mating competitiveness was determined. Males were irradiated in the pupal stage with a partially or fully-sterilizing dose of 70 or 120 Gy, respectively. Pupae were irradiated aged 20-26 h (young) as routinely performed, or the pupal stage was artificially prolonged by cooling and pupae were irradiated aged 42-48 h (old). Irradiated males competed at a ratio of 3:1:1 to un-irradiated males for mates in a large cage design. At the 3:1 ratio, the number of females inseminated by males irradiated with 70 Gy as young pupae was similar to the number inseminated by un-irradiated males for the majority of the replicates. At 120 Gy, significantly fewer females were inseminated by irradiated than by un-irradiated males. The irradiation of older pupae did not result in a significantly improved male mating competitiveness compared to the irradiation of young pupae. Our findings indicate that the loss of competitiveness after pupal stage irradiation can be compensated for by a threefold increase of irradiated males, but only for the partially-sterilizing dose. In addition, cooling might be a useful tool to facilitate handling processes of large numbers of mosquitoes in genetic control programmes.

  4. The Role of Exclusive Territories in Producers' Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Rey; Joseph Stiglitz

    1994-01-01

    The central objective of this paper is to show how vertical restraints, which affect intra-brand competition, can and will be used as an effective mechanism for reducing inter-brand competition and increasing producer profits. We show how exclusive territories alter the perceived demand curve, making each producer believe he faces a less elastic demand curve, thereby inducing an increase of the equilibrium price. The use of exclusive territories may increase producers' profits, even if the pr...

  5. Defensive peripersonal space: the blink reflex evoked by hand stimulation is increased when the hand is near the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, C F; Liang, M; Cruccu, G; Iannetti, G D

    2012-02-01

    Electrical stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist may elicit a blink reflex [hand blink reflex (HBR)] mediated by a neural circuit at brain stem level. As, in a Sherringtonian sense, the blink reflex is a defensive response, in a series of experiments we tested, in healthy volunteers, whether and how the HBR is modulated by the proximity of the stimulated hand to the face. Electromyographic activity was recorded from the orbicularis oculi, bilaterally. We observed that the HBR is enhanced when the stimulated hand is inside the peripersonal space of the face, compared with when it is outside, irrespective of whether the proximity of the hand to the face is manipulated by changing the position of the arm (experiment 1) or by rotating the head while keeping the arm position constant (experiment 3). Experiment 2 showed that such HBR enhancement has similar magnitude when the participants have their eyes closed. Experiments 4 and 5 showed, respectively, that the blink reflex elicited by the electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve, as well as the N20 wave of the somatosensory evoked potentials elicited by the median nerve stimulation, are entirely unaffected by hand position. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence that the brain stem circuits mediating the HBR in humans undergo tonic and selective top-down modulation from higher order cortical areas responsible for encoding the location of somatosensory stimuli in external space coordinates. These findings support the existence of a "defensive" peripersonal space, representing a safety margin advantageous for survival.

  6. Commercialization of Intellectual Property Objects in Nanoindustry as a Factor of Increasing the Competitiveness of the Russian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Alekseevich Manyakin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Formation and development of the sixth technological mode in the global economy leads to the search for new ways to enhance the competitiveness of products both on the domestic and on the world market. Commercialization of intellectual property (IP objects, created in the field of nanotechnology, can be a significant factor in ensuring the competitiveness of the country. The article gives the notion of nanoindustry IP objects’ commercialization as an economic category. The specificity of this process, which takes into account research intensity, capital intensity and interdisciplinary essence of nanotechnology, is disclosed. The basic problems of the IP objects’ commercialization in Russian nanotechnology sphere, as well as the conditions that ensure the effectiveness of this process are characterized. On the basis of analysis of foreign experience in the IP objects’ commercialization in nanoindustry five models of mechanisms managing this process, depending on the role of the state, have been identified. The necessity of reorientation of Russian model of nanoindustry development from a predominant state to the private one in conditions of the budget financing deficit is substantiated. Main directions of improving the process of commercialization of the IP objects created in the field of nanotechnology in Russia are identified.

  7. Using Patent Development, Education Policy and Research and Development Expenditure Policy to Increase Technological Competitiveness of Small European Union Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferraro Simona

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Belt and Road Initiative will open new trade routes between China and the European Union (EU and increase competition pressures on smaller EU member states. This article ranks where states like Estonia stand internationally in terms of innovativeness (and consequent competitiveness by conducting an econometric study of patent development, education policy and research and development (R&D expenditure policy. The authors claim that small member states such as Estonia should follow the example of countries such as Germany and adopt policies which focus more on increased public spending on R&D and innovation in public universities of science and technology, and raise support for high tech startups with a strong focus on international patenting. Member States must go further and subsidise R&D activities by focusing, inter alia, on filing of foreign patents such as triadic patents.

  8. Product Variety, Consumer Preferences, and Web Technology: Can the Web of Data Reduce Price Competition and Increase Customer Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Martin

    E-Commerce on the basis of current Web technology has created fierce competition with a strong focus on price. Despite a huge variety of offerings and diversity in the individual preferences of consumers, current Web search fosters a very early reduction of the search space to just a few commodity makes and models. As soon as this reduction has taken place, search is reduced to flat price comparison. This is unfortunate for the manufacturers and vendors, because their individual value proposition for a particular customer may get lost in the course of communication over the Web, and it is unfortunate for the customer, because he/she may not get the most utility for the money based on her/his preference function. A key limitation is that consumers cannot search using a consolidated view on all alternative offers across the Web. In this talk, I will (1) analyze the technical effects of products and services search on the Web that cause this mismatch between supply and demand, (2) evaluate how the GoodRelations vocabulary and the current Web of Data movement can improve the situation, (3) give a brief hands-on demonstration, and (4) sketch business models for the various market participants.

  9. Increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) in humans after solar exposure under natural conditions compared to artificial UVB exposure of hands and face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta, Pameli; Bogh, Morten Karsten Bentzen; Olsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    to increase 25(OH)D by 1 nmol l(-1). The artificial dose of 6 SEDs of only hands and face significantly increased 25(OH)D and resulted in a dose of 0.52 SEDs required to increase 25(OH)D significantly by 1 nmol l(-1). Artificial UVB was thus at least 8 times more efficient in increasing 25(OH)D than solar UVR......Vitamin D studies are often performed under controlled laboratory conditions and the findings may be difficult to translate to natural conditions. We aimed to determine and compare the doses of natural solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) with doses of artificial UVB radiation of hands and face needed...... UVR doses in standard erythema doses (SEDs) were determined with personal wristwatch UV-dosimeters. 29 volunteers (Group 2) received artificial UVB doses of 6 SEDs (N = 14) and 3 SEDs (N = 15) on hands and face during late-winter/early-spring when outdoor UVB is negligible. 25(OH)D-levels were...

  10. Technological competition, increasing efficiency and lock-in in power generation of photovoltaic origin; Competition technologique, rendements croissants et lock-in dans la production d'electricite d'origine solaire photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taillant, P.

    2001-10-01

    In this study, the evolutionistic model of technological competition of B. Arthur is used to analyze the phenomena of increasing efficiency of adoption and the technological lock-in situation in the sector of photovoltaic cells for power generation. The processes of path dependence and random historical factors, like the public orders, can lead to a situation where the dominating technology is not necessary the most efficient. In the case of solar photovoltaic, the dominating 'crystalline silicon' technology is the one that has today the best energy efficiency. However, taking into account the evolution of its experience curve which shows a beginning of exhausting of the learning effects, the perspectives of cost reduction seem to be limited despite a sustained demand and intense R and D activities. On the other hand, the thin film technology, with lower efficiencies, would gain in competitiveness thanks to the automation of manufacturing processes. In these circumstances, the technological public policies have to maintain a diversity in the choice of possible technologies in order to allow the promising, but less attractive today, technologies to develop in the future. (J.S.)

  11. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  12. Increasing nest predation will be insufficient to maintain polar bear body condition in the face of sea ice loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Cody J; Richardson, Evan; McGeachy, David; Iverson, Samuel A; Gilchrist, Hugh G; Semeniuk, Christina A D

    2017-05-01

    Climate change can influence interspecific interactions by differentially affecting species-specific phenology. In seasonal ice environments, there is evidence that polar bear predation of Arctic bird eggs is increasing because of earlier sea ice breakup, which forces polar bears into nearshore terrestrial environments where Arctic birds are nesting. Because polar bears can consume a large number of nests before becoming satiated, and because they can swim between island colonies, they could have dramatic influences on seabird and sea duck reproductive success. However, it is unclear whether nest foraging can provide an energetic benefit to polar bear populations, especially given the capacity of bird populations to redistribute in response to increasing predation pressure. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model of the predator-prey relationship between polar bears and common eiders, a common and culturally important bird species for northern peoples. Our model is composed of two types of agents (polar bear agents and common eider hen agents) whose movements and decision heuristics are based on species-specific bioenergetic and behavioral ecological principles, and are influenced by historical and extrapolated sea ice conditions. Our model reproduces empirical findings that polar bear predation of bird nests is increasing and predicts an accelerating relationship between advancing ice breakup dates and the number of nests depredated. Despite increases in nest predation, our model predicts that polar bear body condition during the ice-free period will continue to decline. Finally, our model predicts that common eider nests will become more dispersed and will move closer to the mainland in response to increasing predation, possibly increasing their exposure to land-based predators and influencing the livelihood of local people that collect eider eggs and down. These results show that predator-prey interactions can have nonlinear responses to

  13. Competition ambiguities. Electricite de France and the electricity market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2007-04-01

    The European Union decided to open the electricity market to the competition and the last step will be in July 2007. Meanwhile the first part, the opening to big consumers, is a deception. The market saw an increase of the electricity prices. The author explains the effects of the liberalization, presenting the inevitable limits of the competition, the disappointing evaluation, the historical aspects of the electric market facing the today situation. (A.L.B.)

  14. System of coils for increasing the volume of homogeneous field between the parallel pole faces of an electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    The design and evaluation of a system of coils for improving magnetic field homogeneity are discussed. Using only three coil-pairs the duration of NMR spin-echo signals from a sample of H 2 O (0.7 cm. diameter x 0.9 cm. long) was increased by an order of magnitude. (U.S.)

  15. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  16. Face to Face

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Leckey

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowabl...

  17. The competitiveness of national tourism industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rūtelionė, Aušra

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the scientific research is to suggest the model of national tourism industry competitiveness and determine the main factors that increase national tourism industry competitiveness basing on fundamental national competitiveness theories and national tourism industry competitiveness conceptions.

  18. Do shallow soil, low water availability, or their combination increase the competition between grasses with different root systems in karst soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yajie; Li, Zhou; Zhang, Jing; Song, Haiyan; Liang, Qianhui; Tao, Jianping; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Liu, Jinchun

    2017-04-01

    Uneven soil depth and low water availability are the key limiting factors to vegetation restoration and reconstruction in limestone soils such as in vulnerable karst regions. Belowground competition will possibly increase under limited soil resources. Here, we investigate whether low resource availability (including shallow soil, low water availability, and shallow soil and low water availability combined) stimulates the competition between grasses with different root systems in karst soil, by assessing their growth response, biomass allocation, and morphological plasticity. In a full three-way factorial blocked design of soil depth by water availability by neighbor identity, we grew Festuca arundinacea (deep-rooted) and Lolium perenne (shallow-rooted) under normal versus shallow soil depth, high versus low water availability, and in monoculture (conspecific neighbor) versus mixture (neighbor of the other species). The key results were as follows: (1) total biomass and aboveground biomass in either of the species decreased with reduction of resources but were not affected by planting patterns (monoculture or mixture) even at low resource levels. (2) For F. arundinacea, root biomass, root mass fraction, total root length, and root volume were higher in mixture than in monoculture at high resource level (consistent with resource use complementarity), but lower in mixture than in monoculture at low resource levels (consistent with interspecific competition). In contrast for L. perenne, either at high or low resource level, these root traits had mostly similar values at both planting patterns. These results suggest that deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plant species can coexist in karst regions under current climatic regimes. Declining resources, due to shallow soil, a decrease in precipitation, or combined shallow soil and karst drought, increased the root competition between plants of deep-rooted and shallow-rooted species. The root systems of deep-rooted plants may be

  19. The effects of nurse staffing on hospital financial performance: competitive versus less competitive markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Damian; Neff, Donna; Al-Amin, Mona; Nogle, June; Weech-Maldonado, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Hospitals facing financial uncertainty have sought to reduce nurse staffing as a way to increase profitability. However, nurse staffing has been found to be important in terms of quality of patient care and nursing-related outcomes. Nurse staffing can provide a competitive advantage to hospitals and as a result of better financial performance, particularly in more competitive markets. In this study, we build on the Resource-Based View of the Firm to determine the effect of nurse staffing on total profit margin in more competitive and less competitive hospital markets in Florida. By combining a Florida statewide nursing survey with the American Hospital Association Annual Survey and the Area Resource File, three separate multivariate linear regression models were conducted to determine the effect of nurse staffing on financial performance while accounting for market competitiveness. The analysis was limited to acute care hospitals. Nurse staffing levels had a positive association with financial performance (β = 3.3, p = .02) in competitive hospital markets, but no significant association was found in less competitive hospital markets. Hospitals in more competitive hospital markets should reconsider reducing nursing staff, as these cost-cutting measures may be inefficient and negatively affect financial performance.

  20. The Effects of Nurse Staffing on Hospital Financial Performance: Competitive Versus Less Competitive Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Damian; Neff, Donna; Al-Amin, Mona; Nogle, June; Weech-Maldonado, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Hospitals facing financial uncertainty have sought to reduce nurse staffing as a way to increase profitability. However, nurse staffing has been found to be important in terms of quality of patient care and nursing related outcomes. Nurse staffing can provide a competitive advantage to hospitals and as a result better financial performance, particularly in more competitive markets Purpose In this study we build on the Resource-Based View of the Firm to determine the effect of nurse staffing on total profit margin in more competitive and less competitive hospital markets in Florida. Methodology/Approach By combining a Florida statewide nursing survey with the American Hospital Association Annual Survey and the Area Resource File, three separate multivariate linear regression models were conducted to determine the effect of nurse staffing on financial performance while accounting for market competitiveness. The analysis was limited to acute care hospitals. Findings Nurse staffing levels had a positive association with financial performance (β=3.3; p=0.02) in competitive hospital markets, but no significant association was found in less competitive hospital markets. Practice Implications Hospitals in more competitive hospital markets should reconsider reducing nursing staff, as these cost cutting measures may be inefficient and negatively affect financial performance. PMID:22543824

  1. DIRECTIONS OF MODERNIZATION OF UKRAINIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE CONTEXT OF INCREASING YOUTH COMPETITIVENESS IN THE LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa BOGUSH

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies features, objectives and prospects of the development of Ukrainian educationalsystem in the process of improving the quality of its services as a significant factor of competitivenessof graduates of vocational and higher education institutions in the labour market. The organizational andeconomic principles of functioning of this component of the national economy in the conditionsof globalization of educational standards are grounded. The author defines urgent problemsof modernization of the spectrum of professional education levels in the national and regional dimensions,the coordinated solution of which will eventually strengthen the productive potential of the population andterritorial communities. Approaches to implementation of innovation strategy of increasing competitivenessof services and graduates of Ukrainian vocational and higher education institutions are generalized.

  2. The State of Competition and the Competition Regime of Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The socialist regime's economic policies are further compounding the problems that businesses face. ... This project seeks to investigate the barriers to competition, the potential gaps in Ethiopia's revised competition law (Trade Practices Proclamation), and the possible challenges that ... Bulletin de BRAS - Janvier 2018.

  3. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  4. The role of research programs and commercial contracts for increase of economic competitiveness and development at INR Pitesti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petra, Nicoleta Mihaela; Ionila, Maria; Datcu, Mirela; Balan, Iosif Bogdan; Cretu, Ileana

    2008-01-01

    In the period in which globalization is increasing, one of the strategic objectives of the institute is to focus on those activities which help developing of services, products and technologies, applicable in nuclear industry, environment protection and medicine. One way to sustain INR activity is the technological transfer which ensures availability of research results by carrying out of R and D contracts in priority areas and of contracts with economical agents for the supply of services, products, technologies, such as: - Materials irradiation for medicine, industry and research; - Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and prompt gamma spectrometry for Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1; - Control and testing: non-destructive examination, functional tests of samples and equipment from Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1; - Characterization, conditioning and treatment of radioactive wastes for NPP- Cernavoda, Unit 1, Nuclear Fuel Plant (FCN) - Pitesti; - Measurement of isotopes concentration in environmental samples; -Corrosion experiments in static autoclaves and experiments regarding microbial corrosion for NPP Cernavoda Unit 1 and FCN Pitesti; - Nuclear consultancy for Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1 and Unit 2; - Stainless steel casks for radwaste; - Containers for heavy water; - Training and practice for students at the Universities of Pitesti, Bucuresti, Brasov. The paper presents the main areas where the results obtained in R and D programs can be applied, their implementation can be done, and the status of contracts and their importance for INR Pitesti and Romanian society development, as well. (authors)

  5. Text Messaging: An Intervention to Increase Physical Activity among African American Participants in a Faith-Based, Competitive Weight Loss Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela McCoy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available African American adults are less likely to meet the recommended physical activity guidelines for aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity than Caucasian adults. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a text message intervention would increase physical activity in this population. This pilot study used a pre-/post-questionnaire non-randomized design. Participants in a faith-based weight loss competition who agreed to participate in the text messaging were assigned to the intervention group (n = 52. Participants who declined to participate in the intervention, but agreed to participate in the study, were assigned to the control group (n = 30. The text messages provided strategies for increasing physical activity and were based on constructs of the Health Belief Model and the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Chi square tests determined the intervention group participants increased exercise time by approximately eight percent (p = 0.03, while the control group’s exercise time remained constant. The intervention group increased walking and running. The control group increased running. Most participants indicated that the health text messages were effective. The results of this pilot study suggest that text messaging may be an effective method for providing options for motivating individuals to increase physical activity.

  6. Eucalypts face increasing climate stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Nathalie; Pollock, Laura J; McAlpine, Clive A

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change is already impacting species and ecosystems across the planet. Trees, although long-lived, are sensitive to changes in climate, including climate extremes. Shifts in tree species' distributions will influence biodiversity and ecosystem function at scales ranging from local to landscape; dry and hot regions will be especially vulnerable. The Australian continent has been especially susceptible to climate change with extreme heat waves, droughts, and flooding in recent years, and this climate trajectory is expected to continue. We sought to understand how climate change may impact Australian ecosystems by modeling distributional changes in eucalypt species, which dominate or codominate most forested ecosystems across Australia. We modeled a representative sample of Eucalyptus and Corymbia species (n = 108, or 14% of all species) using newly available Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios developed for the 5th Assessment Report of the IPCC, and bioclimatic and substrate predictor variables. We compared current, 2025, 2055, and 2085 distributions. Overall, Eucalyptus and Corymbia species in the central desert and open woodland regions will be the most affected, losing 20% of their climate space under the mid-range climate scenario and twice that under the extreme scenario. The least affected species, in eastern Australia, are likely to lose 10% of their climate space under the mid-range climate scenario and twice that under the extreme scenario. Range shifts will be lateral as well as polewards, and these east-west transitions will be more significant, reflecting the strong influence of precipitation rather than temperature changes in subtropical and midlatitudes. These net losses, and the direction of shifts and contractions in range, suggest that many species in the eastern and southern seaboards will be pushed toward the continental limit and that large tracts of currently treed landscapes, especially in the continental interior, will change dramatically in terms of species composition and ecosystem structure.

  7. increased larval competitive ability without

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... this work. (MacArthur and .... ulations (AB1−4: Ananassae Baseline) were derived from a .... erations in the laboratory on a three week discrete generation cycle. .... hours later, 25 newly-hatched larvae were transferred from.

  8. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  9. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  10. Face to Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Leckey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowable. As with contradictory propositions about homosexuality, contradiction does not undermine discourse but makes it stronger and more agile. Este artículo utiliza la teoría Queer, más concretamente la literatura sobre Bowers vs. Hardwick, para analizar los debates sobre la legislación propuesta en Quebec en relación al velo. La teoría Queer arroja luz sobre las respuestas legales al velo. Los debates parlamentarios en Quebec reconstituyen la forma de gobierno, especialmente como secular y unido. El documento pone de relieve el carácter contradictorio e inestable de cuatro binarios: texto legislativo frente a las prácticas sociales; legislación frente a estado; mayoría versus minoría; y conocible frente a incognoscible. Al igual que con las proposiciones contradictorias acerca de la homosexualidad, la contradicción no socava el discurso, sino que lo hace más fuerte y más ágil.

  11. Prophage Rs551 and Its Repressor Gene orf14 Reduce Virulence and Increase Competitive Fitness of Its Ralstonia solanacearum Carrier Strain UW551.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Abdelmonim Ali; Stulberg, Michael J; Huang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    We previously characterized a filamentous lysogenic bacteriophage, ϕRs551, isolated directly from the race 3 biovar 2 phylotype IIB sequevar 1 strain UW551 of Ralstonia solanacearum grown under normal culture conditions. The genome of ϕRs551 was identified with 100% identity in the deposited genomes of 11 race 3 biovar 2 phylotype IIB sequevar 1 strains of R. solanacearum , indicating evolutionary and biological importance, and ORF14 of ϕRs551 was annotated as a putative type-2 repressor. In this study, we determined the effect of the prophage and its ORF14 on the virulence and competitive fitness of its carrier strain UW551 by deleting the orf14 gene only (the UW551 orf14 mutant), and nine of the prophage's 14 genes including orf14 and six out of seven structural genes (the UW551 prophage mutant), respectively, from the genome of UW551. The two mutants were increased in extracellular polysaccharide production, twitching motility, expression of targeted virulence and virulence regulatory genes ( pilT, egl, pehC, hrPB, and phcA ), and virulence, suggesting that the virulence of UW551 was negatively regulated by ϕRs551, at least partially through ORF14. Interestingly, we found that the wt ϕRs551-carrying strain UW551 of R. solanacearum significantly outcompeted the wt strain RUN302 which lacks the prophage in tomato plants co-inoculated with the two strains. When each of the two mutant strains was co-inoculated with RUN302, however, the mutants were significantly out-competed by RUN302 for the same colonization site. Our results suggest that ecologically, ϕRs551 may play an important role by regulating the virulence of and offering a competitive fitness advantage to its carrier bacterial strain for persistence of the bacterium in the environment, which in turn prolongs the symbiotic relationship between the phage ϕRs551 and the R. solanacearum strain UW551. Our study is the first toward a better understanding of the co-existence between a lysogenic phage and

  12. Prophage Rs551 and Its Repressor Gene orf14 Reduce Virulence and Increase Competitive Fitness of Its Ralstonia solanacearum Carrier Strain UW551

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmonim Ali Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We previously characterized a filamentous lysogenic bacteriophage, ϕRs551, isolated directly from the race 3 biovar 2 phylotype IIB sequevar 1 strain UW551 of Ralstonia solanacearum grown under normal culture conditions. The genome of ϕRs551 was identified with 100% identity in the deposited genomes of 11 race 3 biovar 2 phylotype IIB sequevar 1 strains of R. solanacearum, indicating evolutionary and biological importance, and ORF14 of ϕRs551 was annotated as a putative type-2 repressor. In this study, we determined the effect of the prophage and its ORF14 on the virulence and competitive fitness of its carrier strain UW551 by deleting the orf14 gene only (the UW551 orf14 mutant, and nine of the prophage’s 14 genes including orf14 and six out of seven structural genes (the UW551 prophage mutant, respectively, from the genome of UW551. The two mutants were increased in extracellular polysaccharide production, twitching motility, expression of targeted virulence and virulence regulatory genes (pilT, egl, pehC, hrPB, and phcA, and virulence, suggesting that the virulence of UW551 was negatively regulated by ϕRs551, at least partially through ORF14. Interestingly, we found that the wt ϕRs551-carrying strain UW551 of R. solanacearum significantly outcompeted the wt strain RUN302 which lacks the prophage in tomato plants co-inoculated with the two strains. When each of the two mutant strains was co-inoculated with RUN302, however, the mutants were significantly out-competed by RUN302 for the same colonization site. Our results suggest that ecologically, ϕRs551 may play an important role by regulating the virulence of and offering a competitive fitness advantage to its carrier bacterial strain for persistence of the bacterium in the environment, which in turn prolongs the symbiotic relationship between the phage ϕRs551 and the R. solanacearum strain UW551. Our study is the first toward a better understanding of the co-existence between a

  13. Prophage Rs551 and Its Repressor Gene orf14 Reduce Virulence and Increase Competitive Fitness of Its Ralstonia solanacearum Carrier Strain UW551

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Abdelmonim Ali; Stulberg, Michael J.; Huang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    We previously characterized a filamentous lysogenic bacteriophage, ϕRs551, isolated directly from the race 3 biovar 2 phylotype IIB sequevar 1 strain UW551 of Ralstonia solanacearum grown under normal culture conditions. The genome of ϕRs551 was identified with 100% identity in the deposited genomes of 11 race 3 biovar 2 phylotype IIB sequevar 1 strains of R. solanacearum, indicating evolutionary and biological importance, and ORF14 of ϕRs551 was annotated as a putative type-2 repressor. In this study, we determined the effect of the prophage and its ORF14 on the virulence and competitive fitness of its carrier strain UW551 by deleting the orf14 gene only (the UW551 orf14 mutant), and nine of the prophage’s 14 genes including orf14 and six out of seven structural genes (the UW551 prophage mutant), respectively, from the genome of UW551. The two mutants were increased in extracellular polysaccharide production, twitching motility, expression of targeted virulence and virulence regulatory genes (pilT, egl, pehC, hrPB, and phcA), and virulence, suggesting that the virulence of UW551 was negatively regulated by ϕRs551, at least partially through ORF14. Interestingly, we found that the wt ϕRs551-carrying strain UW551 of R. solanacearum significantly outcompeted the wt strain RUN302 which lacks the prophage in tomato plants co-inoculated with the two strains. When each of the two mutant strains was co-inoculated with RUN302, however, the mutants were significantly out-competed by RUN302 for the same colonization site. Our results suggest that ecologically, ϕRs551 may play an important role by regulating the virulence of and offering a competitive fitness advantage to its carrier bacterial strain for persistence of the bacterium in the environment, which in turn prolongs the symbiotic relationship between the phage ϕRs551 and the R. solanacearum strain UW551. Our study is the first toward a better understanding of the co-existence between a lysogenic phage and

  14. Entry deterrence and hidden competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrutich, Maria; Huisman, Kuno; Kort, Peter

    This paper studies strategic investment behavior of firms facing an uncertain demand in a duopoly setting. Firms choose both investment timing and the capacity level while facing additional uncertainty about market participants, which is introduced via the concept of hidden competition. We focus on

  15. Competitive intelligence: An instrument to enhance South Africa’s competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Viviers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The case for Competitive Intelligence (CI as an instrument that can enhance the competitiveness of South African companies and South Africa as a country is strong. Various global competitive rankings measurements have indicated over a number of years the areas in which competitiveness is lacking. Moreover, these rankings have indicated that South Africa has failed to improve its position year on year. The fact that the world is becoming increasingly competitive for South African entities is undisputed. Coupled with a fluctuating exchange rate and the country’s geographical proximity, this poses unique challenges facing South African managers who have to deal with various regulations and legislative matters. In order to create and sustain an effective knowledge economy and to enhance global competitiveness, South Africa however has to put appropriate strategies/measures in place to stimulate, encourage and grow knowledge practices. Competitive Intelligence (CI as a means of making more sense of the competitive business environment and to identify opportunities and risks in time to act upon can be effectively used as a means to enhance competitiveness. Valuable lessons from successful CI practices in the business sector and government can be learnt from elsewhere in the world. CI should be investigated and adapted for South Africa’s business environment. It is therefore the aim of this article to first attempt to describe the role of CI in enhancing competitiveness, specifically in South Africa and secondly, to stimulate thought on how to secure momentum in enhancing CI as an academic field by developing relevant CI courses as well as demonstrating the value of CI to companies in South Africa through research and collaboration between academics and the private and public sectors.

  16. Retail competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Retail competition as the cornerstone of a competitive electricity marketplace was the subject of the seventh in the series of policy discussion papers developed at the Market Design Conference. Concern was expressed that because of the complexities involved in market design and technical implementation, the retail competition may lag behind other elements of the implementation of the new market design. A variety of key issues were debated, including the role of physical versus financial contracts, the form of retail competition and financial settlement systems in the short term, the requirement to separate 'competitive' (metering, billing, maintenance, consumer education) from non-competitive' (the transmission wires) services and the role of municipal electric utilities. It was agreed that the IMO should play an important role in defining and enforcing the separation of services, and that as a general rule, the development of policy in this area should be guided by the principle of maximizing the potential for competition

  17. The relationship between competition and quality in procedural cardiac care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, David B; Wroblewski, Kristen; Apfelbaum, Sean; Dauber, Benjamin; Woo, Joyce; Tung, Avery

    2015-01-01

    Anesthesiologists are frequently involved in efforts to meet perioperative quality metrics. The degree to which hospitals compete on publicly reported quality measures, however, is unclear. We hypothesized that hospitals in more competitive environments would be more likely to compete on quality and thus perform better on such measures. To test our hypothesis, we studied the relationship between competition and quality in hospitals providing procedural cardiac care and participating in a national quality database. For hospitals performing heart valve surgery (HVS) and delivering acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care in the Hospital Compare database, we assessed the degree of intrahospital competition using both geographical radius and federally defined metropolitan statistical area (MSA) to determine the degree of intrahospital competition. For each hospital, we then correlated the degree of competition with quality measure performance, mortality, patient volume, and per-patient Medicare costs for both HVS and AMI. Six hundred fifty-three hospitals met inclusion criteria for HVS and 1898 hospitals for AMI care. We found that for both definitions of competition, hospitals facing greater competition did not demonstrate better quality measure performance for either HVS or AMI. For both diagnoses, competition by number of hospitals correlated positively with cost: partial correlation coefficients = 0.40 (0.42 for MSA) (P competition among hospitals correlated overall with increased Medicare costs but did not predict better scores on publicly reported quality metrics. Our results suggest that hospitals do not compete meaningfully on publicly reported quality metrics or costs.

  18. The competitive challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the strategies necessary to succeed in the increasingly competitive independent power industry. The topics of the article include the factors encouraging mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures, the availability of financing, changes in the market, regulatory climate changes, competition and power planning, Not In My Back Yard and project siting, and the road ahead

  19. Experimental evolution of defense against a competitive mold confers reduced sensitivity to fungal toxins but no increased resistance in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trienens Monika

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungal secondary metabolites have been suggested to function as chemical defenses against insect antagonists, i.e. predators and competitors. Because insects and fungi often compete for dead organic material, insects may achieve protection against fungi by reducing sensitivity to fungal chemicals. This, in turn, may lead to increased resistance allowing insects better to suppress the spread of antagonistic but non-pathogenic microbes in their habitat. However, it remains controversial whether fungal toxins serve as a chemical shield that selects for insects that are less sensitive to toxins, and hence favors the evolution of insect resistance against microbial competitors. Results To examine the relationship between the ability to survive competition with toxic fungi, sensitivity to fungal toxins and resistance, we created fungal-selected (FS replicated insect lines by exposing Drosophila melanogaster larvae to the fungal competitor Aspergillus nidulans over 26 insect generations. Compared to unselected control lines (UC, larvae from the FS lines had higher survival rates in the presence of A. nidulans indicating selection for increased protection against the fungal antagonist. In line with our expectation, FS lines were less susceptible to the A. nidulans mycotoxin Sterigmatocystin. Of particular interest is that evolved protection against A. nidulans and Sterigmatocytin was not correlated with increased insect survival in the presence of other fungi and mycotoxins. We found no evidence that FS lines were better at suppressing the expansion of fungal colonies but observed a trend towards a less detrimental effect of FS larvae on fungal growth. Conclusion Antagonistic but non-pathogenic fungi favor insect variants better protected against the fungal chemical arsenal. This highlights the often proposed but experimentally underexplored importance of secondary metabolites in driving animal-fungus interactions. Instead of

  20. X-ray microscopy as an approach to increasing accuracy and efficiency of serial block-face imaging for correlated light and electron microscopy of biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushong, Eric A; Johnson, Donald D; Kim, Keun-Young; Terada, Masako; Hatori, Megumi; Peltier, Steven T; Panda, Satchidananda; Merkle, Arno; Ellisman, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    The recently developed three-dimensional electron microscopic (EM) method of serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) has rapidly established itself as a powerful imaging approach. Volume EM imaging with this scanning electron microscopy (SEM) method requires intense staining of biological specimens with heavy metals to allow sufficient back-scatter electron signal and also to render specimens sufficiently conductive to control charging artifacts. These more extreme heavy metal staining protocols render specimens light opaque and make it much more difficult to track and identify regions of interest (ROIs) for the SBEM imaging process than for a typical thin section transmission electron microscopy correlative light and electron microscopy study. We present a strategy employing X-ray microscopy (XRM) both for tracking ROIs and for increasing the efficiency of the workflow used for typical projects undertaken with SBEM. XRM was found to reveal an impressive level of detail in tissue heavily stained for SBEM imaging, allowing for the identification of tissue landmarks that can be subsequently used to guide data collection in the SEM. Furthermore, specific labeling of individual cells using diaminobenzidine is detectable in XRM volumes. We demonstrate that tungsten carbide particles or upconverting nanophosphor particles can be used as fiducial markers to further increase the precision and efficiency of SBEM imaging.

  1. Examining the "evolution of increased competitive ability" hypothesis in response to parasites and pathogens in the invasive paper wasp Polistes dominula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Fabio; Grozinger, Christina M.; Beani, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Successful invaders often become established in new ranges by outcompeting native species. The "evolution of increased competitive ability" hypothesis predicts that invasive species are subjected to less predation and parasitization than sympatric native species, and thus can allocate resources from defence and immunity to growth and fecundity, thereby achieving higher fitness. In this study, we examined whether American invasive Polistes dominula paper wasps have reduced immunocompetence. To explore this scenario, we tested their susceptibility towards parasites and pathogens at both the individual (immune defence) and colony levels, i.e. hygienic behaviour (removal of diseased individuals by nestmates). First, we examined the response to the specific coevolved parasite Xenos vesparum (lost after invasion) in terms of individual host susceptibility and hygienic behaviour. Second, we explored the response against general pathogens by quantifying the bacterial clearance in individual wasps after a challenge with Escherichia coli and hygienic behaviour after a challenge with the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Our results show that American invasive P. dominula have a higher response against X. vesparum at the colony level, but at the individual level their susceptibility is not significantly different from conspecifics of the native range. On the other hand, invasive P. dominula display lower response after a challenge with general pathogens at both the individual and colony levels. While supporting the hypothesis of a reduction of immunocompetence towards general pathogens in invasive species, these findings also suggest that the response against coevolved parasites might follow different evolutionary pathways which are not always easily predictable.

  2. Brokers and Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Ryall; Olav Sorenson

    2007-01-01

    The broker profits by intermediating between two (or more) parties. Using a biform game, we examine whether such a position can confer a competitive advantage, as well as whether any such advantage could persist if actors formed relations strategically. Our analysis reveals that, if one considers exogenous the relations between actors, brokers can enjoy an advantage but only if (1) they do not face substitutes either for the connections they offer or the value they can create, (2) they interm...

  3. Nuclear power in the competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlissel, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear power was originally promoted as being able to produce electricity that would be open-quotes too cheap to meter.close quotes However, large construction cost overruns and rapidly rising operating costs caused many nuclear power plants instead to be very expensive sources of electricity. As a result, many nuclear utilities will face increasing cost pressures in the future competitive environment from lower-cost producers. In fact, the threat to nuclear utilities is so severe that many industry analysts are projecting that more that $70 billion of the utilities' remaining investments in nuclear plants will be open-quotes stranded,close quotes i.e., unrecoverable in the competitive environment. Others in the industry have speculated that many of the 150 major U.S. electric utilities, a large number of which are nuclear, could be swept away by competition, leaving fewer than fifty utilities. This paper will examine how utilities are attempting to improve the cost competitiveness of operating today's nuclear power plants. It will also identify some of the potential consequences of competition for nuclear power and the regulatory role of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Finally, this paper will address how the changing power markets will affect the prospects for the next generation of nuclear power plants

  4. Towards a universal definition of competitive intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Rene Pellissier; Tshilidzi E. Nenzhelele

    2013-01-01

    Background: Enterprises face intense competition caused by globalisation. Consequently, enterprises look for tools that provide a competitive advantage. Competitive intelligence (CI) provides a competitive advantage to enterprises of all sizes. There are many definitions of CI but no universally accepted one. Objectives: The purpose of this research is to review the current literature on CI with the aim of identifying and analysing CI definitions to establish the commonalities and differen...

  5. Adjunctive selective estrogen receptor modulator increases neural activity in the hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus during emotional face recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, E; Weickert, C S; Lenroot, R; Kindler, J; Skilleter, A J; Vercammen, A; White, C; Gur, R E; Weickert, T W

    2016-05-03

    Estrogen has been implicated in the development and course of schizophrenia with most evidence suggesting a neuroprotective effect. Treatment with raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, can reduce symptom severity, improve cognition and normalize brain activity during learning in schizophrenia. People with schizophrenia are especially impaired in the identification of negative facial emotions. The present study was designed to determine the extent to which adjunctive raloxifene treatment would alter abnormal neural activity during angry facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Twenty people with schizophrenia (12 men, 8 women) participated in a 13-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of adjunctive raloxifene treatment (120 mg per day orally) and performed a facial emotion recognition task during functional magnetic resonance imaging after each treatment phase. Two-sample t-tests in regions of interest selected a priori were performed to assess activation differences between raloxifene and placebo conditions during the recognition of angry faces. Adjunctive raloxifene significantly increased activation in the right hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus compared with the placebo condition (family-wise error, Precognition in schizophrenia. These findings support the hypothesis that estrogen plays a modifying role in schizophrenia and shows that adjunctive raloxifene treatment may reverse abnormal neural activity during facial emotion recognition, which is relevant to impaired social functioning in men and women with schizophrenia.

  6. Neural synchronization during face-to-face communication

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, J.; Dai, B.; Peng, D.; Zhu, C.; Liu, L.; Lu, C.

    2012-01-01

    Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-...

  7. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  8. Increased Virulence and Competitive Advantage of a/α Over a/a or α/α Offspring Conserves the Mating System of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R.; Wu, Wei; Radke, Joshua B.; Zhao, Rui; Soll, David R.

    2005-01-01

    The majority of Candida albicans strains in nature are a/α and must undergo homozygosis to a/a or α/α to mate. Here we have used a mouse model for systemic infection to test the hypothesis that a/α strains predominate in nature because they have a competitive advantage over a/a and α/α offspring in colonizing hosts. Single-strain injection experiments revealed that a/α strains were far more virulent than either their a/a or α/α offspring. When equal numbers of parent a/α and offspring a/a or α/α cells were co-injected, a/α always exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of extreme host morbidity or death. When equal numbers of an engineered a/a/α2 strain and its isogenic a/a parent strain were co-injected, the a/a/α2 strain exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of host morbidity or death, suggesting that the genotype of the mating-type (MTL) locus, not associated genes on chromosome 5, provides a competitive advantage. We therefore propose that heterozygosity at the MTL locus not only represses white-opaque switching and genes involved in the mating process, but also affects virulence, providing a competitive advantage to the a/α genotype that conserves the mating system of C. albicans in nature. PMID:15695357

  9. Increased virulence and competitive advantage of a/alpha over a/a or alpha/alpha offspring conserves the mating system of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Wu, Wei; Radke, Joshua B; Zhao, Rui; Soll, David R

    2005-04-01

    The majority of Candida albicans strains in nature are a/alpha and must undergo homozygosis to a/a or alpha/alpha to mate. Here we have used a mouse model for systemic infection to test the hypothesis that a/alpha strains predominate in nature because they have a competitive advantage over a/a and alpha/alpha offspring in colonizing hosts. Single-strain injection experiments revealed that a/alpha strains were far more virulent than either their a/a or alpha/alpha offspring. When equal numbers of parent a/alpha and offspring a/a or alpha/alpha cells were co-injected, a/alpha always exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of extreme host morbidity or death. When equal numbers of an engineered a/a/alpha2 strain and its isogenic a/a parent strain were co-injected, the a/a/alpha2 strain exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of host morbidity or death, suggesting that the genotype of the mating-type (MTL) locus, not associated genes on chromosome 5, provides a competitive advantage. We therefore propose that heterozygosity at the MTL locus not only represses white-opaque switching and genes involved in the mating process, but also affects virulence, providing a competitive advantage to the a/alpha genotype that conserves the mating system of C. albicans in nature.

  10. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos ... Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After ...

  11. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type ... Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After a traumatic ...

  12. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  13. Competition Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Icaza Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the competition regime works of various authors, published under the auspices of the University of the Hemispheres and the Corporation for Studies and Publications. Analyzes the structure, the general concepts, case law taken for development. Includes comments on the usefulness of this work for the study of competition law and the contribution to the lawyers who want to practice in this branch of economic law.

  14. LENIENCY POLICY FOR COMPETITIVE ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie Moga

    2013-01-01

    A market driven economy is inconceivable without competition. In this system, the competition is beneficial firstly for consumers, but also for producers. The former have the ability to satisfy their needs according to taste and financial ability, while the latter are incentivized to innovate and increase efficiency. Competition induces natural selection among companies. This selection must adhere to strictly abiding by competition law regulation, while regulation must benefit both consumers ...

  15. Pre-Release Consumption of Methyl Eugenol Increases the Mating Competitiveness of Sterile Males of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Large Field Enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Todd E.; Edu, James; McInnis, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique may be implemented to control populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), when environmental concerns preclude widespread use of chemical attractants or toxicants. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the mating competitiveness of sterile B. dorsalis males could be increased via pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol. Males of the oriental fruit fly are strongly attracted to this plant-borne compound, which they ingest and use in the synthesis of the sex pheromone. Previous studies conducted in the laboratory and small field-cages have shown that males given methyl eugenol produce a more attractive pheromone for females and have a higher mating success rate than males denied methyl eugenol. Here, levels of egg sterility were compared following the release of wild-like flies and either methyl eugenol-fed (treated) or methyl eugenol-deprived (control) sterile males in large field enclosures at four over flooding ratios ranging from 5:1 to 60:1 (sterile: wild-like males). Treated sterile males were fed methyl eugenol for 1–4 h (depending on the over flooding ratio tested) 3 d prior to release. Eggs were dissected from introduced fruits (apples), incubated in the laboratory, and scored for hatch rate. The effect of methyl eugenol was most pronounced at lower over flooding ratios. At the 5:1 and 10:1 over flooding ratios, the level of egg sterility observed for treated, sterile males was significantly greater than that observed for control, sterile males. In addition, the incidence of egg sterility reported for treated sterile males at these lower over flooding ratios was similar to that noted for treated or control sterile males at the 30:1 or 60:1 over flooding ratios. This latter result, in particular, suggests that pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol allows for a reduction in the number of sterile flies that are produced and released, thus increasing the cost

  16. Quantified Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher

    2016-01-01

    artist Marnix de Nijs' Physiognomic Scrutinizer is an interactive installation whereby the viewer's face is scanned and identified with historical figures. The American artist Zach Blas' project Fag Face Mask consists of three-dimensional portraits that blend biometric facial data from 30 gay men's faces...... and critically examine bias in surveillance technologies, as well as scientific investigations, regarding the stereotyping mode of the human gaze. The American artist Heather Dewey-Hagborg creates three-dimensional portraits of persons she has “identified” from their garbage. Her project from 2013 entitled...

  17. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients......It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...... perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive tests of face and word perception during the stable phase of recovery. Despite all patients having...

  18. ‘Make-or-Buy’ in International Oligopoly and the Role of Competitive Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Dermot, Leahy; Catia, Montagna

    2007-01-01

    We study how competitive pressure influences the make-or-buy decision that oligopolistic firms face between producing an intermediate component in-house or purchasing it from a domestic supplier. We model outsourcing as a bilateral relationship in which the supplier undertakes relationship specific investments. A home and foreign firm compete in the home market. Firms’ mode of operation decision depends on cost and strategic considerations. Competitive pressure increases firms’ incentive to...

  19. Intra-industry adjustment to import competition: theory and application to the German clothing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Raff, Horst; Wagner, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses an oligopoly model with heterogeneous firms to examine how an industry adjusts to rising import competition. The model predicts that in the short run the least efficient firms in the industry become inactive, surviving firms face a fall in output, mark-ups and profits, and the average productivity of survivors increases. These pro-competitive effects of import penetration on the domestic industry disappear in the long run. The predictions for the short run are confirmed in an ...

  20. A study of STP strategies of Chinese retail banking industry for competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Manqing

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation reports on the research in how Chinese domestic banks use Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning (STP) strategy for retail banking in the context of anticipated competition after 2006 when the banking business will be fully open to foreign banks. With the full liberalization of China's banking sector due under China's WTO commitments, Chinese domestic banks are faced with the need to increase their competitiveness. This research will start with a literature review conce...

  1. Demolishing the competition: the longitudinal link between competitive video games, competitive gambling, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-07-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship between video game competition and aggression. In addition, if competition in video games is a significant reason for the link between video game play and aggression, then other competitive activities, such as competitive gambling, also may predict aggression over time. In the current study, we directly assessed the socialization (competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8 % female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play, gambling, and aggressive behaviors. Greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. The selection hypothesis also was supported, as aggression predicted greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time, after controlling for previous competitive video game play and competitive gambling. Our findings, taken together with the fact that millions of adolescents play competitive video games every day and that competitive gambling may increase as adolescents transition into adulthood, highlight the need for a greater understanding of the relationship between competition and aggression.

  2. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Interviews Our Stories Search All Videos PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Interviews Our ...

  3. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, and clinicians share their experiences with PTSD ...

  4. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search ...

  5. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Interviews Our Stories Search All Videos PTSD Basics ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Interviews Our Stories Search All Videos Learn ...

  6. Neural synchronization during face-to-face communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Dai, Bohan; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming

    2012-11-07

    Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-face dialog between partners but none during a back-to-back dialog, a face-to-face monologue, or a back-to-back monologue. Moreover, the neural synchronization between partners during the face-to-face dialog resulted primarily from the direct interactions between the partners, including multimodal sensory information integration and turn-taking behavior. The communicating behavior during the face-to-face dialog could be predicted accurately based on the neural synchronization level. These results suggest that face-to-face communication, particularly dialog, has special neural features that other types of communication do not have and that the neural synchronization between partners may underlie successful face-to-face communication.

  7. Competition Policy and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Peter; Lorentzen, Jo

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance of the t......We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance...... of the topic. We move on to discuss the organisation of industriesin a dynamic context and draw out consequences for competition policy. We concludewith an outlook on the underlying tensions between technology alliances, competitionpolicy, and industrial policy.JEL codes: L4, L5, O31Keywords: Competition...

  8. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  9. COMPETITION AS MARKET MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of a competition as an objective law for development of the commodities production based on private ownership of the means of production and commodity exchange has been revealed in the paper. The paper presents an economic basis of market economy (private ownership which generates a corresponding production objective. Such purpose is a maximization of profit and a minimization of market subject expenses. Therefore, a struggle for the most favourable conditions on commodity production and sales is inevitable in such situation. The struggle is considered in the community with developed market economy as a competition.The competition is regarded not as an exogenic factor exerting its influence on market economic system from the outside, but as an objective phenomenon which is inherent to management market system in itself. Such treatment is substantiated by economic disintegration of individual commodity producers. Being an important engine of market economy, the competition does not establish its laws, and its role is to be an executive of data which are internally inherent in commodity production laws and firstly it concerns a profit maximization law which defines a purpose and guiding motif of economic entities in the given economy.The competition plays a contradictory role under conditions of market economy. On the one hand, it makes manufacturers constantly to aspire to expense reduction for the sake of profit increase. This has resulted in labour productivity increase, production cost decrease and a company receives an opportunity to reduce retail price for its products. Consequently, the competition acts as a potential factor for lowering of prices while increasing production efficiency. On the other hand, sellers have more freedom in price fixing under conditions of imperfect competition as they sell their products under the conditions of a monopolistic competition or an oligopoly. This is the main weakest point of the market

  10. Competitive intransitivity promotes species coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert A; Schamp, Brandon S

    2006-08-01

    Using a spatially explicit cellular automaton model with local competition, we investigate the potential for varied levels of competitive intransitivity (i.e., nonhierarchical competition) to promote species coexistence. As predicted, on average, increased levels of intransitivity result in more sustained coexistence within simulated communities, although the outcome of competition also becomes increasingly unpredictable. Interestingly, even a moderate degree of intransitivity within a community can promote coexistence, in terms of both the length of time until the first competitive exclusion and the number of species remaining in the community after 500 simulated generations. These results suggest that modest levels of intransitivity in nature, such as those that are thought to be characteristic of plant communities, can contribute to coexistence and, therefore, community-scale biodiversity. We explore a potential connection between competitive intransitivity and neutral theory, whereby competitive intransitivity may represent an important mechanism for "ecological equivalence."

  11. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zaharia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative as possible the business strategy of the organizations, their capacity of interacting with customers and other categories of audience. Such concepts as strategic positioning, relational marketing, management of the relationship with the consumer, marketing integrated research, a.s.o. are only a few of the tools with the help of which the marketing managers will implement successful operational strategies. All these developments are creating a real new paradigm of Marketing aimed to better explain the new types of complex market relationship in which the 21st Century organization is .

  12. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  13. X-ray Microscopy as an Approach to Increasing Accuracy and Efficiency of Serial Block-face Imaging for Correlated Light and Electron Microscopy of Biological Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Bushong, Eric A.; Johnson, Donald D.; Kim, Keun-Young; Terada, Masako; Hatori, Megumi; Peltier, Steven T.; Panda, Satchidananda; Merkle, Arno; Ellisman, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The recently developed three-dimensional electron microscopic (EM) method of serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) has rapidly established itself as a powerful imaging approach. Volume EM imaging with this scanning electron microscopy (SEM) method requires intense staining of biological specimens with heavy metals to allow sufficient back-scatter electron signal and also to render specimens sufficiently conductive to control charging artifacts. These more extreme heavy metal s...

  14. Measuring the competitiveness benefits of a transmission investment policy: The case of the Alberta electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolak, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Transmission expansions can increase the extent of competition faced by wholesale electricity suppliers with the ability to exercise unilateral market power. This can cause them to submit offer curves closer to their marginal cost curves, which sets market-clearing prices closer to competitive benchmark price levels. These lower wholesale market-clearing prices are the competitiveness benefit consumers realize from the transmission expansion. This paper quantifies empirically the competitiveness benefits of a transmission expansion policy that causes strategic suppliers to expect no transmission congestion. Using hourly generation-unit level offer, output, market-clearing price and congestion data from the Alberta wholesale electricity market from January 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013, an upper and lower bound on the hourly consumer competitiveness benefits of this transmission policy is computed. Both of these competitiveness benefits measures are economically significant, which argues for including them in transmission planning processes for wholesale electricity markets to ensure that all transmission expansions with positive net benefits to electricity consumers are undertaken. -- Highlights: •Define competitiveness benefits to consumers from transmission expansions in wholesale market. •Compute upper and lower bounds on competitiveness benefits for Alberta market. •Compare no-perceived congestion prices to actual prices to measure competitiveness benefits. •Economically substantial competitiveness benefits found for sample period studied. •To ensure adequate transmission, planning processes should account for these benefits

  15. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at first. But if it's been months or years since the trauma and you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, ...

  16. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After a traumatic event — ... you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is ...

  17. The Competitive Potential of the Belorussian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Migranyan, A.

    2014-01-01

    The article is an attempt to study the factors of the competitive capacity of Belorussian economy. There are two groups of factors of competitive potential and competitive advantages' formation: internal (changes in resource allocation) and external factors (adaptation to external shocks). The study found that the main source of the increase of competitive capacity of the Belorussian economy were foreign. The competitive potential of Belarus was formed on the basis of the increased exports. H...

  18. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  19. Competition in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Warren

    1995-01-01

    With changes occurring within both the gas and electricity industries and both sectors undergoing simultaneous reforms at the State and national levels it is timely to look at some major aspects of the energy-reform processes in Australia and to attempt to offer some perspectives from the viewpoint of an industry user of energy. From an industry user's viewpoint there is quantifiable evidence that competition in the energy sector will deliver major economic benefits to industry and the nation. The reform process currently in train will increase Australia's international competitiveness. Commonwealth-State collaboration is useful on economic issues which require a national consistent approach. Many significant and complex arrangement apply to the gas and electricity sectors which add to the complexity of the respective reform processes. More competitive arrangements are therefore required more quickly at several stages of the gas-sector reform process, such as in the commercialization of government utilities, resolving the issue of third-party transmission pricing, and the removal of State governments' impediments to competitive trading. The Hilmer Report on National Competition Policy will help deal with some difficult structural and transitional issues, e.g. third-party access, competitive structures, regulatory regimes, and a consistent national approach.(author). 1 fig., 1 photo

  20. MACROECONOMIC ASPECTS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Hooke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of globalization of world economic processes, the role of individual national economies increases, comparative advantages of the development of a country are formed, and their competitiveness is ensured. That is why it is worth emphasizing the importance of increasing the competitiveness of each individual country, based on its internal capacity. In a broad aspect, the competitiveness of the national economy is perceived as the ability of the country to ensure the balance of its external proportions and to avoid those constraints imposed by the foreign economic sphere, to self-organizing the improvement of their world economic ties. The competitiveness of the economy at the macro level is associated with the duration of the cycle of reproduction of the main productive assets and, accordingly, the jobs, productive forces of society and determined by the overall economic efficiency of investment. The criteria of competitiveness of the national economy are the growth of social productivity of labor, increase of social and economic efficiency of production and standard of living of the population. The competitiveness of the national economy determines sustainable socio-economic development of the country, as well as sustainable development predetermines the competitiveness of not only the country, but also all its levels. Scientific results are obtained using special methods of research of economic objects and phenomena, that is, based on the correlation and regressive, comparative analysis (establishing the relationship between the indicator factor, as well as economic modeling. Findings. Generalizing analysis and the importance of the macroeconomic aspect of competitiveness were used in the research paper, which will allow to better respond to the economic situation, in accordance with the trends of the “green” transformation of the economy; which in turn will solve important problems of the development and implementation of its

  1. Essays on Stock Exchange Competition and Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Atso

    2005-01-01

    This study deals with the industrial structure, the nature of competition and the pricing of stock exchange trading services in Europe. Specific for the study is that exchanges are considered to be profit-maximizing institutions that face competition. A conventional analysis of concentration ratios shows that the concentration of European stock exchanges is low. When the nature of competition is measured in more detail, regression results indicate that exchanges operate in monopolistic o...

  2. Competition and Outsourcing with Scale Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard P. Cachon; Patrick T. Harker

    2002-01-01

    Scale economies are commonplace in operations, yet because of analytical challenges, relatively little is known about how firms should compete in their presence. This paper presents a model of competition between two firms that face scale economies; (i.e., each firm's cost per unit of demand is decreasing in demand). A general framework is used, which incorporates competition between two service providers with price- and time-sensitive demand (a queuing game), and competition between two reta...

  3. Logo competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Award of the prizes The price ceremony for the Staff Association’s new logo competition which took place on Friday 1st March at 5 p.m. was a big success. The first prize, an Ezee Suisse electric bike, was won by Paulo Rios, from Portugal. In his absence, the bike was handed to his brother Vitor. The other five winners of the competition also received their prize: Go Sport vouchers. A peize draw was then organized to award 22 other participants with prizes offered by our commercial partners (Aquaparc, BCGE, L’Occitane, Passeport Gourmand, Sephora, Theater La Comédie de Genève), whom we would like to warmly thank. After all prices were distributed the evening continued with discussions around a friendly drink.

  4. Competitive Framing

    OpenAIRE

    Ran Spiegler

    2014-01-01

    I present a simple framework for modeling two-firm market competition when consumer choice is "frame-dependent", and firms use costless "marketing messages" to influence the consumer's frame. This framework embeds several recent models in the "behavioral industrial organization" literature. I identify a property that consumer choice may satisfy, which extends the concept of Weighted Regularity due to Piccione and Spiegler (2012), and provide a characterization of Nash equilibria under this pr...

  5. STRATEGIC APPROACHES WITH EFFECTS ON COMPETITIVENESS AND PROFITABILITY OF TEXTILE MARKET IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamir Hadi Abod AL-GENABI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the results of the research aimed at understanding the effects of the market strategies the textile organizations follow to increase profitability, considering that this sector is a pillar of the national economy. In this respect, 7 hypotheses are stated and verified. This research is an attempt to know how to face competition in this industry.

  6. Assessing the competitive conditions in the Italian banking system: some empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. COCCORESE

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The European banking industry is currently facing the effects arising from the increasing integration of national financial markets. In adapting to this new scenario, the Italian banking system has undergone a considerable transformation. The degree of competition in the Italian banking system is evaluated using a sample of banks during the period 1988-96.

  7. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  8. Sperm competition risk drives rapid ejaculate adjustments mediated by seminal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Michael J; Steeves, Tammy E; Gemmell, Neil J; Rosengrave, Patrice C

    2017-10-31

    In many species, males can make rapid adjustments to ejaculate performance in response to sperm competition risk; however, the mechanisms behind these changes are not understood. Here, we manipulate male social status in an externally fertilising fish, chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ), and find that in less than 48 hr, males can upregulate sperm velocity when faced with an increased risk of sperm competition. Using a series of in vitro sperm manipulation and competition experiments, we show that rapid changes in sperm velocity are mediated by seminal fluid and the effect of seminal fluid on sperm velocity directly impacts paternity share and therefore reproductive success. These combined findings, completely consistent with sperm competition theory, provide unequivocal evidence that sperm competition risk drives plastic adjustment of ejaculate quality, that seminal fluid harbours the mechanism for the rapid adjustment of sperm velocity and that fitness benefits accrue to males from such adjustment.

  9. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova A. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important conditions of the existence of every organization, every enterprise is to insure the long-term sustainable development, one of the conditions of which is the increase of an organizational competitiveness. In modern economic conditions, social aspects of competitiveness are now in the foreground of interest, because just the strategy of social responsibility (SSR of modern enterprises can assure some commercial benefits, in responding, at the same time, to the social demands and in creating its well-being. Such an approach is in the basis of the notion of competitiveness. Along with «rigid parameters», such as price characteristics, the capability to deal with competitors, effective financial and production policies, «flexible factors» of competitiveness are of a big importance: a personnel potential, individual and collective competencies, organizational and managerial capabilities. As a result, we have formulated a research hypothesis: the organizational competitiveness is defined by individual and collective competencies of an organization, is based on socially responsible actions, confirms the demand for the object and insures its sustainable long-term development. Any organization should base all its actions aimed to increase its competitiveness on its intellectual potential, or on the management of individual and collective competencies that assure the sustainable development and the goal achievement. For every organizational strategic action, an effective combination of these competencies exists. So, we suggest a new definition of competitiveness: it is a social and economic category of understanding of the social responsibility, having as a central element individual and collective competencies, based on socially responsible actions of an enterprise, insuring its long-term sustainable development.

  10. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel-Andrei Donici

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a certain connection between education and economic competitiveness. The relation between these two concepts is easy to intuit. On the medium and long term investments in education generate astrong increase in a country’s level of economic competitiveness. Through education the human capital is formed, and it affects all economic fields. Therefore we can observe that human capital has a decisive influence on the economic competitiveness of a country.

  11. Developmental Changes in Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication: Birth to 3 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated development of face-to-face communication in infants between 1 and 14 weeks old and their mothers. Found a curvilinear development of early face-to-face communication, with increases occurring between weeks 4 and 9. When placed on a sofa, infants' face-to-face communication was longer than when they were held. Girls spent a longer…

  12. Product market competition and corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Chou

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether product market competition acts as an external mechanism for disciplining management and also whether there is any relationship between the degree of competition a firm faces and its corporate governance. We find that firms in competitive industries or with low market power tend to have weak corporate governance structures. Results are robust to various competition measures at firm and industry levels, even after controlling for firm-specific variables. We further find that corporate governance quality has a significant effect on performance only when product market competition is weak. The overall evidence suggests that product market competition has a substantial impact on corporate governance and that it substitutes for corporate governance quality. Finally, we provide evidence that the disciplinary force of competition on management is from the fear of liquidation.

  13. Survival of the Best Fit: Competition from Low Wage Countries and the (Uneven) Growth of US Manufacturing Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Bernard; J. Bradford Jensen; Peter K. Schott

    2002-01-01

    We examine the relationship between import competition from low wage countries and the reallocation of US manufacturing from 1977 to 1997. Both employment and output growth are slower for plants that face higher levels of low wage import competition in their industry. As a result, US manufacturing is reallocated over time towards industries that are more capital and skill intensive. Differential growth is driven by a combination of increased plant failure rates and slower growth of surviving ...

  14. Are Face and Object Recognition Independent? A Neurocomputational Modeling Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Panqu; Gauthier, Isabel; Cottrell, Garrison

    2016-04-01

    Are face and object recognition abilities independent? Although it is commonly believed that they are, Gauthier et al. [Gauthier, I., McGugin, R. W., Richler, J. J., Herzmann, G., Speegle, M., & VanGulick, A. E. Experience moderates overlap between object and face recognition, suggesting a common ability. Journal of Vision, 14, 7, 2014] recently showed that these abilities become more correlated as experience with nonface categories increases. They argued that there is a single underlying visual ability, v, that is expressed in performance with both face and nonface categories as experience grows. Using the Cambridge Face Memory Test and the Vanderbilt Expertise Test, they showed that the shared variance between Cambridge Face Memory Test and Vanderbilt Expertise Test performance increases monotonically as experience increases. Here, we address why a shared resource across different visual domains does not lead to competition and to an inverse correlation in abilities? We explain this conundrum using our neurocomputational model of face and object processing ["The Model", TM, Cottrell, G. W., & Hsiao, J. H. Neurocomputational models of face processing. In A. J. Calder, G. Rhodes, M. Johnson, & J. Haxby (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of face perception. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2011]. We model the domain general ability v as the available computational resources (number of hidden units) in the mapping from input to label and experience as the frequency of individual exemplars in an object category appearing during network training. Our results show that, as in the behavioral data, the correlation between subordinate level face and object recognition accuracy increases as experience grows. We suggest that different domains do not compete for resources because the relevant features are shared between faces and objects. The essential power of experience is to generate a "spreading transform" for faces (separating them in representational space) that

  15. Competitive bidding in Medicare: who benefits from competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zirui; Landrum, Mary Beth; Chernew, Michael E

    2012-09-01

    To conduct the first empirical study of competitive bidding in Medicare. We analyzed 2006-2010 Medicare Advantage data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services using longitudinal models adjusted for market and plan characteristics. A $1 increase in Medicare's payment to health maintenance organization (HMO) plans led to a $0.49 (P service plans included, higher Medicare payments increased bids less ($0.33 per dollar), suggesting more competition among these latter plans. As a market-based alternative to cost control through administrative pricing, competitive bidding relies on private insurance plans proposing prices they are willing to accept for insuring a beneficiary. However, competition is imperfect in the Medicare bidding market. As much as half of every dollar in increased plan payment went to higher bids rather than to beneficiaries. While having more insurers in a market lowered bids, the design of any bidding system for Medicare should recognize this shortcoming of competition.

  16. REGULATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Competition policy starts by shaping a legislative framework. This is aimed to establish boundaries for conducting competition and also sets limits of licit and illicit demarcation, for competitive and anticompetitive practices. The Romanian Competition Law has a divalent approach and it aims to provide specific behavioral conditions in order to stimulate and protect free-market competition, with the ultimate goal of developing a balanced, efficient and competitive economy. Our country’s Competition policy is based on punishing the behavior. There are three such types of anti-competitive behavior, namely: agreements between undertakings, abuse of dominant position and mergers and other concentrations between undertakings. Recent Practice proved that this “enforcement-conduct-punishment” structure is not necessary the best way to address competition and it is high time for authorities to switch both regulation and enforcement of competition from the “classical perspective” towards concepts like “competition advocacy” and “soft power” and give competition policy a new, reshaped face.

  17. The Literature Review of a New Form of Competitiveness Called City Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman EROĞLU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With globalization, the rapid development of information technologies and the rapid changes in the economic structure, the country’s borders at a time increasingly depreciate and the importance of city competitiveness reveals. Although it is an ongoing debate around the world whether cities compete with each other, city competitiveness is a new form of competitiveness. Cities compete with each other to increase their competitiveness. City competitiveness is defined as having better values compared to other cities. In this study, a new form of competitiveness called city competitiveness is examined.

  18. MEASURING COMPETITIVENESS OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A competitive structure of a national economy is influenced by the competitiveness of each of the actors made the national economy. In other words, to achieve competitive economic structure shall contribute all sectors of the national economy and hence all branches of the national economy, all organizations within each branch. Thus, the productive sectors of the economy contribute by increasing their competitiveness, GDP growth, added value, while other branches making a contribution through activity, increased quality of life (health, culture, social in training skilled labor (education to ensure effective functioning of the judiciary, protection of private property and citizen safety, lower crime rate (police, reducing the risk of political instability, increasing social cohesion, social disparities (richness and extreme poverty, and discrimination against women and minority groups. Human resources are probably the most important factor determining the competitiveness of an area. The ability of a country to move up the value chain is closely related to human resource capability. In understanding the competitive evaluation is important to assess not only in terms of education, improvement, skills and work experience, but also in terms of other attributes, more difficult to measure, as entrepreneurial relationships, creativity and risk tolerance. Secondly, we must accept that individual productivity is determined by external factors. Latent potential of the individual can develop when the person moves to another environment that provides better and more opportunities. Currently structural changes to remain competitive obtaining essential parameters of the Romanian economy to cope with competitive pressures of the single European market.

  19. The Role of Transition, Increased Competition and Decentralized Wage Setting in Changing the Czech Wage Structure: Evidence from Linked Employer-Employee Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    returns to human capital, especially to education. We investigate various hypotheses to explain that pattern. Moreover, we document a strong increase in within-firm wage dispersion and an only moderate increase in between-firm dispersion. We investigate various hypotheses related to transition towards...

  20. Network Competition and Entry Deterrence

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada, Joan; Valletti, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    We develop a model of logit demand that extends to a multi-firm industry the traditional duopoly framework of network competition with access charges. Firstly, we show that, when incumbents do not face the threat of entry and compete in prices, they inefficiently establish the reciprocal access charge below cost. This inefficiency disappears if incumbents compete in utilities instead of prices. Secondly, we study how incumbents change their choices under the threat of entry when they determin...

  1. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  2. Aviation Competition: Challenges in Enhancing Competition in Dominated Markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hecker, Jayetta

    2001-01-01

    ... reductions in fares and expansion of service. These benefits are largely attributable to increased competition--by the entry of both new airlines into the industry and established airlines into new markets...

  3. Pricing and competition in the private dental market in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widström, E; Väisänen, A; Mikkola, H

    2011-06-01

    To investigate how the prices were set in private dental care, which factors determined prices and whether the recent National Dental Care Reform had increased competition in the dental care market in Finland. A questionnaire to all full time private dentists (n = 1,121) in the ten largest cities. Characteristics of the practice, prices charged, price setting, perceived competition and expectations for the practices were requested. The response rate was 59.6%. Correlation analysis (Pearson's) was used to study relationships between the prices of different treatment items. Linear regression analysis was used to study determinants of the price of a one surface filling. Most dentists' fee schedules were based on the price of a one surface filling and updated annually. Changes in practice costs calculated by the dentists' professional association and information on average prices charged on dental treatments in the country influenced pricing. High price levels were associated with specialisation, working in a group practice, working close to many other practices or in a town with a dental school. Less than half of the respondents had faced competition in dental services and price competition was insignificant. Price setting followed traditional patterns and private markets in dental services were not found to be very competitive.

  4. Do rising temperatures always increase forest productivity? Interacting effects of temperature, precipitation, cloudiness and soil texture on tree species growth and competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Brian R. Miranda; Arjan M.G. De Bruijn; Brian R. Sturtevant; Mark E. Kubiske

    2017-01-01

    Forest landscape models (FLM) are increasingly used to project the effects of climate change on forested landscapes, yet most use phenomenological approaches with untested assumptions about future forest dynamics. We used a FLM that relies on first principles to mechanistically simulate growth (LANDIS-II with PnET-Succession) to systematically explore how landscapes...

  5. Determining the potential benefits for the freight carriage by road in Spain facing an increase in vehicles gvm 40 to 44 tons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Reguero, A.H.; Campos Cacheda, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    A very significant percentage of the products shipped by road in Spain using heavy goods vehicles (HGV) make 40 tons GVM (gross vehicle mass). Any changes aimed at increasing productivity in that vehicles category would result in a very positive way in the road freight transport market, by lowering transport costs, decreasing environmental costs, rationalizing the sector and improving logistics market. Therefore it is discussed here the improvement derived from the transfer of HGV that currently have a limitation of 40 tons GVM to a new limit of 44 tons GVM, establishing the potential benefits that would be set after the change. (Author)

  6. THE EFFECT OF STRUCTURAL FUNDS ON REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS IN THE NEW EU COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF ROMANIA AND BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLIGOR DELIA ANCA GABRIELA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of internationalization and globalization of the world economy, regional competitiveness is thoroughly debated by politicians and policy makers, emphasizing measurable differences between development regions, without any clear political or conceptual framework. The process of European Union integration is a main driving force of change, aiming to increase the efficiency and competitiveness of the fragmented European economy in the face of increasing internationalization. This often exposes countries and regions with unequal resources and technology and different economic structures to international competition. Such is the case of Romania and Bulgaria, countries that after joining the European Union in 2007 were given an opportunity to recover in terms of regional competitiveness and economic growth, namely structural funds as a form of nonrefundable European financial help to disadvantaged regions of member states. This research is thus focused on underlining and analyzing the relation between structural funds’ absorption and the degree of regional competitiveness for the development regions of Romania and Bulgaria, during their first programming period, through identifying and analyzing the factors that influence regional competitiveness and the amount of structural funds absorbed. First, two competitiveness country profiles are created based on data provided by relevant international organisms and second, an impact analysis is developed using six regional competitiveness indicators, grouped into three categories (economic, social and technological. Results show that EU funds critically influence the competitiveness of Romanian and Bulgarian regions, providing reliable data for policy decision makers

  7. Competitive spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  8. Power market competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Unites States the prospect of greater competition in wholesale power market was immediately eclipsed by talk of retail competition. Attempts to move to retail competition have been costly and complex. Prudent public policy and economic analyses suggest that retail competition not be implemented until it can first be demonstrated that effective competition exists in wholesale power markets [it

  9. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....

  10. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  11. The competitive challenge in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Schmeits, A.

    2005-01-01

    The increasingly competitive environment poses challenges to bankers. This paper emphasizes relationship banking as a prime source of the banks' comparative advantage. The proliferation of transaction-oriented banking (trading and financial market activities) does however seriously challenge

  12. Novel marker for the onset of frontotemporal dementia: early increase in activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP in the face of Tau mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulie Schirer

    Full Text Available Tauopathy, a major pathology in Alzheimer's disease, is also found in ~50% of frontotemporal dementias (FTDs. Tau transcript, a product of a single gene, undergoes alternative splicing to yield 6 protein species, each with either 3 or 4 microtubule binding repeat domains (tau 3R or 4R, associated with dynamic and stable microtubules, respectively. While the healthy human brain shows a 1/1 ratio of tau 3R/4R, this ratio may be dramatically changed in the FTD brain. We have previously discovered that activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP is essential for brain formation in the mouse, with ADNP+/- mice exhibiting tauopathy, age-driven neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits. Here, in transgenic mice overexpressing a mutated tau 4R species, in the cerebral cortex but not in the cerebellum, we showed significantly increased ADNP expression (~3-fold transcripts in the cerebral cortex of young transgenic mice (~disease onset, but not in the cerebellum, as compared to control littermates. The transgene-age-related increased ADNP expression paralleled augmented dynamic tau 3R transcript level compared to control littermates. Blocking mutated tau 4R transgene expression resulted in normalization of ADNP and tau 3R expression. ADNP was previously shown to be a member of the SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable (SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Here, Brahma (Brm, a component of the SWI/SNF complex regulating alternative splicing, showed a similar developmental expression pattern to ADNP. Immunoprecipitations further suggested Brm-ADNP interaction coupled to ADNP - polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB-associated splicing factor (PSF-binding, with PSF being a direct regulator of tau transcript splicing. It should be noted that although we have shown a correlation between levels of ADNP and tau isoform expression three months of age, we are not presenting evidence of a direct link between the two. Future research into ADNP/tau relations is

  13. A house divided: cooperative and competitive recruitment in vital industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, William K; Muslin, Ivan; Timko, Karlyn N

    2016-03-01

    To propose a theoretical based model approach to address the nursing shortage problem of recruiting qualified applicants. Vital industries such as nursing and trucking face a large labour shortage. A literature review focusing on recruitment and realistic job previews examines relevant theories and an indication of the focus of similar research. Game theory illustrates cooperative and competitive recruitment strategies in vital industries. Proposition and model development where cooperative or competitive strategies for recruitment can either increase or decrease the employee applicant pool. Institutional theory states that firms within a population become isomorphic in nature. Firms employing cooperative or competitive strategies for recruitment can change organisational practices through isomorphic processes. Industries facing a labour market shortage using cooperative strategy will use realistic job previews accurately to disseminate information about industry jobs. Realistic job previews will increase the applicant pool through individuals self-selecting into, rather than out of, the applicant pool. Recruitment in the nursing industry has been examined at the individual applicant and organisational level, yet the overall industry has been ignored. As nursing shortages continue, viewing recruitment at the macro level (the overall industry) is appropriate. Game theory as proposed provides opportunities for current research at the industry level. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Virtual & Real Face to Face Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teneqexhi, Romeo; Kuneshka, Loreta

    2016-01-01

    In traditional "face to face" lessons, during the time the teacher writes on a black or white board, the students are always behind the teacher. Sometimes, this happens even in the recorded lesson in videos. Most of the time during the lesson, the teacher shows to the students his back not his face. We do not think the term "face to…

  15. International network competition

    OpenAIRE

    Tangerås, Thomas P.; Tåg, Joacim

    2014-01-01

    We analyse network competition in a market with international calls. National regulatory agencies (NRAs) have incentives to set regulated termination rates above marginal cost to extract rent from international call termination. International network ownership and deregulation are alternatives to combat the incentives of NRAs to distort termination rates. We provide conditions under which each of these policies increase efficiency and aggregate welfare. Our findings provide theoretical suppor...

  16. Energy and Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bureau , Dominique; Fontagné , Lionel; Martin , Philippe

    2013-01-01

    When energy prices are expected to rise over the next twenty years, it is essential that industrial innovation efforts and the supply of goods and service off erings be directed towards energy-efficient technologies. However, a more significant increase in energy prices in France than in other countries would be detrimental to the short-term competitiveness of French industry. The present Note outlines the terms of the trade-off France has to confront between reserving a significant part of i...

  17. Competition at the attack of EdF's dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, O.; Gateaud, P.; Dupin, L.

    2010-01-01

    The exploitation of French hydroelectric dams is at the eve of a big upheaval. EdF, the historical operator, and GdF Suez the French number two of hydropower generation are going to face the strong competition of the big European energy groups. France will open 20% of its hydroelectric potential to competition in order to be in agreement with the opening of energy markets imposed by the European Union, and to increase by 10% the hydroelectric power as requested by the French government policy. The candidates will have to fulfill 3 criteria: investing to increase production, reducing the environmental impacts, and accepting the principle of paying fees. However, some of the French dams suffer from serious pathologies and the health of thousands of small dams remains unknown because of the lack of available data. (J.S.)

  18. Electric-utility DSM programs in a competitive market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1994-04-01

    During the past few years, the costs and effects of utility demand-side management (DSM) programs have grown sharply. In 1989, US electric utilities spent 0.5% of revenues on such programs and cut total electricity consumption by 0.6%. By 1992, these numbers had increased to 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively. Utility projections, as of early 1993, of DSM expenditures and energy savings for 1997 were 1.7% and 2.5%, respectively. Whether this projected growth comes to pass may depend on current debates about deregulation of, and increased competition in, the electric-utility industry. This report examines the factors likely to affect utility DSM programs in a more competitive environment. The electric-utility industry faces two forces that may conflict with each other. One is the pressure to open up both wholesale and retail markets for competition. The net effect of such competition, especially at the retail level, would have much greater emphasis on electricity prices and less emphasis on energy services. Such an outcome would force a sharp reduction in the scale of DSM programs that are funded by customers in general. The second force is increased concern about environmental quality and global warming. Because utilities are major contributors to US carbon dioxide emissions, the Administration`s Climate Change Action Plan calls on utilities to reduce such emissions. DSM programs are one key way to do that and, in the process, to cut customer electric bills and improve economic productivity. This report discusses the forms of competition and how they might affect DSM programs. It examines the important roles that state regulatory commissions could play to affect retail competition and utility DSM programs. The report also considers the effects of DSM programs on retail electricity prices.

  19. Common dolphins in the Alboran Sea: Facing a reduction in their suitable habitat due to an increase in Sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas, A.; Vázquez, J. A.

    2017-07-01

    The short-beaked common dolphin Mediterranean subpopulation appears to have suffered a steep decline over recent decades and was listed in 2003 as 'Endangered' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The Alboran Sea is the last region in the Mediterranean where it is still abundant. In this study, we relate features of this species' ecology to climate change, focusing on distribution and density. This work used a two decades-long dataset on the common dolphin in the Alboran Sea and a time series of environmental changes. Once established, these relationships were used in conjunction with some simulated scenarios of environmental change to predict the potential effects of further change on these species over the next 100 years. Two approaches were used: 1) projection from a regression line from local variation, and 2) a HadCM3 climate model with time-varying anthropogenic effects. Generalized Additive Models were used to model the relationship between density of the animals with SST and other environmental covariates. Results from both approaches were very similar. The predictions of density from the regression line fell within the ranges from the HadCM3 climate model, the first being based on local and locally, point to point, differentiated information, which lead us to consider the first approach as the best for this area. At the small spatial scale of the Alboran Sea and Gulf of Vera, an increase in SST will potentially yield a reduction in suitable habitat for common dolphins, with a progressive reduction in density from east to west.

  20. Competitive balance in national European soccer competitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Koning, R.H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Albert, Jim; Koning, Ruud H.

    2007-01-01

    According to popular belief, competitive balance in national soccer competitions in Europe has decreased due to the Bosman ruling and the introduction of the Champions League. We test this hypothesis using data from 7 national competitions, for a host of indicators. We find some evidence for

  1. Executive Gender, Competitive Pressures, and Corporate Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amore, Mario Daniele; Garofalo, Orsola

    2016-01-01

    significantly higher financial performance under low competition, they tend to underperform when competition increases. At the same time, we find that the presence of female leaders improves the capital stability of banks subject to greater competition. Overall, our study highlights strong interactions between...

  2. COMPETITIVENESS OF NIGERIAN RICE AND MAIZE PRODUCTION ECOLOGIES: A POLICY ANALYSIS APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Olusegun Okoruwa

    2011-01-01

    The Nigerian rice and maize sectors are faced with decreasing supply and increasing demand as rice and maize have taken a strategic place of other staples leading to excessive importation and increasing government intervention. This study therefore assesses the competitiveness of Nigerian rice and maize production ecologies using the policy analysis matrix (PAM) on a sample of 122 farmers. Results of the PAM revealed that outputs from the production ecologies are taxed. This is further confir...

  3. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Valeriu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.

  4. Putting competition into perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L. III.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the current level of competition in the electric industry in the context of the history of the industry and the development of electric markets in other counties. The topics of the paper include competition in the history of the American electric industry, the current state of competition, the competitive situation in Texas, competition in other electric markets, and competitive changes in the US market

  5. Chinese Competition and Brazilian Exports of Manufactures

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhys

    2014-01-01

    In recent years concerns have been raised over the impact of Chinese competition on Latin American exports, particularly those from Mexico. This article shows that Brazilian manufactured exports too have been negatively affected, and that this has been reflected in the “primarization” of Brazilian exports and a declining share in the import markets of its major customers. A variety of different indicators were used to analyse the extent to which Brazilian exports have faced competition from C...

  6. Examining the dark side of competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article examines the effect that increased competition among electric power suppliers will have on overall service to the customer and to profits. Some topics discussed are the coexistence of competition and cooperation, electric utility profits at risk and the dark side of competition - business failures. The author feels there is a basic conflict between some of the features of the competitive market model and the obligation to serve

  7. Taking learning seriously: From competition to collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peinovich, P.E.; Walker, L.H.

    1991-01-01

    Several nuclear power operations have adopted the strategic goal of acquiring and maintaining the best qualified workforce possible - no small task in the face of recent work-force studies. Many utilities also believe that creating opportunities for employees to acquire knowledge beyond what is required to do their job will increase the level of professionalism of workers. One approach that attests to one's ability to grow beyond and strive for more knowledge is the earning of an accredited college credential. Regents College of the University of the State of New York is illustrative of the nature and success of collaboration between campus-based and external degree programs for adults. A combination of eliminating competition among educational providers, sharing the collective knowledge of training and educational resources, and working with utilities to optimize the fiscal resources available for education is a method that is helping to meet the needs of today's and tomorrow's workforce which works

  8. Romania's Competitiveness and Competitive Position in Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin NECULITA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness increase has become a primordial framework of the social and economic development strategies of most world countries (mainly the most developed ones over the last decades. The vigorous boost of the contemporary phenomenon of globalization, which has widened the global area of economies, sectors and firms confrontation, has laid an emphasis on their competitiveness importance for their favorable position in the international competition and has therefore force the status to take proper, broad and concerted measures to stimulate the determining factors of action and to take better advantage of their effects. The purpose of the paper is to determine whether an increase in competitiveness could reduce the disparities between regions. The E.U. Member States and regions need significant financial help to solve various structural problems and to achieve their potential of growth. Romania is no exception, one of the main problems being the low rate in attracting European funds.

  9. Hospital competition, resource allocation and quality of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwanziger Jack

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of approaches have been used to contain escalating hospital costs. One approach is intensifying price competition. The increase in price based competition, which changes the incentives hospitals face, coupled with the fact that consumers can more easily evaluate the quality of hotel services compared with the quality of clinical care, may lead hospitals to allocate more resources into hotel rather than clinical services. Methods To test this hypothesis we studied hospitals in California in 1982 and 1989, comparing resource allocations prior to and following selective contracting, a period during which the focus of competition changed from quality to price. We estimated the relationship between clinical outcomes, measured as risk-adjusted-mortality rates, and resources. Results In 1989, higher competition was associated with lower clinical expenditures levels compared with 1982. The trend was stronger for non-profit hospitals. Lower clinical resource use was associated with worse risk adjusted mortality outcomes. Conclusions This study raises concerns that cost reductions may be associated with increased mortality.

  10. Interstate competition and political stability

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh-Jones, David

    2010-01-01

    Previous theories of globalization have examined factor mobility’s effect on the political conflict\\ud between social classes. But factor mobility also increases competition between state rulers in provid-\\ud ing services for citizens. I ask how this interstate competition affects the process of political change.\\ud In a simple model, interstate competition substitutes for democracy, by forcing rulers to invest in pub-\\ud lic goods so as to avoid capital and labor leaving the country. As a re...

  11. Western Canada Sedimentary Basin competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, R.H.G.

    1996-01-01

    Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs

  12. Productive and Unproductive Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories of com...... and socially optimal levels of competition in the full range of intermediate cases, as well as in the extremum cases of destructive and super-productive competition.......Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories...... of competition create a division of real-world situations into analytical categories that fails to recognize the entire spectrum of competitive activities. Taking the existing models of productive and unproductive competition as benchmark idealizations, this paper explores the relationship between the privately...

  13. Competition ambiguities. Electricite de France and the electricity market liberalization; Les ambiguites de la concurrence. Electricite de France et la liberalisation du marche de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boiteux, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-04-15

    The European Union decided to open the electricity market to the competition and the last step will be in July 2007. Meanwhile the first part, the opening to big consumers, is a deception. The market saw an increase of the electricity prices. The author explains the effects of the liberalization, presenting the inevitable limits of the competition, the disappointing evaluation, the historical aspects of the electric market facing the today situation. (A.L.B.)

  14. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  15. The most critical issues facing managers in South Africa today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Maritz

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available South African managers today find themselves squeezed between juxtapositions, such as international competition and simultaneous skill development programmes to combat illiteracy. A second example is high unemployment and the concurrent shortage of IT specialists. Affirmative action has led to troublesome labour relations. HIV/AIDS has an enormous impact on business and must be managed. South African managers need to change their managerial approaches to cope with the increasing demands of this country. Managers must be aware of the realities facing them and know how to turn them into potential growth opportunities for their organisations and South Africa as a country.

  16. [Risk of injury in and adolescent and junior competitive karate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Rath, R; Miltner, O; Mamarvar, M; Mumme, T

    2005-12-01

    Increasing professionalism in competitive karate has led to a specific injury pattern. The aim of our study was to investigate the injury pattern in junior competitive karate and to evaluate the prophylactic effect of fist padding. During the 4 (th) Junior World Championships of the World Karate Confederation (WKC) 2004 235 karate fights were observed and injury-related data were recorded. Fist padding was used in 183 fights, 52 fights were carried out without. In 22 % of all fights we saw an injury. Most of them were mild injuries of the head and face: 32 bruises of the face (13 with epistaxis), 7 facial lacerations and 3 concussions (mild brain injury). 14 fights were stopped due to an injury. Only in the category male 18 - 20 years a higher rate of injuries was seen without fist padding (shobu ippon) compared to shobu sanbon (with fist padding). The injury pattern of junior competitive karate is comparable to senior karate. Fist padding does not generally reduce the incidence or severity of injuries.

  17. Attention to internal face features in unfamiliar face matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kingsley I; Butavicius, Marcus A; Lee, Michael D

    2008-08-01

    Accurate matching of unfamiliar faces is vital in security and forensic applications, yet previous research has suggested that humans often perform poorly when matching unfamiliar faces. Hairstyle and facial hair can strongly influence unfamiliar face matching but are potentially unreliable cues. This study investigated whether increased attention to the more stable internal face features of eyes, nose, and mouth was associated with more accurate face-matching performance. Forty-three first-year psychology students decided whether two simultaneously presented faces were of the same person or not. The faces were displayed for either 2 or 6 seconds, and had either similar or dissimilar hairstyles. The level of attention to internal features was measured by the proportion of fixation time spent on the internal face features and the sensitivity of discrimination to changes in external feature similarity. Increased attention to internal features was associated with increased discrimination in the 2-second display-time condition, but no significant relationship was found in the 6-second condition. Individual differences in eye-movements were highly stable across the experimental conditions.

  18. Competition in the Malaysian Airline Industry: An Exploratory Study using Game-Theoretical and Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Kevin Swee Aun

    2005-01-01

    The competitive landscape of the Malaysian airline industry is facing changes due to the presence of a low-cost carrier, AirAsia. AirAsia has gain much market share by introducing low-fares much to the expense of the national carrier, MAS. Due to the increased competition, the national carrier must react in order to stop the decline of its domestic operations. This aim of this study is to understand the strategies of the two dominant carriers in the Malaysian airline industry, MAS and AirAsia...

  19. Challenging today's nuclear industry to be competitive in a changing tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plug, B.

    1996-01-01

    As the millennium approaches, the future of the nuclear power generation appears desolate. Today's nuclear executives are facing challenges resulting from worldwide change and have forced utilities to reevaluate their corporation's future directions. The nuclear industry must be competitive more than ever to address today's rapid changing marketplace and pressures exerted from: regulatory reformation; increased competition; changes in technology; customer evolution; and globalization. These factors have compelled nuclear executives to address questions such as: What impact will these changes have on today's marketplace, and on my corporation? What will characterize tomorrow's successful nuclear facility? How can today's nuclear corporation compete in tomorrow's marketplace? Will my corporation survive? (author)

  20. Competition, Takeovers, and Gender Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrik Heyman; Helena Svaleryd; Jonas Vlachos

    2013-01-01

    Theories of taste-based discrimination predict that competitive pressures will drive discriminatory behaviour out of the market. Using detailed matched employer-employee data, we analyze how firm takeovers and product market competition are related to the gender composition of the firm’s workforce and the gender wage gap. Using a difference-in-difference framework and dealing with several endogeneity concerns, we find that the share of female employees increases as a result of an ownership ch...

  1. Increased competition for aquaculture from fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    ; and supplies from aquaculture have grown continuously. In this paper, the impact of improved fisheries management on aquaculture growth is studied assuming perfect substitution between farmed and wild fish. We find that improved fisheries management, ceteris paribus, reduces the growth potential of global...... aquaculture in markets where wild fisheries constitute a large share of total supply....

  2. Non-Price Competition in the Port Sector: A Case Study of Ports in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Esmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the port sector has been facing increasing competition, there is limited research on how ports compete using non-price competition strategies. There are a few studies on non-price competition in the port sector. However they mainly focus on the marketing aspect. This paper seeks to fill this gap in the literature, especially from a combined marketing-economic perspective. Especially the paper's main objective is to identify the determinants of non-price competition in the port sector and evaluate their effect on various aspects of non-price competition. We start with a general conceptual framework to explain how competition in the sector can be affected by various factors and then propose an analytical framework on non-price competition. The analytical model is then used to support the design of a survey questionnaire. Next, hypothesis tests are conducted using exploratory factor analysis (EFA and structural equation modeling (SEM and data collected from a survey of Turkish ports. Based on the analysis results, the implications for port management and future research are also discussed.

  3. Beyond survival: Challenges facing South African automotive component exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Naude

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Objective: The South African automotive component industry faces huge challenges in a very competitive global market. The primary focus of this research article is to determine the challenges facing exporters within this industry with special reference to selected sub-sectors. The challenges are approached from a supply chain perspective only. Problem Investigated: The research problem of this study was to identify these unique challenges and ascertain whether the implementation of a 'philosophy of continuous improvement' could be used as a strategic tool to address the challenges they face in the market. Methodology: This study included a combination of literature review, interviews with managers in the selected sub-groups and questionnaires sent out to determine the challenges facing automotive component exporters. In order to test the content validity and the reliability of the questionnaire, a pilot study was conducted at two organisations that are the main suppliers of automotive filters for passenger vehicles. The non-probability convenience sample technique was used to select the sample and consisted of selected sub-sectors that contribute 64,1% of the total value of automotive component exports in South Africa. Out of twenty-seven questionnaires sent out, twenty (74% response rate were duly completed by the respondents and returned to the researcher. Findings: South Africa faces unique challenges and these are listed and ranked according to priority from most to least important as follows: 1. The reduction of production costs; 2. R/US$ exchange rate effect on the respondent's export sales and profit margin; 3. Exchange rate fluctuations; 4. Threats to the local automotive component market; and 5. Increased competition by way of manufactured imports being sold in the South African market. Value of Research: The study provides recommendations that can be used within the automotive component industry.

  4. IntraFace

    OpenAIRE

    De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that i...

  5. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due...

  6. Energy and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.; Flaman, L.; Beigie, C.

    1992-01-01

    Energy efficiency-related programs in two Canadian provinces are reviewed. The Ontario Ministry of Energy has implemented programs to improve industrial energy efficiency in order to contribute to future economic growth. Since 1987, the Industrial Energy Services Program provides energy audits, feasibility analysis grants, and project engineering grants for energy efficiency improvements. Results show that an industrial plant can cut its energy costs by an average of 10% with the proper help. To minimize electricity costs, Ontario Hydro has a demand management program that offers a combination of financial assistance for energy conservation measures, rate incentives, standards and regulation, and fuel substitution. Results in 1992 show 250 MW in saved and shifted load. In Alberta, a TransAlta Utilities program in supply side management has the objective of maximizing the production potential of existing plants. The resulting benefit is improved electric power production efficiency that leads to increased competitiveness. Side benefits include delay of new plant construction, reduced coal consumption, and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, Canada's economic competitiveness is reviewed historically and measures to improve this competitiveness are suggested. A new national policy strategy would include gradual elimination of all import tariffs, optimization of natural resources, securing energy availability at prices at or below world levels, and becoming a leader in transportation and communications. 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. A Face Inversion Effect without a Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…

  8. COMPETITIVE PRESSURE AND PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH: THE CASE OF THE FLORIDA VEGETABLE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaitzandonakes, Nicholas G.; Taylor, Timothy G.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the degree of competitive market pressure and the rate of productivity growth is empirically investigated with a case study of the Florida fresh winter vegetable industry. The results indicate that crops which faced considerable competitive pressure exhibited significant productivity growth while the crops that faced minimal competitive pressure generally exhibited little growth in productivity. Thus, the hypothesis that competitive pressure is positively related to p...

  9. Competition in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Porter; Mariko Sakakibara

    2004-01-01

    This article examines competition in Japan and its link to postwar economic prosperity. While Japan's industrial structure and competition policy seem to indicate that competition in Japan has been less intense, the empirical evidence does not support this conclusion. The sectors in which competition was restricted prove to be those where Japan was not internationally successful. In the internationally successful sectors, internal competition in Japan was invariably fierce. While the level of...

  10. Developing global competitiveness by assessing organized retail productivity using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrotra, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to find out (using Regression, Data Envelopment Analysis and Sensitivity Analysis how efficiently some of the top organized India retail companies have been performing relative to each other over the years and thereby to identify factors that help increase the efficiency of a retail company. The study was conducted based on the analysis of data downloaded from Prowess database for five Indian retail companies for the time period 2000-2007. The paper is deemed to be helpful to enable Indian retail companies gain a competitive advantage in the face of increased competition being faced in the emerging organized retail sector in India. The findings brought forth Advertising and Marketing expenses as the significant performance determining factors to be paid attention to.

  11. Learning without experience: Understanding the strategic implications of deregulation and competition in the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomi, A. [School of Economics, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Larsen, E.R. [Dept. of Managements Systems and Information, City University Business School, London (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    As deregulation of the electricity industry continues to gain momentum around the world, electricity companies face unprecedented challenges. Competitive complexity and intensity will increase substantially as deregulated companies find themselves competing in new industries, with new rules, against unfamiliar competitors - and without any history to learn from. We describe the different kinds of strategic issues that newly deregulated utility companies are facing, and the risks that strategic issues implicate. We identify a number of problems induced by experiential learning under conditions of competence-destroying change, and we illustrate ways in which companies can activate history-independent learning processes. We suggest that Micro worlds - a new generation of computer-based learning environments made possible by conceptual and technological progress in the fields of system dynamics and systems thinking - are particularly appropriate tools to accelerate and enhance organizational and managerial learning under conditions of increased competitive complexity. (au)

  12. THE COMPETITIVENESS OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNEA ANA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of this paper is to highlight the position of the European players in the textile market and the challenges to which they are subjected. In this paper are presented ways, taking the „diamond" model of M. Porter and are adapted to the situation of the textile market. These adaptations have outlined the main existing problems and the possible solutions that can ensure the long-term competitive advantage. Gaining a competitive advantage based on innovation, the development of production and outsourcing strategies using the "diamond" model of M. Porter, we can say that is one of the viable solutions for gaining competitive advantages necessary for proper European companies to face competition from countries outside Europe. As developing countries do not meet certain environmental standards or norms of European law, but in terms of product innovation and development of new materials, they do not have the necessity for technology. We conducted an analysis of the factors that play a key role in the production of textiles, representing how they are used in the favor of European companies such investments to be supplemented can be found in how these factors act on the total costs.

  13. Mixing, entropy and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A Y

    2012-01-01

    Non-traditional thermodynamics, applied to random behaviour associated with turbulence, mixing and competition, is reviewed and analysed. Competitive mixing represents a general framework for the study of generic properties of competitive systems and can be used to model a wide class of non-equilibrium phenomena ranging from turbulent premixed flames and invasion waves to complex competitive systems. We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A competitive system can be characterized by a thermodynamic quantity—competitive potential—which determines the likely direction of evolution of the system. Contested resources tend to move between systems from lower to higher values of the competitive potential. There is, however, an important difference between conventional thermodynamics and competitive thermodynamics. While conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. Intransitivities are common in the real world and are responsible for complex behaviour in competitive systems. This work follows ideas and methods that have originated from the analysis of turbulent combustion, but reviews a much broader scope of issues linked to mixing and competition, including thermodynamic characterization of complex competitive systems with self-organization. The approach presented here is interdisciplinary and is addressed to the general educated readers, whereas the mathematical details can be found in the appendices. (comment)

  14. Winning a competition predicts dishonest behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Amos; Ritov, Ilana

    2016-02-16

    Winning a competition engenders subsequent unrelated unethical behavior. Five studies reveal that after a competition has taken place winners behave more dishonestly than competition losers. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that winning a competition increases the likelihood of winners to steal money from their counterparts in a subsequent unrelated task. Studies 3a and 3b demonstrate that the effect holds only when winning means performing better than others (i.e., determined in reference to others) but not when success is determined by chance or in reference to a personal goal. Finally, study 4 demonstrates that a possible mechanism underlying the effect is an enhanced sense of entitlement among competition winners.

  15. Alberta's new competitive electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancher, L.

    1996-01-01

    The shape, speed and direction of further reforms in Alberta's electric power industry were forecast, following the introduction of a competitive framework for the industry, the first province to do so in Canada, effective January 1996. This study reviews the previously existing system ( a mix of investor-owned and municipally-owned utilities), as well as the proposed new structure as laid out in the new Electric Utilities Act, based on the three principles of unbundling, a competitive power pool and open system access transmission. The paper also reviewed some of the major issues that will have to be faced in the future, such as how to deal with market power and possible collusion between the generators to hold prices down, a problem that has been the well-known failing of the U.K. pool mechanism

  16. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized...... by monopolistic competition. An implicit assumption of barriers to entry justifies that the number of firms is fixed even when positive profits occur. It turns out that both market power of firms on the product markets and market power of unions on the labor markets make the occurrence of cycles more likely....... In particular, imperfect competition on the product markets and the positive profits associated with it may have the effect that there is a cycle even if the labor supply curve is increasing in the real-wage rate. For competitive cycles is required not only a decreasing labor supply curve, but a wage elasticity...

  17. The Necessity of ASEAN Competition Law: Rethinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udin Silalahi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As outlined in the AEC Blueprint, all ASEAN member states (AMSs will endeavour to introduce competition policy by 2015. At present 7 (seven AMSs, namely: Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, Myanmar have the national competition laws to supervise anti-competitive conduct in the domestic market. But the question is what if happened unfair competition between ASEAN member states, due to the agreement or businesses activities by business actors that harm competition? ASEAN has an ASEAN Regional Guidelines on Competition Policy (ARGCP that developed by ASEAN Experts Group on Competition (AEGC as framework for member states to develop its own competition law or policy and as a guideline in measuring that directly affect the behaviour of enterprises and the structure of industry and markets. Regional Guideline is just to help AMSs in increasing of awareness of important policy, not to sustain the competition among ASEAN member countries. Until now there is no ASEAN Competition Law and Institution to oversee competition among ASEAN member countries. In this era, ASEAN economic integration it is a certainty that anti-competitive among AMSs will happen.

  18. Distributed Wind Competitiveness Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-02-27

    The Competitiveness Improvement Project (CIP) is a periodic solicitation through the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The Competitiveness Improvement Project (CIP) is a periodic solicitation through the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Manufacturers of small and medium wind turbines are awarded cost-shared grants via a competitive process to optimize their designs, develop advanced manufacturing processes, and perform turbine testing. The goals of the CIP are to make wind energy cost competitive with other distributed generation technology and increase the number of wind turbine designs certified to national testing standards. This fact sheet describes the CIP and funding awarded as part of the project.ufacturers of small and medium wind turbines are awarded cost-shared grants via a competitive process to optimize their designs, develop advanced manufacturing processes, and perform turbine testing. The goals of the CIP are to make wind energy cost competitive with other distributed generation technology and increase the number of wind turbine designs certified to national testing standards. This fact sheet describes the CIP and funding awarded as part of the project.

  19. Competitive Grant Projects (2008) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-25

    Apr 25, 2016 ... This 2008 study distills some of IDRC's corporate learning on competitive grants processes. ... The study raises some of the main options and issues that IDRC staff face when ... Related articles. Gender Evaluation Methodology (GEM). The Association for Progressive Communications Women's Networking ...

  20. General Systems Theory and Counterplan Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Arnie

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the trend in academic debate on policy questions toward a wide acceptance of counterplans, encouraging combinations of proposals which appear at face value able to coexist but upon deeper analysis are incompatible. Argues in opposition to this trend by applying concepts from general systems theory to competition. (KEH)

  1. How to make energy transition a lever for competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, Gilles; Ben Brahim, Hedi; Berger, Raphael; Dassa, Francois; Dreyer, Iana; Leger, Sebastien; Maneville, Frederic de; Perez, Yannick; Rosier, Philippe; Rusquec, Jean du; Servan, Thibault; Tlili, Cecile; Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul

    2012-11-01

    This note examines the major challenges faced by the energy sector in France in a context of continuous cost increase, of lack of domestic production, of high public expenses for the development of renewable energies, of low energy performance, of financial and regulatory framework which does not favour investments. It also highlights the central role of Europe to face these challenges although the European energy policy still lacks ambition, and is still dominated by the climate issue. It formulates a set of propositions about three main axes: a better management of energy consumption, a promotion of new emerging competitive industrial sectors without weakening the sectors of excellence France possesses in the field of energy, and to make the Europe of energy progress

  2. Can market forces and competition supplant regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, D.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges facing regulators and governments as utilities and pipelines transform from regulated monopolies into competitive businesses were discussed. In the past, the absence of competition required that utility and pipeline companies be regulated by governments to ensure fair pricing and good performance. The question of whether or not competition can entirely replace regulation was examined. Although the focus was on the natural gas industry, the regulatory trends in other industries were also briefly considered. In 1985, the federal government agreed to allow the commodity price of natural gas to fluctuate in response to market forces. This began the process of deregulation in the Canadian natural gas industry. Direct purchasing introduced competition and ended the monopolies of local distribution companies in purchasing gas. The main benefits of the competitive market structure were that consumers could choose products and services from a range of competing companies at competitive prices. This was critical to the success of the Canadian economy since Canada is the third largest exporter of energy and the eighth largest consumer of energy. It was suggested that even in a competitive market abuse of market power is possible, therefore, there is an important role for government in ensuring the existence of a level playing field. A variety of issues involved in an effective transition to a competitive market were also discussed. 2 figs

  3. Alternative face models for 3D face registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Albert Ali; Alyüz, Neşe; Akarun, Lale

    2007-01-01

    3D has become an important modality for face biometrics. The accuracy of a 3D face recognition system depends on a correct registration that aligns the facial surfaces and makes a comparison possible. The best results obtained so far use a one-to-all registration approach, which means each new facial surface is registered to all faces in the gallery, at a great computational cost. We explore the approach of registering the new facial surface to an average face model (AFM), which automatically establishes correspondence to the pre-registered gallery faces. Going one step further, we propose that using a couple of well-selected AFMs can trade-off computation time with accuracy. Drawing on cognitive justifications, we propose to employ category-specific alternative average face models for registration, which is shown to increase the accuracy of the subsequent recognition. We inspect thin-plate spline (TPS) and iterative closest point (ICP) based registration schemes under realistic assumptions on manual or automatic landmark detection prior to registration. We evaluate several approaches for the coarse initialization of ICP. We propose a new algorithm for constructing an AFM, and show that it works better than a recent approach. Finally, we perform simulations with multiple AFMs that correspond to different clusters in the face shape space and compare these with gender and morphology based groupings. We report our results on the FRGC 3D face database.

  4. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailing speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...

  5. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...

  6. Getting Competitive: Competitive Intelligence Is a Smart next Step for Information Pros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Cynthia Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Competitive Intelligence (CI) has become an attractive concept for Library and Information Science professionals, as information and research functions have become commoditized by end users, and financial, competitive, and performance pressures increase the need to demonstrate value. In the current competitive and cost-cutting environment,…

  7. Mate choice in the face of costly competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, TW; Johnstone, RA

    2003-01-01

    Studies of mate choice commonly ignore variation in preferences and assume that all individuals should favor the highest-quality mate available. However, individuals may differ in their mate preferences according to their own age, experience, size, or genotype. In the present study, we highlight

  8. Industrial Competitiveness of Pakistan (2000-10)

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Kemal

    2007-01-01

    Though Pakistan’s exports have increased significantly, analyses have shown that Pakistan’s industrial competitiveness is limited to a narrow range of products. This paper looks at the factors affecting Pakistan’s competitiveness ranking and relates these various factors to trends in Pakistan’s total factor productivity. In addition to looking at the components of Pakistan’s competitiveness ranking, this paper details the steps required for Pakistan to increase its global industrial competiti...

  9. Does Competition Really Bring Out the Worst? Testosterone, Social Distance and Inter-Male Competition Shape Parochial Altruism in Human Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekhof, Esther Kristina; Wittmer, Susanne; Reimers, Luise

    2014-01-01

    Parochial altruism, defined as increased ingroup favoritism and heightened outgroup hostility, is a widespread feature of human societies that affects altruistic cooperation and punishment behavior, particularly in intergroup conflicts. Humans tend to protect fellow group members and fight against outsiders, even at substantial costs for themselves. Testosterone modulates responses to competition and social threat, but its exact role in the context of parochial altruism remains controversial. Here, we investigated how testosterone influences altruistic punishment tendencies in the presence of an intergroup competition. Fifty male soccer fans played an ultimatum game (UG), in which they faced anonymous proposers that could either be a fan of the same soccer team (ingroup) or were fans of other teams (outgroups) that differed in the degree of social distance and enmity to the ingroup. The UG was played in two contexts with varying degrees of intergroup rivalry. Our data show that unfair offers were rejected more frequently than fair proposals and the frequency of altruistic punishment increased with increasing social distance to the outgroups. Adding an intergroup competition led to a further escalation of outgroup hostility and reduced punishment of unfair ingroup members. High testosterone levels were associated with a relatively increased ingroup favoritism and also a change towards enhanced outgroup hostility in the intergroup competition. High testosterone concentrations further predicted increased proposer generosity in interactions with the ingroup. Altogether, a significant relation between testosterone and parochial altruism could be demonstrated, but only in the presence of an intergroup competition. In human males, testosterone may promote group coherence in the face of external threat, even against the urge to selfishly maximize personal reward. In that way, our observation refutes the view that testosterone generally promotes antisocial behaviors and

  10. Enhanced attention amplifies face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Evangelista, Emma; Ewing, Louise; Peters, Marianne; Taylor, Libby

    2011-08-15

    Perceptual adaptation not only produces striking perceptual aftereffects, but also enhances coding efficiency and discrimination by calibrating coding mechanisms to prevailing inputs. Attention to simple stimuli increases adaptation, potentially enhancing its functional benefits. Here we show that attention also increases adaptation to faces. In Experiment 1, face identity aftereffects increased when attention to adapting faces was increased using a change detection task. In Experiment 2, figural (distortion) face aftereffects increased when attention was increased using a snap game (detecting immediate repeats) during adaptation. Both were large effects. Contributions of low-level adaptation were reduced using free viewing (both experiments) and a size change between adapt and test faces (Experiment 2). We suggest that attention may enhance adaptation throughout the entire cortical visual pathway, with functional benefits well beyond the immediate advantages of selective processing of potentially important stimuli. These results highlight the potential to facilitate adaptive updating of face-coding mechanisms by strategic deployment of attentional resources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. COMPETITIVENESS AND COMPETITIVE ORIENTATIONS: EVALUATION OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Z. Efimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Education of a competitive student is a strategically significant problem of the system of higher education in modern social and economic conditions. Personal competitiveness and competitive orientations – priority quality of future expert for successful future professional experience.The aim of the present research is to study factors of competitive orientations formation and criteria for evaluation of competitiveness of student’s youth in the Russian society.Methodology and research methods. Results of theoretical researches of Russian and foreign researchers are generalized; secondary analysis of data based on results of sociological researches and analysis of official statistical data are carried out. The results of the sociological survey undertaken in 2017 on the basis of statistical methods were processed and studied by the instrumentality of IBM SPSS Statistics 23 program; 1196 students of institutions of higher and secondary vocational education of the Tyumen region took part.Results and scientific novelty. It is stated that senior students feel themselves more competitive. It is revealed that a quarter of students who took part in the survey, generally men, count themselves competitive. A continuous distance of goal-setting is recorded among these respondents; in every third case they have plans of professional growth for five and more years that allows them to build attractive competitive strategy.The level of the competitiveness is directly connected with such indicators as “social stratum”, “overall life satisfaction”, “self-esteem of health”, “tendency to lead a healthy lifestyle” and “the level of trust in the surrounding people”. Mostly the students oriented on competition look into the future with confidence and optimism.Respondents focused on the competitiveness were more tend to demonstrate their abilities and cause admiration, have a creative approach towards work, be ready for surprises

  12. Export competitiveness of pakistani horticultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, W.; Akmal, N.; Shah, H.; Tahir, A.; Niazi, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Pakistan's competitiveness in export of selected horticulture commodities by employing set of revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and revealed competitive advantage indices with respect to global trade. Results demonstrate that Pakistan has comparative and competitive advantage over the period under analysis and indicates a transition from comparative and competitive disadvantage to comparative and competitive advantage during the period under analysis. Tangerines, mandarins, clem have maintained relatively higher revealed comparative advantage as compared to other categories for the whole period under analysis. Onion export has revealed comparative advantage with some fluctuations over time. The research indicates that Pakistan's comparative and competitive advantages have been increasing in all the selected commodities during period under analysis which indicates the potential of horticulture exports for foreign exchange earnings. There is need to strengthen comparative and competitive advantage in horticulture sector by policy support and facilitating role by all stakeholders. (author)

  13. Reciprocity, social ties, and competition in markets for experience goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2007-01-01

    a positive externality for non-reciprocal customers who would, in the absence of reciprocal types, face market breakdown. This efficiency-enhancing effect of reciprocity is boosted when there are social ties between consumers and competition between firms. The existence of social ties or competition alone...

  14. Elements of the Competitive Situation That Affect Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Johnmarshall; Deci, Edward L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the effects of three elements of the competitive situation (competitive set, competitive outcome, and interpersonal context) on intrinsic motivation in a sample of college students (n=100). Competitive outcome and interpersonal context affected intrinsic motivation: winning increased intrinsic motivation, while pressured interpersonal…

  15. Reproductive efficiency and shade avoidance plasticity under simulated competition

    OpenAIRE

    Fazlioglu, Fatih; Al?Namazi, Ali; Bonser, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Plant strategy and life?history theories make different predictions about reproductive efficiency under competition. While strategy theory suggests under intense competition iteroparous perennial plants delay reproduction and semelparous annuals reproduce quickly, life?history theory predicts both annual and perennial plants increase resource allocation to reproduction under intense competition. We tested (1) how simulated competition influences reproductive efficiency and competitiv...

  16. Essays on Currency Competition, Institutional Restrictions and Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Arghya

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on currency competition, institutional restrictions and exchange rates. When faced with currency competition, a country's government has two tools at its disposal: reduce the level of inflation or place institutional barriers to the use of foreign currency. In the first chapter, I propose a two-country, two-currency New Monetarist model to study currency competition. I model institutional barriers as a `tax' on the real value of foreign currency hol...

  17. A methodology for enhancing implementation science proposals: comparison of face-to-face versus virtual workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Brigid R; Rodriguez, Allison L; Landes, Sara J; Lewis, Cara C; Comtois, Katherine A

    2016-05-06

    With the current funding climate and need for advancements in implementation science, there is a growing demand for grantsmanship workshops to increase the quality and rigor of proposals. A group-based implementation science-focused grantsmanship workshop, the Implementation Development Workshop (IDW), is one methodology to address this need. This manuscript provides an overview of the IDW structure, format, and findings regarding its utility. The IDW methodology allows researchers to vet projects in the proposal stage in a structured format with a facilitator and two types of expert participants: presenters and attendees. The presenter uses a one-page handout and verbal presentation to present their proposal and questions. The facilitator elicits feedback from attendees using a format designed to maximize the number of unique points made. After each IDW, participants completed an anonymous survey assessing perceptions of the IDW. Presenters completed a funding survey measuring grant submission and funding success. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a subset of participants who participated in both delivery formats. Mixed method analyses were performed to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of the IDW and compare the delivery formats. Of those who participated in an IDW (N = 72), 40 participated in face-to-face only, 16 in virtual only, and 16 in both formats. Thirty-eight (face-to-face n = 12, 35 % response rate; virtual n = 26, 66.7 % response rate) responded to the surveys and seven (15.3 % response rate), who had attended both formats, completed an interview. Of 36 total presenters, 17 (face-to-face n = 12, 42.9 % response rate; virtual n = 5, 62.9 % response rate) responded to the funding survey. Mixed method analyses indicated that the IDW was effective for collaboration and growth, effective for enhancing success in obtaining grants, and acceptable. A third (35.3 %) of presenters ultimately received funding for their proposal, and more than

  18. Future competitiveness of Western Europe on the example of Germany and the Netherlands : Are Indian professionals our piece to solving the talent shortage puzzle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boege, L.; Blomme, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve a competitive advantage in today's global environment, companies are increasingly relying on human resources as a strategic tool. However, especially the western world is as a consequence of changes in demographics and employment contracts more and more faced with skill or talent

  19. Environmental regulation and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The potential relationship between domestic environmental regulation and international competitiveness has evoked various speculations. The common neoclassical train of thought is that strict environmental regulation is detrimental to the competitiveness of industry, and that it induces phenomena

  20. Diversifying evolution of competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Sebastian A; Engqvist, Leif; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-10-29

    In many species, individuals express phenotypic characteristics that enhance their competitiveness, that is, the ability to acquire resources in competition with others. Moreover, the degree of competitiveness varies considerably across individuals and in time. By means of an evolutionary model, we provide an explanation for this finding. We make the assumption that investment into competitiveness enhances the probability to acquire a high-quality resource, but at the same time reduces the ability of exploiting acquired resources with maximal efficiency. The model reveals that under a broad range of conditions competitiveness either converges to a polymorphic state, where individuals differing in competitive ability stably coexist, or is subject to perpetual transitions between periods of high and low competitiveness. The dynamics becomes even more complex if females can evolve preferences for (or against) competitive males. In extreme cases, such preferences can even drive the population to extinction.

  1. How light competition between plants affects their response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Marloes P; Schieving, Feike; Rietkerk, Max; Dekker, Stefan C; Sterck, Frank; Anten, Niels P R

    2014-09-01

    How plants respond to climate change is of major concern, as plants will strongly impact future ecosystem functioning, food production and climate. Here, we investigated how vegetation structure and functioning may be influenced by predicted increases in annual temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentration, and modeled the extent to which local plant-plant interactions may modify these effects. A canopy model was developed, which calculates photosynthesis as a function of light, nitrogen, temperature, CO2 and water availability, and considers different degrees of light competition between neighboring plants through canopy mixing; soybean (Glycine max) was used as a reference system. The model predicts increased net photosynthesis and reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration under atmospheric CO2 increase. When CO2 elevation is combined with warming, photosynthesis is increased more, but transpiration is reduced less. Intriguingly, when competition is considered, the optimal response shifts to producing larger leaf areas, but with lower stomatal conductance and associated vegetation transpiration than when competition is not considered. Furthermore, only when competition is considered are the predicted effects of elevated CO2 on leaf area index (LAI) well within the range of observed effects obtained by Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. Together, our results illustrate how competition between plants may modify vegetation responses to climate change. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Competitive outcome of Daphnia-Simocephalus experimental microcosms: salinity versus priority effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Loureiro

    Full Text Available Competition is a major driving force in freshwaters, especially given the cyclic nature and dynamics of pelagic food webs. Competition is especially important in the initial species assortment during colonization and re-colonization events, which depends strongly on the environmental context. Subtle changes, such as saline intrusion, may disrupt competitive relationships and, thus, influence community composition. Bearing this in mind, our objective was to assess whether low salinity levels (using NaCl as a proxy alter the competitive outcome (measured as the rate of population biomass increase of Daphnia-Simocephalus experimental microcosms, taking into account interactions with priority effects (sequential species arrival order. With this approach, we aimed to experimentally demonstrate a putative mechanism of differential species sorting in brackish environments or in freshwaters facing secondary salinization. Experiments considered three salinity levels, regarding NaCl added (0.00, 0.75 and 1.50 g L(-1, crossed with three competition scenarios (no priority, priority of Daphnia over Simocephalus, and vice-versa. At lower NaCl concentrations (0.00 and 0.75 g L(-1, Daphnia was a significantly superior competitor, irrespective of the species inoculation order, suggesting negligible priority effects. However, the strong decrease in Daphnia population growth at 1.50 g L(-1 alleviated the competitive pressure on Simocephalus, causing an inversion of the competitive outcome in favour of Simocephalus. The intensity of this inversion depended on the competition scenario. This salinity-mediated disruption of the competitive outcome demonstrates that subtle environmental changes produce indirect effects in key ecological mechanisms, thus altering community composition, which may lead to serious implications in terms of ecosystem functioning (e.g. lake regime shifts due to reduced grazing and biodiversity.

  3. Competition Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Cassey

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia does not have a national competition law. Competition is regulated at the sectoral level in the country. Two economic sectors have legal provisions for competition law but these have been relatively ineffectively enforced. The benefits of Malaysia's industrial policy as well as the policy reforms in regulation and trade have been compromised by the lack of a formal institution to address competition related issues. Hence, the future priority and direction of regulatory reform is obvi...

  4. Competitive strategy : Sorrin Puutarha

    OpenAIRE

    Haaristo, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    The thesis handles the fresh food product industry in Finland and especially one company operating in the industry and its competitive position. Sorrin Puutarha manufactures ready-to-use fresh cut salad bag, which is sold in the grocery stores. The objective of the thesis was to find competitive advantages of the case company. Once the competitive advantages were identified the purpose was to choose a fitting competitive strategy that would strengthen those advantages. The field study was con...

  5. Can competition reduce quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Kurt; Siciliani, Luigi; Straume, Odd Rune

    2017-01-01

    In a spatial competition setting there is usually a non-negative relationship between competition and quality. In this paper we offer a novel mechanism whereby competition leads to lower quality. This mechanism relies on two key assumptions, namely that the providers are motivated and risk-averse. We show that the negative relationship between competition and quality is robust to any given number of firms in the market and whether quality and price decisions are simultaneous or sequential. We...

  6. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The NCC publishes two annual competitiveness reports. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge focuses on the national competitiveness issues of most importance to the enterprise sector and identifies policy recommendations required to address these issues. The report focuses on pursuing policies to improve competitiveness, particularly those to reduce the cost base for enterprise, to enhance the performance of the entire education system, and to deliver meaningful public sector reform. Ireland's ...

  7. Economic competitiveness of nuclear power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chuanwen

    2005-01-01

    Development of nuclear power in China has made a good progress. Currently, economic competitiveness of nuclear power compared to fossil-fuelled power plants is one of the major problems which hamper its development. This article presents the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in China with two-level analyses. First, levelized lifetime cost method is adopted for electricity generation cost comparisons. Important factors influencing economic competitiveness of nuclear power are described. Furthermore, a broad economic evaluation of the full fuel chain of nuclear power and fossil-fuelled plants is discussed concerning macro social-economic issues, environmental and health impacts. The comprehensive comparative assessment would be carried out for decision making to implement nuclear power programme. In consideration of external costs and carbon value, the economic competitiveness of nuclear power would be further improved. Facing swift economic growth, huge energy demand and heavy environmental burden, nuclear power could play a significant role in sustainable development in China. (authors)

  8. Analyzing competition in intermodal freight transport networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeedi, Hamid; Wiegmans, Bart; Behdani, Behzad; Zuidwijk, Rob

    2017-01-01

    To cope with an intense and competitive environment, intermodal freight transport operators have increasingly adopted business practices —like horizontal and vertical business integration—which aim to reduce the operational costs, increase the profit margins, and improve their competitive position

  9. Competition for Assistance Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is EPA policy to promote competition in the award of assistance agreements to the maximum extent practicable.When assistance agreements are awarded competitively, it is EPA policy that the competitive process be fair and open & that no applicant receive

  10. Picking battles wisely: plant behaviour under competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoplansky, Ariel

    2009-06-01

    Plants are limited in their ability to choose their neighbours, but they are able to orchestrate a wide spectrum of rational competitive behaviours that increase their prospects to prevail under various ecological settings. Through the perception of neighbours, plants are able to anticipate probable competitive interactions and modify their competitive behaviours to maximize their long-term gains. Specifically, plants can minimize competitive encounters by avoiding their neighbours; maximize their competitive effects by aggressively confronting their neighbours; or tolerate the competitive effects of their neighbours. However, the adaptive values of these non-mutually exclusive options are expected to depend strongly on the plants' evolutionary background and to change dynamically according to their past development, and relative sizes and vigour. Additionally, the magnitude of competitive responsiveness is expected to be positively correlated with the reliability of the environmental information regarding the expected competitive interactions and the expected time left for further plastic modifications. Concurrent competition over external and internal resources and morphogenetic signals may enable some plants to increase their efficiency and external competitive performance by discriminately allocating limited resources to their more promising organs at the expense of failing or less successful organs.

  11. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due to physical contact alone: monkeys randomly assigned to receive additional neonatal face-to-face interactions (mutual gaze and intermittent lip-smacking) with human caregivers display increased social interest at 2 months, compared with monkeys who received only additional handling. These studies suggest that face-to-face interactions from birth promote young primate social interest and competency. PMID:27300086

  12. The uranium industry: long-term planning for short-term competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vottero, X.; Georges Capus, G.

    2001-01-01

    Long term planning for short term competition Today, uranium producers face new challenges in terms of both production (new regulatory, environmental and social constraints) and market conditions (new sources of uranium supply, very low prices and tough competition). In such a context, long-term planning is not just a prerequisite to survive in the nuclear fuel cycle industry. In fact, it also contributes to sustaining nuclear electricity generation facing fierce competition from other energy sources in increasingly deregulated markets. Firstly, the risk of investing in new mining projects in western countries is growing because, on the one hand, of very erratic market conditions and, on the other hand, of increasingly lengthy, complex and unpredictable regulatory conditions. Secondly, the supply of other sources of uranium (uranium derived from nuclear weapons, uranium produced in CIS countries, ...) involve other risks, mainly related to politics and commercial restrictions. Consequently, competitive uranium supply requires not only technical competence but also financial strength and good marketing capabilities in order to anticipate long-term market trends, in terms of both demand and supply. It also requires taking into account new parameters such as politics, environment, regulations, etc. Today, a supplier dedicated to the sustainable production of nuclear electricity must manage a broad range of long-term risks inherent to the procurement of uranium. Taking into account all these parameters in a context of short-term, fast-changing market is a great challenge for the future generation. World Uranium Civilian Supply and Demand. (authors)

  13. Competition on European energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijesen, M.; Speck, S; Mulder, M.

    2003-01-01

    The launch of the Directives on Electricity and Gas in the late 1990s was the starting point for creating common and competitive energy markets in the European Union. The main goal of this process was to increase efficiency of allocation of resources and, hence,enhance consumer welfare. More specifically, increasing competition within the energy markets should lead to a reduction of energy prices and to a convergence of prices among EU member states. Within a year from now, end-users in the Netherlands will be free to choose their own supplier, thus finalising the deregulation of Dutch energy markets. What lessons may be learned from the experience thus far? What are the results of the liberalisation process up to now? How have prices developed,and can these developments be explained? How afraid should we be for the lights to go out in a competitive electricity market?

  14. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshi-Taka Matsuda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1 familiar faces, (2 novel faces and (3 intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity.

  15. Beyond Antitrust: Health Care And Health Insurance Market Trends And The Future Of Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry A; Altman, Stuart H

    2017-09-01

    The United States relies on competition to balance costs and quality in the health care system. But concentration is increasing throughout the hospital, physician, and insurer markets. Midsize community hospitals face declining demand and growing competition from both larger hospitals and smaller freestanding diagnostic and surgical centers, leaving the midsize hospitals vulnerable to closure or merger with other facilities. Competition among insurers has been limited by the development of hospital systems that extend the bargaining power of "must-have" hospitals (those perceived to provide the best care for complex and less common conditions) across local health care markets. Government antitrust enforcement could play an important role in maintaining competition in both the hospital and insurer markets, but in many markets, the impact of that enforcement has been limited to date. Policy makers should consider supplementing antitrust activities with strategies that combine competition and regulation-for example, by regulating selected prices and structuring competition to cover entire insurance markets. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  16. To make a competitiveness lever out of energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, Gilles; Ben Brahim, Hedi; Berger, Raphael; Servan, Thibault; Dassa, Francois; Dreyer, Iana; Leger, Sebastien; Maneville, Frederic de; Perez, Yannick; Rosier, Philippe; Rusquec, Jean du; Tlili, Cecile; Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul

    2012-11-01

    This note focuses of the major challenges for the French energy sector within a context of continuous cost increase, and outlines the central role of Europe to face the energy challenges. The authors state proposals under three main themes: a better management of energy consumption, a support to the emergence of new competitive industrial sectors without weakening the existing ones, and make the Europe of energy progress. The authors address the challenge of energy cost increase (a traditionally efficient French energy mix but with costs to increase in the future, a weak energy performance, a financial and regulatory framework not favourable to investments and innovation), discuss the European energy policy which, according to them, lacks ambition (a policy unbalanced by the prevalence of the climate issue, a national independence in contradiction with increasing interdependencies) and then make their proposals

  17. The Risk Assessment Study for Electric Power Marketing Competitiveness Based on Cloud Model and TOPSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cunbin; Wang, Yi; Lin, Shuaishuai

    2017-09-01

    With the rapid development of the energy internet and the deepening of the electric power reform, the traditional marketing mode of electric power does not apply to most of electric power enterprises, so must seek a breakthrough, however, in the face of increasingly complex marketing information, how to make a quick, reasonable transformation, makes the electric power marketing competitiveness assessment more accurate and objective becomes a big problem. In this paper, cloud model and TOPSIS method is proposed. Firstly, build the electric power marketing competitiveness evaluation index system. Then utilize the cloud model to transform the qualitative evaluation of the marketing data into quantitative values and use the entropy weight method to weaken the subjective factors of evaluation index weight. Finally, by TOPSIS method the closeness degrees of alternatives are obtained. This method provides a novel solution for the electric power marketing competitiveness evaluation. Through the case analysis the effectiveness and feasibility of this model are verified.

  18. The effects of ionizing radiation on the face fly, Musca autumnalis DeGeer, irradiated in nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Six day old face fly pupae, one day before emergence, were irradiated in a nitrogenous atmosphere using gamma radiation from a cobalt 60 source. Six levels of gamma radiation were used: 0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 rads. The effects of gamma radiation on eclosion, reproduction, and male longevity and competitiveness were determined. Female mating habits under laboratory conditions were also examined. Irradiation under anoxic conditions did not adversely affect adult eclosion, female fecundity or male competitiveness. Sterility in treated males and females increased as radiation dosage increased. A dose of 2500 rads reduced fertility of males to less than 1% and produced similar results in the females. Longevity of treated males was not affected by increasing radiation dose up to 2000 rads. However, males receiving 2500 rads died sooner than unirradiated males. Studies on the mating habit of the female face fly showed that most of the females mated only once; however, a few of them mated a second time

  19. Restoring international competitiveness in Croatia: The role of fiscal and monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorić Tomislav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has joined the European Union as a country with several substantial structural problems, of which the most important is weak competitiveness. Although competitiveness can be viewed from the ‘institutional’ perspective, which includes World Development Indicators (WDI and Doing Business reports, in this paper the authors focus on the more standard view of competitiveness based on unit labour costs (ULC and real effective exchange rate (REER. As a small, open and highly dollarized/euroised economy that has to coordinate its economic policy with the EU policy framework, Croatia has limited space for increasing international competitiveness using monetary policy measures aimed at (nominal devaluation of the national currency. Therefore economic policy stakeholders should focus on decreasing unit labour costs and real effective exchange rate mainly through the process of internal devaluation, which is based on adequate fiscal policy measures. In this paper the authors analyse the role of monetary and fiscal policy in the deteriorating real effective exchange rate and unit labour costs since 2000, and their current capabilities and restrictions in restoring international competitiveness. The Structural VAR model (SVAR is used to estimate the effects of foreign (banking capital, credit growth, and current public expenditure on REER and ULC. The preliminary hypothesis of the paper is that monetary policy should continue to support bank lending activities and the role of fiscal policy is to achieve an internal devaluation, which will increase the competitiveness of the Croatian economy. Restoring international competitiveness is necessary due to its impact on net exports and consequently the economic recovery of the national economy, which has faced recession conditions for five years in a row. Also, restoring competitiveness is one of the most important preconditions for the success of a small country joining the single European market.

  20. Theoretical aspects of competitive advantage and competition

    OpenAIRE

    Hudakova, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    The concept of competitive advantage is well-known for many of us and a number of literary resources focused on entrepreneurship and functioning of economies deal with it, either directly or indirectly. The understanding of the term competitive advantage though sometimes varies. One can only perceive it when looking at it as a whole, a live organism that is constantly developing in a complex dynamic entrepreneurial environment, the individual parts of which do not function when separated from...

  1. Competitive consensus: bargaining on employment and competitiveness in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, M.J.; Huiskamp, Rien; van Riemsdijk, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    This article shows how bargaining on the conflicting issues of fighting unemployment and increasing competitiveness has evolved. It offers an empirical insight into the degree to which the national framework agreements that form part of the now famous Dutch polder model are implemented. At the

  2. Is nuclear power competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandfon, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The first phase of a two-phase study of the competitiveness of electricity from new coal and nuclear plants with oil and natural gas in common markets concludes that, with few exceptions throughout the country, overall levelized nuclear generating cost could be lower than coal generating costs by more than 40%. The study shows a wider margin of economic superiority for nuclear than has been seen in other recent studies. Capital and fuel costs are the major determinants of relative nuclear and coal economics. The only substantial difference in the input assumptions has related to a shorter lead time for both coal and nuclear units, which reduces capital costs. The study gives substance to the charge that delaying tactics by intervenors and an unstable licensing environment drove up lifetime costs of both coal and nuclear plants. This caused an increase in electric rates and affected the entire economy. The study shows that nuclear power is competitive when large baseload capacity is required. 14 figures

  3. COMPETITIVENESS THROUGH INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Daniela RIZEA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence competitiveness has already started to build its road in the company’s long term strategies. Nonetheless, business executives continue to look for ways to apply information technology strategically to their businesses. Using information managers manage to communicate, to convey their knowledge about markets, competitors, products, services and operations. Even if data and information are all over there are few amounts of managers that realize the importance of them to the success of the business. This article will review competitive forces and competitive information systems strategies for gaining competitive advantages, explain concepts of value chain, value co-opetition (competition and cooperation, and discuss innovation strategy. Co-opetition is a strategy whereby companies cooperate and compete at the same time with their competitors, complementors (i.e. hardware and software businesses, customers, suppliers. The article discuss an important dimension of information system, identifies competitive advantages and enhancing competitive strategies thought information systems.

  4. Multithread Face Recognition in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshina Ranjan Kisku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faces are highly challenging and dynamic objects that are employed as biometrics evidence in identity verification. Recently, biometrics systems have proven to be an essential security tools, in which bulk matching of enrolled people and watch lists is performed every day. To facilitate this process, organizations with large computing facilities need to maintain these facilities. To minimize the burden of maintaining these costly facilities for enrollment and recognition, multinational companies can transfer this responsibility to third-party vendors who can maintain cloud computing infrastructures for recognition. In this paper, we showcase cloud computing-enabled face recognition, which utilizes PCA-characterized face instances and reduces the number of invariant SIFT points that are extracted from each face. To achieve high interclass and low intraclass variances, a set of six PCA-characterized face instances is computed on columns of each face image by varying the number of principal components. Extracted SIFT keypoints are fused using sum and max fusion rules. A novel cohort selection technique is applied to increase the total performance. The proposed protomodel is tested on BioID and FEI face databases, and the efficacy of the system is proven based on the obtained results. We also compare the proposed method with other well-known methods.

  5. The reciprocal relationship between competition and intraspecific trait variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Bennett, Jonathan; Riibak, Kersti; Tamme, Riin

    2016-01-01

    competitive dynamics from trait patterns within communities. However, plant traits are frequently plastic in response to competition. This variation is poorly accounted for in trait based studies of competition and community assembly. 2.To explore the relationship between trait responses and competitive...... with larger leaves and lower specific leaf area than their neighbours. Switching to more stress tolerant strategies by increasing root diameter and leaf tissue density also reduced competition. However, dissimilarity in root tissue density also minimized competition, consistent with limiting similarity...... suggest that considering the effect of competition on trait expression is critical to understanding the relationship between traits and community assembly....

  6. Editing faces in videos

    OpenAIRE

    Amberg, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Editing faces in movies is of interest in the special effects industry. We aim at producing effects such as the addition of accessories interacting correctly with the face or replacing the face of a stuntman with the face of the main actor. The system introduced in this thesis is based on a 3D generative face model. Using a 3D model makes it possible to edit the face in the semantic space of pose, expression, and identity instead of pixel space, and due to its 3D nature allows...

  7. Current and future competitiveness of bioenergy - Conceptions about competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, E.; Lundgren, K.; Maartensson, Kjell

    1998-01-01

    It is important to visualize the conceptions that guide the behaviour of the actors within the energy system to be able to, in an efficient manner, increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix. A major issue is to elucidate explicit and implicit presumptions within judgements on the competitiveness of bioenergy. This study focuses on how conceptions of bioenergy in the form of patterns of thinking, influence whether bioenergy can become competitive. The aim of the study is to develop a framework that will enable an increased understanding of the competitiveness of bioenergy today and in the future. The conceptions that the actors of the energy system uphold are studied and analysed. The conceptions of the actors are seen as key factors for the understanding of the function of the energy system and accordingly also for the understanding of the competitiveness of bioenergy. The over-all method perspective in the study is an actor approach. The actors' conceptions have been identified from interviews with 30 significant actors within the energy system. The material from the interviews has been synthesised into nine ideal types of actors. These nine 'model actors' are seen as representing the whole material and form the basis for the further analysis of the competitiveness of bioenergy as depending on patterns of thinking called logics. Three idealized logics are developed. The three logics developed in the study are production logic, market logic and socio-economic logic. (Upholders of the logics rank energy sources after production cost, profitability, and socio-economic legitimacy, respectively.) The logics co-exist within the different parts of the energy system. A single person can even uphold more than one logic. The three logics have however different weight in different organisations and in different parts of the energy system. Finally, the study proposes an enlarged description of the competitiveness of bioenergy in three dimensions: price

  8. GLOBAL COMPETITION AND ROMANIA’S NATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing products and services around us it is clear that most of them are the result of production factors, labor and capital becoming more international and increasingly less and less national. We are witnessing the globalization of markets and production, to a large global integration and interdependence, increase personalization of production and services as a result of new communication systems interaction and flexible production processes. Markets will continue to homogenize and diversify at the same time, so it is important that as a global marketer one addresses a market segment defined by income, age, and consumption habits and not by membership of a nation. The most visible and polarized is the premium segment fighting for high income clients where brand value plays an important role. Instead identification of large segments of customers offers the advantages of scale economy in production and marketing for global enterprises. Consumer profile is the dominant global consumer requesting and accepting global products and services easily. In fact, what can force an economic alignment to achieve the best performance, rather than the global consumer. The research methodology used includes literature review, comparative analysis, synthesis of data based on bibliographic resources and official documents.The aim of the paper is to highlight current models that underlie the competitive advantage of nations and assess the competitive advantage of Romania in the context of the global market. A case study is used to offer an overview of competitive advantage of Antibiotice Iasi SA, a competitive player, in a global pharmaceutical market with strong global competition. Countries moderate companies’ achievements of global efficiency objectives due to the countries’ rivalry. Romania has to understand that it is in competition with other countries in order to fulfill economic, political and social objectives. The scope in the end is the well

  9. A Sinking Feeling about Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirasuolo, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    A competitive school ambience will further distinguish winners from losers in an increasingly fractured and stratified society. Disadvantaged students have little chance to win the standards game. Educators should examine the gilded age's hypocrisy; what gallantry existed the night the Titanic sank applied only to first-class female passengers.…

  10. COMPETITION IN ROMANIAN BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capraru Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    -structural indicators and compare it with the structural indicators of competition. In particular, we measure competition using Lerner index and the H-statistic, indicators what are estimated using bank-level data and are compared with a standard market structure measure of concentration like HHI and CR5. There are no other studies that measure both structural and non-structural competition indicators for Romanian banking sector. Also, our assessment contains a period of seven years including the begging of the implications of the present international financial crises on Romanian banking sector. The structural indicators show continuous increase of competition in the Romanian banking system. Lerner index and H statistic demonstrate that Romanian banking system is characterized by monopolistic competition and relatively competitive practices. Personnel cost, operational cost and financial cost are statistically significant at conventional levels, which imply good fit of the revenue equations. The results also demonstrate that excess fixed assets do not generate abnormal revenue.

  11. Series 'Facing Radiation'. 2 Facing radiation is facing residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    The series is to report how general people, who are not at all radiological experts, have faced and understood the problems and tasks of radiation given by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011). The section 2 is reported by an officer of Date City, which localizes at 60 km northern west of the Plant, borders on Iitate Village of Fukushima prefecture, and is indicated as the important area of contamination search (IACS), which the reporter has been conducted for as responsible personnel. In July 2011, the ambient dose was as high as 3.0-3.5 mc-Sv/h and the tentative storage place of contaminated materials was decided by own initiative of residents of a small community, from which the real decontamination started in the City. The target dose after decontamination was defined to be 1.0 mc-Sv/h: however, 28/32 IACS municipalities in the prefecture had not defined the target although they had worked for 2 years after the Accident for their areas exceeding the standard 0.23 mc-Sv/h. At the moment of decontamination of the reporter's own house, he noticed that resident's concerns had directed toward its work itself, not toward the target dose, and wondered if these figures had obstructed to correctly face the radiation. At present that about 2.5 years have passed since the Accident, all of Date citizens have personal accumulated glass dosimeters for seeing the effective external dose and it seems that their dose will not exceed 1 mSv/y if the ambient dose estimated is 0.3-5 mc-Sv/h. Media run to popularity not to face radiation, experts tend to hesitate to face media and residents, and radiation dose will be hardly reduced to zero, despite that correct understanding of radiation is a shorter way for residents' own ease: facing radiation is facing residents. (T.T.)

  12. Processing of emotional faces in social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Kristjansen Rosenberg

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has found that individuals with social phobia differ from controls in their processing of emotional faces. For instance, people with social phobia show increased attention to briefly presented threatening faces. However, when exposure times are increased, the direction of this attentional bias is more unclear. Studies investigating eye movements have found both increased as well as decreased attention to threatening faces in socially anxious participants. The current study investigated eye movements to emotional faces in eight patients with social phobia and 34 controls. Three different tasks with different exposure durations were used, which allowed for an investigation of the time course of attention. At the early time interval, patients showed a complex pattern of both vigilance and avoidance of threatening faces. At the longest time interval, patients avoided the eyes of sad, disgust, and neutral faces more than controls, whereas there were no group differences for angry faces.

  13. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Finite land resources and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Mbow, Cheikh; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2014-01-01

    Rising demand for land-based products (food, feed, fi ber, and bioenergy) as well as conservation of forests and carbon sinks create increasing competition for land. Landuse competition has many drivers, takes different forms, and can have many significant implications for ecosystems as well......: production versus production (e.g., food vs. fuel), production versus conservation (e.g., food production vs. conservation), and built-up environment versus production or conservation (e.g., food vs. urban). Sustainability impacts that result from land-use competition are analyzed and found to differ...... and energy systems, “ land architecture” (i.e., the significance of spatial confi gurations), and multiscale models to assess local-global connections and impacts....

  15. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  16. Institutional Competitiveness in Media Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink

    a social science / leadership perspective - not from the perspective of a journalist or from the ideologically critical perspective of the license payer. Thirdly, we consider competition in the media market as an institutional phenomenon that is not solely conditioned by economic considerations. We aim...... emerged from a tradition based upon ideals of freedom of expression, democracy and the enlightenment of the general public. At the same time we stress the fact that the media worldwide is Big Business - and that this reality has an increasing effect on Danish competitiveness and business development......This inaugural address is a welcome opportunity to call your attention to a new area of research that the International Center for Business and Politics has chosen as one of five areas of special interest. By referring to this area of focus as'institutional competition in the media market' we also...

  17. The Unintended Effects of Private School Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Serritzlew, Søren

    2007-01-01

    We examine whether competition from private schools improves public school performance and expenditure. It is difficult methodologically to isolate the effect of competition, but we use new measures of competition in both the public and the private school sector and a data set comprising detailed...... background information on more than 35,000 public school students in the Danish voucher system. This design provides a relatively firm support for the conclusion that competition does not improve achievement of public school students but that it increases public expenditure per student. Finally, we argue...

  18. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    .... Specifically, the report addresses the problem of detecting faces in color images in the presence of various lighting conditions and complex backgrounds as well as recognizing faces under variations...

  19. Measuring External Face Appearance for Face Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Masip, David; Lapedriza, Agata; Vitria, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we introduce the importance of the external features in face classification problems, and propose a methodology to extract the external features obtaining an aligned feature set. The extracted features can be used as input to any standard pattern recognition classifier, as the classic feature extraction approaches dealing with internal face regions in the literature. The resulting scheme follows a top-down segmentation approach to deal with the diversity inherent to the extern...

  20. Ares and Babbitt in the classroom: effects of competition and reward on children's aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, R F; Rogers, R W

    1976-05-01

    In many competitive situations, aggression is one of several instrumental behaviors that can produce reinforcing consequences. Despite the fact that aggression precipitated by competition for valued resources is an increasingly important social problem, there is little evidence of a causal relationship. In a factorial experiment, dyads of 64 kindergarten and first-grade males played a game in a face-to-face setting that yielded a prize for the winner only. It was predicted that high levels of competition and high levels of reward magnitude would produce more aggressive behavior than lower levels of these variables. Additionally, children rated by their teachers as high in dispositional aggressiveness were anticipated to behave most aggressively in the game. Each of these predictions was confirmed on three different measures of aggression: verbal, interference, and physical. Furthermore, the data suggested that constructive action was sometimes abandoned in attempts to harm an opponent. Since competition for desirable objects is a social reality, it was concluded that conditions inhibiting aggression in these situations should be investigated.

  1. Competitive advantage on a warming planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred

    2007-03-01

    Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global warming's dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a warming world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's environmental record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an environmental think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging environmental harm), reputational (how a company's environmental policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors.

  2. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  3. PRICES IN COMPETITIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VADUVA MARIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of competitive market determine rules for determining prices and their dynamics. Orientation prices to competition (competitive pricing is the strategy most frequently used in countries with market economies and especially for exports. Moreover, in an economy dominated by market competition it cannot be ignored without certain risks the prices resulting from competition between products bidders. Companies that use this type of strategy seek to maintain a level of prices linked to that charged by other competitors (or exporting producers generally no longer covering production costs or demand, relying on the assumption that the average market price is a reasonable basis of costs. But the way how practical guidance and reporting to the competition in every price strategy, will be determined by the company's market position, by the available power and enjoyed prestige, objectives and prospects of its market share etc. according to these elements, there may be several versions of pricing strategies oriented to competitors.

  4. Architectural Competition and BIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Øien, Turid Borgestrand

    2015-01-01

    on architecturalcompetitions, a series of interviews was conducted with building clients as well as architects, focusing on the impact of the above-mentioned changes within the building sector on architectural competitions as an institution. In the interviews, ICT and notleast BIM was a recurring theme that both parties saw...... as having a positive impact on competitions. But when looking closely into the answers, these revealed diverse understandings of how and why the impact of BIM on competitions could be said to be positive. The paper sheds light on the interaction between the actors (building clients, architects and client...... consultants) and the applied technologies (competition forms, ICT tools, directives) in architectural competitions in a theoretical actor-network perspective. The diverging understandings of the role of BIM are demonstrating one of many negotiations in progress in the network of architectural competitions...

  5. Strategic Positioning for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organizational learning is increasingly being considered as one of the fundamental sources of competitive advantage within the context of strategic management. However, most literature has not clearly linked organizational learning with sustainable competitive advantage. This paper, therefore, explores and discusses the ...

  6. ECONOMIC RECESSION A CALL FOR COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Marius IVANOV

    2011-01-01

    Global recession brought about a significant growth in competition, stressing the need for relevant and reliable intelligence as a support for making efficient strategic decisions. The recent circumstances draw the attention far more earnestly this time on the need for an intelligence structure within companies to be ready for sustaining business management endeavours in line with increasing competitiveness, protection and promotion of their interests.

  7. IntraFace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that incorporates all these functionalities is unavailable. This paper presents IntraFace (IF), a publicly-available software package for automated facial feature tracking, head pose estimation, facial attribute recognition, and facial expression analysis from video. In addition, IFincludes a newly develop technique for unsupervised synchrony detection to discover correlated facial behavior between two or more persons, a relatively unexplored problem in facial image analysis. In tests, IF achieved state-of-the-art results for emotion expression and action unit detection in three databases, FERA, CK+ and RU-FACS; measured audience reaction to a talk given by one of the authors; and discovered synchrony for smiling in videos of parent-infant interaction. IF is free of charge for academic use at http://www.humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/intraface/.

  8. Competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.

    1996-01-01

    This article examines expanded wholesale and retail competition and the effect that they are likely to have on the electric power industry. The author believes that expanded wholesale competition is good and will bring immediate benefit to all electric consumers; however, based on the experience of the natural gas industry and the electric power industry in California and other parts of the world, the author counsels caution in moving toward expanded retail competition

  9. The Competitive Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, João Tiago

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to define what competitive perception is. Using Dufrenne’s phenomenological analysis of the art spectator’s experience, namely the concept of aesthetic perception, I will claim that it is useful to apply this phenomenological approach to the experience of watching sport events. I will argue that the concepts of uncertainty and auto teleology, being two main features in sport competition, are helpful to define competitive perception.

  10. Competitive versus comparative advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Neary, J. Peter

    2002-01-01

    I explore the interactions between comparative, competitive and absolute advantage in a two-country model of oligopoly in general equilibrium. Comparative advantage always determines the direction of trade, but both competitive and absolute advantage affect resource allocation, trade patterns and trade volumes. Competitive advantage in the sense of more home firms drives foreign firms out of marginal sectors but also makes some marginal home sectors uncompetitive. Absolute advantage in the se...

  11. Do international flights promote FDI? : the role of face-to-face communication

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Kiyoyasu

    2016-01-01

    Air transportation facilitates face-to-face interactions across borders for the spatial expansion of manufacturing production. I investigate the impact of international flights on FDI entry by Japanese firms. I find that FDI entry significantly increases with the weekly frequency of flights from Japan, and the positive impact increases with a proxy for an intensity of face-to-face communication between the parent firm and foreign affiliate. The results are robust to estimation methods, additi...

  12. Sustaining Competitiveness Through product Development Activities Within Malaysian Automotive Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norizah Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The local automotive suppliers are facing a number of important challenges such asglobalisation, new requirement in market specifications and the competition brought about by theAsean Free Trade Area (AFTA agreements. In an effort to enhance the competitiveness of themanufacturing sector, the government has implemented the Second Industrial Master Plan, IMP2(1996-2005. The focus of the IMP2 is more on innovation and applications of new technologies, sothat industries can move up the value chain of their activities. Innovative capabilities achieved fromcompanies’ new product development activities have been recognized to be crucial for companies tosustain their competitiveness and organisational success. The importance of product development ismost obvious in the context of the discussion on the competitiveness of the Malaysian automotivesuppliers. The study will focus on the small medium enterprises (SMEs that make up more than 60 %of these automotive suppliers. The study is to determine the extensiveness of the suppliers’ productdevelopment activities by examining the involvement of the suppliers in customer’s productdevelopment activities. Consequently, the impact of this involvement to the competitiveness of thesuppliers is examined. The results were established based from a survey to parts and componentssuppliers of Proton, the Malaysian car national assembler. The study has shown that the SMEs wereinvolved from the early stages of the product development process that is during the design stage. Theproduct development efforts have shown to contribute towards increasing firms’ market share andfirms were also able to gain a better understanding of future product demand. A significant number ofthe suppliers have managed to penetrate the export market. Unfortunately, among the respondents,there is only one system supplier. This indicates that, either the technological capabilities of theSMEs still needed upgrading for the requirement as

  13. Competition rules and health care players: principles and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciari, Diego; Callens, Stefaan

    2012-01-01

    Competition rules maximise consumer welfare by promoting efficient use of scarce resource and thus high output, low prices, high quality, varied services, innovation, production and distribution. European courts consider doctors and hospital staff as undertakings (any entity that performs economic activities), so that if they enter into agreements then they have to comply with competition rules. This paper's objective is to determine whether competition law, which applies to undertakings, can in fact be applied to different healthcare-sector players and whether specific rules are needed regarding competition between healthcare undertakings. Data were selected from relevant European and national case law, European institution legal documents (such as regulations, guidelines and communications) and healthcare competition law literature, and then examined. The paper finds that competition rules are applicable to healthcare players considering the consequences if competition rules are applied to the healthcare market. For market processes to result in the appropriate cost, quality and output, competition law must be proactive. In other words, quality must be fully factored into the competitive mix, allowing consumers to weigh healthcare price and non-price characteristics. Countries have different healthcare system and competition rules (although similar), competition rule impact is different for each country. Some healthcare systems are more regulated and there will be less opportunity for healthcare players to compete. Efficiently applying competition law to healthcare players means that several challenges need facing, such as healthcare quality complexity and court scepticism. This article points out the challenges when competition law is applied to the healthcare sector and how these challenges are faced in certain countries such as The Netherlands.

  14. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNEA Ana Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in market characteristics and the technological innovations are common and faster challenges, resulting in products, processes and technologies. The competitive advantage is volatile, difficult to obtain and more difficult to maintain and strengthened with consumers who through their individual choices polarization confirms the recognition performance and award competitive advantages, thus causing the competitive ranking of companies present in a particular market. The competitive advantage lies in the focus of the performance of companies in competitive markets and innovation is a source for obtaining and consolidating it. Companies will need to demonstrate the capacity to adapt to changes in the business environment so as to maintain the helded positions. This paper treats this aspect behavior that companies should adopt to get on the account of innovation a sustainable competitive advantage. I started of the work in the elaboration from the theory of developed by Michael Porter in his book "Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance" we applied methods listed thus trying to point out possible ways of creating competitive advantage by companies. We have presented the sources of competitive advantage and the factors on which depends its creation. Walking theoretical research revealed how lack of competitive advantage leads to a lack of competitiveness of companies and the benefits that arise with the creation of this type of asset. Among the most important benefits is to increase performances. Once the competitive advantage is achieved, it must be maintained and updated market conditions and the methods that can be created a sustainable competitive advantage represent the answers to many of the companies questions are fighting for survival in an environment of fierce competition. The implementation of methods for obtaining competitive advantages, but also exist dangers, that every company should know them

  15. A Novel Melanocortin-4 Receptor Mutation MC4R-P272L Associated with Severe Obesity Has Increased Propensity To Be Ubiquitinated in the ER in the Face of Correct Folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granell, Susana; Serra-Juhé, Clara; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á.; Díaz, Francisca; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A.; Baldini, Giulia; Argente, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene represent the most frequent cause of monogenic obesity in humans. MC4R mutation analysis in a cohort of 77 children with morbid obesity identified previously unreported heterozygous mutations (P272L, N74I) in two patients inherited from their obese mothers. A rare polymorphism (I251L, allelic frequency: 1/100) reported to protect against obesity was found in another obese patient. When expressed in neuronal cells, the cell surface abundance of wild-type MC4R and of the N74I and I251L variants and the cAMP generated by these receptors in response to exposure to the agonist, α-MSH, were not different. Conversely, MC4R P272L was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and had reduced cell surface expression and signaling (by ≈3-fold). The chemical chaperone PBA, which promotes protein folding of wild-type MC4R, had minimal effects on the distribution and signaling of the P272L variant. In contrast, incubation with UBE-41, a specific inhibitor of ubiquitin activating enzyme E1, inhibited ubiquitination of MC4R P272L and increased its cell surface expression and signaling to similar levels as wild-type MC4R. UBE41 had much less profound effects on MC4R I316S, another obesity-linked MC4R variant trapped in the ER. These data suggest that P272L is retained in the ER by a propensity to be ubiquitinated in the face of correct folding, which is only minimally shared by MC4R I316S. Thus, studies that combine clinical screening of obese patients and investigation of the functional defects of the obesity-linked MC4R variants can identify specific ways to correct these defects and are the first steps towards personalized medicine. PMID:23251400

  16. Face time: educating face transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparello, Brooke M; Bueno, Ericka M; Diaz-Siso, Jesus Rodrigo; Sisk, Geoffroy C; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    Face transplantation is the innovative application of microsurgery and immunology to restore appearance and function to those with severe facial disfigurements. Our group aims to establish a multidisciplinary education program that can facilitate informed consent and build a strong knowledge base in patients to enhance adherence to medication regimes, recovery, and quality of life. We analyzed handbooks from our institution's solid organ transplant programs to identify topics applicable to face transplant patients. The team identified unique features of face transplantation that warrant comprehensive patient education. We created a 181-page handbook to provide subjects interested in pursuing transplantation with a written source of information on the process and team members and to address concerns they may have. While the handbook covers a wide range of topics, it is easy to understand and visually appealing. Face transplantation has many unique aspects that must be relayed to the patients pursuing this novel therapy. Since candidates lack third-party support groups and programs, the transplant team must provide an extensive educational component to enhance this complex process. As face transplantation continues to develop, programs must create sound education programs that address patients' needs and concerns to facilitate optimal care.

  17. Commercial Activity or Banking Competition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose-Marie Pușcaciu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the competition on the banking market and proposes an overview of debt collection companies through the economic crisis which has profoundly affected the banking sector. Article scroll through the main features of competition on the banking market as well as the domain weaknesses that negatively influenced the banking system performance. Even if there is not a sufficiently transparent and functional legal framework and debt recovery market is not supervised enough, it is among the few markets that increase from year to year. Increasing competition from adjacent companies that compete with banks, namely, a non-banking entity, it is stimulating the banking system which will thus become more constructive. It is estimated, that in terms of customers, there will be no differentiation between the banking industry and non-banking entities that will reshape the Romanian banking system soon. Also, the study aims to highlight the existence of debt collection companies, implicitly, the specific markets, it is only a consequence of excessive, unnecessary and dangerous borrowing from previous years. Avoiding bad loans from banks, a fair competition from banks and from non-banking institutions, in the long term, it will generate a balance in the market and it will support economic growth of Romania.

  18. Nuclear power: A competitive option? Annex 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Wilmer, P.

    2002-01-01

    Because the future development of nuclear power will depend largely on its economic performance compared to alternatives, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) investigates continuously the economic aspects of nuclear power. This paper provides key findings from a series of OECD studies on projected costs of generating electricity and other related NEA activities. It addresses the cost economics necessary for nuclear units to be competitive, and discusses the challenges and opportunities currently faced by nuclear power. (author)

  19. Price competition on graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial

  20. Competitiveness, Technology and Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Sanjaya

    This document examines competitiveness in the developing world. Chapters 1 through 3, which are largely conceptual, examine the following topics: the concept of competitiveness and why it is important; market-stimulating technology policies in developing countries, and the relationship between import liberalization and industrial performance.…

  1. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structur...

  2. Competitiveness in Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a collection of interrelated research advances in the field of technological entrepreneurship from the perspective of competition in emerging markets. Featuring contributions by scholars from different fields of interest, it provides a mix of theoretical developments, insights...... and research methods used to uncover the unexplored aspects of competitiveness in emerging markets in an age characterized by disruptive technologies....

  3. Competition: Was Kohn Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2010-01-01

    Alfie Kohn made the case for competition being destructive to education. The truth may be that there are two separate ways to contest: true competition, which is a healthy desire to excel, and decompetition, which is the unhealthy desire merely to beat the opponent. Decompetition leads to the ills that Kohn enumerated. Educators should teach their…

  4. Competition and PUHCA reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the national energy policy legislation being developed with respect to Public Utilities Holding Company Act issues. The topics of the article include the proposals to encourage competition among electric power producers, those involved in the process, qualifying facilities, independent power producers, competition and efficiency, and the outlook for reform

  5. Collecting Societies, Competition and the Services Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    the harms to cultural diversity. In addition to the competition law complications, the Services Directive puts significant restrictions on the member states to adopt or maintain national rules for collecting societies and that creates an urgent need for adopting a framework directive for collecting......The market for collective management of copyrights in the EU is in transition and the collecting societies are facing a number of challenges primarily based on the EU rules on competition and the freedom to provide services. Some of the major right holders are withdrawing their rights from...... the system of reciprocal representation agreements which fragments the repertoire. This is partly due to the market evolution and the emergence of new business models but also promoted by the European Commission initiatives intended to introduce a certain degree of competition in the collective management...

  6. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    .The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the proposed methods help...... take the container transportation times that can be realized in the network nor the number of transshipments into consideration. This is mainly because the optimization problem is based on other transportation networks where these constraints are not decisive to the quality of the network. Furthermore......, the problem in itself is challenging to optimize due to its size and complexity. However, the field has seen crucial progress and is mature to include handling of competitiveness in the actual design of the network.As a liner shipping network is an organic entity, which is constantly changed to reflect...

  7. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...... of a presumed logic of competition within EU law, whereas the second part focuses on particular legal logics. In this respect, the so-called ‘real link criterion’ (determining the access to transnational social rights for certain groups of unemployed people) is given special attention. What is particularly...

  8. Crop–weed competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallandt, Eric R.; Weiner, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    importantly, weed density and time of emergence relative to the crop. Practices that (1) reduce the density of weeds, (2) maximise occupation of space or uptake of resources by the crop or (3) establish an early-season size advantage of the crop over the weeds will minimise the competitive effects of weeds...... on crops. Longer term management of crop–weed competition can be achieved through crop rotations, specifically crop sequences that reduce the weed seed bank, and therefore seedling density, and prevent proliferation of perennial weeds. Key ConceptsKey Concepts * Plant growth requires sunlight, water...... an early-season competitive advantage to the crop and (3) maximising resource capture by the crop using competitive species, competitive cultivars, high sowing densities, optimal spatial arrangement, intercropping complimentary species or transplanting....

  9. MEASURING COMPETITION FOR TEXTILES: DOES THE U.S. MAKE THE GRADE?

    OpenAIRE

    Lyford, Conrad P.; Welch, J. Mark

    2004-01-01

    U.S. textile manufacturing is coming under increasing pressure from foreign competition. This paper evaluates the U.S. competitive position in the yarn segment using established quantifiable measures and provides an overall competitive assessment. The study found the industry in a relatively weak competitive position but that U.S. competitive position is improving.

  10. The Origin and Consequences of Excess Competition in Education: A Mainland Chinese Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    At present in mainland China, competition in education has become excessive; competition has been increasing, and a competitive mentality is on the rise. The formative causes of excess competition in education are complex; with both practical and conceptual causes. Its roots can be traced to intensifying social competition, a one-sided…

  11. Face recognition using slow feature analysis and contourlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuehao; Peng, Lingling; Zhe, Fuchuan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we propose a novel face recognition approach based on slow feature analysis (SFA) in contourlet transform domain. This method firstly use contourlet transform to decompose the face image into low frequency and high frequency part, and then takes technological advantages of slow feature analysis for facial feature extraction. We named the new method combining the slow feature analysis and contourlet transform as CT-SFA. The experimental results on international standard face database demonstrate that the new face recognition method is effective and competitive.

  12. The Secrets of Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano

    1998-01-01

    This is a comment on an article by Perrett et al., on the same issue of Nature, investigating face perception. With computer graphics, Perrett and colleagues have produced exaggerated male and female faces, and asked people to rate them with respect to femininity or masculinity, and personality traits such as intelligence, emotionality and so on. The key question is: what informations do faces (and sexual signals in general) convey? One view, supported by Perrett and colleagues, is that all a...

  13. Retailers’ competitiveness on global markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Śmigielska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the chapter is to show that now retail trade is a global sector but because of its specificity new strategies are necessary if global retailers want to sustain their advantage. The  concept of globalization is discussed and then referenced to the retail sector.  The process of retail internationalization which resulted in the globalization of retail sector is analyzed.  It is assumed that the retailers were motivated by the goal of sustaining their competitive advantage. So some ideas of the main theoretical views of developing sustainable competitive advantage (SCA: Environmental View and Resource Based View, referring to the process of internationalization as well as Yip’s description of globalization process are presented. On the examples of some companies, leading the process of retail fast internationalization in XX century, like Ikea, Benetton, Carrefour, Wal-Mart, it is shown how the resources they developed and external environment contributed to their globalization process. It is found out that there were two stages of the globalization of retail sector: first, in which non food companies develop on international market and second, when the mass merchandisers offering food and other Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG were involved. The fact that after fast internationalization representatives of both groups face problems leads to the conclusion that to be successful in the contemporary global retail market new capabilities should be developed.

  14. Electric power's new competitive marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornick, R.; Zeppieri, J.; Rudden, K.

    1993-01-01

    Currently, competition is limited primarily to power generation, the sale of wholesale bulk power, and fuel substitution at the point of end use. However, within the next several years, the rivalry will focus on large, energy-intensive industrial and large commercial customers. Driven by the disparity in rates among neighboring and regional utilities, large users are expected to lobby aggressively for retail wheeling and access to new supplies. New competitors will provide customers with additional supply options, forcing traditional utilities to offer better prices and or service. Competition at the point of end use also will increase as the natural gas industry develops new end-use technologies, gas utilities compete more aggressively, and some state regulatory commissions promote fuel switching as part of integrated resource planning (IRP) and demand-side management (DSM). However, as long as electric utilities are subject to cost-based rate of return regulation within price-sensitive markets, they will be a competitive disadvantage. The paper discusses the following: competitive risks by market segment, wholesale markets, industrial markets, commercial markets, residential markets, and franchise markets

  15. Electricity competition and clean air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.; Bjorkquist, S.

    1998-04-01

    The government of Ontario plans to establish a competitive market for the generation and sale of electricity by the year 2000, at which time Ontario Hydro will lose its monopoly. The government's rationale for moving to a competitive electricity market and the details of why this move could lead to a significant increase in air pollution was discussed. An overview of the health and environmental effects of electricity related air pollution was presented and the current national and provincial air quality objectives were outlined. The government of Ontario has promised that in implementing a competitive electricity market it will ensure that the province's environmental protection record is maintained and improved. It was suggested that in order to fulfill this commitment, new environmental regulations should be established to ensure that Ontario's total electricity-related emissions will decline when competition begins. Currently, air pollution from coal-fired power generating stations causes some of Ontario's most challenging health and environmental problems. Coal-fired generation stations are also major contributors to the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Learning discriminant face descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z

    2014-02-01

    Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent.

  17. Oracle ADF Faces cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gawish, Amr

    2014-01-01

    This is a cookbook that covers more than 80 different recipes to teach you about different aspects of Oracle ADF Faces. It follows a practical approach and covers how to build your components for reuse in different applications. This book will also help you in tuning the performance of your ADF Faces application. If you are an ADF developer who wants to harness the power of Oracle ADF Faces to create exceptional user interfaces and reactive applications, this book will provide you with the recipes needed to do just that. You will not need to be familiar with Oracle ADF Faces, but you should be

  18. Competitive bidding might create antitrust problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    With the increased use and complexity of competitive bidding systems for new generating capacity there is the possibility that federal antitrust laws may be violated. Anyone violating Section 1 of the Sherman Act could face stiff penalties. Falling into this category of violations are agreements among competitors, price fixing, and elimination of competitors through the allocations of customers and/or territories. It does not have to be in writing for someone to be charged with bid rigging. In fact, it is stated that bid rigging is typically proved from the testimony of one of the persons involved. According to this paper, a charge of rigging the bids can come from: One or more bidders offering to provide power at a higher price than another bidder. Two or more bidders offering to supply power at the same price. One or more potential bidders not submitting a bid or intentionally bidding high. One bidder and not the others offering a more favorable construction schedule or an alternative proposal. One firm offering to renegotiate if its bid is rejected while the other bidders refuse. These are just some of the agreements that are illegal. The penalties for such violations of the Sherman Act are severe: fines of up to $100,000 and up to three years in jail for individuals; up to $1 million in fines for corporations

  19. University Mergers in Finland: Mediating Global Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimaa, Jussi; Aittola, Helena; Ursin, Jani

    2014-01-01

    University mergers have become a common strategy for increasing global competitiveness. In this chapter, the authors analyze the implementation of mergers in Finnish universities from the perspective of social justice as conceived within Finland and other Nordic countries.

  20. Competition between social and private rental housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennartz, C.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of shifting regulatory approaches and changing provision structures in many Western rental housing systems, the notion of competition between social and private rental housing has received increasing attention from practitioners and academic researchers. This thesis explores and

  1. Time Spent in Face-to-Face Patient Care and Work Outside the Examination Room

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschalk, Andrew; Flocke, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE Contrary to physicians’ concerns that face-to-face patient time is decreasing, data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) indicate that between 1988 and 1998, durations of primary care outpatient visits have increased. This study documented how physicians spend time during the workday, including time outside the examination room, and compared observed face-to-face patient care time with that reported in NAMCS.

  2. [Treatment goals in FACE philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Domingo; Maté, Amaia; Zabalegui, Paula; Valenzuela, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    The FACE philosophy is characterized by clearly defined treatment goals: facial esthetics, dental esthetics, periodontal health, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The purpose is to establish ideal occlusion with good facial esthetics and an orthopedic stable joint position. The authors present all the concepts of FACE philosophy and illustrate them through one case report. Taking into account all the FACE philosophy concepts increases diagnostic ability and improves the quality and stability of treatment outcomes. The goal of this philosophy is to harmonize the facial profile, tooth alignment, periodontium, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The evaluation and treatment approach to vertical problems are unique to the philosophy. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.

  3. Concept analysis of competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bychkovskii Andrei Yurevich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to determine the competitiveness of enterprises. The techniques of estimating the probability of bankruptcy as the lowest level of competitiveness of the organization. Asked to assess the competitiveness on the basis of the analysis of internal and external factors of the company. External factors are asked to provide a financial and economic, political, industrial, technological, social, environmental. Internal factors proposed to explore, using the model of "the golden rule of business economics" in conjunction with approaches for assessing the ability of the enterprise to create value.

  4. Competition in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Christensen, Søren

    Competition in education has two functions: selection and motivation. How do these two functions correlate, contradict or co-exist? How has the educational system reflected on the relation between competition as motivational technology and as a technology for selection? The aim of this paper...... is to formulate the problem of competition in education as a relation between selection and motivation and provide an analytical strategy to grasp this problem. Our ambition is to theorize the problem and give empirical illustrations of how the connection between selection and motivation has been articulated...... in various educational institutions and programs....

  5. Competitiveness: new economic paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Peñaloza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays competitiveness is made up of “the new” paradigm that allows to prevail in the global World. Thus, it is inevitable to ask, was it required to be competitive to be successful in the international trade arena? Recognizing the discussion about it and its theoretical-conceptual density, the present paper studies this old notion whose meaning, in essence, is always the same one. This applies even though new realities in the present world-wide atmosphere confer to it a distinguishing character and new and old players are forced to organize actions and bring efforts together to obtain the competitive supremacy.

  6. Very low resolution face recognition problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wilman W W; Yuen, Pong C

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the very low resolution (VLR) problem in face recognition in which the resolution of the face image to be recognized is lower than 16 × 16. With the increasing demand of surveillance camera-based applications, the VLR problem happens in many face application systems. Existing face recognition algorithms are not able to give satisfactory performance on the VLR face image. While face super-resolution (SR) methods can be employed to enhance the resolution of the images, the existing learning-based face SR methods do not perform well on such a VLR face image. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel approach to learn the relationship between the high-resolution image space and the VLR image space for face SR. Based on this new approach, two constraints, namely, new data and discriminative constraints, are designed for good visuality and face recognition applications under the VLR problem, respectively. Experimental results show that the proposed SR algorithm based on relationship learning outperforms the existing algorithms in public face databases.

  7. Wind power planning and operational benefits and issues in evolving competitive markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the advantages of wind energy generators for both short periods (hours to days) and for longer periods. The value of wind power in the light of the increasing level of risk that owners of generators will face in the new electricity market is also discussed. It is claimed that only now are we beginning to understand the issues associated with the use of large-scale wind power plants in regulated markets and this is coming about through a combination of both experience and computer modelling. As the electric power market becomes increasingly competitive, it is necessary to adapt our knowledge base to cope with the new market structure and to appreciate the associated risks and how they can be mitigated by, say, good siting. The importance of power transmission from wind power generators is emphasised: only if transmission access is afforded to all technologies will the competition succeed

  8. Facing the Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Baker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely, provocative, and theoretically sophisticated, the essays comprising In the Face of Crises: Anglophone Literature in the Postmodern World situate their work amid several critical global concerns: the devastation wreaked by global capitalism following the worldwide financial crash, the financial sector’s totalizing grip upon the world economy, the challenge to traditional definitions of “human nature” and identity posed by technologies of the body and of warfare, the quest of indigenous communities for healing from the continuing traumatic effects of colonization, and the increasing corporatization of the academy as an apparatus of the neo-liberal state – to specify only a few. Edited by Professors Ljubica Matek and Jasna Poljak Rehlicki, these essays deploy a broad range of contemporary theories, representing recent developments in cultural studies, the new economic criticism, postcolonial film studies, feminism and gender studies, and the new historicism. The eleven essays selected by Matek and Rehlicki offer convincing support for their claim that humanistic research delving into Anglophone literature, far from being a “non-profitable” pursuit in an increasingly technologized society, affords clarifying insights into contemporary “economic, cultural, and social processes in the globalizing and globalized culture of the West” (ix.

  9. Investigating Face-to-Face Peer Interaction Patterns in a Collaborative Web Discovery Task: The Bene?ts of a Shared Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C-W.; Lee, C-C.; Liu, C-C.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile computers are now increasingly applied to facilitate face-to-face collaborative learning. However, the factors affecting face-to-face peer interactions are complex as they involve rich communication media. In particular, non-verbal interactions are necessary to convey critical communication messages in face-to-face communication. Through…

  10. Increasing the Company’s Profitability Through Logistics Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Romulus Rădulescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper “Increasing the company’s profitability through logistics management”is to present the significance of organizing an efficient logistics activity and the challenges that the companiesare facing in order to obtain full advantage from using logistics as a competitive tool. The companies’dependence from the strategic decisions belonging to the supply chain stands as a reason for the ever growinginterest towards Supply Chain Management and towards applying innovative processes that will offer anadvantage when faced with increasingly tougher competition from domestic or foreign companies. Thecompany’s characteristics can be subject to deep changes through decisions pertaining to the supply chain;these decisions are vital to the company’s productivity and competitiveness. If the logistics’ role in increasingthe company’s profitability is acknowledged, then implementing complex technologies and investing multiplefactors into improving logistical performance is fully justified. Customer orientation and focusing on keyactivities, which need to be performed daily in order to meet customer demand are absolutely necessary in asystem which implies fast reaction to market changes. The managerial way of thinking has changedsignificantly in the last years, because of the highly global competitiveness, the pressure to reduce costs,focusing on the company’s central competence. The principle of functioning is an aggregate system approachfor the entire flow of information, materials and services beginning with supply of raw material, processesand movements inside the factories and warehouses, until the products reach the final customer.

  11. Morphing morphing faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, R.J. van

    2009-01-01

    We have made cyclic morphing animations using two different faces. The morphing animations gradually evolved from one face to the other, and vice versa. When free viewing, the perceived changes were not very large, but the changes could easily be observed. Observers were asked to fixate on a dot

  12. Aspects of essences of competitiveness of national economy

    OpenAIRE

    Dikan, V.; Kirdina, E.

    2009-01-01

    Existent approaches are considered to determination of concept «competitiveness of national economy» and author approach is formed to him. Intercommunication between the competitiveness of national economy is set globalization’s processes, practical recommendations are developed on the increase of competitiveness of Ukraine in outer space.

  13. HOW TO INCREASE THE INFORMATION ASSURANCE IN THE INFORMATION AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Sosin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The competitive world we live in today is characterized by an environment where the advancement of technology has increased the number of complex vulnerabilities and sophisticated attacks. Organizations around the globe are facing now the same challenges of implementing data protection and securing information assurance. The purpose of this paper is to prove that Information Assurance has become one of the most important tools in creating and maintaining a competitive advantage in today’s competitive and global marketplace. This paper also presents the relationship between information assurance and cybersecurity, and their connection with confidentiality, integrity, availability (CIA triad. Furthermore, assuring information and providing security is a life cycle process which needs a comprehensive understanding, skills, and experience in order to protect today’s risk management challenges. The author concludes the paper with the importance of information assurance policies which are the fundamental guidelines for protecting information assets and fulfilling information assurance objectives of an organization.

  14. Innovation and strategic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Mile B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discussed relationships of innovation to achieving strategic competitiveness in today globalized economic environment. Special attention is devoted to the nature of competitive advantages on global industries as well national level. Competitive advantage is a firm's ability to transform inputs into goods and services at a profit on a sustained basis, better than competitors. Comparative advantage resides in the factor endowments and created endowments of particular regions. Beside the traditional endowment approach (land, natural resources, labor and the size of the local population it is emphasized the importance of created one such as skilled labor, the technology and knowledge base, government support and culture. Creating corporate or country competitiveness roadmap there are no substantial difference - innovative as well strategic approach is essential.

  15. COMPETITIVENESS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu Eugen POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment puts pressure on all national economies which struggle to improve their competitiveness and innovativeness in a sustainable way. This article aims to present the current state of the competitiveness by reviewing the main literature and worldwide researches, in order to provide a brief overview of the determinants that drive productivity and economic success at global and national level, taking into consideration the entrepreneurial activity for a country’s competitiveness and economic growth. The paper identifies the ways in which efficiency driven countries can improve their policies and get a better return on their investments, underlining a set of competitiveness enhancing policies (measures that can be implemented by public and private institutions in order to strengthen the economic fundamentals of the economies.

  16. Competition and Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ensure that judges receive specialized training in competition law . .... ensure good coverage and quality of service; banks are subject to prudential and other .... vendors who offer the best value do the most business and the customers benefit.

  17. DMEPOS Competitive Bidding

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DMEPOS Competitive Bidding Program was mandated by Congress through the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA). The statute...

  18. More competition, less staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Staffing at US nuclear plants has been sharply reduced in recent years, as nuclear plants strive for aggressive cost reduction in a deregulating energy market. These steps have proved necessary to make nuclear plant production competitive with alternative sources. (author)

  19. Competition between herbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.; Bergh, van den J.P.

    1965-01-01

    Starting from work with annuals a model of competition between herbage plants is discussed. It is shown that their mutual interference can only be described adequately if they are grown in mixture and also in monoculture

  20. The Competitive Advantages of Retail Enterprises: the Factor and the Result of Competitive Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorna Maryna V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at systematization and development of a conceptual-categorical apparatus of the essence of competitive advantages. The approaches to their interpretation have been allocated. The essential characteristics and stages of the life cycle of competitive advantages are considered. As active stages it is suggested to consider the following: formation, implementation, and development. The basic properties of competitive advantages such as dual character have been substantiated and supplemented. Both the factor and the effective nature of competitive advantages are characterized. On the basis of the mentioned approaches together with the identified features, a definition of the concept of «competitive advantages» as economic category has been proposed. Its use as a base along with taking into consideration the functional specificity of trade enterprises has allowed: clarifying the essence of competitive advantages of retail enterprises; suggesting their definition as a factor and as a result of competitive relations. The identification of dual character will increase the possibilities to assess competitive advantages. Prospects for further researches in this direction are connected with allocating of peculiarities and kinds of competitive advantages of retail trade enterprises with the purpose of increasing the of validity of decisions on their formation, implementation, and development.