WorldWideScience

Sample records for face increased risks

  1. Face inversion increases attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Forster, Michael; Schlageter, Lena; Paul, Matthew A

    2017-07-01

    Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Vulnerability and Risk of Agro-ecosystems Facing Increased Salinity Intrusion in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, F.; Sebesvari, Z.; Nguyen, M. T.; Hagenlocher, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Vietnamese portion of the Mekong Delta increasingly suffers from salinity intrusion in its freshwater system, as exemplified by the historically high salinity levels recorded during the 2016 dry season. Although this exceptional situation was linked to the El Niño phenomena, many factors contribute to an increasing salinization of coastal areas. Salinity intrusion is a natural process in this tidal area but its extent is increasing and projected to worsen due to increased demand for water, diversion/storage of water flows in the Mekong river and its tributaries, land subsidence linked to groundwater over-abstraction, changes in land use and water management in coastal areas, and sea level rise. The Mekong Delta remains predominantly an agricultural landscape which contributes the majority of the rice, aquaculture, and fruit production of the country. These systems will need to be adapted to increased salinity levels. We will present results from two research projects, DeltAdapt and DELTAS, which were designed to allow understanding of, respectively (1) the main drivers of change of agro-ecosystems in coastal areas of the delta and (2) the relative vulnerabilities and risks deltaic social-ecological systems face with respect to various environmental hazards. We used the Global Delta Vulnerability Index developed within the DELTAS project to characterize the vulnerabilities and risks faced by coastal provinces of the delta with respect to salinity intrusion. The analysis allows us to understand which social, economic, and ecological variables index explain the relative vulnerability of the provinces. In addition, drivers of change (e.g. policy, economic, social, environmental) of coastal agro-ecosystems were systematically analyzed through 80 interviews and 7 focus group discussions in the provinces of Kien Giang and Soc Trang within the DeltAdapt project. This was combined with the analysis of Vietnamese policies to determine which are the important drivers of

  3. Facing reality minimizes risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Companies that provide technology or project management involving a wise range of risks will increasingly find much more complex contractual relationships with their customers. This is due largely to the pressures exerted on those relationships by third parties. This paper explores the relationships between private contractors and their customers (frequently government agencies) and how risks affect those relationships. Perceptions of risk sometimes outweigh genuine risks, and the distinction between the two is often irrelevant. Media, site neighbors, adversaries, regulators, and national officials often tip the balance between reality and perception

  4. Entrepreneurs Facing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zichella, Giulio; Reichstein, Toke

    to choose risk vis-à-vis certainty. Drawing on prospect theory, we formulate hypotheses about the greater likelihood that entrepreneurs (compared to others) will choose risk immediately after a positive gain, but will shy away from risk compared to others as the degree of risk increases. The hypotheses......Theory conjectures that entrepreneurs are more likely than others to make risky choices. However, the empirical evidence is mixed. This paper offers new insights into entrepreneurs’ tendencies to make risky choices, by investigating the circumstances in which entrepreneurs are more/less likely...... are tested using data collected in laboratory-based real money games experiments. We find support for our hypotheses, indicating that entrepreneurs’ bias towards risk is circumstantial. These results have fundamental implications for our understanding of factors guiding entrepreneurial choices under risk...

  5. Comparative assessment of maize, finger millet and sorghum for household food security in the face of increasing climatic risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurinda, J.; Mapfumo, P.; Wijk, van M.T.; Mtambanengwe, F.; Rufino, M.C.; Chikowo, R.; Giller, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Questions as to which crop to grow, where, when and with what management, will be increasingly challenging for farmers in the face of a changing climate. The objective of this study was to evaluate emergence, yield and financial benefits of maize, finger millet and sorghum, planted at different

  6. Managers facing the climatic risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This colloquium aimed to analyze the relations between the climatic changes and extreme meteorological events and on the associated risks. It provides information and knowledge on the state of the art concerning the today scientific knowledge, the prevention measures and the adaptation facing the risks and the difficult estimation of the climatic damages costs. (A.L.B.)

  7. Face recognition increases during saccade preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Rizak, Joshua D; Ma, Yuan-ye; Yang, Shang-chuan; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xin-tian

    2014-01-01

    Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition.

  8. Built cultural heritage facing climate change risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Roger-Alexandre; Martin, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The built cultural heritage would face important risks in the frame of climate change. They are well identified by the major international organizations, but only in a qualitative manner, and mainly refer on the action of water or on its absence. The most active research is supported by the European Commission. The results obtained by the European project 'Noah's Ark' are the most important at the day. Dose-Response Functions with predictive climate models are used to produce vulnerability maps at a European scale of which one example is presented. The recommendations of the Council of Europe for policy makers and researchers are developed as a conclusion. Three case studies are synthesized in annex of this article: Venice, London and Paris. (authors)

  9. Compulsive exercise: links, risks and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenstein MB

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mia Beck Lichtenstein,1 Cecilie Juul Hinze,2 Bolette Emborg,3 Freja Thomsen,2 Simone Daugaard Hemmingsen4 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, 2Research Unit for Telepsychiatry and E-mental Health, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, 3Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 4Research Unit, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Abstract: Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder in either International Classification of Diseases or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The aim of this literature review was to critically examine the research on links (comorbidity, risks (negative consequences, and challenges faced (problems in a treatment context. This review found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy. This review summarizes and discusses findings on links/comorbidity, risks/negative consequences, and treatment challenges. We suggest that future studies should pay attention to both prevention and counseling in sports settings, where compulsive exercise

  10. Managers facing the climatic risks; Les elus face aux risques climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This colloquium aimed to analyze the relations between the climatic changes and extreme meteorological events and on the associated risks. It provides information and knowledge on the state of the art concerning the today scientific knowledge, the prevention measures and the adaptation facing the risks and the difficult estimation of the climatic damages costs. (A.L.B.)

  11. Economic inequality increases risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, B Keith; Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Hannay, Jason W

    2017-05-02

    Rising income inequality is a global trend. Increased income inequality has been associated with higher rates of crime, greater consumer debt, and poorer health outcomes. The mechanisms linking inequality to poor outcomes among individuals are poorly understood. This research tested a behavioral account linking inequality to individual decision making. In three experiments ( n = 811), we found that higher inequality in the outcomes of an economic game led participants to take greater risks to try to achieve higher outcomes. This effect of unequal distributions on risk taking was driven by upward social comparisons. Next, we estimated economic risk taking in daily life using large-scale data from internet searches. Risk taking was higher in states with greater income inequality, an effect driven by inequality at the upper end of the income distribution. Results suggest that inequality may promote poor outcomes, in part, by increasing risky behavior.

  12. Different neural and cognitive response to emotional faces in healthy monozygotic twins at risk of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Glerup, L; Vestbo, C

    2015-01-01

    while performing a gender discrimination task. After the scan, they were given a faces dot-probe task, a facial expression recognition task and questionnaires assessing mood, personality traits and coping strategies. RESULTS: High-risk twins showed increased neural response to happy and fearful faces...... processing. These task-related changes in neural responses in high-risk twins were accompanied by impaired gender discrimination performance during face processing. They also displayed increased attention vigilance for fearful faces and were slower at recognizing facial expressions relative to low......BACKGROUND: Negative cognitive bias and aberrant neural processing of emotional faces are trait-marks of depression. Yet it is unclear whether these changes constitute an endophenotype for depression and are also present in healthy individuals with hereditary risk for depression. METHOD: Thirty...

  13. Increasing Students' Perceived Sociopolitical Empowerment through Online and Face-to-Face Community Psychology Seminars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescato, Donata; Solimeno, Andrea; Mebane, Minou Ella; Tomai, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Community psychology theorists underline the importance of promoting sociopolitical empowerment, but few studies have been conducted on the evaluation of the efficacy of empowering programs among university students. The authors report two studies: the first, with 216 psychology majors, compared the efficacy of face-to-face and online community…

  14. Increased Efficiency of Face Recognition System using Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Muraleedharan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was inspired by the need of a flexible and cost effective biometric security system. The flexibility of the wireless sensor network makes it a natural choice for data transmission. Swarm intelligence (SI is used to optimize routing in distributed time varying network. In this paper, SI maintains the required bit error rate (BER for varied channel conditions while consuming minimal energy. A specific biometric, the face recognition system, is discussed as an example. Simulation shows that the wireless sensor network is efficient in energy consumption while keeping the transmission accuracy, and the wireless face recognition system is competitive to the traditional wired face recognition system in classification accuracy.

  15. Interrelationships of risks faced by third party logistics service providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Chaudhuri, Atanu

    2016-01-01

    insights. Results show that arms-length relationship between the customer and the 3PLs has strong influence on other risks and there is a need for collaborative relationships between 3PLs and its customers. Moreover, analysis indicates that the 3PLs need to improve internal processes related to quality......This paper analyses the interrelationships between risks faced by third party logistics service providers (3PLs) in relation to one of its customers using DEMATEL. Novel analysis of both within and between risk categories and generation of threshold value to prioritize risks generate useful...... management, flexibility of its operations and also geographical coverage of their services....

  16. Different neural and cognitive response to emotional faces in healthy monozygotic twins at risk of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiak, K W; Glerup, L; Vestbo, C; Harmer, C J; Reinecke, A; Macoveanu, J; Siebner, H R; Kessing, L V; Vinberg, M

    2015-05-01

    Negative cognitive bias and aberrant neural processing of emotional faces are trait-marks of depression. Yet it is unclear whether these changes constitute an endophenotype for depression and are also present in healthy individuals with hereditary risk for depression. Thirty healthy, never-depressed monozygotic (MZ) twins with a co-twin history of depression (high risk group: n = 13) or without co-twin history of depression (low-risk group: n = 17) were enrolled in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. During fMRI, participants viewed fearful and happy faces while performing a gender discrimination task. After the scan, they were given a faces dot-probe task, a facial expression recognition task and questionnaires assessing mood, personality traits and coping strategies. High-risk twins showed increased neural response to happy and fearful faces in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), pre-supplementary motor area and occipito-parietal regions compared to low-risk twins. They also displayed stronger negative coupling between amygdala and pregenual ACC, dmPFC and temporo-parietal regions during emotional face processing. These task-related changes in neural responses in high-risk twins were accompanied by impaired gender discrimination performance during face processing. They also displayed increased attention vigilance for fearful faces and were slower at recognizing facial expressions relative to low-risk controls. These effects occurred in the absence of differences between groups in mood, subjective state or coping. Different neural response and functional connectivity within fronto-limbic and occipito-parietal regions during emotional face processing and enhanced fear vigilance may be key endophenotypes for depression.

  17. Personalised risk: new risk encounters facing migrant care workers

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Karen; Manthorpe, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Many long-term care systems are seeking to address problems of growing demand, increasing expense, and higher user expectations. For many of them fostering care at home and private care arrangements are attractive options. The long-term care sector in England is typical of these systems. Over the last 2 decades, government policy in England has placed stronger emphasis on people’s choice and control when receiving care services. People with care and support needs may be eligible for public fu...

  18. A comparison of the effectiveness of a game informed online learning activity and face to face teaching in increasing knowledge about managing aggression in health settings

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching ...

  19. Competition increases in the face of strong regional ties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoetgen, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The current fuel market exhibits a large surplus production capacity and is strongly influenced by regional ties, with imports of fabricated fuel serving to supplement domestic production or to keep domestic vendors competitive. In the future, the market is set to become increasingly competitive, especially in Europe and the United States. (author)

  20. Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler; Brotherton, Chloe

    2018-01-01

    for the face the be put into action. Based on an ethnographic study of Danish teenagers’ use of SnapChat we demonstrate how the face is used as a central medium for interaction with peers. Through the analysis of visual SnapChat messages we investigate how SnapChat requires the sender to put an ‘ugly’ face...... already secured their popular status on the heterosexual marketplace in the broad context of the school. Thus SnapChat functions both as a challenge to beauty norms of ‘flawless faces’ and as a reinscription of these same norms by further manifesting the exclusive status of the popular girl...

  1. What Faces Reveal: A Novel Method to Identify Patients at Risk of Deterioration Using Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Garcia, Maria Isabel; Rodrigues, Marcos; Shenfield, Alex; Singer, Mervyn; Moreno-Cuesta, Jeronimo

    2018-07-01

    To identify facial expressions occurring in patients at risk of deterioration in hospital wards. Prospective observational feasibility study. General ward patients in a London Community Hospital, United Kingdom. Thirty-four patients at risk of clinical deterioration. A 5-minute video (25 frames/s; 7,500 images) was recorded, encrypted, and subsequently analyzed for action units by a trained facial action coding system psychologist blinded to outcome. Action units of the upper face, head position, eyes position, lips and jaw position, and lower face were analyzed in conjunction with clinical measures collected within the National Early Warning Score. The most frequently detected action units were action unit 43 (73%) for upper face, action unit 51 (11.7%) for head position, action unit 62 (5.8%) for eyes position, action unit 25 (44.1%) for lips and jaw, and action unit 15 (67.6%) for lower face. The presence of certain combined face displays was increased in patients requiring admission to intensive care, namely, action units 43 + 15 + 25 (face display 1, p facial expressions can be identified in deteriorating general ward patients. This tool may potentially augment risk prediction of current scoring systems.

  2. Ensuring IT service continuity in the face of increasing threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vishwanath

    2014-01-01

    How is IT service continuity related to business continuity management? Is it just a glorified disaster recovery procedure? Will IT service continuity help increase the assurance of IT services from the business owner to the customer? This paper is an attempt at answering these and many such questions. It is presented as a case study of IT service continuity management implementation at Emirates Group IT, Dubai. It takes the reader through the need for the process as felt by the business, through the learning acquired during implementation, to the practices deployed for managing the process on an ongoing basis. It provides a detailed view of the kind of pitfalls that could be encountered during implementation of the IT service continuity management process in a large-scale enterprise.

  3. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of a Game Informed Online Learning Activity and Face to Face Teaching in Increasing Knowledge about Managing Aggression in Health Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to…

  4. Collective strategy for facing occupational risks of a nursing team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loro, Marli Maria; Zeitoune, Regina Célia Gollner

    2017-03-09

    To socialize an educational action through the process of group discussion and reflection, with the aim to increase the care of nursing workers in facing occupational risks. A qualitative descriptive study using the Convergent Care Research modality with nursing staff working in an emergency department of a hospital in the northwest region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data collection was carried out through educational workshops and information was processed using content analysis, resulting in two thematic categories: A look at the knowledge and practices about occupational risks in nursing; and adherence to protective measures by the nursing team against occupational risks. Twenty-four (24) workers participated in the study. When challenged to critically look at their actions, the subjects found that they relate the use of safety devices to situations in which they are aware of the patient's serological status. Subjects' interaction, involvement and co-responsibility in the health education process were determinant for their reflection on risky practices. They also had the potential to modify unsafe behaviors. Socializar uma ação educativa, por meio de um processo de discussão e reflexão em grupo, com vistas a ampliar o cuidado dos trabalhadores de enfermagem frente aos riscos ocupacionais. Estudo qualitativo, descritivo na modalidade Pesquisa Convergente Assistencial, com trabalhadores da equipe de enfermagem que atuavam no pronto atendimento de um hospital da região noroeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de oficinas educativas, e o tratamento das informações, por análise de conteúdo, resultando em duas categorias temáticas: Um olhar direcionado a saberes e práticas sobre riscos ocupacionais na enfermagem e Adesão às medidas de proteção pela equipe de enfermagem frente aos riscos ocupacionais. Integraram o estudo 24 trabalhadores. Ao serem desafiados a olhar criticamente sobre seu fazer, os

  5. Non-invasive brain stimulation targeting the right fusiform gyrus selectively increases working memory for faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunyé, Tad T; Moran, Joseph M; Holmes, Amanda; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A

    2017-04-01

    The human extrastriate cortex contains a region critically involved in face detection and memory, the right fusiform gyrus. The present study evaluated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting this anatomical region would selectively influence memory for faces versus non-face objects (houses). Anodal tDCS targeted the right fusiform gyrus (Brodmann's Area 37), with the anode at electrode site PO10, and cathode at FP2. Two stimulation conditions were compared in a repeated-measures design: 0.5mA versus 1.5mA intensity; a separate control group received no stimulation. Participants completed a working memory task for face and house stimuli, varying in memory load from 1 to 4 items. Individual differences measures assessed trait-based differences in facial recognition skills. Results showed 1.5mA intensity stimulation (versus 0.5mA and control) increased performance at high memory loads, but only with faces. Lower overall working memory capacity predicted a positive impact of tDCS. Results provide support for the notion of functional specialization of the right fusiform regions for maintaining face (but not non-face object) stimuli in working memory, and further suggest that low intensity electrical stimulation of this region may enhance demanding face working memory performance particularly in those with relatively poor baseline working memory skills. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Self-esteem, interpersonal risk, and preference for e-mail to face-to-face communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joinson, Adam N

    2004-08-01

    The media choices made by high and low self-esteem Internet users were studied using web-based methodology (n = 265). Participants were asked to rank four media (face-to-face, e-mail, letter, and telephone) in order of preference across four different communication scenarios designed to pose an interpersonal risk. The level of interpersonal risk posed by two of the scenarios (asking for a pay rise and asking for a date) were also experimentally manipulated by randomly allocating participants to a 25%, 50%, or 75% chance of rejection. Low self-esteem users (LSE) showed a significant preference toward e-mail communication compared to high self-esteem users (HSE). This pattern was reversed for face-to-face preferences. Similarly, a greater chance of rejection in a scenario led to e-mail being preferred to face-to-face communication. The results are discussed in light of both the strategic use of different media and the motivated Internet user.

  7. A comparison of the effectiveness of a game informed online learning activity and face to face teaching in increasing knowledge about managing aggression in health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-12-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching received significantly higher ratings than the online activity. The study suggests that short online game informed learning activities may offer an effective alternative for health professional training where face to face training is not possible. Further research is needed on the longer term impact of both types of training on practice.

  8. Children at Risk: Global Views on Challenges Facing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Members of the World Forum community were invited to respond to the question: "What is the most urgent challenge facing young children in your country?" Here are some of their responses. Jamils Richard Achunji Anguaseh mentions that in Cameroon, young children face lots of insecurity, both from health hazards and poor parenting practices. There…

  9. Health Risks Faced by Public School Band Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolery, Danielle N.; Woolery, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    Public school band directors face many work-related hazards in their grueling, yet rewarding job. As a school year progresses, directors are expected to work long hours, while trying to balance professional and personal responsibilities. A band director whose career spans multiple decades can potentially face a number of serious medical problems.…

  10. Energy investments facing market risk and public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobtcheff, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Annual meeting of the Energy Economist Association, held on June 15, 2005, was about the issue of investments in the energy sector. How can companies decide to invest in a project when there are increasing uncertainties, including as to future public policies and to energy market trends? The various speakers at the meeting stressed the significance of describing and gauging the risks specific to each industry as well as the assumptions that decision-making tools available to companies rely on (net value theory updated and actual option theory, inter alia). (author)

  11. The increased risk of predation enhances cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Bērziņš, Arnis; Krama, Tatjana; Wheatcroft, David; Igaune, Kristīne; Rantala, Markus J.

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that animals in adverse conditions can decrease individual risks and increase long-term benefits by cooperating with neighbours. However, some empirical studies suggest that animals often focus on short-term benefits, which can reduce the likelihood that they will cooperate with others. In this experimental study, we tested between these two alternatives by evaluating whether increased predation risk (as a correlate of environmental adversity) enhances or diminishes the occurrence of cooperation in mobbing, a common anti-predator behaviour, among breeding pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. We tested whether birds would join their mobbing neighbours more often and harass a stuffed predator placed near their neighbours' nests more intensely in areas with a higher perceived risk of predation. Our results show that birds attended mobs initiated by their neighbours more often, approached the stuffed predator significantly more closely, and mobbed it at a higher intensity in areas where the perceived risk of predation was experimentally increased. In such high-risk areas, birds also were more often involved in between-pair cooperation. This study demonstrates the positive impact of predation risk on cooperation in breeding songbirds, which might help in explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation. PMID:19846454

  12. Mere Exposure and Racial Prejudice: Exposure to Other-Race Faces Increases Liking for Strangers of That Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; White, Benjamin; Wieneke, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    White participants were exposed to other-race or own-race faces to test the generalized mere exposure hypothesis in the domain of face perception, namely that exposure to a set of faces yields increased liking for similar faces that have never been seen. In Experiment 1, rapid supraliminal exposures to Asian faces increased White participants' subsequent liking for a different set of Asian faces. In Experiment 2, subliminal exposures to Black faces increased White participants' subsequent liking for a different set of Black faces. The findings are consistent with prominent explanations for mere exposure effects as well as with the familiar face overgeneralization hypothesis that prejudice derives in part from negative reactions to faces that deviate from the familiar own-race prototype.

  13. Increased phase synchronization during continuous face integration measured simultaneously with EEG and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottlow, Mara; Jann, Kay; Dierks, Thomas; Koenig, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Gamma zero-lag phase synchronization has been measured in the animal brain during visual binding. Human scalp EEG studies used a phase locking factor (trial-to-trial phase-shift consistency) or gamma amplitude to measure binding but did not analyze common-phase signals so far. This study introduces a method to identify networks oscillating with near zero-lag phase synchronization in human subjects. We presented unpredictably moving face parts (NOFACE) which - during some periods - produced a complete schematic face (FACE). The amount of zero-lag phase synchronization was measured using global field synchronization (GFS). GFS provides global information on the amount of instantaneous coincidences in specific frequencies throughout the brain. Gamma GFS was increased during the FACE condition. To localize the underlying areas, we correlated gamma GFS with simultaneously recorded BOLD responses. Positive correlates comprised the bilateral middle fusiform gyrus and the left precuneus. These areas may form a network of areas transiently synchronized during face integration, including face-specific as well as binding-specific regions and regions for visual processing in general. Thus, the amount of zero-lag phase synchronization between remote regions of the human visual system can be measured with simultaneously acquired EEG/fMRI. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxytocin increases bias, but not accuracy, in face recognition line-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Sarah; Bennetts, Rachel; Parris, Benjamin A; Bindemann, Markus; Udale, Robert; Bussunt, Amanda

    2015-07-01

    Previous work indicates that intranasal inhalation of oxytocin improves face recognition skills, raising the possibility that it may be used in security settings. However, it is unclear whether oxytocin directly acts upon the core face-processing system itself or indirectly improves face recognition via affective or social salience mechanisms. In a double-blind procedure, 60 participants received either an oxytocin or placebo nasal spray before completing the One-in-Ten task-a standardized test of unfamiliar face recognition containing target-present and target-absent line-ups. Participants in the oxytocin condition outperformed those in the placebo condition on target-present trials, yet were more likely to make false-positive errors on target-absent trials. Signal detection analyses indicated that oxytocin induced a more liberal response bias, rather than increasing accuracy per se. These findings support a social salience account of the effects of oxytocin on face recognition and indicate that oxytocin may impede face recognition in certain scenarios. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Increased cancer risk in patients with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizdar, Omer; Hayran, Mutlu; Guven, Deniz Can; Yılmaz, Tolga Birtan; Taheri, Sahand; Akman, Abdullah C; Bilgin, Emre; Hüseyin, Beril; Berker, Ezel

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have noted a possible association between periodontal diseases and the risk of various cancers. We assessed cancer risk in a cohort of patients with moderate to severe periodontitis. Patients diagnosed with moderate to severe periodontitis by a periodontist between 2001 and 2010 were identified from the hospital registry. Patients younger than 35 years of age or with a prior cancer diagnosis were excluded. The age- and gender-standardized incidence rates (SIR) were calculated by dividing the number of observed cases by the number of expected cases from Turkish National Cancer Registry 2013 data. A total of 280 patients were included (median age 49.6, 54% female). Median follow-up was 12 years. Twenty-five new cancer cases were observed. Patients with periodontitis had 77% increased risk of cancer (SIR 1.77, 95% CI 1.17-2.58, p = .004). Women with periodontitis had significantly higher risk of breast cancer (SIR 2.40, 95% CI 0.88-5.33) and men with periodontitis had significantly higher risk of prostate cancer (SIR 3.75, 95% CI 0.95-10.21) and hematological cancers (SIR 6.97, 95% CI 1.77-18.98). Although showing a causal association necessitates further investigation, our results support the idea that periodontitis might be associated with increased cancer risk, particularly with hematological, breast and prostate cancers.

  16. Increasing the Value of Agricultural Products in the Face of Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Paper examined the increasing value of agricultural products in the face of global economic recession in Anambra State. The paper revealed that Anambra State is endowed with human and natural resources and if properly harnessed, can go a long way in arresting the food insecurity in the State and alleviate the ...

  17. Colleges Struggle to Dispose of Hazardous Wastes in Face of Rising Costs and Increased Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, Denise K.

    1989-01-01

    After years of being ignored by federal regulators because of the low volume of hazardous waste in question, colleges and universities are facing increased enforcement of environmental laws concerning waste disposal and storage, at great cost in money, facilities, and personnel. (MSE)

  18. Increased suicidal risk among smoking schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Sapir, Anna Piccone; Shaked, Ginette; Poreh, Amir; Dannon, Pinhas Nadim; Chelben, Joseph; Kotler, Moshe

    2006-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients display a high suicidal risk, although this risk is difficult to predict. One of the variables associated with increased suicide risk is smoking. In the present study, we assessed the suicidal risk in schizophrenia patients, smokers and nonsmokers. We also evaluated the impact of various variables such as psychotic symptoms, impulsivity, and extra-pyramidal side effects on suicidal risk. Sixty-one schizophrenia patients responded to a battery of measures, including the suicidal risk scale (SRS), the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), the impulsivity control scale, and the Simpson Angus Scale for extrapyramidal side effects. The effect of smoking on the various measures, especially suicidal risk, was examined. Schizophrenia patients who smoke obtained higher PANSS scores (both total score and positive and negative subscales), but did not differ on the Simpson Angus scale of extrapyramidal side effects. They also exhibited higher suicide risk as reflected by higher scores on the SRS, and a trend for higher impulsivity as measured by the impulsivity control scale. Women that smoked had higher SRS scores as compared with female nonsmokers, and also higher than in males, smokers and nonsmokers. Smoking and a history of suicide attempt predicted in our regression analysis a higher SRS score. When conducting separate analyses for the male and female patients, the significant contributors were the PANSS total score among the males and the number of pack-years among the female patients. Despite hints toward the role of smoking in suicidal behavior in Schizophrenia, especially among female patients, more studies are needed to elucidate the association between smoking and suicidality in schizophrenia patients.

  19. Discrimination, vulnerability, and justice in the face of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Terre A; Mertz, C K; Slovic, Paul

    2004-02-01

    Recent research finds that perceived risk is closely associated with race and gender. In surveys of the American public a subset of white males stand out for their uniformly low perceptions of environmental health risks, while most nonwhite and nonmale respondents reveal higher perceived risk. Such findings have been attributed to the advantageous position of white males in American social life. This article explores the linked possibility that this demographic pattern is driven not simply by the social advantages or disadvantages embodied in race or gender, but by the subjective experience of vulnerability and by sociopolitical evaluations pertaining to environmental injustice. Indices of environmental injustice and social vulnerability were developed as part of a U.S. National Risk Survey (n= 1,192) in order to examine their effect on perceived risk. It was found that those who regarded themselves as vulnerable and supported belief statements consistent with the environmental justice thesis offered higher risk ratings across a range of hazards. Multivariate analysis indicates that our measures of vulnerability and environmental injustice predict perceived risk but do not account for all of the effects of race and gender. The article closes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for further work on vulnerability and risk, risk communication, and risk management practices generally.

  20. Fractures and the increased risk of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C-F; Lai, E C-C; Yeh, M-K

    2018-06-01

    Aims A high rate of suicide has been reported in patients who sustain fractures, but the association remains uncertain in the context of other factors. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fractures and the risk of suicide in this contextual setting. Patients and Methods We performed a case-control study of patients aged 40 years or older who died by suicide between 2000 and 2011. We included patients' demographics, physical and mental health problems, and socioeconomic factors. We performed conditional logistic regression to evaluate the associations between fractures and the risk of suicide. Results We included a total of 34 794 patients who died by suicide and 139 176 control patients. We found that fractures as a homogenous group (adjusted odds ratios (aOR), 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43 to 1.53), and specifically pelvic (aOR 2.04; 95% CI 1.68 to 2.47) and spinal fractures (aOR 1.53; 95% CI 1.43 to 1.64), were associated with a higher risk of suicide. In addition, we found that patients who had a lower income, had never married, had lower levels of educational attainment, or had coexistent physical and mental conditions such as anxiety, mood disorders, and psychosis-related disorders had a higher risk of suicide. Conclusion Fractures, specifically those of the hip and spine, were associated with an increased risk of suicide. The findings suggest that greater clinical attention should be given to this risk in patients with fractures, especially for those with additional risk factors. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:780-6.

  1. Cryptorchidism and increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianping; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Miao, Maohua; Liang, Hong; Ehrenstein, Vera; Wang, Ziliang; Yuan, Wei; Li, Jiong

    2018-01-01

    Male congenital malformations as cryptorchidism may contribute to the development of neurodevelopmental disorders directly or via shared familial genetic and/or environmental factors, but the evidence is sparse. Using population-based health registries, we conducted a cohort study of all liveborn singleton boys in Denmark during 1979-2008. Boys with a diagnosis of cryptorchidism were categorized into the exposed cohort and the other boys into the unexposed comparison cohort. The outcomes were diagnoses of any neurodevelopmental disorders and their subtypes. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to compute hazard ratios (HRs), taking into consideration several potential confounders. Among 884,083 male infants, 27,505 received a diagnosis of cryptorchidism during follow-up. Boys with cryptorchidism were more likely to be diagnosed with intellectual disability (HR = 1.77; 95%confidence interval [CI]:1.59,1.97), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (HR = 1.24; 95% CI:1.13,1.35), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.08,1.26), anxiety (HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01,1.17), and other behavioral/emotional disorders (HR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.08,1.26) compared to boys without cryptorchidism. The observed risks of intellectual disability, ASD, and ADHD were increased further in boys with bilateral cryptorchidism. Except for anxiety, cryptorchid boys had higher risks of neurodevelopmental disorders than their non-cryptorchid full brothers. The observed increased risks were similar among boys who underwent orchiopexy, as well as among those with shorter waiting times for this surgery. Cryptorchidism may be associated with increased risks of intellectual disability, ASD, ADHD, and other behavioral/emotional disorders. Cryptorchidism and neurodevelopmental disorders may have shared genetic or in-utero/early postnatal risk factors, which need to be further investigated. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Farm Technologies and Production Risk in the Face of Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In countries where insurance and credit markets are thin or missing, production and consumption risks play a critical role in the choice and use of production inputs and adoption of new farm technologies. This paper investigated the effect of selected farm technologies and their risk implications in different rainfall patterns of ...

  3. Increased amygdala responses to emotional faces after psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Leor; Demetriou, Lysia; Wall, Matthew B; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2017-12-27

    Recent evidence indicates that psilocybin with psychological support may be effective for treating depression. Some studies have found that patients with depression show heightened amygdala responses to fearful faces and there is reliable evidence that treatment with SSRIs attenuates amygdala responses (Ma, 2015). We hypothesised that amygdala responses to emotional faces would be altered post-treatment with psilocybin. In this open-label study, 20 individuals diagnosed with moderate to severe, treatment-resistant depression, underwent two separate dosing sessions with psilocybin. Psychological support was provided before, during and after these sessions and 19 completed fMRI scans one week prior to the first session and one day after the second and last. Neutral, fearful and happy faces were presented in the scanner and analyses focused on the amygdala. Group results revealed rapid and enduring improvements in depressive symptoms post psilocybin. Increased responses to fearful and happy faces were observed in the right amygdala post-treatment, and right amygdala increases to fearful versus neutral faces were predictive of clinical improvements at 1-week. Psilocybin with psychological support was associated with increased amygdala responses to emotional stimuli, an opposite effect to previous findings with SSRIs. This suggests fundamental differences in these treatments' therapeutic actions, with SSRIs mitigating negative emotions and psilocybin allowing patients to confront and work through them. Based on the present results, we propose that psilocybin with psychological support is a treatment approach that potentially revives emotional responsiveness in depression, enabling patients to reconnect with their emotions. ISRCTN, number ISRCTN14426797. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Communicating Zika Risk: Using Metaphor to Increase Perceived Risk Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hang; Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2018-02-27

    Effectively communicating the risks associated with emerging zoonotic diseases remains an important challenge. Drawing on research into the psychological effects of metaphoric framing, we explore the conditions under which exposure to the "nation as a body" metaphor influences perceived risk susceptibility, behavioral intentions, and policy support in the context of Zika virus. In a between-subjects experiment, 354 U.S. adults were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions as part of a 2 (severity message: high vs. low) × 2 (U.S. framing: metaphoric vs. literal) design. Results revealed an interaction effect such that metaphoric (vs. literal) framing increased perceived risk susceptibility in the high-severity condition only. Further analyses revealed that perceived risk susceptibility and negative affect mediated the path between the two-way interaction and policy support and behavioral intentions regarding Zika prevention. Overall, these findings complement prior work on the influence of metaphoric framing on risk perceptions, while offering practical insights for risk communicators seeking to communicate about Zika and other zoonotic diseases. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Increasing tsunami risk awareness via mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelawat, N.; Suppasri, A.; Latcharote, P.; Imamura, F.; Abe, Y.; Sugiyasu, K.

    2017-02-01

    In the information and communication technology era, smartphones have become a necessity. With the capacity and availability of smart technologies, a number of benefits are possible. As a result, designing a mobile application to increase tsunami awareness has been proposed, and a prototype has been designed and developed. The application uses data from the 2011 Great East Japan Tsunami. Based on the current location determined by a GPS function matched with the nearest point extracted from the detailed mesh data of that earlier disaster, the application generates the inundation depth at the user’s location. Thus, not only local people but also tourists visiting the affected areas can understand the risks involved. Application testing has been conducted in an evacuation experiment involving both Japanese and foreign students. The proposed application can be used as a supplementary information tool in tsunami evacuation drills. It also supports the idea of smart tourism: when people realize their risks, they possess risk awareness and hence can reduce their risks. This application can also be considered a contribution to disaster knowledge and technology, as well as to the lessons learned from the practical outcome.

  6. Has risk associated with smoking increased?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Osler, M; Andersen, P K

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two recent much cited publications have raised the concern that risk associated with cigarette smoking has so far been underestimated. In this study we wish to determine whether excess all-cause mortality associated with smoking has increased during the last 20-30 years in a study...... population representative of the general Danish population and whether any such changes relate to changes in smoking behaviour. METHODS: Pooled data from three prospective population studies conducted in Copenhagen with detailed information on smoking habits. A total of 31,194 subjects, 17,669 males and 13......,525 females, initially examined between 1964 and 1992 with examinations repeated at intervals from 1-10 years, were followed until 1995 for all-cause mortality. Relative mortality risk in smokers versus never-smokers was calculated within periods of five calendar years and compared throughout the study period...

  7. Alcoholic Cirrhosis Increases Risk for Autoimmune Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Lisbet; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Deleuran, Bent

    2015-01-01

    IRR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.26-1.92), celiac disease (aIRR, 5.12; 95% CI, 2.58-10.16), pernicious anemia (aIRR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.50-3.68), and psoriasis (aIRR, 4.06; 95% CI, 3.32-4.97). There was no increase in the incidence rate for rheumatoid arthritis (aIRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.69-1.15); the incidence rate......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcoholic cirrhosis is associated with hyperactivation and dysregulation of the immune system. In addition to its ability to increase risk for infections, it also may increase the risk for autoimmune diseases. We studied the incidence of autoimmune diseases among patients...... (controls) of the same sex and age. The incidence rates of various autoimmune diseases were compared between patients with cirrhosis and controls and adjusted for the number of hospitalizations in the previous year (a marker for the frequency of clinical examination). RESULTS: Of the 24,679 patients...

  8. Homocysteine increases the risk associated with hyperlipidaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Caroline

    2009-04-01

    The European Concerted Action Project \\'Homocysteine and Vascular Disease\\' showed that an elevated homocysteine is associated with a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and particularly when combined with other factors such as smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential interactions between homocysteine and individual lipid subfractions. In addition, it was hypothesized that HDL cholesterol may protect against hyperhomocysteinaemia because HDL cholesterol is associated with the enzyme paroxonase, which reduces oxidization of homocysteine to the harmful metabolite, homocysteine thiolactonase.

  9. Hypospadias and increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butwicka, Agnieszka; Lichtenstein, Paul; Landén, Mikael; Nordenvall, Anna S; Nordenström, Anna; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Frisén, Louise

    2015-02-01

    Hypospadias (aberrant opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis) occurs in 1 per 300 newborn boys. It has been previously unknown whether this common malformation is associated with increased psychiatric morbidity later in life. Studies of individuals with hypospadias also provide an opportunity to examine whether difference in androgen signaling is related to neurodevelopmental disorders. To elucidate the mechanisms behind a possible association, we also studied psychiatric outcomes among brothers of the hypospadias patients. Registry study within a national cohort of all 9,262 males with hypospadias and their 4,936 healthy brothers born in Sweden between 1973 and 2009. Patients with hypospadias and their brothers were matched with controls by year of birth and county. The following outcomes were evaluated (1) any psychiatric (2) psychotic, (3) mood, (4) anxiety, (5) eating, and (6) personality disorders, (7) substance misuse, (8) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (9) autism spectrum disorders (ASD), (10) intellectual disability, and (11) other behavioral/emotional disorders with onset in childhood. Patients with hypospadias were more likely to be diagnosed with intellectual disability (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.8-3.8), ASD (1.4; 1.2-1.7), ADHD (1.5; 1.3-1.9), and behavioral/emotional disorders (1.4; 1.2-1.6) compared with the controls. Brothers of patients with hypospadias had an increased risk of ASD (1.6; 1.3-2.1) and other behavioral/emotional disorders with onset in childhood (1.2; 0.9-1.5) in comparison to siblings of healthy individuals. A slightly higher, although not statistically significant, risk was found for intellectual disability (1.3; 1.0-1.9). No relation between other psychiatric diagnosis and hypospadias was found. This is the first study to identify an increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders in patients with hypospadias, as well as an increased risk for ASD in their brothers, suggesting a common familial (genetic and

  10. Risk regulation in environment, health and safety : Decision in the face of uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettlinger, L A [The Oxford Group, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Regulations that use or refer to the concept of 'risk' are becoming more popular with both the U.S. Congress and Government agencies -- and are often being challenged in the courts. Proponents of stronger regulation suggest that there are significant threats to life and health that receive little or no attention from both elected officials and regulators, whereas advocates of less intensive government intervention point to regulations that impose high costs with little or no benefit. Usually, both the costs and the benefits are highly uncertain. This paper assumes for the purpose of argument that both proponents and opponents can find many cases where their respective arguments have merit. We also assume that both criticisms of the status quo have a large constituency within the public. If these assumption are valid, then a policy problem is created whereby decision makers are being asked, in the face of significant uncertainty, when to regulate, and at what level of specificity to regulate. The purposes of this paper are to offer some fresh ideas about why these problems arise, shed some light on decision making within the Congress, the regulatory agencies and the courts, and offer some practical steps that could be taken to reform the present system of regulation. Our central observation is that disputes arise as to the efficacy of risk regulations (in the face of uncertainty) because of the difficulties citizens face in determining whether either those who cause risks or those who are responsible for mitigating them are acting in the citizen's best interest. These regulations contain issues which typically deal with subjects containing substantial, unresolvable technical and scientific uncertainties. Because of this inherent uncertainty, the relationships between citizens and regulators, with elected officials in the middle, becomes an especially difficult form of agent relationship. We conclude that the problems associated with this agent relationship are

  11. Risk regulation in environment, health and safety : Decision in the face of uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettlinger, L.A. [The Oxford Group, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Regulations that use or refer to the concept of 'risk' are becoming more popular with both the U.S. Congress and Government agencies -- and are often being challenged in the courts. Proponents of stronger regulation suggest that there are significant threats to life and health that receive little or no attention from both elected officials and regulators, whereas advocates of less intensive government intervention point to regulations that impose high costs with little or no benefit. Usually, both the costs and the benefits are highly uncertain. This paper assumes for the purpose of argument that both proponents and opponents can find many cases where their respective arguments have merit. We also assume that both criticisms of the status quo have a large constituency within the public. If these assumption are valid, then a policy problem is created whereby decision makers are being asked, in the face of significant uncertainty, when to regulate, and at what level of specificity to regulate. The purposes of this paper are to offer some fresh ideas about why these problems arise, shed some light on decision making within the Congress, the regulatory agencies and the courts, and offer some practical steps that could be taken to reform the present system of regulation. Our central observation is that disputes arise as to the efficacy of risk regulations (in the face of uncertainty) because of the difficulties citizens face in determining whether either those who cause risks or those who are responsible for mitigating them are acting in the citizen's best interest. These regulations contain issues which typically deal with subjects containing substantial, unresolvable technical and scientific uncertainties. Because of this inherent uncertainty, the relationships between citizens and regulators, with elected officials in the middle, becomes an especially difficult form of agent relationship. We conclude that the problems associated with this agent

  12. Risk regulation in environment, health and safety : Decision in the face of uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettlinger, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    Regulations that use or refer to the concept of 'risk' are becoming more popular with both the U.S. Congress and Government agencies -- and are often being challenged in the courts. Proponents of stronger regulation suggest that there are significant threats to life and health that receive little or no attention from both elected officials and regulators, whereas advocates of less intensive government intervention point to regulations that impose high costs with little or no benefit. Usually, both the costs and the benefits are highly uncertain. This paper assumes for the purpose of argument that both proponents and opponents can find many cases where their respective arguments have merit. We also assume that both criticisms of the status quo have a large constituency within the public. If these assumption are valid, then a policy problem is created whereby decision makers are being asked, in the face of significant uncertainty, when to regulate, and at what level of specificity to regulate. The purposes of this paper are to offer some fresh ideas about why these problems arise, shed some light on decision making within the Congress, the regulatory agencies and the courts, and offer some practical steps that could be taken to reform the present system of regulation. Our central observation is that disputes arise as to the efficacy of risk regulations (in the face of uncertainty) because of the difficulties citizens face in determining whether either those who cause risks or those who are responsible for mitigating them are acting in the citizen's best interest. These regulations contain issues which typically deal with subjects containing substantial, unresolvable technical and scientific uncertainties. Because of this inherent uncertainty, the relationships between citizens and regulators, with elected officials in the middle, becomes an especially difficult form of agent relationship. We conclude that the problems associated with this agent relationship are

  13. Amygdala Hyperactivation During Face Emotion Processing in Unaffected Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsavsky, Aviva K.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rutenberg, Julia G.; Muhrer, Eli J.; Deveney, Christen M.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Towbin, Kenneth; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD) show deficits in face emotion processing, but the neural correlates of these deficits have not been examined. This preliminary study tests the hypothesis that, relative to healthy comparison (HC) subjects, both BD subjects and youth at risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree BD…

  14. Built cultural heritage facing climate change risks; Le patrimoine culturel bati face aux risques du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Roger-Alexandre [Paris-Est Creteil Univ., 61 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil (France); Martin, Daniel [Ministere de l' Ecologie, du Developpement durable, des Transports et du Logement, Grande Arche, Tour Pascal A et B, 92055 La Defense Cedex (France)

    2011-08-15

    The built cultural heritage would face important risks in the frame of climate change. They are well identified by the major international organizations, but only in a qualitative manner, and mainly refer on the action of water or on its absence. The most active research is supported by the European Commission. The results obtained by the European project 'Noah's Ark' are the most important at the day. Dose-Response Functions with predictive climate models are used to produce vulnerability maps at a European scale of which one example is presented. The recommendations of the Council of Europe for policy makers and researchers are developed as a conclusion. Three case studies are synthesized in annex of this article: Venice, London and Paris. (authors)

  15. Schooling increases risk exposure for fish navigating past artificial barriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand H Lemasson

    Full Text Available Artificial barriers have become ubiquitous features in freshwater ecosystems and they can significantly impact a region's biodiversity. Assessing the risk faced by fish forced to navigate their way around artificial barriers is largely based on assays of individual swimming behavior. However, social interactions can significantly influence fish movement patterns and alter their risk exposure. Using an experimental flume, we assessed the effects of social interactions on the amount of time required for juvenile palmetto bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis to navigate downstream past an artificial barrier. Fish were released either individually or in groups into the flume using flow conditions that approached the limit of their expected swimming stamina. We compared fish swimming behaviors under solitary and schooling conditions and measured risk as the time individuals spent exposed to the barrier. Solitary fish generally turned with the current and moved quickly downstream past the barrier, while fish in groups swam against the current and displayed a 23-fold increase in exposure time. Solitary individuals also showed greater signs of skittish behavior than those released in groups, which was reflected by larger changes in their accelerations and turning profiles. While groups displayed fission-fusion dynamics, inter-individual positions were highly structured and remained steady over time. These spatial patterns align with theoretical positions necessary to reduce swimming exertion through either wake capturing or velocity sheltering, but diverge from any potential gains from channeling effects between adjacent neighbors. We conclude that isolated performance trials and projections based on individual behaviors can lead to erroneous predictions of risk exposure along engineered structures. Our results also suggest that risk perception and behavior may be more important than a fish's swimming stamina in artificially modified systems.

  16. Schooling increases risk exposure for fish navigating past artificial barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, Bertrand H; Haefner, James W; Bowen, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Artificial barriers have become ubiquitous features in freshwater ecosystems and they can significantly impact a region's biodiversity. Assessing the risk faced by fish forced to navigate their way around artificial barriers is largely based on assays of individual swimming behavior. However, social interactions can significantly influence fish movement patterns and alter their risk exposure. Using an experimental flume, we assessed the effects of social interactions on the amount of time required for juvenile palmetto bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) to navigate downstream past an artificial barrier. Fish were released either individually or in groups into the flume using flow conditions that approached the limit of their expected swimming stamina. We compared fish swimming behaviors under solitary and schooling conditions and measured risk as the time individuals spent exposed to the barrier. Solitary fish generally turned with the current and moved quickly downstream past the barrier, while fish in groups swam against the current and displayed a 23-fold increase in exposure time. Solitary individuals also showed greater signs of skittish behavior than those released in groups, which was reflected by larger changes in their accelerations and turning profiles. While groups displayed fission-fusion dynamics, inter-individual positions were highly structured and remained steady over time. These spatial patterns align with theoretical positions necessary to reduce swimming exertion through either wake capturing or velocity sheltering, but diverge from any potential gains from channeling effects between adjacent neighbors. We conclude that isolated performance trials and projections based on individual behaviors can lead to erroneous predictions of risk exposure along engineered structures. Our results also suggest that risk perception and behavior may be more important than a fish's swimming stamina in artificially modified systems.

  17. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  18. Oxytocin increases bias, but not accuracy, in face recognition line-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Bate, Sarah; Bennetts, Rachel; Parris, Benjamin A.; Bindemann, Markus; Udale, Robert; Bussunt, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Previous work indicates that intranasal inhalation of oxytocin improves face recognition skills, raising the possibility that it may be used in security settings. However, it is unclear whether oxytocin directly acts upon the core face-processing system itself, or indirectly improves face recognition via affective or social salience mechanisms. In a double-blind procedure, 60 participants received either an oxytocin or placebo nasal spray before completing the One-in-Ten task – a standardized...

  19. Social anxiety is related to increased dwell time on socially threatening faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarov, Amit; Abend, Rany; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2016-03-15

    Identification of reliable targets for therapeutic interventions is essential for developing evidence-based therapies. Threat-related attention bias has been implicated in the etiology and maintenance of social anxiety disorder. Extant response-time-based threat bias measures have demonstrated limited reliability and internal consistency. Here, we examined gaze patterns of socially anxious and nonanxious participants in relation to social threatening and neutral stimuli using an eye-tracking task, comprised of multiple threat and neutral stimuli, presented for an extended time-period. We tested the psychometric properties of this task with the hope to provide a solid stepping-stone for future treatment development. Eye gaze was tracked while participants freely viewed 60 different matrices comprised of eight disgusted and eight neutral facial expressions, presented for 6000ms each. Gaze patterns on threat and neutral areas of interest (AOIs) of participants with SAD, high socially anxious students and nonanxious students were compared. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. Participants did not differ on first-fixation variables. However, overall, socially anxious students and participants with SAD dwelled significantly longer on threat faces compared with nonanxious participants, with no difference between the anxious groups. Groups did not differ in overall dwell time on neutral faces. Internal consistency of total dwell time on threat and neutral AOIs was high and one-week test-retest reliability was acceptable. Only disgusted facial expressions were used. Relative small sample size. Social anxiety is associated with increased dwell time on socially threatening stimuli, presenting a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Maintaining Qubit Coherence in the face of Increased Superconducting Circuit Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hover, David; Weber, Steve; Rosenberg, Danna; Samach, Gabriel; Sears, Adam; Birenbaum, Jeffrey; Woods, Wayne; Yoder, Jonilyn; Racz, Livia; Kerman, Jamie; Oliver, William D.

    Maintaining qubit coherence in the face of increased superconducting circuit complexity is a challenge when designing an extensible quantum computing architecture. We consider this challenge in the context of inductively coupled, long-lived, capacitively-shunted flux qubits. Specifically, we discuss our efforts to mitigate the effects of radiation loss, parasitic chip-modes, cross-coupling, and Purcell decay. Our approach employs numerical modeling of the ideal Hamiltonian and electromagnetic analysis of the circuit, both of which are independently shown to be consistent with experimental results. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.

  1. Behavioral and neural evidence of increased attention to the bottom half of the face in deaf signers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Teresa V.; Letourneau, Susan M.; Maslin, Melissa T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the effects of deafness and sign language use on the distribution of attention across the top and bottom halves of faces. Methods In a composite face task, congenitally deaf signers and typically hearing controls made same/different judgments of the top or bottom halves of faces presented with the halves aligned or spatially misaligned, while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Results Both groups were more accurate when judging misaligned than aligned faces, which indicates holistic face processing. Misalignment affected all ERP components examined, with effects on the N170 resembling those of face inversion. Hearing adults were similarly accurate when judging the top and bottom halves of the faces, but deaf signers were more accurate when attending to the bottom than the top. Attending to the top elicited faster P1 and N170 latencies for both groups; within the deaf group, this effect was greatest for individuals who produced the highest accuracies when attending to the top. Conclusions These findings dovetail with previous research by providing behavioral and neural evidence of increased attention to the bottom half of the face in deaf signers, and by documenting that these effects generalize to a speeded task, in the absence of gaze shifts, with neutral facial expressions. PMID:23142816

  2. Increased risk for depression after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis P; Johansen, Christoffer; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the risk for first depression, assessed as incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants, among women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Danish national registries were used to identify 1,997,669 women with no diagnosis of cancer...... or a major psychiatric disorder. This cohort was followed from 1998 to 2011 for a diagnosis of breast cancer and for the two outcomes, hospital contact for depression and redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants. Rate ratios for incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants...... were estimated with Poisson regression models. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate factors associated with the two outcomes among patients with breast cancer. RESULTS: We identified 44,494 women with breast cancer. In the first year after diagnosis, the rate ratio for a hospital contact...

  3. Hypospadias and increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Butwicka, Agnieszka; Lichtenstein, Paul; Landén, Mikael; Nordenvall, Anna; Nordenström, Anna; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Frisén, Louise

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypospadias (aberrant opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis) occurs in 1 per 300 newborn boys. It has been previously unknown whether this common malformation is associated with increased psychiatric morbidity later in life. Studies of individuals with hypospadias also provide an opportunity to examine whether difference in androgen signaling is related to neurodevelopmental disorders. To elucidate the mechanisms behind ...

  4. Increased fusiform area activation in schizophrenia during processing of spatial frequency-degraded faces, as revealed by fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, S M; All, S D; Kasi, R; Berten, S; Essex, B; Lathrop, K L; Little, D M

    2010-07-01

    People with schizophrenia demonstrate perceptual organization impairments, and these are thought to contribute to their face processing difficulties. We examined the neural substrates of emotionally neutral face processing in schizophrenia by investigating neural activity under three stimulus conditions: faces characterized by the full spectrum of spatial frequencies, faces with low spatial frequency information removed [high spatial frequency (HSF) condition], and faces with high spatial frequency information removed [low spatial frequency (LSF) condition]. Face perception in the HSF condition is more reliant on local feature processing whereas perception in the LSF condition requires greater reliance on global form processing. Past studies of perceptual organization in schizophrenia indicate that patients perform relatively more poorly with degraded stimuli but also that, when global information is absent, patients may perform better than controls because of their relatively increased ability to initially process individual features. Therefore, we hypothesized that people with schizophrenia (n=14) would demonstrate greater face processing difficulties than controls (n=13) in the LSF condition, whereas they would demonstrate a smaller difference or superior performance in the HSF condition. In a gender-discrimination task, behavioral data indicated high levels of accuracy for both groups, with a trend toward an interaction involving higher patient performance in the HSF condition and poorer patient performance in the LSF condition. Patients demonstrated greater activity in the fusiform gyrus compared to controls in both degraded conditions. These data suggest that impairments in basic integration abilities may be compensated for by relatively increased activity in this region.

  5. Suboptimal decision making by children with ADHD in the face of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lin; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Eichele, Heike

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Suboptimal decision making in the face of risk (DMR) in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be mediated by deficits in a number of different neuropsychological processes. We investigated DMR in children with ADHD using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT......-matched group of typically developing children (n = 34) performed the CGT. Results: As predicted, children with ADHD were not more prone to making risky choices (i.e., risk proneness). However, they had difficulty adjusting to changing risk levels and were more delay aversive-with these 2 effects being...... correlated. Conclusions: Our findings add to the growing body of evidence that children with ADHD do not favor risk taking per se when performing gambling tasks, but rather may lack the cognitive skills or motivational style to appraise changing patterns of risk effectively....

  6. Nanotechnology: Nanomaterials are Widely Used in Commerce, but EPA Faces Challenges in Regulating Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    549 Nanotechnology equivalent.17 In addition, nanotechnology -enabled water desalination and filtration systems may offer affordable...Senate NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanomaterials Are Widely Used in Commerce, but EPA Faces Challenges in Regulating Risk May 2010 GAO-10-549...2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanotechnology : Nanomaterials Are Widely Used in Commerce

  7. Placental Chorangiosis: Increased Risk for Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariska S. Petersen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with Class C diabetes who presented for nonstress testing at 36 weeks and 4 days of gestation with nonreassuring fetal heart tones (NRFHT and oligohydramnios. Upon delivery, thrombosis of the umbilical cord was grossly noted. Pathological analysis of the placenta revealed chorangiosis, vascular congestion, and 40% occlusion of the umbilical vein. Chorangiosis is a vascular change of the placenta that involves the terminal chorionic villi. It has been proposed to result from longstanding, low-grade hypoxia in the placental tissue and has been associated with such conditions such as diabetes, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, and hypertensive conditions in pregnancy. To characterize chorangiosis and its associated obstetric outcomes we identified 61 cases of “chorangiosis” on placental pathology at Henry Ford Hospital from 2010 to 2015. Five of these cases were omitted due to lack of complete records. Among the 56 cases, the cesarean section rate was 51%, indicated in most cases for nonreassuring fetal status. Thus, we suggest that chorangiosis, a marker of chronic hypoxia, is associated with increased rates of cesarean sections for nonreassuring fetal status because of long standing hypoxia coupled with the stress of labor.

  8. Successful Face Recognition Is Associated with Increased Prefrontal Cortex Activation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, John D.; Riley, Meghan E.; Grupe, Daniel W.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether deficits in visual information processing in autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) can be offset by the recruitment of brain structures involved in selective attention. During functional MRI, 12 children with ASD and 19 control participants completed a selective attention one-back task in which images of faces and houses were…

  9. Evaluation of the challenges faced in increasing contraceptive access within a community college population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamme, Jacqueline; Edelman, Alison; Padua, Emily; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2017-01-01

    Research demonstrates removing barriers to access, decreasing costs and offering same-day placement of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) increases contraceptive uptake in young women. For those in community college (CC), LARC utilization might reduce the risk of dropout and improve degree completion. We identified a local school who had documented an unmet need for on-campus services through a recent student assessment. We then established an on-campus, same day contraceptive clinic at the CC as part of a clinical trial. We found that students did not use the service even after multiple attempts to increase awareness and we ended the study. Here, we report lessons learned from attempting research in this environment in addition to results from a follow-up survey to determine why students did not access the clinical resource. Students reported that they already had good access to contraception and preferred to get their healthcare off-campus. This study demonstrates the complexities of studying highly focused interventions to influence access to care in the current health care environment with ever changing regulations. NCT02735551 . Registered April 6, 2016.

  10. Predicting high risk of exacerbations in bronchiectasis: the E-FACED score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez-Garcia MA

    2017-01-01

    countries (Brazil, Argentina, and Chile. The main outcome was the number of annual exacerbations/hospitalizations, with all-cause and respiratory-related deaths as the secondary outcomes. A statistical evaluation comprised the relative weight and ideal cut-off point for the number or severity of the exacerbations and was incorporated into the FACED score (E-FACED. The results obtained after the application of FACED and E-FACED were compared in both the cohorts.Results: A total of 1,470 patients with bronchiectasis (819 from the construction cohorts and 651 from the external validation cohorts were followed up for 5 years after diagnosis. The best cut-off point was at least two exacerbations in the previous year (two additional points, meaning that the E-FACED has nine points of growing severity. E-FACED presented an excellent prognostic capacity for exacerbations (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.82 for at least two exacerbations in 1 year and 0.87 for at least one hospitalization in 1 year that was statistically better than that of the FACED score (0.72 and 0.78, P<0.05, respectively. The predictive capacities for all-cause and respiratory mortality were 0.87 and 0.86, respectively, with both being similar to those of the FACED.Conclusion: E-FACED score significantly increases the FACED capacity to predict future yearly exacerbations while maintaining the score’s simplicity and prognostic capacity for death. Keywords: FACED score, E-FACED score, mortality, bronchiectasis, exacerbations

  11. Atypical Hemispheric Specialization for Faces in Infants At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keehn, Brandon; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and neuroimaging findings from typically developing infants and children have demonstrated that the right hemisphere becomes specialized for processing faces. Face processing impairments and atypical hemispheric specialization have previously been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The goal of this study was to examine the emergence of the right-lateralized face processing network in infants at high-risk for autism (HRA; defined as having an older sibling with ASD) and low-risk comparison (LRC) infants, defined as having no family history of ASD. To investigate the earliest appearance of these features, we examined lateralization of event-related gamma-band coherence (a measure of intra-hemispheric connectivity) to faces during the first year of life. Forty-nine HRA and 46 LRC infants contributed a total of 127 data sets at 6- and/or 12-months. EEG was recorded while infants viewed pictures of either their mother or a stranger. Event-related gamma-band (30-50Hz) phase coherence between anterior-posterior regions for left and right hemispheres was computed. HRA infants showed an aberrant pattern of leftward lateralization of intra-hemispheric coherence by the end of the first year of life, suggesting that the network specialized for face processing may develop atypically in these infants. Further, infants with the greatest leftward asymmetry at 12-months were those that later met diagnostic criteria for ASD, providing support to the growing body of evidence that atypical hemispheric specialization may be an early neurobiological marker for ASD. Among the many experimental findings that tend to distinguish those with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are face processing deficits, reduced hemispheric specialization, and atypical neurostructural and functional connectivity. To investigate the earliest manifestations of these features, we examined lateralization of event-related gamma-band coherence to faces during the first

  12. Multiple Sclerosis Increases Fracture Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixian Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The association between multiple sclerosis (MS and fracture risk has been reported, but results of previous studies remain controversial and ambiguous. To assess the association between MS and fracture risk, a meta-analysis was performed. Method. Based on comprehensive searches of the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, we identified outcome data from all articles estimating the association between MS and fracture risk. The pooled risk ratios (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Results. A significant association between MS and fracture risk was found. This result remained statistically significant when the adjusted RRs were combined. Subgroup analysis stratified by the site of fracture suggested significant associations between MS and tibia fracture risk, femur fracture risk, hip fracture risk, pelvis fracture risk, vertebrae fracture risk, and humerus fracture risk. In the subgroup analysis by gender, female MS patients had increased fracture risk. When stratified by history of drug use, use of antidepressants, hypnotics/anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, and glucocorticoids increased the risk of fracture risk in MS patients. Conclusions. This meta-analysis demonstrated that MS was significantly associated with fracture risk.

  13. Risk Worth Taking - Entrepreneurial Behaviour When Faced with Risk and Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zichella, Giulio

    theory suggests differences in risk taking due to individual characteristics. However, entrepreneurship theory did not provide empirical support for such differences. Using data from a laboratory experiment with simple money games, we observe how individuals from two different groups (entrepreneurial......-oriented, non-entrepreneurial-oriented) react to different degrees of risk and uncertainty when real monetary incentives are involved in each decision. The analysis reveals significant differences between entrepreneurial and non-entrepreneurial-oriented individuals in their decision making. In particular...

  14. Increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest in obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam Jacoba; Blom, Marieke Tabo; Bardai, Abdennasser

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether (1) patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have an increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF), and (2) the SCA risk is mediated by cardiovascular risk-profile and/or respiratory drug use...... with electrocardiographic documentation of VT/VF were included. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between SCA and OPD. Pre-specified subgroup analyses were performed regarding age, sex, cardiovascular risk-profile, disease severity, and current use of respiratory drugs. RESULTS...... is associated with an increased observed risk of SCA. The most increased risk was observed in patients with a high cardiovascular risk-profile, and in those who received SABA and, possibly, those who received AC at the time of SCA....

  15. Ways of increasing of efficiency of the use of chemical gazogene cartridges at the mining of facing raw material

    OpenAIRE

    Кальчук, Сергій Володимирович; Лукащук, Олександр Вікторович

    2016-01-01

    The analysis and theoretical generalizations of influencing of the known methods of separation to the stone on the array of breeds is executed. Certain backlogs of increase of the OIR use of chemical gazogene cartridges. Offered ways of determination of optimum parameters of most effective their applications on the deposits of facing stone.

  16. N.3142 National Assembly law proposition aiming to help the purchasing of households facing the petroleum products prices increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This text presents the problem of the households purchasing facing the increase of the petroleum products. It recalls the government policy, and criticizes the french government gap in favor of the households. In the second part it proposes to replace the ''floating TIPP'' and to reallocate a part of the exceptional incomes of the petroleum companies. (A.L.B.)

  17. Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE) increased respiration and humification in the mineral soil of a poplar plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoosbeek, M.R.; Vos, J.M.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Velthorst, E.J.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.

    2007-01-01

    Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE) studies conducted at the whole-tree and ecosystem scale indicate that there is a marked increase in primary production, mainly allocated into below-ground biomass. The enhanced carbon transfer to the root system may result in enhanced rhizodeposition and

  18. Relationship Between Maternal Obesity And Increased Risk Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The incidence of obesity has risen over the past several decades and in spite of advancement in modern medicine, it remains a risk factor for maternal morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine the association between obesity (increased body mass index) and increased risk of preeclampsia. The possible ...

  19. Helping farmers face the increasing complexity of decision-making for crop protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio ROSSI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Community Directive 128/2009 on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides establishes a strategy for the use of plant protection products (PPPs in the European Community so as to reduce risks to human health and the environment. Integrated Pest Management (IPM is a key component of this strategy, which will become mandatory in 2014. IPM is based on dynamic processes and requires decision-making at strategic, tactical, and operational levels. Relative to decision makers in conventional agricultural systems, decision makers in IPM systems require more knowledge and must deal with greater complexity. Different tools have been developed for supporting decision-making in plant disease control and include warning services, on-site devices, and decision support systems (DSSs. These decision-support tools operate at different spatial and time scales, are provided to users both by public and private sources, focus on different communication modes, and can support multiple options for delivering information to farmers. Characteristics, weaknesses, and strengths of these tools are described in this review. Also described are recently developed DSSs, which are characterised by: i holistic treatment of crop management problems (including pests, diseases, fertilisation, canopy management and irrigation; ii conversion of complex decision processes into simple and easy-to-understand ‘decision supports’; iii easy and rapid access through the Internet; and iv two-way communication between users and providers that make it possible to consider context-specific information. These DSSs are easy-to-use tools that perform complex tasks efficiently and effectively. The delivery of these DSSs via the Internet increases user accessibility, allows the DSSs to be updated easily and continuously (so that new knowledge can be rapidly and efficiently provided to farmers, and allows users to maintain close contact with providers.

  20. Risk in the Clouds?: Security Issues Facing Government Use of Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyld, David C.

    Cloud computing is poised to become one of the most important and fundamental shifts in how computing is consumed and used. Forecasts show that government will play a lead role in adopting cloud computing - for data storage, applications, and processing power, as IT executives seek to maximize their returns on limited procurement budgets in these challenging economic times. After an overview of the cloud computing concept, this article explores the security issues facing public sector use of cloud computing and looks to the risk and benefits of shifting to cloud-based models. It concludes with an analysis of the challenges that lie ahead for government use of cloud resources.

  1. The management of nuclear risks face to the social construction of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boceno, L.; Grandazzi, G.; Lemarchand, F.

    1999-01-01

    The present communication reviews on the results of research at the L.A.S.A.R. ( Laboratory of Sociological and Anthropological Analysis of the Risk), on the possibilities and limits of public information systems, taking into account the systems by which is conveyed official information on one hand, and the inadequacy between the behaviours passed by the public and the response advocated by experts, persons in charge of institution, on the other hand. (N.C.)

  2. Effectiveness of personalized face-to-face and telephone nursing counseling interventions for cardiovascular risk factors: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vílchez Barboza, Vivian; Klijn, Tatiana Paravic; Salazar Molina, Alide; Sáez Carrillo, Katia Lorena

    2016-08-08

    to evaluate the effect and gender differences of an innovative intervention involving in-person and telephone nursing counseling to control cardiovascular risk factors (arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, and overweight), improve health-related quality of life and strengthen self-efficacy and social support in persons using the municipal health centers' cardiovascular health program. a randomized controlled clinical trial involving participants randomized into the intervention group who received traditional consultation plus personalized and telephone nursing counseling for 7 months (n = 53) and the control group (n = 56). The study followed the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Statement. women in the intervention group presented a significant increase in the physical and mental health components compared to the control group, with decreases in weight, abdominal circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the atherogenic index. The effects attributable to the intervention in the men in the intervention group were increased physical and emotional roles and decreased systolic and diastolic pressure, waist circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, cardiovascular risk factor, and 10-year coronary risk. this intervention is an effective strategy for the control of three cardiovascular risk factors and the improvement of health-related quality of life. evaluar efecto y diferencias por sexo de una intervención innovadora "Consejería de Enfermería Personalizada y Telefónica", dirigida al control de factores de riesgo cardiovascular (hipertensión arterial, dislipidemia y sobrepeso) y al mejoramiento de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, fortaleciendo la autoeficacia y el apoyo social en personas usuarias del programa de salud cardiovascular de los Centros de Salud Municipales de Concepción. ensayo clínico controlado aleatoriamente y selección aleatoria de

  3. POSSIBILITIES OF INCREASING THE DURABILITY OF CHAIN WHEELS OF ARMOURED-FACE CONVEYORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej N. WIECZOREK

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to demonstrate the possibility of replacing the materials of domestic and foreign production currently used for chain drums with alternative materials. ADIs were selected as materials that may replace the cast steels used so far. L35GSM cast steel, commonly used for mining chain wheels and austempered ductile iron, conforming with the requirements of EN-GJS-1400-1 quality grade were subjected to wear tests. On the basis of the experimental studies it has been observed that for almost all the combinations of destructive factors considered, the ADI in question was characterised by a wear resistance better than that in the case of the L35GSM cast steel used so far. In addition, it has been found that the ADI has favourable features predestining it for use in the production of chain drums for armoured-face conveyors.

  4. Differences in neural and cognitive response to emotional faces in middle-aged dizygotic twins at familial risk of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Svendsen, A M B; Harmer, C J

    2017-01-01

    -twin history of depression (high-risk) and 20 were without co-twin history of depression (low-risk). During fMRI, participants viewed fearful and happy faces while performing a gender discrimination task. After the scan, they were given a faces dot-probe task, a facial expression recognition task......BACKGROUND: Negative bias and aberrant neural processing of emotional faces are trait-marks of depression but findings in healthy high-risk groups are conflicting. METHODS: Healthy middle-aged dizygotic twins (N = 42) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): 22 twins had a co...... the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex and pregenual anterior cingulate. This was accompanied by greater fear-specific fronto-temporal response and reduced fronto-occipital response to all emotional faces relative to baseline. The risk groups showed no differences in mood, subjective state or coping...

  5. Misattribution of musical arousal increases sexual attraction towards opposite-sex faces in females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela M Marin

    Full Text Available Several theories about the origins of music have emphasized its biological and social functions, including in courtship. Music may act as a courtship display due to its capacity to vary in complexity and emotional content. Support for music's reproductive function comes from the recent finding that only women in the fertile phase of the reproductive cycle prefer composers of complex melodies to composers of simple ones as short-term sexual partners, which is also in line with the ovulatory shift hypothesis. However, the precise mechanisms by which music may influence sexual attraction are unknown, specifically how music may interact with visual attractiveness cues and affect perception and behaviour in both genders. Using a crossmodal priming paradigm, we examined whether listening to music influences ratings of facial attractiveness and dating desirability of opposite-sex faces. We also tested whether misattribution of arousal or pleasantness underlies these effects, and explored whether sex differences and menstrual cycle phase may be moderators. Our sample comprised 64 women in the fertile or infertile phase (no hormonal contraception use and 32 men, carefully matched for mood, relationship status, and musical preferences. Musical primes (25 s varied in arousal and pleasantness, and targets were photos of faces with neutral expressions (2 s. Group-wise analyses indicated that women, but not men, gave significantly higher ratings of facial attractiveness and dating desirability after having listened to music than in the silent control condition. High-arousing, complex music yielded the largest effects, suggesting that music may affect human courtship behaviour through induced arousal, which calls for further studies on the mechanisms by which music affects sexual attraction in real-life social contexts.

  6. Increased risk of hyperthyroidism among patients hospitalized with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anders F; Kessing, Lars V

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hyperthyroidism has been associated with affective disorder in many cross-sectional studies, but longitudinal studies in this connection are scarce. We assessed whether hospitalization with depressive disorder or bipolar disorder was a risk factor for development of hyperthyroidism....... METHODS: We conducted a historical cohort study using the Danish register data. The observational period was 1977--99. Three study cohorts were identified: all patients with a first hospital admission with resulting index discharge diagnoses of depression, bipolar disorder, or osteoarthritis. The risks...... with depressive disorder did not have an increased risk of hyperthyroidism, whereas patients with bipolar disorder had an increased of risk on the margin of statistical significance, when compared to patients with osteoarthritis. Patients with bipolar disorder had a significantly increased risk of hyperthyroidism...

  7. Increased Risk of Gallstone Disease Following Colectomy for Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark-Christensen, Anders; Brandsborg, Søren; Laurberg, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Objectives:Biochemical studies suggest that patients who have had a colectomy or restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) are at an increased risk of developing gallstone disease, but epidemiological studies are lacking. We evaluated the risk of gallstone disease follo...

  8. Increased sensitivity to positive social stimuli in monozygotic twins at risk of bipolar vs. unipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærsgaard, S; Meluken, I; Kessing, L V

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in affective cognition are putative endophenotypes for bipolar and unipolar disorders but it is unclear whether some abnormalities are disorder-specific. We therefore investigated affective cognition in monozygotic twins at familial risk of bipolar disorder relative...... to those at risk of unipolar disorder and to low-risk twins. METHODS: Seventy monozygotic twins with a co-twin history of bipolar disorder (n = 11), of unipolar disorder (n = 38) or without co-twin history of affective disorder (n = 21) were included. Variables of interest were recognition of and vigilance...... to emotional faces, emotional reactivity and -regulation in social scenarios and non-affective cognition. RESULTS: Twins at familial risk of bipolar disorder showed increased recognition of low to moderate intensity of happy facial expressions relative to both unipolar disorder high-risk twins and low...

  9. Increased Cardiometabolic Risk and Worsening Hypoxemia at High Altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Miele, Catherine H.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Gilman, Robert H.; Pham, Luu; Wise, Robert A.; Davila-Roman, Victor G.; Jun, Jonathan C.; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Checkley, William

    2016-01-01

    Miele, Catherine H., Alan R. Schwartz, Robert H. Gilman, Luu Pham, Robert A. Wise, Victor G. Davila-Roman, Jonathan C. Jun, Vsevolod Y. Polotsky, J. Jaime Miranda, Fabiola Leon-Velarde, and William Checkley. Increased cardiometabolic risk and worsening hypoxemia at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:93���100, 2016.���Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, diabetes, and dyslipidemia are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. While excessive erythrocytosis is associated...

  10. Increased sensitivity to positive social stimuli in monozygotic twins at risk of bipolar vs. unipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kærsgaard, S; Meluken, I; Kessing, L V; Vinberg, M; Miskowiak, K W

    2018-05-01

    Abnormalities in affective cognition are putative endophenotypes for bipolar and unipolar disorders but it is unclear whether some abnormalities are disorder-specific. We therefore investigated affective cognition in monozygotic twins at familial risk of bipolar disorder relative to those at risk of unipolar disorder and to low-risk twins. Seventy monozygotic twins with a co-twin history of bipolar disorder (n = 11), of unipolar disorder (n = 38) or without co-twin history of affective disorder (n = 21) were included. Variables of interest were recognition of and vigilance to emotional faces, emotional reactivity and -regulation in social scenarios and non-affective cognition. Twins at familial risk of bipolar disorder showed increased recognition of low to moderate intensity of happy facial expressions relative to both unipolar disorder high-risk twins and low-risk twins. Bipolar disorder high-risk twins also displayed supraliminal attentional avoidance of happy faces compared with unipolar disorder high-risk twins and greater emotional reactivity in positive and neutral social scenarios and less reactivity in negative social scenarios than low-risk twins. In contrast with our hypothesis, there was no negative bias in unipolar disorder high-risk twins. There were no differences between the groups in demographic characteristics or non-affective cognition. The modest sample size limited the statistical power of the study. Increased sensitivity and reactivity to positive social stimuli may be a neurocognitive endophenotype that is specific for bipolar disorder. If replicated in larger samples, this 'positive endophenotype' could potentially aid future diagnostic differentiation between unipolar and bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrating Cloud-Based Strategies and Tools in Face-to-Face Training Sessions to Increase the Impact of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradel, Kathleen; Edson, Alden J.

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on the premise that face-to-face training can be augmented with cloud-based technology tools, to potentially extend viable training supports as higher education staff and faculty implement new content/skills in their jobs and classrooms. There are significant benefits to harnessing cloud-based tools that can facilitate both…

  12. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalencein foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C.; Roon, van A.M.; Takumi, K.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent ofalveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk mapmodel predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococ-cosis patients in the province of

  13. Increasing Trustworthiness of Face Authentication in Mobile Devices by Modeling Gesture Behavior and Location Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerim Rexha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Personal mobile devices currently have access to a significant portion of their user’s private sensitive data and are increasingly used for processing mobile payments. Consequently, securing access to these mobile devices is a requirement for securing access to the sensitive data and potentially costly services. Face authentication is one of the promising biometrics-based user authentication mechanisms that has been widely available in this era of mobile computing. With a built-in camera capability on smartphones, tablets, and laptops, face authentication provides an attractive alternative of legacy passwords for its memory-less authentication process, which is so sophisticated that it can unlock the device faster than a fingerprint. Nevertheless, face authentication in the context of smartphones has proven to be vulnerable to attacks. In most current implementations, a sufficiently high-resolution face image displayed on another mobile device will be enough to circumvent security measures and bypass the authentication process. In order to prevent such bypass attacks, gesture recognition together with location is proposed to be additionally modeled. Gestures provide a faster and more convenient method of authentication compared to a complex password. The focus of this paper is to build a secure authentication system with face, location and gesture recognition as components. User gestures and location data are a sequence of time series; therefore, in this paper we propose to use unsupervised learning in the long short-term memory recurrent neural network to actively learn to recognize, group and discriminate user gestures and location. Moreover, a clustering-based technique is also implemented for recognizing gestures and location.

  14. Linking infant-directed speech and face preferences to language outcomes in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droucker, Danielle; Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors aimed to examine whether biases for infant-directed (ID) speech and faces differ between infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (SIBS-A) and infant siblings of typically developing children (SIBS-TD), and whether speech and face biases predict language outcomes and risk group membership. Thirty-six infants were tested at ages 6, 8, 12, and 18 months. Infants heard 2 ID and 2 adult-directed (AD) speech passages paired with either a checkerboard or a face. The authors assessed expressive language at 12 and 18 months and general functioning at 12 months using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (Mullen, 1995). Both infant groups preferred ID to AD speech and preferred faces to checkerboards. SIBS-TD demonstrated higher expressive language at 18 months than did SIBS-A, a finding that correlated with preferences for ID speech at 12 months. Although both groups looked longer to face stimuli than to the checkerboard, the magnitude of the preference was smaller in SIBS-A and predicted expressive vocabulary at 18 months in this group. Infants' preference for faces contributed to risk-group membership in a logistic regression analysis. Infants at heightened risk of ASD differ from typically developing infants in their preferences for ID speech and faces, which may underlie deficits in later language development and social communication.

  15. The Major Challenges Facing Teacher Education in an Increasingly Global Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paese, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    Central to schools of education are the professional preparation and development of future educators, who will be responsible for preparing citizens to function and live in a global community. Globalization and schooling have the potential to successfully or unsuccessfully affect the skills that students need to succeed in an increasingly global…

  16. Genetic variants in CETP increase risk of intracerebral hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, C.D.; Falcone, G.J.; Phuah, C.L.; Radmanesh, F.; Brouwers, H.B.; Battey, T.W.; Biffi, A.; Peloso, G.M.; Liu, D.J.; Ayres, A.M.; Goldstein, J.N.; Viswanathan, A.; Greenberg, S.M.; Selim, M.; Meschia, J.F.; Brown, D.L.; Worrall, B.B.; Silliman, S.L.; Tirschwell, D.L.; Flaherty, M.L.; Kraft, P.; Jagiella, J.M.; Schmidt, H.; Hansen, B.M.; Jimenez-Conde, J.; Giralt-Steinhauer, E.; Elosua, R.; Cuadrado-Godia, E.; Soriano, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, K.M. van; Klijn, C.J.M.; Rannikmae, K.; Samarasekera, N.; Salman, R.A.; Sudlow, C.L.; Deary, I.J.; Morotti, A.; Pezzini, A.; Pera, J.; Urbanik, A.; Pichler, A.; Enzinger, C.; Norrving, B.; Montaner, J.; Fernandez-Cadenas, I.; Delgado, P.; Roquer, J.; Lindgren, A.; Slowik, A.; Schmidt, R.; Kidwell, C.S.; Kittner, S.J.; Waddy, S.P.; Langefeld, C.D.; Abecasis, G.; Willer, C.J.; Kathiresan, S.; Woo, D.; Rosand, J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In observational epidemiologic studies, higher plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) has been associated with increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). DNA sequence variants that decrease cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene activity increase plasma HDL-C;

  17. Genetic variants in CETP increase risk of intracerebral hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Christopher D.; Falcone, Guido J.; Phuah, Chia Ling; Radmanesh, Farid; Brouwers, H. Bart; Battey, Thomas W K; Biffi, Alessandro; Peloso, Gina M.; Liu, Dajiang J.; Ayres, Alison M.; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M.; Selim, Magdy; Meschia, James F.; Brown, Devin L.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Silliman, Scott L.; Tirschwell, David L.; Flaherty, Matthew L.; Kraft, Peter; Jagiella, Jeremiasz M.; Schmidt, Helena; Hansen, Björn M.; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Elosua, Roberto; Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Soriano, Carolina; van Nieuwenhuizen, Koen M.; Klijn, Catharina J M; Rannikmae, Kristiina; Samarasekera, Neshika; Salman, Rustam Al Shahi; Sudlow, Catherine L.; Deary, Ian J.; Morotti, Andrea; Pezzini, Alessandro; Pera, Joanna; Urbanik, Andrzej; Pichler, Alexander; Enzinger, Christian; Norrving, Bo; Montaner, Joan; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel; Delgado, Pilar; Roquer, Jaume; Lindgren, Arne; Slowik, Agnieszka; Schmidt, Reinhold; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kittner, Steven J.; Waddy, Salina P.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Abecasis, Goncalo; Willer, Cristen J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Woo, Daniel; Rosand, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In observational epidemiologic studies, higher plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) has been associated with increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). DNA sequence variants that decrease cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene activity increase plasma HDL-C;

  18. On capital allocation for stochastic arrangement increasing actuarial risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the increasing convex ordering of the optimal discounted capital allocations for stochastic arrangement increasing risks with stochastic arrangement decreasing occurrence times. The application to optimal allocation of policy limits is presented as an illustration as well.

  19. Cyber crime: can a standard risk analysis help in the challenges facing business continuity managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Putte, Danny; Verhelst, Marc

    Risk management has never been easy. Finding efficient mitigating measures is not always straightforward. Finding measures for cyber crime, however, is a really huge challenge because cyber threats are changing all the time. As the sophistication of these threats is growing, their impact increases. Moreover, society and its economy have become increasingly dependent on information and communication technologies. Standard risk analysis methodologies will help to score the cyber risk and to place it in the risk tolerance matrix. This will allow business continuity managers to figure out if there is still a gap with the maximum tolerable outage for time-critical business processes and if extra business continuity measures are necessary to fill the gap.

  20. Increased stomach cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, M; Fossa, S D; Stovall, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal radiotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) increases risk for second stomach cancer, although data on the radiation dose-response relationship are sparse. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,269 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1959-1987, doses to stomach subsites were estimated...... for 92 patients who developed stomach cancer and 180 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary stomach cancer was 1.45% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. The TC survivors who received...... radiotherapy (87 (95%) cases, 151 (84%) controls) had a 5.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-20.7) increased risk of stomach cancer. Risk increased with increasing stomach dose (P-trend

  1. Polygenic risk score is associated with increased disease risk in 52 Finnish breast cancer families

    OpenAIRE

    Muranen, Taru A.; Mavaddat, Nasim; Khan, Sofia; Fagerholm, Rainer; Pelttari, Liisa; Lee, Andrew; Aittom?ki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Easton, Douglas F.; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The risk of developing breast cancer is increased in women with family history of breast cancer and particularly in families with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, many women with a positive family history never develop the disease. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on the risk effects of multiple common genetic variants have been proposed for individual risk assessment on a population level. We investigate the applicability of the PRS for risk prediction within breas...

  2. Increased Correlation in Bear markets: A Downside Risk Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Rachel; Koedijk, Kees; Kofman, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A number of studies have provided evidence of increased correlation in global financial market returns during bear markets. Others, however, have shown that some of this evidence may have been biased. We derive an alternative estimator for implied correlation based on portfolio downside risk measures that does not suffer from this bias. These unbiased quantile correlation estimates are directly applicable to portfolio optimization and to risk management techniques in general. This simple and ...

  3. Association of Increased Prenatal Estrogen With Risk Factors for Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The author previously described a theoretical cause of schizophrenia based on the effects of estrogenic endocrine disruption. In the current review, the author describes how increased estrogen during pregnancy increases susceptibility to certain viral infections associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. The review further discusses how prenatal estrogen exposure could explain associations of schizophrenia with autoimmune diseases, urban environments, and stress. Based on the associati...

  4. Pet ownership increases human risk of encountering ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E H; Hinckley, A F; Hook, S A; Meek, J I; Backenson, B; Kugeler, K J; Feldman, K A

    2018-02-01

    We examined whether pet ownership increased the risk for tick encounters and tickborne disease among residents of three Lyme disease-endemic states as a nested cohort within a randomized controlled trial. Information about pet ownership, use of tick control for pets, property characteristics, tick encounters and human tickborne disease were captured through surveys, and associations were assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Pet-owning households had 1.83 times the risk (95% CI = 1.53, 2.20) of finding ticks crawling on and 1.49 times the risk (95% CI = 1.20, 1.84) of finding ticks attached to household members compared to households without pets. This large evaluation of pet ownership, human tick encounters and tickborne diseases shows that pet owners, whether of cats or dogs, are at increased risk of encountering ticks and suggests that pet owners are at an increased risk of developing tickborne disease. Pet owners should be made aware of this risk and be reminded to conduct daily tick checks of all household members, including the pets, and to consult their veterinarian regarding effective tick control products. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Morphological and phenological shoot plasticity in a Mediterranean evergreen oak facing long-term increased drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, Jean-Marc; Rambal, Serge; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesus; Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Rodríguez-Cortina, Raquel; Misson, Laurent; Joffre, Richard

    2012-06-01

    Mediterranean trees must adjust their canopy leaf area to the unpredictable timing and severity of summer drought. The impact of increased drought on the canopy dynamics of the evergreen Quercus ilex was studied by measuring shoot growth, leaf production, litterfall, leafing phenology and leaf demography in a mature forest stand submitted to partial throughfall exclusion for 7 years. The leaf area index rapidly declined in the throughfall-exclusion plot and was 19% lower than in the control plot after 7 years of treatment. Consequently, leaf litterfall was significantly lower in the dry treatment. Such a decline in leaf area occurred through a change in branch allometry with a decreased number of ramifications produced and a reduction of the leaf area supported per unit sapwood area of the shoot (LA/SA). The leafing phenology was slightly delayed and the median leaf life span was slightly longer in the dry treatment. The canopy dynamics in both treatments were driven by water availability with a 1-year lag: leaf shedding and production were reduced following dry years; in contrast, leaf turnover was increased following wet years. The drought-induced decrease in leaf area, resulting from both plasticity in shoot development and slower leaf turnover, appeared to be a hydraulic adjustment to limit canopy transpiration and maintain leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity under drier conditions.

  6. Increasing stress on disaster risk finance due to large floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Brenden; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Feyen, Luc; Aerts, Jeroen; Mechler, Reinhard; Botzen, Wouter; Bouwer, Laurens; Pflug, Georg; Rojas, Rodrigo; Ward, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Recent major flood disasters have shown that single extreme events can affect multiple countries simultaneously, which puts high pressure on trans-national risk reduction and risk transfer mechanisms. To date, little is known about such flood hazard interdependencies across regions, and the corresponding joint risks at regional to continental scales. Reliable information on correlated loss probabilities is crucial for developing robust insurance schemes and public adaptation funds, and for enhancing our understanding of climate change impacts. Here we show that extreme discharges are strongly correlated across European river basins and that these correlations can, or should, be used in national to continental scale risk assessment. We present probabilistic trends in continental flood risk, and demonstrate that currently observed extreme flood losses could more than double in frequency by 2050 under future climate change and socioeconomic development. The results demonstrate that accounting for tail dependencies leads to higher estimates of extreme losses than estimates based on the traditional assumption of independence between basins. We suggest that risk management for these increasing losses is largely feasible, and we demonstrate that risk can be shared by expanding risk transfer financing, reduced by investing in flood protection, or absorbed by enhanced solidarity between countries. We conclude that these measures have vastly different efficiency, equity and acceptability implications, which need to be taken into account in broader consultation, for which our analysis provides a basis.

  7. Suboptimal decision making by children with ADHD in the face of risk: Poor risk adjustment and delay aversion rather than general proneness to taking risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Lin; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Eichele, Heike; van Wageningen, Heidi; Wollschlaeger, Daniel; Plessen, Kerstin Jessica

    2017-02-01

    Suboptimal decision making in the face of risk (DMR) in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be mediated by deficits in a number of different neuropsychological processes. We investigated DMR in children with ADHD using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) to distinguish difficulties in adjusting to changing probabilities of choice outcomes (so-called risk adjustment) from general risk proneness, and to distinguish these 2 processes from delay aversion (the tendency to choose the least delayed option) and impairments in the ability to reflect on choice options. Based on previous research, we predicted that suboptimal performance on this task in children with ADHD would be primarily relate to problems with risk adjustment and delay aversion rather than general risk proneness. Drug naïve children with ADHD (n = 36), 8 to 12 years, and an age-matched group of typically developing children (n = 34) performed the CGT. As predicted, children with ADHD were not more prone to making risky choices (i.e., risk proneness). However, they had difficulty adjusting to changing risk levels and were more delay aversive-with these 2 effects being correlated. Our findings add to the growing body of evidence that children with ADHD do not favor risk taking per se when performing gambling tasks, but rather may lack the cognitive skills or motivational style to appraise changing patterns of risk effectively. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Increasing resilience through participative flood risk map design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Spira, Yvonne; Stickler, Therese

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of flood hazards has shown to the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union the importance of flood risk management strategies in order to reduce losses and to protect the environment and the citizens. Exposure to floods as well as flood vulnerability might increase across Europe due to the ongoing economic development in many EU countries. Thus even without taking climate change into account an increase of flood disasters in Europe might be foreseeable. These circumstances have produced a reaction in the European Commission, and a Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks was issued as one of the three components of the European Action Programme on Flood Risk Management. Floods have the potential to jeopardise economic development, above all due to an increase of human activities in floodplains and the reduction of natural water retention by land use activities. As a result, an increase in the likelihood and adverse impacts of flood events is expected. Therefore, concentrated action is needed at the European level to avoid severe impacts on human life and property. In order to have an effective tool available for gathering information, as well as a valuable basis for priority setting and further technical, financial and political decisions regarding flood risk mitigation and management, it is necessary to provide for the establishment of flood risk maps which show the potential adverse consequences associated with different flood scenarios. So far, hazard and risk maps are compiled in terms of a top-down linear approach: planning authorities take the responsibility to create and implement these maps on different national and local scales, and the general public will only be informed about the outcomes (EU Floods Directive, Article 10). For the flood risk management plans, however, an "active involvement of interested parties" is required, which means at least some kind of multilateral

  9. Long working hours may increase risk of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mo-Yeol; Cho, Soo-Hun; Yoo, Min-Sang; Kim, Taeshik; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the association between long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS) in Korean adults. This study evaluated adult participants in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009). After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, the final sample size for this study model was 8,350. Subjects were asked about working hours and health status. Participants also completed physical examinations and biochemical measurement necessary for estimation of FRS. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association between working hours and 10-year risk for CHD estimated by FRS. Compared to those who work 31-40 hr, significantly higher 10-year risk was estimated among subjects working longer hours. As working hours increased, odds ratio (OR) for upper 10 percent of estimated 10-year risk for CHD was increased up to 1.94. Long working hours are significantly related to risk of coronary heart disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Risk based maintenance to increase safety and decrease costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Risk-Based techniques have been developed for commercial nuclear power plants for the last eight years by a team working through the ASME Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD). System boundaries and success criteria is defined using the Probabilistic Risk Analysis or Probabilistic Safety Analysis developed to meet the Individual Plant Evaluation. Final ranking of components is by a plant expert panel similar to the one developed for the Maintenance Rule. Components are identified as being high risk-significant or low risk-significant. Maintenance and resources are focused on those components that have the highest risk-significance. The techniques have been developed and applied at a number of plants. Results from the first risk-based inspection pilot plant indicates safety due to pipe failure can be doubled while the inspection reduced to about 80% when compared with current inspection programs. Pilot studies on risk-based testing indicate that about 60% of pumps and 25 to 30% of valves in plants are high safety-significant The reduction in inspection and testing reduces the person-rem exposure and resulting in further increases in safety. These techniques have been documented in publications by the ASME CRTD which are referenced. (author)

  11. Increased risk of antidepressant use in childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, J.F.; Cederkvist, L

    2015-01-01

    to the National Prescription Drug Database, which worldwide is the oldest nationwide registry of prescription medication. Hazard ratios (HRs) for antidepressant use were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards model stratified on sex, with population comparisons as referents. RESULTS: Overall, childhood cancer......AIM: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of both somatic and mental late effects, but large population-based studies of depression are lacking. METHODS: Risk of antidepressant use was evaluated in a population-based cohort of 5452 Danish children treated for cancer in 1975-2009 by linkage....... Increased HRs of 30-50% were seen for survivors of cancers of all main groups (haematological malignancies, central nervous system (CNS) and solid tumors); the highest risk was among children treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1). Our data suggested that the risk...

  12. Debunking vaccination myths: strong risk negations can increase perceived vaccination risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Sachse, Katharina

    2013-02-01

    Information about risks is often contradictory, especially in the health domain. A vast amount of bizarre information on vaccine-adverse events (VAE) can be found on the Internet; most are posted by antivaccination activists. Several actors in the health sector struggle against these statements by negating claimed risks with scientific explanations. The goal of the present work is to find optimal ways of negating risk to decrease risk perceptions. In two online experiments, we varied the extremity of risk negations and their source. Perception of the probability of VAE, their expected severity (both variables serve as indicators of perceived risk), and vaccination intentions. Paradoxically, messages strongly indicating that there is "no risk" led to a higher perceived vaccination risk than weak negations. This finding extends previous work on the negativity bias, which has shown that information stating the presence of risk decreases risk perceptions, while information negating the existence of risk increases such perceptions. Several moderators were also tested; however, the effect occurred independently of the number of negations, recipient involvement, and attitude. Solely the credibility of the information source interacted with the extremity of risk negation: For credible sources (governmental institutions), strong and weak risk negations lead to similar perceived risk, while for less credible sources (pharmaceutical industries) weak negations lead to less perceived risk than strong negations. Optimal risk negation may profit from moderate rather than extreme formulations as a source's trustworthiness can vary.

  13. Does vital exhaustion increase the risk of type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volden, Sasia; Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine

    2017-01-01

    Hospital Discharge Register to detect registrations with type 2 diabetes until 2014. Results: A high degree of VE was associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in both substudies. In the first substudy, the OR for developing type 2 diabetes was 2.56 (95% CI, 1.53; 4,29, P ...Background: There is evidence that both stress and depression have a causal relationship with type 2 diabetes suggesting that vital exhaustion (VE) too could be a risk factor. The association between VE and type 2 diabeteshas, however, not been investigated prospectively. Aim: To prospectively...... investigate whether VE is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in a Danish population. Methods: A prospective cohort study based on the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1991–1993). The degree of VE was measured among 9075 participants without type 1 or 2 diabetes at baseline. To detect type 2...

  14. Increased pancreatic cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Michael; Børge Johannesen, Tom; Gilbert, Ethel S; Stovall, Marilyn; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Rajaraman, Preetha; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita E; Aleman, Berthe M P; Andersson, Michael; Curtis, Rochelle E; Dores, Graça M; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Hall, Per; Holowaty, Eric J; Joensuu, Heikki; Kaijser, Magnus; Kleinerman, Ruth A; Langmark, Frøydis; Lynch, Charles F; Pukkala, Eero; Storm, Hans H; Vaalavirta, Leila; van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W; Morton, Lindsay M; Fossa, Sophie D; Travis, Lois B

    2016-09-27

    Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated among testicular cancer (TC) survivors. However, the roles of specific treatments are unclear. Among 23 982 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1947-1991, doses from radiotherapy to the pancreas were estimated for 80 pancreatic cancer patients and 145 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). Cumulative incidence of second primary pancreatic cancer was 1.1% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. Radiotherapy (72 (90%) cases and 115 (80%) controls) was associated with a 2.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-7.8) increased risk. The OR increased linearly by 0.12 per Gy to the pancreas (P-trendcancer risk, and persists for over 20 years. These excesses, although small, should be considered when radiotherapy with exposure to the pancreas is considered for newly diagnosed patients. Additional data are needed on the role of chemotherapy.

  15. Increased Suicide Risk in Patients with Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Cohen, Arnon D; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2018-01-01

    Patients with skin disorders are considered at a higher risk of depression and anxiety than the background population. Patients with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) may be particularly affected. We explored the association between HS and depression, anxiety, and completed suicides in the Danish...... nonsignificant association with depression (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.13; 0.87-1.47]; P = 0.36 and hospitalization due to depression (1.32 [0.94-1.85]; P = 0.1083). To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies have reported on the increased risk of completed suicide among HS patients...... national registries, expanding to include data on suicidal behavior, using both a cross-sectional and a cohort study design. Both designs included 7,732 patients with HS and a background population of 4,354,137. The cohort study revealed that HS patients had an increased risk of completed suicide after...

  16. Early menarche is associated with increased risk of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Sofie; Gade, Elisabeth; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2015-01-01

    in girls with early menarche compared to girls without early menarche (7.4 vs. 4.5%), OR = 1.71 (1.31-2.22), p increased by 8% (1-15%), p = 0...... in discordant monozygotic and dizygotic twins. CONCLUSION: Early menarche is associated with increased risk of asthma among Danish female twins independently of BMI, age, physical activity, educational level and smoking. Results indicate a complex relationship possibly mediated through innate and non...

  17. Rare disaster information can increase risk-taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Ben R.; Rakow, Tim; Yechiam, Eldad; Sambur, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The recent increase in the frequency and impact of natural disasters highlights the need to provide the public with accurate information concerning disaster prevalence. Most approaches to this problem assume that providing summaries of the nature and scale of disasters will lead people to reduce their exposure to risk. Here we present experimental evidence that such ex post `news reports’ of disaster occurrences can increase the tolerance for risk-taking (which implies that rare events are underweighted). This result is robust across several hundred rounds of choices in a simulated microworld, persists even when the long-run expected value of risky choices is substantially lower than safe choices, and is contingent on providing risk information about disasters that have been (personally) experienced and those that have been avoided (`forgone’ outcomes). The results suggest that augmenting personal experience with information summaries of the number of adverse events (for example, storms, floods) in different regions may, paradoxically, increase the appeal of a disaster-prone region. This finding implies a need to communicate long-term trends in severe climatic events, thereby reinforcing the accumulation of events, and the increase in their associated risks, across time.

  18. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Increased Risk for Malaria Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes research done in Ghana examining a correlation between type 2 diabetes and a possible increased risk for malaria infection in adults. Dr. Manoj Menon, a medical officer in the Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria in the Center for Global Health, discusses questions the study raises.

  19. Increasing Risk Awareness: The Coastal Community Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jody A.; Sempier, Tracie; Swann, LaDon

    2012-01-01

    As the number of people moving to the Gulf Coast increases, so does the risk of exposure to floods, hurricanes, and other storm-related events. In an effort to assist communities in preparing for future storm events, the Coastal Community Resilience Index was created. The end result is for communities to take actions to address the weaknesses they…

  20. Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

  1. Peculiarities of territorial governing in the area of increased risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchinskas, A.

    1998-01-01

    The area of Ignalina NPP can be evaluated from the standpoint of governing as the area of increased risk territory (zone), so the local administration should acquire a specific status. The results of expert examination show insufficient efficiency of the administration's activity, it's orientation to quantitative results. An objective fund is necessary for the supporting the local administration and population of this area. (author)

  2. People with Increased Risk of Eye Damage from UV Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Increased Risk of Eye Damage from UV Light Leer en Español: Algunas Personas Están en Mayor Riesgo de Sufrir Daño Ocular por los Rayos UV Written By: Shirley Dang Apr. 30, 2014 Everyone of any age and any degree of skin pigmentation is susceptible to UV damage. Children are ...

  3. Patients with chronic pancreatitis are at increased risk for osteoporosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, SN

    2012-10-01

    Patients with chronic pancreatitis may be at an increased risk of low bone density because of malabsorption of vitamin D and calcium, poor diet, pain, alcoholism, and smoking. We investigated the rates of osteoporosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis compared to matched controls.

  4. Climate change and sugarcane expansion increase Hantavirus infection risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prist, Paula Ribeiro; Uriarte, María; Fernandes, Katia; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2017-07-01

    Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC). Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%). Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5), and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks obtained here can be

  5. Climate change and sugarcane expansion increase Hantavirus infection risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ribeiro Prist

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC. Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%. Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5, and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks

  6. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapo Mughini-Gras

    Full Text Available Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans.We performed a nationwide registry-based study to assess colon cancer risk after diagnosed Salmonella infection. National infectious disease surveillance records (1999-2015 for Dutch residents aged ≥20 years when diagnosed with salmonellosis (n = 14,264 were linked to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Salmonella-infected patients were laboratory-confirmed under medical consultation after 1-2 weeks of illness. These datasets also contained information on Salmonella serovar and type of infection. Colon cancer risk (overall and per colon subsite among patients with a diagnosed Salmonella infection was compared with expected colon cancer risk in the general population. Data from the nationwide registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA and Statistics Netherlands (CBS allowed assessing potential effects of age, gender, latency, socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, and tumor features. We found that compared to the general population, colon cancer risk was significantly increased (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.54; 95%CI 1.09-2.10 among patients with Salmonella infection diagnosed <60 years of age. Such increased risk concerned specifically the ascending/transverse colon (SIR 2.12; 95%CI 1.38-3.09 after S. Enteritidis infection (SIR 2.97; 95%CI 1.73-4.76. Salmonellosis occurred more frequently among colon cancer patients with pre-infectious IBD, a known risk factor for colon cancer. Colon tumors of patients with a history of Salmonella infection were mostly of low grade

  7. Nutrition deficiency increases the risk of stomach cancer mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Li Qing

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study is to determine whether exposure to malnutrition during early life is associated with increased risk of stomach cancer in later life. Methods The design protocol included analyzing the trend of gastric cancer mortality and nutrition and evaluating the association between nutrient deficiency in early life and the risk of gastric cancer by hierarchical age–period–birth cohort (APC analysis using general log-linear Poisson models and to compare the difference between birth cohorts who were exposed to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine and those who were not exposed to the famine. Data on stomach cancer mortality from 1970 to 2009 and the dietary patterns from 1955 to 1985 which included the 1959–1961 Chinese famine period in the Zhaoyuan County population were obtained. The nutrition information was collected 15 years prior to the mortality data as based on the latest reference of disease incubation. Results APC analysis revealed that severe nutrition deficiency during early life may increase the risk of stomach cancer. Compared with the 1960–1964 birth cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in all birth cohorts from 1900 to 1959 significantly increased; compared with the 1970–1974 cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in the 1975–1979 cohort significantly increased, whereas the others had a steadily decreased risk; compared with 85–89 age group in the 2005–2009 death survey, the ORs decreased with younger age and reached significant levels for the 50–54 age group after adjusting the confounding factors. The 1930 to 1964 group (exposed to famine had a higher mortality rate than the 1965 to 1999 group (not exposed to famine. For males, the relative risk (RR was 2.39 and the 95% confidence interval (CI was 1.51 to 3.77. For females, RR was 1.64 and 95% CI was 1.02 to 2.62. Conclusion The results of the present study suggested that prolonged malnutrition during early life may increase the risk of

  8. Smoking increases the risk of early meniscus repair failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Ryan; Schmitt, Laura C; Flanigan, David C; Magnussen, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this study is to determine whether patients who smoke cigarettes at the time of surgery are at significantly increased risk of early meniscus repair failure relative to non-smokers. Retrospective chart review identified 64 current smokers within a series of 444 consecutive patients who underwent meniscus repair during a 7 years period. Fifty-two of these 64 smokers were available for follow-up and were matched by age, sex, and ACL status with non-smokers from the same cohort. Records of these 104 patients with a total of 120 meniscus repairs were reviewed to identify meniscus repair failure (defined as repeat surgery on the index meniscus) during the median 13-month (range: 3-79 months) follow-up period. The smoking and non-smoking groups were similar in age, sex, ACL status, BMI, meniscus repair technique, and meniscus involved. Meniscus repair failure occurred in 19 of the 112 menisci in 104 patients, for an overall failure risk of 17 %. Of the 19 failures, 14 occurred in 79 repaired medial menisci (18 % failure risk) and 5 occurred in 33 repaired lateral menisci (15 % failure risk). Meniscus repair failure occurred in significantly more smokers (15 failures in 56 menisci in 52 patients -27 % failure risk) than non-smokers (4 failures in 56 menisci in 52 patients -7 % failure risk) (p = 0.0076). Smoking is associated with significantly increased risk of early meniscus repair failure as defined by the incidence of repeat surgery on the index meniscus. III.

  9. Increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among upstream petroleum workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Riise, Trond; Bjørge, Tone; Moen, Bente E; Bråtveit, Magne; Christiani, David C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate cancer risk, particularly oesophageal cancer, among male upstream petroleum workers offshore potentially exposed to various carcinogenic agents. Methods Using the Norwegian Registry of Employers and Employees, 24 765 male offshore workers registered from 1981 to 2003 was compared with 283 002 male referents from the general working population matched by age and community of residence. The historical cohort was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Results Male offshore workers had excess risk of oesophageal cancer (RR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.8) compared with the reference population. Only the adenocarcinoma type had a significantly increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 7.0), mainly because of an increased risk among upstream operators (RR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 14.5). Upstream operators did not have significant excess of respiratory system or colon cancer or mortality from any other lifestyle-related diseases investigated. Conclusion We found a fourfold excess risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among male workers assumed to have had the most extensive contact with crude oil. Due to the small number of cases, and a lack of detailed data on occupational exposure and lifestyle factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, the results must be interpreted with caution. Nevertheless, given the low risk of lifestyle-related cancers and causes of death in this working group, the results add to the observations in other low-powered studies on oesophageal cancer, further suggesting that factors related to the petroleum stream or carcinogenic agents used in the production process might be associated with risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:19858535

  10. Recognising and managing increased HIV transmission risk in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Kroon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT programmes have improved maternalhealth outcomes and reduced the incidence of paediatric HIV, resulting in improved childhealth and survival. Nevertheless, high-risk vertical exposures remain common and areresponsible for a high proportion of transmissions. In the absence of antiretrovirals (ARVs,an 8- to 12-hour labour has approximately the same 15% risk of transmission as 18 monthsof mixed feeding. The intensity of transmission risk is highest during labour and delivery;however, the brevity of this intra-partum period lends itself to post-exposure interventions toreduce such risk. There is good evidence that infant post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP reducesintra-partum transmission even in the absence of maternal prophylaxis. Recent reports suggestthat infant combination ARV prophylaxis (cARP is more efficient at reducing intra-partumtransmission than a single agent in situations of minimal pre-labour prophylaxis. Guidelinesfrom the developed world have incorporated infant cARP for increased-risk scenarios. Incontrast, recent guidelines for low-resource settings have rightfully focused on reducingpostnatal transmission to preserve the benefits of breastfeeding, but have largely ignored thepotential of augmented infant PEP for reducing intra-partum transmissions. Minimal prelabourprophylaxis, poor adherence in the month prior to delivery, elevated maternal viralload at delivery, spontaneous preterm labour with prolonged rupture of membranes andchorioamnionitis are simple clinical criteria that identify increased intra-partum transmissionrisk. In these increased-risk scenarios, transmission frequency may be halved by combiningnevirapine and zidovudine as a form of boosted infant PEP. This strategy may be important toreduce intra-partum transmissions when PMTCT is suboptimal.

  11. Risk of falls after withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Nathalie; Stricker, Bruno H. Ch; Pols, Huib A. P.; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Falling in older persons is a frequent and serious clinical problem. Several drugs have been associated with increased fall risk. The objective of this study was to identify differences in the incidence of falls after withdrawal (discontinuation or dose reduction) of fall-risk-increasing drugs

  12. Female gonadal shielding with automatic exposure control increases radiation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Summer L.; Zhu, Xiaowei [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Magill, Dennise; Felice, Marc A. [University of Pennsylvania, Environmental Health and Radiation Safety, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Xiao, Rui [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ali, Sayed [Temple University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2018-02-15

    Gonadal shielding remains common, but current estimates of gonadal radiation risk are lower than estimated risks to colon and stomach. A female gonadal shield may attenuate active automatic exposure control (AEC) sensors, resulting in increased dose to colon and stomach as well as to ovaries outside the shielded area. We assess changes in dose-area product (DAP) and absorbed organ dose when female gonadal shielding is used with AEC for pelvis radiography. We imaged adult and 5-year-old equivalent dosimetry phantoms using pelvis radiograph technique with AEC in the presence and absence of a female gonadal shield. We recorded DAP and mAs and measured organ absorbed dose at six internal sites using film dosimetry. Female gonadal shielding with AEC increased DAP 63% for the 5-year-old phantom and 147% for the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose at unshielded locations of colon, stomach and ovaries increased 21-51% in the 5-year-old phantom and 17-100% in the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose sampled under the shield decreased 67% in the 5-year-old phantom and 16% in the adult phantom. Female gonadal shielding combined with AEC during pelvic radiography increases absorbed dose to organs with greater radiation sensitivity and to unshielded ovaries. Difficulty in proper use of gonadal shields has been well described, and use of female gonadal shielding may be inadvisable given the risks of increasing radiation. (orig.)

  13. Female gonadal shielding with automatic exposure control increases radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, Summer L.; Zhu, Xiaowei; Magill, Dennise; Felice, Marc A.; Xiao, Rui; Ali, Sayed

    2018-01-01

    Gonadal shielding remains common, but current estimates of gonadal radiation risk are lower than estimated risks to colon and stomach. A female gonadal shield may attenuate active automatic exposure control (AEC) sensors, resulting in increased dose to colon and stomach as well as to ovaries outside the shielded area. We assess changes in dose-area product (DAP) and absorbed organ dose when female gonadal shielding is used with AEC for pelvis radiography. We imaged adult and 5-year-old equivalent dosimetry phantoms using pelvis radiograph technique with AEC in the presence and absence of a female gonadal shield. We recorded DAP and mAs and measured organ absorbed dose at six internal sites using film dosimetry. Female gonadal shielding with AEC increased DAP 63% for the 5-year-old phantom and 147% for the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose at unshielded locations of colon, stomach and ovaries increased 21-51% in the 5-year-old phantom and 17-100% in the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose sampled under the shield decreased 67% in the 5-year-old phantom and 16% in the adult phantom. Female gonadal shielding combined with AEC during pelvic radiography increases absorbed dose to organs with greater radiation sensitivity and to unshielded ovaries. Difficulty in proper use of gonadal shields has been well described, and use of female gonadal shielding may be inadvisable given the risks of increasing radiation. (orig.)

  14. Female gonadal shielding with automatic exposure control increases radiation risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Summer L; Magill, Dennise; Felice, Marc A; Xiao, Rui; Ali, Sayed; Zhu, Xiaowei

    2018-02-01

    Gonadal shielding remains common, but current estimates of gonadal radiation risk are lower than estimated risks to colon and stomach. A female gonadal shield may attenuate active automatic exposure control (AEC) sensors, resulting in increased dose to colon and stomach as well as to ovaries outside the shielded area. We assess changes in dose-area product (DAP) and absorbed organ dose when female gonadal shielding is used with AEC for pelvis radiography. We imaged adult and 5-year-old equivalent dosimetry phantoms using pelvis radiograph technique with AEC in the presence and absence of a female gonadal shield. We recorded DAP and mAs and measured organ absorbed dose at six internal sites using film dosimetry. Female gonadal shielding with AEC increased DAP 63% for the 5-year-old phantom and 147% for the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose at unshielded locations of colon, stomach and ovaries increased 21-51% in the 5-year-old phantom and 17-100% in the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose sampled under the shield decreased 67% in the 5-year-old phantom and 16% in the adult phantom. Female gonadal shielding combined with AEC during pelvic radiography increases absorbed dose to organs with greater radiation sensitivity and to unshielded ovaries. Difficulty in proper use of gonadal shields has been well described, and use of female gonadal shielding may be inadvisable given the risks of increasing radiation.

  15. Financing increasing flood risk: evidence from millions of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, B.; Koks, E. E.; Husby, T. G.; Ward, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of disaster risk management and financing mechanisms depends on the accurate assessment of current and future hazard exposure. The increasing availability of detailed data offers policy makers and the insurance sector new opportunities to understand trends in risk, and to make informed decisions on the ways to deal with these trends. In this paper we show how comprehensive property level information can be used for the assessment of exposure to flooding on a national scale, and how this information can contribute to discussions on possible risk financing practices. The case-study used is the Netherlands, which is one of the countries most exposed to flooding globally, and which is currently undergoing a debate on strategies for the compensation of potential losses. Our results show that flood exposure has increased rapidly between 1960 and 2012, and that the growth of the building stock and its economic value in flood prone areas has been higher than in not flood prone areas. We also find that property values in flood prone areas are lower than those in not flood prone areas. We argue that the increase in the share of economic value located in potential flood prone areas can have a negative effect on the feasibility of private insurance schemes in the Netherlands. The methodologies and results presented in this study are relevant for many regions around the world where the effects of rising flood exposure create a challenge for risk financing.

  16. Increasing flood exposure in the Netherlands: implications for risk financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, B.; Koks, E. E.; Husby, T. G.; Ward, P. J.

    2014-05-01

    The effectiveness of disaster risk management and financing mechanisms depends on an accurate assessment of current and future hazard exposure. The increasing availability of detailed data offers policy makers and the insurance sector new opportunities to understand trends in risk, and to make informed decisions on ways to deal with these trends. In this paper we show how comprehensive property level information can be used for the assessment of exposure to flooding on a national scale, and how this information provides valuable input to discussions on possible risk financing practices. The case study used is the Netherlands, which is one of the countries most exposed to flooding globally, and which is currently undergoing a debate on strategies for the compensation of potential losses. Our results show that flood exposure has increased rapidly between 1960 and 2012, and that the growth of the building stock and its economic value in flood-prone areas has been higher than in non-flood-prone areas. We also find that property values in flood-prone areas are lower than those in non-flood-prone areas. We argue that the increase in the share of economic value located in potential flood-prone areas can have a negative effect on the feasibility of private insurance schemes in the Netherlands. The methodologies and results presented in this study are relevant for many regions around the world where the effects of rising flood exposure create a challenge for risk financing.

  17. Increased Baseline C-Reactive Protein Concentrations Are Associated with Increased Risk of Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Jeppe; Benfield, Thomas; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) increases rapidly during an infection. We tested the hypothesis that chronic low-level increases in CRP are associated with an increased risk of infectious disease. METHODS: We studied 9660 individuals from a prospective general...... population cohort, including 3592 in whom infectious disease developed, and another 60 896 individuals from a cross-sectional general population study, of whom 13 332 developed infectious disease; 55% were women, and the mean age was 57 years. Hospital diagnoses of infections in 1977-2010 were based....... RESULTS: Individuals with CRP >3 mg/L had 1.2 and 1.7 times increased risk of infectious disease, in the prospective general population cohort and the cross-sectional general population study, respectively, compared with individuals with CRP

  18. Endometriosis increases the risk of obstetrical and neonatal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlac, Janne Foss; Hartwell, Dorthe; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess obstetrical complications and neonatal outcomes in women with endometriosis as compared with women without endometriosis. National cohort including all delivering women and their newborns in Denmark 1997-2014. Data were extracted from the Danish Health Register and the Medical Birth Register. Logistic regression analysis provided odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sub-analyses were made for primiparous women with a singleton pregnancy and for women with endometriosis who underwent gynecological surgery before pregnancy. In 19 331 deliveries, women with endometriosis had a higher risk of severe preeclampsia (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5-2.0), hemorrhage in pregnancy (OR 2.3, 95% CI 2.0-2.5), placental abruption (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.7-2.3), placenta previa (OR 3.9, 95% CI 3.5-4.3), premature rupture of membranes (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5-1.8), and retained placenta (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.4-6.6). The neonates had increased risks of preterm birth before 28 weeks (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.7-3.6), being small for gestational age (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4-1.6), being diagnosed with congenital malformations (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.3-1.4), and neonatal death (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.1). Results were similar in primiparous women with a singleton pregnancy. Gynecological surgery for endometriosis before pregnancy carried a further increased risk. Women with endometriosis had a significantly higher risk of several complications, such as preeclampsia and placental complications in pregnancy and at delivery. The newborns had increased risk of being delivered preterm, having congenital malformations, and having a higher neonatal death rate. Pregnant women with endometriosis require increased antenatal surveillance. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Acrolein exposure is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnett, Natasha; Conklin, Daniel J; Riggs, Daniel W; Myers, John A; O'Toole, Timothy E; Hamzeh, Ihab; Wagner, Stephen; Chugh, Atul; Ramos, Kenneth S; Srivastava, Sanjay; Higdon, Deirdre; Tollerud, David J; DeFilippis, Andrew; Becher, Carrie; Wyatt, Brad; McCracken, James; Abplanalp, Wes; Rai, Shesh N; Ciszewski, Tiffany; Xie, Zhengzhi; Yeager, Ray; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2014-08-06

    Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde present in high amounts in coal, wood, paper, and tobacco smoke. It is also generated endogenously by lipid peroxidation and the oxidation of amino acids by myeloperoxidase. In animals, acrolein exposure is associated with the suppression of circulating progenitor cells and increases in thrombosis and atherogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acrolein exposure in humans is also associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Acrolein exposure was assessed in 211 participants of the Louisville Healthy Heart Study with moderate to high (CVD) risk by measuring the urinary levels of the major acrolein metabolite-3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA). Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between acrolein exposure and parameters of CVD risk, and adjusted for potential demographic confounders. Urinary 3-HPMA levels were higher in smokers than nonsmokers and were positively correlated with urinary cotinine levels. Urinary 3-HPMA levels were inversely related to levels of both early (AC133(+)) and late (AC133(-)) circulating angiogenic cells. In smokers as well as nonsmokers, 3-HPMA levels were positively associated with both increased levels of platelet-leukocyte aggregates and the Framingham Risk Score. No association was observed between 3-HPMA and plasma fibrinogen. Levels of C-reactive protein were associated with 3-HPMA levels in nonsmokers only. Regardless of its source, acrolein exposure is associated with platelet activation and suppression of circulating angiogenic cell levels, as well as increased CVD risk. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  20. Measures to suppress ignition risk on full-face heading machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeliger, A; Marx, W -E; Radtke, H

    1987-12-01

    Within the Research Development project 'Measures to suppress ignition risk on full-facers' the Institute of Mechanical Engineering of the Westfaelische Berggewerkskasse (WBK) has formulated concepts to reduce the ignition danger caused by the cutting action of full-face heading machines. Since the cooling of the rock surface in the immediate vicinity of the roller bits represents an effective preventive measure against ignition of firedamp, the machine manufacturers recommend the installation of a nozzle close to each disc holder whose water jet hits the point immediately behind and on the roller bit itself. The shape of nozzles to be employed should be such that they generate a water jet whose fan is capable of creating air velocities of about 10 m/s along the cutting track of the roller bits. This will achieve an additional degree of safety from ignition of any firedamp that may be present, because the duration of a juxtaposition between a possible hot surface and firedamp for energy exchange is reduced. The water could be fed to the individual nozzles at a pressure of 60 to 80 bar through a rotary distributor in the borer head. Following an analysis of the most frequent ignition causes a rotation and temperature monitoring system was developed for the roller bits of a borer head. 5 figs.

  1. Increased nuchal translucency thickness and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmuth, Signe G; Pedersen, L H; Miltoft, Caroline B

    2016-01-01

    spectrum disorders (ASD), cerebral palsy, epilepsy and febrile seizures was obtained from national patient registries. RESULTS: There was no excess risk of neurodevelopmental disorders among euploid children with first-trimester NT 95(th) -99(th) percentile. For children with NT > 99(th) percentile...... in the risk of cerebral palsy (OR, 1.91 (95% CI, 0.61-5.95), 0.47%), epilepsy (OR, 1.51 (95% CI, 0.63-3.66), 0.78%) or febrile seizures (OR, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.44-1.16), 2.65%). CONCLUSIONS: In a large unselected cohort of euploid children, there was no increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders among those......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and neurodevelopmental disorders in euploid children. METHODS: This study included 222 505 euploid children who had undergone routine first-trimester screening during fetal life. Children were divided...

  2. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Sofie; Neefjes-Borst, E. Andra; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Neefjes, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Background Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans. Methods and findings We performed a nationwide registry-based study to assess colon cancer risk after diagnosed Salmonella infection. National infectious disease surveillance records (1999–2015) for Dutch residents aged ≥20 years when diagnosed with salmonellosis (n = 14,264) were linked to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Salmonella-infected patients were laboratory-confirmed under medical consultation after 1–2 weeks of illness. These datasets also contained information on Salmonella serovar and type of infection. Colon cancer risk (overall and per colon subsite) among patients with a diagnosed Salmonella infection was compared with expected colon cancer risk in the general population. Data from the nationwide registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA) and Statistics Netherlands (CBS) allowed assessing potential effects of age, gender, latency, socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and tumor features. We found that compared to the general population, colon cancer risk was significantly increased (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.54; 95%CI 1.09–2.10) among patients with Salmonella infection diagnosed transverse colon (SIR 2.12; 95%CI 1.38–3.09) after S. Enteritidis infection (SIR 2.97; 95%CI 1.73–4.76). Salmonellosis occurred more frequently among colon cancer patients with pre-infectious IBD, a known risk factor for colon cancer. Colon tumors of patients with a history of Salmonella infection were mostly of low grade. Conclusions Patients diagnosed with severe

  3. Increased risk of stroke in contact dermatitis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Lun; Hsu, Min-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chan, Po-Chi; Chang, Ko-Shih; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Min-Tein; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Dermatologic diseases are not traditional risk factors of stroke, but recent studies show atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and bullous skin disease may increase the risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases. No previous studies have focused on the association between contact dermatitis and stroke. We established a cohort comprised of 48,169 contact dermatitis patients newly diagnosed in 2000–2003 and 96,338 randomly selected subjects without the disorder, frequency matched by sex, age, and diagnosis year, as the comparison cohort. None of them had a history of stroke. Stroke incidence was assessed by the end of 2011 for both cohorts. The incidence stroke was 1.1-fold higher in the contact dermatitis cohort than in the comparison cohort (5.93 vs 5.37 per 1000 person-years, P contact dermatitis cohort increased with age, from 1.14 (95% CI, 1.03–1.27) for 65 to 74 years; to 1.27 (95% CI, 1.15–1.42) for 75 years and older. The aHR of stroke were 1.16 (95% CI, 1.07–1.27) and 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00–1.18) for men and women, respectively. This study suggests that patients with contact dermatitis were at a modestly increased risk of stroke, significant for ischemic stroke but not for hemorrhagic stroke. Comorbidity, particularly hypertension, increased the hazard of stroke further. PMID:28272195

  4. Obesity increases risk of ischemic stroke in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew B; Cole, John W; McArdle, Patrick F; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Ryan, Kathleen A; Sparks, Mary J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

    2015-06-01

    Body mass index has been associated with ischemic stroke in older populations, but its association with stroke in younger populations is not known. In light of the current obesity epidemic in the United States, the potential impact of obesity on stroke risk in young adults deserves attention. A population-based case-control study design with 1201 cases and 1154 controls was used to investigate the relationship of obesity and young onset ischemic stroke. Stroke cases were between the ages of 15 and 49 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between body mass index and ischemic stroke with and without adjustment for comorbid conditions associated with stroke. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity, obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)) was associated with an increased stroke risk (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-1.94) although this increased risk was highly attenuated and not statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. These results indicate that obesity is a risk factor for young onset ischemic stroke and suggest that this association may be partially mediated through hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or other variables associated with these conditions. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. The increased risk of joint venture promotes social cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te Wu

    Full Text Available The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games.

  6. The increased risk of joint venture promotes social cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

    2013-01-01

    The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games.

  7. Extreme Geohazards: Reducing the Disaster Risk and Increasing Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, Hans-Peter; Stein, Seth; Brocklebank, Sean; Jules-Plag, Shelley; Marsh, Stuart; Campus, Paola

    2013-04-01

    Extreme geohazards have the potential to escalate the global sustainability crisis and put us close to the boundaries of the safe operating space for humanity. Exposure of human assets to geohazards has increased dramatically in recent decades, and the sensitivity of the built environment and the embedded socio-economic fabric have changed. We are putting the urban environment, including megacities, in harm's way. Paradoxically, innovation during recent decades, in particular, urban innovation, has increased the disaster risk and coupled this risk to the sustainability crisis. Only more innovation can reduce disaster risk and lead us out of the sustainability crisis. Extreme geohazards (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis) that occurred regularly throughout the last few millennia mostly did not cause major disasters because population density was low and the built environment was not sprawling into hazardous areas to the same extent as today. Similar extreme events today would cause unparalleled damage on a global scale and could worsen the sustainability crisis. Simulation of these extreme hazards under present conditions can help to assess the disaster risk. The Geohazards Community of Practice of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) with support from the European Science Foundation is preparing a white paper assessing the contemporary disaster risks associated with extreme geohazards and developing a vision for science and society to engage in deliberations addressing this risk (see http://www.geohazcop.org/projects/extgeowp). Risk awareness and monitoring is highly uneven across the world, and this creates two kinds of problems. Firstly, potential hazards are much more closely monitored in wealthy countries than in the developing world. But the largest hazards are global in nature, and it is critical to get as much forewarning as possible to develop an effective response. The disasters and near-misses of the past show that adherence to scientific

  8. Increasing risk of prosthetic joint infection after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Håvard; Fenstad, Anne M; Hallan, Geir

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose The risk of revision due to infection after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been reported to be increasing in Norway. We investigated whether this increase is a common feature in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden). Materials and methods The...... explain this increase. We believe that there has been an actual increase in the incidence of prosthetic joint infections after THA.......Background and purpose The risk of revision due to infection after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been reported to be increasing in Norway. We investigated whether this increase is a common feature in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden). Materials and methods...... The study was based on the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) dataset. 432,168 primary THAs from 1995 to 2009 were included (Denmark: 83,853, Finland 78,106, Norway 88,455, and Sweden 181,754). Adjusted survival analyses were performed using Cox regression models with revision due to infection...

  9. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired powerplants, conventional oil and gas extraction, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. W...

  10. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired power plants, conventional oil and gas extraction, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. ...

  11. Increased risk of migraine in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A.; Mallbris, L.; Gislason, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis and migraine are common conditions with potential overlap of pathophysiological mechanisms. Both these diseases have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk but little is known about their interplay. Objective: We sought to investigate the link between psoriasis...... and adjusted incidence rate ratios were estimated by Poisson regression models. Results: The study comprised a total of 5,379,859 individuals, including 53,006 and 6831 patients with mild and severe psoriasis, respectively, and 6243 patients with psoriatic arthritis. Fully adjusted incidence rate ratios...... for migraine were 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.30-1.45), 1.55 (95% confidence interval 1.29-1.86), and 1.92 (95% confidence interval 1.65-2.22) for mild psoriasis, severe psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis, respectively. Stratification for sex revealed increased risk of migraine in both male and female...

  12. Micronutrient-fortified rice can increase hookworm infection risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Perignon, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    or inflammation after iron supplementation. OBJECTIVE: To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren. METHODS: A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program....... Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice.......6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%).Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where...

  13. Young Children in Immigrant Families Face Higher Risk of Food Insecurity. Research Brief. Publication #2009-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Randy; Horowitz, Allison; Fortuny, Karina; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Zaslow, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Children in immigrant families are more likely than children in native-born families to face a number of risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, including higher poverty rates, lower household incomes, and linguistic isolation, (for example, when older children and adults in a household have difficulty speaking English). Previous research…

  14. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Schaapveld, Michael; Kramers, Jolanda; Mooij, Sofie; Neefjes-Borst, E. Andra; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Neefjes, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Background Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans. Methods and findings We performed a nationwide registry-b...

  15. Betel nut chewing associated with increased risk of arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ting; Chou, Yu-Tsung; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chou, Chieh-Ying; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen; Wu, Jin-Shang

    2017-11-01

    Betel nut chewing is associated with certain cardiovascular outcomes. Subclinical atherosclerosis may be one link between betel nut chewing and cardiovascular risk. Few studies have examined the association between chewing betel nut and arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was thus to determine the relationship between betel nut chewing and arterial stiffness in a Taiwanese population. We enrolled 7540 eligible subjects in National Cheng Kung University Hospital from October 2006 to August 2009. The exclusion criteria included history of cerebrovascular events, coronary artery disease, and taking lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensives, and hypoglycemic agents. Increased arterial stiffness was defined as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) ≥1400cm/s. According to their habit of betel nut use, the subjects were categorized into non-, ex-, and current chewers. The prevalence of increased arterial stiffness was 32.7, 43.3, and 43.2% in non-, ex- and current chewers, respectively (p=0.011). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that ex-chewers (odds ratio [OR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-2.65) and current chewers (OR 2.29, 95% CI=1.05-4.99) had elevated risks of increased arterial stiffness after adjustment for co-variables. Both ex- and current betel nut chewing were associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness. Stopping betel nut chewing may thus potentially be beneficial to reduce cardiovascular risk, based on the principals of preventive medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Increased Risk for Malaria Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-23

    This podcast describes research done in Ghana examining a correlation between type 2 diabetes and a possible increased risk for malaria infection in adults. Dr. Manoj Menon, a medical officer in the Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria in the Center for Global Health, discusses questions the study raises.  Created: 9/23/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases; Center for Global Health.   Date Released: 9/23/2010.

  17. Increased mortality risk in women with depression and diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, An; Lucas, Michel; Sun, Qi; van Dam, Rob M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Willett, Walter C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Ascherio, Alberto; Hu, Frank B.

    2011-01-01

    Context Both depression and diabetes have been associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality. However, data evaluating the joint effects of these two conditions on mortality are sparse. Objectives To evaluate the individual and joint effects of depression and diabetes on all-cause and CVD mortality in a prospective cohort study. Design, Settings and Participants A total of 78282 female participants in the Nurses' Health Study aged 54-79 years at baseline in 2000 were followed until 2006. Depression was defined as having self-reported diagnosed depression, treatment with antidepressant medications, or a score indicating severe depressive symptomatology, i.e., a five-item Mental Health Index score ≤52. Self-reported type 2 diabetes was confirmed using a supplementary questionnaire. Main outcome measures All-cause and CVD-specific mortality. Results During 6 years of follow-up (433066 person-years), 4654 deaths were documented, including 979 deaths from CVD. Compared to participants without either condition, the age-adjusted relative risks (95% confidence interval, CI) for all-cause mortality were 1.76 (1.64-1.89) for women with depression only, 1.71 (1.54-1.89) for individuals with diabetes only, and 3.11 (2.70-3.58) for those with both conditions. The corresponding age-adjusted relative risks of CVD mortality were 1.81 (1.54-2.13), 2.67 (2.20-3.23), and 5.38 (4.19-6.91), respectively. These associations were attenuated after multivariate adjustment for other demographic variables, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, and major comorbidities (including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, heart diseases, stroke and cancer) but remained significant, with the highest relative risks for all-cause and CVD mortality found in those with both conditions (2.07 [95% CI, 1.79-2.40] and 2.72 [95% CI, 2.09-3.54], respectively). Furthermore, the combination of depression with a long duration of diabetes

  18. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26950145

  19. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.

  20. Behavior of households equipped with fuel oil heating facing the petroleum price sudden increase in 2000; Le comportement des menages equipes de chauffage au fioul face a la brutale augmentation du prix du petrole en 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This paper analyses the public attitudes facing the sudden increase of the fuel oil increase during the year 2000. This increase has got a great impact on the households equipped with fuel oil heating. The households adapted their strategy to obtain the best prices, to defer the deliveries or to reduce energy consumption by a improve of the heating performances. (A.L.B.)

  1. Increased bleeding risk during percutaneous coronary interventions by arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndrepepa, Gjin; Groha, Philipp; Lahmann, Anna L; Lohaus, Raphaela; Cassese, Salvatore; Schulz-Schüpke, Stefanie; Kufner, Sebastian; Mayer, Katharina; Bernlochner, Isabell; Byrne, Robert A; Fusaro, Massimiliano; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Schunkert, Heribert; Kastrati, Adnan

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to assess the association between arterial hypertension and bleeding in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The impact of arterial hypertension on bleeding risk of patients with coronary artery disease undergoing PCI is unknown. This study included 14,180 patients who underwent PCI. Bleeding was defined using the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) criteria. Arterial hypertension was defined as treatment with antihypertensive drugs or a systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure value >90 mm Hg documented on at least 2 occasions. The primary outcome was bleeding rate within 30 days of PCI. Overall, 11,066 patients (78.0%) had arterial hypertension. Bleeding events occurred in 1,232 patients with arterial hypertension and 278 patients without arterial hypertension (11.1% vs 8.9%; odds ratio [OR] = 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.46, P arterial hypertension and 175 patients without arterial hypertension (6.6% vs 5.6%: OR = 1.19 [1.01-1.41], P = 0.049). Non-access-site bleeding occurred in 502 patients with and 103 patients without arterial hypertension (4.5% vs 3.3%; OR = 1.39 [1.12-1.72], P = 0.003). After adjustment, arterial hypertension was significantly associated with any bleeding (adjusted OR = 1.41 [1.19-1.67], P arterial hypertension increased the risk of non-access-site bleeding (P = 0.002), whereas systolic blood pressure at the time of PCI increased the risk of access site bleeding (P = 0.018). Arterial hypertension is associated with increased risk of bleeding during PCI procedures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Increased Cardiometabolic Risk and Worsening Hypoxemia at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Catherine H; Schwartz, Alan R; Gilman, Robert H; Pham, Luu; Wise, Robert A; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Jun, Jonathan C; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Miranda, J Jaime; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Checkley, William

    2016-06-01

    Miele, Catherine H., Alan R. Schwartz, Robert H. Gilman, Luu Pham, Robert A. Wise, Victor G. Davila-Roman, Jonathan C. Jun, Vsevolod Y. Polotsky, J. Jaime Miranda, Fabiola Leon-Velarde, and William Checkley. Increased cardiometabolic risk and worsening hypoxemia at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:93-100, 2016.-Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, diabetes, and dyslipidemia are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. While excessive erythrocytosis is associated with cardiovascular complications, it is unclear how worsening hypoxemia of any degree affects cardiometabolic risk factors in high-altitude populations. We studied the relationship between daytime resting oxyhemoglobin saturation and cardiometabolic risk factors in adult participants living in Puno, Peru (3825 m above sea level). We used multivariable logistic regression models to study the relationship between having a lower oxyhemoglobin saturation and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Nine hundred and fifty-four participants (mean age 55 years, 52% male) had information available on pulse oximetry and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Average oxyhemoglobin saturation was 90% (interquartile range 88%-92%) and 43 (4.5%) had excessive erythrocytosis. Older age, decreased height-adjusted lung function, and higher body mass index (BMI) were associated with having an oxyhemoglobin saturation ≤85%. When adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, having excessive erythrocytosis, and site, we found that each 5% decrease in oxyhemoglobin saturation was associated with a higher adjusted odds of metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.07-1.72, p 2 mass units (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.00-1.67, p < 0.05), hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.09-2.51, p < 0.04), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) ≥3 mg/L (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.09-1.96, p < 0.01). In high-altitude populations in Puno, Peru, a higher BMI and lower pulmonary function were

  3. The changing face of nanomaterials: Risk assessment challenges along the value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Mats-Olof; Simkó, Myrtill

    2017-03-01

    Risk assessment (RA) of manufactured nanomaterials (MNM) is essential for regulatory purposes and risk management activities. Similar to RA of "classical" chemicals, MNM RA requires knowledge about exposure as well as of hazard potential and dose response relationships. What makes MNM RA especially challenging is the multitude of materials (which is expected to increase substantially in the future), the complexity of MNM value chains and life cycles, the accompanying possible changes in material properties over time and in contact with various environmental and organismal milieus, and the difficulties to obtain proper exposure data and to consider the proper dose metric. This article discusses these challenges and also critically overviews the current state of the art regarding MNM RA approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bidi smokers at increased risk of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2005-01-01

    Source articles were searched for using Medline, the Cochrane Library and within the references lists of identified articles. Articles were selected that included data enabling construction of 2 x 2 tables to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For each study, two-way contingency tables were constructed, based on exposure frequency distributions, for cases and controls. Unadjusted OR and 95% CI were recalculated based on the reported data using standard procedures. Separate contingency tables were made for bidi smoking, cigarette smoking and both types of smoking if the data were available in the same article. The overall OR combined across all studies, and its 95% CI, was calculated using a random-effects model for bidi and cigarette smoking. Tests for publication bias and heterogeneity were conducted. Confounding factors, for example, betel quid chewing or alcohol use, were not included in the meta-regression model. An increased risk of oral cancer was found for bidi smokers compared with people who had never smoked (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 2.0-5.0) whereas no significant pattern of risk was found for cigarette smokers (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.7-1.8). There was substantial heterogeneity in the pooled OR estimate. The results clearly indicate that bidi smokers are at increased risk of oral cancer. It is important that this information be incorporated into smoking prevention and cessation efforts, particularly in the urban poor and rural mass in south Asian countries where bidi smoking is widespread.

  5. Splenectomy increases the subsequent risk of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Yu; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Hsu, Chung Y; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-02-01

    Splenectomy may be necessary to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with thrombocytopenia; however, whether performing a splenectomy on patients without SLE increases the subsequent risk of SLE remains unknown. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the association between splenectomy and SLE. We conducted a cohort study by using data from the Taiwan National Health Institute Research Database to identify 10,298 patients with received a splenectomy between 2000 and 2006 and 41,192 participants without received a splenectomy who were selected by frequency matched based on sex, age, and the index year. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of developing SLE associated with splenectomy compared with patients who did not receive a splenectomy. During the study period, the overall incidence density rate of SLE was higher in the splenectomy cohort than in the non-splenectomy cohort (adjusted HR 10.55; 95 % CI 50.55-20.05). The incidence density rates of SLE in women and men who received a splenectomy were higher than those of patients who did not receive a splenectomy. Non-traumatic splenectomy increases the subsequent risk of SLE. The risk of SLE should be considered before performing a splenectomy, particularly in women and younger patients.

  6. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Kenji; Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-01-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  7. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Kenji [Hiroshima City Hospital (Japan); Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-12-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  8. Is white-coat hypertension a harbinger of increased risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, Anastasios; Ntineri, Angeliki; Stergiou, George S

    2014-09-01

    White-coat hypertension is defined by elevated office and normal out-of-office blood pressure (home or ambulatory) in untreated subjects. This condition is common in clinical practice and requires appropriate work-up for detection and management. Many studies have examined the relationship between white-coat hypertension and cardiovascular risk but with marked heterogeneity in the definitions and methodology applied. Thus, the results have been inconsistent leading to confusion in scientific research and clinical practice. Some but not all the relevant studies suggested that white-coat hypertension is associated with subclinical target-organ damage, yet the cross-sectional design of these studies and the fact that these indices are only surrogate end points do not allow firm conclusions to be drawn. In recent years, longitudinal studies have examined the prognostic significance of white-coat hypertension in terms of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Most of them indicate that white-coat hypertensive compared with normotensive subjects present a moderate-in most cases not significant-increase in risk. Meta-analyses of raw data from large databases, such as the International Database on Ambulatory blood pressure and Cardiovascular Outcomes (IDACO) and the International Database on HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes (IDHOCO) allowed separate powered analyses in untreated subjects and provided a clearer picture regarding the modest risk associated with white-coat hypertension, especially in the long term. White-coat hypertension is regarded as an intermediate phenotype between normotension and hypertension associated with increased risk of developing sustained hypertension, and therefore requires regular follow-up using nonpharmacological measures.

  9. Organ utilization from increased infectious risk donors: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Huillier, Arnaud G; Humar, Atul; Payne, Clare; Kumar, Deepali

    2017-12-01

    Donors with an increased risk of transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (increased risk donors [IRDs]) are a potential source of organs for transplant. Organs from IRDs can be utilized with appropriate recipient consent and post-transplant follow-up. We reviewed the characteristics and utilization of IRDs in our Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) over a 2-year period. Donor information from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2015 was obtained through the OPO database. Only consented donors were included. Donors were categorized as IRDs according to Health Canada/Canadian Standards Association (CSA) criteria. A total of 494 potential donors were identified, of which 92 (18.6%) were IRDs. Of these, at least one organ was transplanted from 76 (82.6%). Risk factors for IRDs included injection drug user (IDU) (12%), men having sex with men (MSM) (7%), commercial sex worker (CSW) (4%), and incarceration (24%). Fifty-nine percent (253/429) of IRD organs were utilized. The most frequently used organ was kidney, followed by liver. Median number of organs recovered per IRD was 3 (interquartile range: 2-5). Nucleic acid testing (NAT) was performed in 18.5% (17/92) of IRDs. Reasons for NAT were IDU (n = 2), MSM (n = 2), CSW (n = 2), and previous incarceration (n = 7). Organ utilization from donors that had NAT was similar to donors who did not (94% vs 80%, P = .29). Follow-up NAT was done in multiple factors contribute to the perception of infectious risk from such organs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Topiramate increases the risk of valproic acid-induced encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Young; Kim, Dong Wook; Chu, Kon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Moon, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sang Kun

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic encephalopathy is a rare but serious complication of valproic acid (VPA) therapy that usually presents with impaired consciousness or increased seizure frequency. Although it has been suggested that topiramate (TPM) increases the risk of VPA-induced encephalopathy, the additional risk in patients receiving TPM therapy has not been evaluated. We reviewed all adult patients who took VPA between January 2005 and February 2009 at the Seoul National University Hospital and identified patients with VPA-induced encephalopathy based on clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) data. Information on sex, age, serum ammonia level, serum VPA level, liver function test, and EEG was collected from patient registry and medical data. We enrolled 8,372 patients who received VPA therapy and 1,236 patients who received VPA/TPM combination therapy. We identified 11 patients with VPA-induced encephalopathy (0.13%), 7 of whom received a combination therapy of VPA and TPM. The odds ratio of VPA-induced encephalopathy with TPM over that without TPM was 10.16. There were no significant differences in sex distribution, number of antiepileptic agents, ammonia level, VPA serum level, underlying diseases, dosage of VPA, duration of VPA treatment, treatment of encephalopathy, and outcomes between the two groups. Our study showed that the prevalence of VPA-induced encephalopathy is approximately 0.1% among patients treated with VPA and that the risk of this condition, although still low, can increase by approximately 10 times in the presence of TPM therapy. Based on these results, we suggest that TPM should be carefully used in patients receiving VPA treatment. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Possible risk factors for increased suicide following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross; de Zwaan, Martina; Engel, Scott; Roerig, James; Steffen, Kristine; Gordon, Kathryn H; Karr, Trisha; Lavender, Jason; Wonderlich, Steve

    2013-04-01

    There is a growing research literature suggesting that there may be elevated risk of suicide following bariatric surgery. Most of the data reported thus far has been cross-sectional and observational, and very little is known about the possible specific causal variables involved. The purpose of this report is to review this literature and to review possible risk factors for increased suicidal risk following bariatric surgery, to delineate future research directions. First a variety of medical, biological, and genetic factors, including the persistence or recurrence of medical comorbidities after bariatric surgery, the disinhibition and impulsivity secondary to changes in the absorption of alcohol, hypoglycemia, as well as pharmacokinetic changes that may affect the absorption of various medications including antidepressant medications are reviewed. Also reviewed are possible mediating factors involving changes in various peptidergic systems such as GLP-1 and Ghrelin. A number of psychosocial issues that might be involved are discussed, including lack of improvement in quality of life after surgery, continued or recurrent physical mobility restrictions, persistence or recurrence of sexual dysfunction and relationship problems, low self-esteem, and a history of child maltreatment. Inadequate weight loss or weight regain are also discussed. A number of possible contributing factors have been identified. Possible theoretical models involved and directions for research are suggested. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  12. Increased risk of stomach and esophageal malignancies in people with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, E Christina; Shiels, Meredith S; Dawsey, Sanford M; Bhatia, Kishor; Anderson, Lesley A; Engels, Eric A

    2012-10-01

    People infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of some malignancies, but little is known about the effects of infection on risk of cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract. We evaluated the risks of different histologic and anatomic subtypes of carcinomas and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) of the stomach and esophagus in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We analyzed data from the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study, which links data collected from 1980 to 2007 for 16 US population-based HIV and AIDS and cancer registries. We compared risks of stomach and esophageal malignancies in people with AIDS (N = 596,955) with those of the general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). We assessed calendar trends using Poisson regression. People with AIDS had increased risks of carcinomas of the esophagus (SIR, 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-2.07; n = 95) and stomach (SIR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.17-1.76; n = 96). Risk was increased for esophageal adenocarcinoma (SIR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.31-2.70) and squamous cell carcinoma (SIR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.10-1.92). People with AIDS had greater risks of carcinomas of the gastric cardia (SIR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.83-2.11) and noncardia (SIR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.12-2.05) than the general population. Although most stomach and esophageal NHLs that developed in people with AIDS were diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, these individuals also had an increased risk of stomach mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (SIR, 5.99; 95% CI, 3.19-10.2; n = 13). The incidence of carcinomas remained fairly constant over time, but rates of NHL decreased from 1980 to 2007 (P(trend) AIDS are at increased risk for developing esophageal and stomach carcinomas and NHLs. Although the incidence of NHL decreased from 1980 to 2007 as treatments for HIV infection improved, HIV-infected individuals face continued risks of esophageal and stomach carcinomas. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc

  13. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; Vincent, Kathryn B; Griffiths, Roland R; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2011-02-01

    Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from 1 large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%(wt) of students were classified as "low-frequency" energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%(wt) as "high-frequency" users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both nonusers (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.27 to 4.56, p = 0.007) and low-frequency users (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.14, p = 0.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from nonusers on their risk for alcohol dependence. Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Heightened fire risk in Indonesia in response to increasing temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, K.; Baethgen, W.; Verchot, L. V.; Gutierrez-Velez, V.; Pinedo-Vasquez, M.

    2016-12-01

    In Indonesia, drought driven fires occur typically during the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), such as those of 1997 and 2015 that resulted in months-long hazardous atmospheric pollution levels in Equatorial Asia and record greenhouse gas emissions. Nonetheless, anomalously active fire seasons have also been observed in non-drought years. In this work, we investigated whether fires are impacted by temperature anomalies and if so, if the responses differ under contrasting precipitation regimes. Our findings show that when the July-October dry-season is anomalously dry, the sensitivity of fires to temperature anomalies is similar regardless of the sign of the anomalies. In contrast, in wet condition, fire risk increases sharply when the dry season is anomalously warm. We also present a characterization of near-term regional climate projections over the next few decades and the implications of continuing global temperature increase in future fire probability in Indonesia.

  15. Neural correlates of face processing in etiologically-distinct 12-month-old infants at high-risk of autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie W. Guy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural correlates of face processing were examined in 12-month-olds at high-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD, including 21 siblings of children with ASD (ASIBs and 15 infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS, as well as 21 low-risk (LR controls. Event-related potentials were recorded to familiar and novel face and toy stimuli. All infants demonstrated greater N290 amplitude to faces than toys. At the Nc component, LR infants showed greater amplitude to novel stimuli than to their mother’s face and own toy, whereas infants with FXS showed the opposite pattern of responses and ASIBs did not differentiate based on familiarity. These results reflect developing face specialization across high- and low-risk infants and reveal neural patterns that distinguish between groups at high-risk for ASD. Keywords: Event-related potentials, Infancy, Face processing, Autism spectrum disorders

  16. Modifiable risk factors for increased arterial stiffness in outpatient nephrology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Elewa

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV, is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. Arterial stiffness increases with age. However, modifiable risk factors such as smoking, BP and salt intake also impact on PWV. The finding of modifiable risk factors may lead to the identification of treatable factors, and, thus, is of interest to practicing nephrologist. We have now studied the prevalence and correlates of arterial stiffness, assessed by PWV, in 191 patients from nephrology outpatient clinics in order to identify modifiable risk factors for arterial stiffness that may in the future guide therapeutic decision-making. PWV was above normal levels for age in 85/191 (44.5% patients. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, systolic BP, diabetes mellitus, serum uric acid and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy or calcium-containing medication were independent predictors of PWV. A new parameter, Delta above upper limit of normal PWV (Delta PWV was defined to decrease the weight of age on PWV values. Delta PWV was calculated as (measured PWV - (upper limit of the age-adjusted PWV values for the general population. Mean±SD Delta PWV was 0.76±1.60 m/sec. In multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, active smoking and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy remained independent predictors of higher delta PWV, while age, urinary potassium and beta blocker therapy were independent predictors of lower delta PWV. In conclusion, arterial stiffness was frequent in nephrology outpatients. Systolic blood pressure, smoking, serum uric acid, calcium-containing medications, potassium metabolism and non-use of beta blockers are modifiable factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in Nephrology outpatients.

  17. Increased physical activity decreases periodontitis risk in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Anwar T.; Pitiphat, Waranuch; Rimm, Eric B.; Joshipura, Kaumudi

    2003-01-01

    Background: Increased physical activity improves insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, and may therefore affect incidence of periodontitis. Methods: We studied the association of physical activity, walking and periodontitis in 39,461 male, US based, health professionals, 40-75 years old at baseline, more than half of whom were dentists, being followed up continuously since 1986. Participants were free of periodontitis, coronary heart disease and stroke at the start of follow-up. Physical activity and periodontitis were measured by validated questionnaires (expressed in metabolic equivalents - METs); the first report of professionally diagnosed periodontitis was considered a case. Results: Periodontitis risk decreased by 3% for every 10-MET increase in average physical activity after adjustment for age, smoking, diabetes, BMI, alcohol consumption and total calories (RR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99). The inverse trend remained significant in the categorical analysis. Compared to men in the lowest quintile of physical activity, those in the highest quintile had a 13% lower risk of periodontitis (RR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76-1.01, p-value, test for trend = 0.02). In a sub-sample of men with radiographs (n = 137) the physically active had less average bone loss (β = -0.29, p-value = 0.03) after multivariate adjustment compared to those inactive. Conclusions: In this large-scale prospective study, we found an inverse, linear association between sustained physical activity and periodontitis independent of known risk factors. The benefits of a physically active lifestyle may extend to periodontal health

  18. Are recreational SCUBA divers with asthma at increased risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustrup, Amalie S; Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2017-10-01

    Asthma has traditionally been regarded as a contraindication to self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving, although large numbers of patients with asthma dive. The aim of the review is to provide an update on current knowledge on potential disease-related hazards in SCUBA divers with asthma. Systematic literature review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Seven studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review (comprising a total of 560 subjects). Five studies reported an increased risk for developing diving-related injuries in divers with asthma, based on case reports (n = 1), case history combined with objective assessment (n = 1), and dives and/or simulated dives (n = 3). The remaining studies (n = 2) were based on self-reported diving habits in divers suffering from asthma, obtained from anonymous questionnaires in diving magazines, reported no diving-related injuries among respondents. Due to limited evidence it is difficult to draw valid conclusions, but there are indications that recreational divers with asthma may be at increased risk for diving-related injuries compared to non-asthmatic divers. However, it is of at most importance to obtain further evidence from large-scale, well-designed studies.

  19. Lifestyle Risk Factors Increase the Risk of Hospitalization for Sciatica: Findings of Four Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Euro, Ulla; Heliövaara, Markku; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Karppinen, Jaro; Lahti, Jouni; Rahkonen, Ossi; Raitakari, Olli T; Solovieva, Svetlana; Yang, Xiaolin; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Lallukka, Tea

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of lifestyle risk factors on the risk of hospitalization for sciatica and to determine whether overweight or obesity modifies the effect of leisure-time physical activity on hospitalization for sciatica. We included 4 Finnish prospective cohort studies (Health 2000 Survey, Mobile Clinic Survey, Helsinki Health Study, and Young Finns Study) consisting of 34,589 participants and 1259 hospitalizations for sciatica during 12 to 30 years of follow-up. Sciatica was based on hospital discharge register data. We conducted a random-effects individual participant data meta-analysis. After adjustment for confounding factors, current smoking at baseline increased the risk of subsequent hospitalization for sciatica by 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13%-56%), whereas past smokers were no longer at increased risk. Obesity defined by body mass index increased the risk of hospitalization for sciatica by 36% (95% CI 7%-74%), and abdominal obesity defined by waist circumference increased the risk by 41% (95% CI 3%-93%). Walking or cycling to work reduced the risk of hospitalization for sciatica by 33% (95% CI 4%-53%), and the effect was independent of body weight and other leisure activities, while other types of leisure activities did not have a statistically significant effect. Smoking and obesity increase the risk of hospitalization for sciatica, whereas walking or cycling to work protects against hospitalization for sciatica. Walking and cycling can be recommended for the prevention of sciatica in the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased sexually transmitted infection incidence in a low risk population: identifying the risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shiely, Frances

    2010-04-01

    Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.

  1. Thyroid cancer risk is not increased in diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    -inflammatory drugs might be associated with a significantly lower risk. CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of an overall association between diabetes and thyroid cancer, but patients with diabetes duration <5 years have a significantly lower risk. Sulfonylurea may increase the risk of thyroid cancer.

  2. Women referred for occupational risk assessment in pregnancy have no increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Signe Brøker; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to study the association between pregnant women's referral status for occupational risk assessment, and their risk of preterm delivery (METHODS: In a cohort study, 1,202 deliveries among....../or that the occupational risk assessment and counselling of pregnant women are preventing these selected adverse pregnancy outcomes. FUNDING: The Research Unit at Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at Bispebjerg Hospital supported the study financially. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant. The study.......72-1.17). CONCLUSION: The women who are referred for occupational risk assessment at two large occupational university departments are not at an increased risk of preterm birth or of delivering low birth weight children. This may reflect that reproductive hazards in Danish workplaces are limited and...

  3. Women referred for occupational risk assessment in pregnancy have no increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Signe Brøker; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2015-01-01

    .72-1.17). CONCLUSION: The women who are referred for occupational risk assessment at two large occupational university departments are not at an increased risk of preterm birth or of delivering low birth weight children. This may reflect that reproductive hazards in Danish workplaces are limited and....../or that the occupational risk assessment and counselling of pregnant women are preventing these selected adverse pregnancy outcomes. FUNDING: The Research Unit at Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at Bispebjerg Hospital supported the study financially. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant. The study......INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to study the association between pregnant women's referral status for occupational risk assessment, and their risk of preterm delivery (

  4. Climate change will increase the naturalization risk from garden plants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullinger, Iwona; Wessely, Johannes; Bossdorf, Oliver; Dawson, Wayne; Essl, Franz; Gattringer, Andreas; Klonner, Günther; Kreft, Holger; Kuttner, Michael; Moser, Dietmar; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Thuiller, Wilfried; van Kleunen, Mark; Weigelt, Patrick; Winter, Marten; Dullinger, Stefan; Beaumont, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Plant invasions often follow initial introduction with a considerable delay. The current non-native flora of a region may hence contain species that are not yet naturalized but may become so in the future, especially if climate change lifts limitations on species spread. In Europe, non-native garden plants represent a huge pool of potential future invaders. Here, we evaluate the naturalization risk from this species pool and how it may change under a warmer climate. Europe. We selected all species naturalized anywhere in the world but not yet in Europe from the set of non-native European garden plants. For this subset of 783 species, we used species distribution models to assess their potential European ranges under different scenarios of climate change. Moreover, we defined geographical hotspots of naturalization risk from those species by combining projections of climatic suitability with maps of the area available for ornamental plant cultivation. Under current climate, 165 species would already find suitable conditions in > 5% of Europe. Although climate change substantially increases the potential range of many species, there are also some that are predicted to lose climatically suitable area under a changing climate, particularly species native to boreal and Mediterranean biomes. Overall, hotspots of naturalization risk defined by climatic suitability alone, or by a combination of climatic suitability and appropriate land cover, are projected to increase by up to 102% or 64%, respectively. Our results suggest that the risk of naturalization of European garden plants will increase with warming climate, and thus it is very likely that the risk of negative impacts from invasion by these plants will also grow. It is therefore crucial to increase awareness of the possibility of biological invasions among horticulturalists, particularly in the face of a warming climate.

  5. Stress-induced alterations in estradiol sensitivity increase risk for obesity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the United States continues to rise, increasing individual vulnerability to an array of adverse health outcomes. One factor that has been implicated causally in the increased accumulation of fat and excess food intake is the activity of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis in the face of relentless stressor exposure. However, translational and clinical research continues to understudy the effects sex and gonadal hormones and LHPA axis dysfunction in the etiology of obesity even though women continue to be at greater risk than men for stress-induced disorders, including depression, emotional feeding and obesity. The current review will emphasize the need for sex-specific evaluation of the relationship between stress exposure and LHPA axis activity on individual risk for obesity by summarizing data generated by animal models currently being leveraged to determine the etiology of stress-induced alterations in feeding behavior and metabolism. There exists a clear lack of translational models that have been used to study female-specific risk. One translational model of psychosocial stress exposure that has proven fruitful in elucidating potential mechanisms by which females are at increased risk for stress-induced adverse health outcomes is that of social subordination in socially housed female macaque monkeys. Data from subordinate female monkeys suggest that increased risk for emotional eating and the development of obesity in females may be due to LHPA axis-induced changes in the behavioral and physiological sensitivity of estradiol. The lack in understanding of the mechanisms underlying these alterations necessitate the need to account for the effects of sex and gonadal hormones in the rationale, design, implementation, analysis and interpretation of results in our studies of stress axis function in obesity. Doing so may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets with which to combat stress-induced obesity

  6. Probability Assessment and Risk Management of Progressive Collapse in Strategic Buildings Facing Blast Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, as a result of increased terrorist and bomb attacks throughout the globe in the vicinity of strategic buildings, designing these structures against impact loads, particularly the blast-related ones, has been taken into more consideration. The current procedure for designing the structure against an explosion is a design against the local failure of the current elements in the first step and then, in the next step, against local damage as well as tactful thinking to prevent this damage from spreading to other parts of the structure. The present research investigates the impacts of explosives, derived from probable terror–stricken scenarios inside and outside a strategic four-story steel building with a special moment frame system. Then, the resistive capacity of the damaged building (due to blast has been evaluated against the progressive collapse, and finally, the rate of the collapse risk and the reliability of the structure have been obtained by presenting a probable method. Thus, the vulnerable parts inside and outside the building are identified and safety measures have been determined, so that in case of no safety or excessive collapse risk- access to dangerous parts of the building could be reinforced or limited. Results show that progressive collapse probability and reliability of the building are 57% and 43% respectively.

  7. Optimal sharing of quantity risk for a coalition of wind power producers facing nodal prices

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E. Y.; Baeyens, E.; Khargonekar, P. P.; Poolla, K.; Varaiya, P.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that aggregation of geographically diverse wind energy resources offers compelling potential to mitigate wind power variability, as wind speed at different geographic locations tends to decorrelate with increasing spatial separation. In this paper, we explore the extent to which a coalition of wind power producers can exploit the statistical benefits of aggregation to mitigate the risk of quantity shortfall with respect to forward contract offerings for energy. We propose a simple augmentation of the existing two-settlement market system with nodal pricing to permit quantity risk sharing among wind power producers by affording the group a recourse opportunity to utilize improved forecasts of their ensuing wind energy production to collectively modify their forward contracted positions so as to utilize the projected surplus in generation at certain buses to balance the projected shortfall in generation at complementary buses. Working within this framework, we show that the problem of optimally sizing a set of forward contracts for a group of wind power producers reduces to convex programming and derive closed form expressions for the set of optimal recourse policies. We also asses the willingness of individual wind power producers to form a coalition to cooperatively offer contracts for energy. We first show that the expected profit derived from coalitional contract offerings with recourse is greater than that achievable through independent contract offerings. And, using tools from coalitional game theory, we show that the core for our game is non-empty.

  8. Optimal sharing of quantity risk for a coalition of wind power producers facing nodal prices

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E. Y.

    2012-06-01

    It is widely accepted that aggregation of geographically diverse wind energy resources offers compelling potential to mitigate wind power variability, as wind speed at different geographic locations tends to decorrelate with increasing spatial separation. In this paper, we explore the extent to which a coalition of wind power producers can exploit the statistical benefits of aggregation to mitigate the risk of quantity shortfall with respect to forward contract offerings for energy. We propose a simple augmentation of the existing two-settlement market system with nodal pricing to permit quantity risk sharing among wind power producers by affording the group a recourse opportunity to utilize improved forecasts of their ensuing wind energy production to collectively modify their forward contracted positions so as to utilize the projected surplus in generation at certain buses to balance the projected shortfall in generation at complementary buses. Working within this framework, we show that the problem of optimally sizing a set of forward contracts for a group of wind power producers reduces to convex programming and derive closed form expressions for the set of optimal recourse policies. We also asses the willingness of individual wind power producers to form a coalition to cooperatively offer contracts for energy. We first show that the expected profit derived from coalitional contract offerings with recourse is greater than that achievable through independent contract offerings. And, using tools from coalitional game theory, we show that the core for our game is non-empty.

  9. Increased risk of hydrocephalus in long-term dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Kuan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Cheng, Yu-Kai; Chou, Che-Yi; Liang, Chih-Chia; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2016-05-01

    The risk of hydrocephalus in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on dialysis has not been studied in depth. Using Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data, we identified 29 684 incident ESRD patients from 2000 to 2010, including 10 030 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 19 654 hemodialysis (HD) patients. The control cohort consisted of 118 736 people randomly selected from those without kidney disease, frequency matched with ESRD patients by age, sex and index year. We also established propensity score-matched cohorts with 10 014 PD and 10 014 HD patients. The incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) of hydrocephalus were calculated until the end of 2011. Incidence rates of hydrocephalus were greater in HD and PD patients than in controls (8.44 and 11.0 versus 4.11 per 10 000 person-years, respectively), with an adjusted HR of 1.86 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-2.41] for all ESRD patients compared with controls. A higher proportion of hydrocephalus patients underwent surgical bypass to relieve hydrocephalus in ESRD patients than controls, 40.7% (46/113) versus 24.5% (67/273), with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.11 (95% CI 1.33-3.36). Compared with controls, the adjusted HRs of communicating hydrocephalus for HD and PD patients were 1.77 (95% CI 1.22-2.55) and 2.51 (95% CI 1.61-3.89), respectively. The propensity score-matched analysis showed an HR of 0.72 (95% CI 0.42-1.23) for hydrocephalus in HD patients compared with PD patients. Patients with ESRD are at an increased risk of hydrocephalus. The risk difference between HD and PD patients is not significant. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  10. Caesarean section greatly increases risk of scar endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nominato, Nilo Sérgio; Prates, Luis Felipe Victor Spyer; Lauar, Isabela; Morais, Jaqueline; Maia, Laura; Geber, Selmo

    2010-09-01

    To estimate the incidence of scar endometriosis after different surgical procedures. A retrospective study of 72 patients diagnosed with scar endometriosis between 1978 and 2003 was performed. Patient age, site of endometriosis, previous operations, time-gap between last surgery and onset of symptoms, nodule characteristics, and recurrence were evaluated. Age ranged from 16 to 48 years. Location varied according to the previous surgery: 46 caesarean section, one hysterectomy, one in abdominal surgery, 19 episiotomy, one was a relapse and two pelvic floor procedures, two women with no previous surgery. The incidence of scar endometriosis after caesarean section was significantly higher than after episiotomy (0.2 and 0.06%, respectively: p<0.00001) with a relative risk of 3.3. Pain was the most frequent symptom. The mean time between surgery and onset of symptoms was 3.7 years. Our findings confirm that scar endometriosis is a rare condition and indicate, probably for the first time, that caesarean section greatly increases the risk of developing scar endometriosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk Factors Associated with Increased Morbidity in Living Liver Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helry L. Candido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Living donor liver donation (LDLD is an alternative to cadaveric liver donation. We aimed at identifying risk factors and developing a score for prediction of postoperative complications (POCs after LDLD in donors. This is a retrospective cohort study in 688 donors between June 1995 and February 2014 at Hospital Sírio-Libanês and A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, in São Paulo, Brazil. Primary outcome was POC graded ≥III according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Left lateral segment (LLS, left lobe (LL, and right lobe resections (RL were conducted in 492 (71.4%, 109 (15.8%, and 87 (12.6% donors, respectively. In total, 43 (6.2% developed POCs, which were more common after RL than LLS and LL (14/87 (16.1% versus 23/492 (4.5% and 6/109 (5.5%, resp., p<0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that RL resection (OR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.32 to 3.01; p=0.008, smoking status (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.35 to 7.56; p=0.012, and blood transfusion (OR: 3.15, 95% CI: 1.45 to 6.84; p=0.004 were independently associated with POCs. RL resection, intraoperative blood transfusion, and smoking were associated with increased risk for POCs in donors.

  12. Increased risk of abortion after genetic amniocentesis in twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palle, C; Andersen, J W; Tabor, A

    1983-01-01

    Forty-seven twin pregnancies among 3676 patients who had a genetic amniocentesis between 1973 and 1979, are reported. The detection rate of twins at the time of amniocentesis was 62 per cent. Five (17 per cent) of the 29 women with detected twin pregnancy aborted spontaneously, these are compared...... in at least one sac aborted, while 3 of 20 twin pregnancies with one puncture in each sac aborted (15 per cent). One of 18 (6 per cent) twin pregnancies, where only one sac was punctured, because the twin pregnancies were undetected, aborted. Amniocentesis of both sacs in twin pregnancies seems associated...... with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. The indications for amniocentesis in twin pregnancies should be critically evaluated....

  13. Drugs of abuse and increased risk of psychosis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururajan, Anand; Manning, Elizabeth E; Klug, Maren; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2012-12-01

    There is considerable evidence to suggest that the abuse of illicit drugs, particularly cannabis and methamphetamine, has aetiological roles in the pathogenesis of psychosis and schizophrenia. Factors that may increase susceptibility to the propsychotic effects of these drugs include the age at which the abuse starts as well as family history of genetic polymorphisms relevant to the pathophysiology of this disorder. However, the neurobiological mechanisms involved in drug abuse-associated psychosis remain largely unclear. This paper presents an overview of the available evidence, including clinical, animal model, and molecular studies, with a focus on brain regions and neurotransmitters systems, such as dopamine and glutamate, previously implicated in psychosis. It is clear that further studies are urgently needed to provide a greater insight into the mechanisms that mediate the long-term and neurodevelopmental effects of cannabis and methamphetamine. A dialogue between basic science and clinical research may help to identify at-risk individuals and novel pathways for treatment and prevention.

  14. Can stress in farm animals increase food safety risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostagno, Marcos H

    2009-09-01

    All farm animals will experience some level of stress during their lives. Stress reduces the fitness of an animal, which can be expressed through failure to achieve production performance standards, or through disease and death. Stress in farm animals can also have detrimental effects on the quality of food products. However, although a common assumption of a potential effect of stress on food safety exists, little is actually known about how this interaction may occur. The aim of this review was to examine the current knowledge of the potential impact of stress in farm animals on food safety risk. Colonization of farm animals by enteric pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Campylobacter, and their subsequent dissemination into the human food chain are a major public health and economic concern for the food industries. This review shows that there is increasing evidence to demonstrate that stress can have a significant deleterious effect on food safety through a variety of potential mechanisms. However, as the impact of stress is difficult to precisely determine, it is imperative that the issue receives more research attention in the interests of optimizing animal welfare and minimizing losses in product yield and quality, as well as to food safety risks to consumers. While there is some evidence linking stress with pathogen carriage and shedding in farm animals, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. Understanding when pathogen loads on the farm are the highest or when animals are most susceptible to infection will help identifying times when intervention strategies for pathogen control may be most effective, and consequently, increase the safety of food of animal origin.

  15. Preoperative weight gain might increase risk of gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istfan, Nawfal W; Anderson, Wendy A; Apovian, Caroline M; Hess, Donald T; Forse, R Armour

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss improves the cardiovascular and metabolic risk associated with obesity. However, insufficient data are available about the health effects of weight gain, separate from the obesity itself. We sought to determine whether the changes in body weight before open gastric bypass surgery (OGB) would have a significant effect on the immediate perioperative hospital course. A retrospective chart review of 100 consecutive patients was performed to examine the effects of co-morbidities and body weight changes in the immediate preoperative period on the hospital length of stay and the rate of admission to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Of our class III obese patients undergoing OGB, 95% had ≥1 co-morbid condition and an overall SICU admission rate of 18%. Compared with the patients with no perioperative SICU admission, the patients admitted to the SICU had a greater degree of insulin resistance (homeostatic model analysis-insulin resistance 10.8 ± 1.3 versus 5.9 ± 0.5, P = .001), greater serum triglyceride levels (225 ± 47 versus 143 ± 8 mg/dL, P = .003), and had gained more weight preoperatively (.52 ± .13 versus .06 ± .06 lb/wk, P = .003). The multivariate analyses showed that preoperative weight gain was a risk factor for a longer length of stay and more SICU admissions lasting ≥3 days, as were a diagnosis of sleep apnea and an elevated serum triglyceride concentration. The results of the present retrospective study suggest that weight gain increases the risk of perioperative SICU admission associated with OGB, independent of the body mass index. Sleep apnea and elevated serum triglyceride levels were also important determinants of perioperative morbidity. In view of the increasing epidemic of obesity and the popularity of bariatric surgical procedures, we propose that additional clinical and metabolic research focusing on the understanding of the complex relationship among obesity, positive energy balance, weight gain, and perioperative

  16. Risk of contamination of different areas of dentist′s face during dental practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Nejatidanesh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: During dental practice, central areas of the face such as inner part of the eyes and around the nose were most contaminated areas. These parts are the important areas for transmission of infection. It is recommended to use protective means like glasses, mask, and protective shield, which have more protection field in these areas.

  17. Increased Flooding Risk - Accelerating Threat and Stakeholder Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, L. P.; Ezer, T.; De Young, R.; McShane, M. K.; McFarlane, B.

    2012-12-01

    projects, and "…subsidence …. is not well-documented". Studies sponsored by the City of Norfolk for example suggest massive tidal barriers. Flood insurance - Flood insurance is available only from the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), not from private insurers. NFIP has a current deficit of about 18B, which is estimated to increase by about 2B annually. The rates are subsidized and do not reflect the true risk of coastal flooding and do not incorporate the likelihood of future sea-level rise. In effect, the subsidy promotes increased building on the coast, leading to increased deficits in the tax-payer financed program. Risk-based flood insurance pricing would lead to less coastal development, therefore decreasing the tax base of the community. Stakeholder needs - Planning for increased flooding due to sea level rise extends 50 to 100 years given the lifetime of infrastructure. Planners need guidance and error estimates. To make adequate predictions for users we must understand the various components of sea level rise including subsidence, global sea level rise and regional and local dynamic sea level rise. Predictions of regional sea level rise will be presented in the context of existing infrastructure such as NASA research facilities and the city of Norfolk, Virginia.

  18. Increased Risk of Drug-Induced Hyponatremia during High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Jönsson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the relationship between outdoor temperature in Sweden and the reporting of drug-induced hyponatremia to the Medical Products Agency (MPA. Methods: All individual adverse drug reactions (ADR reported to MPA from 1 January 2010 to 31 October 2013 of suspected drug-induced hyponatremia and random controls were identified. Reports where the ADR had been assessed as having at least a possible relation to the suspected drug were included. Information on administered drugs, onset date, causality assessment, sodium levels, and the geographical origin of the reports was extracted. A case-crossover design was used to ascertain the association between heat exposure and drug-induced hyponatremia at the individual level, while linear regression was used to study its relationship to sodium concentration in blood. Temperature exposure data were obtained from the nearest observation station to the reported cases. Results: During the study period, 280 reports of hyponatremia were identified. More cases of drug-induced hyponatremia were reported in the warmer season, with a peak in June, while other ADRs showed an opposite annual pattern. The distributed lag non-linear model indicated an increasing odds ratio (OR with increasing temperature in the warm season with a highest odds ratio, with delays of 1–5 days after heat exposure. A cumulative OR for a lag time of 1 to 3 days was estimated at 2.21 at an average daily temperature of 20 °C. The change in sodium per 1 °C increase in temperature was estimated to be −0.37 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.02, −0.72. Conclusions: Warm weather appears to increase the risk of drug-induced hyponatremia

  19. Increased Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataş, Hatice; Gönül, Müzeyyen

    2017-05-05

    Inflammatory and immune processes can be triggered in vitiligo due to a decreased number of melanocytes and their anti-inflammatory effects. Because of the systemic nature of vitiligo, metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and lipid profile disturbances as well as skin involvement may be observed in vitiligo. To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome and vitiligo. Case-control study. The demographic, clinical and laboratory features in the subjects were compared according to presence of vitiligo and metabolic syndrome [patients (n=63) vs. gender-age matched controls (n=65) and metabolic syndrome positive (n=38) vs. negative (n=90)]. A logistic regression analysis was also used. We identified metabolic syndrome in 24 (38.1%) subjects with vitiligo and 14 (21.5%) subjects without vitiligo (p=0.04). Active vitiligo, segmental vitiligo, an increased duration of vitiligo and an increased percentage in the affected body surface area were determined to be independent predictors of metabolic syndrome [activity of vitiligo: p=0.012, OR (95% CI)=64.4 (2.5-1672); type of vitiligo: p=0.007, OR (95% CI)=215.1 (4.3-10725.8); duration of vitiligo: p=0.03, OR (95% CI)=1.4 (1.1-2.0); percentage of affected body surface area: p=0.07, OR (95% CI)=1.2 (0.98-1.5)]. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome is increased in patients with vitiligo. The poor clinical features of vitiligo, such as active, extended and segmental vitiligo with an increased duration of time, are independent predictors for developing metabolic syndrome.

  20. Barriers to Online Postsecondary Education Crumble: Enrollment in Traditional Face-to-Face Courses Declines as Enrollment in Online Courses Increases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dahli

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to expectations, total postsecondary enrollment in the United States (US) declined in Fall 2011. In fact, it continues to decline while online enrollment continues to increase. Students can more easily cross geographic boundaries as online access causes barriers to postsecondary education to crumble, and more than 50% of the demand for…

  1. Balancing Life with an Increased Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helle Vendel; Nilbert, Mef; Bernstein, Inge

    2014-01-01

    led us to explore lived experiences in healthy mutation carriers with Lynch syndrome. Individual interviews were subjected to descriptive phenomenological analysis. Four constitutions, namely, family context, interpretation and transformation, approach to risk and balancing life at risk were...

  2. Women referred for occupational risk assessment in pregnancy have no increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Signe Brøker; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2015-01-01

    .72-1.17). CONCLUSION: The women who are referred for occupational risk assessment at two large occupational university departments are not at an increased risk of preterm birth or of delivering low birth weight children. This may reflect that reproductive hazards in Danish workplaces are limited and......INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to study the association between pregnant women's referral status for occupational risk assessment, and their risk of preterm delivery (... pregnant women referred to two Danish clinics of occupational medicine (Copenhagen and Aarhus) from 1984 to 2010 were compared with the referred women's 1,077 non-referred pregnancy outcomes and with the pregnancy outcomes of 345,467 gainfully employed women from the same geographical areas and time period...

  3. Traumatic Stress Interacts With Bipolar Disorder Genetic Risk to Increase Risk for Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Holly C; Fullerton, Janice M; Glowinski, Anne L; Benke, Kelly; Kamali, Masoud; Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Stapp, Emma K; Edenberg, Howard J; Roberts, Gloria M P; Ghaziuddin, Neera; Fisher, Carrie; Brucksch, Christine; Frankland, Andrew; Toma, Claudio; Shaw, Alex D; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Miller, Leslie; McInnis, Melvin G; Mitchell, Philip B; Nurnberger, John I

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the most heritable psychiatric conditions and is associated with high suicide risk. To explore the reasons for this link, this study examined the interaction between traumatic stress and BD polygenic risk score in relation to suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescent and young adult offspring and relatives of persons with BD (BD-relatives) compared with adolescent and young adult offspring of individuals without psychiatric disorders (controls). Data were collected from 4 sites in the United States and 1 site in Australia from 2006 through 2012. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare rates of ideation, attempts, and NSSI between BD-relatives (n = 307) and controls (n = 166) and to determine the contribution of demographic factors, traumatic stress exposure, lifetime mood or substance (alcohol/drug) use disorders, and BD polygenic risk score. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and mood and substance use disorders, BD-relatives were at increased risk for suicidal ideation and attempts but not for NSSI. Independent of BD-relative versus control status, demographic factors, or mood and substance use disorders, exposure to trauma within the past year (including bullying, sexual abuse, and domestic violence) was associated with suicide attempts (p = .014), and BD polygenic risk score was marginally associated with attempts (p = .061). Importantly, the interaction between BD polygenic risk score and traumatic event exposures was significantly associated with attempts, independent of demographics, relative versus control status, and mood and substance use disorders (p = .041). BD-relatives are at increased risk for suicide attempts and ideation, especially if they are exposed to trauma and have evidence of increased genetic vulnerability. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Does physical activity increase the risk of unsafe sun exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Andrew; Bright, Margaret; Knight, Libby; Perina, Heather; Vardon, Paul; Harper, Catherine

    2012-04-01

    Recent increases in the prevalence of self-reported participation in physical activity are encouraging and beneficial for health overall. However, the implications for sun safety need to be considered, particularly in Australia, which has the highest incidence of skin cancer in the world. This study investigated the relationship between physical activity and sunburn to determine if there is a need for integration of sun safety in physical activity promotion. During the 2009/10 southern hemisphere summer, 7802 adults aged 18 to 74 years participated in a computer-assisted telephone interview survey which included a range of self-reported health measures including physical activity, sunburn, skin type, sun protection behaviour and demographic questions. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was undertaken to estimate the association between physical activity and sunburn. Those who reported doing any level of physical activity were significantly more likely to report having experienced sunburn in the past 12 months and on the last weekend, compared with those who did none, with the strongest association among those who undertook 7 hours or more. Each hour of physical activity was associated with a modest increase in the odds of experiencing sunburn in the previous 12 months (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.010-1.037) and weekend (OR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.023-1.065), after adjusting for potential confounding variables. This study highlights the need for sun protection to be given more prominence in physical activity promotion in order to optimise health benefits without increasing the prevalence of sunburn and associated skin cancer risk.

  5. Does Operational Risk Disclosure Quality Increase Operating Cash Flows?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham Nobanee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to measure the degree of operational risk disclosure and examine its impact on operating cash flow of banks listed on the UAE Abu Dhabi Stock Exchange (ADX and Dubai Financial Market (DFM during the period 2003-2016. The authors conducted content analysis of the annual reports to measure the degree of operational risk disclosure. In addition, they used dynamic panel data regressions to analyze the impact of operational risk disclosure on the operating cash flow generated by the banks. The results show a low degree of operational risk disclosure for all UAE banks, both Islamic and conventional. In addition, the results show no association between the levels of disclosure of operational risk and cash flow for all banks, conventional and Islamic. Operational risk disclosure of Islamic banks has not been examined by any prior researchers. In addition, this paper examines the potential impact of operational risk disclosure on the operating cash flow generated by the banks.

  6. Human Adenovirus 36 Infection Increased the Risk of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei-Yan; Cao, Bing; Wang, Dong-Fang; Guo, Jing-Hui; Chen, Kai-Li; Shi, Mai; Yin, Jian; Lu, Qing-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Human adenovirus 36 (HAdV-36), as the key pathogen, was supposed and discussed to be associated with obesity. We searched the references on the association between HAdV-36 infection and obesity with the different epidemiological methods, to explore the relationship with a larger sample size by meta-analysis and compare the differences of epidemiological methods and population subsets by the subgroup analyses. We conducted literature search on the association between HAdV-36 infections and obesity in English or Chinese published up to July 1, 2015. The primary outcome was the HAdV-36 infection rate in the obese and lean groups; the secondary outcomes were the BMI level and BMI z-score in the HAdV-36 positive and negative groups. The pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated for the primary outcome; the standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated for the secondary and third outcomes. Prediction interval (PI) was graphically presented in the forest plot of the random effect meta-analyses. Metaregression analysis and subgroup analysis were performed. Finally 24 references with 10,191 study subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The obesity subjects were more likely to be infected with HAdV-36 compared to the lean controls (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.46, 2.74; PI: 0.59, 6.76; P infection for obesity were 1.77 (95%CI: 1.19, 2.63; PI: 0.44, 7.03; P = 0.005) and 2.26 (95%CI: 1.67, 3.07; PI: 1.45, 3.54; P SMD of BMI was 0.28 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.47; PI: −0.53, 1.08; P = 0.006) in the HAdV-36 positive subjects with a high heterogeneity (I2 = 86.5%; P infection was higher than those without HAdV-36 infection (SMD = 0.19; 95%CI: −0.31, 0.70; PI: −2.10, 2.49), which had no significantly statistical difference (P = 0.453). HAdV-36 infection increased the risk of obesity. HAdV-36 also increased the risk of weight gain in adults, which was not observed in children. PMID:26705235

  7. The many faces of fear: a synthesis of the methodological variation in characterizing predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Remington J; Redilla, Kyle M; Mudumba, Tutilo; Muneza, Arthur B; Gray, Steven M; Abade, Leandro; Hayward, Matt W; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Montgomery, Robert A

    2017-07-01

    Predators affect prey by killing them directly (lethal effects) and by inducing costly antipredator behaviours in living prey (risk effects). Risk effects can strongly influence prey populations and cascade through trophic systems. A prerequisite for assessing risk effects is characterizing the spatiotemporal variation in predation risk. Risk effects research has experienced rapid growth in the last several decades. However, preliminary assessments of the resultant literature suggest that researchers characterize predation risk using a variety of techniques. The implications of this methodological variation for inference and comparability among studies have not been well recognized or formally synthesized. We couple a literature survey with a hierarchical framework, developed from established theory, to quantify the methodological variation in characterizing risk using carnivore-ungulate systems as a case study. Via this process, we documented 244 metrics of risk from 141 studies falling into at least 13 distinct subcategories within three broader categories. Both empirical and theoretical work suggest risk and its effects on prey constitute a complex, multi-dimensional process with expressions varying by spatiotemporal scale. Our survey suggests this multi-scale complexity is reflected in the literature as a whole but often underappreciated in any given study, which complicates comparability among studies and leads to an overemphasis on documenting the presence of risk effects rather than their mechanisms or scale of influence. We suggest risk metrics be placed in a more concrete conceptual framework to clarify inference surrounding risk effects and their cascading effects throughout ecosystems. We recommend studies (i) take a multi-scale approach to characterizing risk; (ii) explicitly consider 'true' predation risk (probability of predation per unit time); and (iii) use risk metrics that facilitate comparison among studies and the evaluation of multiple

  8. Daytime napping and increased risk of incident respiratory diseases: symptom, marker, or risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yue; Wainwright, Nick W J; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Surtees, Paul G; Hayat, Shabina; Luben, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2016-07-01

    We have identified a strong association between daytime napping and increased mortality risk from respiratory diseases, but little is known about the relationship between daytime napping and respiratory morbidity. Data were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort. Participants reported napping habits during 1998-2000 and were followed up for respiratory disease hospital admissions until March 2009. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between daytime napping and respiratory disease incidence risk. The study sample included 10,978 men and women with a mean age of 61.9 years, and a total of 946 incident respiratory disease cases were recorded. After adjustment for age, sex, social class, education, marital status, employment status, nightshift work, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, self-reported general health, hypnotic drug use, habitual sleep duration, and preexisting health conditions, daytime napping was associated with an increase in the overall respiratory disease incidence risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15, 1.52 for napping respiratory diseases, especially for the risk of chronic lower respiratory diseases (HR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.96 for napping respiratory disease incidence risk. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and help understand potential mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Do Creditor Rights Increase Employment Risk? Evidence from Loan Covenants

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, J. Nellie; Falato, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Using a regression discontinuity design, we provide evidence that incentive conflicts between firms and their creditors have a large impact on employees. There are sharp and substantial employment cuts following loan covenant violations, when creditors exercise their ex post control rights. The negative impact of violations on employment is stronger for firms that face more severe agency and financing frictions and those whose employees have weaker bargaining power. Employment cuts following ...

  10. Global risk of big earthquakes has not recently increased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Peter M; Stark, Philip B

    2012-01-17

    The recent elevated rate of large earthquakes has fueled concern that the underlying global rate of earthquake activity has increased, which would have important implications for assessments of seismic hazard and our understanding of how faults interact. We examine the timing of large (magnitude M≥7) earthquakes from 1900 to the present, after removing local clustering related to aftershocks. The global rate of M≥8 earthquakes has been at a record high roughly since 2004, but rates have been almost as high before, and the rate of smaller earthquakes is close to its historical average. Some features of the global catalog are improbable in retrospect, but so are some features of most random sequences--if the features are selected after looking at the data. For a variety of magnitude cutoffs and three statistical tests, the global catalog, with local clusters removed, is not distinguishable from a homogeneous Poisson process. Moreover, no plausible physical mechanism predicts real changes in the underlying global rate of large events. Together these facts suggest that the global risk of large earthquakes is no higher today than it has been in the past.

  11. Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar; Lindhardsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease that affects 2-3% of the population and shares pathophysiologic mechanisms and risk factors with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have suggested psoriasis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Danish guidelines...... on cardiovascular risk factor modification in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have recently been published. We provide a short review of the current evidence and the Danish guidelines....

  12. Care for patients with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Boheemen, C. van; Geffen, K. van; Philbert, D.; Bos, M.; Dis, I. van; Strijbis, A.; Bouvy, M.; Dijk, L. van

    2010-01-01

    Background: In 2009, a national standard of care for vascular risk management (VRM) was developed. This standard, which was sent to all general practitioners (GPs), contains requirements for optimal care. One requirement is the formulation of a written individual-care plan which contains an extended description of the patient’s cardiovascular risk factors and a plan to reduce the risk. The aim of our study is to describe to what extent current care meets the requirement posed in the care stan...

  13. HUD INFORMATION SYSTEMS: Immature Software Acquisition Capability Increases Project Risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... GAO has designated HUD's major program areas as high risk, in part because the department's information and financial management systems were poorly integrated, ineffective, and generally unreliable...

  14. Risk Analysis and Prediction of Floor Failure Mechanisms at Longwall Face in Parvadeh-I Coal Mine using Rock Engineering System (RES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababaei, Sajjad; Saeedi, Gholamreza; Jalalifar, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    The floor failure at longwall face decreases productivity and safety, increases operation costs, and causes other serious problems. In Parvadeh-I coal mine, the timber is used to prevent the puncture of powered support base into the floor. In this paper, a rock engineering system (RES)-based model is presented to evaluate the risk of floor failure mechanisms at the longwall face of E 2 and W 1 panels. The presented model is used to determine the most probable floor failure mechanism, effective factors, damaged regions and remedial actions. From the analyzed results, it is found that soft floor failure is dominant in the floor failure mechanism at Parvadeh-I coal mine. The average of vulnerability index (VI) for soft, buckling and compressive floor failure mechanisms was estimated equal to 52, 43 and 30 for both panels, respectively. By determining the critical VI for soft floor failure mechanism equal to 54, the percentage of regions with VIs beyond the critical VI in E 2 and W 1 panels is equal to 65.5 and 30, respectively. The percentage of damaged regions showed that the excess amount of used timber to prevent the puncture of weak floor below the powered support base is equal to 4,180,739 kg. RES outputs and analyzed results showed that setting and yielding load of powered supports, length of face, existent water at face, geometry of powered supports, changing the cutting pattern at longwall face and limiting the panels to damaged regions with supercritical VIs could be considered to control the soft floor failure in this mine. The results of this research could be used as a useful tool to identify the damaged regions prior to mining operation at longwall panel for the same conditions.

  15. Increase of Meningitis Risk in Stroke Patients in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie-Hong Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposeThe blood–brain barrier (BBB not only provides a physical obstruction but also recruits and activates neutrophils in cases of infection. Hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke reportedly induces the disruption of the BBB. However, few studies have reported a correlation between the incidence of meningitis in patients with a history of stroke. This study tested the hypothesis that patients with a history of stroke may be more vulnerable to meningitis.MethodsStroke and age-matched comparison (n = 29,436 and 87,951, respectively cohorts were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database (2000–2011. Correlations between the two cohorts were evaluated by Cox proportional hazard regression model, Kaplan–Meier curve, and log-rank tests.ResultsThe incidence of meningitis was higher in the stroke cohort compared to that in the comparison cohort [hazard ratio (HR, 2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI, 2.23–3.74, p < 0.001]. After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the estimated HR in the stroke cohort was 2.55-fold higher than that in the comparison cohort (CI, 1.94–3.37; p < 0.001. Notably, patients who had experienced hemorrhagic stroke had a higher incidence rate of meningitis than those with a history of ischemic stroke, except for patients older than 75 years (incidence rates in hemorrhagic/ischemic stroke patients, 3.14/1.48 in patients younger than 45 years, 1.52/0.41 in 45- to 64-year group, 1.15/0.90 in 65- to 74-year group, 0.74/0.93 in patients older than 75 years. Moreover, stroke patients who had undergone head surgery had the highest meningitis risk (adjusted HR, 8.66; 95% CI, 5.55–13.5; p < 0.001 followed by stroke patients who had not undergone head surgery (adjusted HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.57–2.82; p < 0.001.ConclusionOur results indicated that stroke patients have higher risks of meningitis. Compromised BBB integrity in stroke patients may lead to increased

  16. Taking chances in the face of threat: romantic risk regulation and approach motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Justin V; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M; Holmes, John G

    2009-06-01

    Four studies examine the hypothesis that goals adopted by high and low self-esteem people (HSEs and LSEs) to manage risk in romantic relationships may reflect global shifts in approach motivation and subsequently affect risk taking in nonsocial domains. In Studies 1 and 2, threats to participants' romantic relationships heightened HSEs' self-reported general approach motivation while lowering LSEs' approach motivation. In Studies 2 through 4, HSEs exhibited riskier decision making (i.e., a greater tendency to pursue rewards and ignore risks) in nonsocial domains following a relationship threat manipulation whereas LSEs made more conservative decisions. These results suggest that the romantic risk regulation may be inherently linked to a broader approach and avoidance system and that specific risk regulation behaviors may be driven by global motivational shifts to a greater degree than previously theorized.

  17. Altered insular activation and increased insular functional connectivity during sad and happy face processing in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henje Blom, Eva; Connolly, Colm G; Ho, Tiffany C; LeWinn, Kaja Z; Mobayed, Nisreen; Han, Laura; Paulus, Martin P; Wu, Jing; Simmons, Alan N; Yang, Tony T

    2015-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and occurs commonly first during adolescence. The insular cortex (IC) plays an important role in integrating emotion processing with interoception and has been implicated recently in the pathophysiology of adult and adolescent MDD. However, no studies have yet specifically examined the IC in adolescent MDD during processing of faces in the sad-happy continuum. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the IC during sad and happy face processing in adolescents with MDD compared to healthy controls (HCL). Thirty-one adolescents (22 female) with MDD and 36 (23 female) HCL underwent a well-validated emotional processing fMRI paradigm that included sad and happy face stimuli. The MDD group showed significantly less differential activation of the anterior/middle insular cortex (AMIC) in response to sad versus happy faces compared to the HCL group. AMIC also showed greater functional connectivity with right fusiform gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus in the MDD compared to HCL group. Moreover, differential activation to sad and happy faces in AMIC correlated negatively with depression severity within the MDD group. Small age-range and cross-sectional nature precluded assessment of development of the AMIC in adolescent depression. Given the role of the IC in integrating bodily stimuli with conscious cognitive and emotional processes, our findings of aberrant AMIC function in adolescent MDD provide a neuroscientific rationale for targeting the AMIC in the development of new treatment modalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Women referred for occupational risk assessment in pregnancy have no increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Signe Brøker; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2015-01-01

    pregnant women referred to two Danish clinics of occupational medicine (Copenhagen and Aarhus) from 1984 to 2010 were compared with the referred women's 1,077 non-referred pregnancy outcomes and with the pregnancy outcomes of 345,467 gainfully employed women from the same geographical areas and time period.......72-1.17). CONCLUSION: The women who are referred for occupational risk assessment at two large occupational university departments are not at an increased risk of preterm birth or of delivering low birth weight children. This may reflect that reproductive hazards in Danish workplaces are limited and....../or that the occupational risk assessment and counselling of pregnant women are preventing these selected adverse pregnancy outcomes. FUNDING: The Research Unit at Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at Bispebjerg Hospital supported the study financially. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant. The study...

  19. Hormone replacement therapy increases the risk of cranial meningioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use on the risk of meningioma in a population-based setting.......We investigated the influence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use on the risk of meningioma in a population-based setting....

  20. Risk factor management in a contemporary Australian population at increased cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D J; Coller, J M; Gong, F F; McGrady, M; Prior, D L; Boffa, U; Shiel, L; Liew, D; Wolfe, R; Owen, A J; Krum, H; Reid, C M

    2017-11-14

    Effective management of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease risk factors offers longer, healthier lives and savings in health care. We examined risk factor management in participants of the SCReening Evaluation of the Evolution of New Heart Failure (SCREEN-HF) study, a self-selected population at increased cardiovascular disease risk recruited from members of a health insurance fund in Melbourne and Shepparton, Australia. Inclusion criteria were age ≥60 years with one or more of self-reported ischaemic or other heart disease, irregular or rapid heart rhythm, cerebrovascular disease, renal impairment, or treatment for hypertension or diabetes for ≥2 years. Exclusion criteria were known heart failure or cardiac abnormality on echocardiography or other imaging. Medical history, clinical examination, full blood examination and biochemistry (without lipids and HbA1c) were performed for 3847 participants on enrolment, and blood pressure, lipids and HbA1c were measured 1-2 years after enrolment for 3202 participants. Despite 99% of 3294 participants with hypertension receiving antihypertensive medication, half had blood pressures >140/90 mmHg. Approximately 77% of participants were overweight or obese, with one third obese. Additionally, 74% of participants at high cardiovascular disease risk had low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels ≥2 mmol/l, one third of diabetic participants had HbA1c >7%, 22% had estimated glomerular filtration rate management of modifiable risk factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Is use of fall risk-increasing drugs in an elderly population associated with an increased risk of hip fracture, after adjustment for multimorbidity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorell, Kristine; Ranstad, Karin; Midlöv, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk factors for hip fracture are well studied because of the negative impact on patients and the community, with mortality in the first year being almost 30% in the elderly. Age, gender and fall risk-increasing drugs, identified by the National Board of Health and Welfare in Sweden......, are well known risk factors for hip fracture, but how multimorbidity level affects the risk of hip fracture during use of fall risk-increasing drugs is to our knowledge not as well studied. This study explored the relationship between use of fall risk-increasing drugs in combination with multimorbidity...... level and risk of hip fracture in an elderly population. METHODS: Data were from Östergötland County, Sweden, and comprised the total population in the county aged 75 years and older during 2006. The odds ratio (OR) for hip fracture during use of fall risk-increasing drugs was calculated by multivariate...

  2. The management of high-level nuclear wastes - Issues politicians face regarding the risk of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, C.

    1992-01-01

    The management of ionizing radiation is not a new issue, and it is not a subject that could be easily communicated with the general public. Politicians responsible for decision making are faced with the public who are concerned with the risks. Without general acceptance and support from the public, nuclear programs can not be pursued. The author provides three key guidelines for politicians to follow, the same advice given to the French Parliament earlier: addressing the protection of the population and environment in a responsible manner, assuming an open, non secretive and transparent approach, and adopting a democratic attitude to allow public participation in decision making

  3. The several faces of fear: ecological consequences of predation risk in a lagoon model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Dettogni Guariento

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of predation risk on the occurrence of trophic cascades in a benthic food chain, and detect if the ecological consequences of predation risk can reverberate in patterns observed across different hierarchical scales, such as prey size, prey growth efficiency and nutrient recycling patterns. METHODS: The model system used in the present experiment consisted of a simple linear food chain comprising a predator, a consumer and periphyton as basal resources. For 2 weeks, we manipulated predation risk using caged predators, incapable of killing their prey, across twelve outdoor mesocosms, simulating natural lagoon conditions. RESULTS: Our results showed that predation risk can be responsible for the occurrence of a trophic cascade and the strength of the cascade is proportional to the intensity of risk. Predation risk can also negatively influence prey biomass and growth efficiency as well as affect nutrient recycling patterns by altering prey nutrient excretion rates. Through a simple mathematical formulation, we attempted to show that individual-level experimental results can be generalized to natural populations if evolutionary constraints to prey fitness can be reproduced in experimental conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results corroborate to integrate ecosystem dynamics with animal behavior, highlighting that not only bottom-up but also top-down mechanisms are responsible for determining ecosystem properties. We ultimately claim that prey adaptive foraging may serve to integrate ecosystem and evolutionary ecology, resulting in the development of a more robust and predictive theory of the functioning of aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Defensive peripersonal space: the blink reflex evoked by hand stimulation is increased when the hand is near the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, C F; Liang, M; Cruccu, G; Iannetti, G D

    2012-02-01

    Electrical stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist may elicit a blink reflex [hand blink reflex (HBR)] mediated by a neural circuit at brain stem level. As, in a Sherringtonian sense, the blink reflex is a defensive response, in a series of experiments we tested, in healthy volunteers, whether and how the HBR is modulated by the proximity of the stimulated hand to the face. Electromyographic activity was recorded from the orbicularis oculi, bilaterally. We observed that the HBR is enhanced when the stimulated hand is inside the peripersonal space of the face, compared with when it is outside, irrespective of whether the proximity of the hand to the face is manipulated by changing the position of the arm (experiment 1) or by rotating the head while keeping the arm position constant (experiment 3). Experiment 2 showed that such HBR enhancement has similar magnitude when the participants have their eyes closed. Experiments 4 and 5 showed, respectively, that the blink reflex elicited by the electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve, as well as the N20 wave of the somatosensory evoked potentials elicited by the median nerve stimulation, are entirely unaffected by hand position. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence that the brain stem circuits mediating the HBR in humans undergo tonic and selective top-down modulation from higher order cortical areas responsible for encoding the location of somatosensory stimuli in external space coordinates. These findings support the existence of a "defensive" peripersonal space, representing a safety margin advantageous for survival.

  5. Reducing Risk and Increasing Exploration Payoff with Symbiotic Rover Pairs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary explorations missions avoid the destinations that offer the greatest scientific payout because these destinations come with a risk too great for a primary...

  6. Chronic Pancreatitis Correlates With Increased Risk of Cerebrovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tuck-Siu; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Lin, Chi-Ming; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Wen-Chi; Lai, Shih-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to explore whether there is a relationship between chronic pancreatitis and cerebrovascular disease in Taiwan. Using the claims data of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, we identified 16,672 subjects aged 20 to 84 years with a new diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis from 2000 to 2010 as the chronic pancreatitis group. We randomly selected 65,877 subjects aged 20 to 84 years without chronic pancreatitis as the nonchronic pancreatitis group. Both groups were matched by sex, age, comorbidities, and the index year of diagnosing chronic pancreatitis. The incidence of cerebrovascular disease at the end of 2011 was measured. The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to measure the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cerebrovascular disease risk associated with chronic pancreatitis and other comorbidities. The overall incidence of cerebrovascular disease was 1.24-fold greater in the chronic pancreatitis group than that in the nonchronic pancreatitis group (14.2 vs. 11.5 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI = 1.19–1.30). After controlling for confounding factors, the adjusted HR of cerebrovascular disease was 1.27 (95% CI = 1.19–1.36) for the chronic pancreatitis group as compared with the nonchronic pancreatitis group. Woman (adjusted HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.31–1.51), age (every 1 year, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.04–1.05), atrial fibrillation (adjusted HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.02–1.48), chronic kidney disease (adjusted HR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.31–1.67), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (adjusted HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16–1.40), diabetes mellitus (adjusted HR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.72–1.92), hypertension (adjusted HR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.56–1.76), and peripheral atherosclerosis (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.06–1.51) were other factors significantly associated with cerebrovascular disease. Chronic pancreatitis is

  7. Increased genetic risk for obesity in premature coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher B; Nikpay, Majid; Stewart, Alexandre F R; McPherson, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    There is ongoing controversy as to whether obesity confers risk for CAD independently of associated risk factors including diabetes mellitus. We have carried out a Mendelian randomization study using a genetic risk score (GRS) for body mass index (BMI) based on 35 risk alleles to investigate this question in a population of 5831 early onset CAD cases without diabetes mellitus and 3832 elderly healthy control subjects, all of strictly European ancestry, with adjustment for traditional risk factors (TRFs). We then estimated the genetic correlation between these BMI and CAD (rg) by relating the pairwise genetic similarity matrix to a phenotypic covariance matrix between these two traits. GRSBMI significantly (P=2.12 × 10(-12)) associated with CAD status in a multivariate model adjusted for TRFs, with a per allele odds ratio (OR) of 1.06 (95% CI 1.042-1.076). The addition of GRSBMI to TRFs explained 0.75% of CAD variance and yielded a continuous net recombination index of 16.54% (95% CI=11.82-21.26%, P<0.0001). To test whether GRSBMI explained CAD status when adjusted for measured BMI, separate models were constructed in which the score and BMI were either included as covariates or not. The addition of BMI explained ~1.9% of CAD variance and GRSBMI plus BMI explained 2.65% of CAD variance. Finally, using bivariate restricted maximum likelihood analysis, we provide strong evidence of genome-wide pleiotropy between obesity and CAD. This analysis supports the hypothesis that obesity is a causal risk factor for CAD.

  8. Job Loss at Mid-Life: Managers and Executives Face the "New Risk Economy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Ruby; Kalil, Ariel; Spindel, Laurel J.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2008-01-01

    We use a life course framework to examine how the "new risk economy" has left middle-age professionals, managers and executives more vulnerable to job loss and unemployment despite high levels of human capital. Using in-depth qualitative data from 77 recently-unemployed white-collar workers, we examine perceptions of macro-economic…

  9. The European Union face to the nuclear risks of the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the nuclear disarmament, the risk of nuclear proliferation, the brain drain and the traffic of nuclear materials in the Community of Independent States (CIS) after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the actions carried out by the European Union to solve these growing up threats. (J.S.)

  10. Does alcohol increase the risk of preterm delivery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik; Olsen, Sjúrður Fróði; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and preterm delivery. Women attending routine antenatal care at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, from 1989–1991 and 1992–1996 were eligible. We included 18,228 singleton pregnancies in the analyses. We obtained prospective...... information on alcohol intake at 16 and 30 weeks of gestation, other lifestyle factors, maternal characteristics, and obstetrical risk factors from self-administered questionnaires and hospital files. For women with alcohol intake of 1–2, 3–4, 5–9, and >=10 drinks/week the risk ratio (RR) of preterm delivery...

  11. Hydropower plans in eastern and southern Africa increase risk of concurrent climate-related electricity supply disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Declan; Dalin, Carole; Landman, Willem A.; Osborn, Timothy J.

    2017-12-01

    Hydropower comprises a significant and rapidly expanding proportion of electricity production in eastern and southern Africa. In both regions, hydropower is exposed to high levels of climate variability and regional climate linkages are strong, yet an understanding of spatial interdependences is lacking. Here we consider river basin configuration and define regions of coherent rainfall variability using cluster analysis to illustrate exposure to the risk of hydropower supply disruption of current (2015) and planned (2030) hydropower sites. Assuming completion of the dams planned, hydropower will become increasingly concentrated in the Nile (from 62% to 82% of total regional capacity) and Zambezi (from 73% to 85%) basins. By 2030, 70% and 59% of total hydropower capacity will be located in one cluster of rainfall variability in eastern and southern Africa, respectively, increasing the risk of concurrent climate-related electricity supply disruption in each region. Linking of nascent regional electricity sharing mechanisms could mitigate intraregional risk, although these mechanisms face considerable political and infrastructural challenges.

  12. Maternal SSRI exposure increases the risk of autistic offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, S; Emamhadi, M R; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, S

    2017-01-01

    , childhood, children, neurodevelopment were identified using databases PubMed and PMC, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar. Cochran's Q statistic-value (Q), degree of freedom (df), and I(2) indices (variation in odds ratio [OR] attributable to heterogeneity) were calculated to analyze the risk...

  13. Increased pancreatic cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Michael; Børge Johannesen, Tom; Gilbert, Ethel S

    2016-01-01

    with the number of cycles of chemotherapy with alkylating or platinum agents (P=0.057), although only one case was exposed to platinum. CONCLUSIONS: A dose-response relationship exists between radiation to the pancreas and subsequent cancer risk, and persists for over 20 years. These excesses, although small...

  14. Subjective expected utility with non-increasing risk aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that assumptions about risk aversion, usually studied under the presupposition of expected utility maximization, have a surprising extra merit at an earlier stage of the measurement work: together with the sure-thing principle, these assumptions imply subjective expected utility

  15. Drugged Driving: Increased Traffic Risks Involving Licit and Illicit Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkinton, Melinda W.; Robertson, Angela; McCluskey, D. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Driving under the influence of drugs poses risks for traffic safety. Most research attention has been focused on the most prevalent drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, illegal drugs, and prescription drugs with high abuse potential. The objectives of this study were to determine the types of drugs used by convicted DUI offenders on the day of their…

  16. Increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, N; Gotland, N; Uhre, M L

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An association between infection and arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) has been suggested. Here we examined the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and other ATE after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: Danish register-based nation-wide observational cohort study...

  17. Starting Hormone Therapy at Menopause Increases Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to a January 28, 2011 article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, women who start taking menopausal hormone therapy around the time of menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who begin taking hormones a few years later.

  18. Care for patients with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boheemen, C. van; Geffen, K. van; Philbert, D.; Bos, M.; Dis, I. van; Strijbis, A.; Bouvy, M.; Dijk, L. van

    2010-01-01

    Background: In 2009, a national standard of care for vascular risk management (VRM) was developed. This standard, which was sent to all general practitioners (GPs), contains requirements for optimal care. One requirement is the formulation of a written individual-care plan which contains an extended

  19. CIA increases cybersecurity Integrated approach to digital risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The article gives an overview of activities of the cybersecurity group, which was set up in order to go a step further. They have launched a project to manage cybersecurity. The underlying principle is a general pattern that determines policies and the responsibilities for risk management.

  20. Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Su, Yu-Chieh; Ho, Hsu-Chueh; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lee, Moon-Sing; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chou, Pesus; Huang, Yung-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation/chemoradiotherapy-induced carotid stenosis and cerebrovascular events in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) can cause severe disability and even death. This study aimed to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke in this patient population over more than 10 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: The study cohorts consisted of all patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of NPC (n = 1094), whereas patients hospitalized for an appendectomy during 1997 and 1998 (n = 4376) acted as the control group and surrogate for the general population. Cox proportional hazard model was performed as a means of comparing the stroke-free survival rate between the two cohorts after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. Results: Of the 292 patients with ischemic strokes, 62 (5.7%) were from the NPC cohort and 230 (5.3%) were from the control group. NPC patients ages 35–54 had a 1.66 times (95% CI, 1.16–2.86; p = 0.009) higher risk of ischemic stroke after adjusting for patient characteristics, comorbidities, geographic region, urbanization level of residence, and socioeconomic status. There was no statistical difference in ischemic stroke risk between the NPC patients and appendectomy patients ages 55–64 years (hazard ratio = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56–1.33; p = 0.524) after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions: Young NPC patients carry a higher risk for ischemic stroke than the general population. Besides regular examinations of carotid duplex, different irradiation strategies or using new technique of radiotherapy, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy, should be considered in young NPC patients.

  1. The shape of uncertainty: underwriting decisions in the face of catastrophic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keykhah, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will explore how insurance and re-insurance underwriters price catastrophe risk from natural perils. It will first describe the theoretical nature of pricing risk, and outline studies of underwriting that propose analyzing decision making from a more behavioral than rational choice perspective. The paper then argues that in order to provide the appropriate context for probability (which is the focus of the studies on decision making under uncertainty), it may be helpful to look at the nature of choice within a market and organizational context. Moreover, the nature of probability itself is explored with a review to construct a broader analysis. Finally, it will be argued that the causal framework of the underwriter, in addition to inductive reasoning, provides a shape to uncertainty. (author)

  2. Can stress increase Alzheimer's disease risk in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Lena

    2014-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid peptides and neurofibrilllary tangles in brain, resulting in neuronal death and loss of cognitive abilities. It has been hypothesized that longstanding psychological stress can result in neural degeneration and AD due to pathological alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In recent years several epidemiological studies been published on stress as a risk factor for AD. As women are more likely to suffer from stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder and clinical burnout syndrome, special effort has been made according to the gender differences in risk of AD. However, few studies have stratified for gender, due to small sample sizes and limited statistic power, and no reliable findings have been found. Additional longitudinal studies are therefore needed for studying gender differences and for determining what mediates the stress and AD association, in both genders.

  3. Type 2 diabetes: postprandial hyperglycemia and increased cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Aryangat, Ajikumar V; Gerich, John E

    2010-01-01

    Ajikumar V Aryangat, John E GerichUniversity of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USAAbstract: Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for both the microvascular and macrovascular complications in  patients with type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the cardiovascular results of large outcomes trials in diabetes and presents new evidence on the role of hyperglycemia, with particular emphasis on postprandial hyperglycemia, in adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabet...

  4. Increasing Effectiveness and Efficiency Through Risk-Based Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Shaw and Henry McKay, both University of Chicago professors, began using maps to understand juvenile delinquency better in Chicago, IL.36 In the...André-Michel Guerry’s Ordonnateur Statistique: The First Statistical Calculator?,” The American Statistician 66, no. 3 (August 1, 2012): 195–200...micro or macro levels using basic inferential statistics .”91 5. Protecting Civil Rights and Liberties It is also important to note that a risk

  5. An Increased Risk of Osteoporosis during Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annapoorna, N; Rao, G Venkateswara; Reddy, N S; Rambabu, P; Rao, K R S Samabasiva

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mineral density and mechanistic imbalances of bone tissue that may result in reduced skeletal strength and an enhanced susceptibility to fractures. Osteoporosis in its most common form affects the elderly (both sexes) and all racial groups of human beings. Multiple environmental risk factors like acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are believed to be one of the causes of osteoporosis. Recently a high incidence of osteoporosis has been observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. The etiology of this occurrence in HIV infections is controversial. This problem seems to be more frequent in patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. In AIDS, the main suggested risk factors for the development of osteoporosis are use of protease inhibitors, longer duration of HIV infection, lower body weight before antiretroviral therapy, high viral load. Variations in serum parameters like osteocalcin, c-telopeptide, levels of elements like Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, concentration of vitamin-D metabolites, lactate levels, bicarbonate concentrations, amount of alkaline phosphatase are demonstrated in the course of development of osteoporosis. OPG/RANKL/RANK system is final mediator of bone remodeling. Bone mineral density (BMD) test is of added value to assess the risk of osteoporosis in patients infected with AIDS. The biochemical markers also aid in this assessment. Clinical management mostly follows the lines of treatment of osteoporosis and osteopenia.

  6. Virtual driving and risk taking: do racing games increase risk-taking cognitions, affect, and behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Guter, Stephanie; Frey, Dieter

    2007-03-01

    Research has consistently shown that aggressive video console and PC games elicit aggressive cognitions, affect, and behaviors. Despite the increasing popularity of racing (driving) games, nothing is known about the psychological impact of this genre. This study investigated whether playing racing games affects cognitions, affect, and behaviors that can promote risk taking in actual road traffic situations. In Study 1, the authors found that the frequency of playing racing games was positively associated with competitive driving, obtrusive driving, and car accidents; a negative association with cautious driving was observed. To determine cause and effect, in Study 2, the authors manipulated whether participants played 1 of 3 racing games or 1 of 3 neutral games. Participants who played a racing game subsequently reported a higher accessibility of cognitions and affect positively associated with risk taking than did participants who played a neutral game. Finally, on a more behavioral level, in Study 3, the authors found that men who played a racing game subsequently took higher risks in computer-simulated critical road traffic situations than did men who played a neutral game. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Mathematical Modeling for Risk Averse Firm Facing Loss Averse Customer’s Stochastic Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungbeom Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize the firm’s profit during a finite planning horizon, a dynamic programming model is used to make joint pricing and inventory replenishment decision assuming that customers are loss averse and the firm is risk averse. We model the loss averse customer’s demand using the multinomial choice model. In this choice model, we consider the acquisition and transition utilities widely used by a mental accounting theory which also incorporate the reference price and actual price. Then, we show that there is an optimal inventory policy which is base-stock policy depending on the accumulated wealth in each period.

  8. Psycho Educational Group Intervention for Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    1998-01-01

    ... in women at increased risk for breast cancer; (2) examine the impact of a psychoeducational intervention on the endpoint variables of quality of life and adherence to screening in women at increased risk for breast cancer; and (3...

  9. Psycho Educational Group Intervention for Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    1997-01-01

    ... skills in women at increased risk for breast cancer; (2) to examine the impact of a psychoeducational intervention on the endpoint variables of quality of life and adherence to screening in women at increased risk for breast cancer; and (3...

  10. Does Aggregated Returns Disclosure Increase Portfolio Risk Taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2016-01-01

    Many experiments have found that participants take more investment risk if they see returns less frequently, see portfolio-level returns (rather than each individual asset’s returns), or see long-horizon (rather than one-year) historical return distributions. In contrast, we find that such information aggregation treatments do not affect total equity investment when we make the investment environment more realistic than in prior experiments. Previously documented aggregation effects are not robust to changes in the risky asset’s return distribution or the introduction of a multi-day delay between portfolio choice and return realizations. PMID:28553012

  11. Does Aggregated Returns Disclosure Increase Portfolio Risk Taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C

    2017-06-01

    Many experiments have found that participants take more investment risk if they see returns less frequently, see portfolio-level returns (rather than each individual asset's returns), or see long-horizon (rather than one-year) historical return distributions. In contrast, we find that such information aggregation treatments do not affect total equity investment when we make the investment environment more realistic than in prior experiments. Previously documented aggregation effects are not robust to changes in the risky asset's return distribution or the introduction of a multi-day delay between portfolio choice and return realizations.

  12. Inflammatory bowel disease increases the risk of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Marie; Aznar, Susana; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Intestinal inflammation has been suggested to play a role in development of Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). To test the hypothesis that IBD is associated with risk of PD and MSA, we performed a nationwide population-based cohort study. DESIGN: The cohort...... patients with UC (HR=1.35; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.52) and not significantly different among patients with Crohn's disease (HR=1.12; 95% CI 0.89 to 1.40). CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide, unselected, cohort study shows a significant association between IBD and later occurrence of PD, which is consistent with recent...

  13. Bacterial infection increases risk of carcinogenesis by targeting mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A.B.; Desler, Claus; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2017-01-01

    pathways, and compares the impact of the bacterial alteration of mitochondrial function to that of cancer. Bacterial virulence factors have been demonstrated to induce mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and to modulate DNA repair pathways of the mitochondria. Furthermore, virulence factors can induce...... or impair the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The effect of bacterial targeting of mitochondria is analogous to behavior of mitochondria in a wide array of tumours, and this strongly suggests that mitochondrial targeting of bacteria is a risk factor for carcinogenesis....

  14. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Pernille; Grunnet, Louise G; Pilgaard, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genetic susceptibility, low birth weight (LBW), and aging are key etiological factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. LBW is common among twins. It is unknown whether twin status per se is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, and valid concordance rates of type 2 diabetes...... in twins on a lifetime perspective are lacking. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A clinical study was done on a population-based cohort of same-sex elderly monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins (n = 297) and singleton control subjects (C) (n = 71) including measures of anthropometry and glucose tolerance...

  15. A two fold risk of metabolic syndrome in a sample of patients with schizophrenia: do consanguinity and family history increase risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Hamaq, Abdulla O A A; Dafeeah, Elnour E

    2014-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are at greater risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and other cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of the study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its criteria among patients with schizophrenia (Sz) according to the revised criteria of NCEP ATP III and assess which component contributed to the increased risk of the MetS in schizophrenia patients. This was a matched case-control study. Outpatient clinics of the Psychiatry department and Primary Health Care (PHC) Centers of the Supreme Council of Health, State of Qatar. The study was carried out among patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy subjects above 20 years old. The study based on matched by age and gender of 233 cases and 466 controls. The survey was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011. Face to face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire followed by laboratory tests. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program - Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among schizophrenic patients (36.5%) were significantly higher than healthy subjects (18.7%) (pmetabolic abnormalities compared to men. The study indicated that metabolic syndrome was highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. The female gender was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The identification and clinical management of this high risk group is of great importance. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of audio computer assisted self-interview and face-to-face interview methods in eliciting HIV-related risks among men who have sex with men and men who inject drugs in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Adebajo

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Face-to-face (FTF interviews are the most frequently used means of obtaining information on sexual and drug injecting behaviours from men who have sex with men (MSM and men who inject drugs (MWID. However, accurate information on these behaviours may be difficult to elicit because of sociocultural hostility towards these populations and the criminalization associated with these behaviours. Audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI is an interviewing technique that may mitigate social desirability bias in this context. METHODS: This study evaluated differences in the reporting of HIV-related risky behaviours by MSM and MWID using ACASI and FTF interviews. Between August and September 2010, 712 MSM and 328 MWID in Nigeria were randomized to either ACASI or FTF interview for completion of a behavioural survey that included questions on sensitive sexual and injecting risk behaviours. Data were analyzed separately for MSM and MWID. Logistic regression was run for each behaviour as a dependent variable to determine differences in reporting methods. RESULTS: MSM interviewed via ACASI reported significantly higher risky behaviours with both women (multiple female sexual partners 51% vs. 43%, p = 0.04; had unprotected anal sex with women 72% vs. 57%, p = 0.05 and men (multiple male sex partners 70% vs. 54%, p≤0.001 than through FTF. Additionally, they were more likely to self-identify as homosexual (AOR: 3.3, 95%CI:2.4-4.6 and report drug use in the past 12 months (AOR:40.0, 95%CI: 9.6-166.0. MWID interviewed with ACASI were more likely to report needle sharing (AOR:3.3, 95%CI:1.2-8.9 and re-use (AOR:2.2, 95%CI:1.2-3.9 in the past month and prior HIV testing (AOR:1.6, 95%CI 1.02-2.5. CONCLUSION: The feasibility of using ACASI in studies and clinics targeting key populations in Nigeria must be explored to increase the likelihood of obtaining more accurate data on high risk behaviours to inform improved risk reduction strategies

  17. Comparison of audio computer assisted self-interview and face-to-face interview methods in eliciting HIV-related risks among men who have sex with men and men who inject drugs in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebajo, Sylvia; Obianwu, Otibho; Eluwa, George; Vu, Lung; Oginni, Ayo; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Ahonsi, Babatunde; Bashorun, Adebobola; Idogho, Omokhudu; Karlyn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Face-to-face (FTF) interviews are the most frequently used means of obtaining information on sexual and drug injecting behaviours from men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who inject drugs (MWID). However, accurate information on these behaviours may be difficult to elicit because of sociocultural hostility towards these populations and the criminalization associated with these behaviours. Audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) is an interviewing technique that may mitigate social desirability bias in this context. This study evaluated differences in the reporting of HIV-related risky behaviours by MSM and MWID using ACASI and FTF interviews. Between August and September 2010, 712 MSM and 328 MWID in Nigeria were randomized to either ACASI or FTF interview for completion of a behavioural survey that included questions on sensitive sexual and injecting risk behaviours. Data were analyzed separately for MSM and MWID. Logistic regression was run for each behaviour as a dependent variable to determine differences in reporting methods. MSM interviewed via ACASI reported significantly higher risky behaviours with both women (multiple female sexual partners 51% vs. 43%, p = 0.04; had unprotected anal sex with women 72% vs. 57%, p = 0.05) and men (multiple male sex partners 70% vs. 54%, p≤0.001) than through FTF. Additionally, they were more likely to self-identify as homosexual (AOR: 3.3, 95%CI:2.4-4.6) and report drug use in the past 12 months (AOR:40.0, 95%CI: 9.6-166.0). MWID interviewed with ACASI were more likely to report needle sharing (AOR:3.3, 95%CI:1.2-8.9) and re-use (AOR:2.2, 95%CI:1.2-3.9) in the past month and prior HIV testing (AOR:1.6, 95%CI 1.02-2.5). The feasibility of using ACASI in studies and clinics targeting key populations in Nigeria must be explored to increase the likelihood of obtaining more accurate data on high risk behaviours to inform improved risk reduction strategies that reduce HIV transmission.

  18. Increased risk for ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumours in subfertile women with endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, C. C. M.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Mooij, T. M.; Burger, C. W.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Kortman, Marian; Laven, Joop S. E.; Jansen, Cees A. M.; Helmerhorst, Frans M.; Cohlen, Ben J.; Willemsen, Wim N. P.; Smeenk, Jesper M. J.; Simons, Arnold H. M.; van der Veen, Fulco; Evers, Johannes L. H.; van Dop, Peter A.; Macklon, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Is ovarian or extra-ovarian endometriosis associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumours (BOT)? We found a 3- to 8-fold increased risk of ovarian tumours associated with endometriosis: the magnitude of the risk increase depended on the definition of endometriosis.

  19. Assessment of psychosocial risks faced by workers in Almería-type greenhouses, using the Mini Psychosocial Factor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-García, M E; Callejón-Ferre, A J; Pérez-Alonso, J; Sánchez-Hermosilla, J

    2013-03-01

    This work reports the use of the Mini Psychosocial Factor (MPF) method for assessing the psychosocial risks faced by agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Spain) with the aim of improving their health. The variables Rhythm, Mobbing, Relationships, Health, Recognition, Autonomy, Emotional Involvement, Support, Compensation, Control, Demands, and Mental Load were recorded using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 15 questions. The sex, age, and nationality of the respondents (n = 310) were also recorded, as were the type of greenhouse in which each worked, the size of the greenhouse, and the crop grown. The results showed psychosocial risks to exist for the workers. Multiple correspondence analysis, however, showed that moderate risks can be offset by new prevention programmes that improve Spanish legislation in terms of workers' salaries, worker-employer social days, work timetables to facilitate family life, and training courses. This could improve the work environment and health of Almería's greenhouse workers as well as their productivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased risk of hepatitis E in sewage workers from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Tilekar, Bipin N; Walimbe, Atul M; Arankalle, Vidya A

    2003-11-01

    Considering feco-oral transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the risk of the infection was assessed among sewage workers. On the basis of the close contact with sewage, the participants (n = 147) were divided into sewage workers (n = 92) and others (n = 55); none used personal protective equipment (eg, coveralls, boots, gloves) Age-matched individuals from lower socioeconomic status and without any exposure to sewage were used as controls. IgG-anti-HEV positivity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P 5 years. Multivariate regression analysis identified contact with sewage as the independent variable associated with anti-HEV positivity. Strict adherence to good working practices must take top priority for protection of these workers from sewage pathogens.

  1. Cardiovascular Risk is not Increased in Patients with Chronic Urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Gislason, Gunnar H; Vestergaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    in an Italian cohort as between 0.02% and 0.38%, whereas a German study showed a lifetime prevalence of CU at 1.8% (2, 3). While an association between CU and certain autoimmune diseases is well-established (3), CSU was surprisingly associated with obesity in a recent Italian study (4). Moreover, in a South...... was significantly associated with having received a prior diagnosis of hyperlipidaemia (6). Despite the above observations, no study has examined a possible association between CU and cardiovascular (CV) disease. We therefore investigated the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), ischaemic stroke, CV death, and major...... Korean cohort of 131 patients with CU, metabolic syndrome was present in 30% of patients, and these individuals had particularly poor clinical outcomes and a more severe disease course (5). Finally, a population-based Taiwanese study of 9798 adults with CU recently showed that the condition...

  2. INSTITUTIONAL RISK IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN THE FACE OF NEGOTIATING THE TRANSATLANTIC TRADE AND INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIP (TTIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Lipińska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issues connected with the EU entering and conducting negotiations with the US on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. These issues relate to institutional risk due to the necessity to change the agricultural policy statement of the parties and to implement new legal instruments or amend those that already exist. The article aims at analysing the proposed organisational and legal solutions relating to agriculture in the face of negotiations of the contents of the partnership. It also intends to indicate essential diff erences between the parties relating to agriculture and food production, to determine the direction of amendments in the event of joining the partnership, and to assess its potential consequences from the perspective of EU agricultural producers and food consumers.

  3. Dysfunctional nitric oxide signalling increases risk of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Jeanette; Stark, Klaus; Esslinger, Ulrike B; Rumpf, Philipp Moritz; Koesling, Doris; de Wit, Cor; Kaiser, Frank J; Braunholz, Diana; Medack, Anja; Fischer, Marcus; Zimmermann, Martina E; Tennstedt, Stephanie; Graf, Elisabeth; Eck, Sebastian; Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Nahrstaedt, Janja; Willenborg, Christina; Bruse, Petra; Brænne, Ingrid; Nöthen, Markus M; Hofmann, Per; Braund, Peter S; Mergia, Evanthia; Reinhard, Wibke; Burgdorf, Christof; Schreiber, Stefan; Balmforth, Anthony J; Hall, Alistair S; Bertram, Lars; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Li, Shu-Chen; März, Winfried; Reilly, Muredach; Kathiresan, Sekar; McPherson, Ruth; Walter, Ulrich; Ott, Jurg; Samani, Nilesh J; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Hengstenberg, Christian; Schunkert, Heribert

    2013-12-19

    Myocardial infarction, a leading cause of death in the Western world, usually occurs when the fibrous cap overlying an atherosclerotic plaque in a coronary artery ruptures. The resulting exposure of blood to the atherosclerotic material then triggers thrombus formation, which occludes the artery. The importance of genetic predisposition to coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction is best documented by the predictive value of a positive family history. Next-generation sequencing in families with several affected individuals has revolutionized mutation identification. Here we report the segregation of two private, heterozygous mutations in two functionally related genes, GUCY1A3 (p.Leu163Phefs*24) and CCT7 (p.Ser525Leu), in an extended myocardial infarction family. GUCY1A3 encodes the α1 subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase (α1-sGC), and CCT7 encodes CCTη, a member of the tailless complex polypeptide 1 ring complex, which, among other functions, stabilizes soluble guanylyl cyclase. After stimulation with nitric oxide, soluble guanylyl cyclase generates cGMP, which induces vasodilation and inhibits platelet activation. We demonstrate in vitro that mutations in both GUCY1A3 and CCT7 severely reduce α1-sGC as well as β1-sGC protein content, and impair soluble guanylyl cyclase activity. Moreover, platelets from digenic mutation carriers contained less soluble guanylyl cyclase protein and consequently displayed reduced nitric-oxide-induced cGMP formation. Mice deficient in α1-sGC protein displayed accelerated thrombus formation in the microcirculation after local trauma. Starting with a severely affected family, we have identified a link between impaired soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-dependent nitric oxide signalling and myocardial infarction risk, possibly through accelerated thrombus formation. Reversing this defect may provide a new therapeutic target for reducing the risk of myocardial infarction.

  4. The Janus face of 'New Ways of Work': rise, risks and regulation of nomadic work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popma, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Internet and the use of portable computers, mobile phones and tablets have increased the importance of ‘new ways of work’. This work, which is place- and time-independent, can lead to more autonomy and greater flexibility for workers, but it also carries serious physical as well as psychosocial

  5. Maternal Disrupted Communication During Face-to-Face Interaction at 4 months: Relation to Maternal and Infant Cortisol Among at-Risk Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Erin E; Holmes, Bjarne M; Granger, Douglas A; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2013-11-01

    The study evaluated the association between maternal disrupted communication and the reactivity and regulation of the psychobiology of the stress response in infancy. Mothers and infants were recruited via the National Health Service from the 20% most economically impoverished data zones in a suburban region of Scotland. Mothers ( N = 63; M age = 25.9) and their 4-month-old infants (35 boys, 28 girls) were videotaped interacting for 8 min, including a still-face procedure as a stress inducer and a 5-min coded recovery period. Saliva samples were collected from the dyads prior to, during, and after the still-face procedure and later assayed for cortisol. Level of disruption in maternal communication with the infant was coded from the 5-min videotaped interaction during the recovery period which followed the still-face procedure. Severely disrupted maternal communication was associated with lower levels of maternal cortisol and a greater divergence between mothers' and infants' cortisol levels. Results point to low maternal cortisol as a possible mechanism contributing to the mother's difficulty in sensitively attuning to her infant's cues, which in turn has implications for the infant's reactivity to and recovery from a mild stressor in early infancy.

  6. Increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) in humans after solar exposure under natural conditions compared to artificial UVB exposure of hands and face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta, Pameli; Bogh, Morten Karsten Bentzen; Olsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    to increase 25(OH)D by 1 nmol l(-1). The artificial dose of 6 SEDs of only hands and face significantly increased 25(OH)D and resulted in a dose of 0.52 SEDs required to increase 25(OH)D significantly by 1 nmol l(-1). Artificial UVB was thus at least 8 times more efficient in increasing 25(OH)D than solar UVR......Vitamin D studies are often performed under controlled laboratory conditions and the findings may be difficult to translate to natural conditions. We aimed to determine and compare the doses of natural solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) with doses of artificial UVB radiation of hands and face needed...... UVR doses in standard erythema doses (SEDs) were determined with personal wristwatch UV-dosimeters. 29 volunteers (Group 2) received artificial UVB doses of 6 SEDs (N = 14) and 3 SEDs (N = 15) on hands and face during late-winter/early-spring when outdoor UVB is negligible. 25(OH)D-levels were...

  7. Children with optic nerve hypoplasia face a high risk of neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Sara; Wickström, Ronny; Ek, Ulla; Teär Fahnehjelm, Kristina

    2018-03-01

    Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital ocular malformation that has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, but the prevalence in unilateral disease and less severe visual impairment is unknown. We studied intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in patients with ONH. This was a population-based cross-sectional cohort study of 65 patients (33 female) with ONH below 20 years of age, living in Stockholm in December 2009, with data analysed in January 2016. Of these 35 were bilateral and 30 were unilateral. Neurodevelopmental disorders were diagnosed or confirmed by neurological assessments, the Five to Fifteen parent questionnaire and reviewing previous neuropsychological investigations or conducting neuropsychological tests. Bilateral ONH patients had lower mean full scale intelligence quotient scores than unilateral patients (84.4 and 99.4, respectively, p = 0.049). We assessed intellectual disability in 55 eligible patients, and it was more common in patients with bilateral ONH (18 of 32, 56%) than unilateral ONH (two of 23, 9%, p neurodevelopmental disorders, especially intellectual disability. The risk was lower in unilateral ONH, but the levels of neurodevelopmental disorders warrant screening of both groups. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Increase of baclofen intoxications : risks involved and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbouw, M E L; Hoge, H L; Meulenbelt, J; Jansman, F G A

    2014-01-01

    Baclofen has been increasingly used in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). We present a patient with AWS and psychiatric comorbidity who ingested 700 mg of baclofen. ICU admission was necessary for ventilatory support and symptomatic treatment. The patient was dismissed without

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptacek R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radek Ptacek,1,2 George B Stefano,1,3 Simon Weissenberger,1 Devang Akotia,1 Jiri Raboch,1 Hana Papezova,1 Lucie Domkarova,1 Tereza Stepankova,1 Michal Goetz4 1Department of Psychiatry, Charles University 1st Medical Faculty and General Teaching Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychology, University of New York in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 3MitoGenetics Research Institute, MitoGenetics, LLC, Farmingdale, NY, USA; 4Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs. In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1 impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2 other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3 poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4 other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from

  10. Uric acid stones increase the risk of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ching-Chia; Chien, Tsu-Ming; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Chun-Nung; Chou, Yii-Her

    2018-02-28

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics of uric acid stones and their potential risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 401 patients (196 with uric acid stone and 205 without) were enrolled from our database of patients with urolithiasis. We analyzed the clinical demographic features, stone location, urine chemistries, and renal function. There was a significant difference (p uric acid group. Patients with uric acid stones had much lower pH of urine (p uric acid level (p = 0.002). Notably, those with uric acid stones had worse eGFR than those with non-uric acid stones. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age over 60 years (ORs = 9.19; 95% CI 3.5-24.3), female sex (ORs = 4.01; 95% CI 1.8-9.0), hyperuricemia (ORs = 8.47; 95% CI 1.6-43.5), and uric acid stone (OR = 2.86; 95% CI 1.2-6.7) were the independent predictors of poor prognoses in CKD. Therefore, an association exists between uric acid stones and higher prevalence of CKD. Patients with uric acid stones may need close monitoring of renal function during follow-up.

  11. Endometriosis increases the risk of obstetrical and neonatal complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berlac, Janne Foss; Hartwell, Dorthe; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess obstetrical complications and neonatal outcomes in women with endometriosis as compared with women without endometriosis. Material and methods: National cohort including all delivering women and their newborns in Denmark 1997–2014. Data were...... extracted from the Danish Health Register and the Medical Birth Register. Logistic regression analysis provided odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sub-analyses were made for primiparous women with a singleton pregnancy and for women with endometriosis who underwent gynecological surgery...... before pregnancy. Results: In 19 331 deliveries, women with endometriosis had a higher risk of severe preeclampsia (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5–2.0), hemorrhage in pregnancy (OR 2.3, 95% CI 2.0–2.5), placental abruption (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.7–2.3), placenta previa (OR 3.9, 95% CI 3.5–4.3), premature rupture...

  12. Restaurant Cooking Trends and Increased Risk for Campylobacter Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna K; Rigby, Dan; Burton, Michael; Millman, Caroline; Williams, Nicola J; Jones, Trevor R; Wigley, Paul; O'Brien, Sarah J; Cross, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In the United Kingdom, outbreaks of Campylobacter infection are increasingly attributed to undercooked chicken livers, yet many recipes, including those of top chefs, advocate short cooking times and serving livers pink. During 2015, we studied preferences of chefs and the public in the United Kingdom and investigated the link between liver rareness and survival of Campylobacter. We used photographs to assess chefs' ability to identify chicken livers meeting safe cooking guidelines. To investigate the microbiological safety of livers chefs preferred to serve, we modeled Campylobacter survival in infected chicken livers cooked to various temperatures. Most chefs correctly identified safely cooked livers but overestimated the public's preference for rareness and thus preferred to serve them more rare. We estimated that 19%-52% of livers served commercially in the United Kingdom fail to reach 70°C and that predicted Campylobacter survival rates are 48%-98%. These findings indicate that cooking trends are linked to increasing Campylobacter infections.

  13. Warming increases the risk of civil war in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall B; Miguel, Edward; Satyanath, Shanker; Dykema, John A; Lobell, David B

    2009-12-08

    Armed conflict within nations has had disastrous humanitarian consequences throughout much of the world. Here we undertake the first comprehensive examination of the potential impact of global climate change on armed conflict in sub-Saharan Africa. We find strong historical linkages between civil war and temperature in Africa, with warmer years leading to significant increases in the likelihood of war. When combined with climate model projections of future temperature trends, this historical response to temperature suggests a roughly 54% increase in armed conflict incidence by 2030, or an additional 393,000 battle deaths if future wars are as deadly as recent wars. Our results suggest an urgent need to reform African governments' and foreign aid donors' policies to deal with rising temperatures.

  14. Risks of increased UV-B radiation for humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybilla, B.; Eberlein-Koenig, B.; Bergner, T.

    1994-01-01

    If not compensated in any way, depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer leads to an increase of UV-B radiation at the earth's surface, especially towards the short-wave range, which is biologically the more active. The most concerning effect here is that of UV-B induced skin reactions, in particular malignant skintumors (malignant melanoma, spinocellular carcinoma, basalioma), whose incidence is expected to increase in future. As some photoreactions can be inhibited or enhanced also by radiation outside their action spectrum, it is possible for changes in solar spectral radiation flux density to influence photo-induced reactions that are driven at wavelengths outside the UV-B range. The authors have performed studies for developing methods of quantifying individual UV sensitivity. In vitro studies have shown that UV-A dependent photoreactions can be partly inhibited by UV-B. A number of drugs, as well as sulphites, which are used as preservatives amongst other things, have been shown to have phototoxic properties that may be relevant to photocarcinogenesis. Irradiation tests on cell cultures for different UV-B ranges have shown that irradiation at shorter wavelengths leads to a stronger release of proinflammatory cytokines that ar longer wavelengths with the same dose. Altogether it can be said that despite compelling theoretical evidence it is not easily possible to predict the actual consequences of an increase in particular of short-wave UV-B radiation at the earth's surface. The assumed effects must be examined individually by appropriate methods. (orig.) [de

  15. Stochastic arrangement increasing risks in financial engineering andactuarial science – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We review recent research results on stochastic arrangement increasing risks in financialand actuarial risk management, including allocation of deductibles and coverage limits concerned withmultiple dependent risks in an insurance policy, the independence model and the threshold models fora portfolio of defaults risks with dependence, and the optimal capital allocation for a financial institutewith multiple line of business.

  16. Risk perception after genetic counseling in patients with increased risk of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rantala Johanna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counselees are more aware of genetics and seek information, reassurance, screening and genetic testing. Risk counseling is a key component of genetic counseling process helping patients to achieve a realistic view for their own personal risk and therefore adapt to the medical, psychological and familial implications of disease and to encourage the patient to make informed choices 12. The aim of this study was to conceptualize risk perception and anxiety about cancer in individuals attending to genetic counseling. Methods The questionnaire study measured risk perception and anxiety about cancer at three time points: before and one week after initial genetic counseling and one year after completed genetic investigations. Eligibility criteria were designed to include only index patients without a previous genetic consultation in the family. A total of 215 individuals were included. Data was collected during three years period. Results Before genetic counseling all of the unaffected participants subjectively estimated their risk as higher than their objective risk. Participants with a similar risk as the population overestimated their risk most. All risk groups estimated the risk for children's/siblings to be lower than their own. The benefits of preventive surveillance program were well understood among unaffected participants. The difference in subjective risk perception before and directly after genetic counseling was statistically significantly lower in all risk groups. Difference in risk perception for children as well as for population was also statistically significant. Experienced anxiety about developing cancer in the unaffected subjects was lower after genetic counseling compared to baseline in all groups. Anxiety about cancer had clear correlation to perceived risk of cancer before and one year after genetic investigations. The affected participants overestimated their children's risk as well as risk for anyone in

  17. Children who face development risks due to maternal addiction during pregnancy require extra medical and psychosocial resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangmar, Jenny; Lilja, Maria; Köhler, Marie; Reuter, Antonia

    2018-05-21

    This study examined medical and psychosocial risk factors in children born to women with addiction problems during pregnancy and the children's needs for extra medical and psychosocial resources. Swedish midwives routinely screen pregnant women for drugs and alcohol and refer women with addictions to the Maternity and Child Healthcare Resource Team. We investigated the medical records of 127 children (51% girls) whose mothers were referred to the Resource Team from 2009-2015. Additional data were obtained from local child healthcare services (CHS), which provide routine paediatric care. More than three-quarters (76%) of the children had prenatal exposure to alcohol and drugs and 17% were born with withdrawal symptoms. The mothers had a high rate of psychiatric diagnoses (38%) and were more likely to smoke after delivery and less likely to breastfeed than the general population. However, adherence to the CHS programme was generally high. Additional visits to the nurse, referrals to specialists, collaboration meetings and reports of concerns to social services decreased when the children began attending ordinary CHS centres. Children born to women with addictions during pregnancy faced a high risk of developmental problems and should be offered additional CHS resources to minimise negative long-term consequences. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Risks of increased UV-B radiation: higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, W.; Hofmann, H.

    1994-01-01

    The question pursued within the Bavarian climate research programme (BayFORKLIM) in the present context was as follows: Does the fact that UV-B radiation increases with growing site elevation mean that the low sensitivity of predominantly alpine plants compared with that of lowland plants is attributable to their different genetic constitution, possibly as a result of selective pressure and/or de alpine species have a greater capacity to develop protective mechanisms? Pairs and triplets of species belonging to the same genus but occuring at different site elevations were grown from seeds in a greenhouse that is, without UV-B. In order to determine their capacity to adapt to UV-B radiation, some of the plants were additionally exposed to UV-B for 5-6 weeks prior to sensitivity testing. Sensitivity was tested by exposing the plants to additional UV-B of different intensities in test chambers. Visible damage, ranging from light bronzing or yellowing to withering, served as an assessment criterion. Levels of UV-B absorbing substances (phenylpropane species, usually flavonoids) were also measured in these plants. The results obtained permit the following conclusions: The greater UV-B resistance of alpine species compared with that of lowland species of the same genus is not attributable to their genetic constitution but rather to their superior adaptability. Superior resistance is in part due to a greater accumulation of UV-B absorbing substances. Distinct differences in sensitivity between different genera could lead to population shifts within ecosystems as a result of increased UV-B radiation. (orig./KW) [de

  19. Geographical variance in the risk of gastric stump cancer: no increased risk in Japan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tersmette, A. C.; Giardiello, F. M.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Tersmette, K. W.; Ohara, K.; Vandenbroucke, J. P.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    Geographical differences may exist in the risk of gastric stump cancer. Therefore, we performed meta-analysis of literature reports in Japan (n = 3), the USA (n = 4), and Europe (n = 20) on the risk of postgastrectomy cancer. The weighted mean relative risk of stump cancer in Japan was 0.28, 95%

  20. The Racing-Game Effect : Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmueller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Joerg; Odenwaelder, Joerg; Kastenmüller, A.; Odenwälder, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation

  1. Cannabis use and childhood trauma interact additively to increase the risk of psychotic symptoms in adolescence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harley, M

    2010-10-01

    Adolescent cannabis use has been shown in many studies to increase the risk of later psychosis. Childhood trauma is associated with both substance misuse and risk for psychosis. In this study our aim was to investigate whether there is a significant interaction between cannabis use and childhood trauma in increasing the risk for experiencing psychotic symptoms during adolescence.

  2. Increasing nest predation will be insufficient to maintain polar bear body condition in the face of sea ice loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Cody J; Richardson, Evan; McGeachy, David; Iverson, Samuel A; Gilchrist, Hugh G; Semeniuk, Christina A D

    2017-05-01

    Climate change can influence interspecific interactions by differentially affecting species-specific phenology. In seasonal ice environments, there is evidence that polar bear predation of Arctic bird eggs is increasing because of earlier sea ice breakup, which forces polar bears into nearshore terrestrial environments where Arctic birds are nesting. Because polar bears can consume a large number of nests before becoming satiated, and because they can swim between island colonies, they could have dramatic influences on seabird and sea duck reproductive success. However, it is unclear whether nest foraging can provide an energetic benefit to polar bear populations, especially given the capacity of bird populations to redistribute in response to increasing predation pressure. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model of the predator-prey relationship between polar bears and common eiders, a common and culturally important bird species for northern peoples. Our model is composed of two types of agents (polar bear agents and common eider hen agents) whose movements and decision heuristics are based on species-specific bioenergetic and behavioral ecological principles, and are influenced by historical and extrapolated sea ice conditions. Our model reproduces empirical findings that polar bear predation of bird nests is increasing and predicts an accelerating relationship between advancing ice breakup dates and the number of nests depredated. Despite increases in nest predation, our model predicts that polar bear body condition during the ice-free period will continue to decline. Finally, our model predicts that common eider nests will become more dispersed and will move closer to the mainland in response to increasing predation, possibly increasing their exposure to land-based predators and influencing the livelihood of local people that collect eider eggs and down. These results show that predator-prey interactions can have nonlinear responses to

  3. Selenium deficiency risk predicted to increase under future climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gerrad D; Droz, Boris; Greve, Peter; Gottschalk, Pia; Poffet, Deyan; McGrath, Steve P; Seneviratne, Sonia I; Smith, Pete; Winkel, Lenny H E

    2017-03-14

    Deficiencies of micronutrients, including essential trace elements, affect up to 3 billion people worldwide. The dietary availability of trace elements is determined largely by their soil concentrations. Until now, the mechanisms governing soil concentrations have been evaluated in small-scale studies, which identify soil physicochemical properties as governing variables. However, global concentrations of trace elements and the factors controlling their distributions are virtually unknown. We used 33,241 soil data points to model recent (1980-1999) global distributions of Selenium (Se), an essential trace element that is required for humans. Worldwide, up to one in seven people have been estimated to have low dietary Se intake. Contrary to small-scale studies, soil Se concentrations were dominated by climate-soil interactions. Using moderate climate-change scenarios for 2080-2099, we predicted that changes in climate and soil organic carbon content will lead to overall decreased soil Se concentrations, particularly in agricultural areas; these decreases could increase the prevalence of Se deficiency. The importance of climate-soil interactions to Se distributions suggests that other trace elements with similar retention mechanisms will be similarly affected by climate change.

  4. System of coils for increasing the volume of homogeneous field between the parallel pole faces of an electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    The design and evaluation of a system of coils for improving magnetic field homogeneity are discussed. Using only three coil-pairs the duration of NMR spin-echo signals from a sample of H 2 O (0.7 cm. diameter x 0.9 cm. long) was increased by an order of magnitude. (U.S.)

  5. Motion sickness increases the risk of accidental hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobel, Gerard; Eiken, Ola; Tribukait, Arne; Kölegård, Roger; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2006-09-01

    Motion sickness (MS) has been found to increase body-core cooling during immersion in 28 degrees C water, an effect ascribed to attenuation of the cold-induced peripheral vasoconstriction (Mekjavic et al. in J Physiol 535(2):619-623, 2001). The present study tested the hypothesis that a more profound cold stimulus would override the MS effect on peripheral vasoconstriction and hence on the core cooling rate. Eleven healthy subjects underwent two separate head-out immersions in 15 degrees C water. In the control trial (CN), subjects were immersed after baseline measurements. In the MS-trial, subjects were rendered motion sick prior to immersion, by using a rotating chair in combination with a regimen of standardized head movements. During immersion in the MS-trial, subjects were exposed to an optokinetic stimulus (rotating drum). At 5-min intervals subjects rated their temperature perception, thermal comfort and MS discomfort. During immersion mean skin temperature, rectal temperature, the difference in temperature between the non-immersed right forearm and 3rd finger of the right hand (DeltaTff), oxygen uptake and heart rate were recorded. In the MS-trial, rectal temperature decreased substantially faster (33%, P < 0.01). Also, the DeltaTff response, an index of peripheral vasomotor tone, as well as the oxygen uptake, indicative of the shivering response, were significantly attenuated (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) by MS. Thus, MS may predispose individuals to hypothermia by enhancing heat loss and attenuating heat production. This might have significant implications for survival in maritime accidents.

  6. Hormonal contraception does not increase women's HIV acquisition risk in Zambian discordant couples, 1994-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kristin M; Kilembe, William; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Chomba, Elwyn; Johnson, Brent A; Haddad, Lisa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2015-06-01

    several common design and analytic challenges faced by previous studies. After controlling for confounders, we found no association between hormonal contraception and HIV acquisition risk in women. We support promoting condoms for HIV prevention and increasing the contraceptive method mix to decrease unintended pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hormonal contraception does not increase women's HIV acquisition risk in Zambian discordant couples, 1994–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kristin M.; Kilembe, William; Vwalika, Bellington; Khu, Naw Htee; Brill, Ilene; Chomba, Elwyn; Johnson, Brent A.; Haddad, Lisa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2015-01-01

    add to a controversial literature and uniquely address several common design and analytic challenges faced by previous studies. After controlling for confounders, we found no association between hormonal contraception and HIV acquisition risk in women. We support promoting condoms for HIV prevention and increasing the contraceptive method mix to decrease unintended pregnancy. PMID:25708502

  8. Face to Face

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Leckey

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowabl...

  9. Increasing fall risk awareness using wearables: A fall risk awareness protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Asbjørn; Olofsen, Hans; Bremdal, Bernt Arild

    2016-10-01

    Each year about a third of elderly aged 65 or older experience a fall. Many of these falls may have been avoided if fall risk assessment and prevention tools where available in a daily living situation. We identify what kind of information is relevant for doing fall risk assessment and prevention using wearable sensors in a daily living environment by investigating current research, distinguishing between prospective and context-aware fall risk assessment and prevention. Based on our findings, we propose a fall risk awareness protocol as a fall prevention tool integrating both wearables and ambient sensing technology into a single platform. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Humber-in-a-Box : Gamification to Communicate Coastal Flood Risk in the Face of Rising Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. J.; van Rij, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Humber-in-a-Box is an immersive visualisation of the Humber Estuary (on the east coast of the UK), designed to communicate coastal flood risk in the face of rising seas. It is designed for use in a busy festival-like setting. The user views the environment via an Oculus Rift Virtual Reality (VR) headset and is able to explore using an XBOX controller. A live simulation of tidal flows on a modelled version of the estuary can be viewed on a box in the centre of a virtual room. Using the controller, the user is able to raise sea levels and see what happens as the tide levels adjust. Humber-in-a-Box uses a numerical model built with data used for published research. The hydraulic component of the CAESAR-Lisflood model code was incorporated into the UNITY-3D gaming engine, and the model uses recorded tidal stage data, bathymetry and elevations to build the virtual environment and drive the simulation. Present day flood defences are incorporated into the model, and in conjunction with modelling tidal flows, this provides a better representation of future flood risk than simpler linear models. The user is able to raise and lower sea levels between -10 m and 100 m, in 1m increments, and can reset the simulation to present day levels with one button click. Humber-in-a-Box has been showcased at several outreach events and has proven to be very popular and effective in an environment where time with each user is pressured, and information needs to exchange quickly. It has also been used in teaching at Undergraduate level, although the full potential of this is yet to be explored. A non-interactive version of the application is available on YouTube which is designed for use with Google Cardboard and similar kit.

  11. Infradiaphragmatic irradiation and high procarbazine doses increase colorectal cancer risk in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eggermond, Anna M.; Schaapveld, Michael; Janus, Cécile Pm; de Boer, Jan Paul; Krol, Augustinus Dg; Zijlstra, Josée M.; van der Maazen, Richard Wm; Kremer, Leontien C.; van Leerdam, Monique E.; Louwman, Marieke Wj; Visser, Otto; de Bruin, Marie L.; Aleman, Berthe Mp; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2017-01-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors are at increased risk of second malignancies, but few studies have assessed colorectal cancer (CRC) risk after HL treatment. We assessed long-term, subsite-specific CRC risk associated with specific radiation fields and chemotherapy regimens. In a Dutch cohort of 3121

  12. Infradiaphragmatic irradiation and high procarbazine doses increase colorectal cancer risk in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermond, A.M. van; Schaapveld, M.; Janus, C.P.; Boer, J.P. de; Krol, A.D.; Zijlstra, J.M.; Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Kremer, L.C.; Leerdam, M.E. van; Louwman, M.W.; Visser, O; Bruin, M.L. De; Aleman, B.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors are at increased risk of second malignancies, but few studies have assessed colorectal cancer (CRC) risk after HL treatment. We assessed long-term, subsite-specific CRC risk associated with specific radiation fields and chemotherapy regimens. METHODS: In a

  13. Feasibility of visual aids for risk evaluation by hospitalized patients with coronary artery disease: results from face-to-face interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Carlos Alberto da Silva; Monteiro, Andrea Liborio; Tura, Bernardo Rangel; Oliveira, Claudia Silvia Rocha; Rebelo, Amanda Rebeca de Oliveira; Pereira, Claudia Cristina de Aguiar

    2018-01-01

    Communicating information about risk and probability to patients is considered a difficult task. In this study, we aim to evaluate the use of visual aids representing perioperative mortality and long-term survival in the communication process for patients diagnosed with coronary artery disease at the National Institute of Cardiology, a Brazilian public hospital specializing in cardiology. One-on-one interviews were conducted between August 1 and November 20, 2017. Patients were asked to imagine that their doctor was seeking their input in the decision regarding which treatment represented the best option for them. Patients were required to choose between alternatives by considering only the different benefits and risks shown in each scenario, described as the proportion of patients who had died during the perioperative period and within 5 years. Each participant evaluated the same eight scenarios. We evaluated their answers in a qualitative and quantitative analysis. The main findings were that all patients verbally expressed concern about perioperative mortality and that 25% did not express concern about long-term mortality. Twelve percent considered the probabilities irrelevant on the grounds that their prognosis would depend on "God's will." Ten percent of the patients disregarded the reported likelihood of perioperative mortality, deciding to focus solely on the "chance of being cured." In the quantitative analysis, the vast majority of respondents chose the "correct" alternatives, meaning that they made consistent and rational choices. The use of visual aids to present risk attributes appeared feasible in our sample. The impact of heuristics and religious beliefs on shared health decision making needs to be explored better in future studies.

  14. Eucalypts face increasing climate stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Nathalie; Pollock, Laura J; McAlpine, Clive A

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change is already impacting species and ecosystems across the planet. Trees, although long-lived, are sensitive to changes in climate, including climate extremes. Shifts in tree species' distributions will influence biodiversity and ecosystem function at scales ranging from local to landscape; dry and hot regions will be especially vulnerable. The Australian continent has been especially susceptible to climate change with extreme heat waves, droughts, and flooding in recent years, and this climate trajectory is expected to continue. We sought to understand how climate change may impact Australian ecosystems by modeling distributional changes in eucalypt species, which dominate or codominate most forested ecosystems across Australia. We modeled a representative sample of Eucalyptus and Corymbia species (n = 108, or 14% of all species) using newly available Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios developed for the 5th Assessment Report of the IPCC, and bioclimatic and substrate predictor variables. We compared current, 2025, 2055, and 2085 distributions. Overall, Eucalyptus and Corymbia species in the central desert and open woodland regions will be the most affected, losing 20% of their climate space under the mid-range climate scenario and twice that under the extreme scenario. The least affected species, in eastern Australia, are likely to lose 10% of their climate space under the mid-range climate scenario and twice that under the extreme scenario. Range shifts will be lateral as well as polewards, and these east-west transitions will be more significant, reflecting the strong influence of precipitation rather than temperature changes in subtropical and midlatitudes. These net losses, and the direction of shifts and contractions in range, suggest that many species in the eastern and southern seaboards will be pushed toward the continental limit and that large tracts of currently treed landscapes, especially in the continental interior, will change dramatically in terms of species composition and ecosystem structure.

  15. The Racing-Game Effect: Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players’ risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure,sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on r...

  16. Feasibility of visual aids for risk evaluation by hospitalized patients with coronary artery disease: results from face-to-face interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magliano CAS

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Alberto da Silva Magliano,1 Andrea Liborio Monteiro,2 Bernardo Rangel Tura,1 Claudia Silvia Rocha Oliveira,1 Amanda Rebeca de Oliveira Rebelo,1 Claudia Cristina de Aguiar Pereira3 1NATS, Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, INC, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Department of Pharmacy Systems, Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, ENSP, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Purpose: Communicating information about risk and probability to patients is considered a difficult task. In this study, we aim to evaluate the use of visual aids representing perioperative mortality and long-term survival in the communication process for patients diagnosed with coronary artery disease at the National Institute of Cardiology, a Brazilian public hospital specializing in cardiology. Patients and methods: One-on-one interviews were conducted between August 1 and November 20, 2017. Patients were asked to imagine that their doctor was seeking their input in the decision regarding which treatment represented the best option for them. Patients were required to choose between alternatives by considering only the different benefits and risks shown in each scenario, described as the proportion of patients who had died during the perioperative period and within 5 years. Each participant evaluated the same eight scenarios. We evaluated their answers in a qualitative and quantitative analysis. Results: The main findings were that all patients verbally expressed concern about perioperative mortality and that 25% did not express concern about long-term mortality. Twelve percent considered the probabilities irrelevant on the grounds that their prognosis would depend on “God’s will.” Ten percent of the patients disregarded the reported likelihood of perioperative mortality, deciding to focus solely on the “chance of being cured.” In the quantitative analysis, the vast

  17. Increased Bleeding Risk With Concurrent Use of Selective Serotonin Reuptake inhibitors and Coumarins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalekamp, Tom; Klungel, Olaf H; Souverein, Patrick C; de Boer, Anthonius

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with vitamin K antagonists (coumarins) is associated with an increased risk of bleeding. Because use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is also associated with an increased risk of bleeding, we assessed the odds ratio (OR) of abnormal bleeding associated with

  18. Breast cancer patients with dense breasts do not have increased death risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    High mammographic breast density, which is a marker of increased risk of developing breast cancer, does not seem to increase the risk of death among breast cancer patients, according to a study led by Gretchen L. Gierach, Ph.D., NCI. Image shows physician

  19. Different risk-increasing drugs in recurrent versus single fallers: are recurrent fallers a distinct population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askari, Marjan; Eslami, Saied; Scheffer, Alice C.; Medlock, Stephanie; de Rooij, Sophia E.; van der Velde, Nathalie; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Polypharmacy, and specifically the use of multiple fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRID), have been associated with increased risk of falling in older age. However, it is not yet clear whether the known set of FRIDs can be extrapolated to recurrent fallers, since they form a distinct group of more

  20. How do women at increased breast cancer risk perceive and decide between risks of cancer and risk-reducing treatments? A synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielden, Hannah G; Brown, Stephen L; Saini, Pooja; Beesley, Helen; Salmon, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Risk-reducing procedures can be offered to people at increased cancer risk, but many procedures can have iatrogenic effects. People therefore need to weigh risks associated with both cancer and the risk-reduction procedure in their decisions. By reviewing relevant literature on breast cancer (BC) risk reduction, we aimed to understand how women at relatively high risk of BC perceive their risk and how their risk perceptions influence their decisions about risk reduction. Synthesis of 15 qualitative studies obtained from systematic searches of SCOPUS, Web of Knowledge, PsychINFO, and Medline electronic databases (inception-June 2015). Women did not think about risk probabilistically. Instead, they allocated themselves to broad risk categories, typically influenced by their own or familial experiences of BC. In deciding about risk-reduction procedures, some women reported weighing the risks and benefits, but papers did not describe how they did so. For many women, however, an overriding wish to reduce intense worry about BC led them to choose aggressive risk-reducing procedures without such deliberation. Reasoning that categorisation is a fundamental aspect of risk perception, we argue that patients can be encouraged to develop more nuanced and accurate categorisations of their own risk through their interactions with clinicians. Empirically-based ethical reflection is required to determine whether and when it is appropriate to provide risk-reduction procedures to alleviate worry. © 2016 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Increased fracture risk assessed by fracture risk assessment tool in Greek patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzoudis, Sotirios; Zavos, Christos; Damilakis, John; Neratzoulakis, John; Dimitriadi, Daphne Anna; Roussomoustakaki, Maria; Kouroumalis, Elias A; Koutroubakis, Ioannis E

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization has recently developed the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) based on clinical risk factors and bone mineral density (BMD) for evaluation of the 10-year probability of a hip or a major osteoporotic fracture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the FRAX tool in Greek patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). FRAX scores were applied to 134 IBD patients [68 Crohn's disease (CD); 66 ulcerative colitis (UC)] who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans at the femoral neck and lumbar spine during the period 2007-2012. Calculation of the FRAX scores, with or without BMD, was made through a web-based probability model used to compute individual fracture probabilities according to specific clinical risk factors. The median 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture for IBD patients based on clinical data was 7.1%, and including the BMD was 6.2%. A significant overestimation with the first method was found (P = 0.01). Both scores with and without BMD were significantly higher in CD patients compared with UC patients (P = 0.02 and P = 0.005, respectively). The median 10-year probability of hip fracture based on clinical data was 0.8%, and including the BMD was 0.9%. The score with use of BMD was significantly higher in CD compared with UC patients (P = 0.04). CD patients have significantly higher FRAX scores and possibly fracture risk compared with UC patients. The clinical FRAX score alone seems to overestimate the risk of osteoporotic fracture in Greek IBD patients.

  2. Audio computer-assisted survey instrument versus face-to-face interviews: optimal method for detecting high-risk behaviour in pregnant women and their sexual partners in the south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, N; Dillavou, C; Simon, M; Gorbach, P; Santos, B; Fonseca, R; Saraiva, J; Melo, M; Nielsen-Saines, K

    2013-04-01

    Audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI) has been shown to decrease under-reporting of socially undesirable behaviours, but has not been evaluated in pregnant women at risk of HIV acquisition in Brazil. We assigned HIV-negative pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at in Porto Alegre, Brazil and their partners to receive a survey regarding high-risk sexual behaviours and drug use via ACASI (n = 372) or face-to-face (FTF) (n = 283) interviews. Logistic regression showed that compared with FTF, pregnant women interviewed via ACASI were significantly more likely to self-report themselves as single (14% versus 6%), having >5 sexual partners (35% versus 29%), having oral sex (42% versus 35%), using intravenous drugs (5% versus 0), smoking cigarettes (23% versus 16%), drinking alcohol (13% versus 8%) and using condoms during pregnancy (32% versus 17%). Therefore, ACASI may be a useful method in assessing risk behaviours in pregnant women, especially in relation to drug and alcohol use.

  3. Fuel poverty increases risk of mould contamination, regardless of adult risk perception & ventilation in social housing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard A; Thornton, Christopher R; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Osborne, Nicholas J

    2015-06-01

    Fuel poverty affects 2.4 million UK homes leading to poor hygrothermal conditions and risk of mould and house dust mite contaminations, which in turn increases risk of asthma exacerbation. For the first time we assess how fuel poverty, occupants' risk perception and use of mechanical ventilation mediate the risk of mould contamination in social housing. Postal questionnaires were sent to 3867 social housing properties to collect adult risk perception, and demographic and environmental information on occupants. Participant details were linked to data pertaining to the individual properties. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals while allowing for clustering of individuals coming from the same housing estate. We used Structured Equation Modelling and Goodness of Fit analysis in mediation analyses to examine the role of fuel poverty, risk perception, use of ventilation and energy efficiency. Eighteen percent of our target social housing populations (671 households) were included into our study. High risk perception (score of 8-10) was associated with reduced risk of mould contamination in the bedrooms of children (OR 0.5 95% CI; 0.3-0.9) and adults (OR 0.4 95% CI; 0.3-0.7). High risk perception of living with inadequate heating and ventilation reduced the risk of mould contamination (OR 0.5 95% CI; 0.3-0.8 and OR 0.5 95% CI; 0.3-0.7, respectively). Participants living with inadequate heating and not heating due to the cost of fuel had an increased risk of mould contamination (OR 3.4 95% CI; 2.0-5.8 and OR 2.2 95% CI; 1.5-3.2, respectively). Increased risk perception and use of extractor fans did not mediate the association between fuel poverty behaviours and increased risk of mould contamination. Fuel poverty behaviours increased the risk of mould contamination, which corresponds with existing literature. For the first time we used mediation analysis to assess how this association maybe modified by occupant behaviours

  4. Face to Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Leckey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowable. As with contradictory propositions about homosexuality, contradiction does not undermine discourse but makes it stronger and more agile. Este artículo utiliza la teoría Queer, más concretamente la literatura sobre Bowers vs. Hardwick, para analizar los debates sobre la legislación propuesta en Quebec en relación al velo. La teoría Queer arroja luz sobre las respuestas legales al velo. Los debates parlamentarios en Quebec reconstituyen la forma de gobierno, especialmente como secular y unido. El documento pone de relieve el carácter contradictorio e inestable de cuatro binarios: texto legislativo frente a las prácticas sociales; legislación frente a estado; mayoría versus minoría; y conocible frente a incognoscible. Al igual que con las proposiciones contradictorias acerca de la homosexualidad, la contradicción no socava el discurso, sino que lo hace más fuerte y más ágil.

  5. Risk assessment tools to identify women with increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. Complexity or simplicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Hermann, Anne Pernille

    2013-01-01

    A huge number of risk assessment tools have been developed. Far from all have been validated in external studies, more of them have absence of methodological and transparent evidence and few are integrated in national guidelines. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to provide an overview...... of existing valid and reliable risk assessment tools for prediction of osteoporotic fractures. Additionally, we aimed to determine if the performance each tool was sufficient for practical use and lastly to examine whether the complexity of the tools influenced their discriminative power. We searched Pub......Med, Embase and Cochrane databases for papers and evaluated these with respect to methodological quality using the QUADAS checklist. A total of 48 tools were identified, 20 had been externally validated, however only 6 tools had been tested more than once in a population-based setting with acceptable...

  6. Red meat consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases-is increased iron load a possible link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana Pacheco, Daniel A; Sookthai, Disorn; Wittenbecher, Clemens; Graf, Mirja E; Schübel, Ruth; Johnson, Theron; Katzke, Verena; Jakszyn, Paula; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman

    2018-01-01

    High iron load and red meat consumption could increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). As red meat is the main source of heme iron, which is in turn a major determinant of increased iron load, adverse cardiometabolic effects of meat consumption could be mediated by increased iron load. The object of the study was to assess whether associations between red meat consumption and CVD risk are mediated by iron load in a population-based human study. We evaluated relations between red meat consumption, iron load (plasma ferritin), and risk of CVD in the prospective EPIC-Heidelberg Study using a case-cohort sample including a random subcohort (n = 2738) and incident cases of myocardial infarction (MI, n = 555), stroke (n = 513), and CVD mortality (n = 381). Following a 4-step mediation analysis, associations between red meat consumption and iron load, red meat consumption and CVD risk, and iron load and CVD risk were assessed by multivariable regression models before finally testing to which degree associations between red meat consumption and CVD risk were attenuated by adjustment for iron status. Red meat consumption was significantly positively associated with ferritin concentrations and MI risk [HR per 50 g daily intake: 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.33)], but no significant associations with stroke risk and CVD mortality were observed. While direct associations between ferritin concentrations and MI risk as well as CVD mortality were significant in age- and sex-adjusted Cox regression models, these associations were substantially attenuated and no longer significant after multivariable adjustment for classical CVD risk factors. Strikingly, ferritin concentrations were positively associated with a majority of classical CVD risk factors (age, male sex, alcohol intake, obesity, inflammation, and lower education). Increased ferritin concentrations may be a marker of an overall unfavorable risk factor profile rather than a mediator of greater CVD risk due to meat

  7. GM plants with increased tolerance to unfavourable environment – benefits and potential risks

    OpenAIRE

    Djilianov, Dimitar

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary agriculture faces the great challenges to meet the increasing demands of the society for food and row materials and the progressing global warming. To solve these problems we need to develop new crop varieties with high yield and highly tolerant to abitoic stress and at the same time to ensure sustainable development of the society and environment. In this respect it is expected that modern biotechnologies will help plant breeding. The development of genetically modified crop...

  8. Micro-level social and structural factors act synergistically to increase HIV risk among Nepalese female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuba, Keshab; Anderson, Sarah; Ekström, Anna Mia; Pandey, Satish Raj; Shrestha, Rachana; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-08-01

    Sex workers face stigma, discrimination, and violence across the globe and are almost 14 times more likely to be HIV-infected than other women in low- and middle-income countries. In Asia, condom campaigns at brothels have been effective in some settings, but for preventive interventions to be sustainable, it is important to understand micro-level social and structural factors that influence sexual behaviours of sex workers. This study assessed the syndemic effects of micro-level social and structural factors of unprotected sex and the prevalence of HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nepal. This quantitative study included 610 FSWs who were recruited using two-stage cluster sampling from September to November 2012 in 22 Terai Highway districts of Nepal. Rapid HIV tests and face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect biological and behavioural information. A count of physical (sexual violence and other undesirable events), social (poor social support and condom negotiation skills), and economic (unprotected sex to make more money) factors that operate at the micro-level was calculated to test the additive relationship to unprotected sex. The HIV prevalence was 1%; this is presumably representative, with a large sample of FSWs in Nepal. The prevalence of unprotected sex with clients was high (24%). For each additional adverse physical, social, and economic condition, the probability of non-use of condoms with clients increased substantially: one problem = 12% (psocial, and economic environments increased the risk of unprotected sex among Nepalese FSWs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Reducing risks and increasing safety in everyday life: the role of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enander, A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: in social science risk research more attention has been paid to examining how people in general perceive risks than to how they perceive possible measures to reduce risks and to increase their own safety. The latter area is, however, becoming increasingly important to understand, particularly in the light of current emphasis on individual responsibility in risk prevention and emergency preparedness. For example, in Sweden a major effort to increase safety awareness among the general public and to increase knowledge and skills in a number of safety-related areas is at present being planned. This effort is being undertaken as a cooperative effort between different authorities and institutions and is coordinated by the Swedish Rescue Services Agency. The intentions behind this and similar programmes raise a number of questions concerning how people view risks and safety measures in their own immediate environment. Knowledge of the factors affecting willingness to take precautions is important in the design of communication and information. The factors which are of significance may be risk-related and concern perceptions of personal risk, but may also be related to attitudes an beliefs concerning different precautionary measures, to perception of social norms and conventions as well as to personal experiences and values. This paper presents some data concerning views and actions among lay groups in relation to reducing risks and increasing safety. Factors affecting these views are discussed in the light of previous research and of empirical data from some recent studies. (author)

  10. Does employee resistance during a robbery increase the risk of customer injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Rebecca K; Casteel, Carri; Nocera, Maryalice; Bishop, Stephanie F; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2015-04-01

    Retail business robberies can lead to employee and customer injury. Previous work demonstrates that employee resistance increases employee injury risk; limited research has investigated customer injuries. This study examines associations between employee resistance against perpetrators and the risk of customer injury. Retail and service robbery reports were obtained from a metropolitan police department. Generalized estimating equations estimated risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Customers were injured in 75 out of 697 robberies. Employees resisted the perpetrator in 32 out of 697 robberies. Customers had higher injury risk when employees resisted the perpetrator, compared with robberies where employees did not resist (adjusted risk ratio [95% CI], 2.6 [1.5 to 4.5]). Employee resistance against a perpetrator during a robbery increased customer injury risk. Businesses can train employees to not resist during a robbery, providing benefits for both customers and the business itself.

  11. On the increased risk of developing late-onset epilepsy for patients with major affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Flemming Mørkeberg; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bolwig, Tom Gert

    2003-01-01

    for the control groups. However, the increased risk seemed to be due to the effect of comorbid alcohol or drug abuse and not to the effect of the affective illness itself. LIMITATIONS: The results only apply to hospitalised patients. Diagnoses are not validated for research purposes. CONCLUSION: Patients...... with a diagnosis of affective disorder have an increased risk of developing epilepsy in later life. In patients with affective disorder, comorbid alcoholism/drug abuse seriously increased the risk of a subsequent diagnosis of epilepsy....

  12. At-Risk Variant in TCF7L2 for Type II Diabetes Increases Risk of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas; Ingason, Andrés; Djurovic, Srdjan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with increased risk of type II diabetes and metabolic disorders. However, it is unclear whether this comorbidity reflects shared genetic risk factors, at-risk lifestyle, or side effects of antipsychotic medication. METHODS: Eleven known risk variants of type...... (SGENE+) using Mantel-Haenszel test. RESULTS: One type II diabetes at-risk allele located in TCF7L2, rs7903146 [T], was associated with schizophrenia in the discovery sample (p = .0052) and in the replication with an odds ratio of 1.07 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.14, p = .033). CONCLUSION...... II diabetes were genotyped in patients with schizophrenia in a sample of 410 Danish patients, each matched with two healthy control subjects on sex, birth year, and month. Replication was carried out in a large multinational European sample of 4089 patients with schizophrenia and 17,597 controls...

  13. Rationality on the rise: Why relative risk aversion increases with stake size

    OpenAIRE

    Fehr-Duda, Helga; Bruhin, Adrian; Epper, Thomas F.; Schubert, Renate

    2008-01-01

    How does risk tolerance vary with stake size? This important question cannot be adequately answered if framing effects, nonlinear probability weighting, and heterogeneity of preference types are neglected. We show that, contrary to gains, no coherent change in relative risk aversion is observed for losses. The increase in relative risk aversion over gains cannot be captured by the curvature of the utility function. It is driven predominantly by a change in probability weighting of a majority ...

  14. What can be offered to couples at (possibly) increased genetic risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Andrew P.; Donnai, Dian

    2012-01-01

    We review the reasons why a couple might seek specialist genetic counselling about a possible reproductive risk and the options available to them. Most commonly, the couple will be concerned about the risk of recurrence of a medical condition that has already occurred in the family. Sometimes, the increased risk may come from their ethnicity or because of a consanguineous marriage, rather than because any problem has occurred previously. The geneticist must identify the exact nature of any pr...

  15. Low Adiponectin Levels and Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients With Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan S; Pedersen, Sune H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced in adipose tissue, directly suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulating fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake...... 5.3-6.1]) 6% (n = 38) developed T2DM. Risk of T2DM was analyzed using a competing risk analysis. RESULTS: Low adiponectin levels were associated with increased risk of T2DM (P age, sex, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, current smoking.......001). Importantly, plasma adiponectin added to the predictive value of blood glucose, with the combination of high blood glucose and low plasma adiponectin, vastly increasing the risk of developing T2DM (HR 9.6 [3.7-25.3]; P

  16. HIV infection is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer, independent of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Gregory D; Merlo, Christian; O' Driscoll, Peter; Mehta, Shruti H; Galai, Noya; Vlahov, David; Samet, Jonathan; Engels, Eric A

    2007-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons have an elevated risk for lung cancer, but whether the increase reflects solely their heavy tobacco use remains an open question. The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Link to the Intravenous Experience Study has prospectively observed a cohort of injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland, since 1988, using biannual collection of clinical, laboratory, and behavioral data. Lung cancer deaths were identified through linkage with the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the effect of HIV infection on lung cancer risk, controlling for smoking status, drug use, and clinical variables. Among 2086 AIDS Link to the Intravenous Experience Study participants observed for 19,835 person-years, 27 lung cancer deaths were identified; 14 of the deaths were among HIV-infected persons. All but 1 (96%) of the patients with lung cancer were smokers, smoking a mean of 1.2 packs per day. Lung cancer mortality increased during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, compared with the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy period (mortality rate ratio, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-16). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and calendar period, HIV infection was associated with increased lung cancer risk (hazard ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-7.9). Preexisting lung disease, particularly noninfectious diseases and asthma, displayed trends for increased lung cancer risk. Illicit drug use was not associated with increased lung cancer risk. Among HIV-infected persons, smoking remained the major risk factor; CD4 cell count and HIV load were not strongly associated with increased lung cancer risk, and trends for increased risk with use of highly active antiretroviral therapy were not significant. HIV infection is associated with significantly increased risk for developing lung cancer, independent of smoking status.

  17. Subfertility increases risk of testicular cancer: evidence from population-based semen samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Heidi A; Anderson, Ross E; Aston, Kenneth I; Carrell, Douglas T; Smith, Ken R; Hotaling, James M

    2016-02-01

    To further understand the association between semen quality and cancer risk by means of well defined semen parameters. Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. A total of 20,433 men who underwent semen analysis (SA) and a sample of 20,433 fertile control subjects matched by age and birth year. None. Risk of all cancers as well as site-specific results for prostate cancer, testicular cancer, and melanoma. Compared with fertile men, men with SA had an increased risk of testicular cancer (hazard rate [HR] 3.3). When the characterization of infertility was refined using individual semen parameters, we found that oligozoospermic men had an increased risk of cancer compared with fertile control subjects. This association was particularly strong for testicular cancer, with increased risk in men with oligozoospermia based on concentration (HR 11.9) and on sperm count (HR 10.3). Men in the in the lowest quartile of motility (HR 4.1), viability (HR 6.6), morphology (HR 4.2), or total motile count (HR 6.9) had higher risk of testicular cancer compared with fertile men. Men with sperm concentration and count in the 90th percentiles of the distribution (≥178 and ≥579 × 10(6)/mL, respectively), as well as total motile count, had an increased risk of melanoma (HRs 2.1, 2.7, and 2.0, respectively). We found no differences in cancer risk between azoospermic and fertile men. Men with SA had an increased risk of testicular cancer which varied by semen quality. Unlike earlier work, we did not find an association between azoospermia and increased cancer risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. No Increased Risk of Cancer after Coal Tar Treatment in Patients with Psoriasis or Eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofzen, Judith H. J.; Aben, Katja K. H.; Oldenhof, Ursula T. H.; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Alkemade, Hans A.; van de Kerkhof, Peter C. M.; van der Valk, Pieter G. M.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.

    Coal tar is an effective treatment for psoriasis and eczema, but it contains several carcinogenic compounds. Occupational and animal studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after exposure to coal tar. Many dermatologists have abandoned this treatment for safety reasons, although the risk of

  19. Polymorphisms near TBX5 and GDF7 are associated with increased risk for Barrett's esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palles, Claire; Chegwidden, Laura; Li, Xinzhong; Findlay, John M.; Farnham, Garry; Castro Giner, Francesc; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Kovac, Michal; Adams, Claire L.; Prenen, Hans; Briggs, Sarah; Harrison, Rebecca; Sanders, Scott; MacDonald, David; Haigh, Chris; Tucker, Art; Love, Sharon; Nanji, Manoj; Decaestecker, John; Ferry, David; Rathbone, Barrie; Hapeshi, Julie; Barr, Hugh; Moayyedi, Paul; Watson, Peter; Zietek, Barbara; Maroo, Neera; Gay, Laura; Underwood, Tim; Boulter, Lisa; McMurtry, Hugh; Monk, David; Patel, Praful; Ragunath, Krish; Al Dulaimi, David; Murray, Iain; Koss, Konrad; Veitch, Andrew; Trudgill, Nigel; Nwokolo, Chuka; Rembacken, Bjorn; Atherfold, Paul; Green, Elaine; Ang, Yeng; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Chow, Wu; Paterson, Stuart; Kadri, Sudarshan; Beales, Ian; Grimley, Charles; Mullins, Paul; Beckett, Conrad; Farrant, Mark; Dixon, Andrew; Kelly, Sean; Johnson, Matthew; Wajed, Shahjehan; Dhar, Anjan; Sawyer, Elinor; Roylance, Rebecca; Onstad, Lynn; Gammon, Marilie D.; Corley, Douglas A.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Bird, Nigel C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Reid, Brian J.; Ye, Weimin; Liu, Geoffrey; Romero, Yvonne; Bernstein, Leslie; Wu, Anna H.; Casson, Alan G.; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Whiteman, David C.; Risch, Harvey A.; Levine, David M.; Vaughan, Tom L.; Verhaar, Auke P.; van den Brande, Jan; Toxopeus, Eelke L.; Spaander, Manon C.; Wijnhoven, Bas P. L.; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; Krishnadath, Kausilia; Wijmenga, Cisca; Trynka, Gosia; McManus, Ross; Reynolds, John V.; O'Sullivan, Jacintha; MacMathuna, Padraic; McGarrigle, Sarah A.; Kelleher, Dermot; Vermeire, Severine; Cleynen, Isabelle; Bisschops, Raf; Tomlinson, Ian; Jankowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) increases the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We found the risk to be BE has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 6p21 (within the HLA region) and on 16q23, where the closest protein-coding gene is FOXF1. Subsequently, the

  20. Polymorphisms near TBX5 and GDF7 are associated with increased risk for Barrett's esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Palles (Claire); L. Chegwidden (Laura); X. Li (Xinzhong); J.M. Findlay (John M.); G. Farnham (Garry); F. Castro Giner (Francesc); M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel); M. Kovac (Michal); C.L. Adams (Claire); H. Prenen (Hans); S. Briggs (Sarah); R. Harrison (Rebecca); S. Sanders (Scott); D. Macdonald (David); K. Haigh (Katharina); A.T. Tucker (Art); S. Love (Sharon); M. Nanji (Manoj); J. Decaestecker (John); D.R. Ferry (David); B. Rathbone (Barrie); J. Hapeshi (Julie); H. Barr (Hugh); P. Moayyedi (Paul); P. Watson (Peter); B. Zietek (Barbara); N. Maroo (Neera); L. Gay (Laura); T. Underwood (Tim); L. Boulter (Lisa); H. McMurtry (Hugh); A.B. Monk (Alastair); P. Patel (Poulam); K. Ragunath (Krish); D. Al Dulaimi (David); I. Murray (Iain); C. Koss (Clara); A. Veitch (Andrew); N. Trudgill (Nigel); C. Nwokolo (Chuka); B. Rembacken; P. Atherfold (Paul); E.K. Green (Elaine K); Y. Ang (Yeng); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); W. Chow (Wu); S. Paterson (Stuart); S. Kadri (Sudarshan); I. Beales (Ian); C. Grimley (Charles); P. Mullins (Paul); C. Beckett (Conrad); M. Farrant (Mark); A. Dixon (Andrew); S. Kelly (Sean); M. Johnson (Matthew); S. Wajed (Shahjehan); A. Dhar (Archana); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); R. Roylance (Rebecca); L. Onstad (Lynn); M.D. Gammon (Marilie); D.A. Corley (Douglas); N. Shaheen (Nazima); N.C. Bird (Nigel); B.G.S. Hardie (Bruce); B.J. Reid (Brian); W. Ye (Weimin); G. Liu (Geoffrey); Y. Romero (Yvonne); L. Bernstein (Leslie); A.H. Wu (Anna H.); A.G. Casson (Alan); R.C. Fitzgerald (Rebecca); D.C. Whiteman (David C.); H. Risch (Harvey); D.M. Levine (David M.); T.L. Vaughan (Thomas); A.P. Verhaar (Auke); J. Van Den Brande (Jan); E.L.A. Toxopeus (Eelke); M.C.W. Spaander (Manon); B.P.L. Wijnhoven (Bas); L.J.W. van der Laan (Luc); K.K. Krishnadath (Kausilia); C. Wijmenga (Cisca); G. Trynka (Gosia); R. McManus (Ross); J.V. Reynolds (John V.); J. O'Sullivan (Jacintha); P. Macmathuna (Padraic); S.A. McGarrigle (Sarah A.); D. Kelleher (Dermot); S. Vermeire (Séverine); I. Cleynen (Isabelle); R. Bisschops (Raf); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); J.A. Jankowski (Janusz Antoni)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground & Aims Barrett's esophagus (BE) increases the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We found the risk to be BE has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 6p21 (within the HLA region) and on 16q23, where the closest protein-coding gene is

  1. Polymorphisms Near TBX5 and GDF7 Are Associated With Increased Risk for Barrett's Esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palles, Claire; Chegwidden, Laura; Li, Xinzhong; Findlay, John M.; Farnham, Garry; Giner, Francesc Castro; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Kovac, Michal; Adams, Claire L.; Prenen, Hans; Briggs, Sarah; Harrison, Rebecca; Sanders, Scott; MacDonald, David; Haigh, Chris; Tucker, Art; Love, Sharon; Nanji, Manoj; Decaestecker, John; Ferry, David; Rathbone, Barrie; Hapeshi, Julie; Barr, Hugh; Moayyedi, Paul; Watson, Peter; Zietek, Barbara; Maroo, Neera; Gay, Laura; Underwood, Tim; Boulter, Lisa; McMurtry, Hugh; Monk, David; Patel, Praful; Ragunath, Krish; Al Dulaimi, David; Murray, Iain; Koss, Konrad; Veitch, Andrew; Trudgill, Nigel; Nwokolo, Chuka; Rembacken, Bjorn; Atherfold, Paul; Green, Elaine; Ang, Yeng; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Chow, Wu; Paterson, Stuart; Kadri, Sudarshan; Beales, Ian; Grimley, Charles; Mullins, Paul; Beckett, Conrad; Farrant, Mark; Dixon, Andrew; Kelly, Sean; Johnson, Matthew; Wajed, Shahjehan; Dhar, Anjan; Sawyer, Elinor; Roylance, Rebecca; Onstad, Lynn; Gammon, Marilie D.; Corley, Douglas A.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Bird, Nigel C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Reid, Brian J.; Ye, Weimin; Liu, Geoffrey; Romero, Yvonne; Bernstein, Leslie; Wu, Anna H.; Casson, Alan G.; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Whiteman, David C.; Risch, Harvey A.; Levine, David M.; Vaughan, Tom L.; Verhaar, Auke P.; van den Brande, Jan; Toxopeus, Eelke L.; Spaander, Manon C.; Wijnhoven, Bas P. L.; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; Krishnadath, Kausilia; Wijmenga, Cisca; Trynka, Gosia; McManus, Ross; Reynolds, John V.; O'Sullivan, Jacintha; MacMathuna, Padraic; McGarrigle, Sarah A.; Kelleher, Dermot; Vermeire, Severine; Cleynen, Isabelle; Bisschops, Raf; Tomlinson, Ian; Jankowski, Janusz

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Barrett's esophagus (BE) increases the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We found the risk to be BE has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 6p21 (within the HLA region) and on 16q23, where the closest protein-coding gene is FOXF1.

  2. Increasing flood exposure in the Netherlands: implications for risk financing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, B.; Koks, E.E.; Husby, T.G.; Ward, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of disaster risk management and financing mechanisms depends on an accurate assessment of current and future hazard exposure. The increasing availability of detailed data offers policy makers and the insurance sector new opportunities to understand trends in risk, and to make

  3. Non-exposure parenting increases risk of bullying behavior in junior high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surilena Hasan

    2016-05-01

    Non-exposure parenting was the most relevant risk factor of bullying behavior. Low self-esteem increases the risk of bullying behavior. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying prevention and intervention programs that should have a special focus on families of primary high school students.

  4. Problems and fall risk determinants of quality of life in older adults with increased risk of falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sang-I; Chang, Ku-Chou; Lee, Hsuei-Chen; Yang, Yi-Ching; Tsauo, Jau-Yih

    2015-05-01

    Determine quality of life and its association with fall risk factors in older adults with increased risk of falling. A total of 597 community-dwelling Taiwanese older adults who were screened to have increased risk of falling participated in the present study. The fall risk factors included sociodemographics, physical and psychological function, Timed Up and Go, past fall/medical histories, fear of falling and medications. The Euro QOL EQ-5D was used to measure health-related quality of life. Pain/discomfort was the EQ-5D dimension most frequently reported to be impaired (35%), regardless of the level of fall risk or age groups, followed by mobility (25%). Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Geriatric Depression Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, physiological function, up-and-go, fear of falling and psychotropic medication were independent predictors for total EQ-5D, explaining 68.37% of the variance. Logistic regression analysis showed that for the five EQ-5D dimensions, Geriatric Depression Scale and Up and Go time were the most common determinants. Pain/discomfort was the leading impairment, and greater Geriatric Depression Scale and longer up-and-go time were the main contributing factors in declines in quality of life in older adults with increased risk of falling. These factors are often modifiable, and their management might be considered a priority in falls prevention. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Greater Pupil Size in Response to Emotional Faces as an Early Marker of Social-Communicative Difficulties in Infants at High Risk for Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer B; Luyster, Rhiannon J; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    When scanning faces, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have shown reduced visual attention (e.g., less time on eyes) and atypical autonomic responses (e.g., heightened arousal). To understand how these differences might explain sub-clinical variability in social functioning, 9-month-olds, with or without a family history of ASD, viewed emotionally-expressive faces, and gaze and pupil diameter (a measure of autonomic activation) were recorded using eye-tracking. Infants at high-risk for ASD with no subsequent clinical diagnosis (HRA-) and low-risk controls (LRC) showed similar face scanning and attention to eyes and mouth. Attention was overall greater to eyes than mouth, but this varied as a function of the emotion presented. HRA- showed significantly larger pupil size than LRC. Correlations between scanning at 9 months, pupil size at 9 months, and 18-month social-communicative behavior, revealed positive associations between pupil size and attention to both face and eyes at 9 months in LRC, and a negative association between 9-month pupil size and 18-month social-communicative behavior in HRA-. The present findings point to heightened autonomic arousal in HRA-. Further, with greater arousal relating to worse social-communicative functioning at 18 months, this work points to a mechanism by which unaffected siblings might develop atypical social behavior.

  6. Cigarette graphic warning labels increase both risk perceptions and smoking myth endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Abigail T; Peters, Ellen; Shoben, Abigail B; Meilleur, Louise R; Klein, Elizabeth G; Tompkins, Mary Kate; Tusler, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Cigarette graphic warning labels elicit negative emotion, which increases risk perceptions through multiple processes. We examined whether this emotion simultaneously affects motivated cognitions like smoking myth endorsement (e.g. 'exercise can undo the negative effects of smoking') and perceptions of cigarette danger versus other products. 736 adult and 469 teen smokers/vulnerable smokers viewed one of three warning label types (text-only, low emotion graphic or high emotion graphic) four times over two weeks. Emotional reactions to the warnings were reported during the first and fourth exposures. Participants reported how often they considered the warnings, smoking myth endorsement, risk perceptions and perceptions of cigarette danger relative to smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes. In structural equation models, emotional reactions influenced risk perceptions and smoking myth endorsement through two processes. Emotion acted as information about risk, directly increasing smoking risk perceptions and decreasing smoking myth endorsement. Emotion also acted as a spotlight, motivating consideration of the warning information. Warning consideration increased risk perceptions, but also increased smoking myth endorsement. Emotional reactions to warnings decreased perceptions of cigarette danger relative to other products. Emotional reactions to cigarette warnings increase smoking risk perceptions, but also smoking myth endorsement and misperceptions that cigarettes are less dangerous than potentially harm-reducing tobacco products.

  7. Views of Low-Income Women of Color at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Anderson, Emily; Tejada, Silvia; B Warnecke, Richard; Hoskins, Kent

    2018-01-01

    Individual risk assessment (IRA) for breast cancer may increase adherence to risk-appropriate screening and prevention measures. However, knowledge gaps exist regarding how best to communicate IRA results and support women at increased risk in future health care decisions, in part because patients conceptualize and make meaning of risk differently from the medical community. Better understanding the views of low-income women of color identified as being at increased risk for breast cancer can inform efforts to conduct IRA in an ethical and respectful manner. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 low-income African American and Latina women who receive care at a federally qualified health center (FQHC) and had recently learned of their increased risk for breast cancer. These interviews explored their experience of the IRA process, their interpretation of what being at increased risk means, and their reactions to provider recommendations. Eight key themes were identified. We conclude with recommendations for the implementation of IRA for breast cancer in underserved primary care settings.

  8. The Effects of Fall-Risk-Increasing Drugs on Postural Control : A Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Maartje H.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Moek, Marije A.; Tulner, Linda R.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    Meta-analyses showed that psychotropic drugs (antidepressants, neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, antiepileptic drugs) and some cardiac drugs (digoxin, type IA anti-arrhythmics, diuretics) are associated with increased fall risk. Because balance and gait disorders are the most consistent predictors of

  9. is there an increased risk of post-operative surgical site infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-06

    Sep 6, 2012 ... requiring implant orthopaedic surgery are at an increased risk for post-operative surgical ... further studies should determine the effect of reduced CD4 counts, viral load .... Language not Enlish, French, Ducth or German (n=2).

  10. Increased Risks of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma in Male and Female Chinese Herbalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yu Yang

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: The significant risk of urothelial carcinoma noted in male herbalists increases our suspicion that this is an occupational disease that renders regular health assessment of herbalists an urgent necessity.

  11. Women with minor menstrual irregularities have increased risk of preeclampsia and low birthweight in spontaneous pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnesen, Barbara; Oddgeirsdóttir, Hanna L; Naver, Klara Vinsand

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Very few studies describe the obstetric and neonatal outcome of spontaneous pregnancies in women with irregular menstrual cycles. However, menstrual cycle irregularities are common and may be associated with increased risk, and women who develop pregnancy complications more frequent...

  12. NT-proBNP is increased in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients and may predict cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther N; Horst-Schrivers, van der Anouk; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Bakker, Stephan J L; Muller Kobold, Anneke C.; Brouwers, Adrienne H; de Bock, Geertruida H; Gietema, Jourik A; Dullaart, Robin P F; Links, Thera P; Lefrandt, Joop D

    INTRODUCTION: Chronic suppression of TSH in patients treated for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) may induce cardiac damage and increase risk for cardiovascular events and premature mortality. We aimed to compare circulating concentrations of N-terminal pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide

  13. Thyroid Dysfunction and Fibrin Network Structure: A Mechanism for Increased Thrombotic Risk in Hyperthyroid Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooper, J. M. W.; Stuijver, D. J. F.; Orme, S. M.; van Zaane, B.; Hess, K.; Gerdes, V. E.; Phoenix, F.; Rice, P.; Smith, K. A.; Alzahrani, S. H.; Standeven, K. F.; Ajjan, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased thrombosis risk, and fibrin clot structure determines susceptibility to vascular thrombotic events. Objective: Our objective was to investigate clot formation and lysis in hyperthyroidism using observational and interventional studies. Design: Ex

  14. Stratifying a Risk for an Increased Variation of Airway Caliber among the Clinically Stable Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Hayata

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: These results indicate that ACQ, %FEV1 and FENO can stratify the risk for increased variation in airway caliber among patients with stable asthma. This may help identify subjects in whom further monitoring of lung function fluctuations is indicated.

  15. Nine-year risk of depression diagnosis increases with increasing self-reported concussions in retired professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Harding, Herndon P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2012-10-01

    Concussions may accelerate the progression to long-term mental health outcomes such as depression in athletes. To prospectively determine the effects of recurrent concussions on the clinical diagnosis of depression in a group of retired football players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Members of the National Football League Retired Players Association responded to a baseline General Health Survey (GHS) in 2001. They also completed a follow-up survey in 2010. Both surveys asked about demographic information, number of concussions sustained during their professional football career, physical/mental health, and prevalence of diagnosed medical conditions. A physical component summary (Short Form 36 Measurement Model for Functional Assessment of Health and Well-Being [SF-36 PCS]) was calculated from responses for physical health. The main exposure, the history of concussions during the professional playing career (self-report recalled in 2010), was stratified into 5 categories: 0 (referent), 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10+ concussions. The main outcome was a clinical diagnosis of depression between the baseline and follow-up GHS. Classic tabular methods computed crude risk ratios. Binomial regression with a Poisson residual and robust variance estimation to stabilize the fitting algorithm estimated adjusted risk ratios. χ(2) analyses identified associations and trends between concussion history and the 9-year risk of a depression diagnosis. Of the 1044 respondents with complete data from the baseline and follow-up GHS, 106 (10.2%) reported being clinically diagnosed as depressed between the baseline and follow-up GHS. Approximately 65% of all respondents self-reported sustaining at least 1 concussion during their professional careers. The 9-year risk of a depression diagnosis increased with an increasing number of self-reported concussions, ranging from 3.0% in the "no concussions" group to 26.8% in the "10+" group (linear trend: P football and 2001 SF-36 PCS

  16. Changes in Adult BMI and Waist Circumference Are Associated with Increased Risk of Advanced Colorectal Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathirua-Mwangi, Wambui G; Monahan, Patrick; Song, Yiqing; Zollinger, Terrell W; Champion, Victoria L; Stump, Timothy E; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2017-11-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is a stronger predictor of colon cancer (CRC) risk than body mass index (BMI). However, how well change in either WC or BMI predicts risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia (AN) is unclear. To determine the relationship between change in BMI and WC from early adulthood to later age and the risk of AN and which change measure is a stronger predictor. In 4500 adults, ages 50-80, with no previous neoplasia and undergoing screening colonoscopy, BMI and WC at age 21 and at time of screening were reported. Changes in BMI and WC were defined using universal risk cutoffs. Known CRC risk factors were controlled in the logistic models. Overall, model statistics showed WC change (omnibus test χ 2  = 10.15, 2 DF, p value = 0.006) was a statistically stronger predictor of AN than BMI change (omnibus test χ 2  = 5.66, 5 DF, p value = 0.34). Independent of BMI change, participants who increased WC (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.05-1.96) or maintained a high-risk WC (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.38-4.53) at age 21 and at screening had an increased risk of AN compared to those with a low-risk WC. Study participants who were obese at age 21 and at screening had an increased risk of AN (OR 1.87; 95% CI 1.08-3.23) compared to those who maintained a healthy BMI. Maintaining an overweight BMI or increasing BMI was not associated with AN. Maintaining an unhealthy BMI and WC throughout adult life may increase risk of AN. WC change may be a better predictor of AN than BMI change.

  17. Increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, Sofie; Weis, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) frequently leads to cirrhosis with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). CHC therapy is currently changing for the better whereas prognosis for HCC remains dismal if not detected early and thus regular screening in cirrhotic CHC patients for HCC...... is recommended. CHC is known to be underdiagnosed in Denmark where it is up to the involved physician to screen for risk factors for CHC and increase the patient's chance of a cure for CHC with therapy....

  18. Increased peripheral vascular disease risk progressively constrains perfusion adaptability in the skeletal muscle microcirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Joshua T.; Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Olfert, I. Mark; Chantler, Paul D.; Tabone, Lawrence E.; d'Audiffret, Alexandre C.; Shrader, Carl D.; Goodwill, Adam G.; Stapleton, Phoebe A.; Brooks, Steven D.; Brock, Robert W.; Lombard, Julian H.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the impact of progressive elevations in peripheral vascular disease (PVD) risk on microvascular function, we utilized eight rat models spanning “healthy” to “high PVD risk” and used a multiscale approach to interrogate microvascular function and outcomes: healthy: Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR) and lean Zucker rats (LZR); mild risk: SDR on high-salt diet (HSD) and SDR on high-fructose diet (HFD); moderate risk: reduced renal mass-hypertensive rats (RRM) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR); high risk: obese Zucker rats (OZR) and Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DSS). Vascular reactivity and biochemical analyses demonstrated that even mild elevations in PVD risk severely attenuated nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and caused progressive shifts in arachidonic acid metabolism, increasing thromboxane A2 levels. With the introduction of hypertension, arteriolar myogenic activation and adrenergic constriction were increased. However, while functional hyperemia and fatigue resistance of in situ skeletal muscle were not impacted with mild or moderate PVD risk, blood oxygen handling suggested an increasingly heterogeneous perfusion within resting and contracting skeletal muscle. Analysis of in situ networks demonstrated an increasingly stable and heterogeneous distribution of perfusion at arteriolar bifurcations with elevated PVD risk, a phenomenon that was manifested first in the distal microcirculation and evolved proximally with increasing risk. The increased perfusion distribution heterogeneity and loss of flexibility throughout the microvascular network, the result of the combined effects on NO bioavailability, arachidonic acid metabolism, myogenic activation, and adrenergic constriction, may represent the most accurate predictor of the skeletal muscle microvasculopathy and poor health outcomes associated with chronic elevations in PVD risk. PMID:26702145

  19. Assessment of Credit Risk Approaches in Relation with Competitiveness Increase of the Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipovová Eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on a presentation and analysis of selected methods of credit risk management in relation with competitiveness increase of the banking sector. The article is defined credit risk approaches under the Basel III gradually. Aim of this contribution constitutes various methods of credit risk management and effects of their usage on regulatory capital amount in respect of corporate exposures. Optimal equity amount in relation to the risk portfolio presents an essential prerequisite of performance and competitiveness growth of commercial banks. Gradually capital requirements using Standardized Approach and Internal Based Approach in a case of used and unused techniques of credit risk reduce has been quantified. We presume that sophisticated approach means significant saving for bank’s equity which increases competitiveness of banking sector also. Within the article, quantification of capital savings in case of Standardized (with and without assigned external ratings and Foundation Internal Based Approach at the selected credit portfolio has been effected.

  20. Risk management strategy to increase the safety of workers in the nanomaterials industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Min-Pei, E-mail: lingmp@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wei-Chao; Liu, Chia-Chyuan [Department of Cosmetic Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yi-Shiao; Chueh, Miao-Ju [Industrial Safety and Health Association of the ROC, Taipei 11670, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, Tung-Sheng [Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Council of Labor Affairs, Taipei 22143, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer On-site assessment of nanomaterials using physiochemical and cytotoxic analysis can help identify risks for each nanomaterials manufacturing plant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The risk of the nanomaterials manufacturing plants can be divided into three levels based on exposure routes (tier 1), aspect identification (tier 2), and toxicological screening (tier 3). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer According to the different risk levels, the precautionary risk management (PRM) such as technology control, engineering control, and personal protective equipment were applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PRM strategy can be effectively reduced workers risks for nanomaterial industries. - Abstract: In recent years, many engineered nanomaterials (NMs) have been produced, but increasing research has revealed that these may have toxicities far greater than conventional materials and cause significant adverse health effects. At present, there is insufficient data to determine the permissible concentrations of NMs in the workplace. There is also a lack of toxicity data and environmental monitoring results relating to complete health risk assessment. In view of this, we believe that workers in the NMs industry should be provided with simple and practical risk management strategy to ensure occupational health and safety. In this study, we developed a risk management strategy based on the precautionary risk management (PRM). The risk of the engineered NMs manufacturing plants can be divided into three levels based on aspect identification, solubility tests, dermal absorption, and cytotoxic analyses. The risk management strategies include aspects relating to technology control, engineering control, personal protective equipment, and monitoring of the working environment for each level. Here we report the first case in which a simple and practical risk management strategy applying in specific engineered NMs manufacturing plants. We are

  1. Risk management strategy to increase the safety of workers in the nanomaterials industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Min-Pei; Lin, Wei-Chao; Liu, Chia-Chyuan; Huang, Yi-Shiao; Chueh, Miao-Ju; Shih, Tung-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► On-site assessment of nanomaterials using physiochemical and cytotoxic analysis can help identify risks for each nanomaterials manufacturing plant. ► The risk of the nanomaterials manufacturing plants can be divided into three levels based on exposure routes (tier 1), aspect identification (tier 2), and toxicological screening (tier 3). ► According to the different risk levels, the precautionary risk management (PRM) such as technology control, engineering control, and personal protective equipment were applied. ► The PRM strategy can be effectively reduced workers risks for nanomaterial industries. - Abstract: In recent years, many engineered nanomaterials (NMs) have been produced, but increasing research has revealed that these may have toxicities far greater than conventional materials and cause significant adverse health effects. At present, there is insufficient data to determine the permissible concentrations of NMs in the workplace. There is also a lack of toxicity data and environmental monitoring results relating to complete health risk assessment. In view of this, we believe that workers in the NMs industry should be provided with simple and practical risk management strategy to ensure occupational health and safety. In this study, we developed a risk management strategy based on the precautionary risk management (PRM). The risk of the engineered NMs manufacturing plants can be divided into three levels based on aspect identification, solubility tests, dermal absorption, and cytotoxic analyses. The risk management strategies include aspects relating to technology control, engineering control, personal protective equipment, and monitoring of the working environment for each level. Here we report the first case in which a simple and practical risk management strategy applying in specific engineered NMs manufacturing plants. We are confident that our risk management strategy can be effectively reduced engineered NM industries risks for

  2. Does red noise increase or decrease extinction risk? Single extreme events versus series of unfavorable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwager, Monika; Johst, Karin; Jeltsch, Florian

    2006-06-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown contrasting effects of temporal correlation of environmental fluctuations (red noise) on the risk of population extinction. It is still debated whether and under which conditions red noise increases or decreases extinction risk compared with uncorrelated (white) noise. Here, we explain the opposing effects by introducing two features of red noise time series. On the one hand, positive autocorrelation increases the probability of series of poor environmental conditions, implying increasing extinction risk. On the other hand, for a given time period, the probability of at least one extremely bad year ("catastrophe") is reduced compared with white noise, implying decreasing extinction risk. Which of these two features determines extinction risk depends on the strength of environmental fluctuations and the sensitivity of population dynamics to these fluctuations. If extreme (catastrophic) events can occur (strong noise) or sensitivity is high (overcompensatory density dependence), then temporal correlation decreases extinction risk; otherwise, it increases it. Thus, our results provide a simple explanation for the contrasting previous findings and are a crucial step toward a general understanding of the effect of noise color on extinction risk.

  3. Proximity to vacant buildings is associated with increased fire risk in Baltimore, Maryland, homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachterle, Stephen E; Bishai, David; Shields, Wendy; Stepnitz, Rebecca; Gielen, Andrea C

    2012-04-01

    Fires and burns are a leading cause of unintentional injury death in the USA. Although it has been anecdotally reported that vacant dwellings are at a higher risk for fire, the association between vacancy and fire risk at the individual household level has not been empirically measured. In this cross-sectional study, geocoded residential vacant properties (VP) and fire events are analysed in Baltimore City at the census tract level and the individual household level. On average, a 10% increase in the proportion of vacancies in a census tract was associated with a 9.9% increase in fires (95% CI: 5% to 15%). Random-effects Poisson models, controlling for housing and neighbourhood conditions, found contagion effects. The risk of fire in an occupied dwelling increased by 8% (95% CI: 1% to 10%) for every vacant structure within 10 m, and the risk of fire decreased by half (95% CI: 45% to 62%) for every km between an occupied dwelling and vacant building. Close proximity to VP was associated with trash fires within dwellings (p=0.039) and structure fires (p=0.012). We believe that this is the first study to demonstrate increased risk posed by nearby VP at the household level, confirming earlier ecological analyses of the role of VP as strong correlates of home fires. Measurement of this risk can motivate property owners, policy makers and insurers to invest in risk reduction measures that include building maintenance and trash removal.

  4. Increased risk of flooding on the coast of Alicante (Region of Valencia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olcina Cantos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, episodes of flooding on the coast of Alicante (Spain have led to substantial losses in human life in economic terms. With increased exposure to these phenomena comes also increased vulnerability. Given the various effects of flooding in areas of similar exposure, differences in vulnerability across regions at risk need to be analysed also in terms of the socioeconomic factors of the groups of society that may be affected, and of their perception of risk. This paper studies the increased risk of flooding in three locations on the Alicante coast as a result of urban occupation of areas subject to this hazard. The consequences of the most recent episodes in this area are analysed and a risk assessment, using survey-based research in the affected areas, is performed.

  5. Identification and management of patients at increased risk of osteoporotic fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanis, J A; Cooper, C; Rizzoli, R

    2017-01-01

    where the risk of a subsequent fracture following a first fracture is high. Consequently, there is a significant treatment gap between those who would benefit from treatment and those who receive it, which urgently needs to be addressed so that the burden of disease can be reduced. Conclusions......Summary: Osteoporosis represents a significant and increasing healthcare burden in Europe, but most patients at increased risk of fracture do not receive medication, resulting in a large treatment gap. Identification of patients who are at particularly high risk will help clinicians target...... appropriate treatment more precisely and cost-effectively, and should be the focus of future research. Introduction: The purpose of the study was to review data on the identification and treatment of patients with osteoporosis at increased risk of fracture. Methods: A working group convened by the European...

  6. Infradiaphragmatic irradiation and high procarbazine doses increase colorectal cancer risk in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Eggermond, Anna M; Schaapveld, Michael; Janus, Cécile Pm

    2017-01-01

    incidence ratios (SIR) was 2.4-fold increased (95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.8-3.2), leading to 5.7 excess cases per 10 000 patient-years. Risk was still increased 30 years after HL treatment (SIR: 2.8; 95%CI: 1.6-4.6). The highest (SIR: 6.5, 95%CI: 3.3-11.3) was seen for transverse colon cancer (15......BACKGROUND: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors are at increased risk of second malignancies, but few studies have assessed colorectal cancer (CRC) risk after HL treatment. We assessed long-term, subsite-specific CRC risk associated with specific radiation fields and chemotherapy regimens. METHODS...... a hazard ratio of 6.8 (95%CI: 3.0-15.6) compared with patients receiving neither treatment, which is significantly higher than an additive joint effect (Padditivity=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Colorectal cancer surveillance should be considered for HL survivors who received Infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy...

  7. Risk Factors Associated with Mortality and Increased Drug Costs in Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingliang; Sun, Gang; Zhang, Xiu-li; Zhang, Xiao-mei; Liu, Qing-sen; Huang, Qi-yang; Lau, James W Y; Yang, Yun-sheng

    2015-06-01

    To determine risk factors associated with mortality and increased drug costs in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We retrospectively analyzed data from patients hospitalized with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding between January 2001-December 2011. Demographic and clinical characteristics and drug costs were documented. Univariate analysis determined possible risk factors for mortality. Statistically significant variables were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Multiple linear regression analyzed factors influencing drug costs. p study included data from 627 patients. Risk factors associated with increased mortality were age > 60, systolic blood pressurebleeding rate is 11.20% and mortality is 5.74%. The mortality risk in patients with comorbidities was higher than in patients without comorbidities, and was higher in patients requiring blood transfusion than in patients not requiring transfusion. Rebleeding was associ-ated with mortality. Rebleeding, blood transfusion, and prolonged hospital stay were associated with increased drug costs, whereas bleeding from lesions in the esophagus and duodenum was associated with lower drug costs.

  8. X-ray microscopy as an approach to increasing accuracy and efficiency of serial block-face imaging for correlated light and electron microscopy of biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushong, Eric A; Johnson, Donald D; Kim, Keun-Young; Terada, Masako; Hatori, Megumi; Peltier, Steven T; Panda, Satchidananda; Merkle, Arno; Ellisman, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    The recently developed three-dimensional electron microscopic (EM) method of serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) has rapidly established itself as a powerful imaging approach. Volume EM imaging with this scanning electron microscopy (SEM) method requires intense staining of biological specimens with heavy metals to allow sufficient back-scatter electron signal and also to render specimens sufficiently conductive to control charging artifacts. These more extreme heavy metal staining protocols render specimens light opaque and make it much more difficult to track and identify regions of interest (ROIs) for the SBEM imaging process than for a typical thin section transmission electron microscopy correlative light and electron microscopy study. We present a strategy employing X-ray microscopy (XRM) both for tracking ROIs and for increasing the efficiency of the workflow used for typical projects undertaken with SBEM. XRM was found to reveal an impressive level of detail in tissue heavily stained for SBEM imaging, allowing for the identification of tissue landmarks that can be subsequently used to guide data collection in the SEM. Furthermore, specific labeling of individual cells using diaminobenzidine is detectable in XRM volumes. We demonstrate that tungsten carbide particles or upconverting nanophosphor particles can be used as fiducial markers to further increase the precision and efficiency of SBEM imaging.

  9. Adverse life events increase risk for postpartum psychiatric episodes: A population-based epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer-Brody, S; Larsen, J T; Petersen, L; Guintivano, J; Florio, A Di; Miller, W C; Sullivan, P F; Munk-Olsen, T

    2018-02-01

    Trauma histories may increase risk of perinatal psychiatric episodes. We designed an epidemiological population-based cohort study to explore if adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in girls increases risk of later postpartum psychiatric episodes. Using Danish registers, we identified women born in Denmark between January 1980 and December 1998 (129,439 childbirths). Exposure variables were ACE between ages 0 and 15 including: (1) family disruption, (2) parental somatic illness, (3) parental labor market exclusion, (4) parental criminality, (5) parental death, (6) placement in out-of-home care, (7) parental psychopathology excluding substance use, and (8) parental substance use disorder. Primary outcome was first occurrence of in- or outpatient contact 0-6 months postpartum at a psychiatric treatment facility with any psychiatric diagnoses, ICD-10, F00-F99 (N = 651). We conducted survival analyses using Cox proportional hazard regressions of postpartum psychiatric episodes. Approximately 52% of the sample experienced ACE, significantly increasing risk of any postpartum psychiatric diagnosis. Highest risks were observed among women who experienced out-of-home placement, hazard ratio (HR) 2.57 (95% CI: 1.90-3.48). Women experiencing two adverse life events had higher risks of postpartum psychiatric diagnosis HR: 1.88 (95% CI: 1.51-2.36), compared to those with one ACE, HR: 1.24 (95% CI: 1.03-49) and no ACE, HR: 1.00 (reference group). ACE primarily due to parental psychopathology and disability contributes to increased risk of postpartum psychiatric episodes; and greater numbers of ACE increases risk for postpartum psychiatric illness with an observed dose-response effect. Future work should explore genetic and environmental factors that increase risk and/or confer resilience. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Diffusion-weighted MRI for detecting prostate tumour in men at increased genetic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Nandita M. de; Morgan, Veronica A.; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Sohaib, S. Aslam; Giles, Sharon L.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Castro, Elena; Hazell, Steven; Jafar, Maysam; Eeles, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    •Endorectal T2W + DW-MRI is potentially useful for prostate cancer screening.•MRI is specific for detecting prostate cancer in men with increased genetic risk.•Detection of prostate cancer in men at genetically low risk with MRI is limited. Endorectal T2W + DW-MRI is potentially useful for prostate cancer screening. MRI is specific for detecting prostate cancer in men with increased genetic risk. Detection of prostate cancer in men at genetically low risk with MRI is limited. Diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI is invaluable in detecting prostate cancer. We determined its sensitivity and specificity and established interobserver agreement for detecting tumour in men with a family history of prostate cancer stratified by genetic risk. 51 men with a family history of prostate cancer underwent T2-W + DW-endorectal MRI at 3.0 T. Presence of tumour was noted at right and left apex, mid and basal prostate sextants by 2 independent observers, 1 experienced and the other inexperienced in endorectal MRI. Sensitivity and specificity against a 10-core sampling technique (lateral and medial cores at each level considered together) in men with >2× population risk based on 71 SNP analysis versus those with lower genetic risk scores was established. Interobserver agreement was determined at a subject level. Biopsies indicated cancer in 28 sextants in 13/51 men; 32 of 51 men had twice the population risk (>0.25) based on 71 SNP profiling. Sensitivity/specificity per-subject for patients was 90.0%/86.4% (high-risk) vs. 66.7%/100% (low-risk, observer 1) and 60.0%/86.3% (high-risk) vs. 33.3%/93.8% (low-risk, observer 2) with moderate overall inter-observer agreement (kappa = 0.42). Regional sensitivities/specificities for high-risk vs. low-risk for observer 1 apex 72.2%/100% [33.3%/100%], mid 100%/93.1% [100%/97.3%], base 16.7%/98.3% [0%/100%] and for observer 2 apex 36.4%/98.1% [0%/100%], mid 28.6%/96.5% [100%/100%], base 20%/100% [0%/97.3%] were poorer as they failed to detect

  11. Increased risk of ischemic stroke in cervical cancer patients: a nationwide population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Su, Yu-Chieh; Hung, Shih-Kai; Huang, Yung-Sung; Tung, Chien-Hsueh; Lee, Ching-Chih; Lee, Moon-Sing; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lin, Hon-Yi; Hsu, Feng-Chun; Tsai, Chih-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Increased risk of ischemic stroke has been validated for several cancers, but limited study evaluated this risk in cervical cancer patients. Our study aimed to evaluate the risk of ischemic stroke in cervical cancer patients. The study analyzed data from the 2003 to 2008 National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) provided by the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan. Totally, 893 cervical cancer patients after radiotherapy and 1786 appendectomy patients were eligible. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the risk of ischemic stroke. The 5-year cumulative risk of ischemic stroke was significantly higher for the cervical cancer group than for the control group (7.8% vs 5.1%; p <0.005). The risk of stroke was higher in younger (age <51 years) than in older (age ≥51 years) cervical cancer patients (HR = 2.73, p = 0.04; HR = 1.37, p = 0.07) and in patients with more than two comorbid risk factors (5 years cumulative stroke rate of two comorbidities: 15% compared to no comorbidities: 4%). These study demonstrated cervical cancer patients had a higher risk of ischemic stroke than the general population, especially in younger patients. Strategies to reduce this risk should be assessed

  12. Increased maternal plasma leptin in early pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chunfang; Williams, Michelle A; Vadachkoria, Surab; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Luthy, David A

    2004-03-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, may have independent direct effects on both insulin secretion and action, in addition to its well documented effects on appetite and energy expenditure. Some, but not all, previously published studies suggest that maternal leptin concentrations may be increased in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We examined the association between plasma leptin concentration and GDM risk. Women were recruited before 16 weeks of gestation and were followed up until delivery. Maternal plasma leptin concentrations (collected at 13 weeks of gestation) were measured by using immunoassay. We used generalized linear models to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. GDM developed in 5.7% of the cohort (47 of 823). Elevated leptin concentrations were positively associated with GDM risk (P for trend risk of GDM (95% confidence interval 1.2, 18.0) as compared with women who had concentrations of 14.3 ng/mL or lower. We noted a strong linear component of trend in risk of GDM with increasing maternal plasma leptin concentration. Each 10-ng/mL increase in the leptin concentration was associated with a 20% increase in GDM risk (relative risk 1.2; 95% confidence interval 1.0, 1.3). Hyperleptinemia, independent of maternal adiposity, in early pregnancy appears to be predictive of an increased risk of GDM later in pregnancy. Additional larger prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm and more precisely assess the etiologic importance of hyperleptinemia in pregnancy. II-2

  13. Increased risk of intraoperative and early postoperative periprosthetic femoral fracture with uncemented stems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Christoffer C.; Solgaard, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose - The use of uncemented fixation in total hip arthroplasty (THA) is increasing. Registry studies have indicated an increased risk of revision of uncemented implants due to early periprosthetic femoral fracture. In this paper, we describe the incidence and predisposing facto...

  14. Hyperglycemia is associated with increased risk of patient delay in pulmonary tuberculosis in rural areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Ma, Aiguo; Han, Xiuxia; Zhao, Shanliang; Cai, Jing; Kok, Frans J.; Schouten, Evert G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Excessive time between the first presentation of symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and diagnosis contributes to ongoing transmission and increased risk of infection in the community, as well as to increased disease severity and higher mortality. People with type 2 diabetes

  15. Does high sugar consumption exacerbate cardiometabolic risk factors and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Laaksonen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar has been relatively high in the Nordic countries; the impact of sugar intake on metabolic risk factors and related diseases has been debated. The objectives were to assess the effect of sugar intake (sugar-sweetened beverages, sucrose and fructose on association with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related metabolic risk factors (impaired glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, uric acid, inflammation markers, and on all-cause mortality, through a systematic review of prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled intervention studies published between January 2000 and search dates. The methods adopted were as follows: the first search was run in PubMed in October 2010. A second search with uric acid as risk marker was run in April 2011. The total search strategy was rerun in April 2011 in SveMed+. An update was run in PubMed in January 2012. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 2,743 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. The outcome was that out of the 17 studies extracted, 15 were prospective cohort studies and two were randomised controlled crossover trials. All of the studies included only adults. With respect to incident type 2 diabetes (nine studies, four of six prospective cohort studies found a significant positive association for sugar-sweetened beverage intake. In general, larger cohort studies with longer follow-up more often reported positive associations, and BMI seemed to mediate part of the increased risk. For other metabolic or cardiovascular risk factors or outcomes, too few studies have been published to draw conclusions. In conclusion, data from prospective cohort studies published in the years 2000–2011 suggest that sugar-sweetened beverages probably increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. For related metabolic risk factors, cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality and other types of sugars, too few studies

  16. E-cigarettes: Comparing the Possible Risks of Increasing Smoking Initiation with the Potential Benefits of Increasing Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E; Mendez, David

    2018-03-29

    The public health community is divided regarding electronic cigarettes. Skeptics emphasize potential vaping-induced increases in smoking among children and possible health hazards for adults. Enthusiasts consider e-cigarettes much less dangerous than smoking and believe they increase adult smoking cessation. We compare potential health benefits and costs to put these two perspectives in context. Using a dynamic model that tracks the US adult population's smoking status and smoking-related deaths over time, we simulate the effects of vaping-induced smoking initiation and cessation on life-years saved or lost to the year 2070. The base case assumes that vaping annually increases smoking initiation by 2% and smoking cessation by 10%. Sensitivity analyses raise the initiation rate increase to 6% while decreasing the cessation rate increase to 5%. Sensitivity analyses also test vaping's reducing the health benefits of quitting smoking by 10%. With base-case assumptions, the population gains almost 3.3 million life-years by 2070. If all people who quit smoking by vaping lose 10% of the benefit of quitting smoking, the net life-year gain falls to 2.4 million. Under worst-case assumptions, in which vaping increases smoking initiation by 6% and cessation by 5%, and vaping-induced quitters lose 10% of the health benefits, the population gains over 580,000 life-years. Potential life-years gained as a result of vaping-induced smoking cessation are projected to exceed potential life-years lost due to vaping-induced smoking initiation. These results hold over a wide range of plausible parameters. Our analysis strongly suggests that the upside health benefit associated with e-cigarettes, in terms of their potential to increase adult smoking cessation, exceeds their downside risk to health as a result of their possibly increasing the number of youthful smoking initiators. Public messaging and policy should continue to strive to reduce young people's exposure to all nicotine and

  17. Behavioural adjustment in response to increased predation risk: a study in three duck species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Zimmer

    Full Text Available Predation directly triggers behavioural decisions designed to increase immediate survival. However, these behavioural modifications can have long term costs. There is therefore a trade-off between antipredator behaviours and other activities. This trade-off is generally considered between vigilance and only one other behaviour, thus neglecting potential compensations. In this study, we considered the effect of an increase in predation risk on the diurnal time-budget of three captive duck species during the wintering period. We artificially increased predation risk by disturbing two groups of 14 mallard and teals at different frequencies, and one group of 14 tufted ducks with a radio-controlled stressor. We recorded foraging, vigilance, preening and sleeping durations the week before, during and after disturbance sessions. Disturbed groups were compared to an undisturbed control group. We showed that in all three species, the increase in predation risk resulted in a decrease in foraging and preening and led to an increase in sleeping. It is worth noting that contrary to common observations, vigilance did not increase. However, ducks are known to be vigilant while sleeping. This complex behavioural adjustment therefore seems to be optimal as it may allow ducks to reduce their predation risk. Our results highlight the fact that it is necessary to encompass the whole individual time-budget when studying behavioural modifications under predation risk. Finally, we propose that studies of behavioural time-budget changes under predation risk should be included in the more general framework of the starvation-predation risk trade-off.

  18. A computer code for Cohort Analysis of Increased Risks of Death (CAIRD). Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Bunger, B.M.; Barrick, M.K.

    1978-06-01

    The most serious health risk confronting individuals exposed to radiation is death from an induced cancer. Since cancers usually do no develop until many years after exposure, other causes of death may intervene and take the lives of those destined to die from cancer. This computer code has been developed to aid risk analysis by calculating the number of premature deaths and loss of years of life produced by a hypothetical population after exposure to a given risk situation. The code generates modified life tables and estimates the impact of increased risk through several numerical comparisons with the appropriate reference life tables. One of the code's frequent applications is in estimating the number of radiation induced deaths that would result from exposing an initial population of 100,000 individuals to an annual radiation dose. For each risk situation analyzed, the computer code generates a summary table which documents the input, data and contains the results of the comparisons with reference life tables

  19. No increased risk of developing depression in diabetes compared to other chronic illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nilsson, Flemming Mørkeberg; Siersma, Volkert

    2003-01-01

    of patients. There was no difference in the risk for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. It is concluded that older patients with diabetes do not seem to have an increased risk of developing severe depression compared with patients with other chronic illness.......Several studies have found that the prevalence of depression in patients with diabetes is higher than in the general population but it is unclear whether patients with diabetes have an increased risk of developing depression compared with patients with other chronic illnesses. In a nationwide case...... register study, all patients who had a discharge diagnosis of diabetes or of osteoarthritis at first admission in a period from 1977 to 1997 were identified. The probability of being readmitted and discharged with a diagnosis of depression was estimated with competing risks models in survival analysis...

  20. Increased relative risk of subsequent affective disorders in patients with a hospital diagnosis of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A F; Kvist, T K; Andersen, P K

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of clinical affective disorders of patients who were hospitalized because of obesity in the study period 1 January 1977 to 31 December 1999. METHOD: Using data from Danish hospital registers, three study cohorts were identified by their diagnoses at discharge from...... discharged with an index diagnosis was identified. In total, 1081 events occurred in the observation period. An index diagnosis of obesity was associated with an increased risk of affective-disorders hospitalization when compared with patients with osteoarthritis (Rate ratio: 1.35 (95% CI: 1.......09-1.67)) and tended to be associated with an increased risk when compared to patients with non-toxic goiter (Rate ratio: 1.23 (95% CI: 0.99-1.53)). Patients with obesity diagnoses who did not have additional hospital diagnoses of substance- or alcohol abuse had a risk of affective disorders that was 1.55 (95% CI: 1...

  1. The racing-game effect: why do video racing games increase risk-taking inclinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg

    2009-10-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on risk taking was partially mediated by changes in self-perceptions as a reckless driver. These effects were evident only when the individual played racing games that reward traffic violations rather than racing games that do not reward traffic violations (Study 3) and when the individual was an active player of such games rather than a passive observer (Study 4). In sum, the results underline the potential negative impact of racing games on traffic safety.

  2. Identification of a DMBT1 polymorphism associated with increased breast cancer risk and decreased promoter activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchatchou, Sandrine; Riedel, Angela; Lyer, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    ,466 unrelated German controls. Promoter studies in breast cancer cells demonstrate that the risk-increasing DMBT1 -93T allele displays significantly decreased promoter activity compared to the DMBT1 -93C allele, resulting in a loss of promoter activity. The data suggest that DMBT1 polymorphisms in the 5'-region......According to present estimations, the unfavorable combination of alleles with low penetrance but high prevalence in the population might account for the major part of hereditary breast cancer risk. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) has been proposed as a tumor suppressor for breast cancer...... and other cancer types. Genomewide mapping in mice further identified Dmbt1 as a potential modulator of breast cancer risk. Here, we report the association of two frequent and linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with increased breast cancer risk in women above the age of 60 years: DMBT1 c.-93C...

  3. Delay in blood sampling for routine newborn screening is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2015-01-01

    for this association. Therefore, we investigated whether the increased risk can be explained by other risk factors for schizophrenia. METHODS: A case-control design was applied. A total of 846 cases with schizophrenia were selected from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register. One control was selected for each case......BACKGROUND: The Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank, containing dried blood spot samples from all newborn in Denmark, is a unique source of data that can be utilized for analyses of genetic and environmental exposures related to schizophrenia and other mental disorders. In previous analyses, we have...... found that early and late blood sampling, compared to sampling at day 5, was associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. As delay in sampling of blood for neonatal screening cannot in itself influence the risk of schizophrenia, it must be seen as a proxy for unknown underlying causes responsible...

  4. Elderly individuals with increased risk of falls show postural balance impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Márcio Rogério de; Inokuti, Thiago Tadashi; Bispo, Nuno Noronha da Costa; Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida Pires; Oliveira, Rodrigo Franco de; Silva Jr., Rubens Alexandre da

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Falls are a serious public health problem. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether elderly individuals with increased risk of falls have a postural balance deficit, evaluated using a force platform during a one-leg stance. Materials and methods The sample consisted of 94 physically independent elderly individuals from the EELO project. The instruments used were the Downton scale, in order to assess the risk as well as the history of falls, and the force platf...

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with increased lesion burden and brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Natalie; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Hagemeier, Jesper; Kennedy, Cheryl; Melia, Rebecca; Carl, Ellen; Ramasamy, Deepa P; Cherneva, Mariya; Durfee, Jacqueline; Bergsland, Niels; Dwyer, Michael G; Kolb, Channa; Hojnacki, David; Ramanathan, Murali; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors have been associated with changes in clinical outcomes in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate the frequency of CV risks in patients with MS and their association with MRI outcomes. In a prospective study, 326 patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 163 patients with progressive MS, 61 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and 175 healthy controls (HCs) were screened for CV risks and scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. Examined CV risks included hypertension, heart disease, smoking, overweight/obesity and type 1 diabetes. MRI measures assessed lesion volumes (LVs) and brain atrophy. Association between individual or multiple CV risks and MRI outcomes was examined adjusting for age, sex, race, disease duration and treatment status. Patients with MS showed increased frequency of smoking (51.7% vs 36.5%, p = 0.001) and hypertension (33.9% vs 24.7%, p=0.035) compared with HCs. In total, 49.9% of patients with MS and 36% of HCs showed ≥ 2 CV risks (p = 0.003), while the frequency of ≥ 3 CV risks was 18.8% in the MS group and 8.6% in the HCs group (p = 0.002). In patients with MS, hypertension and heart disease were associated with decreased grey matter (GM) and cortical volumes (p < 0.05), while overweight/obesity was associated with increased T1-LV (p < 0.39) and smoking with decreased whole brain volume (p = 0.049). Increased lateral ventricle volume was associated with heart disease (p = 0.029) in CIS. Patients with MS with one or more CV risks showed increased lesion burden and more advanced brain atrophy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Tourette syndrome increases risk of bone fractures: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Ming-Yu; Wei, I-Hua; Lin, Che-Chen; Huang, Chih-Chia

    2017-05-01

    This study assesses the risk of fractures among children with Tourette syndrome (TS), and identifies the effects of comorbidities and antipsychotics. We randomly sampled the claims data of 1 million enrollees in the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan, and identified 1258 children with TS diagnosed between 2000 and 2010. Additionally, 12,580 children without TS who were frequency matched for sex, age, residential area, parental occupation, and index year were identified for comparison. The children's cases were followed until December 31, 2010, or censored to ascertain incident fractures cases and associations with comorbidities of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and treatments with antipsychotics, antidepressants, or clonidine. The TS cohort had a 1.27-fold higher incidence of fractures than did the comparison cohort (190.37 vs. 149.94 per 10,000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.28 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.55] based on multivariable Cox regression analysis. This increased risk of fractures was apparent for fractures of the skull, neck, and spine. Comorbid ADHD and OCD did not result in an additional risk of fractures. The children without both ADHD and OCD were also at a higher risk of fractures, indicating that TS alone increases the risk of fractures. The children taking antipsychotics had a reduced risk of fractures, and the adjusted HR decreased to 1.17 (95% CI 0.90-1.52). Children with TS have an increased risk of fractures. ADHD and OCD do not increase the risk further.

  7. 86Rubidium uptake in mononuclear leucocytes from young subjects at increased risk of developing essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Johansen, Torben; Pedersen, K E

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to assess any changes in mononuclear leucocytes from young men at increased risk of developing essential hypertension and to determine whether any changes found were associated with borderline hypertension and/or heredity. To this end we used mononuclear leucocytes......, and especially in those borderline hypertensives with at least one hypertensive parent. The latter group was also the group at greatest risk of developing essential hypertension....

  8. A Western Dietary Pattern Increases Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Roberto; Minelli, Liliana; Bertarelli, Gaia; Bacci, Silvia

    2016-10-12

    Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with the glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by "a posteriori" methods. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risks estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs), for a first-percentile increase in dietary pattern score, were combined by a dose-response meta-analysis. Twelve observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified a "Healthy pattern" and a "Western pattern". The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.08-1.65). In addition, the "Carbohydrate pattern", which was analyzed in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.35-2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western ( p = 0.011) pattern, the Carbohydrate ( p = 0.005) pattern, and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small number of studies included in the meta-analysis suggests that further investigation is necessary to support these findings.

  9. Acceptance and adherence to chemoprevention among women at increased risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roetzheim, Richard G; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Fulp, William; Matos Gomez, Elizabeth; Clayton, Elissa; Tollin, Sharon; Khakpour, Nazanin; Laronga, Christine; Lee, Marie Catherine; Kiluk, John V

    2015-02-01

    Chemoprevention is an option for women who are at increased risk of breast cancer (five year risk ≥1.7%). It is uncertain, however, how often women accept and complete five years of therapy and whether clinical or demographic factors predict completion. Medical records were abstracted for 219 women whose five year risk of breast cancer was ≥1.7% and who were offered chemoprevention while attending a high risk breast clinic at the Moffitt Cancer Center. We examined the likelihood of accepting chemoprevention and completing five years of therapy, and potential clinical and demographic predictors of these outcomes, using multivariable logistic regression and survival analysis models. There were 118/219 women (54.4%) who accepted a recommendation for chemoprevention and began therapy. The likelihood of accepting chemoprevention was associated with lifetime breast cancer risk and was higher for women with specific high risk conditions (lobular carcinoma in situ and atypical ductal hyperplasia). Women with osteoporosis and those that consumed alcohol were also more likely to accept medication. There were 58/118 (49.2%) women who stopped medication at least temporarily after starting therapy. Based on survival curves, an estimated 60% of women who begin chemoprevention will complete five years of therapy. A substantial percentage of women at increased risk of breast cancer will decline chemoprevention and among those that accept therapy, approximately 40% will not be able to complete five years of therapy because of side effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adjunctive selective estrogen receptor modulator increases neural activity in the hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus during emotional face recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, E; Weickert, C S; Lenroot, R; Kindler, J; Skilleter, A J; Vercammen, A; White, C; Gur, R E; Weickert, T W

    2016-05-03

    Estrogen has been implicated in the development and course of schizophrenia with most evidence suggesting a neuroprotective effect. Treatment with raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, can reduce symptom severity, improve cognition and normalize brain activity during learning in schizophrenia. People with schizophrenia are especially impaired in the identification of negative facial emotions. The present study was designed to determine the extent to which adjunctive raloxifene treatment would alter abnormal neural activity during angry facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Twenty people with schizophrenia (12 men, 8 women) participated in a 13-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of adjunctive raloxifene treatment (120 mg per day orally) and performed a facial emotion recognition task during functional magnetic resonance imaging after each treatment phase. Two-sample t-tests in regions of interest selected a priori were performed to assess activation differences between raloxifene and placebo conditions during the recognition of angry faces. Adjunctive raloxifene significantly increased activation in the right hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus compared with the placebo condition (family-wise error, Precognition in schizophrenia. These findings support the hypothesis that estrogen plays a modifying role in schizophrenia and shows that adjunctive raloxifene treatment may reverse abnormal neural activity during facial emotion recognition, which is relevant to impaired social functioning in men and women with schizophrenia.

  11. Neural synchronization during face-to-face communication

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, J.; Dai, B.; Peng, D.; Zhu, C.; Liu, L.; Lu, C.

    2012-01-01

    Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-...

  12. Clinical and Surgical Factors Associated With Increased Epilepsy Risk in Children With Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Hannah M; Kukull, Walter A; Mueller, Beth A

    2016-06-01

    Children with hydrocephalus are at risk for epilepsy both due to their underlying condition and as a consequence of surgical treatment; however, the relative contributions of these factors remain unknown. The authors sought to characterize epilepsy among children with infancy-onset hydrocephalus and to examine the risks of epilepsy associated with hydrocephalus subtype and with factors related to surgical treatment. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of all children with infancy-onset hydrocephalus treated at a major regional children's hospital during 2002 to 2012, with follow-up to ascertain risk factors and epilepsy outcome through April 2015. Poisson regression was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations. Among 379 children with hydrocephalus, 86 (23%) developed epilepsy (mean onset age = 2.7 years), almost one fifth of whom had a history of infantile spasms. Relative to spina bifida-associated hydrocephalus, children with other major hydrocephalus subtypes had fourfold higher risks of developing epilepsy. Among children who underwent surgery, surgical infection doubled the risk of epilepsy (risk ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.4 to 3.0). Epilepsy was associated with surgical failure for intracranial reasons but not extracranial reasons (risk ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.1 to 2.7; risk ratio = 1.1, 95% confidence interval = 0.7 to 1.9, respectively). Epilepsy is common among children with hydrocephalus. Compared with children with spina bifida-associated hydrocephalus, children with other major hydrocephalus subtypes have a markedly increased risk of epilepsy. Surgical infection doubles the risk of epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanism and preclinical prevention of increased breast cancer risk caused by pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, Svasti; Dong, Jie; Hein, Sarah; Reddy, Jay P; Du, Zhijun; Toneff, Michael; Holloway, Kimberly; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Huang, Shixia; Atkinson, Rachel; Woodward, Wendy; Jindal, Sonali; Borges, Virginia F; Gutierrez, Carolina; Zhang, Hong; Schedin, Pepper J; Osborne, C Kent; Tweardy, David J; Li, Yi

    2013-12-31

    While a first pregnancy before age 22 lowers breast cancer risk, a pregnancy after age 35 significantly increases life-long breast cancer risk. Pregnancy causes several changes to the normal breast that raise barriers to transformation, but how pregnancy can also increase cancer risk remains unclear. We show in mice that pregnancy has different effects on the few early lesions that have already developed in the otherwise normal breast-it causes apoptosis evasion and accelerated progression to cancer. The apoptosis evasion is due to the normally tightly controlled STAT5 signaling going astray-these precancerous cells activate STAT5 in response to pregnancy/lactation hormones and maintain STAT5 activation even during involution, thus preventing the apoptosis normally initiated by oncoprotein and involution. Short-term anti-STAT5 treatment of lactation-completed mice bearing early lesions eliminates the increased risk after a pregnancy. This chemoprevention strategy has important implications for preventing increased human breast cancer risk caused by pregnancy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00996.001.

  14. Setting the Threshold for Surgical Prevention in Women at Increased Risk of Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Menon, Usha

    2018-01-01

    considered at younger than 45. In other moderate-risk gene mutation carriers and those with polygenic risk, RRSO needs be considered at 50. There is need for establishment/expansion of well-defined pathways to increase clinical access to RRSO. It is time to lower the risk threshold for RRSO to enable introduction of a targeted primary prevention approach, which could significantly impact the future burden of ovarian cancer.

  15. Risk perception, risk management and safety assessment: what can governments do to increase public confidence in their vaccine system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Noni E; Smith, Jennifer; Appleton, Mary

    2012-09-01

    For decades vaccine program managers and governments have devoted many resources to addressing public vaccine concerns, vaccine risk perception, risk management and safety assessment. Despite ever growing evidence that vaccines are safe and effective, public concerns continue. Education and evidence based scientific messages have not ended concerns. How can governments and programs more effectively address the public's vaccine concerns and increase confidence in the vaccine safety system? Vaccination hesitation has been attributed to concerns about vaccine safety, perceptions of high vaccine risks and low disease risk and consequences. Even when the public believes vaccines are important for protection many still have concerns about vaccine safety. This overview explores how heuristics affect public perception of vaccines and vaccine safety, how the public finds and uses vaccine information, and then proposes strategies for changes in the approach to vaccine safety communications. Facts and evidence confirming the safety of vaccines are not enough. Vaccine beliefs and behaviours must be shaped. This will require a shift in the what, when, how and why of vaccine risk and benefit communication content and practice. A change to a behavioural change strategy such as the WHO COMBI program that has been applied to disease eradication efforts is suggested. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Better consenting for thyroidectomy: who has an increased risk of postoperative hypocalcaemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew S; Prades, Eduardo; Tkachuk, Olena; Zeitoun, Hisham

    2016-12-01

    Hypocalcaemia is the most common complication following thyroidectomy. This study aimed to establish the factors associated with increased risk of hypocalcaemia on day 1 following thyroidectomy. All patients who underwent thyroidectomy under a single consultant during a 5-year period were included. A multivariate analysis was undertaken to ascertain which variables had the most effect on the risk of hypocalcaemia. A prognosis table was constructed to allow risk to be predicted for individual patients based on these factors. Included in the analysis were 210 procedures and 194 patients. Eighty-two percent of patients had no calcium derangement postoperatively. Fourteen point nine percent were categorised as early hypocalcaemia, 1 % had protracted hypocalcaemia and 2.1 % had permanent hypocalcaemia. For hemi-thyroidectomies 2.8 % had postoperative hypocalcaemia and 0.9 % had permanent hypocalcaemia. The multivariate analysis revealed total thyroidectomy (risk ratio 26.5, p < 0.0001), diabetes (risk ratio 4.8, p = 0.07) and thyrotoxicosis (risk ratio 3.1, p = 0.04) as statistically significant variables for early postoperative hypocalcaemia. Gender as an isolated factor did not reach significance but was included in the model. The p value for the model was p < 1 × 10 -12 . Total thyroidectomy increases risk of early hypocalcaemia when compared to hemithyroidectomy. Gender, diabetes and thyrotoxicosis were also been found to influence the risk. All of these factors are available pre-operatively and can therefore be used to predict a more specific risk for individual patients. It is hoped that this can lead to better informed consent, prevention and better resource allocation.

  17. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire and land

  18. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahia Devisscher

    Full Text Available Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can

  19. Failure to Redose Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Long Surgery Increases Risk of Surgical Site Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Whitney, Joanne D; Dellinger, E Patchen; Nair, Bala G; Pike, Kenneth C

    Antibiotic prophylaxis is a key component of the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI). Failure to manage antibiotic prophylaxis effectively may increase the risk of SSI. This study aimed to examine the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on SSI risk. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients having general surgery between May 2012 and June 2015 at the University of Washington Medical Center. Peri-operative data extracted from hospital databases included patient and operation characteristics, intra-operative medication and fluid administration, and survival outcome. The effects of antibiotic prophylaxis and potential factors on SSI risk were estimated using multiple logistic regression and were expressed as risk ratios (RRs). A total of 4,078 patients were eligible for analysis. Of these, 180 had an SSI. Mortality rates within and after 30 days were 0.8% and 0.3%, respectively. Improper antibiotic redosing increased the risk of SSI (RR 4.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-15.91). Other risk factors were in-patient status (RR 4.05; 95% CI 1.69-9.66), smoking (RR 1.63; 95% CI 1.03-2.55), emergency surgery (RR 1.97; 95% CI 1.26-3.08), colectomy (RR 3.31; 95% CI 1.19-9.23), pancreatectomy (RR 4.52; 95% CI 1.53-13.39), proctectomy (RR 5.02; 95% CI 1.72-14.67), small bowel surgery (RR 6.16; 95% CI 2.13-17.79), intra-operative blood transfusion >500 mL (RR 2.76; 95% CI 1.45-5.26), and multiple procedures (RR 1.40; 95% CI 1.01-1.95). These data demonstrate that failure to redose prophylactic antibiotic during long operations increases the risk of SSI. Strengthening a collaborative surgical quality improvement program may help to eradicate this risk.

  20. Stormwater Volume Control to Prevent Increases in Lake Flooding and Dam Failure Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    Urban expansion is not often considered a major factor contributing to dam failure. But if urbanization occurs without mitigation of the hydrologic impacts, the risk of dam failure will increase. Of particular concern are increases in the volume of storm runoff resulting from increases in the extent of impervious surfaces. Storm runoff volumes are not regulated for much the U.S, and where they are, the required control is commonly less than 100%. Unmitigated increases in runoff volume due to urbanization can pose a risk to dams. A recent technical advisory committee of Dane County has recommended that the county require 100% control of stormwater volumes for new developments. The primary motivation was to prevent increases in the water levels in the Yahara Lakes, slowly draining lakes that are highly sensitive to runoff volume. The recommendations included the use of "volume trading" to achieve efficient compliance. Such recommendations should be considered for other slowly draining lakes, including those created by artificial structures.

  1. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos ... Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After ...

  2. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type ... Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After a traumatic ...

  3. Increased fracture rate in women with breast cancer: a review of the hidden risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Body Jean-Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with breast cancer, particularly individuals diagnosed at a relatively early age, have an increased incidence of fractures. Fractures can have serious clinical consequences including the need for major surgery, increased morbidity and mortality, increased cost of disease management, and reduced quality of life for patients. The primary cause of the increased fracture risk appears to be an accelerated decrease in bone mineral density (BMD resulting from the loss of estrogenic signaling that occurs with most treatments for breast cancer, including aromatase inhibitors. However, factors other than BMD levels alone may influence treatment decisions to reduce fracture risk in this setting. Our purpose is to review current evidence for BMD loss and fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer and discuss pharmacologic means to reduce this risk. Results Fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer may be influenced by the rate of BMD loss and the consequent rapid alterations in bone microarchitecture, in addition to the established fracture risk factors in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The rapid decrease in BMD during adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy for breast cancer may necessitate more aggressive pharmacotherapy than is indicated for healthy postmenopausal women who develop osteoporosis. Over the last few years, clinical trials have established the effectiveness of bisphosphonates and other antiresorptive agents to preserve BMD during adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. In addition, some bisphosphonates (eg, zoledronic acid may also delay disease recurrence in women with hormone-responsive tumors, thereby providing an adjuvant benefit in addition to preserving BMD and potentially preventing fractures. Conclusions It is likely that a combined fracture risk assessment (eg, as in the WHO FRAX algorithm will more accurately identify both women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and women with breast cancer who require

  4. Hypoglycemia is associated with increased risk for brain injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in neonates at risk for encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Emily W Y; Haeusslein, Laurel A; Bonifacio, Sonia L; Glass, Hannah C; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Jeremy, Rita J; Barkovich, A James; Ferriero, Donna M

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the contribution of hypoglycemia in the first 24 hours after birth to brain injury in term newborns at risk for neonatal encephalopathy. A prospective cohort of 94 term neonates born between 1994 and 2010 with early postnatal brain magnetic resonance imaging studies were analyzed for regions of brain injury. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at 1 year of age. Hypoglycemia (glucose encephalopathy with increased corticospinal tract injury and adverse motor and cognitive outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimation of transient increases in bleeding risk associated with physical activity in children with haemophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latimer Jane

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it is widely appreciated that vigorous physical activity can increase the risk of bleeding episodes in children with haemophilia, the magnitude of the increase in risk is not known. Accurate risk estimates could inform decisions made by children with haemophilia and their parents about participation in physical activity and aid the development of optimal prophylactic schedules. The aim of this study is to provide an accurate estimate of the risks of bleeding associated with vigorous physical activity in children with haemophilia. Methods/Design The study will be a case-crossover study nested within a prospective cohort study. Children with moderate or severe haemophilia A or B, recruited from two paediatric haematology departments in Australia, will participate in the study. The child, or the child's parent or guardian, will report bleeding episodes experienced over a 12-month period. Following a bleeding episode, the participant will be interviewed by telephone about exposures to physical activity in the case period (8 hours before the bleed and 2 control periods (an 8 hour period at the same time on the day preceding the bleed and an 8 hour period two days preceding the bleed. Conditional logistic regression will be used to estimate the risk of participating in vigorous physical activity from measures of exposure to physical activity in the case and control periods. Discussion This case-control study will provide estimates of the risk of participation in vigorous physical activity in children with haemophilia.

  6. Joint modeling of genetically correlated diseases and functional annotations increases accuracy of polygenic risk prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of disease risk based on genetic factors is an important goal in human genetics research and precision medicine. Advanced prediction models will lead to more effective disease prevention and treatment strategies. Despite the identification of thousands of disease-associated genetic variants through genome-wide association studies (GWAS in the past decade, accuracy of genetic risk prediction remains moderate for most diseases, which is largely due to the challenges in both identifying all the functionally relevant variants and accurately estimating their effect sizes. In this work, we introduce PleioPred, a principled framework that leverages pleiotropy and functional annotations in genetic risk prediction for complex diseases. PleioPred uses GWAS summary statistics as its input, and jointly models multiple genetically correlated diseases and a variety of external information including linkage disequilibrium and diverse functional annotations to increase the accuracy of risk prediction. Through comprehensive simulations and real data analyses on Crohn's disease, celiac disease and type-II diabetes, we demonstrate that our approach can substantially increase the accuracy of polygenic risk prediction and risk population stratification, i.e. PleioPred can significantly better separate type-II diabetes patients with early and late onset ages, illustrating its potential clinical application. Furthermore, we show that the increment in prediction accuracy is significantly correlated with the genetic correlation between the predicted and jointly modeled diseases.

  7. Social and economic factors of the natural risk increasing: estimation of the Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Petrova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to assess quantitatively social and economic factors that determine vulnerability of Russian regions to natural risk, to trace the space differences of the considered factors, and to group the regions by their similarity. In order to indicate the regional differences in social and economic development, equipment condition, dangerous substances accumulation, and social trouble four the most suitable parameters were estimated, including the per capita production of Gross Regional Product (GRP, capital consumption, volume of total toxic waste, and crime rate. Increase of the first parameter causes vulnerability reducing, the increase of the last three causes its increasing. Using multidimensional cluster analysis five types of regions were found for Russia according to similarity of the considered parameters. These types are characterized with higher value of a single (rarely two chosen parameter, which seems to be sufficient enough to affect natural risks increasing in these regions in near future. Only few regions belonging to the fifth type proved to have rather high value of GRP and relatively low values of the other parameters. The negative correlation was found between a number of natural disasters (ND and the per capita GRP in case when some parameters reached anomalously high value. The distinctions between regions by prevailing different parameters, which result in natural risk increasing, help risk management to find directions where to focus on.

  8. Increased Default Mode Network Connectivity in Individuals at High Familial Risk for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Jonathan; Cha, Jiook; Wang, Zhishun; Talati, Ardesheer; Warner, Virginia; Gerber, Andrew; Peterson, Bradley S; Weissman, Myrna

    2016-06-01

    Research into the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) has focused largely on individuals already affected by MDD. Studies have thus been limited in their ability to disentangle effects that arise as a result of MDD from precursors of the disorder. By studying individuals at high familial risk for MDD, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers indexing risk for developing MDD, a critical step toward advancing prevention and early intervention. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) and diffusion MRI (tractography), we examined connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) and between the DMN and the central executive network (CEN) in 111 individuals, aged 11-60 years, at high and low familial risk for depression. Study participants were part of a three-generation longitudinal, cohort study of familial depression. Based on rs-fcMRI, individuals at high vs low familial risk for depression showed increased DMN connectivity, as well as decreased DMN-CEN-negative connectivity. These findings remained significant after excluding individuals with a current or lifetime history of depression. Diffusion MRI measures based on tractography supported the findings of decreased DMN-CEN-negative connectivity. Path analyses indicated that decreased DMN-CEN-negative connectivity mediated a relationship between familial risk and a neuropsychological measure of impulsivity. Our findings suggest that DMN and DMN-CEN connectivity differ in those at high vs low risk for depression and thus suggest potential biomarkers for identifying individuals at risk for developing MDD.

  9. Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler obesity? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Increasing stress on disaster-risk finance due to large floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Brenden; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Feyen, Luc; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Mechler, Reinhard; Botzen, W. J. Wouter; Bouwer, Laurens M.; Pflug, Georg; Rojas, Rodrigo; Ward, Philip J.

    2014-04-01

    Recent major flood disasters have shown that single extreme events can affect multiple countries simultaneously, which puts high pressure on trans-national risk reduction and risk transfer mechanisms. So far, little is known about such flood hazard interdependencies across regions and the corresponding joint risks at regional to continental scales. Reliable information on correlated loss probabilities is crucial for developing robust insurance schemes and public adaptation funds, and for enhancing our understanding of climate change impacts. Here we show that extreme discharges are strongly correlated across European river basins. We present probabilistic trends in continental flood risk, and demonstrate that observed extreme flood losses could more than double in frequency by 2050 under future climate change and socio-economic development. We suggest that risk management for these increasing losses is largely feasible, and we demonstrate that risk can be shared by expanding risk transfer financing, reduced by investing in flood protection, or absorbed by enhanced solidarity between countries. We conclude that these measures have vastly different efficiency, equity and acceptability implications, which need to be taken into account in broader consultation, for which our analysis provides a basis.

  11. Delay in blood sampling for routine newborn screening is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Hollegaard, Mads Villiam; Hougaard, David Michael; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-03-01

    The Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank, containing dried blood spot samples from all newborn in Denmark, is a unique source of data that can be utilized for analyses of genetic and environmental exposures related to schizophrenia and other mental disorders. In previous analyses, we have found that early and late blood sampling, compared to sampling at day 5, was associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. As delay in sampling of blood for neonatal screening cannot in itself influence the risk of schizophrenia, it must be seen as a proxy for unknown underlying causes responsible for this association. Therefore, we investigated whether the increased risk can be explained by other risk factors for schizophrenia. A case-control design was applied. A total of 846 cases with schizophrenia were selected from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register. One control was selected for each case, matched on sex and exact date of birth. Both early and late blood sampling was associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. Compared to blood sampling at day 5, sampling at days 0 to 4 after birth was associated with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.46 (95% CI 1.15-1.87) for development of schizophrenia, and sampling at days 6 to 9 and at days 10 to 53 was associated with an IRR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.13-1.98) and 3.00 (95% CI 1.59-5.67), respectively. After adjusting the estimates for place of birth, both parents' psychiatric illness, maternal and paternal age, parents' country of origin, child admission, and parental education and income, the estimates were slightly different. Thus, blood collection at 0-4days was associated with an IRR of 1.27 (95% CI 0.94-1.71), 6-9days 1.31 (95% CI 0.94-1.84) and 10+days 3.52 (95% CI 1.50 to 8.24). After adjusting risk estimates for well-known risk factors, delay in sampling of blood for neonatal screening was associated with unexplained increased risk of schizophrenia. Thus, a key finding is that age at test is a proxy for unobserved risk factors

  12. Do hypertension and diuretic treatment in pregnancy increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Diuretics prescribed after the first trimester for treatment of hypertension in pregnant women may interfere with normal plasma volume expansion and cause volume depletion. The authors hypothesized that prenatal exposure to diuretics and maternal hypertension might disrupt fetal...... neurodevelopment and increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring. METHOD: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort of individuals born between 1959 and 1961, the authors studied the relationship of maternal hypertension and diuretic treatment during pregnancy with the risk of schizophrenia (ICD-8 code...... treatment during pregnancy. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7,866 individuals, 84 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.1% prevalence). Logistic multiple regression analysis identified the following independent risk factors: maternal hypertension (odds ratio=1.69 [95% CI=1.02-2.80]), diuretic treatment...

  13. Allergic asthma is associated with increased risk of infections requiring antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woehlk, Christian; von Bülow, Anna; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2018-01-01

    : To investigate allergy as a risk factor for respiratory infections requiring antibiotics based on register data from a nationwide population of patients with asthma. METHODS: A register-based prospective follow-up study was performed using the Danish prescription database. In the inclusion period from 2010......BACKGROUND: Viral infection and allergy have been identified as major risk factors for exacerbation in asthma, especially in the presence of both. However, whether patients with allergic asthma are more susceptible to respiratory infections requiring antibiotics remains unknown. OBJECTIVE...... asthma was associated with an increased risk of filling at least 2 antibiotic prescriptions per year compared with nonallergic asthma (odds ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.24-1.33, P effect of immunotherapy against the risk...

  14. Do hypertension and diuretic treatment in pregnancy increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2003-01-01

    treatment during pregnancy. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7,866 individuals, 84 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.1% prevalence). Logistic multiple regression analysis identified the following independent risk factors: maternal hypertension (odds ratio=1.69 [95% CI=1.02-2.80]), diuretic treatment...... neurodevelopment and increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring. METHOD: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort of individuals born between 1959 and 1961, the authors studied the relationship of maternal hypertension and diuretic treatment during pregnancy with the risk of schizophrenia (ICD-8 code...... 295) in the offspring. Prenatal medical information was linked to the Danish National Psychiatric Register. The effects of maternal hypertension and diuretic treatment were adjusted for the maternal history of schizophrenia, social status of the family breadwinner, mother's age, and concomitant drug...

  15. Cost effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs in geriatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Nathalie; Meerding, Willen Jan; Looman, Caspar W; Pols, Huibert A P; van der Cammen, Tischa J M

    2008-01-01

    Withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs has been proven to be effective in older persons. However, given the enormous rise in healthcare costs in recent decades, the effect of such withdrawals on healthcare costs also needs to be considered. Within a common geriatric outpatient population, patients with a history of falls were assessed for falls risk (n = 139). Fall-risk-increasing drugs were withdrawn when appropriate (n = 75). All participants had a 2-month follow-up for fall incidents. The number of prevented falls was calculated using a loglinear regression model. The savings on health expenditures as a result of prevented injuries (estimated from a literature review) and reduced consumption of pharmaceuticals were compared with the intervention costs. After adjustment for confounders, drug withdrawal resulted in a falls risk reduction of 0.89 (95% CI 0.33, 0.98) per patient compared with the non-withdrawal group. Net cost savings were euro1691 (95% CI 662, 2181) per patient in the cohort. This resulted in a cost saving of euro491 (95% CI 465, 497) per prevented fall. Withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs generates significant cost savings. Extrapolation of these findings to a national scale results in an estimated reduction of euro60 million in healthcare expenditures, that is, 15% of fall-related health costs.

  16. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with age in HIV-positive men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, K; Reiss, P; Ryom, L

    2014-01-01

    equations. METHODS: We analysed three endpoints: myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD: MI or invasive coronary procedure) and CVD (CHD or stroke). We fitted a number of parametric age effects, adjusting for known risk factors and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. The best-fitting age...... rates per 1000 person-years increased from 2.29, 3.11 and 3.65 in those aged 40-45 years to 6.53, 11.91 and 15.89 in those aged 60-65 years, respectively. The best-fitting models included inverse age for MI and age + age(2) for CHD and CVD. In D:A:D there was a slowly accelerating increased risk of CHD...... and CVD per year older, which appeared to be only modest yet was consistently raised compared with the risk in the general population. The relative risk of MI with age was not different between D:A:D and the general population. CONCLUSIONS: We found only limited evidence of accelerating increased risk...

  17. Increased Risk of Tics in Children Infected with Enterovirus: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yen, Hung-Rong; Yang, Chi-Hui; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-05-01

    Both tics and enterovirus (EV) infections are common in children. The association between EV infections and tics has been seldom evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of diagnosed tics after EV infections in children. A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine the risk of tics after EV infections by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Children aged tics, death, loss to follow-up, withdrawal from the insurance system, or December 31, 2008. A total of 282,321 EV-infected and 282,317 non-EV-infected children were included in this study. The mean age was 2.39 years in both cohorts. The overall incidences of tics were 9.12 and 6.21 per 10,000 person-years in the EV-infected and non-EV-infected cohorts, respectively. Children with EV infection were significantly associated with an increased risk of tics compared with those without EV infection (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-1.5). Multivariable analyses showed that boys, children living in urbanized areas, children whose parents had white-collar jobs, and children with allergic rhinitis or bronchial asthma exhibited a significantly increased risk of tics. This study revealed an increased risk of tics after EV infection in children.

  18. Alcohol Abuse Increases Rebleeding Risk and Mortality in Patients with Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärkkäinen, Jussi M; Miilunpohja, Sami; Rantanen, Tuomo; Koskela, Jenni M; Jyrkkä, Johanna; Hartikainen, Juha; Paajanen, Hannu

    2015-12-01

    No current data are available on rebleeding and mortality risk in patients who use alcohol excessively and are admitted for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). This information could help in planning interventions and follow-up protocols for these patients. This study provides contemporary data on the long-term outcome after first-time NVUGIB in alcohol abusers (AAs) compared to non-abusers (NAs). Consecutive patients hospitalized for their first acute gastrointestinal bleeding from 2009 through 2011 were retrospectively recorded and categorized as AA or NA. Risk factors for one-year mortality and rebleeding were identified, and patients were further monitored for long-term mortality until 2015. Alcohol abuse was identified in 19.7% of patients with NVUGIB (n = 518). The one-year rebleeding rate was 16.7% in AAs versus 9.1% in NAs (P = 0.027). Alcohol abuse was associated with a twofold increase in rebleeding risk (P = 0.025); the risk especially increased 6 months after the initial bleeding. The study groups did not differ significantly in 30-day (6.0%) or one-year mortality rates (20.5%). However, there was a tendency for higher overall mortality in AAs than NAs after adjustment of comorbidities. AAs with NVUGIB are at high risk of rebleeding, and mortality is increased in AA patients. A close follow-up strategy and long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy are recommended for AA patients with peptic ulcer or esophagitis.

  19. Does topical isotretinoin exposure during pregnancy increase the risk of congenital malformations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Yılmaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old patient learned that she was 7 weeks pregnant while she was using topical isotretinoin + erythromycin gel for acne treatment and referred to Izmir Katip Celebi University Teratology Information Service for information regarding the risk of teratogenicity. Systemic use of isotretinoin is well-known for its teratogenic effects and case reports suggesting possible teratogenic effects regarding topical exposure to retinoids in pregnancy exist in the literature. However, findings reported in four prospective controlled studies do not suggest an increased congenital malformation risk in case of inadvertent exposure during pregnancy. This manuscript aims to give a summary and evaluation of available data for counseling pregnant patients regarding the possible teratogenic risk of inadvertent topical isotretinoin exposure during pregnancy. It also aims to emphasize the importance of increasing communication between pregnant patients, clinicians and teratology information services for the benefit of mother and unborn.

  20. Facilitators and Challenges in Psychosocial Adaptation to Being at Increased Familial Risk of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiniger, Louise; Price, Melanie A; Charles, Margaret; Butow, Phyllis N

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the process of psychosocial adaptation to familial risk in tested and untested individuals at increased familial risk of cancer. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study of 36 women participating in the Kathleen Cuningham Consortium for Research into Familial Breast cancer (kConFab) Psychosocial study. Facilitators and challenges in psychosocial adaptation were identified through semi-structured interviews. The women, who were either tested (carriers or non-carriers of breast cancer susceptibility mutations) or untested (ineligible for testing or eligible but delayed or declined testing), described personal, support network and healthcare characteristics that impacted on the adaptation process. Challenges in one domain could be overcome by facilitators in other domains and key differences relating to whether women had undergone testing, or not, were identified. Tested and untested women with an increased familial risk of breast cancer may benefit from support tailored to their mutation testing status in order to enhance adaptation.

  1. Anticipating divine protection? Reminders of god can increase nonmoral risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupor, Daniella M; Laurin, Kristin; Levav, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Religiosity and participation in religious activities have been linked with decreased risky behavior. In the current research, we hypothesized that exposure to the concept of God can actually increase people's willingness to engage in certain types of risks. Across seven studies, reminders of God increased risk taking in nonmoral domains. This effect was mediated by the perceived danger of a risky option and emerged more strongly among individuals who perceive God as a reliable source of safety and protection than among those who do not. Moreover, in an eighth study, when participants were first reminded of God and then took a risk that produced negative consequences (i.e., when divine protection failed to materialize), participants reported feeling more negatively toward God than did participants in the same situation who were not first reminded of God. This research contributes to an understanding of the divergent effects that distinct components of religion can exert on behavior. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Enduring increased risk of developing depression and mania in patients with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Flemming Mørkeberg; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Sørensen, Tine Møller

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the time relation between dementia and major affective disorders (major depression and mania). METHODS: Register linkage study of the Danish Hospital Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, to establish study cohorts of patients with dementia...... and control groups (osteoarthritis or diabetes) on first discharge from hospital. Follow up of cohorts was for up to 21 years. Hazard of death was allowed for by the use of competing risks models. RESULTS: Patients with dementia had an increased risk of being admitted to hospital for major depression or mania...... during the course of the illness. The incidence remained elevated throughout the rest of the patient's life. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with dementia have an increased risk of developing depression or mania. Proper treatment of affective disorders in patients with dementia is important in reducing suffering...

  3. Increasing awareness in African American BSN students of the health risks of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Wanda; Kautz, Donald D

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the perceived effectiveness of a program to increase awareness of the health risks of obesity among African-American students. Thirty (n = 30) senior level Bachelor of Science in Nursing students attending a Historically Black College and University (HBCU) took a knowledge test, then participated in an hour-long educational session on obesity. Following the session, the students completed a 10-item post-test to evaluate the effectiveness of the program in increasing awareness of obesity as a risk for heart disease and diabetes. The findings suggested a need to further educate African-American students on the consequences of obesity as well as recommendations to advance the science of personal and family risk awareness in nursing students.

  4. Prenatal Maternal Smoking and Increased Risk for Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Heidi A; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Hansen, Stefan N; Schendel, Diana E; Parner, Erik T; Reichenberg, Abraham; Grice, Dorothy E

    2016-09-01

    We assessed the role of prenatal maternal smoking in risk for Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) and pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In an analysis of 73,073 singleton pregnancies from the Danish National Birth Cohort, we calculated incidence rates (IR) per 1,000 person-year for TS/CT and OCD. We then determined crude and adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CIs associated with prenatal maternal smoking, considering smoking as a dichotomous (yes/no) variable or a stratified variable (no smoking, light smoking, and heavy smoking [≥10 cigarettes/day]). Additional analyses examined the effect of maternal smoking on risk for TS/CT with other comorbid psychiatric conditions. In final adjusted analyses, heavy smoking was associated with a 66% increased risk for TS/CT (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.17-2.35). In addition, heavy smoking was associated with a 2-fold increased risk for TS/CT with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and both light and heavy smoking were associated with a more than 2-fold increased risk for TS/CT with any non-ADHD psychiatric comorbidity. Our parallel analyses of pediatric-onset OCD were likely underpowered but showed similar relationships. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with increased risk for TS/CT as well as TS/CT with comorbid psychiatric conditions, even after adjustment for several important variables, including maternal psychiatric history, socioeconomic status, and partner smoking. Our findings point to a pathway linking prenatal tobacco exposure and altered brain development to TS/CT. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prediabetes Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Testosterone Deficiency, Independent of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chen-Hsun; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Liao, Wan-Chung; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Liu, Shih-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective The association between type 2 diabetes and low testosterone has been well recognized. However, testosterone levels in men with prediabetes have been rarely reported. We aimed to investigate whether prediabetes was associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency. Methods This study included 1,306 men whose sex hormones was measured during a medical examination. Serum total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured; free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations were calculated by Vermeulen’s formula. Prediabetes was defined by impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired postprandial glucose (IPG), or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 5.7%-6.4%. Logistic regression was performed to obtain the odds ratios (OR) for subnormal total testosterone (prediabetic and diabetic men compared with normoglycemic individuals, while adjusting for age, BMI, waist circumference, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Results Normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes were diagnosed in 577 (44.2%), 543 (41.6%), and 186 (14.2%) men, respectively. Prediabetes was associated with an increased risk of subnormal total testosterone compared to normoglycemic individuals (age-adjusted OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.38-2.54). The risk remained significant in all multivariate analyses. After adjusting for MetS, the OR in prediabetic men equals that of diabetic patients (1.49 versus 1.50). IFG, IPG, and HbA1c 5.7%-6.4% were all associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency, with different levels of significance in multivariate analyses. However, neither prediabetes nor diabetes was associated with subnormal free testosterone in multivariate analyses. Conclusions Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency, independent of obesity and MetS. After adjusting for MetS, the risk equals that of diabetes. Our data suggest that testosterone should be measured routinely in men with prediabetes. PMID:24069277

  6. Increased risk of breast cancer in splenectomized patients undergoing radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chung T.; Bogart, Jeffrey A.; Adams, James F.; Sagerman, Robert H.; Numann, Patricia J.; Tassiopoulos, Apostolos; Duggan, David B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Second malignancies have been reported among patients who were treated by radiation therapy or chemotherapy alone or in combination. Studies have implied an increased risk of breast cancer in women who received radiotherapy as part of their treatment for Hodgkin's disease. This review was performed to determine if there is an association between splenectomy and subsequent breast cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred and thirty-six female patients with histologically proven Hodgkin's disease were seen in the Division of Radiation Oncology between 1962 and 1985. All patients received mantle or mediastinal irradiation as part of their therapy. The risk of breast cancer was assessed and multiple linear regression analysis was performed on the following variables: patient age, stage, dose and extent of radiation field, time after completing radiation therapy, splenectomy, and chemotheraphy. Results: Breast cancer was observed in 11 of 74 splenectomized patients and in none of 62 patients not splenectomized. The mean follow-up was 13 years in splenectomized patients and 16 years, 7 months in nonsplenectomized patients. Nine patients developed invasive breast cancer and two developed ductal carcinoma in situ. Splenectomy was the only variable independently associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (p < 0.005) in multiple linear regression analysis; age, latency, and splenectomy considered together were also associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Our data show an increased risk of breast cancer in splenectomized patients who had treatment for Hodgkin's disease. A multiinstitutional survey may better define the influence of splenectomy relative to developing breast cancer in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease. The risk of breast cancer should be considered when recommending staging laparotomy, and we recommend close follow-up examination including routine mammograms for female patients successfully treated for

  7. Increased Risk of Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Strokes in Patients With Splenic Injury and Splenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Yang, Chih-Hui; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The spleen is a crucial organ in humans. Little is known about the association between stroke and splenic injury or splenectomy. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of stroke in patients with splenic injury and splenectomy. A nationwide cohort study was conducted by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. For comparison, control patients were selected and matched with splenic injury patients in a ratio of 4:1 according to age, sex, and the year of hospitalization. We analyzed the risks of stroke using a Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis. A total of 11,273 splenic injury patients, including 5294 splenectomized and 5979 nonsplenectomized patients, and 45,092 control patients were included in this study. The incidence rates of stroke were 8.05, 6.53, and 4.25 per 1000 person-years in splenic injury patients with splenectomy, those without splenectomy, and the control cohort, respectively. Compared with the control cohort, splenic injury patients with splenectomy exhibited a 2.05-fold increased risk of stroke (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8–2.34), whereas those without splenectomy exhibited a 1.74-fold increased risk (95% CI 1.51–2). Splenectomy entailed an additional 1.21-fold increased risk of stroke compared with nonsplenectomy in patients with splenic injury. This study revealed that splenic injury and splenectomy were significantly associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. The results of this study may alert physicians and patients to the complications of splenic injury and splenectomy. PMID:26334909

  8. Increased colorectal cancer risk in first-degree relatives of patients with hyperplastic polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boparai, K. S.; Reitsma, J. B.; Lemmens, V.; van Os, T. A. M.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.; Koornstra, J. J.; Nagengast, F. M.; van Hest, L. P.; Keller, J. J.; Dekker, E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Hyperplastic polyposis syndrome (HPS) is characterised by the presence of multiple colorectal hyperplastic polyps and is associated with an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. For first-degree relatives of HPS patients (FDRs) this has not been adequately quantified. Reliable

  9. No increased risk of perforation during colonoscopy in patients undergoing Nurse Administered Propofol Sedation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm, Cecilie; Hadikhadem, Talie; Andersen, Lærke Toftegård

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Nurse Administered Propofol Sedation (NAPS) contributes to a deeper sedation of the patients, making them unable to respond to pain and an increased incidence of perforations has been speculated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of perforations during...

  10. Increased risk of asthma in overweight children born large for gestational age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, L. A.; Guerra, S.; Anto, J. M.; Postma, D.; Koppelman, G. H.; de Jongste, J. C.; Gehring, U.; Smit, H. A.; Wijga, A. H.

    Background: Being born large for gestational age (LGA) is a marker of increased growth velocity in fetal life and a risk factor for childhood overweight. Both being born LGA and childhood overweight may influence the development of asthma, although the role of overweight in the association between

  11. Benign Thyroid Conditions Associated with Increased Risk of Thyroid Cancer Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a new study from the National Cancer Institute and Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark, researchers report an association between diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland), two benign thyroid conditions, and increased risk of differentiated thyroid cancer.

  12. Inappropriate complementary feeding practice increases risk of stunting in children aged 12-24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijra Hijra

    2016-12-01

    Inappropriate complementary feeding practice increased the risk of stunting in 12-24 months old children by 8.26. This study confirms the need to scale up interventions during the first 2 years of life, including appropriate infant feeding practices.

  13. Does Discretion in Lending Increase Bank Risk? Borrower Self-Selection and Loan Officer Capture Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper we analyze whether discretionary lending increases bank risk. We use a panel dataset of matched bank and borrower data. It offers the chief advantages that we can directly identify soft information in banks’ lending decisions and that we observe ex post defaults of borrowers.

  14. Does Discretion in Lending Increase Bank Risk? Borrower Self-Selection and Loan Officer Capture Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze whether discretionary lending increases bank risk. We use a panel dataset of matched bank and borrower data. It offers the chief advantages that we can directly identify soft information in banks’ lending decisions and that we observe ex post defaults of borrowers.Consistent

  15. Cost effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs in geriatric outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Nathalie; Meerding, Willen Jan; Looman, Caspar W.; Pols, Huibert A. P.; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs has been proven to be effective in older persons. However, given the enormous rise in healthcare costs in recent decades, the effect of such withdrawals on healthcare costs also needs to be considered. METHOD: Within a common geriatric outpatient

  16. Increased colorectal cancer risk in first-degree relatives of patients with hyperplastic polyposis syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boparai, K.S.; Reitsma, J.B.; Lemmens, V.; Os, T.A. van; Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.H.; Koornstra, J.J.; Nagengast, F.M.; Hest, L.P. van; Keller, J.J.; Dekker, E. den

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hyperplastic polyposis syndrome (HPS) is characterised by the presence of multiple colorectal hyperplastic polyps and is associated with an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. For first-degree relatives of HPS patients (FDRs) this has not been adequately quantified. Reliable

  17. Increased colorectal cancer risk in first-degree relatives of patients with hyperplastic polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boparai, K. S.; Lemmens, V.; van Os, T. A. M.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.; Koornstra, J. J.; Nagengast, F. M.; van Hest, L. P.; Keller, J. J.; Dekker, E.; Reitsma, J.

    Introduction Hyperplastic polyposis syndrome (HPS) is characterised by the presence of multiple colorectal hyperplastic polyps and is associated with an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. For first-degree relatives of HPS patients (FDRs) this has not been adequately quantified. Reliable

  18. Increased risk of breast cancer development after diagnosis of salivary gland tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    In der Maur, Caroline D.; Klokman, Willem J.; van Leeuwen, Floor E.; Tan, I. Bing; Rutgers, Emiel J. Th; Balm, Alfons J. M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients with salivary gland tumours are at increased risk of developing breast cancer. A retrospective cohort study was performed. Female patients (n = 439) with a salivary gland tumour (major and minor) were included. The diagnosis was confirmed

  19. Early Erythropoietin Administration does not Increase the Risk of Retinopathy in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hsu Chou

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: EPO administration did not significantly increase the risk of ROP of any stage reported or Stage ≥3. Further clinical trials investigating the impact of EPO on ROP in premature infants should include all confounding factors to clarify this important issue.

  20. Infections Increase Risk of Arterial and Venous Thromboses in Danish Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baronaite Hansen, Renata; Jacobsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Infections and thromboses are known complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We investigated if infectious episodes in patients with SLE were followed by an increased risk of thrombotic events. METHODS: A cohort of 571 patients with prevalent or incident SLE was followed...

  1. When Combined with Chemotherapy, Bevacizumab Is Associated with Increased Risk of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer patients who receive the targeted therapy bevacizumab (Avastin) in combination with chemotherapy are at increased risk of serious side effects that may lead to death, according to a meta-analysis of 16 clinical trials that was published February 2,

  2. Withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs in older persons: Effect on mobility test outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van der Velde (Nathalie); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Previously, we have shown that withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs) as a single intervention reduces falls incidence. Improvement of mobility may be an important factor in this finding and we therefore tested whether mobility tests improved after FRID withdrawal.

  3. Withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs in older persons: effect on mobility test outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Nathalie; Stricker, Bruno H. Ch; Pols, Huibert A. P.; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previously, we have shown that withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs) as a single intervention reduces falls incidence. Improvement of mobility may be an important factor in this finding and we therefore tested whether mobility tests improved after FRID withdrawal. METHODS: In

  4. Polycystic ovary syndrome and early-onset preeclampsia : reproductive manifestations of increased cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman-Verhulst, Susanne M.; van Rijn, Bas B.; Westerveld, H. Egbertine; Franx, Arie; Bruinse, Hein W.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Goverde, Angelique J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women is a major healthcare issue. Detection of premenopausal women with increased risk of CVD could enhance prevention strategies and reduce first event-related morbidity and mortality. In this study, we argue that an unfavorable

  5. Genetically predicted longer telomere length is associated with increased risk of B-cell lymphoma subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Lan, Qing; Slager, Susan L; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Teras, Lauren R; Camp, Nicola J; Cerhan, James R; Spinelli, John J; Wang, Sophia S; Nieters, Alexandra; Vijai, Joseph; Yeager, Meredith; Wang, Zhaoming; Ghesquières, Hervé; McKay, James; Conde, Lucia; de Bakker, Paul I W; Cox, David G; Burdett, Laurie; Monnereau, Alain; Flowers, Christopher R; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Giles, Graham G; Melbye, Mads; Gu, Jian; Jackson, Rebecca D; Kane, Eleanor; Purdue, Mark P; Vajdic, Claire M; Albanes, Demetrius; Kelly, Rachel S; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lawrence, Charles; Hutchinson, Amy; Zhi, Degui; Habermann, Thomas M; Link, Brian K; Novak, Anne J; Dogan, Ahmet; Asmann, Yan W; Liebow, Mark; Thompson, Carrie A; Ansell, Stephen M; Witzig, Thomas E; Tilly, Hervé; Haioun, Corinne; Molina, Thierry J; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Glimelius, Bengt; Adami, Hans-Olov; Roos, Göran; Bracci, Paige M; Riby, Jacques; Smith, Martyn T; Holly, Elizabeth A; Cozen, Wendy; Hartge, Patricia; Morton, Lindsay M; Severson, Richard K; Tinker, Lesley F; North, Kari E; Becker, Nikolaus; Benavente, Yolanda; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; Staines, Anthony; Lightfoot, Tracy; Crouch, Simon; Smith, Alex; Roman, Eve; Diver, W Ryan; Offit, Kenneth; Zelenetz, Andrew; Klein, Robert J; Villano, Danylo J; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Yawei; Holford, Theodore R; Turner, Jenny; Southey, Melissa C; Clavel, Jacqueline; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolph; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Angelucci, Emanuele; Di Lollo, Simonetta; Rais, Marco; De Vivo, Immaculata; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Huang, Jinyan; Ma, Baoshan; Ye, Yuanqing; Chiu, Brian C H; Liang, Liming; Park, Ju-Hyun; Chung, Charles C; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Salles, Gilles; Glenn, Martha; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Curtin, Karen; Wu, Xifeng; Smedby, Karin E; de Sanjose, Silvia; Skibola, Christine F; Berndt, Sonja I; Birmann, Brenda M; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from a small number of studies suggests that longer telomere length measured in peripheral leukocytes is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, these studies may be biased by reverse causation, confounded by unmeasured environmental exposures and might

  6. Possible increased risk of rhabdomyolysis during concomitant use of simvastatin and gemfibrozil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanPuijenbroek, EP; DuBufVereijken, PWG; Spooren, PFMJ; VanDoormaal, JJ

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence of rhabdomyolysis is one of the rare side-effects of the cholesterol-lowering agent simvastatin. During the use of lovastatin, an agent related to simvastatin, the risk of this side-effect might be increased when cyclosporin or gemfibrozil are used concomitantly. It is possible that

  7. Reduced Response to Activated Protein C Is Associated with Increased Risk for Cerebrovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, J.G. van der; Bots, M.L.; Haverkate, F.; Slagboom, P.E.; Meijer, P.; Jong, P.T.V.M. de; Hofman, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kluft, C.

    1996-01-01

    Background: Resistance to activated protein C (APC), which results from various factors, including a mutation in the gene for coagulant factor V, has been associated with increased risk for venous thrombosis. However, its relation to arterial disease is still not well defined. Objective: To

  8. Loss-of-function variants in ADCY3 increase risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Moltke, Ida; Andersen, Mette K

    2018-01-01

    We have identified a variant in ADCY3 (encoding adenylate cyclase 3) associated with markedly increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in the Greenlandic population. The variant disrupts a splice acceptor site, and carriers have decreased ADCY3 RNA expression. Additionally, we observe...

  9. Study Finds Small Increase in Cancer Risk after Childhood CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study published in the June 6, 2012, issue of The Lancet shows that radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) scans in childhood results in very small but increased risks of leukemia and brain tumors in the first decade after exposure.

  10. THE INTERSECTION OF INDEPENDENT LIES: INCREASING REALISM IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1966, Levins presented a philosophical discussion on making inference about populations using clusters of models. In this article we provide an overview of model inference in ecological risk assessment, discuss the benefits and trade-offs of increasing model realism, show the...

  11. Polymorphisms of the DNA methyltransferase 1 associated with reduced risks of Helicobacter pylori infection and increased risks of gastric atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jiang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: DNA methyltransferase-1(DNMT1 is an important enzyme in determining genomic methylation patterns in mammalian cells. We investigated the associations between SNPs in the DNMT1 gene and risks of developing H. pylori seropositivity, gastric atrophy and gastric cancer in the Chinese population. METHODS: The study consisted of 447 patients with gastric cancer; 111 patients with gastric atrophy; and 961 healthy controls. Five SNPs, rs10420321, rs16999593, rs8101866, rs8111085 and rs2288349 of the DNMT1 gene were genotyped. Anti-H.pylori IgG was detected by ELISA. Gastric atrophy was screened by the level of serum pepsinogen Ι and II and then confirmed by endoscopy and histopatholgical examinations. RESULTS: The age- and sex-adjusted OR of H. pylori seropositivity was 0.67 (95%CI: 0.51-0.87 for rs8111085 TC/CC genotypes, significantly lower than the TT genotype in healthy controls. The adjusted OR of H.pylori seropositivity was 0.68 (95%CI: 0.52-0.89 for rs10420321 AG/GG genotypes. In addition, patients carrying rs2228349 AA genotype have a significantly increased risk for H.pylori seropositivity (OR=1.67; 95%CI: 1.02-2.75. Further haplotype analyses also showed that the ATTTG and ATCTA are significantly associated with increased risks in H.pylori infection compared to the GTCCG haplotype (OR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.08-1.77; OR=1.40, 95% CI: 1.09-1.80. The adjusted ORs of gastric atrophy were 1.66 (95%CI: 1.06-2.61 for rs10420321 GG genotype, and 1.67 (95%CI 1.06-2.63, P=0.03 for rs8111085 CC genotype, but no association was found between SNPs in the DNMT1 gene and risk of developing gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with rs10420321 GG and rs8111085 CC genotype of the DNMT1 gene were associated with reduced risks for H.pylori infection. On the other hand, higher risks of gastric atrophy were found in the carriers with these two genotypes compared to other genotypes. Our results suggested that SNPs of DNMT1 could be used as genotypic

  12. Quantified Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher

    2016-01-01

    artist Marnix de Nijs' Physiognomic Scrutinizer is an interactive installation whereby the viewer's face is scanned and identified with historical figures. The American artist Zach Blas' project Fag Face Mask consists of three-dimensional portraits that blend biometric facial data from 30 gay men's faces...... and critically examine bias in surveillance technologies, as well as scientific investigations, regarding the stereotyping mode of the human gaze. The American artist Heather Dewey-Hagborg creates three-dimensional portraits of persons she has “identified” from their garbage. Her project from 2013 entitled...

  13. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients......It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...... perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive tests of face and word perception during the stable phase of recovery. Despite all patients having...

  14. High Birth Weight Increases the Risk for Bone Tumor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songfeng Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There have been several epidemiologic studies on the relationship between high birth weight and the risk for bone tumor in the past decades. However, due to the rarity of bone tumors, the sample size of individual studies was generally too small for reliable conclusions. Therefore, we have performed a meta-analysis to pool all published data on electronic databases with the purpose to clarify the potential relationship. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 independent studies with more than 2796 cases were included. As a result, high birth weight was found to increase the risk for bone tumor with an Odds Ratio (OR of 1.13, with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI ranging from 1.01 to 1.27. The OR of bone tumor for an increase of 500 gram of birth weight was 1.01 (95% CI 1.00–1.02; p = 0.048 for linear trend. Interestingly, individuals with high birth weight had a greater risk for osteosarcoma (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.06–1.40, p = 0.006 than those with normal birth weight. In addition, in the subgroup analysis by geographical region, elevated risk was detected among Europeans (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.00–1.29, p = 0.049. The present meta-analysis supported a positive association between high birth weight and bone tumor risk.

  15. Traditional marijuana, high-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids: increasing risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robin M; Quigley, Harriet; Quattrone, Diego; Englund, Amir; Di Forti, Marta

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose-response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co-administration of cannabidiol. This latter is a constituent of traditional hashish, but is largely absent from modern high-potency forms of cannabis. Argument continues over the extent to which genetic predisposition is correlated to, or interacts with, cannabis use, and what proportion of psychosis could be prevented by minimizing heavy use. As yet, there is not convincing evidence that cannabis use increases risk of other psychiatric disorders, but there are no such doubts concerning its detrimental effect on cognitive function. All of the negative aspects are magnified if use starts in early adolescence. Irrespective of whether use of cannabis is decriminalized or legalized, the evidence that it is a component cause of psychosis is now sufficient for public health messages outlining the risk, especially of regular use of high-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids. © 2016 World Psychiatric Association.

  16. Traditional marijuana, high‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids: increasing risk for psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robin M.; Quigley, Harriet; Quattrone, Diego; Englund, Amir; Di Forti, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose‐response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co‐administration of cannabidiol. This latter is a constituent of traditional hashish, but is largely absent from modern high‐potency forms of cannabis. Argument continues over the extent to which genetic predisposition is correlated to, or interacts with, cannabis use, and what proportion of psychosis could be prevented by minimizing heavy use. As yet, there is not convincing evidence that cannabis use increases risk of other psychiatric disorders, but there are no such doubts concerning its detrimental effect on cognitive function. All of the negative aspects are magnified if use starts in early adolescence. Irrespective of whether use of cannabis is decriminalized or legalized, the evidence that it is a component cause of psychosis is now sufficient for public health messages outlining the risk, especially of regular use of high‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids. PMID:27717258

  17. Does Schizophrenia in Offspring Increase the Risk of Developing Alzheimer's Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Rohde

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Prior studies have consistently found a higher risk of dementia in individuals with schizophrenia, but whether this is due to a common etiology between the disorders remains obscure. We wanted to elucidate this association by investigating whether schizophrenia in offspring increases the risk of Alzheimer's dementia. Methods: All individuals born between 1930 and 1953 were identified through national registers and followed from their 50th birthday until the date of Alzheimer's dementia, death or end of the study. Regressions were performed to evaluate the association between offspring with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's dementia. Results: Individuals with offspring with schizophrenia did not have an increased risk of Alzheimer's dementia [incidence rate ratio (IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.88-1.07] compared to individuals with offspring without psychiatric contact. This finding remained stable when evaluating early-onset (IRR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.91-1.31 and late-onset Alzheimer's dementia (IRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-1.07. Similar findings were made for vascular and unspecified dementia. Conclusion: The finding of no familial coaggregation between schizophrenia and Alzheimer's dementia may suggest that no common etiology between the disorders exists. This may indicate that the excess risk of dementia in individuals with schizophrenia is a by-product of the higher rates of somatic comorbidity and adverse health risk factors among these individuals.

  18. Who is at increased risk for acute kidney injury following noncardiac surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Abelha and colleagues evaluated the incidence and determinants of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) after major noncardiac surgery in patients with previously normal renal function. In this retrospective study of 1,166 patients with no previous renal insufficiency, who were admitted to a postsurgical intensive care unit (ICU) over a 2-year period, the incidence of AKI was 7.5%. Multivariate analysis identified American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, Revised Cardiac Risk Index, high-risk surgery and congestive heart disease as preoperative AKI risk factors. AKI was an independent risk factor for hospital mortality (odds ratio = 3.12, 95% confidence interval = 1.41 to 6.93; P = 0.005), and was associated with higher severity of illness scores (Simplified Acute Physiology Score II and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II), longer ICU length of stay, higher ICU mortality, increased hospital mortality and higher mortality at 6-month follow up. Although the study design excluded 121 patients with significant preoperative renal insufficiency by design, the relatively crude serum creatinine cut-offs used certainly permitted inclusion of numerous patients with preoperative renal impairment. Accordingly, the study design failed to quantify the impact of preoperative renal impairment on risk and outcomes of perioperative AKI in noncardiac surgery, and this should be a goal of such studies in the future. Nonetheless, the study is an important addition to the literature in an under-studied population of patients at high risk for AKI.

  19. Benefit and risk assessment of increasing potassium intake by replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride in industrial food products in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensen, Inger-Lise; Frølich, Wenche; Dahl, Knut Helkås; Iversen, Per Ole; Lyche, Jan Ludvig; Lillegaard, Inger Therese Laugsand; Alexander, Jan

    2018-01-01

    High sodium chloride (NaCl) intake is associated with health risks. NaCl may be replaced by potassium chloride (KCl) to decrease sodium intake. However, increased potassium may also have negative health effects. We conducted a benefit and risk assessment of increasing potassium by ratios of 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 (weight % K + : weight % Na + ) in children, adolescents and adults in Norway, using intake data from national food consumption surveys and available literature on potassium health effects. An intake of at least 3.5 g/day of potassium decreases risk of stroke and hypertension, and this level was used in the benefit assessment of the healthy population. Three g/day of potassium added to mean food intake is assumed safe, and these levels were used in the risk assessment. Not all persons reached the protective level of potassium, and increasing numbers exceeded the safe levels, in these scenarios. In addition, elderly above 85 years and infants below one year of age, as well as several patient groups and medication users, are particularly vulnerable to hyperkalemia. In conclusion, the number of Norwegians facing increased risk is far greater than the number likely to benefit from this replacement of sodium with potassium in industrially produced food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High dietary protein intake is associated with an increased body weight and total death risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica

    2016-04-01

    High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. About Face

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    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Interviews Our Stories Search All Videos PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Interviews Our ...

  2. About Face

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    Full Text Available ... not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, and clinicians share their experiences with PTSD ...

  3. About Face

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    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search ...

  4. About Face

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    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Interviews Our Stories Search All Videos PTSD Basics ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Interviews Our Stories Search All Videos Learn ...

  5. Exploring the relationship between fall risk-increasing drugs and fall-related fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, Sabrina; Vanwynsberghe, Sarah; Foulon, Veerle; Dejaeger, Eddy; Flamaing, Johan; Sermon, An; Van der Linden, Lorenz; Spriet, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Hospital admissions due to fall-related fractures are a major problem in the aging population. Several risk factors have been identified, including drug use. Most studies often retrieved prescription-only drugs from national databases. These are associated with some limitations as they do not always reliably reproduce the complete patient's active drug list. To evaluate the association between the number of FRIDs intake identified by a standardised medication reconciliation process and a fall-related fracture leading to a hospital admission in older adults. The first cohort has been recruited from one traumatology ward of a tertiary teaching hospital in Belgium and the second cohort has been recruited from 11 community pharmacies in Belgium. A prospective study with two individually matched cohorts was performed. Adult patients (≥75 years) admitted with an injury due to a fall were included in the first cohort (faller group). The second cohort consisted of patients who did not suffer from a fall within the last 6 months (non-faller group). Matching was performed for age, gender, place of residence and use of a walking aid. In both groups, clinical pharmacists and undergraduate pharmacy students obtained the medication history, using a standardised approach. A list of drugs considered to increase the risk of falling was created. It included cardiovascular drugs and drugs acting on the nervous system. A linear mixed model was used to compare the number of fall risk-increasing drugs between fallers and non-fallers. The number of fall risk-increasing drugs in a faller versus a non-faller group. Sixty-one patients were matched with 121 non-fallers. Patients received on average 3.1 ± 2.1 and 3.2 ± 1.8 fall risk-increasing drugs in the faller and in the non-faller group, respectively. The mean number of fall risk-increasing drugs was comparable in both groups (p = 0.844), even after adjusting for alcohol consumption, fear of falling, vision and foot problems (p = 0

  6. Neural synchronization during face-to-face communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Dai, Bohan; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming

    2012-11-07

    Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-face dialog between partners but none during a back-to-back dialog, a face-to-face monologue, or a back-to-back monologue. Moreover, the neural synchronization between partners during the face-to-face dialog resulted primarily from the direct interactions between the partners, including multimodal sensory information integration and turn-taking behavior. The communicating behavior during the face-to-face dialog could be predicted accurately based on the neural synchronization level. These results suggest that face-to-face communication, particularly dialog, has special neural features that other types of communication do not have and that the neural synchronization between partners may underlie successful face-to-face communication.

  7. Endogenous and exogenous testosterone and prostate cancer: decreased-, increased- or null-risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Shailesh; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Wang, Run; Canfield, Steven

    2017-01-01

    For more than 70 years, the contention that high levels of testosterone or that the use of testosterone therapy (TTh) increases the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) has been widely accepted and practiced. Yet, the increasing and emerging evidence on testosterone research seems to challenge that contention. To review literature on the associations of endogenous and exogenous testosterone with decreased-, increased-, or null-risk of PCa, and to further evaluate only those studies that reported magnitude of associations from multivariable modeling as it minimizes confounding effects. We conducted a literature search to identify studies that investigated the association of endogenous total testosterone [continuous (per 1 unit increment and 5 nmol/L increment) and categorical (high vs. low)] and use of TTh with PCa events [1990–2016]. Emphasis was given to studies/analyses that reported magnitude of associations [odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR) and hazard ratios (HRs)] from multivariable analyses to determine risk of PCa and their statistical significance. Most identified studies/analyses included observational and randomized placebo-controlled trials. This review was organized in three parts: (I) association of endogenous total testosterone (per 1 unit increment and 5 nmol/L increment) with PCa; (II) relationship of endogenous total testosterone (categorical high vs. low) with PCa; and (III) association of use of TTh with PCa in meta-analyses of randomized placebo-controlled trials. The first part included 31 observational studies [20 prospective (per 5 nmol/L increment) and 11 prospective and retrospective cohort studies (per 1 unit increment)]. None of the 20 prospective studies found a significant association between total testosterone (5 nmol/L increment) and increased- or decreased-risk of PCa. Two out of the 11 studies/analyses showed a significant decreased-risk of PCa for total testosterone per 1 unit increment, but also two other

  8. Endogenous and exogenous testosterone and prostate cancer: decreased-, increased- or null-risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, David S; Advani, Shailesh; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Wang, Run; Canfield, Steven

    2017-06-01

    For more than 70 years, the contention that high levels of testosterone or that the use of testosterone therapy (TTh) increases the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) has been widely accepted and practiced. Yet, the increasing and emerging evidence on testosterone research seems to challenge that contention. To review literature on the associations of endogenous and exogenous testosterone with decreased-, increased-, or null-risk of PCa, and to further evaluate only those studies that reported magnitude of associations from multivariable modeling as it minimizes confounding effects. We conducted a literature search to identify studies that investigated the association of endogenous total testosterone [continuous (per 1 unit increment and 5 nmol/L increment) and categorical (high vs. low)] and use of TTh with PCa events [1990-2016]. Emphasis was given to studies/analyses that reported magnitude of associations [odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR) and hazard ratios (HRs)] from multivariable analyses to determine risk of PCa and their statistical significance. Most identified studies/analyses included observational and randomized placebo-controlled trials. This review was organized in three parts: (I) association of endogenous total testosterone (per 1 unit increment and 5 nmol/L increment) with PCa; (II) relationship of endogenous total testosterone (categorical high vs. low) with PCa; and (III) association of use of TTh with PCa in meta-analyses of randomized placebo-controlled trials. The first part included 31 observational studies [20 prospective (per 5 nmol/L increment) and 11 prospective and retrospective cohort studies (per 1 unit increment)]. None of the 20 prospective studies found a significant association between total testosterone (5 nmol/L increment) and increased- or decreased-risk of PCa. Two out of the 11 studies/analyses showed a significant decreased-risk of PCa for total testosterone per 1 unit increment, but also two other

  9. Family history of esophageal cancer increases the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiantian; Cheng, Hongwei; Chen, Xingdong; Yuan, Ziyu; Yang, Xiaorong; Zhuang, Maoqiang; Lu, Ming; Jin, Li; Ye, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    A population-based case-control was performed to explore familial aggregation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Family history of cancer was assessed by a structured questionnaire, and from which 2 cohorts of relatives of cases and controls were reconstructed. Unconditional logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression were applied for case-control design and reconstructed cohort design, respectively. We observed a close to doubled risk of ESCC associated with a positive family history of esophageal cancer among first degree relatives (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42–2.41), after adjusting age, sex, family size and other confounders. The excess risks of ESCC increased with the increasing of first-degree relatives affected by esophageal cancer (p < 0.001). In particular, those individuals whose both parents with esophageal cancer had an 8-fold excess risk of ESCC (95% CI: 1.74–36.32). The reconstructed cohort analysis showed that the cumulative risk of esophageal cancer to age 75 was 12.2% in the first-degree relatives of cases and 7.0% in those of controls (hazard ratio = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.54–2.37). Our results suggest family history of esophageal cancer significantly increases the risk for ESCC. Future studies are needed to understand how the shared genetic susceptibility and/or environmental exposures contribute to the observed excess risk. PMID:26526791

  10. The "PHS Increased Risk" Label Is Associated With Nonutilization of Hundreds of Organs per Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Michael L; Wilk, Amber R; Wolfe, Cameron; Kaul, Daniel R

    2017-07-01

    The Public Health Service "Increased Risk" (PHS IR) designation identifies donors at increased risk of transmitting hepatitis B, C, and human immunodeficiency virus. Although the risk remains very low in the era of nucleic acid testing, we hypothesized that this label may result in decreased organ utilization. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data were used to compare utilization rates between PHS-IR and non-PHS-IR donors, as well as to compare export rates and variation in utilization. Among adult standard criteria donors between 2010 and 2013 with a known PHS-IR status, covariate-adjusted utilization rates were lower among PHS-IR donors than non-PHS-IR donors for all organs. For example, 4073 (76.7%) of 5314 PHS-IR kidneys were used, compared with 25 490 (83.7%) of 30 456 non-PHS-IR kidneys-an absolute difference of 7%. Furthermore, all PHS-IR organs had higher export rates than non-PHS-IR organs. For example, 28.7% of PHS-IR kidneys were exported versus 19.7% of non-PHS-IR kidneys. Finally, the utilization rate of PHS-IR organs varied by Donation Service Area; utilization ranged from 20% to 100% among adult kidneys, suggesting significant variation in practices. Similar patterns were seen among pediatric donors. Based on the covariate-adjusted model, if the PHS-IR label did not exist, there could be an additional 313 transplants performed in the United States each year. The PHS "increased risk" label appears to be associated with nonutilization of hundreds of organs per year, despite the very low risk of disease transmission. Better tools are needed to communicate the magnitude of risk to patients and their families.

  11. Diabetes but not insulin increases the risk of lung cancer: a Taiwanese population-based study.

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    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The trend of lung cancer incidence in Taiwan is unknown, and the association between type 2 diabetes/insulin use and lung cancer is rarely studied. METHODS: The trends of lung cancer incidence in 1979-2007 in the Taiwanese general population were calculated. A random sample of 1,000,000 subjects covered by the National Health Insurance in 2005 was recruited. A total of 494,002 men and 502,948 women and without lung cancer were followed for the annual cumulative incidence of lung cancer in 2005, with calculation of the risk ratios between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Logistic regression estimated the adjusted odds ratios for risk factors. RESULTS: The trends increased significantly in both sexes (P<0.0001. The sex-specific annual cumulative incidence increased with age in either the diabetic or non-diabetic subjects, but the risk ratios attenuated with age. In logistic regressions, diabetes was associated with a significantly higher risk, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval for diabetes duration <1, 1-3, 3-5 and ≥5 years versus non-diabetes of 2.189 (1.498-3.200, 1.420 (1.014-1.988, 1.545 (1.132-2.109, and 1.329 (1.063-1.660, respectively. Such an association was not related to a higher detection with chest X-ray examination. Insulin use and medications including oral anti-diabetic drugs, statin, fibrate, and anti-hypertensive agents were not significantly associated with lung cancer. Age, male sex, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were positively; but dyslipidemia, stroke and higher socioeconomic status were negatively associated with lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes is significantly associated with a higher risk of lung cancer, but insulin use does not increase the risk.

  12. Fire increases the risk of higher soil N2O emissions from Mediterranean Macchia ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhu, Kristiina; Dannenmann, M.; Kitzler, B.

    2015-01-01

    on climate change. However, the potential importance of indirect GHG emissions due to changes in soil biological and chemical properties after fire is less well known. Increased soil mineral nitrogen (N) concentrations after fire pose a risk for increased emissions of gaseous N, but studies on the post......-fire N2O production and soil N turnover rates (mineralization, nitrification, microbial immobilization, denitrification) are still rare. We determined N2O production, rates of N turnover and pathways for N2O production from the soil of burned and unburned plots of a Macchia shrubland in central Spain...... using a 15N labelling approach. Measurements were initiated before the controlled burning and continued for up to half a year after fire. Fire markedly increased the risk of N2O emissions from soil through denitrification (N2O production rate was 3 to ≈30 times higher in burned soils compared to control...

  13. Social isolation induces autophagy in the mouse mammary gland: link to increased mammary cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumis, Allison; Cook, Katherine L; Andrade, Fabia O; Hu, Rong; Kidney, Emma; Zhang, Xiyuan; Kim, Dominic; Carney, Elissa; Nguyen, Nguyen; Yu, Wei; Bouker, Kerrie B; Cruz, Idalia; Clarke, Robert; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2016-10-01

    Social isolation is a strong predictor of early all-cause mortality and consistently increases breast cancer risk in both women and animal models. Because social isolation increases body weight, we compared its effects to those caused by a consumption of obesity-inducing diet (OID) in C57BL/6 mice. Social isolation and OID impaired insulin and glucose sensitivity. In socially isolated, OID-fed mice (I-OID), insulin resistance was linked to reduced Pparg expression and increased neuropeptide Y levels, but in group-housed OID fed mice (G-OID), it was linked to increased leptin and reduced adiponectin levels, indicating that the pathways leading to insulin resistance are different. Carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis was significantly higher in I-OID mice than in the other groups, but cancer risk was also increased in socially isolated, control diet-fed mice (I-C) and G-OID mice compared with that in controls. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling (GRP78; IRE1) was upregulated in the mammary glands of OID-fed mice, but not in control diet-fed, socially isolated I-C mice. In contrast, expression of BECLIN1, ATG7 and LC3II were increased, and p62 was downregulated by social isolation, indicating increased autophagy. In the mammary glands of socially isolated mice, but not in G-OID mice, mRNA expressions of p53 and the p53-regulated autophagy inducer Dram1 were upregulated, and nuclear p53 staining was strong. Our findings further indicated that autophagy and tumorigenesis were not increased in Atg7(+/-) mice kept in social isolation and fed OID. Thus, social isolation may increase breast cancer risk by inducing autophagy, independent of changes in body weight. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. Increasing potential risk for American visceral leishmaniasis in Amapá, Brazil

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    Thiago Vasconcelos dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The present note discusses some evidence on the increasing potential risk for American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL transmission in the Northern Brazilian State of Amapá, the Guianan-Amazon biome. METHODS Early and present data about AVL were collected, including our recent entomological findings. RESULTS: The spread of the sand fly vector Lutzomyia longipalpis, and a sylvatic reservoir host, the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous in that region represents important findings related to the epidemiology of AVL in the Guianan-Amazon biome. CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that Brazilian authorities need to develop surveillance strategies in these risk areas.

  15. Glucose intolerance in early postpartum in women with gestational diabetes: Who is at increased risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuridan, Liesbeth; Wens, Johan; Devlieger, Roland; Verhaeghe, Johan; Mathieu, Chantal; Benhalima, Katrien

    2015-08-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes in the years after the index pregnancy. Some women with GDM already develop glucose intolerance in early postpartum. The best screening strategy for glucose intolerance in early postpartum among women with a history of GDM is still debated. We review the most important risk factors of women with GDM to develop glucose intolerance within one year postpartum. We also discuss the current recommendations for screening in early postpartum and the many challenges to organize postpartum follow up in primary care. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased risk of depression in patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus and systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselvig, J H; Egeberg, A; Kofoed, K

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reported prevalences of depression in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) range widely, while the prevalence of depression in cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) remains severely understudied. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether patients with SLE or CLE have increased risk...... of primary and secondary care, analyses of risk for depression and antidepressant use were performed in Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic status, smoking, alcohol abuse, prior depression, and prior antidepressant use. RESULTS: A total of 3,489 patients with lupus erythematosus were...

  17. Increased risk of breast cancer following different regimens of hormone replacement therapy frequently used in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlberg, Claudia; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2004-01-01

    was established in 1993, where all female nurses aged 45 years and above received a mailed questionnaire (n = 23,178). A total of 19,898 women returned the questionnaire (86%). The questionnaire included information on HRT types and regimens, reproductive history and lifestyle-related factors. Breast cancer cases......Epidemiologic studies have shown an increased risk of breast cancer following hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The aim of this study was to investigate whether different treatment regimens or the androgenecity of progestins influence the risk of breast cancer differently. The Danish Nurse Cohort...

  18. Agrochemicals increase risk of human schistosomiasis by supporting higher densities of intermediate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Neal T; Hoover, Christopher M; Arakala, Arathi; Civitello, David J; De Leo, Giulio A; Gambhir, Manoj; Johnson, Steve A; Jouanard, Nicolas; Loerns, Kristin A; McMahon, Taegan A; Ndione, Raphael A; Nguyen, Karena; Raffel, Thomas R; Remais, Justin V; Riveau, Gilles; Sokolow, Susanne H; Rohr, Jason R

    2018-02-26

    Schistosomiasis is a snail-borne parasitic disease that ranks among the most important water-based diseases of humans in developing countries. Increased prevalence and spread of human schistosomiasis to non-endemic areas has been consistently linked with water resource management related to agricultural expansion. However, the role of agrochemical pollution in human schistosome transmission remains unexplored, despite strong evidence of agrochemicals increasing snail-borne diseases of wildlife and a projected 2- to 5-fold increase in global agrochemical use by 2050. Using a field mesocosm experiment, we show that environmentally relevant concentrations of fertilizer, a herbicide, and an insecticide, individually and as mixtures, increase densities of schistosome-infected snails by increasing the algae snails eat and decreasing densities of snail predators. Epidemiological models indicate that these agrochemical effects can increase transmission of schistosomes. Identifying agricultural practices or agrochemicals that minimize disease risk will be critical to meeting growing food demands while improving human wellbeing.

  19. Obesity increases the risk of renal involvement in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Li; Liu, Zheng-Juan; Bai, Xue-Mei; Wang, Yu-Chuan; Li, Guo-Hua; Yan, Xue-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between obesity and renal involvement in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). A retrospective study of 141 pediatric patients with HSP was conducted in our hospital. The clinical data of all patients were collected from the electronic medical record management system from January 2010 to June 2014. The possible risk factors of renal involvement, especially obesity, were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Renal involvement occurred in 45/141 of the patients. A univariate analysis showed that an age more than 7 years at onset, persistent purpura, obesity, time from symptoms onset to diagnosis more than 14 days, and decreased C3 all increased the risk of renal involvement in HSP. The forward stepwise logistic regression analysis indicated obesity (odds ratio (OR) 4.43, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.896 to 10.358), age more than 7 years at onset (OR 2.81, 95 % CI 1.142 to 6.907), and persistent purpura (OR 2.57, 95 % CI 1.119 to 5.909) were independent risk factors for renal involvement. Our results show that obesity can increase the hazard of renal involvement in children with HSP and reconfirm that older age at onset and persistent purpura are the independent risk factors for renal involvement. • There have been some reports that obesity was associated with the development of renal injury. • It is not clear whether obesity can increase the risk of renal involvement in children with HSP. What is New: • The main finding of this study is that obesity can increase the hazard of renal involvement in children with HSP.

  20. Arthritis increases the risk for fractures--results from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nicole C; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Walitt, Brian T; Eaton, Charles B; Chen, Zhao

    2011-08-01

    To examine the relationship between arthritis and fracture. Women were classified into 3 self-reported groups at baseline: no arthritis (n = 83,295), osteoarthritis (OA; n = 63,402), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 960). Incident fractures were self-reported throughout followup. Age-adjusted fracture rates by arthritis category were generated, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used to test the association between arthritis and fracture. After an average of 7.80 years, 24,137 total fractures were reported including 2559 self-reported clinical spinal fractures and 1698 adjudicated hip fractures. For each fracture type, age-adjusted fracture rates were highest in the RA group and lowest in the nonarthritic group. After adjustment for several covariates, report of arthritis was associated with increased risk for spine, hip, and any clinical fractures. Compared to the nonarthritis group, the risk of sustaining any clinical fracture in the OA group was HR 1.09 (95% CI 1.05, 1.13; p < 0.001) and HR 1.49 (95% CI 1.26, 1.75; p < 0.001) in the RA group. The risk of sustaining a hip fracture was not statistically increased in the OA group (HR 1.11; 95% CI 0.98, 1.25; p = 0.122) compared to the nonarthritis group; however, the risk of hip fracture increased significantly (HR 3.03; 95% CI 2.03, 4.51; p < 0.001) in the RA group compared to the nonarthritis group. The increase in fracture risk confirms the importance of fracture prevention in patients with RA and OA.

  1. Sleep disorders increase the risk of burning mouth syndrome: a retrospective population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Feng; Lin, Kuan-Yu; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chang, Shih-Ni; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-11-01

    Sleep disorders (SD), including apnea and nonapnea, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS) have been mutually associated with systemic diseases. Based on our research, the association between BMS and SD has not been elucidated. We determined whether SD patients have an increased risk of BMS. We used information from health insurance claims obtained from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance (NHI) program. We identified patients newly diagnosed with sleep apnea syndrome between 1998 and 2001 as the apnea SD cohort, and newly diagnosed patients with nonapnea SD as the nonapnea SD cohort. The non-SD cohort was 1:2 frequency matched the case group according to sex, age, and index year. We analyzed the risks of BMS by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Compared with the non-SD cohort, both of the apnea SD (adjusted HR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.30-5.05) and nonapnea SD (adjusted HR = 2.89, 95% CI = 2.51-3.34) were associated with a significantly higher risk of BMS. The hazard ratio (HR) increased with increased age in the apnea SD cohort and in the nonapnea SD cohort compared with patients younger than 40 years of age. Female apnea SD patients (IRR = 4.63, 95% CI = 3.82-5.61) had a higher risk of developing BMS than did male patients (IRR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.39-2.24). Based on our research, SD might increase the risk of BMS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ante partum depression and husband’s mental problem increased risk maternity blues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Ismail

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternity blues disorder (MB is common, and it is usually undiagnosed. This study to identify several risk factors related to MB. Subjects were pregnant women who had antenatal and delivery at the Persahabatan Hospital (RSP Jakarta from 1 November 1999 to 15 August 2001. Consecutive sampling and was followed-up until two-week postpartum. Those who ever had psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders were excluded. MB and ante partum depression (APD detected by using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Husband’s mental status based on Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90 respectively. Among 580 subjects, 25% suffering from MB. Compared with those who did not have APD, those who experienced it had more than three-fold increased risk to be MB [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.57; 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.54;5.03]. Those who had not healthy baby on the first 5 days afterbirth than who had healthy baby had twice increased risk to be MB (aHR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.34 ; 3.66. Who had husband with problem in mental health had 1.9 increased risk to be MB (aHR = 1.91; 95% CI = 1.36 ; 2.68. Stress during pregnancy had 1.6 increased risk to be MB (aHR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.14 ; 2.25. To control MB, special attention should be paid to women who had APD history, who had unhealthy baby on 5 first days afterbirth, who had husbands’ mental health problems, and who had stress during pregnancy. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:74-80Keywords: ante partum, maternity blues, depression, mental problem

  3. SSRIs increase risk of blood transfusion in patients admitted for hip surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermien Janneke Schutte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that an increased bleeding tendency can be caused by Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI use. We aimed to investigate the occurrence and risk of blood transfusion in SSRI users compared to non-SSRI users in a cohort of patients admitted for hip-surgery. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent planned or emergency hip surgery from 1996 to 2011 in the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam. Primary outcome measure was risk of blood transfusion. Secondary outcome measures were pre- and postoperative hemoglobin level. Multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: One-hundred and fourteen SSRI users were compared to 1773 non-SSRI users. Risk of blood transfusion during admission was increased for SSRI users in multivariate analyses (OR 1.7 [95% CI 1.1-2.5]. Also, pre-operative hemoglobin levels were lower in SSRI users (7.8 ± 1.0 mmol/L compared to non-SSRI users (8.0 ± 1.0 mmol/L (p  =  0.042, as were postoperative hemoglobin levels (6.2 ± 1.0 mmol/L vs. 6.4 ± 1.0 mmol/L respectively (p  =  0.017. CONCLUSIONS: SSRI users undergoing hip surgery have an increased risk for blood transfusion during admission, potentially explained by a lower hemoglobin level before surgery. SSRI use should be considered as a potential risk indicator for increased blood loss in patients admitted for hip surgery. These results need to be confirmed in a prospective study.

  4. Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J C; Hechinger, R F; Wood, A C; Stewart, T E; Kuris, A M; Lafferty, K D

    2017-08-01

    Most species aggregate in local patches. High host density in patches increases contact rate between hosts and parasites, increasing parasite transmission success. At the same time, for environmentally transmitted parasites, high host density can decrease infection risk to individual hosts, because infective stages are divided among all hosts in a patch, leading to safety in numbers. We tested these predictions using the California horn snail, Cerithideopsis californica (=Cerithidea californica), which is the first intermediate host for at least 19 digenean trematode species in California estuaries. Snails become infected by ingesting trematode eggs or through penetration by free-swimming miracidia that hatch from trematode eggs deposited with final-host (bird or mammal) feces. This complex life cycle decouples infective-stage production from transmission, raising the possibility of an inverse relationship between host density and infection risk at local scales. In a field survey, higher snail density was associated with increased trematode (infected snail) density, but decreased trematode prevalence, consistent with either safety in numbers, parasitic castration, or both. To determine the extent to which safety in numbers drove the negative snail-density-trematode-prevalence association, we manipulated uninfected snail density in 83 cages at eight sites within Carpinteria Salt Marsh (California, USA). At each site, we quantified snail density and used data on final-host (bird and raccoon) distributions to control for between-site variation in infective-stage supply. After three months, overall trematode infections per cage increased with snail biomass density. For egg-transmitted trematodes, per-snail infection risk decreased with snail biomass density in the cage and surrounding area, whereas per-snail infection risk did not decrease for miracidium-transmitted trematodes. Furthermore, both trematode recruitment and infection risk increased with infective

  5. Epidemiologic Evidence That Excess Body Weight Increases Risk of Cervical Cancer by Decreased Detection of Precancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Megan A; Fetterman, Barbara; Cheung, Li C; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Gage, Julia C; Katki, Hormuzd A; Befano, Brian; Demarco, Maria; Schussler, John; Kinney, Walter K; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Lorey, Thomas S; Poitras, Nancy E; Castle, Philip E; Schiffman, Mark

    2018-04-20

    Purpose Obesity has been inconsistently linked to increased cervical cancer incidence and mortality; however, the effect of obesity on cervical screening has not been explored. We investigated the hypothesis that increased body mass might decrease detection of cervical precancer and increase risk of cervical cancer even in women undergoing state-of-the-art screening. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 944,227 women age 30 to 64 years who underwent cytology and human papillomavirus DNA testing (ie, cotesting) at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (January 2003 to December 2015). Body mass index was categorized as normal/underweight (< 25 kg/m 2 ), overweight (25 to < 30 kg/m 2 ), or obese (≥ 30 kg/m 2 ). We estimated 5-year cumulative risks of cervical precancer and cancer by category of body mass index using logistic Weibull survival models. Results We observed lower risk of cervical precancer (n = 4,489) and higher risk of cervical cancer (n = 490) with increasing body mass index. Specifically, obese women had the lowest 5-year risk of precancer (0.51%; 95% CI, 0.48% to 0.54% v 0.73%; 95% CI, 0.70% to 0.76% in normal/underweight women; P trend < .001). In contrast, obese women had the highest 5-year risk of cancer (0.083%; 95% CI, 0.072% to 0.096% v 0.056%; 95% CI, 0.048% to 0.066% in normal/underweight women; P trend < .001). Results were consistent in subgroups defined by age (30 to 49 v 50 to 64 years), human papillomavirus status (positive v negative), and histologic subtype (glandular v squamous). Approximately 20% of cervical cancers could be attributed to overweight or obesity in the women in our study who underwent routine cervical screening. Conclusion In this large, screened population, overweight and obese women had an increased risk of cervical cancer, likely because of underdiagnosis of cervical precancer. Improvements in equipment and/or technique to assure adequate sampling and visualization of women with elevated body mass

  6. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides With Occupational Sun Exposure Increases the Risk for Cutaneous Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Cristina; Mastroeni, Simona; Segatto M, Marjorie; Hohmann, Clarissa; Miligi, Lucia; Bakos, Lucio; Bonamigo, Renan

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the association between occupational exposure to pesticides and cutaneous melanoma, controlling for all possible confounders. A pooled analysis of two case-control studies was conducted in two different geographic areas (Italy and Brazil). Detailed pesticides exposure histories were obtained. Ever use of any pesticide was associated with a high risk of cutaneous melanoma (odds ratio 2.58; 95% confidence interval 1.18-5.65) in particular exposure to herbicides (glyphosate) and fungicides (mancozeb, maneb), after controlling for confounding factors. When subjects were exposed to both pesticides and occupational sun exposure, the risk increased even more (odds ratio 4.68; 95% confidence interval 1.29-17.0). The study suggests an augmented risk of cutaneous melanoma among subjects with exposure to pesticides, in particular among those exposed to occupational sun exposure.

  7. Are cancer survivors at an increased risk for divorce? A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    for survivors of cervix cancer, who had an increased risk for divorce, we found that cancer survivors were not at greater risk for divorce than the general population (rate ratios (RR), 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0;1.1 and RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.9;1.0 for women and men, respectively). This finding shows......The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for divorce among cancer survivors. We conducted a nationwide, population-based study of 46,303 persons aged 30-60 years in whom selected cancers were diagnosed in 1981-2000 and 221,028 randomly sampled, cancer-free controls. Information...... that cancer survivors need not have unnecessary fears for their marriage....

  8. New Metrics for Evaluating Technical Benefits and Risks of DGs Increasing Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, Mohammad Amin; Aghaei, Jamshid; Barani, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    and risks should be qualified and quantified. This paper introduces several probabilistic indices to evaluate the potential operational effects of increasing penetration of renewable DG units such as wind power and photovoltaic on rural distribution network with the aid of evaluating technical benefits...... and risks trade-offs. A probabilistic generation-load model is suggested to calculate these indices which combine a large number of possible operating conditions of renewable DG units with their probabilities. Temporal and annual indices of voltage profile and line flow related attributes such as Interest...... Voltage Rise (IVR), Risky Voltage Rise (RVR), Risky Voltage Down (RVD), Line Loss Reduction (LLR), Line Loss Increment (LLI) and Line overload flow (LOF) are introduced using probability and expected values of their occurrence. Also, to measure the overall interests and risks of installing DG, composite...

  9. Climate Change Is Increasing the Risk of the Reemergence of Malaria in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodale, Ilie; Florescu, Simin-Aysel; Roman, Constantin; Acatrinei, Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The climatic modifications lead to global warming; favouring the risk of the appearance and development of diseases are considered until now tropical diseases. Another important factor is the workers' immigration, the economic crisis favouring the passive transmission of new species of culicidae from different areas. Malaria is the disease with the widest distribution in the globe. Millions of people are infected every year in Africa, India, South-East Asia, Middle East, and Central and South America, with more than 41% of the global population under the risk of infestation with malaria. The increase of the number of local cases reported in 2007–2011 indicates that the conditions can favour the high local transmission in the affected areas. In the situation presented, the establishment of the level of risk concerning the reemergence of malaria in Romania becomes a priority. PMID:27847824

  10. Climate Change Is Increasing the Risk of the Reemergence of Malaria in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Ivanescu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatic modifications lead to global warming; favouring the risk of the appearance and development of diseases are considered until now tropical diseases. Another important factor is the workers’ immigration, the economic crisis favouring the passive transmission of new species of culicidae from different areas. Malaria is the disease with the widest distribution in the globe. Millions of people are infected every year in Africa, India, South-East Asia, Middle East, and Central and South America, with more than 41% of the global population under the risk of infestation with malaria. The increase of the number of local cases reported in 2007–2011 indicates that the conditions can favour the high local transmission in the affected areas. In the situation presented, the establishment of the level of risk concerning the reemergence of malaria in Romania becomes a priority.

  11. Fall-Risk-Increasing Drugs: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: I. Cardiovascular Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Max; Seppala, Lotta J; Daams, Joost G; van de Glind, Esther M M; Masud, Tahir; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2018-04-01

    Use of certain medications is recognized as a major and modifiable risk factor for falls. Although the literature on psychotropic drugs is compelling, the literature on cardiovascular drugs as potential fall-risk-increasing drugs is conflicting. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to provide a comprehensive overview of the associations between cardiovascular medications and fall risk in older adults. Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. Key search concepts were "fall," "aged," "causality," and "medication." Studies that investigated cardiovascular medications as risk factors for falls in participants ≥60 years old or participants with a mean age of 70 or older were included. A meta-analysis was performed using the generic inverse variance method, pooling unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) separately. In total, 131 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Meta-analysis using adjusted ORs showed significant results (pooled OR [95% confidence interval]) for loop diuretics, OR 1.36 (1.17, 1.57), and beta-blocking agents, OR 0.88 (0.80, 0.97). Meta-analysis using unadjusted ORs showed significant results for digitalis, OR 1.60 (1.08, 2.36); digoxin, OR 2.06 (1.56, 2.74); and statins, OR 0.80 (0.65, 0.98). Most of the meta-analyses resulted in substantial heterogeneity that mostly did not disappear after stratification for population and setting. In a descriptive synthesis, consistent associations were not observed. Loop diuretics were significantly associated with increased fall risk, whereas beta-blockers were significantly associated with decreased fall risk. Digitalis and digoxin may increase the risk of falling, and statins may reduce it. For the majority of cardiovascular medication groups, outcomes were inconsistent. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that specific drug properties, such as selectivity of beta-blockers, may affect fall risk, and drug-disease interaction also may play

  12. Cholecystectomy can increase the risk of colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis of 10 cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate the effects of cholecystectomy on the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC by conducting a meta-analysis of 10 cohort studies.The eligible cohort studies were selected by searching the PubMed and EMBASE databases from their origination to June 30, 2016, as well as by consulting the reference lists of the selected articles. Two authors individually collected the data from the 10 papers. When the data showed marked heterogeneity, we used a random-effects model to estimate the overall pooled risk; otherwise, a fixed effects model was employed.The final analysis included ten cohort studies. According to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS, nine papers were considered high quality. After the data of these 9 studies were combined, an increased risk of CRC was found among the individuals who had undergone cholecystectomy (risk ratio (RR 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.08-1.38. In addition, we also found a promising increased risk for colon cancer (CC (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.07-1.58, but no relationship between cholecystectomy and rectum cancer (RC (RR 1.09; 95% CI 0.89-1.34 was observed. Additionally, in the sub-group analysis of the tumor location in the colon, a positive risk for ascending colon cancer (ACC was found (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11-1.26. After combining the ACC, transverse colon cancer (TCC, sigmoid colon cancer (SCC and descending colon cancer (DCC patients, we found a positive relationship with cholecystectomy (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11-1.26. Furthermore, after combining the ACC and DCC patients, we also found a positive relationship with cholecystectomy (RR 1.28; 95% CI 1.11-1.26 in the sub-group analysis. In an additional sub-group analysis of patients from Western countries, there was a positive relationship between cholecystectomy and the risk of CRC (RR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05-1.36. Furthermore, a positive relationship between female gender and CRC was also found (RR 1.17; 95% CI 1.03-1.34. However, there was no relationship

  13. Mechanisms of increased risk of tumorigenesis in Atm and Brca1 double heterozygosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jufang; Su, Fengtao; Smilenov, Lubomir B; Zhou, Libin; Hu, Wentao; Ding, Nan; Zhou, Guangming

    2011-01-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that heterozygosity for a single gene is linked with tumorigenesis and heterozygosity for two genes increases the risk of tumor incidence. Our previous work has demonstrated that Atm/Brca1 double heterozygosity leads to higher cell transformation rate than single heterozygosity. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully understood yet. In the present study, a series of pathways were investigated to clarify the possible mechanisms of increased risk of tumorigenesis in Atm and Brca1 heterozygosity. Wild type cells, Atm or Brca1 single heterozygous cells, and Atm/Brca1 double heterozygous cells were used to investigate DNA damage and repair, cell cycle, micronuclei, and cell transformation after photon irradiation. Remarkable high transformation frequency was confirmed in Atm/Brca1 double heterozygous cells compared to wild type cells. It was observed that delayed DNA damage recognition, disturbed cell cycle checkpoint, incomplete DNA repair, and increased genomic instability were involved in the biological networks. Haploinsufficiency of either ATM or BRCA1 negatively impacts these pathways. The quantity of critical proteins such as ATM and BRCA1 plays an important role in determination of the fate of cells exposed to ionizing radiation and double heterozygosity increases the risk of tumorigenesis. These findings also benefit understanding of the individual susceptibility to tumor initiation

  14. Cervical HSV-2 infection causes cervical remodeling and increases risk for ascending infection and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Devin; Poncil, Sharra; Patterson, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), or birth before 37 weeks gestation, is the leading cause of neonatal mortality worldwide. Cervical viral infections have been established as risk factors for PTB in women, although the mechanism leading to increased risk is unknown. Using a mouse model of pregnancy, we determined that intra-vaginal HSV2 infection caused increased rates of preterm birth following an intra-vaginal bacterial infection. HSV2 infection resulted in histological changes in the cervix mimicking cervical ripening, including significant collagen remodeling and increased hyaluronic acid synthesis. Viral infection also caused aberrant expression of estrogen and progesterone receptor in the cervical epithelium. Further analysis using human ectocervical cells demonstrated a role for Src kinase in virus-mediated changes in estrogen receptor and hyaluronic acid expression. In conclusion, HSV2 affects proteins involved in tissue hormone responsiveness, causes significant changes reminiscent of premature cervical ripening, and increases risk of preterm birth. Studies such as this improve our chances of identifying clinical interventions in the future. PMID:29190738

  15. Mechanisms of increased risk of tumorigenesis in Atm and Brca1 double heterozygosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jufang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that heterozygosity for a single gene is linked with tumorigenesis and heterozygosity for two genes increases the risk of tumor incidence. Our previous work has demonstrated that Atm/Brca1 double heterozygosity leads to higher cell transformation rate than single heterozygosity. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully understood yet. In the present study, a series of pathways were investigated to clarify the possible mechanisms of increased risk of tumorigenesis in Atm and Brca1 heterozygosity. Methods Wild type cells, Atm or Brca1 single heterozygous cells, and Atm/Brca1 double heterozygous cells were used to investigate DNA damage and repair, cell cycle, micronuclei, and cell transformation after photon irradiation. Results Remarkable high transformation frequency was confirmed in Atm/Brca1 double heterozygous cells compared to wild type cells. It was observed that delayed DNA damage recognition, disturbed cell cycle checkpoint, incomplete DNA repair, and increased genomic instability were involved in the biological networks. Haploinsufficiency of either ATM or BRCA1 negatively impacts these pathways. Conclusions The quantity of critical proteins such as ATM and BRCA1 plays an important role in determination of the fate of cells exposed to ionizing radiation and double heterozygosity increases the risk of tumorigenesis. These findings also benefit understanding of the individual susceptibility to tumor initiation.

  16. Acromegaly is associated with increased cancer risk: a survey in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzolo, Massimo; Reimondo, Giuseppe; Berchialla, Paola; Ferrante, Emanuele; Malchiodi, Elena; De Marinis, Laura; Pivonello, Rosario; Grottoli, Silvia; Losa, Marco; Cannavo, Salvatore; Ferone, Diego; Montini, Marcella; Bondanelli, Marta; De Menis, Ernesto; Martini, Chiara; Puxeddu, Efisio; Velardo, Antonino; Peri, Alessandro; Faustini-Fustini, Marco; Tita, Patrizia; Pigliaru, Francesca; Peraga, Giulia; Borretta, Giorgio; Scaroni, Carla; Bazzoni, Nicoletta; Bianchi, Antonio; Berton, Alessandro; Serban, Andreea Liliana; Baldelli, Roberto; Fatti, Letizia Maria; Colao, Annamaria; Arosio, Maura

    2017-09-01

    It is debated if acromegalic patients have an increased risk to develop malignancies. The aim of the present study was to assess the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of different types of cancer in acromegaly on a large series of acromegalic patients managed in the somatostatin analogs era. It was evaluated the incidence of cancer in an Italian nationwide multicenter cohort study of 1512 acromegalic patients, 624 men and 888 women, mean age at diagnosis 45 ± 13 years, followed up for a mean of 10 years (12573 person-years) in respect to the general Italian population. Cancer was diagnosed in 124 patients, 72 women and 52 men. The SIRs for all cancers was significantly increased compared to the general Italian population (expected: 88, SIR 1.41; 95% CI, 1.18-1.68, P  acromegaly (all in women) did not change remarkably the study outcome. In multivariate analysis, the factors significantly associated with an increased risk of malignancy were age and family history of cancer, with a non-significant trend for the estimated duration of acromegaly before diagnosis. In conclusion, we found evidence that acromegaly in Italy is associated with a moderate increase in cancer risk. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Impacts of rising sea temperature on krill increase risks for predators in the Scotia Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Simeon L.; Hinke, Jefferson T.; Phillips, Tony; Watters, George M.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is a threat to marine ecosystems and the services they provide, and reducing fishing pressure is one option for mitigating the overall consequences for marine biota. We used a minimally realistic ecosystem model to examine how projected effects of ocean warming on the growth of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, might affect populations of krill and dependent predators (whales, penguins, seals, and fish) in the Scotia Sea. We also investigated the potential to mitigate depletion risk for predators by curtailing krill fishing at different points in the 21st century. The projected effects of ocean warming on krill biomass were strongest in the northern Scotia Sea, with a ≥40% decline in the mass of individual krill. Projections also suggest a 25% chance that krill biomass will fall below an established depletion threshold (75% of its unimpacted level), with consequent risks for some predator populations, especially penguins. Average penguin abundance declined by up to 30% of its unimpacted level, with up to a 50% chance of falling below the depletion threshold. Simulated krill fishing at currently permitted harvest rates further increased risks for depletion, and stopping fishing offset the increased risks associated with ocean warming in our model to some extent. These results varied by location and species group. Risk reductions at smaller spatial scales also differed from those at the regional level, which suggests that some predator populations may be more vulnerable than others to future changes in krill biomass. However, impacts on predators did not always map directly to those for krill. Our findings indicate the importance of identifying vulnerable marine populations and targeting protection measures at appropriate spatial scales, and the potential for spatially-structured management to avoid aggravating risks associated with rising ocean temperatures. This may help balance tradeoffs among marine ecosystem services in an uncertain future

  18. Terminal illness and the increased mortality risk of conventional antipsychotics in observational studies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijendijk, Hendrika J; de Bruin, Niels C; Hulshof, Tessa A; Koolman, Xander

    2016-02-01

    Numerous large observational studies have shown an increased risk of mortality in elderly users of conventional antipsychotics. Health authorities have warned against use of these drugs. However, terminal illness is a potentially strong confounder of the observational findings. So, the objective of this study was to systematically assess whether terminal illness may have biased the observational association between conventional antipsychotics and risk of mortality in elderly patients. Studies were searched in PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, the references of selected studies and articles referring to selected studies (Web of Science). Inclusion criteria were (i) observational studies that estimated (ii) the risk of all-cause mortality in (iii) new elderly users of (iv) conventional antipsychotics compared with atypical antipsychotics or no use. Two investigators assessed the characteristics of the exposure and reference groups, main results, measured confounders and methods used to adjust for unmeasured confounders. We identified 21 studies. All studies were based on administrative medical and pharmaceutical databases. Sicker and older patients received conventional antipsychotics more often than new antipsychotics. The risk of dying was especially high in the first month of use, and when haloperidol was administered per injection or in high doses. Terminal illness was not measured in any study. Instrumental variables that were used were also confounded by terminal illness. We conclude that terminal illness has not been adjusted for in observational studies that reported an increased risk of mortality risk in elderly users of conventional antipsychotics. As the validity of the evidence is questionable, so is the warning based on it. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun; Kushima, Ryoji; Murakami, Naoya; Kuroda, Yuuki; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Yoshio, Kotaro; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana

    2013-01-01

    There have been sporadic reports about synchronous as well as metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma. Many reports have dealt with metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of stomach. But to our knowledge, there have been no reports that document the increased incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in patients with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This retrospective study was conducted to estimate the incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma after primary gastric lymphoma treatment, especially in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The retrospective cohort study of 139 primary gastric lymphoma patients treated with radiotherapy at our hospital. Mean observation period was 61.5 months (range: 3.7-124.6 months). Patients profile, characteristics of primary gastric lymphoma and metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma were retrieved from medical records. The risk of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma was compared with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in Japanese population. There were 10 (7.2%) metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma patients after treatment of primary gastric lymphomas. It was quite high risk compared with the risk of gastric carcinoma in Japanese population of 54.7/100,000. Seven patients of 10 were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other 3 patients were mixed type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Four patients of 10 metachronous gastric adenocarcinomas were signet-ring cell carcinoma and two patients died of gastric adenocarcinoma. Metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma may have a more malignant potential than sporadic gastric adenocarcinoma. Old age, Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal change of chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were possible risk factors for metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma. There was an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric lymphoma

  20. Low dose diagnostic radiation does not increase cancer risk in cancer prone mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreham, D., E-mail: dboreham@nosm.ca [Northern Ontario School of Medicine, ON (Canada); Phan, N., E-mail: nghiphan13@yahoo.com [Univ. of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Lemon, J., E-mail: lemonja@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The increased exposure of patients to low dose diagnostic ionizing radiation has created concern that these procedures will result in greater risk of carcinogenesis. However, there is substantial evidence that shows in many cases that low dose exposure has the opposite effect. We have investigated whether CT scans can modify mechanisms associated with carcinogenesis in cancer-prone mice. Cancer was induced in Trp53+/- mice with an acute high dose whole-body 4 Gy γ-radiation exposure. Four weeks following the cancer-inducing dose, weekly whole-body CT scans (10 mGy/scan, 75 kVp X-rays) were given for ten consecutive weeks adding an additional radiation burden of 0.1 Gy. Short-term biological responses and subsequent lifetime cancer risk were investigated. Five days following the last CT scan, there were no detectable differences in the spontaneous levels of DNA damage in blood cells (reticulocytes). In fact, CT scanned mice had significantly lower constitutive levels of oxidative DNA damage and cell death (apoptosis), compared to non-CT scanned mice. This shows that multiple low dose radiation exposures modified the radio response and indicates protective processes were induced in mice. In mice treated with the multiple CT scans following the high cancer-inducing 4 Gy dose, tumour latency was increased, significantly prolonging lifespan. We conclude that repeated CT scans can reduce the cancer risk of a prior high-dose radiation exposure, and delay the progression of specific types of radiation-induced cancers in Trp53+/-mice. This research shows for the first time that low dose exposure long after cancer initiation events alter risk and reduce cancer morbidity. Cancer induction following low doses does not follow a linear non-threshold model of risk and this model should not be used to extrapolate risk to humans following low dose exposure to ionizing radiation. (author)

  1. Prior inpatient admission increases the risk of post-operative infection in hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zachary M; Chidi, Alexis P; Goswami, Julie; Han, Katrina; Simmons, Richard L; Rosengart, Matthew R; Tsung, Allan

    2015-12-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic (HPB) operations have a high incidence of post-operative nosocomial infections. The aim of the present study was to determine whether hospitalization up to 1 year before HPB surgery is associated with an increased risk of post-operative infection, surgical-site infection (SSI) and infection resistant to surgical chemoprophylaxis. A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing HPB surgeries between January 2008 and June 2013 was conducted. A multivariable logistic regression model was used for controlling for potential confounders to determine the association between pre-operative admission and post-operative infection. Of the 1384 patients who met eligibility criteria, 127 (9.18%) experienced a post-operative infection. Pre-operative hospitalization was independently associated with an increased risk of a post-operative infection [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.46] and SSI (aOR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.07-2.97). Pre-operative hospitalization was also associated with an increased risk of post-operative infections resistant to standard pre-operative antibiotics (OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.06-6.59) and an increased risk of resistant SSIs (OR: 3.99, 95% CI: 1.25-12.73). Pre-operative hospitalization is associated with an increased incidence of post-operative infections, often with organisms that are resistant to surgical chemoprophylaxis. Patients hospitalized up to 1 year before HPB surgery may benefit from extended spectrum chemoprophylaxis. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  2. Fall-Risk-Increasing Drugs: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis: III. Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppala, Lotta J; van de Glind, Esther M M; Daams, Joost G; Ploegmakers, Kimberley J; de Vries, Max; Wermelink, Anne M A T; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2018-04-01

    The use of psychotropic medication and cardiovascular medication has been associated with an increased risk of falling. However, other frequently prescribed medication classes are still under debate as potential risk factors for falls in the older population. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the associations between fall risk and nonpsychotropic and noncardiovascular medications. A systematic review and meta-analysis. A search was conducted in Medline, PsycINFO, and Embase. Key search concepts were "falls," "aged," "medication," and "causality." Studies were included that investigated nonpsychotropic and noncardiovascular medications as risk factors for falls in participants ≥60 years or participants with a mean age ≥70 years. A meta-analysis was performed using the generic inverse variance method, pooling unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimates separately. In a qualitative synthesis, 281 studies were included. The results of meta-analysis using adjusted data were as follows (a pooled OR [95% confidence interval]): analgesics, 1.42 (0.91-2.23); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), 1.09 (0.96-1.23); opioids, 1.60 (1.35-1.91); anti-Parkinson drugs, 1.54 (0.99-2.39); antiepileptics, 1.55 (1.25-1.92); and polypharmacy, 1.75 (1.27-2.41). Most of the meta-analyses resulted in substantial heterogeneity that did not disappear after stratification for population and setting in most cases. In a descriptive synthesis, consistent associations with falls were observed for long-term proton pump inhibitor use and opioid initiation. Laxatives showed inconsistent associations with falls (7/20 studies showing a positive association). Opioid and antiepileptic use and polypharmacy were significantly associated with increased risk of falling in the meta-analyses. Long-term use of proton pump inhibitors and opioid initiation might increase the fall risk. Future research is necessary because the causal role of some medication

  3. Face Attention Network: An Effective Face Detector for the Occluded Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jianfeng; Yuan, Ye; Yu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The performance of face detection has been largely improved with the development of convolutional neural network. However, the occlusion issue due to mask and sunglasses, is still a challenging problem. The improvement on the recall of these occluded cases usually brings the risk of high false positives. In this paper, we present a novel face detector called Face Attention Network (FAN), which can significantly improve the recall of the face detection problem in the occluded case without comp...

  4. Left atrial enlargement increases the risk of major adverse cardiac events independent of coronary vasodilator capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Angela S. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Murthy, Venkatesh L.; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gayed, Peter; Bruyere, John; Di Carli, Marcelo F. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Wu, Justina [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, and the Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Dorbala, Sharmila [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and the Division of Cardiology, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Section, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Longstanding uncontrolled atherogenic risk factors may contribute to left atrial (LA) hypertension, LA enlargement (LAE) and coronary vascular dysfunction. Together they may better identify risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic LA hypertension as assessed by LAE modifies the relationship between coronary vascular function and MACE. In 508 unselected subjects with a normal clinical {sup 82}Rb PET/CT, ejection fraction ≥40 %, no prior coronary artery disease, valve disease or atrial fibrillation, LAE was determined based on LA volumes estimated from the hybrid perfusion and CT transmission scan images and indexed to body surface area. Absolute myocardial blood flow and global coronary flow reserve (CFR) were calculated. Subjects were systematically followed-up for the primary end-point - MACE - a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure, stroke, coronary artery disease progression or revascularization. During a median follow-up of 862 days, 65 of the subjects experienced a composite event. Compared with subjects with normal LA size, subjects with LAE showed significantly lower CFR (2.25 ± 0.83 vs. 1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.01). LAE independently and incrementally predicted MACE even after accounting for clinical risk factors, medication use, stress left ventricular ejection fraction, stress left ventricular end-diastolic volume index and CFR (chi-squared statistic increased from 30.9 to 48.3; p = 0.001). Among subjects with normal CFR, those with LAE had significantly worse event-free survival (risk adjusted HR 5.4, 95 % CI 2.3 - 12.8, p < 0.0001). LAE and reduced CFR are related but distinct cardiovascular adaptations to atherogenic risk factors. LAE is a risk marker for MACE independent of clinical factors and left ventricular volumes; individuals with LAE may be at risk of MACE despite normal coronary vascular function. (orig.)

  5. Increased risk of breast cancer in women with false-positive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Kuchiki, Megumi; Vejborg, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    of misclassification, i.e. women who were actually false-negatives instead of false-positives. METHOD: We used data from the Copenhagen Mammography Screening Programme, Denmark. The study population was the 295 women, out of 4743 recalled women from a total of 58,003 participants, with a false-positive test during...... the women with misclassified tests had been excluded, there was an excess risk of breast cancer of 27% (RR=1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.46) among the women with a false-positive test compared to women with only negative tests. Women with a false-positive test determined at assessment had...... an excess risk of 27%, while false-positives determined at surgery had an excess risk of 30%. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the increased risk is not explained only by misclassification. The excess risk remains for false-positives determined at assessment as well as at surgery, which favours some...

  6. Increased risk of severe depression in male partners of women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Saito-Nakaya, Kumi; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: A few small studies published to date have suggested that major psychosocial problems develop in the partners of cancer patients; however, to the authors' knowledge, no studies to date have addressed their risk for severe depression. In a retrospective cohort study, the risk for hosp......BACKGROUND:: A few small studies published to date have suggested that major psychosocial problems develop in the partners of cancer patients; however, to the authors' knowledge, no studies to date have addressed their risk for severe depression. In a retrospective cohort study, the risk...... for hospitalization with an affective disorder of the male partners of women with breast cancer was investigated, using unbiased, nationwide, population-based information. METHODS:: Followed were 1,162,596 men born between 1925 and 1973 who were aged ≥30 years at study entry, resided in Denmark between 1994 and 2006......-related indicators obtained from national administrative and disease registers. RESULTS:: During the 13 years of follow-up, breast cancer was diagnosed in the partners of 20,538 men. On multivariable analysis, men whose partner was diagnosed with breast cancer were found to be at an increased risk of being...

  7. What can be offered to couples at (possibly) increased genetic risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Andrew P; Donnai, Dian

    2012-07-01

    We review the reasons why a couple might seek specialist genetic counselling about a possible reproductive risk and the options available to them. Most commonly, the couple will be concerned about the risk of recurrence of a medical condition that has already occurred in the family. Sometimes, the increased risk may come from their ethnicity or because of a consanguineous marriage, rather than because any problem has occurred previously. The geneticist must identify the exact nature of any problem and determine the risks in the light of the mode of inheritance, any investigations undertaken and any other relevant information. The geneticist will then review the options open to the couple, and help them arrive at their own decision in a non-directive way. Some couples may opt to do nothing and let nature take its course but others may request prenatal or pre-implantation diagnosis, or they may avoid the conception of an at-risk child by using donor gametes, adoption or even decide not to have children.

  8. Elderly individuals with increased risk of falls show postural balance impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Rogério de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Introduction Falls are a serious public health problem. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether elderly individuals with increased risk of falls have a postural balance deficit, evaluated using a force platform during a one-leg stance. Materials and methods The sample consisted of 94 physically independent elderly individuals from the EELO project. The instruments used were the Downton scale, in order to assess the risk as well as the history of falls, and the force platform to measure postural balance through parameters from the center of pressure (COP. Results Elderly individuals were split into two groups according to the score observed with the Downton scale: G1 — low fall risk (score ≤ 2 — and G2 — high fall risk (score > 2. No differences were observed between the groups concerning gender (P > 0.05, Chi Square test. On the other hand, individuals from G2 showed postural instability when compared to individuals from G1, and individuals from G2 showed higher values in all COP parameters analysed (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.05. Conclusion It can be concluded that the Downton scale has sensitivity for identifying individuals with balance impairment as well as a risk of falls. Therefore, it may be suggested that this scale may be useful in primary health care for detecting falls in the elderly.

  9. Increased risk taking in relation to chronic stress in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandita eCeccato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured learning-independent risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS. We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify chronic cortisol exposure. We discovered a significant, positive correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations.

  10. Worsening Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegenerative Pathology Progressively Increase Risk for Delirium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H.J.; Skelly, Donal T.; Murray, Carol; Hennessy, Edel; Bowen, Jordan; Norton, Samuel; Brayne, Carol; Rahkonen, Terhi; Sulkava, Raimo; Sanderson, David J.; Rawlins, J. Nicholas; Bannerman, David M.; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Cunningham, Colm

    2015-01-01

    Background Delirium is a profound neuropsychiatric disturbance precipitated by acute illness. Although dementia is the major risk factor this has typically been considered a binary quantity (i.e., cognitively impaired versus cognitively normal) with respect to delirium risk. We used humans and mice to address the hypothesis that the severity of underlying neurodegenerative changes and/or cognitive impairment progressively alters delirium risk. Methods Humans in a population-based longitudinal study, Vantaa 85+, were followed for incident delirium. Odds for reporting delirium at follow-up (outcome) were modeled using random-effects logistic regression, where prior cognitive impairment measured by Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) (exposure) was considered. To address whether underlying neurodegenerative pathology increased susceptibility to acute cognitive change, mice at three stages of neurodegenerative disease progression (ME7 model of neurodegeneration: controls, 12 weeks, and 16 weeks) were assessed for acute cognitive dysfunction upon systemic inflammation induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg). Synaptic and axonal correlates of susceptibility to acute dysfunction were assessed using immunohistochemistry. Results In the Vantaa cohort, 465 persons (88.4 ± 2.8 years) completed MMSE at baseline. For every MMSE point lost, risk of incident delirium increased by 5% (p = 0.02). LPS precipitated severe and fluctuating cognitive deficits in 16-week ME7 mice but lower incidence or no deficits in 12-week ME7 and controls, respectively. This was associated with progressive thalamic synaptic loss and axonal pathology. Conclusion A human population-based cohort with graded severity of existing cognitive impairment and a mouse model with progressing neurodegeneration both indicate that the risk of delirium increases with greater severity of pre-existing cognitive impairment and neuropathology. PMID:25239680

  11. Increased risk of colorectal cancer in type 2 diabetes is independent of diet quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra Jarvandi

    Full Text Available Poor diet increases the risk of both colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes. We investigated the role of diet in the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer.We analyzed data from 484,020 individuals, aged 50-71 years who participated in the prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study and were cancer free at baseline (1995-1996. History of diabetes was self-reported. Diet quality was measured with the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005, using a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Cox regression models were constructed to estimate the hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of first primary incident colorectal cancer, overall and by anatomical location.During an average follow-up of 9.2 years, we identified 7,598 new cases of colorectal cancer. After controlling for non-dietary confounders, diabetes was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (HR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.36. Further adjustment for diet quality did not attenuate this association. Diabetes was associated with a HR of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.40 in individuals with good diet (quartile 4 of HEI-2005 and 1.58 (95% CI: 1.34, 1.86 in those with poor diet (quartile 1 of HEI-2005, compared to those with no diabetes and good diet. Moreover, diabetes was associated with a stronger risk of proximal than distal colon cancer (HR: 1.33 vs. HR: 1.20, while poor diet was associated with a weaker risk of proximal colon cancer (HR: 1.18 vs. HR: 1.46.Diabetes and poor diet, independently and additively are associated with the increased risk of colorectal cancer.

  12. Maternal dyslipidemia during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm birth: A meta-analysis

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    Shuying Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported an inconsistent relationship between maternal lipid levels and preterm birth (PTB. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the association between maternal dyslipidemia and PTB. Overall, three nested case-control studies and eight cohort studies were eligible. Effect estimates [odds ratio(OR/relative risk] were pooled using a fixed-effects or a random-effects model. Subgroup and metaregression analyses were conducted to evaluate the sources of heterogeneity. Eleven studies involving 13,025 pregnant women were included. Compared with pregnant women with normal lipid levels, the women with elevated levels of lipids had an increased risk of PTB, and the pooled OR was 1.68 [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.25–2.26]; meanwhile, women with lower levels of lipids also had a trend of an increased risk of PTB (OR=1.52, 95% CI=0.60–3.82. The pooled ORs for elevated levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and lower levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol were 1.71 (95% CI: 1.05–2.79, 1.55 (95% CI: 1.13–2.12, 1.19 (95% CI: 0.95–1.48, and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.14–1.56, respectively. The present meta-analysis found that maternal dyslipidemia during pregnancy, either the elevated total cholesterol or triglycerides, was associated with an increased risk of PTB. These findings indicate that a normal level of maternal lipid during pregnancy may reduce the risk of PTB.

  13. Are certain fractures at increased risk for compartment syndrome after civilian ballistic injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskey, Thomas; Hardcastle, John; O'Toole, Robert V

    2011-11-01

    Compartment syndrome after ballistic fracture is uncommon but potentially devastating. Few data are available to help guide clinicians regarding risk factors for developing compartment syndrome after ballistic fractures. Our primary hypothesis was that ballistic fractures of certain bones would be at higher risk for development of compartment syndrome. A retrospective review at a Level I trauma center from 2001 through 2007 yielded 650 patients with 938 fractures resulting from gunshots. We reviewed all operative notes, clinic notes, discharge summaries, and data from our prospective trauma database. Cases in which the attending orthopedic surgeon diagnosed compartment syndrome and performed fasciotomy were considered cases with compartment syndrome. We excluded all prophylactic fasciotomies. Univariate analyses were conducted to identify risk factors associated with development of compartment syndrome. Twenty-six (2.8%) of the 938 fractures were associated with compartment syndrome. Only fibular (11.6%) and tibial (11.4%) fractures had incidence significantly higher than baseline for all ballistic fractures (p Ballistic fractures of the fibula and tibia are at increased risk for development of compartment syndrome over other ballistic fractures. We recommend increased vigilance when treating these injuries, particularly if the fracture is in the proximal aspect of the bone or is associated with vascular injury.

  14. Smoking, environmental tobacco smoke and occupational irritants increase the risk of chronic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisinger-Mölkänen, Hanna; Piirilä, Päivi; Haahtela, Tari; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Pallasaho, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis cause a lot of symptoms in everyday life. To decrease the burden more information of the preventable risk factors is needed. We assessed prevalence and risk factors for chronic nasal symptoms, exploring the effects of smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, exposure to occupational irritants, and their combinations. In 2016, a postal survey was conducted among a random population sample of 8000 adults in Helsinki, Finland with a 50.5% response rate. Smoking was associated with a significant increase in occurrence of chronic rhinitis (longstanding nasal congestion or runny nose), but not with self-reported or physician diagnosed allergic rhinitis. The highest prevalence estimates of nasal symptoms, 55.1% for chronic rhinitis, 49.1% for nasal congestion, and 40.7% for runny nose, were found among smokers with occupational exposure to gases, fumes or dusts.Besides active smoking, also exposure to environmental tobacco smoke combined with occupational exposure increased the risk of nasal symptoms. Smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and occupational irritants are significant risk factors for nasal symptoms with an additive pattern. The findings suggest that these factors should be systematically inquired in patients with nasal symptoms for appropriate preventive measures. (192 words).

  15. Prematurity and low weight at birth as new conditions predisposing to an increased cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuro, Giuseppe; Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Flore, Giovanna; Fanos, Vassilios; Dentamaro, Ilaria; Scicchitano, Pietro; Laforgia, Nicola; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

    2013-04-01

    Although the survival rate for preterm subjects has improved considerably, due to the progress in the field of perinatal medicine, preterm birth is frequently the cause underlying a series of notorious complications: morphological, neurological, ophthalmological, and renal alterations. In addition, it has recently been demonstrated how low gestational age and reduced foetal growth contribute towards an increased cardiovascular risk in preterm neonates. In fact, cardiovascular mortality is higher among former preterm adults than those born at term. This condition is referred to as cardiovascular perinatal programming. In the light of the above, an early, constant, and prolonged cardiological followup programme should be implemented in former preterm individuals. The aim of this paper was to perform a comprehensive literature review about two new emerging conditions predisposing to an increased cardiovascular risk: prematurity and low weight at birth.

  16. Serotonergic modulation of face-emotion recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Del-Ben

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions of basic emotions have been widely used to investigate the neural substrates of emotion processing, but little is known about the exact meaning of subjective changes provoked by perceiving facial expressions. Our assumption was that fearful faces would be related to the processing of potential threats, whereas angry faces would be related to the processing of proximal threats. Experimental studies have suggested that serotonin modulates the brain processes underlying defensive responses to environmental threats, facilitating risk assessment behavior elicited by potential threats and inhibiting fight or flight responses to proximal threats. In order to test these predictions about the relationship between fearful and angry faces and defensive behaviors, we carried out a review of the literature about the effects of pharmacological probes that affect 5-HT-mediated neurotransmission on the perception of emotional faces. The hypothesis that angry faces would be processed as a proximal threat and that, as a consequence, their recognition would be impaired by an increase in 5-HT function was not supported by the results reviewed. In contrast, most of the studies that evaluated the behavioral effects of serotonin challenges showed that increased 5-HT neurotransmission facilitates the recognition of fearful faces, whereas its decrease impairs the same performance. These results agree with the hypothesis that fearful faces are processed as potential threats and that 5-HT enhances this brain processing.

  17. Increased risk of venous thromboembolism within the first year after Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, N; Westh, H; Schønheyder, H C

    2014-01-01

    -acquired infection, a history of injection drug use and in younger age groups. The overall hazard ratio of VTE for cases compared to controls declined from 15.6 (95% CI 10.3-23.5) in the first 30 days after SAB to 4.5 (95% CI 3.2-6.2) from 181 to 365 days after infection. The increased risk of VTE amongst SAB...

  18. Cesarean section may increase the risk of both overweight and obesity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutayisire, Erigene; Wu, Xiaoyan; Huang, Kun; Tao, Shuman; Chen, Yunxiao; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-11-03

    The increase rates of cesarean section (CS) occurred at the same period as the dramatic increase of childhood overweight/obesity. In China, cesarean section rates have exponentially increased in the last 20 years and they now exceed World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation. Such high rates demand an understanding to the long-term consequences on child health. We aim to examine the association between CS and risk of overweight and obesity among preschool children. We recruited 9103 children from 35 kindergartens in 4 cities located in East China. Children anthropometric measurements were taken in person by trained personnel. The mode of delivery was classified as vaginal or CS, in sub-analyses we divided cesarean delivery into elective or non-elective. The mode of delivery and other parental information were self-reported by parents. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations. In our cross-sectional study of 8900 preschool children aged 3-6 years, 67.3 % were born via CS, of whom 15.7 % were obese. Cesarean delivery was significantly associated with the risk of overweight [OR 1.24; (95 % CI 1.07-1.44); p = 0.003], and the risk of obesity [OR 1.29; (95 % CI 1.13-1.49); p children. After adjusted for child characteristics, parental factors and family income, the odd of overweight was 1.35 and of obesity was 1.25 in children delivered by elective CS. The associations between CS and overweight/obesity in preschool children are influenced by potential confounders. Both children delivered by elective or non-elective CS are at increased risk of overweight/obesity. Potential consequences of CS on the health of the children should be discussed among both health care professionals and childbearing women.

  19. Periodontal disease and bacterial vaginosis increase the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome.

    OpenAIRE

    Oittinen, Juha; Kurki, Tapio; Kekki, Minnamaija; Kuusisto, Minna; Pussinen, Pirkko; Vilkuna-Rautiainen, Tiina; Nieminen, Anja; Asikainen, Sirkka; Paavonen, Jorma

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether periodontal disease or bacterial vaginosis (BV) diagnosed before pregnancy increase the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome. METHODS: We enrolled a total of 252 women who had discontinued contraception in order to become pregnant. The first 130 pregnant women were included in the analyses. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed a strong association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome (OR 5.5, 95% confidence interval 1.4-21.2; p = 0.014), an...

  20. Periodontal Disease and Bacterial Vaginosis Increase the Risk for Adverse Pregnancy Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Oittinen, Juha; Kurki, Tapio; Kekki, Minnamaija; Kuusisto, Minna; Pussinen, Pirkko; Vilkuna-Rautiainen, Tiina; Nieminen, Anja; Asikainen, Sirkka; Paavonen, Jorma

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. To determine whether periodontal disease or bacterial vaginosis (BV) diagnosed before pregnancy increase the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome.Methods. We enrolled a total of 252 women who had discontinued contraception in order to become pregnant. The first 130 pregnant women were included in the analyses.Results. Multivariate analysis showed a strong association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome (OR 5.5, 95% confidence interval 1.4–21.2; p = 0.014), and ...