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Sample records for face increased risks

  1. Meta-analysis shows that infants who have suffered neonatal sepsis face an increased risk of mortality and severe complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhuizen, Sabine E; de Haan, Timo R; Teune, Margreet J; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; van der Heyden, Jantien L; van der Ham, David P; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2014-12-01

    Infants suffering from neonatal sepsis face an increased risk of early death and long-term neurodevelopmental delay. This paper analyses and summarises the existing data on short-term and long-term outcomes of neonatal sepsis, based on 12 studies published between January 2000 and 1 April 2012 and covering 3669 neonates with sepsis. Infants who have suffered neonatal sepsis face an increased risk of mortality and severe complications such as brain damage and, or, neurodevelopmental delay. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Entrepreneurs Facing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zichella, Giulio; Reichstein, Toke

    to choose risk vis-à-vis certainty. Drawing on prospect theory, we formulate hypotheses about the greater likelihood that entrepreneurs (compared to others) will choose risk immediately after a positive gain, but will shy away from risk compared to others as the degree of risk increases. The hypotheses...

  3. Entrepreneurs Facing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zichella, Giulio; Reichstein, Toke

    are tested using data collected in laboratory-based real money games experiments. We find support for our hypotheses, indicating that entrepreneurs’ bias towards risk is circumstantial. These results have fundamental implications for our understanding of factors guiding entrepreneurial choices under risk......Theory conjectures that entrepreneurs are more likely than others to make risky choices. However, the empirical evidence is mixed. This paper offers new insights into entrepreneurs’ tendencies to make risky choices, by investigating the circumstances in which entrepreneurs are more/less likely...... to choose risk vis-à-vis certainty. Drawing on prospect theory, we formulate hypotheses about the greater likelihood that entrepreneurs (compared to others) will choose risk immediately after a positive gain, but will shy away from risk compared to others as the degree of risk increases. The hypotheses...

  4. Face recognition increases during saccade preparation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lin

    Full Text Available Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition.

  5. Face recognition increases during saccade preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Rizak, Joshua D; Ma, Yuan-ye; Yang, Shang-chuan; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xin-tian

    2014-01-01

    Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition.

  6. Increasing face validity of a vascular interventional training system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, John; Zheng, Huiru; Hughes, Simon; Kelly, Barry; Wilson, Carol; Gallagher, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Many aspects of medical training take place on real patients in a live environment thus incurring risk. Apart from the obvious risks to patients there is the issue of X-ray exposure to both staff and trainees. Image quality used during interventional procedures is low to ensure minimum X-ray radiation dose. A virtual interventional system may be used to simulate the interventional cardiology training environment therefore reducing overall risk. The purpose of this project was to determine the appropriate image quality settings on a virtual training system to accurately simulate interventional cardiology and increase the face validity of the overall system. Real image data was obtained from patients undergoing diagnostic interventional cardiology examinations in the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast. The images were obtained during catheter placement and contrast enhancement around the region of the heart. The diagnostic views were left anterior oblique, right anterior oblique, left lateral, caudal and the spider view. These five views were simulated on a virtual interventional training system (VIST, Mentice Medical Simulation AB, Sweden) by adjusting x-ray tube and table position at 20 different image quality settings. Signal to noise ratio and image contrast were measured for each of these views using soft tissue and vertebra. The results from the real image data and the VIST image data were compared. Calibration curves were compiled to determine the appropriate VIST image quality setting for each procedure. Average SNR ranged from 2.94 to 74.0 and IC ranged from 0.009 to 0.61 on the real image data. This indicates the very wide range of image quality encountered in interventional cardiology. Calibration curves for each view with the corresponding range of real patient image quality were produced. These calibration curves enabled the appropriate VIST image quality setting to be determined and therefore simulate the real examination image quality as closely as

  7. Compulsive exercise: links, risks and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenstein MB

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mia Beck Lichtenstein,1 Cecilie Juul Hinze,2 Bolette Emborg,3 Freja Thomsen,2 Simone Daugaard Hemmingsen4 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, 2Research Unit for Telepsychiatry and E-mental Health, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, 3Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 4Research Unit, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Abstract: Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder in either International Classification of Diseases or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The aim of this literature review was to critically examine the research on links (comorbidity, risks (negative consequences, and challenges faced (problems in a treatment context. This review found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy. This review summarizes and discusses findings on links/comorbidity, risks/negative consequences, and treatment challenges. We suggest that future studies should pay attention to both prevention and counseling in sports settings, where compulsive exercise

  8. Managers facing the climatic risks; Les elus face aux risques climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This colloquium aimed to analyze the relations between the climatic changes and extreme meteorological events and on the associated risks. It provides information and knowledge on the state of the art concerning the today scientific knowledge, the prevention measures and the adaptation facing the risks and the difficult estimation of the climatic damages costs. (A.L.B.)

  9. Ego depletion increases risk-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Asal, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how the availability of self-control resources affects risk-taking inclinations and behaviors. We proposed that risk-taking often occurs from suboptimal decision processes and heuristic information processing (e.g., when a smoker suppresses or neglects information about the health risks of smoking). Research revealed that depleted self-regulation resources are associated with reduced intellectual performance and reduced abilities to regulate spontaneous and automatic responses (e.g., control aggressive responses in the face of frustration). The present studies transferred these ideas to the area of risk-taking. We propose that risk-taking is increased when individuals find themselves in a state of reduced cognitive self-control resources (ego-depletion). Four studies supported these ideas. In Study 1, ego-depleted participants reported higher levels of sensation seeking than non-depleted participants. In Study 2, ego-depleted participants showed higher levels of risk-tolerance in critical road traffic situations than non-depleted participants. In Study 3, we ruled out two alternative explanations for these results: neither cognitive load nor feelings of anger mediated the effect of ego-depletion on risk-taking. Finally, Study 4 clarified the underlying psychological process: ego-depleted participants feel more cognitively exhausted than non-depleted participants and thus are more willing to take risks. Discussion focuses on the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  10. Experiencing discrimination increases risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Koslov, Katrina; Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2013-02-01

    Prior research has revealed racial disparities in health outcomes and health-compromising behaviors, such as smoking and drug abuse. It has been suggested that discrimination contributes to such disparities, but the mechanisms through which this might occur are not well understood. In the research reported here, we examined whether the experience of discrimination affects acute physiological stress responses and increases risk-taking behavior. Black and White participants each received rejecting feedback from partners who were either of their own race (in-group rejection) or of a different race (out-group rejection, which could be interpreted as discrimination). Physiological (cardiovascular and neuroendocrine) changes, cognition (memory and attentional bias), affect, and risk-taking behavior were assessed. Significant participant race × partner race interactions were observed. Cross-race rejection, compared with same-race rejection, was associated with lower levels of cortisol, increased cardiac output, decreased vascular resistance, greater anger, increased attentional bias, and more risk-taking behavior. These data suggest that perceived discrimination is associated with distinct profiles of physiological reactivity, affect, cognitive processing, and risk taking, implicating direct and indirect pathways to health disparities.

  11. Interrelationships of risks faced by third party logistics service providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Chaudhuri, Atanu

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the interrelationships between risks faced by third party logistics service providers (3PLs) in relation to one of its customers using DEMATEL. Novel analysis of both within and between risk categories and generation of threshold value to prioritize risks generate useful...... insights. Results show that arms-length relationship between the customer and the 3PLs has strong influence on other risks and there is a need for collaborative relationships between 3PLs and its customers. Moreover, analysis indicates that the 3PLs need to improve internal processes related to quality...... management, flexibility of its operations and also geographical coverage of their services....

  12. Expertise Increases the Functional Overlap between Face and Object Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeeff, Thomas J.; McGugin, Rankin W.; Tong, Frank; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that expertise with objects can interfere with face processing. Although competition occurs between faces and objects of expertise, it remains unclear whether this reflects an expertise-specific bottleneck or the fact that objects of expertise grab attention and thereby consume more central resources. We investigated the…

  13. Increasing Students' Perceived Sociopolitical Empowerment through Online and Face-to-Face Community Psychology Seminars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescato, Donata; Solimeno, Andrea; Mebane, Minou Ella; Tomai, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Community psychology theorists underline the importance of promoting sociopolitical empowerment, but few studies have been conducted on the evaluation of the efficacy of empowering programs among university students. The authors report two studies: the first, with 216 psychology majors, compared the efficacy of face-to-face and online community…

  14. Increasing Anonymity in Peer Assessment by Using Classroom Response Technology within Face-to-Face Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…

  15. Global shape information increases but color information decreases the composite face effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retter, Talia L; Rossion, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The separation of visual shape and surface information may be useful for understanding holistic face perception--that is, the perception of a face as a single unit (Jiang, Blanz, & Rossion, 2011, Visual Cognition, 19, 1003-1034). A widely used measure of holistic face perception is the composite face effect (CFE), in which identical top face halves appear different when aligned with bottom face halves from different identities. In the present study the influences of global face shape (ie contour of the face) and color information on the CFE are investigated, with the hypothesis that global face shape supports but color impairs holistic face perception as measured in this paradigm. In experiment 1 the CFE is significantly increased when face stimuli possess natural global shape information than when cropped to a generic (ie oval) global shape; this effect is not found when the stimuli are presented inverted. In experiment 2 the CFE is significantly decreased when face stimuli are presented with color information than when presented in grayscale. These findings indicate that grayscale stimuli maintaining natural global face shape information provide the most adept measure of holistic face perception in the behavioral composite face paradigm. More generally, they show that reducing different types of information diagnostic for individual face perception can have opposite effects on the CFE, illustrating the functional dissociation between shape and surface information in face perception.

  16. Facing Price Risks in Internet-of-Services Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matros, Raimund; Streitberger, Werner; Koenig, Stefan; Eymann, Torsten

    Internet-of-Services markets allow companies to procure computational resources and application services externally and thus to save both internal capital expenditures and operational costs. Despite the advantages of this new paradigm only few work has been done in the field of risk management concerning Internet-of-Services markets. We simulate such a market using a Grid simulator. The results show that market participants are exposed to price risk. Based on our results we identify and assess technical failures which could lead to loss on service consumer's side. We also show that technical failures influence service prices which lead to volatile prices. Both, service provider and service consumer are exposed to this uncertainty and need a way to face it. Therefore we apply a financial option model to overcome price risk.

  17. Having Rheumatoid Arthritis May Increase Heart Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162038.html Having Rheumatoid Arthritis May Increase Heart Risk Treating inflammation linked to ... TUESDAY, Nov. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with rheumatoid arthritis may have an increased risk for a heart ...

  18. Estuaries May Face Increased Parasitism as Sea Levels Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-12-01

    Invertebrates in estuaries could be at a greater risk of parasitism as climate change causes sea levels to rise. A new paper published 8 December in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (doi:10.1073/pnas.1416747111) describes how rapid sea level rise in the Holocene affected the population of parasitic flatworms called trematodes.

  19. Risk for Bipolar Disorder is Associated with Face-Processing Deficits across Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Melissa A.; Skup, Martha; Rich, Brendan A.; Blair, Karina S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, James R.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the risks for face-emotion labeling deficits and bipolar disorder (BD) among youths is examined. Findings show that youths at risk for BD did not show specific face-emotion recognition deficits. The need to provide more intense emotional information for face-emotion labeling of patients and at-risk youths is also discussed.

  20. Risk for Bipolar Disorder is Associated with Face-Processing Deficits across Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Melissa A.; Skup, Martha; Rich, Brendan A.; Blair, Karina S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, James R.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the risks for face-emotion labeling deficits and bipolar disorder (BD) among youths is examined. Findings show that youths at risk for BD did not show specific face-emotion recognition deficits. The need to provide more intense emotional information for face-emotion labeling of patients and at-risk youths is also discussed.

  1. Vulnerability of Quercus ilex facing increasing drought: which functional adjustments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, Jean-Marc; Rambal, Serge; Misson, Laurent; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Rocheteau, Alain; Rodriguez, Raquel

    2010-05-01

    In the Mediterranean basin, precipitation is expected to decline as a consequence of climate change, and so will induce summer drought duration and intensity increase. The responses of a Quercus ilex coppice to such a decline in water availability were studied for several years within a throughfall exclusion experiment. This study focuses on the ecophysiological and morphological responses that modify transpiration and productivity. The main mechanisms regulating transpiration under decreasing water availability were assessed: stomatal control, twig and stem hydraulic conductance and leaf area adjustment. The decline of transpiration due to the reduced water availability was mainly driven by a reduced leaf area. In the meantime, other hydraulic traits were not significantly modified by the increased drought severity. The phenotypic plasticity of Quercus ilex leaves yielded some modifications of leaf traits, but with slight concurrent consequences on leaf photosynthesis. The decreased water availability reduced carbon assimilation and, in turn, the primary growth and the starch storage of trees. Finally, none of the several adjustments to the long-term experimentally increased drought was observed to reduce the individual vulnerability to water stress.

  2. Ensuring IT service continuity in the face of increasing threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vishwanath

    2014-01-01

    How is IT service continuity related to business continuity management? Is it just a glorified disaster recovery procedure? Will IT service continuity help increase the assurance of IT services from the business owner to the customer? This paper is an attempt at answering these and many such questions. It is presented as a case study of IT service continuity management implementation at Emirates Group IT, Dubai. It takes the reader through the need for the process as felt by the business, through the learning acquired during implementation, to the practices deployed for managing the process on an ongoing basis. It provides a detailed view of the kind of pitfalls that could be encountered during implementation of the IT service continuity management process in a large-scale enterprise.

  3. Collective strategy for facing occupational risks of a nursing team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loro, Marli Maria; Zeitoune, Regina Célia Gollner

    2017-03-09

    To socialize an educational action through the process of group discussion and reflection, with the aim to increase the care of nursing workers in facing occupational risks. A qualitative descriptive study using the Convergent Care Research modality with nursing staff working in an emergency department of a hospital in the northwest region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data collection was carried out through educational workshops and information was processed using content analysis, resulting in two thematic categories: A look at the knowledge and practices about occupational risks in nursing; and adherence to protective measures by the nursing team against occupational risks. Twenty-four (24) workers participated in the study. When challenged to critically look at their actions, the subjects found that they relate the use of safety devices to situations in which they are aware of the patient's serological status. Subjects' interaction, involvement and co-responsibility in the health education process were determinant for their reflection on risky practices. They also had the potential to modify unsafe behaviors. Socializar uma ação educativa, por meio de um processo de discussão e reflexão em grupo, com vistas a ampliar o cuidado dos trabalhadores de enfermagem frente aos riscos ocupacionais. Estudo qualitativo, descritivo na modalidade Pesquisa Convergente Assistencial, com trabalhadores da equipe de enfermagem que atuavam no pronto atendimento de um hospital da região noroeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de oficinas educativas, e o tratamento das informações, por análise de conteúdo, resultando em duas categorias temáticas: Um olhar direcionado a saberes e práticas sobre riscos ocupacionais na enfermagem e Adesão às medidas de proteção pela equipe de enfermagem frente aos riscos ocupacionais. Integraram o estudo 24 trabalhadores. Ao serem desafiados a olhar criticamente sobre seu fazer, os

  4. Low Vitamin D: What Increases the Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Service Resources Additional Resources About FAQ Contact Low Vitamin D: What Increases The Risk? Our bodies ... use sunscreen daily are more likely to be low in vitamin D. ( 1 ) But don’t ditch ...

  5. A comparison of the effectiveness of a game informed online learning activity and face to face teaching in increasing knowledge about managing aggression in health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-12-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching received significantly higher ratings than the online activity. The study suggests that short online game informed learning activities may offer an effective alternative for health professional training where face to face training is not possible. Further research is needed on the longer term impact of both types of training on practice.

  6. Comparison of Face to Face Education with Other Methods to Pregnant Mothers in Increase Exclusive Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Saba

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: There is a direct relationship between the education and exclusive breast-feeding. Most of the educational programs have given after child birth, based on " Rooming in plan”, but because of difficult situation and busy thoughts of mothers, they were not desirable way of education, therefore in this study the role of verbal & nonverbal education was evaluated on the rate of breast-feeding by mothers before delivery.Materials & Methods: This is a randomized controlled-trial study on 108 pregnant women, 20-30 yrs old, paraone, without any systemic disease referring to Health Center of Hamadan. They were divided into two groups of 54 each , group Ι was given verbal education (lecture, movie, slide, question & answer and group ΙΙ nonverbal education (pamphlet of verbal abstracts. The two groups were followed up to 6 months after delivery in respect of restricted breast-feeding.Results: The rate of restricted breast-feeding was 82.7% for mothers on verbal education and 56.5% for nonverbal ones. This difference of percentile rise in two group was statistically meaningful, which showed verbal education was more efficient on outcome of restricted breast-feeding.Conclusion: We concluded that face to face education is more efficient compared to non-verbal education in increase exclusive breast feeding.

  7. Development and validation of risk profiles of West African rural communities facing multiple natural hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare-Kyei, Daniel; Renaud, Fabrice G; Kloos, Julia; Walz, Yvonne; Rhyner, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    West Africa has been described as a hotspot of climate change. The reliance on rain-fed agriculture by over 65% of the population means that vulnerability to climatic hazards such as droughts, rainstorms and floods will continue. Yet, the vulnerability and risk levels faced by different rural social-ecological systems (SES) affected by multiple hazards are poorly understood. To fill this gap, this study quantifies risk and vulnerability of rural communities to drought and floods. Risk is assessed using an indicator-based approach. A stepwise methodology is followed that combines participatory approaches with statistical, remote sensing and Geographic Information System techniques to develop community level vulnerability indices in three watersheds (Dano, Burkina Faso; Dassari, Benin; Vea, Ghana). The results show varying levels of risk profiles across the three watersheds. Statistically significant high levels of mean risk in the Dano area of Burkina Faso are found whilst communities in the Dassari area of Benin show low mean risk. The high risk in the Dano area results from, among other factors, underlying high exposure to droughts and rainstorms, longer dry season duration, low caloric intake per capita, and poor local institutions. The study introduces the concept of community impact score (CIS) to validate the indicator-based risk and vulnerability modelling. The CIS measures the cumulative impact of the occurrence of multiple hazards over five years. 65.3% of the variance in observed impact of hazards/CIS was explained by the risk models and communities with high simulated disaster risk generally follow areas with high observed disaster impacts. Results from this study will help disaster managers to better understand disaster risk and develop appropriate, inclusive and well integrated mitigation and adaptation plans at the local level. It fulfills the increasing need to balance global/regional assessments with community level assessments where major decisions

  8. Patients with schizophrenia show increased aversion to angry faces in an associative learning task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Chouhan, Viraj; Collier, Tracy; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2012-01-01

    Background We were interested in examining the relationship between socially-relevant stimuli and decision processes in patients with schizophrenia. Methods We tested patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls on a stochastically-rewarded associative learning task. Participants had to determine through trial and error which of two faces was associated with a higher chance of reward. One face was angry, the other happy. Results Both patients and healthy controls were able to do the task at above-chance accuracy, and there was no significant difference in overall accuracy between groups. Both groups also reliably preferred the happy face, such that they selected it more often than the angry face on the basis of the same amount of positive vs. negative feedback. Interestingly, however, patients were significantly more averse to the angry face, such that they chose it less often than control participants when the reward feedback strongly supported the angry face as the best choice. Conclusions Patients show an increased aversion to angry faces, in a task in which they must learn to associate rewards with expressions. PMID:20961475

  9. Increased occlusal vertical dimension induces cortical plasticity in the rat face primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, C; Fujita, K; Kokai, S; Ishida, T; Shibata, M; Naito, S; Yabushita, T; Ono, T

    2012-03-17

    Previous studies have demonstrated that functional plasticity in the primary motor cortex (M1) is related to motor-skill learning and changes in the environment. Increased occlusal vertical dimension (iOVD) may modulate mastication, such as in the masticatory cycle, and the firing properties of jaw-muscle spindles. However, little is known about the changes in motor representation within the face primary motor cortex (face-M1) after iOVD. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of iOVD on the face-M1 using intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). In an iOVD group, the maxillary molars were built-up by 2mm with acrylic. The electromyographic (EMG) activities from the left (LAD) and right (RAD) anterior digastric (AD), masseter and genioglossus (GG) muscles elicited by ICMS within the right face-M1 were recorded 1, 2 and 8 weeks after iOVD. IOVD was associated with a significant increase in the number of sites within the face-M1 from which ICMS evoked LAD and/or GG EMG activities, as well as a lateral shift in the center of gravity of the RAD and LAD muscles at 1 and 2 weeks, but not at 8 weeks. These findings suggest that a time-dependent neuroplastic change within the rat face-M1 occurs in association with iOVD. This may be related to the animal's ability to adapt to a change in the oral environment.

  10. Thinking in Black and White: Conscious thought increases racially biased judgments through biased face memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Stoeckart, P.F.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    It is a common research finding that conscious thought helps people to avoid racial discrimination. These three experiments, however, illustrate that conscious thought may increase biased face memory, which leads to increased judgment bias (i.e., preferring White to Black individuals). In Experiment

  11. Increased risk for depression after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis P; Johansen, Christoffer; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the risk for first depression, assessed as incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants, among women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Danish national registries were used to identify 1,997,669 women with no diagnosis of cancer...... associated with use of antidepressants. CONCLUSION: Women with breast cancer are at long-term increased risk for first depression, including both severe episodes leading to hospital contact and use of antidepressants. Clinicians should be aware that the risk is highest in women with comorbid conditions, node...... or a major psychiatric disorder. This cohort was followed from 1998 to 2011 for a diagnosis of breast cancer and for the two outcomes, hospital contact for depression and redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants. Rate ratios for incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants...

  12. Increased risk of cancer among azoospermic men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L.; Betts, Paul; Herder, Danielle; Lamb, Dolores J.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if men with azoospermia are at an elevated risk of developing cancer in the years following an infertility evaluation. Design Cohort Study Setting United States andrology clinic Patients 2,238 men with complete records were evaluated for infertility at a single andrology clinic in Texas from 1989 to 2009. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Cancer incidence was determined by linkage to the Texas Cancer Registry. Results In all, 451 men had azoospermia and 1,787 were not azoospermic with a mean age at infertility evaluation of 35.7 years. Compared to the general population, infertile men had a higher risk of cancer with 29 cases observed compared with 16.7 expected (SIR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.5). When stratifying by azoospermia status, azoospermic men had an elevated risk of cancer (SIR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4–5.4). Infertile men without azoospermia had a trend towards a higher rate of cancer (SIR 1.4, 95% CI 0.9–2.2). The Cox regression model revealed that azoospermic men had 2.2-fold higher cancer risk compared to not azoospermic men (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0–4.8). Conclusions Men with azoospermia have an increased risk of subsequently developing cancer, suggesting a possible common etiology between azoospermia and cancer development. Additional follow-up of azoospermic men after reproductive efforts end may be warranted. PMID:23790640

  13. Immorally obtained principal increases investors’ risk preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaxin; He, Guibing

    2017-01-01

    Capital derived from immoral sources is increasingly circulated in today’s financial markets. The moral associations of capital are important, although their impact on investment remains unknown. This research aims to explore the influence of principal source morality on investors’ risk preferences. Three studies were conducted in this regard. Study 1 finds that investors are more risk-seeking when their principal is earned immorally (through lying), whereas their risk preferences do not change when they invest money earned from neutral sources after engaging in immoral behavior. Study 2 reveals that guilt fully mediates the relationship between principal source morality and investors’ risk preferences. Studies 3a and 3b introduce a new immoral principal source and a new manipulation method to improve external validity. Guilt is shown to the decrease the subjective value of morally flawed principal, leading to higher risk preference. The findings show the influence of morality-related features of principal on people’s investment behavior and further support mental account theory. The results also predict the potential threats of “grey principal” to market stability. PMID:28369117

  14. Oxytocin increases bias, but not accuracy, in face recognition line-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Sarah; Bennetts, Rachel; Parris, Benjamin A; Bindemann, Markus; Udale, Robert; Bussunt, Amanda

    2015-07-01

    Previous work indicates that intranasal inhalation of oxytocin improves face recognition skills, raising the possibility that it may be used in security settings. However, it is unclear whether oxytocin directly acts upon the core face-processing system itself or indirectly improves face recognition via affective or social salience mechanisms. In a double-blind procedure, 60 participants received either an oxytocin or placebo nasal spray before completing the One-in-Ten task-a standardized test of unfamiliar face recognition containing target-present and target-absent line-ups. Participants in the oxytocin condition outperformed those in the placebo condition on target-present trials, yet were more likely to make false-positive errors on target-absent trials. Signal detection analyses indicated that oxytocin induced a more liberal response bias, rather than increasing accuracy per se. These findings support a social salience account of the effects of oxytocin on face recognition and indicate that oxytocin may impede face recognition in certain scenarios.

  15. Entrepreneurial Cognition when Faced with Risk and Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zichella, Giulio

    The purpose of the paper is to review and suggest a categorization of methodologies used to trigger entrepreneurial behavior in a variety of settings involving risk and uncertainty. Even though the link between entrepreneurship and risk is undeniably tight, literature often suffers from low...

  16. Has risk associated with smoking increased?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Osler, M; Andersen, P K

    1997-01-01

    . RESULTS: Male smokers' exposure did not change during the study period whereas female smokers' exposure to tobacco increased in terms of age at smoking onset, quantity smoked and depth of inhalation. During follow-up 5744 males and 2900 females died. In males, death rate ratios (comparing continuous...... smokers with never-smokers) did not change in the study period. In females, ratios increased from 1964-1978 to 1979-1994 by a factor of 1.3 (95% confidence interval 1.0-1.8). CONCLUSIONS: In agreement with the observed changes in smoking habits, excess mortality in male smokers did not increase whereas......BACKGROUND: Two recent much cited publications have raised the concern that risk associated with cigarette smoking has so far been underestimated. In this study we wish to determine whether excess all-cause mortality associated with smoking has increased during the last 20-30 years in a study...

  17. Increasing tsunami risk awareness via mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelawat, N.; Suppasri, A.; Latcharote, P.; Imamura, F.; Abe, Y.; Sugiyasu, K.

    2017-02-01

    In the information and communication technology era, smartphones have become a necessity. With the capacity and availability of smart technologies, a number of benefits are possible. As a result, designing a mobile application to increase tsunami awareness has been proposed, and a prototype has been designed and developed. The application uses data from the 2011 Great East Japan Tsunami. Based on the current location determined by a GPS function matched with the nearest point extracted from the detailed mesh data of that earlier disaster, the application generates the inundation depth at the user’s location. Thus, not only local people but also tourists visiting the affected areas can understand the risks involved. Application testing has been conducted in an evacuation experiment involving both Japanese and foreign students. The proposed application can be used as a supplementary information tool in tsunami evacuation drills. It also supports the idea of smart tourism: when people realize their risks, they possess risk awareness and hence can reduce their risks. This application can also be considered a contribution to disaster knowledge and technology, as well as to the lessons learned from the practical outcome.

  18. Alcoholic Cirrhosis Increases Risk for Autoimmune Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Lisbet; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Deleuran, Bent;

    2015-01-01

    IRR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.26-1.92), celiac disease (aIRR, 5.12; 95% CI, 2.58-10.16), pernicious anemia (aIRR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.50-3.68), and psoriasis (aIRR, 4.06; 95% CI, 3.32-4.97). There was no increase in the incidence rate for rheumatoid arthritis (aIRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.69-1.15); the incidence rate......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcoholic cirrhosis is associated with hyperactivation and dysregulation of the immune system. In addition to its ability to increase risk for infections, it also may increase the risk for autoimmune diseases. We studied the incidence of autoimmune diseases among patients...... (controls) of the same sex and age. The incidence rates of various autoimmune diseases were compared between patients with cirrhosis and controls and adjusted for the number of hospitalizations in the previous year (a marker for the frequency of clinical examination). RESULTS: Of the 24,679 patients...

  19. Homocysteine increases the risk associated with hyperlipidaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Caroline

    2009-04-01

    The European Concerted Action Project \\'Homocysteine and Vascular Disease\\' showed that an elevated homocysteine is associated with a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and particularly when combined with other factors such as smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential interactions between homocysteine and individual lipid subfractions. In addition, it was hypothesized that HDL cholesterol may protect against hyperhomocysteinaemia because HDL cholesterol is associated with the enzyme paroxonase, which reduces oxidization of homocysteine to the harmful metabolite, homocysteine thiolactonase.

  20. Increased risk of lymphoma in sicca syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassan, S.S.; Thomas, T.L.; Moutsopoulos, H.M.; Hoover, R.; Kimberly, R.P.; Budman, D.R.; Costa, J.; Decker, J.L.; Chused, T.M.

    1978-12-01

    The risk of cancer was ascertained in 136 women with sicca syndrome followed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Seven patients developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma from 6 months to 13 years after their first admission to NIH. This was 43.8 times (P less than 0.01) the incidence expected from the rates of cancer prevailing among women of the same age range in the general population during this time. In addition, three cases of Waldenstroem's macroglobulinemia occurred in this study group. Eight patients developed cancers other than lymphoma, similar to the number expected based on the rates prevailing in the general population. Patients with a history of parotid enlargement, splenomegaly, and lymphadenopathy had an increased risk of lymphoma. These clinical conditions did not appear to be early manifestations of undiagnosed lymphoma but rather seemed to identify a subgroup of patients with sicca syndrome with marked lymphoid reactivity, who had a particularly high risk of subsequently developing lymphoma.

  1. Risk regulation in environment, health and safety : Decision in the face of uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettlinger, L.A. [The Oxford Group, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Regulations that use or refer to the concept of 'risk' are becoming more popular with both the U.S. Congress and Government agencies -- and are often being challenged in the courts. Proponents of stronger regulation suggest that there are significant threats to life and health that receive little or no attention from both elected officials and regulators, whereas advocates of less intensive government intervention point to regulations that impose high costs with little or no benefit. Usually, both the costs and the benefits are highly uncertain. This paper assumes for the purpose of argument that both proponents and opponents can find many cases where their respective arguments have merit. We also assume that both criticisms of the status quo have a large constituency within the public. If these assumption are valid, then a policy problem is created whereby decision makers are being asked, in the face of significant uncertainty, when to regulate, and at what level of specificity to regulate. The purposes of this paper are to offer some fresh ideas about why these problems arise, shed some light on decision making within the Congress, the regulatory agencies and the courts, and offer some practical steps that could be taken to reform the present system of regulation. Our central observation is that disputes arise as to the efficacy of risk regulations (in the face of uncertainty) because of the difficulties citizens face in determining whether either those who cause risks or those who are responsible for mitigating them are acting in the citizen's best interest. These regulations contain issues which typically deal with subjects containing substantial, unresolvable technical and scientific uncertainties. Because of this inherent uncertainty, the relationships between citizens and regulators, with elected officials in the middle, becomes an especially difficult form of agent relationship. We conclude that the problems associated with this agent

  2. Amygdala Hyperactivation During Face Emotion Processing in Unaffected Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsavsky, Aviva K.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rutenberg, Julia G.; Muhrer, Eli J.; Deveney, Christen M.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Towbin, Kenneth; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD) show deficits in face emotion processing, but the neural correlates of these deficits have not been examined. This preliminary study tests the hypothesis that, relative to healthy comparison (HC) subjects, both BD subjects and youth at risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree BD…

  3. Decreased sleep duration is associated with increased fMRI responses to emotional faces in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Brooke L; Hamann, Stephan; Inman, Cory; Johnson, Katrina C; Brennan, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    In adults and children, sleep loss is associated with affective dysregulation and increased responsivity to negative stimuli. Adult functional neuroimaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated associations between restricted sleep and neural alterations in the amygdala and reward circuitry when viewing emotional picture and face stimuli. Despite this, few studies have examined the associations between short sleep duration and emotional responsivity in typically developing children, and no studies have investigated this relationship using fMRI. The current study examined the relationship between sleep duration and fMRI activation to emotional facial expressions in 15 male children (ages 7-11 years). During fMRI scanning, subjects viewed and made perceptual judgments regarding negative, neutral, and positive emotional faces. Maternal reported child sleep duration was negatively associated with (a) activation in the bilateral amygdala, left insula, and left temporal pole activation when viewing negative (i.e., fearful, disgust) vs. neutral faces, (b) right orbitofrontal and bilateral prefrontal activation when viewing disgust vs. neutral faces, and (c) bilateral orbitofrontal, right anterior cingulate, and left amygdala activation when viewing happy vs. neutral faces. Consistent with our prediction, we also noted that emotion-dependent functional connectivity between the bilateral amygdala and prefrontal cortex, cingulate, fusiform, and occipital cortex was positively associated with sleep duration. Paralleling similar studies in adults, these findings collectively suggest that decreased sleep duration in school-aged children may contribute to enhanced reactivity of brain regions involved in emotion and reward processing, as well as decreased emotion-dependent functional connectivity between the amygdala and brain regions associated with emotion regulation.

  4. Who Is at Increased Risk of Health Problems during Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is at increased risk of health problems during pregnancy? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Some women are at increased risk for health problems during pregnancy. Important risk factors include the following: Overweight and ...

  5. Inflammatory bowel disease and anxiety: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannaga AS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ayman S Bannaga,1 Christian P Selinger2 1Department of Gastroenterology, Doncaster Royal Infirmary, Doncaster, UK; 2Department of Gastroenterology, St James University Hospital, Leeds, UK Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD causes severe physical symptoms and is also associated with psychological comorbidities. Abnormal anxiety levels are found in up to 40% of patients with IBD. Anxiety symptoms are often related to flares of IBD but may persist in times of remission. Detection of anxiety disorder (AD in patients with IBD can be challenging. Patients with anxiety may also exhibit symptoms in keeping with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID. Evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological therapies for anxiety stems from patients without IBD. Studies in patients with IBD have either been small or shown negative results. In light of this, a combined approach involving IBD physicians to improve disease control and psychologists or psychiatrists to treat anxiety is advised. This review examines the evidence of anxiety issues in IBD with a focus on extent of the problem, risk factors for anxiety, and the effectiveness of interventions. Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, anxiety

  6. Built cultural heritage facing climate change risks; Le patrimoine culturel bati face aux risques du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Roger-Alexandre [Paris-Est Creteil Univ., 61 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil (France); Martin, Daniel [Ministere de l' Ecologie, du Developpement durable, des Transports et du Logement, Grande Arche, Tour Pascal A et B, 92055 La Defense Cedex (France)

    2011-08-15

    The built cultural heritage would face important risks in the frame of climate change. They are well identified by the major international organizations, but only in a qualitative manner, and mainly refer on the action of water or on its absence. The most active research is supported by the European Commission. The results obtained by the European project 'Noah's Ark' are the most important at the day. Dose-Response Functions with predictive climate models are used to produce vulnerability maps at a European scale of which one example is presented. The recommendations of the Council of Europe for policy makers and researchers are developed as a conclusion. Three case studies are synthesized in annex of this article: Venice, London and Paris. (authors)

  7. Different neural and cognitive response to emotional faces in healthy monozygotic twins at risk of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Glerup, L; Vestbo, C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Negative cognitive bias and aberrant neural processing of emotional faces are trait-marks of depression. Yet it is unclear whether these changes constitute an endophenotype for depression and are also present in healthy individuals with hereditary risk for depression. METHOD: Thirty......-risk controls. These effects occurred in the absence of differences between groups in mood, subjective state or coping. CONCLUSIONS: Different neural response and functional connectivity within fronto-limbic and occipito-parietal regions during emotional face processing and enhanced fear vigilance may be key...

  8. Increased Litter Build Up and Soil Organic Matter Stabilization in a Poplar Plantation After 6 Years of atmospheric CO2 Enrichment (FACE): Final Results of POP-EuroFace Compared to Other Forest FACE Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoosbeek, M.R.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.

    2009-01-01

    Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments in aggrading temperate forests and plantations have been initiated to test whether temperate forest ecosystems act as sinks for anthropogenic emissions of CO2. These FACE experiments have demonstrated increases in net primary production and carbon (C)

  9. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  10. Suboptimal Decision Making by Children With ADHD in the Face of Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lin; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Eichele, Heike

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Suboptimal decision making in the face of risk (DMR) in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be mediated by deficits in a number of different neuropsychological processes. We investigated DMR in children with ADHD using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT...

  11. Increased N250 amplitudes for other-race faces reflect more effortful processing at the individual level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzmann, Grit

    2016-07-01

    The N250 and N250r (r for repetition, signaling a difference measure of priming) has been proposed to reflect the activation of perceptual memory representations for individual faces. Increased N250r and N250 amplitudes have been associated with higher levels of familiarity and expertise, respectively. In contrast to these observations, the N250 amplitude has been found to be larger for other-race than own-race faces in recognition memory tasks. This study investigated if these findings were due to increased identity-specific processing demands for other-race relative to own-race faces and whether or not similar results would be obtained for the N250 in a repetition priming paradigm. Only Caucasian participants were available for testing and completed two tasks with Caucasian, African-American, and Chinese faces. In a repetition priming task, participants decided whether or not sequentially presented faces were of the same identity (individuation task) or same race (categorization task). Increased N250 amplitudes were found for African-American and Chinese faces relative to Caucasian faces, replicating previous results in recognition memory tasks. Contrary to the expectation that increased N250 amplitudes for other-race face would be confined to the individuation task, both tasks showed similar results. This could be due to the fact that face identity information needed to be maintained across the sequential presentation of prime and target in both tasks. Increased N250 amplitudes for other-race faces are taken to represent increased neural demands on the identity-specific processing of other-race faces, which are typically processed less holistically and less on the level of the individual.

  12. Reorientation of health services: enablers and barriers faced by organisations when increasing health promotion capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, K; Judd, J; Devine, S; Watt, K

    2016-04-20

    Issue addressed: Primary healthcare settings are important providers of health promotion approaches. However, organisational challenges can affect their capacity to deliver these approaches. This review identified the common enablers and barriers health organisations faced and it aimed to explore the experiences health organisations, in particular Aboriginal organisations, had when increasing their health promotion capacity.Methods: A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature was conducted. Articles published between 1990-2014 that focused on a health care-settings approach and discussed factors that facilitated or hindered an organisation's ability to increase health promotion capacity were included.Results: Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative (n = 18) and quantitative (n = 7) study designs were included. Only one article described the experiences of an Aboriginal health organisation. Enablers included: management support, skilled staff, provision of external support to the organisation, committed staffing and financial resources, leadership and the availability of external partners to work with. Barriers included: lack of management support, lack of dedicated health promotion staff, staff lacking skills or confidence, competing priorities and a lack of time and resources allocated to health promotion activities.Conclusions: While the literature highlighted the importance of health promotion work, barriers can limit the delivery of health promotion approaches within primary healthcare organisations. A gap in the literature exists about how Aboriginal health organisations face these challenges.So what?: Primary healthcare organisations wanting to increase their health promotion capacity can pre-empt the common barriers and strengthen identified enablers through the shared learnings outlined in this review.

  13. Bullying increased suicide risk: prospective study of Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Shin; Leventhal, Bennett L; Koh, Yun-Joo; Boyce, W Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the independent impact of bullying on suicide risk. Bullying was assessed by peer nomination in a prospective study of 1,655 7th and 8th grade Korean students, and suicide by youth self-report. Odds Ratios (ORs) of bullying for suicidal risks were computed, controlling for other suicide risk factors. Victim-Perpetrators and female Victims at baseline showed increased risk for persistent suicidality (OR: 2.4-9.8). Male Incident Victims exhibited increased risk for suicidal behaviors and ideations (OR = 4.4, 3.6). Female Persistent Perpetrators exhibited increased risks for suicidal behaviors; male Incident Perpetrators had increased risk for suicidal ideations (OR = 2.7, 2.3). Baseline-only male Victim-Perpetrators showed increased risk for suicidal ideations. (OR = 6.4). Bullying independently increased suicide risks.

  14. A family at risk: congenital prosopagnosia, poor face recognition and visuoperceptual deficits within one family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnen, Andreas; Schmukle, Stefan C; Hüttenbrink, Judith; Kischka, Claudia; Kennerknecht, Ingo; Dobel, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) describes a severe face processing impairment despite intact early vision and in the absence of overt brain damage. CP is assumed to be present from birth and often transmitted within families. Previous studies reported conflicting findings regarding associated deficits in nonface visuoperceptual tasks. However, diagnostic criteria for CP significantly differed between studies, impeding conclusions on the heterogeneity of the impairment. Following current suggestions for clinical diagnoses of CP, we administered standardized tests for face processing, a self-report questionnaire and general visual processing tests to an extended family (N=28), in which many members reported difficulties with face recognition. This allowed us to assess the degree of heterogeneity of the deficit within a large sample of suspected CPs of similar genetic and environmental background. (a) We found evidence for a severe face processing deficit but intact nonface visuoperceptual skills in three family members - a father and his two sons - who fulfilled conservative criteria for a CP diagnosis on standardized tests and a self-report questionnaire, thus corroborating findings of familial transmissions of CP. (b) Face processing performance of the remaining family members was also significantly below the mean of the general population, suggesting that face processing impairments are transmitted as a continuous trait rather than in a dichotomous all-or-nothing fashion. (c) Self-rating scores of face recognition showed acceptable correlations with standardized tests, suggesting this method as a viable screening procedure for CP diagnoses. (d) Finally, some family members revealed severe impairments in general visual processing and nonface visual memory tasks either in conjunction with face perception deficits or as an isolated impairment. This finding may indicate an elevated risk for more general visuoperceptual deficits in families with prosopagnosic members.

  15. Differences in neural and cognitive response to emotional faces in middle-aged dizygotic twins at familial risk of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Svendsen, Anne-Mette Bruun; Harmer, Catherine J

    2017-01-01

    -twin history of depression (high-risk) and 20 were without co-twin history of depression (low-risk). During fMRI, participants viewed fearful and happy faces while performing a gender discrimination task. After the scan, they were given a faces dot-probe task, a facial expression recognition task...... and questionnaires assessing mood, personality traits and coping. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, high-risk twins showed reduced fear vigilance and lower recognition of fear and happiness relative to low-risk twins. During face processing in the scanner, high-risk twins displayed distinct negative functional coupling between...

  16. Predicting high risk of exacerbations in bronchiectasis: the E-FACED score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, MA; Athanazio, RA; Girón, R; Máiz-Carro, L; de la Rosa, D; Olveira, C; de Gracia, J; Vendrell, M; Prados-Sánchez, C; Gramblicka, G; Corso Pereira, M; Lundgren, FL; Fernandes De Figueiredo, M; Arancibia, F; Rached, SZ

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the FACED score has demonstrated a great prognostic capacity in bronchiectasis, it does not include the number or severity of exacerbations as a separate variable, which is important in the natural history of these patients. Objective Construction and external validation of a new index, the E-FACED, to evaluate the predictive capacity of exacerbations and mortality. Methods The new score was constructed on the basis of the complete cohort for the construction of the original FACED score, while the external validation was undertaken with six cohorts from three countries (Brazil, Argentina, and Chile). The main outcome was the number of annual exacerbations/hospitalizations, with all-cause and respiratory-related deaths as the secondary outcomes. A statistical evaluation comprised the relative weight and ideal cut-off point for the number or severity of the exacerbations and was incorporated into the FACED score (E-FACED). The results obtained after the application of FACED and E-FACED were compared in both the cohorts. Results A total of 1,470 patients with bronchiectasis (819 from the construction cohorts and 651 from the external validation cohorts) were followed up for 5 years after diagnosis. The best cut-off point was at least two exacerbations in the previous year (two additional points), meaning that the E-FACED has nine points of growing severity. E-FACED presented an excellent prognostic capacity for exacerbations (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.82 for at least two exacerbations in 1 year and 0.87 for at least one hospitalization in 1 year) that was statistically better than that of the FACED score (0.72 and 0.78, P<0.05, respectively). The predictive capacities for all-cause and respiratory mortality were 0.87 and 0.86, respectively, with both being similar to those of the FACED. Conclusion E-FACED score significantly increases the FACED capacity to predict future yearly exacerbations while maintaining the

  17. Developing drought resilience in irrigated agriculture in the face of increasing water scarcity

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Dolores; Holman, Ian P.; Knox, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    In many countries, drought is the natural hazard that causes the greatest agronomic impacts. After recurrent droughts, farmers typically learn from experience and implement changes in management to reduce their future drought risks and impacts. This paper aims to understand how irrigated agriculture in a humid climate has been affected by past droughts and how different actors have adapted their activities and strategies over time to increase their resilience. After examining recent drought e...

  18. The changing 'face' of endocarditis in Kentucky: an increase in tricuspid cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seratnahaei, Arash; Leung, Steve W; Charnigo, Richard J; Cummings, Matthew S; Sorrell, Vincent L; Smith, Mikel D

    2014-08-01

    Advancements in medical technology and increased life expectancy have been described as contributing to the evolution of endocarditis. We sought to determine whether there has been a change in the incidence, demographics, microbiology, complications, and outcomes of infective endocarditis over a 10-year time span. We screened 28,420 transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiogram reports performed at the Gill Heart Institute for the following indications: fever, masses, emboli (including stroke), sepsis, bacteremia, and endocarditis in 2 time periods: 1999 to 2000 and 2009 to 2010. Data were collected from diagnosed endocarditis cases. Overall, 143 cases of infective endocarditis were analyzed (48 in 1999-2000 and 95 in 2009-2010). The endocarditis incidence per number of admissions remained nearly constant at 0.113% for 1999-2000 and 0.148% for 2009-2010 (P = .153). However, tricuspid valve involvement increased markedly from 6% to 36% (P endocarditis at the University of Kentucky Medical Center has not changed and mortality remains high, but the "face of endocarditis" in Kentucky has evolved with an increased incidence of tricuspid valve involvement, valvular complications, and embolic events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rerouting end-face-TIR capable rays to significantly increase evanescent wave signal power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Ma; Yasser Chiniforooshan; Huacai Chen; Jiahua Chen; Wojtek J. Bock; Andrea Cusano

    2011-01-01

    The critical findings associated with end-face total internal reflection (TIR) phenomemon we proved before are reported. In particular, these findings reveal that the end-face-TIR capable rays experience enormous mode mixing when encountering a roughened end face. As a result, 94% of the overall detectable power is contributed by this effect. With a smooth fiber end face, this figure is mere 52%. We interpret the mechanism behind these unusual phenomena and its significance for the performance enhancement of fiber optic evanescent wave sensor.%@@ The critical findings associated with end-face total internal reflection (TIR) phenomemon we proved before are reported, In particular, these findings reveal that the end-face-TIR capable rays experience enormous mode mixing when encountering a roughened end face.As a result, 94Vo of the overall detectable poweris contributed by this effect.With a smooth fiber end face, this figure is mere 52%.We interpret the mechanism behind these unusual phenomena and its significance for the performance enhancement of fiber optic evanescent wave sensor.

  20. The influence of risk perception on biosafety level-2 laboratory workers' hand-to-face contact behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James D; Eggett, Dennis; Johnson, Michele J; Reading, James C

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen transmission in the laboratory is thought to occur primarily through inhalation of infectious aerosols or by direct contact with mucous membranes on the face. While significant research has focused on controlling inhalation exposures, little has been written about hand contamination and subsequent hand-to-face contact (HFC) transmission. HFC may present a significant risk to workers in biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) laboratories where there is typically no barrier between the workers' hands and face. The purpose of this study was to measure the frequency and location of HFC among BSL-2 workers, and to identify psychosocial factors that influence the behavior. Research workers (N = 93) from 21 BSL-2 laboratories consented to participate in the study. Two study personnel measured workers' HFC behaviors by direct observation during activities related to cell culture maintenance, cell infection, virus harvesting, reagent and media preparation, and tissue processing. Following observations, a survey measuring 11 psychosocial predictors of HFC was administered to participants. Study personnel recorded 396 touches to the face over the course of the study (mean = 2.6 HFCs/hr). Of the 93 subjects, 67 (72%) touched their face at least once, ranging from 0.2-16.0 HFCs/hr. Among those who touched their face, contact with the nose was most common (44.9%), followed by contact with the forehead (36.9%), cheek/chin (12.5%), mouth (4.0%), and eye (1.7%). HFC rates were significantly different across laboratories F(20, 72) = 1.85, p = 0.03. Perceived severity of infection predicted lower rates of HFC (p = 0.03). For every one-point increase in the severity scale, workers had 0.41 fewer HFCs/hr (r = -.27, P protection should be considered as part of the BSL-2 PPE ensemble to prevent HFC.

  1. Maintaining Qubit Coherence in the face of Increased Superconducting Circuit Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hover, David; Weber, Steve; Rosenberg, Danna; Samach, Gabriel; Sears, Adam; Birenbaum, Jeffrey; Woods, Wayne; Yoder, Jonilyn; Racz, Livia; Kerman, Jamie; Oliver, William D.

    Maintaining qubit coherence in the face of increased superconducting circuit complexity is a challenge when designing an extensible quantum computing architecture. We consider this challenge in the context of inductively coupled, long-lived, capacitively-shunted flux qubits. Specifically, we discuss our efforts to mitigate the effects of radiation loss, parasitic chip-modes, cross-coupling, and Purcell decay. Our approach employs numerical modeling of the ideal Hamiltonian and electromagnetic analysis of the circuit, both of which are independently shown to be consistent with experimental results. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.

  2. Multiple Sclerosis Increases Fracture Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixian Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The association between multiple sclerosis (MS and fracture risk has been reported, but results of previous studies remain controversial and ambiguous. To assess the association between MS and fracture risk, a meta-analysis was performed. Method. Based on comprehensive searches of the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, we identified outcome data from all articles estimating the association between MS and fracture risk. The pooled risk ratios (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Results. A significant association between MS and fracture risk was found. This result remained statistically significant when the adjusted RRs were combined. Subgroup analysis stratified by the site of fracture suggested significant associations between MS and tibia fracture risk, femur fracture risk, hip fracture risk, pelvis fracture risk, vertebrae fracture risk, and humerus fracture risk. In the subgroup analysis by gender, female MS patients had increased fracture risk. When stratified by history of drug use, use of antidepressants, hypnotics/anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, and glucocorticoids increased the risk of fracture risk in MS patients. Conclusions. This meta-analysis demonstrated that MS was significantly associated with fracture risk.

  3. Predicting high risk of exacerbations in bronchiectasis: the E-FACED score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez-Garcia MA

    2017-01-01

    countries (Brazil, Argentina, and Chile. The main outcome was the number of annual exacerbations/hospitalizations, with all-cause and respiratory-related deaths as the secondary outcomes. A statistical evaluation comprised the relative weight and ideal cut-off point for the number or severity of the exacerbations and was incorporated into the FACED score (E-FACED. The results obtained after the application of FACED and E-FACED were compared in both the cohorts.Results: A total of 1,470 patients with bronchiectasis (819 from the construction cohorts and 651 from the external validation cohorts were followed up for 5 years after diagnosis. The best cut-off point was at least two exacerbations in the previous year (two additional points, meaning that the E-FACED has nine points of growing severity. E-FACED presented an excellent prognostic capacity for exacerbations (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.82 for at least two exacerbations in 1 year and 0.87 for at least one hospitalization in 1 year that was statistically better than that of the FACED score (0.72 and 0.78, P<0.05, respectively. The predictive capacities for all-cause and respiratory mortality were 0.87 and 0.86, respectively, with both being similar to those of the FACED.Conclusion: E-FACED score significantly increases the FACED capacity to predict future yearly exacerbations while maintaining the score’s simplicity and prognostic capacity for death. Keywords: FACED score, E-FACED score, mortality, bronchiectasis, exacerbations

  4. Ecophysiological response of Adelie penguins facing an experimental increase in breeding constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, M; Spée, M; Lazin, D; Ropert-Coudert, Y; le Maho, Y; Ancel, A; Raclot, T

    2010-01-01

    Foraging strategies play a key role in breeding effort. Little is known, however, about their connection with hormonal and nutritional states, especially when breeding constraints vary. Here, we experimentally increased foraging costs and thus breeding constraints by handicapping Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) with dummy devices representing 3-4% of the penguins' cross-sectional area. We examined food-related stress (via plasma corticosterone concentration) and nutritional state (via metabolite levels). Concurrently, we investigated the use of ecological niches via the isotopic signature of red blood cells indicating the trophic position (delta(15)N) and the spatial distribution (delta(13)C) of penguins. Handicapped birds performed approximately 70% longer foraging trips and lost approximately 60% more body mass than controls and their partners. However, corticosterone levels and the nutritional state were unchanged. The isotopic signature revealed that males and females differed in their foraging behaviour: upper trophic levels contributed more in the males' diet, who foraged in more pelagic areas. Handicapped and partner birds adopted the same strategy at sea: a shift towards higher delta(13)C values suggested that they foraged in more coastal areas than controls. This change in foraging decisions may optimize feeding time by decreasing travelling time. This may partly compensate for the presumed lower foraging efficiency of handicapped birds and for the energetic debt of their partners who had to fast approximately 70% longer on the nest. We propose that this flexible use of ecological niches may allow birds facing increased breeding constraints to avoid chronic stress and to minimize the impact on their body condition.

  5. Waiting Time Increases Risk of Attrition in Gambling Disorder Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Pedersen, Anders Sune

    2014-01-01

    completion in gambling disorder. We compared 48 gambling disorder sufferers with a 56% completion rate (21 non-completers and 27 completers). Binomial logistic regression analysis showed that waiting time from initial contact to the first session with a therapist was a significant predictor of risk...... of attrition: longer waiting times were associated with increased risk of attrition. Age, gender, or comorbidity was not associated with an increased risk of attrition. These data suggest that gambling disorder sufferers benefit from fast access to treatment, and that longer waiting time increases the risk...

  6. Risk Worth Taking - Entrepreneurial Behaviour When Faced with Risk and Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zichella, Giulio

    Are entrepreneurial-oriented individuals different from others in their propensities to take risk and uncertainty? Entrepreneurial-oriented individuals are defined as individuals that show entrepreneurial intentions - the cognitive state that precedes the decision to form a new venture. Cognitive...... theory suggests differences in risk taking due to individual characteristics. However, entrepreneurship theory did not provide empirical support for such differences. Using data from a laboratory experiment with simple money games, we observe how individuals from two different groups (entrepreneurial......-oriented, non-entrepreneurial-oriented) react to different degrees of risk and uncertainty when real monetary incentives are involved in each decision. The analysis reveals significant differences between entrepreneurial and non-entrepreneurial-oriented individuals in their decision making. In particular...

  7. Increased seed set in down slope-facing flowers of Lilium duchartrei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Guo SUN; Chi-Yuan YAO

    2013-01-01

    Flower orientation has been considered one aspect of floral attraction.Plants growing on slopes should orientate their flowers facing down slope towards greater open space to enhance reproduction by attracting more pollinators.Flower angle and floral symmetry may affect this pattern; for example,this trend would be overshadowed in vertical/pendent flowers with radial symmetry because the flowers can attract pollinators and provide landing platforms from many directions.We investigated this hypothesis in Lilium duchartrei,a herb with pendent and actinomorphic flowers,in the Hengduan Mountains region of China by measuring flower direction for individuals growing on fiat ground and on slopes.We also changed flower direction from facing down to up slope to test the effects on pollinator visitation frequency and subsequent plant reproduction.Plants growing on flat ground orientate their flowers equally towards the four geomagnetic directions,whereas the flowers on individuals growing on slopes preferentially face down slope.This pattern was more pronounced for individuals growing on steeper slopes.There was a positive correlation between slope angle and the seed set of flowers facing down slope (control),but a negative correlation between seed set and flowers facing up slope.The visitation frequency also tended to be higher for control flowers on steeper slopes and lower for those flowers changed to face up slope.Unexpectedly,floral direction was not affected by flower angle or floral symmetry.The results suggest that a down slope orientation of flowers could function to improve pollination in heterogeneous pollination environments.

  8. Risk in the Clouds?: Security Issues Facing Government Use of Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyld, David C.

    Cloud computing is poised to become one of the most important and fundamental shifts in how computing is consumed and used. Forecasts show that government will play a lead role in adopting cloud computing - for data storage, applications, and processing power, as IT executives seek to maximize their returns on limited procurement budgets in these challenging economic times. After an overview of the cloud computing concept, this article explores the security issues facing public sector use of cloud computing and looks to the risk and benefits of shifting to cloud-based models. It concludes with an analysis of the challenges that lie ahead for government use of cloud resources.

  9. Successful Face Recognition Is Associated with Increased Prefrontal Cortex Activation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, John D.; Riley, Meghan E.; Grupe, Daniel W.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether deficits in visual information processing in autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) can be offset by the recruitment of brain structures involved in selective attention. During functional MRI, 12 children with ASD and 19 control participants completed a selective attention one-back task in which images of faces and houses were…

  10. Occupational Risk Factors and Health Problems Faced by Nurses that Working Dialysis Unit and Nephrology Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Curcani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study is carried out descriptively with the aim of determining occupational risks the nurses working in dialysis units and nephrology services. METHOD: 47 nurses working in dialysis and nephrology units of the hospitals in Erzurum were included in the study content. In the collection of the data, questionnaire form prepared in the light of literature and including the preventions taken by nurses themselves or their organizations against the professional risks they faced, or personal problems the nurses experienced, professional risk or professional-personal features was used. RESULTS: In the result of the study, it was detected that 48.9% of the nurses was at 28-32 age group, and that 38.3% of the nurses graduated from nursing higher school, and that 72.3% of the nurses worked in dialysis unit. It was found out that while practicing their professions, the nurses expressed that infection risk (97.9%, stress (83%, verbal abuse (80.9%, psychiatric trauma (66%, allergic substance (63.8%, the noise (36.2%, and physical abuse (23.4% were the risk factors they raced in working medium .In the health problem seen in the nurses, in the first row is lumbago. CONCLUSION: In the result of the study, it was found out that while practicing their professions, the nurses expressed that infection risk was the highest rate among the risk factors they raced in working medium and, in the health problem seen in the nurses, in the first row is lumbago and that the nurses and organizations’ attempts which will reduce the risks were not sufficient. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 339-344

  11. VHA chaplaincy contact with veterans at increased risk of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Marek S; McCarten, Janet M; Pollitt, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    To examine the extent to which chaplains interact with military veterans at increased risk of suicide and select characteristics related to those at-risk veterans who present for chaplaincy services. The nationwide network of chaplains affiliated with the Veterans Health Administration (n = 990) was e-mailed a letter inviting those who have contact with at-risk veterans to complete a survey. This letter included an Internet link, connecting respondents to an online survey collection service. One hundred eighteen chaplains (11.91%) responded to the survey. More than half of the respondents reported that veterans at increased risk of suicide constitute either 1 chaplain, and present at a moderate-to-high level of risk. The present study finds that some at-risk veterans look to chaplains for supportive services. The findings also allow for opportunities for future research.

  12. Raised salivary testosterone in women is associated with increased attraction to masculine faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, L L M; Jones, B C; DeBruine, L M; Conway, C A; Law Smith, M J; Little, A C; Feinberg, D R; Sharp, M A; Al-Dujaili, E A S

    2007-08-01

    Women's preferences for masculinity in men's faces, voices and behavioral displays change during the menstrual cycle and are strongest around ovulation. While previous findings suggest that change in progesterone level is an important hormonal mechanism for such variation, it is likely that changes in the levels of other hormones will also contribute to cyclic variation in masculinity preferences. Here we compared women's preferences for masculine faces at two points in the menstrual cycle where women differed in salivary testosterone, but not in salivary progesterone or estrogen. Preferences for masculinity were strongest when women's testosterone levels were relatively high. Our findings complement those from previous studies that show systematic variation in masculinity preferences during the menstrual cycle and suggest that change in testosterone level may play an important role in cyclic shifts in women's preferences for masculine traits.

  13. Frostbite of the face and ears: epidemiological study of risk factors in Finnish conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmuskallio, E.; Lindholm, H.; Koskenvuo, K.; Sarna, S.; Friberg, O.; Viljanen, A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the incidence of and the risk factors for local cold injuries of the face and ears in peacetime military service. DESIGN--Prospective, controlled epidemiological study using a questionnaire. SETTING--Finnish defence forces, 1976-89. SUBJECTS--913 young male conscripts with local frostbite of the head that needed medical attention and 2478 uninjured control conscripts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Type of activity, clothing, and other risk factors at the time of cold injury. Odds ratios were used to calculate risk. Controls were handled as one group. RESULTS--The mean annual incidence of frostbite was 1.8 per 1000 conscripts. Frostbite of the ear was most common (533 conscripts (58%)), followed by frostbite of the nose (197 (22%)) and of the cheeks and other regions of the face (183 (20%)). Most conscripts (803 (88%)) had mild or superficial frostbite. Risk factors included not wearing a hat with earflaps (odds ratio 18.5 for frostbite of the ear); not wearing a scarf (odds ratio 2.1 and 3.8 for frostbite of the ear and cheeks respectively); using protective ointments (odds ratio 3.3, 4.5, and 5.6 for frostbite of the cheeks, ear, and nose respectively); being extremely sensitive to cold and having hands and feet that sweat profusely (odds ratio 3.5 for frostbite of the nose); and being transported in the open or in open vehicles under windy conditions (odds ratio 2.2 for frostbite of the cheek). CONCLUSIONS--Wearing warm clothing, including a scarf and a hat with earflaps, helps to prevent frostbite. Each person's sensitivity to cold may also be important. The routine use of protective ointments should not be recommended. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:8541749

  14. Head, face and neck injury in youth rugby: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P; Finch, C F; Wolfe, R

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the incidence of head, neck and facial injuries in youth rugby was determined, and the associated risk factors were assessed. Data were extracted from a cluster randomised controlled trial of headgear with the football teams as the unit of randomisation. No effect was observed for headgear use on injury rates, and the data were pooled. General school and club-based community competitive youth rugby in the 2002 and 2003 seasons. Young male rugby union football players participating in under-13, under 15, under 18 and under 21 years competitions. Eighty-two teams participated in year 1 and 87 in year 2. Injury rates for all body regions combined, head, neck and face calculated for game and missed game injuries. 554 head, face and neck injuries were recorded within a total of 28 902 h of rugby game exposure. Level of play and player position were related to injury risk. Younger players had the lowest rates of injury; forwards, especially the front row had the highest rate of neck injury; and inside backs had the highest rate of injuries causing the player to miss a game. Contact events, including the scrum and tackle, were the main events leading to injury. Injury prevention must focus on the tackle and scrum elements of a youth rugby game.

  15. Effectiveness of personalized face-to-face and telephone nursing counseling interventions for cardiovascular risk factors: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vílchez Barboza, Vivian; Klijn, Tatiana Paravic; Salazar Molina, Alide; Sáez Carrillo, Katia Lorena

    2016-08-08

    to evaluate the effect and gender differences of an innovative intervention involving in-person and telephone nursing counseling to control cardiovascular risk factors (arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, and overweight), improve health-related quality of life and strengthen self-efficacy and social support in persons using the municipal health centers' cardiovascular health program. a randomized controlled clinical trial involving participants randomized into the intervention group who received traditional consultation plus personalized and telephone nursing counseling for 7 months (n = 53) and the control group (n = 56). The study followed the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Statement. women in the intervention group presented a significant increase in the physical and mental health components compared to the control group, with decreases in weight, abdominal circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the atherogenic index. The effects attributable to the intervention in the men in the intervention group were increased physical and emotional roles and decreased systolic and diastolic pressure, waist circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, cardiovascular risk factor, and 10-year coronary risk. this intervention is an effective strategy for the control of three cardiovascular risk factors and the improvement of health-related quality of life. evaluar efecto y diferencias por sexo de una intervención innovadora "Consejería de Enfermería Personalizada y Telefónica", dirigida al control de factores de riesgo cardiovascular (hipertensión arterial, dislipidemia y sobrepeso) y al mejoramiento de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, fortaleciendo la autoeficacia y el apoyo social en personas usuarias del programa de salud cardiovascular de los Centros de Salud Municipales de Concepción. ensayo clínico controlado aleatoriamente y selección aleatoria de

  16. Bevacizumab Increases Risk for Severe Proteinuria in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christi; Baer, Lea; Zhu, Xiaolei

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent bevacizumab, a humanized mAb that neutralizes vascular endothelial growth factor, can lead to proteinuria and renal damage. The risk factors and clinical outcomes of renal adverse events are not well understood. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized, controlled trials to assess the overall risk for severe proteinuria with bevacizumab. We analyzed data from 16 studies comprising 12,268 patients with a variety of tumors. The incidence of high-grade (grade 3 or 4) proteinuria with bevacizumab was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 4.3%). Compared with chemotherapy alone, bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy significantly increased the risk for high-grade proteinuria (relative risk 4.79; 95% CI 2.71 to 8.46) and nephrotic syndrome (relative risk 7.78; 95% CI 1.80 to 33.62); higher dosages of bevacizumab associated with increased risk for proteinuria. Regarding tumor type, renal cell carcinoma associated with the highest risk (cumulative incidence 10.2%). We did not detect a significant difference between platinum- and non–platinum-based concurrent chemotherapy with regard to risk for high-grade proteinuria (P = 0.39). In conclusion, the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy significantly increases the risk for high-grade proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome. PMID:20538785

  17. Study Ties Alcohol Abuse to Increased Heart Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162836.html Study Ties Alcohol Abuse to Increased Heart Risks Association similar to that ... 2009. About 2 percent had been diagnosed with alcohol abuse. The researchers adjusted statistics so they wouldn't ...

  18. Giardia lamblia infection increases risk of chronic gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormond, Megan; Gutierrez, Ramiro L; Porter, Chad K

    2016-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is a common parasitic cause of infectious gastroenteritis in the United States and the world and may be linked to an increased risk of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We sought to assess the risk of several chronic GI disorders following Giardia infection among active duty US military personnel. This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study in which active duty military personnel with documented G. lamblia infection were assessed for the subsequent risk of developing a chronic GI disorder including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Post-giardia chronic GI disorder risk was compared to risk in uninfected personnel matched on several demographic characteristics and medical encounter information. Data were obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System and exposures (1998-2009) with outcomes identified based on documented medical encounters with specific medical billing codes. Modified Poisson regression was used to evaluate the relationship between G. lamblia infection and chronic GI disorders. A total of 80 Giardia cases were identified for an estimated incidence of 0.55 cases per 100,000 person-years. Cases were matched to 294 unexposed subjects. After adjusting for important covariates, there was an increased risk of IBS (relative risk: 2.1, p = 0.03) associated with antecedent Giardia infection. These data add to a growing body of literature and demonstrate an increased risk of IBS after infection with G. lamblia.

  19. Increased nuchal translucency thickness and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmuth, Signe G; Pedersen, L H; Miltoft, Caroline B

    2016-01-01

    (ASDs), cerebral palsy, epilepsy and febrile seizures. RESULTS: There was no excess risk of neurodevelopmental disorders among euploid children with a NT between 95(th) and 99(th) percentile. For children with a NT >99(th) percentile, there were increased risks of mental retardation (OR=6.16, 95...... (OR= 1.51, 95%CI: 0.63-3.66, 5 cases) or febrile seizures (OR=0.72, 95%CI: 0.44-1.16, 17 cases) among children with a NT >99(th) percentile. CONCLUSION: In a large unselected cohort, euploid fetuses with a NT 95(th) -99(th) percentile had no increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. Among...

  20. Can prenatal maternal stress increase the risk of asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Maternal stress adversely affects a mother's well-being and health and also negatively impacts her offspring. That this relationship also holds true for maternal stress during the pregnancy period is intuitive. However, whether maternal stress increases the risk of asthma development in her offspring is less clear and will be evaluated in this review. There is evidence from murine models to suggest that maternal stress during pregnancy increases the risk of asthma in the offspring. While recent experimental research adds to the increasing body of evidence supporting a causal relationship between prenatal maternal stress and asthma risk in the offspring, the epidemiological evidence supporting this notion is insufficient. Almost all existing observational studies suffer from severe methodological limitations. Nevertheless, the results from experimental work on maternal stress during pregnancy and asthma risk in the offspring, in concert with other obvious adverse health effects in the offspring are sufficient to justify a recommendation to reduce maternal stressors, particularly during pregnancy.

  1. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalencein foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C.; Roon, van A.M.; Takumi, K.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent ofalveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk mapmodel predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococ-cosis patients in the province of L

  2. Increased Risk of Stroke in Patients With Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chun-Hung; Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Neuropsychiatric diseases might enhance stroke development, possibly through inflammation and atherosclerosis. Approximately 25% to 40% of patients with stroke, largely younger patients, are not associated with any conventional stroke risk factors. In this research, we explored whether fibromyalgia (FM), a neuropsychosomatic disorder, increases stroke risk. From a claims dataset with one million enrollees sourced of the Taiwan National Health Insurance database, we selected 47,279 patients with FM and randomly selected 189,112 age- and sex-matched controls within a 3-year period from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2002. Stroke risk was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Comorbidities associated with increased stroke risk, such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, coronary heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and interstitial cystitis, were more prevalent in patients with FM and high stroke risk than in the controls. The overall stroke risk was 1.25-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21–1.30) higher in the FM group than in the non-FM group. Even without comorbidities, stroke risk was higher in patients with FM than in the controls (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.35–1.53, P < 0.001). The relative risk of stroke was 2.26-fold between FM and non-FM groups in younger patients (age <35 years, 95% CI: 1.86–2.75). This is the first investigation associating FM with an increased risk of stroke development. The outcomes imply that FM is a significant risk factor for stroke and that patients with FM, particularly younger patients, require close attention and rigorous measures for preventing stroke. PMID:26937918

  3. Increasing risk of prosthetic joint infection after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Håvard; Fenstad, Anne M; Hallan, Geir;

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose The risk of revision due to infection after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been reported to be increasing in Norway. We investigated whether this increase is a common feature in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden). Materials and methods The...... explain this increase. We believe that there has been an actual increase in the incidence of prosthetic joint infections after THA....

  4. Misattribution of musical arousal increases sexual attraction towards opposite-sex faces in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Raphaela; Gingras, Bruno; Leder, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    Several theories about the origins of music have emphasized its biological and social functions, including in courtship. Music may act as a courtship display due to its capacity to vary in complexity and emotional content. Support for music’s reproductive function comes from the recent finding that only women in the fertile phase of the reproductive cycle prefer composers of complex melodies to composers of simple ones as short-term sexual partners, which is also in line with the ovulatory shift hypothesis. However, the precise mechanisms by which music may influence sexual attraction are unknown, specifically how music may interact with visual attractiveness cues and affect perception and behaviour in both genders. Using a crossmodal priming paradigm, we examined whether listening to music influences ratings of facial attractiveness and dating desirability of opposite-sex faces. We also tested whether misattribution of arousal or pleasantness underlies these effects, and explored whether sex differences and menstrual cycle phase may be moderators. Our sample comprised 64 women in the fertile or infertile phase (no hormonal contraception use) and 32 men, carefully matched for mood, relationship status, and musical preferences. Musical primes (25 s) varied in arousal and pleasantness, and targets were photos of faces with neutral expressions (2 s). Group-wise analyses indicated that women, but not men, gave significantly higher ratings of facial attractiveness and dating desirability after having listened to music than in the silent control condition. High-arousing, complex music yielded the largest effects, suggesting that music may affect human courtship behaviour through induced arousal, which calls for further studies on the mechanisms by which music affects sexual attraction in real-life social contexts. PMID:28892486

  5. Facing Up to the Risks in Commercially Focused University-Industry R&D Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulop, Liz; Couchman, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The number of university-industry R&D partnerships (UIPs) has increased significantly over the past decade, in most OECD countries and in Australia, yet the study of risk in such commercially focused collaborative ventures is still a developing area. This review paper seeks to contribute to debate on this increasingly important phenomenon by…

  6. Cyber crime: can a standard risk analysis help in the challenges facing business continuity managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Putte, Danny; Verhelst, Marc

    Risk management has never been easy. Finding efficient mitigating measures is not always straightforward. Finding measures for cyber crime, however, is a really huge challenge because cyber threats are changing all the time. As the sophistication of these threats is growing, their impact increases. Moreover, society and its economy have become increasingly dependent on information and communication technologies. Standard risk analysis methodologies will help to score the cyber risk and to place it in the risk tolerance matrix. This will allow business continuity managers to figure out if there is still a gap with the maximum tolerable outage for time-critical business processes and if extra business continuity measures are necessary to fill the gap.

  7. Balancing life with an increased risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helle Vendel; Nilbert, Mef; Bernstein, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Possibilities to undergo predictive genetic testing for cancer have expanded, which implies that an increasing number of healthy individuals will learn about cancer predisposition. Knowledge about how an increased risk of disease influences life in a long-term perspective is largely unknown, whic...

  8. On capital allocation for stochastic arrangement increasing actuarial risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the increasing convex ordering of the optimal discounted capital allocations for stochastic arrangement increasing risks with stochastic arrangement decreasing occurrence times. The application to optimal allocation of policy limits is presented as an illustration as well.

  9. Genetic variants in CETP increase risk of intracerebral hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Christopher D.; Falcone, Guido J.; Phuah, Chia Ling; Radmanesh, Farid; Brouwers, H. Bart; Battey, Thomas W K; Biffi, Alessandro; Peloso, Gina M.; Liu, Dajiang J.; Ayres, Alison M.; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M.; Selim, Magdy; Meschia, James F.; Brown, Devin L.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Silliman, Scott L.; Tirschwell, David L.; Flaherty, Matthew L.; Kraft, Peter; Jagiella, Jeremiasz M.; Schmidt, Helena; Hansen, Björn M.; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Elosua, Roberto; Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Soriano, Carolina; van Nieuwenhuizen, Koen M.; Klijn, Catharina J M; Rannikmae, Kristiina; Samarasekera, Neshika; Salman, Rustam Al Shahi; Sudlow, Catherine L.; Deary, Ian J.; Morotti, Andrea; Pezzini, Alessandro; Pera, Joanna; Urbanik, Andrzej; Pichler, Alexander; Enzinger, Christian; Norrving, Bo; Montaner, Joan; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel; Delgado, Pilar; Roquer, Jaume; Lindgren, Arne; Slowik, Agnieszka; Schmidt, Reinhold; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kittner, Steven J.; Waddy, Salina P.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Abecasis, Goncalo; Willer, Cristen J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Woo, Daniel; Rosand, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In observational epidemiologic studies, higher plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) has been associated with increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). DNA sequence variants that decrease cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene activity increase plasma HDL-C;

  10. Increased stomach cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, M; Fossa, S D; Stovall, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal radiotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) increases risk for second stomach cancer, although data on the radiation dose-response relationship are sparse. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,269 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1959-1987, doses to stomach subsites were estimated...... for 92 patients who developed stomach cancer and 180 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary stomach cancer was 1.45% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. The TC survivors who received...... radiotherapy (87 (95%) cases, 151 (84%) controls) had a 5.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-20.7) increased risk of stomach cancer. Risk increased with increasing stomach dose (P-trend

  11. Delayed diagnosis of coeliac disease increases cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Benedetto Rita

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between coeliac disease (CD and neoplasms has been long established, but few data are available about the risk factors. The aim of this paper is to estimate the risk of developing a neoplasm among non diagnosed coeliac patients and to evaluate if this risk correlates with the age of patients at diagnosis of coeliac disease. Methods The study population consists of patients (n = 1968 diagnosed with CD at 20 Italian gastroenterology referral Centers between 1st January 1982 and 31st March 2005. Results The SIR for all cancers resulted to be 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0–1.7 p Conclusion Coeliac patients have an increased risk of developing cancer in relation to the age of diagnosis of CD. This risk results higher for malignancies of the gastro-intestinal sites. An accurate screening for tumors should be performed in patients diagnosed with CD in adulthood and in advancing age.

  12. Increased risk of ventral hernia recurrence after pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oma, Erling; Jensen, Kristian K.; Jorgensen, Lars N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Female patients of reproductive age constitute a substantial portion of patients undergoing ventral hernia repair, however the impact of pregnancy on the risk of recurrence is scarcely documented. The aim of the study was to evaluate if pregnancy following ventral hernia repair...... was associated with an increased risk of recurrence. Methods: This nationwide cohort study included all female patients of reproductive age registered in the Danish Ventral Hernia Database with ventral hernia repair between 2007 and 2013. The primary outcome was ventral hernia recurrence. Multivariable extended...... of pregnancy on the risk of recurrence is scarcely documented. In this cohort study based on nationwide Danish registries, we found that pregnancy after ventral hernia repair was independently associated with an increased risk of ventral hernia recurrence....

  13. CKD Increases the Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin; Iyengar, Sudha K; Wang, Jie Jin

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the United States and often coexists with chronic kidney disease. Both conditions share common genetic and environmental risk factors. A total of 1183 participants aged 54+ were examined in the population-based, prospective cohort Blue Mountains Eye Study (Australia) to determine if chronic kidney disease increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Moderate chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerul...

  14. Increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest in obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam Jacoba; Blom, Marieke Tabo; Bardai, Abdennasser

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether (1) patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have an increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF), and (2) the SCA risk is mediated by cardiovascular risk-profile and/or respiratory drug use....... METHODS: A community-based case-control study was performed, with 1310 cases of SCA of the ARREST study and 5793 age, sex and SCA-date matched non-SCA controls from the PHARMO database. Only incident SCA cases, age older than 40 years, that resulted from unequivocal cardiac causes...

  15. Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of aggressive prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Juan; Ropero, Jordi; Planas, Jacques; Bastarós, Juan M; Delgado, Gueisy; Placer, José; Celma, Anna; de Torres, Inés M; Carles, Joan; Reventós, Jaume; Doll, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Metabolic syndrome can identify patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide and is associated with increased age, obesity and hypogonadism. The association between metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer development has not been studied comprehensively, and published studies report divergent results. This study indicates that tumours detected in men with metabolic syndrome are more aggressive than those detected in men without this condition. To further examine the association between metabolic syndrome (MS), prostate cancer (PC) detection risk and tumour aggressiveness. From 2006 to 2010, 2408 men not receiving 5α-reductase inhibitors were scheduled for prostatic biopsy due to PSA above 4 ng/mL and/or abnormal digital rectal examination. MS was evaluated according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults, Adult Treatment Panel III definition. Tumour aggressiveness was evaluated through biopsy Gleason score, clinical stage and risk of biochemical recurrence after primary treatment. The rates of PC detection were 34.5% and 36.4% respectively in men with and without MS, P = 0.185. High grade PC rates (Gleason score 8-10) were 35.9% and 23.9% respectively, P 20) were 38.5% and 33.0% respectively, P = 0.581. Multivariate analysis confirmed that MS was not associated with the risk of PC detection but it was associated with an increased risk of high grade tumours (odds ratio 1.75, 95% CI 1.26-2.41), P < 0.001. MS seems not be associated with an increased risk of PC detection but it is associated with an increased risk of more aggressive tumours. © 2012 BJU International.

  16. Increasing resilience through participative flood risk map design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Spira, Yvonne; Stickler, Therese

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of flood hazards has shown to the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union the importance of flood risk management strategies in order to reduce losses and to protect the environment and the citizens. Exposure to floods as well as flood vulnerability might increase across Europe due to the ongoing economic development in many EU countries. Thus even without taking climate change into account an increase of flood disasters in Europe might be foreseeable. These circumstances have produced a reaction in the European Commission, and a Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks was issued as one of the three components of the European Action Programme on Flood Risk Management. Floods have the potential to jeopardise economic development, above all due to an increase of human activities in floodplains and the reduction of natural water retention by land use activities. As a result, an increase in the likelihood and adverse impacts of flood events is expected. Therefore, concentrated action is needed at the European level to avoid severe impacts on human life and property. In order to have an effective tool available for gathering information, as well as a valuable basis for priority setting and further technical, financial and political decisions regarding flood risk mitigation and management, it is necessary to provide for the establishment of flood risk maps which show the potential adverse consequences associated with different flood scenarios. So far, hazard and risk maps are compiled in terms of a top-down linear approach: planning authorities take the responsibility to create and implement these maps on different national and local scales, and the general public will only be informed about the outcomes (EU Floods Directive, Article 10). For the flood risk management plans, however, an "active involvement of interested parties" is required, which means at least some kind of multilateral

  17. Increased risk of antidepressant use in childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, J F; Cederkvist, L;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of both somatic and mental late effects, but large population-based studies of depression are lacking. METHODS: Risk of antidepressant use was evaluated in a population-based cohort of 5452 Danish children treated for cancer in 1975-2009 by linkage...... survivors were at increased risk of having antidepressants prescribed (HR, 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-1.5). The excess absolute risk of antidepressant use was 2.5 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 1.7-3.3), equivalent to an excess of 2.5 survivors for every 100 survivors followed for 10years....... Increased HRs of 30-50% were seen for survivors of cancers of all main groups (haematological malignancies, central nervous system (CNS) and solid tumors); the highest risk was among children treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1). Our data suggested that the risk...

  18. Women with cardiovascular disease have increased risk of osteoporotic fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian Sheng; Hogan, Chris; Lyubomirsky, Greg; Sambrook, Philip N

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether women with cardiovascular disease (CVD) would have an increased risk of fractures as osteoporosis and CVD share many common risk factors. From February 2006 to January 2007, 17,033 women aged ≥50 years (mean 71.8, range 50-106) were recruited by 1,248 primary care practitioners and interviewed by trained nurses. For each woman, 10-year probability of a future major osteoporotic fracture was estimated using the World Health Organization Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX). The study showed that the 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture was higher for 6,219 CVD women compared to 10,814 non-CVD women after adjustment for age, BMI, current smoking, and alcohol use (adjusted geometric means 14.3 and 13.8%, respectively; P < 0.001). With regard to high risk of fracture (i.e., 10-year probability ≥ 20%), the adjusted odds ratio for CVD was 1.23 (95% CI 1.13-1.35, P < 0.001). However, compared to non-CVD women, CVD women were more likely to report a previous fracture, to have a secondary osteoporosis, and to use glucocorticoids. Among the 4,678 women who were classified as having a high fracture risk, current use rate of bone-related medications (i.e., any one of bisphosphonates, raloxifene, PTH, vitamin D, calcium, or hormone therapy) was 50.2% in the CVD group and 56.9% in the non-CVD group. Women with CVD were at increased risk of fracture partly due to bone-specific risk factors such as history of previous fracture, use of glucocorticoids, and secondary osteoporosis. This risk is not being treated appropriately by primary health physicians.

  19. Increased pancreatic cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Michael; Børge Johannesen, Tom; Gilbert, Ethel S; Stovall, Marilyn; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Rajaraman, Preetha; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita E; Aleman, Berthe M P; Andersson, Michael; Curtis, Rochelle E; Dores, Graça M; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Hall, Per; Holowaty, Eric J; Joensuu, Heikki; Kaijser, Magnus; Kleinerman, Ruth A; Langmark, Frøydis; Lynch, Charles F; Pukkala, Eero; Storm, Hans H; Vaalavirta, Leila; van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W; Morton, Lindsay M; Fossa, Sophie D; Travis, Lois B

    2016-09-27

    Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated among testicular cancer (TC) survivors. However, the roles of specific treatments are unclear. Among 23 982 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1947-1991, doses from radiotherapy to the pancreas were estimated for 80 pancreatic cancer patients and 145 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). Cumulative incidence of second primary pancreatic cancer was 1.1% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. Radiotherapy (72 (90%) cases and 115 (80%) controls) was associated with a 2.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-7.8) increased risk. The OR increased linearly by 0.12 per Gy to the pancreas (P-trendcancer risk, and persists for over 20 years. These excesses, although small, should be considered when radiotherapy with exposure to the pancreas is considered for newly diagnosed patients. Additional data are needed on the role of chemotherapy.

  20. Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

  1. Rare disaster information can increase risk-taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Ben R.; Rakow, Tim; Yechiam, Eldad; Sambur, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The recent increase in the frequency and impact of natural disasters highlights the need to provide the public with accurate information concerning disaster prevalence. Most approaches to this problem assume that providing summaries of the nature and scale of disasters will lead people to reduce their exposure to risk. Here we present experimental evidence that such ex post `news reports’ of disaster occurrences can increase the tolerance for risk-taking (which implies that rare events are underweighted). This result is robust across several hundred rounds of choices in a simulated microworld, persists even when the long-run expected value of risky choices is substantially lower than safe choices, and is contingent on providing risk information about disasters that have been (personally) experienced and those that have been avoided (`forgone’ outcomes). The results suggest that augmenting personal experience with information summaries of the number of adverse events (for example, storms, floods) in different regions may, paradoxically, increase the appeal of a disaster-prone region. This finding implies a need to communicate long-term trends in severe climatic events, thereby reinforcing the accumulation of events, and the increase in their associated risks, across time.

  2. Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

  3. Patients with chronic pancreatitis are at increased risk for osteoporosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, SN

    2012-10-01

    Patients with chronic pancreatitis may be at an increased risk of low bone density because of malabsorption of vitamin D and calcium, poor diet, pain, alcoholism, and smoking. We investigated the rates of osteoporosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis compared to matched controls.

  4. Nutrition deficiency increases the risk of stomach cancer mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Li Qing

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study is to determine whether exposure to malnutrition during early life is associated with increased risk of stomach cancer in later life. Methods The design protocol included analyzing the trend of gastric cancer mortality and nutrition and evaluating the association between nutrient deficiency in early life and the risk of gastric cancer by hierarchical age–period–birth cohort (APC analysis using general log-linear Poisson models and to compare the difference between birth cohorts who were exposed to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine and those who were not exposed to the famine. Data on stomach cancer mortality from 1970 to 2009 and the dietary patterns from 1955 to 1985 which included the 1959–1961 Chinese famine period in the Zhaoyuan County population were obtained. The nutrition information was collected 15 years prior to the mortality data as based on the latest reference of disease incubation. Results APC analysis revealed that severe nutrition deficiency during early life may increase the risk of stomach cancer. Compared with the 1960–1964 birth cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in all birth cohorts from 1900 to 1959 significantly increased; compared with the 1970–1974 cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in the 1975–1979 cohort significantly increased, whereas the others had a steadily decreased risk; compared with 85–89 age group in the 2005–2009 death survey, the ORs decreased with younger age and reached significant levels for the 50–54 age group after adjusting the confounding factors. The 1930 to 1964 group (exposed to famine had a higher mortality rate than the 1965 to 1999 group (not exposed to famine. For males, the relative risk (RR was 2.39 and the 95% confidence interval (CI was 1.51 to 3.77. For females, RR was 1.64 and 95% CI was 1.02 to 2.62. Conclusion The results of the present study suggested that prolonged malnutrition during early life may increase the risk of

  5. Increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among upstream petroleum workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Riise, Trond; Bjørge, Tone; Moen, Bente E; Bråtveit, Magne; Christiani, David C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate cancer risk, particularly oesophageal cancer, among male upstream petroleum workers offshore potentially exposed to various carcinogenic agents. Methods Using the Norwegian Registry of Employers and Employees, 24 765 male offshore workers registered from 1981 to 2003 was compared with 283 002 male referents from the general working population matched by age and community of residence. The historical cohort was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Results Male offshore workers had excess risk of oesophageal cancer (RR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.8) compared with the reference population. Only the adenocarcinoma type had a significantly increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 7.0), mainly because of an increased risk among upstream operators (RR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 14.5). Upstream operators did not have significant excess of respiratory system or colon cancer or mortality from any other lifestyle-related diseases investigated. Conclusion We found a fourfold excess risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among male workers assumed to have had the most extensive contact with crude oil. Due to the small number of cases, and a lack of detailed data on occupational exposure and lifestyle factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, the results must be interpreted with caution. Nevertheless, given the low risk of lifestyle-related cancers and causes of death in this working group, the results add to the observations in other low-powered studies on oesophageal cancer, further suggesting that factors related to the petroleum stream or carcinogenic agents used in the production process might be associated with risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:19858535

  6. Recognising and managing increased HIV transmission risk in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Kroon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT programmes have improved maternalhealth outcomes and reduced the incidence of paediatric HIV, resulting in improved childhealth and survival. Nevertheless, high-risk vertical exposures remain common and areresponsible for a high proportion of transmissions. In the absence of antiretrovirals (ARVs,an 8- to 12-hour labour has approximately the same 15% risk of transmission as 18 monthsof mixed feeding. The intensity of transmission risk is highest during labour and delivery;however, the brevity of this intra-partum period lends itself to post-exposure interventions toreduce such risk. There is good evidence that infant post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP reducesintra-partum transmission even in the absence of maternal prophylaxis. Recent reports suggestthat infant combination ARV prophylaxis (cARP is more efficient at reducing intra-partumtransmission than a single agent in situations of minimal pre-labour prophylaxis. Guidelinesfrom the developed world have incorporated infant cARP for increased-risk scenarios. Incontrast, recent guidelines for low-resource settings have rightfully focused on reducingpostnatal transmission to preserve the benefits of breastfeeding, but have largely ignored thepotential of augmented infant PEP for reducing intra-partum transmissions. Minimal prelabourprophylaxis, poor adherence in the month prior to delivery, elevated maternal viralload at delivery, spontaneous preterm labour with prolonged rupture of membranes andchorioamnionitis are simple clinical criteria that identify increased intra-partum transmissionrisk. In these increased-risk scenarios, transmission frequency may be halved by combiningnevirapine and zidovudine as a form of boosted infant PEP. This strategy may be important toreduce intra-partum transmissions when PMTCT is suboptimal.

  7. Increased Risk of Gallstone Disease Following Colectomy for Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark-Christensen, Anders; Brandsborg, Søren; Laurberg, Søren; Johansen, Niels; Pachler, Jørn Helmut; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Kjær, Mie Dilling; Qvist, Niels; Preisler, Louise; Hillingsø, Jens; Rosenberg, Jacob; Jepsen, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Biochemical studies suggest that patients who have had a colectomy or restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) are at an increased risk of developing gallstone disease, but epidemiological studies are lacking. We evaluated the risk of gallstone disease following colectomy and IPAA. Individuals who had a colectomy were identified from a national cohort of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and controls without colectomy were sampled from within the same cohort, matching on gender, calendar year, and year of birth. We used Cox regression to examine the effect of colectomy on the hazard rates of gallstone disease and cholecystectomy, adjusting for alcoholism, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, cardiac disease, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, hyperlipidemia, cirrhosis, obesity, renal failure, and transient ischemic attacks. The effect of an IPAA was determined for patients who had colectomy by including the procedure as a time-dependent variable. We identified 4548 patients and matched these to 44 372 controls without colectomy. During a median follow-up of 11.9 years, 1963 patients were hospitalized for gallstone disease. Patients who had a colectomy were at an increased risk (adjusted hazard ratio (HR)=1.63 (1.39-1.91)), and sensitivity analyses of the risk of undergoing cholecystectomy revealed a similar association (adjusted HR=1.55 (1.22-1.98)). An IPAA did not affect the risk of developing gallstones among patients who had a colectomy (adjusted HR=1.03 (0.77-1.37)). The risk of gallstone disease increases following colectomy for UC.

  8. Maternal allergic contact dermatitis causes increased asthma risk in offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobzik Lester

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Offspring of asthmatic mothers have increased risk of developing asthma, based on human epidemiologic data and experimental animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal allergy at non-pulmonary sites can increase asthma risk in offspring. Methods BALB/c female mice received 2 topical applications of vehicle, dinitrochlorobenzene, or toluene diisocyanate before mating with untreated males. Dinitrochlorobenzene is a skin-sensitizer only and known to induce a Th1 response, while toluene diisocyanate is both a skin and respiratory sensitizer that causes a Th2 response. Both cause allergic contact dermatitis. Offspring underwent an intentionally suboptimal protocol of allergen sensitization and aerosol challenge, followed by evaluation of airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic airway inflammation, and cytokine production. Mothers were tested for allergic airway disease, evidence of dermatitis, cellularity of the draining lymph nodes, and systemic cytokine levels. The role of interleukin-4 was also explored using interleukin-4 deficient mice. Results Offspring of toluene diisocyanate but not dinitrochlorobenzene-treated mothers developed an asthmatic phenotype following allergen sensitization and challenge, seen as increased Penh values, airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage total cell counts and eosinophilia, and Th2 cytokine imbalance in the lung. Toluene diisocyanate treated interleukin-4 deficient mothers were able to transfer asthma risk to offspring. Mothers in both experimental groups developed allergic contact dermatitis, but not allergic airway disease. Conclusion Maternal non-respiratory allergy (Th2-skewed dermatitis caused by toluene diisocyanate can result in the maternal transmission of asthma risk in mice.

  9. Obesity is associated with increased risk of invasive penile cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kerri T; McDowell, Bradley D; Button, Anna; Smith, Brian J; Lynch, Charles F; Gupta, Amit

    2016-07-13

    To validate the association between obesity and penile cancer at a population level, we conducted a matched case-control study linking the Iowa Department of Motor Vehicles Drivers' License Database (DLD) with cancer surveillance data collected by the State Health Registry of Iowa (SHRI). All men diagnosed with invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma from 1985 to 2010 were identified by SHRI. Two hundred sixty-six cancer cases and 816 cancer-free male controls, selected from the Iowa DLD, were matched within 5-year age and calendar year strata. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using self-reported height and weight from the DLD. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between BMI and the risk of developing invasive penile cancer. Obesity was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing penile cancer. For every five-unit increase in BMI the risk of invasive penile cancer increased by 53 % (OR 1.53, 95 % CI 1.29-1.81, p obesity and higher risk of invasive penile cancer and advanced cancer stage at diagnosis in a hospital-based retrospective study. This population-based study confirms an association between obesity and invasive penile cancer.

  10. Financing increasing flood risk: evidence from millions of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jongman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of disaster risk management and financing mechanisms depends on the accurate assessment of current and future hazard exposure. The increasing availability of detailed data offers policy makers and the insurance sector new opportunities to understand trends in risk, and to make informed decisions on the ways to deal with these trends. In this paper we show how comprehensive property level information can be used for the assessment of exposure to flooding on a national scale, and how this information can contribute to discussions on possible risk financing practices. The case-study used is the Netherlands, which is one of the countries most exposed to flooding globally, and which is currently undergoing a debate on strategies for the compensation of potential losses. Our results show that flood exposure has increased rapidly between 1960 and 2012, and that the growth of the building stock and its economic value in flood prone areas has been higher than in not flood prone areas. We also find that property values in flood prone areas are lower than those in not flood prone areas. We argue that the increase in the share of economic value located in potential flood prone areas can have a negative effect on the feasibility of private insurance schemes in the Netherlands. The methodologies and results presented in this study are relevant for many regions around the world where the effects of rising flood exposure create a challenge for risk financing.

  11. HSP70 production patterns in coastal and estuarine organisms facing increasing temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, D.; Narciso, L.; Cabral, H. N.; Vinagre, C.; Diniz, M. S.

    2012-10-01

    Heat shock proteins are important components in the cellular defense against proteotoxic stress. This work aimed to reveal HSP70 (hsc70 plus hsp70) expression patterns in several marine species (fish, crabs and shrimps) within a community along a temperature gradient and at the upper thermal limit. The organisms were collected in the Tagus estuary and adjacent shore (in Cabo Raso), Portugal. Exposure trials were performed using the critical thermal maximum (CTMax) method in order to recreate a stress gradient of ecological relevance. Protein analysis was performed using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Organisms within each community (estuary, coast; subtidal, intertidal, supratidal) responded in several different ways: no change in HSP70 levels, an increase in HSP70 levels, or increases and decreases in HSP70 levels. These patterns of response occurred independently of taxa, CTMax and habitat type. Magnitude of expression relates to the habitat's thermal conditions. Species from highly variable and hot habitats i.e. intertidal/supratidal zone, and living in greater shore heights produce higher amounts of HSP70. Demersal and subtidal species inhabit colder and more stable waters thus they seem to have a slower heat shock response. No clear pattern was observed for species of the same group (fish, crabs and shrimps) or congeneric species. HSP70 expression showed high intraspecific variability potentially due to genetic traits, environmental traits and condition status.

  12. Young Children in Immigrant Families Face Higher Risk of Food Insecurity. Research Brief. Publication #2009-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Randy; Horowitz, Allison; Fortuny, Karina; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Zaslow, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Children in immigrant families are more likely than children in native-born families to face a number of risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, including higher poverty rates, lower household incomes, and linguistic isolation, (for example, when older children and adults in a household have difficulty speaking English). Previous research…

  13. The increasing risk of poverty across the American life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Daniel A; Rank, Mark R; Hirschl, Thomas A

    2009-11-01

    This article extends the emerging body of life course research on poverty by empirically identifying the incidence, chronicity, and age pattern of American poverty and how these dimensions have changed during the period 1968-2000. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we construct a series of life tables that estimate the risk of poverty for adults during their 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, and 70s, and compare these estimates for Americans in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. Our empirical results suggest that the risk of acute poverty increased substantially, particularly in the 1990s. This observed increase was especially pronounced for individuals in their 20s, 30s, and 40s; for all age groups with respect to extreme poverty; and for white males. On the other hand, the risk of chronic poverty declined during the 1990s (as measured by the percentage of the poor who experienced five or more years of poverty within a 10-year interval). The results in this article tell a very different story than the Census Bureau's yearly cross-sectional rates, which have shown little overall change in the U.S. poverty rate during this 30-year period. In contrast, a life course approach reveals a rising economic risk of acute poverty for individuals, one that is consistent with recent observations and research suggesting that a growing number of Americans will eventually find themselves in an economically precarious position.

  14. The increased risk of joint venture promotes social cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te Wu

    Full Text Available The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games.

  15. The increased risk of joint venture promotes social cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

    2013-01-01

    The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games.

  16. Increased risk of serious pneumococcal disease in patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhn, Young J; Kita, Hirohito; Yawn, Barbara P; Boyce, Thomas G; Yoo, Kwang H; McGree, Michaela E; Weaver, Amy L; Wollan, Peter; Jacobson, Robert M

    2008-10-01

    Individuals with asthma have been reported to be at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). These findings need to be confirmed in a different population-based study setting. We assessed whether serious pneumococcal disease (SPD), defined as an IPD, pneumococcal pneumonia, or both, was associated with asthma status. This is a retrospective case-control study using criteria-based methods for ascertaining SPD, as well as asthma. Subjects were residents of Rochester, Minnesota, who had SPD between 1964 and 1983 (the primarily pre-pneumococcal vaccine era) and their age- and sex-matched control subjects using 1:2 matching. Potential cases and control subjects were identified by using the Rochester Epidemiology project database and confirmed by medical record reviews. All cases and control subjects were merged with the database comprising the entire pool of Rochester residents with and without asthma between 1964 and 1983. A total of 3941 records of potential patients with SPD were reviewed, and we identified 174 cases of SPD (51% male subjects and 94% white subjects). SPD was associated with a history of asthma among all ages (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 0.9-6.6; P = .09) and among adults (odds ratio, 6.7; 95% CI, 1.6-27.3; P = .01), controlling for high-risk conditions for IPD and smoking exposure. The population-attributable risk percentage was 17% in the adult population. Adults with asthma might be at increased risk of SPD.

  17. Extreme Geohazards: Reducing the Disaster Risk and Increasing Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, Hans-Peter; Stein, Seth; Brocklebank, Sean; Jules-Plag, Shelley; Marsh, Stuart; Campus, Paola

    2013-04-01

    Extreme geohazards have the potential to escalate the global sustainability crisis and put us close to the boundaries of the safe operating space for humanity. Exposure of human assets to geohazards has increased dramatically in recent decades, and the sensitivity of the built environment and the embedded socio-economic fabric have changed. We are putting the urban environment, including megacities, in harm's way. Paradoxically, innovation during recent decades, in particular, urban innovation, has increased the disaster risk and coupled this risk to the sustainability crisis. Only more innovation can reduce disaster risk and lead us out of the sustainability crisis. Extreme geohazards (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis) that occurred regularly throughout the last few millennia mostly did not cause major disasters because population density was low and the built environment was not sprawling into hazardous areas to the same extent as today. Similar extreme events today would cause unparalleled damage on a global scale and could worsen the sustainability crisis. Simulation of these extreme hazards under present conditions can help to assess the disaster risk. The Geohazards Community of Practice of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) with support from the European Science Foundation is preparing a white paper assessing the contemporary disaster risks associated with extreme geohazards and developing a vision for science and society to engage in deliberations addressing this risk (see http://www.geohazcop.org/projects/extgeowp). Risk awareness and monitoring is highly uneven across the world, and this creates two kinds of problems. Firstly, potential hazards are much more closely monitored in wealthy countries than in the developing world. But the largest hazards are global in nature, and it is critical to get as much forewarning as possible to develop an effective response. The disasters and near-misses of the past show that adherence to scientific

  18. Genetic variants in CETP increase risk of intracerebral hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Guido J.; Phuah, Chia‐Ling; Radmanesh, Farid; Brouwers, H. Bart; Battey, Thomas W. K.; Biffi, Alessandro; Peloso, Gina M.; Liu, Dajiang J.; Ayres, Alison M.; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M.; Selim, Magdy; Meschia, James F.; Brown, Devin L.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Silliman, Scott L.; Tirschwell, David L.; Flaherty, Matthew L.; Kraft, Peter; Jagiella, Jeremiasz M.; Schmidt, Helena; Hansen, Björn M.; Jimenez‐Conde, Jordi; Giralt‐Steinhauer, Eva; Elosua, Roberto; Cuadrado‐Godia, Elisa; Soriano, Carolina; van Nieuwenhuizen, Koen M.; Klijn, Catharina J. M.; Rannikmae, Kristiina; Samarasekera, Neshika; Salman, Rustam Al‐Shahi; Sudlow, Catherine L.; Deary, Ian J.; Morotti, Andrea; Pezzini, Alessandro; Pera, Joanna; Urbanik, Andrzej; Pichler, Alexander; Enzinger, Christian; Norrving, Bo; Montaner, Joan; Fernandez‐Cadenas, Israel; Delgado, Pilar; Roquer, Jaume; Lindgren, Arne; Slowik, Agnieszka; Schmidt, Reinhold; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kittner, Steven J.; Waddy, Salina P.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Abecasis, Goncalo; Willer, Cristen J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Woo, Daniel; Rosand, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Objective In observational epidemiologic studies, higher plasma high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‐C) has been associated with increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). DNA sequence variants that decrease cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene activity increase plasma HDL‐C; as such, medicines that inhibit CETP and raise HDL‐C are in clinical development. Here, we test the hypothesis that CETP DNA sequence variants associated with higher HDL‐C also increase risk for ICH. Methods We performed 2 candidate‐gene analyses of CETP. First, we tested individual CETP variants in a discovery cohort of 1,149 ICH cases and 1,238 controls from 3 studies, followed by replication in 1,625 cases and 1,845 controls from 5 studies. Second, we constructed a genetic risk score comprised of 7 independent variants at the CETP locus and tested this score for association with HDL‐C as well as ICH risk. Results Twelve variants within CETP demonstrated nominal association with ICH, with the strongest association at the rs173539 locus (odds ratio [OR] = 1.25, standard error [SE] = 0.06, p = 6.0 × 10−4) with no heterogeneity across studies (I 2 = 0%). This association was replicated in patients of European ancestry (p = 0.03). A genetic score of CETP variants found to increase HDL‐C by ∼2.85mg/dl in the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium was strongly associated with ICH risk (OR = 1.86, SE = 0.13, p = 1.39 × 10−6). Interpretation Genetic variants in CETP associated with increased HDL‐C raise the risk of ICH. Given ongoing therapeutic development in CETP inhibition and other HDL‐raising strategies, further exploration of potential adverse cerebrovascular outcomes may be warranted. Ann Neurol 2016;80:730–740 PMID:27717122

  19. Increased risk of migraine in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Mallbris, Lotus; Hilmar Gislason, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis and migraine are common conditions with potential overlap of pathophysiological mechanisms. Both these diseases have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk but little is known about their interplay. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the link between psoriasis...... and adjusted incidence rate ratios were estimated by Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The study comprised a total of 5,379,859 individuals, including 53,006 and 6831 patients with mild and severe psoriasis, respectively, and 6243 patients with psoriatic arthritis. Fully adjusted incidence rate ratios...... for migraine were 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.30-1.45), 1.55 (95% confidence interval 1.29-1.86), and 1.92 (95% confidence interval 1.65-2.22) for mild psoriasis, severe psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis, respectively. Stratification for sex revealed increased risk of migraine in both male and female...

  20. Impact of acute psychological stress on cardiovascular risk factors in face of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristian T; Shelton, Richard C; Wan, Jun; Li, Li

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with insulin resistance (IR) are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Psychological stress may contribute to develop CVD in IR, although mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that individuals with IR have enhanced emotional and physiological responses to acute psychological stress, leading to increased CVD risk. Sixty participants were enrolled into the study, and classified into IR group (n = 31) and insulin sensitive group (n = 29) according to the Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, which was calculated based on an oral glucose tolerance test. The Trier social stress test, a standardized experimental stress paradigm, was performed on each participant, and emotional and physiological responses were examined. Blood was collected from each subject for insulin, cytokines, and cortisol measurements. Compared with the insulin-sensitive group, individuals with IR had significantly lower ratings of energy and calm, but higher fatigue levels in response to acute stressors. Individuals with IR also showed blunted heart rate reactivity following stress. In addition, the IR status was worsened by acute psychological stress as demonstrated by further increased insulin secretion. Furthermore, individuals with IR showed significantly increased levels of leptin and interleukin-6, but decreased levels of adiponectin, at baseline, stress test, and post-stress period. Our findings in individuals with IR under acute stress would allow a better understanding of the risks for developing CVD and to tailor the interventions for better outcomes.

  1. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Increased Risk for Malaria Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-23

    This podcast describes research done in Ghana examining a correlation between type 2 diabetes and a possible increased risk for malaria infection in adults. Dr. Manoj Menon, a medical officer in the Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria in the Center for Global Health, discusses questions the study raises.  Created: 9/23/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases; Center for Global Health.   Date Released: 9/23/2010.

  2. Prescription opioid analgesics increase the risk of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Svrakic, Dragan M; Freedland, Kenneth E; Chrusciel, Timothy; Balasubramanian, Sumitra; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Lawler, Elizabeth V; Lustman, Patrick J

    2014-03-01

    Prescription opioid analgesic use has quintupled recently. Evidence linking opioid use with depression emanates from animal models and studies of persons with co-occurring substance use and major depression. Little is known about depressogenic effects of opioid use in other populations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prescription opioids are associated with increased risk of diagnosed depression. Retrospective cohort study, new user design. Medical record data from 49,770 US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system patients with no recent (24-month) history of opioid use or a diagnosis of depression in 1999 and 2000. Propensity scores were used to control for bias by indication, and the data were weighted to balance the distribution of covariates by duration of incident opioid exposure. Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for painful conditions were used to estimate the association between duration of prescription opioid use and the subsequent risk of development of depression between 2001 and 2007. Of 49,770 patients who were prescribed an opioid analgesic, 91 % had a prescription for 180 days. Compared to patients whose prescription was for opioid prescription increased (HR = 1.25; 95 % CI: 1.05-1.46 for 90-180 days, and HR = 1.51; 95 % CI:1.31-1.74 for > 180 days). In this sample of veterans with no recent (24-month) history of depression or opioid analgesic use, the risk of development of depression increased as the duration of opioid analgesic exposure increased. The potential for depressogenic effect should be considered in risk-benefit discussions, and patients initiating opioid treatment should be monitored for development of depression.

  3. Modeling Linkage Disequilibrium Increases Accuracy of Polygenic Risk Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Yang, Jian; Finucane, Hilary K; Gusev, Alexander; Lindström, Sara; Ripke, Stephan; Genovese, Giulio; Loh, Po-Ru; Bhatia, Gaurav; Do, Ron; Hayeck, Tristan; Won, Hong-Hee; Kathiresan, Sekar; Pato, Michele; Pato, Carlos; Tamimi, Rulla; Stahl, Eli; Zaitlen, Noah; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Belbin, Gillian; Kenny, Eimear E; Schierup, Mikkel H; De Jager, Philip; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; McCarroll, Steve; Daly, Mark; Purcell, Shaun; Chasman, Daniel; Neale, Benjamin; Goddard, Michael; Visscher, Peter M; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L

    2015-10-01

    Polygenic risk scores have shown great promise in predicting complex disease risk and will become more accurate as training sample sizes increase. The standard approach for calculating risk scores involves linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based marker pruning and applying a p value threshold to association statistics, but this discards information and can reduce predictive accuracy. We introduce LDpred, a method that infers the posterior mean effect size of each marker by using a prior on effect sizes and LD information from an external reference panel. Theory and simulations show that LDpred outperforms the approach of pruning followed by thresholding, particularly at large sample sizes. Accordingly, predicted R(2) increased from 20.1% to 25.3% in a large schizophrenia dataset and from 9.8% to 12.0% in a large multiple sclerosis dataset. A similar relative improvement in accuracy was observed for three additional large disease datasets and for non-European schizophrenia samples. The advantage of LDpred over existing methods will grow as sample sizes increase. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling Linkage Disequilibrium Increases Accuracy of Polygenic Risk Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J.; Yang, Jian; Finucane, Hilary K.; Gusev, Alexander; Lindström, Sara; Ripke, Stephan; Genovese, Giulio; Loh, Po-Ru; Bhatia, Gaurav; Do, Ron; Hayeck, Tristan; Won, Hong-Hee; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T.R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberly D.; Chan, Raymond C.K.; Chen, Ronald Y.L.; Chen, Eric Y.H.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F.C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Del Favero, Jurgen; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Durmishi, Naser; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedl, Marion; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodrguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Golimbet, Vera; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; Grove, Jakob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julia, Antonio; Kahn, Rene S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Kahler, Anna K.; Laurent, Claudine; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Lee, S. Hong; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Lnnqvist, Jouko; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B.; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Mller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O’Callaghan, Eadbhard; O’Dushlaine, Colm; O’Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; Van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietilinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; Smoller, Jordan W.; So, Hon-Cheong; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Sderman, Erik; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tooney, Paul A.; Tosato, Sarah; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H.M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Wu, Jing Qin; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Stefansson, Kari; Visscher, Peter M.; Adolfsson, Rolf; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blackwood, Douglas H.R.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Børglum, Anders D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tonu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jonsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; St. Clair, David; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Daly, Mark J.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Adank, Muriel; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Baglietto, Laura; Berndt, Sonja; Blomquist, Carl; Canzian, Federico; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J.; Crisponi, Laura; Czene, Kamila; Dahmen, Norbert; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Easton, Douglas; Eliassen, A. Heather; Figueroa, Jonine; Fletcher, Olivia; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gibson, Lorna; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hall, Per; Hazra, Aditi; Hein, Rebecca; Henderson, Brian E.; Hofman, Albert; Hopper, John L.; Irwanto, Astrid; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Lichtner, Peter; Lindström, Sara; Liu, Jianjun; Lund, Eiliv; Makalic, Enes; Meindl, Alfons; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Muranen, Taru A.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Peeters, Petra H.; Peto, Julian; Prentice, Ross L.; Rahman, Nazneen; Sánchez, María José; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Southey, Melissa C.; Tamimi, Rulla; Travis, Ruth; Turnbull, Clare; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wang, Zhaoming; Whittemore, Alice S.; Yang, Rose; Zheng, Wei; Kathiresan, Sekar; Pato, Michele; Pato, Carlos; Tamimi, Rulla; Stahl, Eli; Zaitlen, Noah; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Belbin, Gillian; Kenny, Eimear E.; Schierup, Mikkel H.; De Jager, Philip; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; McCarroll, Steve; Daly, Mark; Purcell, Shaun; Chasman, Daniel; Neale, Benjamin; Goddard, Michael; Visscher, Peter M.; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.

    2015-01-01

    Polygenic risk scores have shown great promise in predicting complex disease risk and will become more accurate as training sample sizes increase. The standard approach for calculating risk scores involves linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based marker pruning and applying a p value threshold to association statistics, but this discards information and can reduce predictive accuracy. We introduce LDpred, a method that infers the posterior mean effect size of each marker by using a prior on effect sizes and LD information from an external reference panel. Theory and simulations show that LDpred outperforms the approach of pruning followed by thresholding, particularly at large sample sizes. Accordingly, predicted R2 increased from 20.1% to 25.3% in a large schizophrenia dataset and from 9.8% to 12.0% in a large multiple sclerosis dataset. A similar relative improvement in accuracy was observed for three additional large disease datasets and for non-European schizophrenia samples. The advantage of LDpred over existing methods will grow as sample sizes increase. PMID:26430803

  5. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis will increase the risk of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Junyao; Yang Ming; Li Ping; Su Zhenzhong; Gao Peng; Zhang Jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the studies investigating the increased risk of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).Data sources Data cited in this review were obtained mainly from PubMed and Medline from 1999 to 2013 and highly regarded older publications were also included.Study selection We identified,retrieved and reviewed the information on the frequency,risk factors,anatomical features,histological types,clinical manifestations,computed tomography findings and underlying mechanisms of lung cancer in IPF patients.Results The prevalence rates of lung cancer in patients with IPF (4.8% to 48%) are much higher than patients without IPF (2.0% to 6.4%).The risk factors for lung cancer in IPF include smoking,male gender,and age.Lung cancers often occur in the peripheral lung zones where fibrotic changes are predominant.Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common types of lung cancer in patients with IPF.Radiologic features of these patients include peripherally located,ill-defined mass mimicking air-space disease.The underlying mechanisms of the development of lung cancer in patients with IPF have not been fully understood,but may include the inflammatory response,epithelial injury and/or abnormalities,aberrant fibroblast proliferation,epigenetic and genetic changes,reduced cell-to-cell communication,and activation of specific signaling pathways.Conclusions These findings suggest that IPF is associated with increased lung cancer risk.It is necessary to raise the awareness of lung cancer risk in IPF patients among physicians and patients.

  6. Does the risk of cerebral palsy increase or decrease with increasing gestational age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy-Kaulbeck Lynn

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is generally accepted that the risk of cerebral palsy decreases with increasing gestational age of live born infants. However, recent studies have shown that cerebral palsy often has prenatal antecedents including congenital malformations, vascular insults and maternal infection. Cerebral palsy is therefore better viewed as occurring among fetuses, rather than among infants. We explored the epidemiologic implications of this change in perspective. Methods We used recently published data from Shiga Prefecture, Japan and from North-East England to examine the pattern of gestational age-specific rates of cerebral palsy under these alternative perspectives. We first calculated gestational age-specific rates of cerebral palsy as per convention, by dividing the number of cases of cerebral palsy identified among live births within any gestational age category by the number of live births in that gestational age category. Under the alternative formulation, we calculated gestational age-specific rates of cerebral palsy by dividing the number of cases of cerebral palsy identified among live births within any gestational age category by the number of fetuses who were at risk of being born at that gestation and being afflicted with cerebral palsy. Results Under the conventional formulation, cerebral palsy rates decreased with increasing gestational age from 63.9 per 1,000 live births at Conclusions The fetuses-at-risk approach is the appropriate epidemiologic formulation for calculating the gestational age-specific rate of cerebral palsy from a causal perspective. It shows that the risk of cerebral palsy increases as gestational duration increases. This compelling view of cerebral palsy risk may help refocus research aimed at understanding and preventing cerebral palsy.

  7. How family members manage risk around functional decline: the autonomy management process in households facing dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Brandon; Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Gomez, Yarin

    2015-04-01

    Most dementia research investigates the social context of declining ability through studies of decision-making around medical treatment and end-of-life care. This study seeks to fill an important gap in research about how family members manage the risks of functional decline at home. Drawing on three waves of in-depth interviewing in 2012-2014, it investigates how family members in US households manage decline in an affected individual's natural range of daily activities over time. The findings show that early on in the study period affected individuals were perceived to have awareness of their decline and routinely drew on family members for support. Support transformed when family members detected that the individual's deficit awareness had diminished, creating a corresponding increase in risk of self-harm around everyday activities. With a loss of confidence in the individual's ability to regulate his or her own activities to avoid these risks, family members employed unilateral practices to manage the individual's autonomy around his or her activity involvements. These practices typically involved various deceits and ruses to discourage elders from engaging in activities perceived as potentially dangerous. The study concludes by discussing the implications that the social context of interpretive work around awareness and risk plays an important role in how families perceive an elder's functional ability and manage his or her activity involvements.

  8. CKD increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin; Iyengar, Sudha K; Wang, Jie Jin

    2008-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the United States and often coexists with chronic kidney disease. Both conditions share common genetic and environmental risk factors. A total of 1183 participants aged 54+ were examined in the population-based, prospective cohort Blue Mountains Eye Study (Australia) to determine if chronic kidney disease increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Moderate chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate macular degeneration was 3.9% in participants with no/mild chronic kidney disease (35 of 897) and 17.5% in those with moderate chronic kidney disease (50 of 286). After adjusting for age, sex, cigarette smoking, hypertension, complement factor H polymorphism, and other risk factors, persons with moderate chronic kidney disease were 3 times more likely to develop early age-related macular degeneration than persons with no/mild chronic kidney disease (odds ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 5.7, P macular degeneration (odds ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 2.8, P chronic kidney disease have a higher risk of early age-related macular degeneration, suggesting the possibility of shared pathophysiologic mechanisms between the two conditions.

  9. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2016-03-02

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.

  10. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.

  11. Are sedatives and hypnotics associated with increased suicide risk of suicide in the elderly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waern Margda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While antidepressant-induced suicidality is a concern in younger age groups, there is mounting evidence that these drugs may reduce suicidality in the elderly. Regarding a possible association between other types of psychoactive drugs and suicide, results are inconclusive. Sedatives and hypnotics are widely prescribed to elderly persons with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance. The aim of this case-control study was to determine whether specific types of psychoactive drugs were associated with suicide risk in late life, after controlling for appropriate indications. Methods The study area included the city of Gothenburg and two adjacent counties (total 65+ population 210 703 at the start of the study. A case controlled study of elderly (65+ suicides was performed and close informants for 85 suicide cases (46 men, 39 women mean age 75 years were interviewed by a psychiatrist. A population based comparison group (n = 153 was created and interviewed face-to-face. Primary care and psychiatric records were reviewed for both suicide cases and comparison subjects. All available information was used to determine past-month mental disorders in accordance with DSM-IV. Results Antidepressants, antipsychotics, sedatives and hypnotics were associated with increased suicide risk in the crude analysis. After adjustment for affective and anxiety disorders neither antidepressants in general nor SSRIs showed an association with suicide. Antipsychotics had no association with suicide after adjustment for psychotic disorders. Sedative treatment was associated with an almost fourteen-fold increase of suicide risk in the crude analyses and remained an independent risk factor for suicide even after adjustment for any DSM-IV disorder. Having a current prescription for a hypnotic was associated with a four-fold increase in suicide risk in the adjusted model. Conclusion Sedatives and hypnotics were both associated with increased

  12. The changing face of nanomaterials: Risk assessment challenges along the value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Mats-Olof; Simkó, Myrtill

    2017-03-01

    Risk assessment (RA) of manufactured nanomaterials (MNM) is essential for regulatory purposes and risk management activities. Similar to RA of "classical" chemicals, MNM RA requires knowledge about exposure as well as of hazard potential and dose response relationships. What makes MNM RA especially challenging is the multitude of materials (which is expected to increase substantially in the future), the complexity of MNM value chains and life cycles, the accompanying possible changes in material properties over time and in contact with various environmental and organismal milieus, and the difficulties to obtain proper exposure data and to consider the proper dose metric. This article discusses these challenges and also critically overviews the current state of the art regarding MNM RA approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Kenji [Hiroshima City Hospital (Japan); Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-12-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  14. Polygenic risk score is associated with increased disease risk in 52 Finnish breast cancer families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranen, Taru A; Mavaddat, Nasim; Khan, Sofia; Fagerholm, Rainer; Pelttari, Liisa; Lee, Andrew; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Easton, Douglas F; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-08-01

    The risk of developing breast cancer is increased in women with family history of breast cancer and particularly in families with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, many women with a positive family history never develop the disease. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on the risk effects of multiple common genetic variants have been proposed for individual risk assessment on a population level. We investigate the applicability of the PRS for risk prediction within breast cancer families. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and a PRS based on 75 common genetic variants in 52 Finnish breast cancer families including 427 genotyped women and pedigree information on ~4000 additional individuals by comparing the affected to healthy family members, as well as in a case-control dataset comprising 1272 healthy population controls and 1681 breast cancer cases with information on family history. Family structure was summarized using the BOADICEA risk prediction model. The PRS was associated with increased disease risk in women with family history of breast cancer as well as in women within the breast cancer families. The odds ratio (OR) for breast cancer within the family dataset was 1.55 [95 % CI 1.26-1.91] per unit increase in the PRS, similar to OR in unselected breast cancer cases of the case-control dataset (1.49 [1.38-1.62]). High PRS-values were informative for risk prediction in breast cancer families, whereas for the low PRS-categories the results were inconclusive. The PRS is informative in women with family history of breast cancer and should be incorporated within pedigree-based clinical risk assessment.

  15. Topiramate increases the risk of valproic acid-induced encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Young; Kim, Dong Wook; Chu, Kon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Moon, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sang Kun

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic encephalopathy is a rare but serious complication of valproic acid (VPA) therapy that usually presents with impaired consciousness or increased seizure frequency. Although it has been suggested that topiramate (TPM) increases the risk of VPA-induced encephalopathy, the additional risk in patients receiving TPM therapy has not been evaluated. We reviewed all adult patients who took VPA between January 2005 and February 2009 at the Seoul National University Hospital and identified patients with VPA-induced encephalopathy based on clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) data. Information on sex, age, serum ammonia level, serum VPA level, liver function test, and EEG was collected from patient registry and medical data. We enrolled 8,372 patients who received VPA therapy and 1,236 patients who received VPA/TPM combination therapy. We identified 11 patients with VPA-induced encephalopathy (0.13%), 7 of whom received a combination therapy of VPA and TPM. The odds ratio of VPA-induced encephalopathy with TPM over that without TPM was 10.16. There were no significant differences in sex distribution, number of antiepileptic agents, ammonia level, VPA serum level, underlying diseases, dosage of VPA, duration of VPA treatment, treatment of encephalopathy, and outcomes between the two groups. Our study showed that the prevalence of VPA-induced encephalopathy is approximately 0.1% among patients treated with VPA and that the risk of this condition, although still low, can increase by approximately 10 times in the presence of TPM therapy. Based on these results, we suggest that TPM should be carefully used in patients receiving VPA treatment.

  16. Do calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular events?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liew SM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AssessMadam Chan, a 65-year-old retired staff nurse, walks into my clinic and asks for a refill of her prescription of losartan 50 mg daily and calcium carbonate 1200 mg daily. Her blood pressure is well controlled at 130/80 and she feels well otherwise. Examination and her annual investigation reports reveal no abnormalities.I remember the news of calcium supplements increasing the risk of cardiovascular events on BBC. Her bone mineral density scan, which was carried out a year ago, was normal. Madam Chan was started on calcium supplements by another doctor 5 years ago.

  17. Cardiovascular risk may be increased in women with unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verit, Fatma Ferda; Yildiz Zeyrek, Fadile; Zebitay, Ali Galip; Akyol, Hurkan

    2017-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is associated with female infertility caused by conditions such as polycystic ovarian disease, obesity, thyroid dysfunction, and endometriosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether any relationship exists between CVD and unexplained infertility. Sixty-five women with unexplained infertility and 65 fertile controls were enrolled in the study. CVD risk markers such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), insulin resistance (defined by the homeostasis model assessment ratio), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were assessed. TG, TC, LDL, and hs-CRP levels were higher and HDL levels were lower in patients with unexplained infertility than in fertile controls (p<0.05 for all). Positive associations were found between unexplained infertility and TG, TC, LDL, and hs-CRP levels, and a negative correlation was found for HDL (p<0.05 for all). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that TG, HDL, and hs-CRP were independent variables associated with unexplained infertility. Our study showed that women with unexplained infertility had an atherogenic lipid profile and elevated hs-CRP levels, suggesting a higher risk of developing CVD in the future. Further studies with larger groups are needed to investigate the nature of this link.

  18. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Griffiths, Roland R.; O'Grady, Kevin E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Methods Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from one large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was measured with DSM-IV criteria. Results After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%wt of students were classified as “low-frequency” energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%wt as “high-frequency” users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both non-users (AOR=2.40, 95% CI=1.27-4.56, p=.007) and low-frequency users (AOR=1.86, 95% CI=1.10, 3.14, p=.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from non-users on their risk for alcohol dependence. Conclusions Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. PMID:21073486

  19. Characteristics of Crashes that Increase the Risk of Serious Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augenstein, Jeffrey; Perdeck, Elana; Stratton, James; Digges, Kennerly; Bahouth, George

    2003-01-01

    The advent of Automatic Crash Notification Systems (ACN) offers the possibility of immediately locating crashes and of determining the crash characteristics by analyzing the data transmitted from the vehicle. A challenge to EMS decision makers is to identify those crashes with serious injuries and deploy the appropriate rescue and treatment capabilities. The objective of this paper is to determine the crash characteristics that increase the risk of serious injury. Within this paper, regression models are presented which relate occupant, vehicle and impact characteristics to the probability of serious injury using the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale Level (MAIS). The accuracy of proposed models were evaluated using National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) and Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) case data. Cumulatively, the positive prediction rate of models identifying the likelihood of MAIS3 and higher injuries was 74.2%. Crash mode has a significant influence of injury risk. For crashes with 30 mph deltaV, the risk of MAIS3+ injury for each mode is 38.9%, 83.8%, 47.8% and 19.9% for frontal, near side, far side and rear impact crashes, respectively. In addition to deltaV, a number of crash variables were identified that assist in the accurate prediction of the probability of MAIS 3+ injury. These variables include occupant age, partial ejection, safety belt usage, intrusion near the occupant, and crashes with a narrow object. For frontal crashes, added crash variables include air bag deployment, steering wheel deformation, and multiple impact crashes. The quantitative relationship between each of these crash variables and injury risk has been determined and validated by regression analysis based on NASS/CDS and CIREN data. PMID:12941251

  20. Increased sexually transmitted infection incidence in a low risk population: identifying the risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shiely, Frances

    2010-04-01

    Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.

  1. Women referred for occupational risk assessment in pregnancy have no increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Signe Brøker; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2015-01-01

    /or that the occupational risk assessment and counselling of pregnant women are preventing these selected adverse pregnancy outcomes. FUNDING: The Research Unit at Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at Bispebjerg Hospital supported the study financially. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant. The study......INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to study the association between pregnant women's referral status for occupational risk assessment, and their risk of preterm delivery (....72-1.17). CONCLUSION: The women who are referred for occupational risk assessment at two large occupational university departments are not at an increased risk of preterm birth or of delivering low birth weight children. This may reflect that reproductive hazards in Danish workplaces are limited and...

  2. Food practices associated with increased risk of bacterial food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blignautas

    food-borne disease prevention guidelines consumers can undo ... Other factors that appear to influence the prevalence of bacterial .... markets, fast-food outlets and street vendors (Opare- .... faces. The choice of cloth for the drying of hands is.

  3. Modifiable risk factors for increased arterial stiffness in outpatient nephrology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Elewa

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV, is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. Arterial stiffness increases with age. However, modifiable risk factors such as smoking, BP and salt intake also impact on PWV. The finding of modifiable risk factors may lead to the identification of treatable factors, and, thus, is of interest to practicing nephrologist. We have now studied the prevalence and correlates of arterial stiffness, assessed by PWV, in 191 patients from nephrology outpatient clinics in order to identify modifiable risk factors for arterial stiffness that may in the future guide therapeutic decision-making. PWV was above normal levels for age in 85/191 (44.5% patients. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, systolic BP, diabetes mellitus, serum uric acid and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy or calcium-containing medication were independent predictors of PWV. A new parameter, Delta above upper limit of normal PWV (Delta PWV was defined to decrease the weight of age on PWV values. Delta PWV was calculated as (measured PWV - (upper limit of the age-adjusted PWV values for the general population. Mean±SD Delta PWV was 0.76±1.60 m/sec. In multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, active smoking and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy remained independent predictors of higher delta PWV, while age, urinary potassium and beta blocker therapy were independent predictors of lower delta PWV. In conclusion, arterial stiffness was frequent in nephrology outpatients. Systolic blood pressure, smoking, serum uric acid, calcium-containing medications, potassium metabolism and non-use of beta blockers are modifiable factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in Nephrology outpatients.

  4. Modifiable risk factors for increased arterial stiffness in outpatient nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elewa, Usama; Fernandez-Fernandez, Beatriz; Alegre, Raquel; Sanchez-Niño, Maria D; Mahillo-Fernández, Ignacio; Perez-Gomez, Maria Vanessa; El-Fishawy, Hussein; Belal, Dawlat; Ortiz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. Arterial stiffness increases with age. However, modifiable risk factors such as smoking, BP and salt intake also impact on PWV. The finding of modifiable risk factors may lead to the identification of treatable factors, and, thus, is of interest to practicing nephrologist. We have now studied the prevalence and correlates of arterial stiffness, assessed by PWV, in 191 patients from nephrology outpatient clinics in order to identify modifiable risk factors for arterial stiffness that may in the future guide therapeutic decision-making. PWV was above normal levels for age in 85/191 (44.5%) patients. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, systolic BP, diabetes mellitus, serum uric acid and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy or calcium-containing medication were independent predictors of PWV. A new parameter, Delta above upper limit of normal PWV (Delta PWV) was defined to decrease the weight of age on PWV values. Delta PWV was calculated as (measured PWV) - (upper limit of the age-adjusted PWV values for the general population). Mean±SD Delta PWV was 0.76±1.60 m/sec. In multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, active smoking and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy remained independent predictors of higher delta PWV, while age, urinary potassium and beta blocker therapy were independent predictors of lower delta PWV. In conclusion, arterial stiffness was frequent in nephrology outpatients. Systolic blood pressure, smoking, serum uric acid, calcium-containing medications, potassium metabolism and non-use of beta blockers are modifiable factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in Nephrology outpatients.

  5. Increased risk of aortic valve stenosis in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Usman; Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease including atherosclerosis. The pathogenesis of aortic valve stenosis (AS) also includes an inflammatory component. We therefore investigated the risk of AS in patients with psoriasis compared...... for analysis. During the study period, we identified 58 747 patients with mild psoriasis and 11 918 patients with severe psoriasis. The overall incidence rates for AS were 8.09, 16.07, and 20.08 per 10 000 person-years for the reference population (48 539 cases [mean follow-up 12.3 years]), mild psoriasis (509...... cases [mean follow-up 6.2 years]), and severe psoriasis (99 cases [mean follow-up 5.4 years]), respectively. Correspondingly, the fully adjusted IRRs for AS were markedly increased in patients with psoriasis with IRR 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.33) and IRR 1.61 (CI 1.32-1.96) for subjects...

  6. Thyroid cancer risk is not increased in diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    -inflammatory drugs might be associated with a significantly lower risk. CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of an overall association between diabetes and thyroid cancer, but patients with diabetes duration <5 years have a significantly lower risk. Sulfonylurea may increase the risk of thyroid cancer.

  7. Increased Baseline C-Reactive Protein Concentrations Are Associated with Increased Risk of Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Jeppe; Benfield, Thomas; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    population cohort, including 3592 in whom infectious disease developed, and another 60 896 individuals from a cross-sectional general population study, of whom 13 332 developed infectious disease; 55% were women, and the mean age was 57 years. Hospital diagnoses of infections in 1977-2010 were based....... RESULTS: Individuals with CRP >3 mg/L had 1.2 and 1.7 times increased risk of infectious disease, in the prospective general population cohort and the cross-sectional general population study, respectively, compared with individuals with CRP

  8. Optimal sharing of quantity risk for a coalition of wind power producers facing nodal prices

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E. Y.

    2012-06-01

    It is widely accepted that aggregation of geographically diverse wind energy resources offers compelling potential to mitigate wind power variability, as wind speed at different geographic locations tends to decorrelate with increasing spatial separation. In this paper, we explore the extent to which a coalition of wind power producers can exploit the statistical benefits of aggregation to mitigate the risk of quantity shortfall with respect to forward contract offerings for energy. We propose a simple augmentation of the existing two-settlement market system with nodal pricing to permit quantity risk sharing among wind power producers by affording the group a recourse opportunity to utilize improved forecasts of their ensuing wind energy production to collectively modify their forward contracted positions so as to utilize the projected surplus in generation at certain buses to balance the projected shortfall in generation at complementary buses. Working within this framework, we show that the problem of optimally sizing a set of forward contracts for a group of wind power producers reduces to convex programming and derive closed form expressions for the set of optimal recourse policies. We also asses the willingness of individual wind power producers to form a coalition to cooperatively offer contracts for energy. We first show that the expected profit derived from coalitional contract offerings with recourse is greater than that achievable through independent contract offerings. And, using tools from coalitional game theory, we show that the core for our game is non-empty.

  9. Probability Assessment and Risk Management of Progressive Collapse in Strategic Buildings Facing Blast Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, as a result of increased terrorist and bomb attacks throughout the globe in the vicinity of strategic buildings, designing these structures against impact loads, particularly the blast-related ones, has been taken into more consideration. The current procedure for designing the structure against an explosion is a design against the local failure of the current elements in the first step and then, in the next step, against local damage as well as tactful thinking to prevent this damage from spreading to other parts of the structure. The present research investigates the impacts of explosives, derived from probable terror–stricken scenarios inside and outside a strategic four-story steel building with a special moment frame system. Then, the resistive capacity of the damaged building (due to blast has been evaluated against the progressive collapse, and finally, the rate of the collapse risk and the reliability of the structure have been obtained by presenting a probable method. Thus, the vulnerable parts inside and outside the building are identified and safety measures have been determined, so that in case of no safety or excessive collapse risk- access to dangerous parts of the building could be reinforced or limited. Results show that progressive collapse probability and reliability of the building are 57% and 43% respectively.

  10. Risk Factors Associated with Increased Morbidity in Living Liver Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candido, Helry L.; da Fonseca, Eduardo A.; Feier, Flávia H.; Pugliese, Renata; Benavides, Marcel A.; Silva, Enis D.; Gordon, Karina; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Canet, Jaume; Chapchap, Paulo; Neto, Joao Seda

    2015-01-01

    Living donor liver donation (LDLD) is an alternative to cadaveric liver donation. We aimed at identifying risk factors and developing a score for prediction of postoperative complications (POCs) after LDLD in donors. This is a retrospective cohort study in 688 donors between June 1995 and February 2014 at Hospital Sírio-Libanês and A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, in São Paulo, Brazil. Primary outcome was POC graded ≥III according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Left lateral segment (LLS), left lobe (LL), and right lobe resections (RL) were conducted in 492 (71.4%), 109 (15.8%), and 87 (12.6%) donors, respectively. In total, 43 (6.2%) developed POCs, which were more common after RL than LLS and LL (14/87 (16.1%) versus 23/492 (4.5%) and 6/109 (5.5%), resp., p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that RL resection (OR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.32 to 3.01; p = 0.008), smoking status (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.35 to 7.56; p = 0.012), and blood transfusion (OR: 3.15, 95% CI: 1.45 to 6.84; p = 0.004) were independently associated with POCs. RL resection, intraoperative blood transfusion, and smoking were associated with increased risk for POCs in donors. PMID:26788361

  11. Dyslipidemia is associated with an increased risk of nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, James H; Woo, Jason R; Chang, David C; Chi, Thomas; L'Esperance, James O; Stoller, Marshall L; Sur, Roger L

    2015-02-01

    The pathophysiology of nephrolithiasis is multifactorial. Obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension are implicated in its formation. Dyslipidemia (DLD) recently has received attention as well. Congruent with a vascular etiology in stone formation, DLD theoretically would predispose patients to nephrolithiasis. We investigated a possible association of DLD with nephrolithiasis. A random cohort of 60,000 patients was established by collecting the first 5,000 patient charts per month in the year 2000. After excluding pediatric patients, a retrospective study was performed by reviewing age, sex, comorbidities, and last patient follow-up. Median lipid laboratory levels also were reviewed. Descriptive statistics were performed as well as Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis, and univariate and multivariate analyses. 52,184 (22,717 women/29,467 men) patient charts were reviewed. The average age was 31.0 ± 15.2 years. On univariate analysis, DLD was associated with nephrolithiasis with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.2 [Confidence Interval (CI), 1.9-2.5; p nephrolithiasis. DLD was associated with an increased risk of stone disease though the only specific lipid panel associated with lower nephrolithiasis was HDL. Clinicians should consider obtaining lipid levels with the intent that treatment could potentially not only mitigate atherosclerotic disease but also decrease nephrolithiasis risk.

  12. Risk Factors Associated with Increased Morbidity in Living Liver Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helry L. Candido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Living donor liver donation (LDLD is an alternative to cadaveric liver donation. We aimed at identifying risk factors and developing a score for prediction of postoperative complications (POCs after LDLD in donors. This is a retrospective cohort study in 688 donors between June 1995 and February 2014 at Hospital Sírio-Libanês and A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, in São Paulo, Brazil. Primary outcome was POC graded ≥III according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Left lateral segment (LLS, left lobe (LL, and right lobe resections (RL were conducted in 492 (71.4%, 109 (15.8%, and 87 (12.6% donors, respectively. In total, 43 (6.2% developed POCs, which were more common after RL than LLS and LL (14/87 (16.1% versus 23/492 (4.5% and 6/109 (5.5%, resp., p<0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that RL resection (OR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.32 to 3.01; p=0.008, smoking status (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.35 to 7.56; p=0.012, and blood transfusion (OR: 3.15, 95% CI: 1.45 to 6.84; p=0.004 were independently associated with POCs. RL resection, intraoperative blood transfusion, and smoking were associated with increased risk for POCs in donors.

  13. Increasing water temperature and disease risks in aquatic systems: climate change increases the risk of some, but not all, diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Anssi; Rintamäki, Päivi; Jokela, Jukka; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2010-11-01

    Global warming may impose severe risks for aquatic animal health if increasing water temperature leads to an increase in the incidence of parasitic diseases. Essentially, this could take place through a temperature-driven effect on the epidemiology of the disease. For example, higher temperature may boost the rate of disease spread through positive effects on parasite fitness in a weakened host. Increased temperature may also lengthen the transmission season leading to higher total prevalence of infection and more widespread epidemics. However, to date, general understanding of these relationships is limited due to scarcity of long-term empirical data. Here, we present one of the first long-term multi-pathogen data sets on the occurrence of pathogenic bacterial and parasitic infections in relation to increasing temperatures in aquatic systems. We analyse a time-series of disease dynamics on two fish farms in northern Finland from 1986 to 2006. We first demonstrate that the annual mean water temperature increased significantly on both farms over the study period and that the increase was most pronounced in the late summer (July-September). Second, we show that the prevalence of infection (i.e. proportion of fish tanks infected each year) increased with temperature. Interestingly, this pattern was observed in some of the diseases (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Flavobacterium columnare), whereas in the other diseases, the pattern was the opposite (Ichthyobodo necator) or absent (Chilodonella spp.). These results demonstrate the effect of increasing water temperature on aquatic disease dynamics, but also emphasise the importance of the biology of each disease, as well as the role of local conditions, in determining the direction and magnitude of these effects.

  14. Are recreational SCUBA divers with asthma at increased risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ustrup, Amalie; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2016-01-01

    in divers suffering from asthma, obtained from anonymous questionnaires in diving magazines, reported no diving-related injuries among respondents. CONCLUSION: Due to limited evidence difficult to draw valid conclusions, but there are indications that recreational divers with asthma may be at increased risk......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Asthma has traditionally been regarded as a contraindication to Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) diving, although large numbers of patients with asthma dive. The aim of the present review is to provide an update on current knowledge on potential...... disease-related hazards in SUBA-divers with asthma. METHODS: Systematic literature review based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. RESULTS: Seven studies met the criteria for inclusion in the present review (comprising a total of 560 subjects...

  15. Does avian conspicuous colouration increase or reduce predation risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, M; Avilés, J M; Cuervo, J J; Parejo, D; Ruano, F; Zamora-Muñoz, C; Sergio, F; López-Jiménez, L; Tanferna, A; Martín-Vivaldi, M

    2013-09-01

    Animals often announce their unprofitability to predators through conspicuous coloured signals. Here we tested whether the apparently conspicuous colour designs of the four European Coraciiformes and Upupiformes species may have evolved as aposematic signals, or whether instead they imply a cost in terms of predation risk. Because previous studies suggested that these species are unpalatable, we hypothesized that predators could avoid targeting them based on their colours. An experiment was performed where two artificial models of each bird species were exposed simultaneously to raptor predators, one painted so as to resemble the real colour design of these birds, and the other one painted using cryptic colours. Additionally, we used field data on the black kite's diet to compare the selection of these four species to that of other avian prey. Conspicuous models were attacked in equal or higher proportions than their cryptic counterparts, and the attack rate on the four species increased with their respective degree of contrast against natural backgrounds. The analysis of the predator's diet revealed that the two least attacked species were negatively selected in nature despite their abundance. Both conspicuous and cryptic models of one of the studied species (the hoopoe) received fewer attacks than cryptic models of the other three species, suggesting that predators may avoid this species for characteristics other than colour. Globally, our results suggest that the colour of coraciiforms and upupiforms does not function as an aposematic signal that advises predators of their unprofitability, but also that conspicuous colours may increase predation risk in some species, supporting thus the handicap hypothesis.

  16. Risk of contamination of different areas of dentist′s face during dental practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Nejatidanesh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: During dental practice, central areas of the face such as inner part of the eyes and around the nose were most contaminated areas. These parts are the important areas for transmission of infection. It is recommended to use protective means like glasses, mask, and protective shield, which have more protection field in these areas.

  17. Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar; Lindhardsen, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease that affects 2-3% of the population and shares pathophysiologic mechanisms and risk factors with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have suggested psoriasis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Danish guidelines...

  18. Increased Risk of Drug-Induced Hyponatremia during High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Jönsson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the relationship between outdoor temperature in Sweden and the reporting of drug-induced hyponatremia to the Medical Products Agency (MPA. Methods: All individual adverse drug reactions (ADR reported to MPA from 1 January 2010 to 31 October 2013 of suspected drug-induced hyponatremia and random controls were identified. Reports where the ADR had been assessed as having at least a possible relation to the suspected drug were included. Information on administered drugs, onset date, causality assessment, sodium levels, and the geographical origin of the reports was extracted. A case-crossover design was used to ascertain the association between heat exposure and drug-induced hyponatremia at the individual level, while linear regression was used to study its relationship to sodium concentration in blood. Temperature exposure data were obtained from the nearest observation station to the reported cases. Results: During the study period, 280 reports of hyponatremia were identified. More cases of drug-induced hyponatremia were reported in the warmer season, with a peak in June, while other ADRs showed an opposite annual pattern. The distributed lag non-linear model indicated an increasing odds ratio (OR with increasing temperature in the warm season with a highest odds ratio, with delays of 1–5 days after heat exposure. A cumulative OR for a lag time of 1 to 3 days was estimated at 2.21 at an average daily temperature of 20 °C. The change in sodium per 1 °C increase in temperature was estimated to be −0.37 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.02, −0.72. Conclusions: Warm weather appears to increase the risk of drug-induced hyponatremia

  19. Increased Risk of Drug-Induced Hyponatremia during High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Anna K.; Lövborg, Henrik; Lohr, Wolfgang; Ekman, Bertil; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between outdoor temperature in Sweden and the reporting of drug-induced hyponatremia to the Medical Products Agency (MPA). Methods: All individual adverse drug reactions (ADR) reported to MPA from 1 January 2010 to 31 October 2013 of suspected drug-induced hyponatremia and random controls were identified. Reports where the ADR had been assessed as having at least a possible relation to the suspected drug were included. Information on administered drugs, onset date, causality assessment, sodium levels, and the geographical origin of the reports was extracted. A case-crossover design was used to ascertain the association between heat exposure and drug-induced hyponatremia at the individual level, while linear regression was used to study its relationship to sodium concentration in blood. Temperature exposure data were obtained from the nearest observation station to the reported cases. Results: During the study period, 280 reports of hyponatremia were identified. More cases of drug-induced hyponatremia were reported in the warmer season, with a peak in June, while other ADRs showed an opposite annual pattern. The distributed lag non-linear model indicated an increasing odds ratio (OR) with increasing temperature in the warm season with a highest odds ratio, with delays of 1–5 days after heat exposure. A cumulative OR for a lag time of 1 to 3 days was estimated at 2.21 at an average daily temperature of 20 °C. The change in sodium per 1 °C increase in temperature was estimated to be −0.37 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.02, −0.72). Conclusions: Warm weather appears to increase the risk of drug-induced hyponatremia. PMID:28737683

  20. Face cooling with mist water increases cerebral blood flow during exercise: Effect of changes in facial skin blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiki eMiyazawa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial cooling (FC increases cerebral blood flow (CBF at rest and during exercise; however, the mechanism of this response remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to test our hypothesis that FC causes facial vasoconstriction that diverts skin blood flow (SkBFface towards the middle cerebral artery (MCA Vmean at rest and to a greater extent during exercise. Nine healthy young subjects (20 ± 2 yrs. underwent 3 minutes of FC by fanning and spraying the face with a mist of cold water (~4˚C at rest and during steady-state exercise (heart rate of 120 bpm. We focused on the difference between the averaged data acquired from 1 min immediately before FC and last 1 min of FC. SkBFface, MCA Vmean and MAP were higher during exercise than at rest. As hypothesized, FC decreased SkBFface at rest (-32 ± 4 % and to a greater extent during exercise (-64 ± 10%, P=0.012. Although MCA Vmean was increased by FC (Rest, +1.4 ± 0.5 cm/s; Exercise, +1.4 ± 0.6 cm/s, the amount of the FC-evoked changes in MCA Vmean at rest and during exercise differed among subjects. In addition, changes in MCA Vmean with FC did not correlate with concomitant changes in SkBFface (r=0.095, P=0.709. MAP was also increased by FC (Rest, +6.2 ± 1.4 mmHg; Exercise, +4.2 ± 1.2 mmHg. These findings suggest that the FC induced increase in CBF during exercise could not be explained only by change in SkBFface.

  1. Effectiveness of personalized face-to-face and telephone nursing counseling interventions for cardiovascular risk factors: a controlled clinical trial 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vílchez Barboza, Vivian; Klijn, Tatiana Paravic; Salazar Molina, Alide; Sáez Carrillo, Katia Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to evaluate the effect and gender differences of an innovative intervention involving in-person and telephone nursing counseling to control cardiovascular risk factors (arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, and overweight), improve health-related quality of life and strengthen self-efficacy and social support in persons using the municipal health centers' cardiovascular health program. Method: a randomized controlled clinical trial involving participants randomized into the intervention group who received traditional consultation plus personalized and telephone nursing counseling for 7 months (n = 53) and the control group (n = 56). The study followed the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Statement. Results: women in the intervention group presented a significant increase in the physical and mental health components compared to the control group, with decreases in weight, abdominal circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the atherogenic index. The effects attributable to the intervention in the men in the intervention group were increased physical and emotional roles and decreased systolic and diastolic pressure, waist circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, cardiovascular risk factor, and 10-year coronary risk. Conclusion: this intervention is an effective strategy for the control of three cardiovascular risk factors and the improvement of health-related quality of life. PMID:27508917

  2. [Calcium supplementation and the possible increase in cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero Sáez, Abelardo; Formiga, Francesc; Pujol Farriols, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of osteoporosis treatment is to prevent the occurrence of fragility fractures, and thereby reduce morbidity and mortality. Among the various approaches to the treatment of this disease include ensuring proper calcium intake and to obtain adequate levels of vitamin D. Virtually all clinical trials with drugs used to treat osteoporosis systematically include calcium and vitamin D supplements. In light of the recent publication of clinical trials and meta-analyses, a possible increase in cardiovascular risk, particularly in the form of a myocrdial infarction, is hypothesised in patients taking calcium supplements. However, data published to date are inconclusive. Until the development of new scientific evidence, it seems reasonable to recommend, whenever practicable and individualized for each patient, increasing calcium intake with food and reserve supplements for patients with very low calcium intake in the diet. It would also be advisable for the administration of total daily dose to be fractionated throughout the day and with meals, and to obtain appropriate levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxycholecalciferol or calcidiol), along with the basic treatment for osteoporosis that is decided to be prescribed to patients.

  3. Extreme Geohazards: Reducing Disaster Risk and Increasing Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, Hans-Peter; Stein, Seth; Brocklebank, Sean; Jules-Plag, Shelley; Campus, Paola

    2014-05-01

    Extreme natural hazards have the potential to cause global disasters and to lead to an escalation of the global sustainability crisis. Floods and droughts pose threats that could reach planetary extent, particularly through secondary economic and social impacts. Earthquakes and tsunamis cause disasters that could exceed the immediate coping capacity of the global economy, particularly in hazardous areas containing megacities, that can be particularly vulnerable to natural hazards if proper emergency protocols and infrastructures are not set in place. Recent events illustrate the destruction extreme hazards can inflict, both directly and indirectly, through domino effects resulting from the interaction with the built environment. Unfortunately, the more humanity learns to cope with relatively frequent (50 to 100 years) natural hazard events, the less concerns remain about the low-probability (one in a few hundred or more years) high-impact events. As a consequence, threats from low-probability extreme floods, droughts, and volcanic eruptions are not appropriately accounted for in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) discussions. With the support of the European Science Foundation (ESF), the Geohazards Community of Practice (GHCP) of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) has developed a White Paper (WP) on the risk associated with low-probability, high-impact geohazards. These events are insufficiently addressed in risk management, although their potential impacts are comparable to those of a large asteroid impact, a global pandemic, or an extreme drought. The WP aims to increase awareness of the risk associated with these events as a basis for a comprehensive risk management. Extreme geohazards have occurred regularly throughout the past, but mostly did not cause major disasters because the exposure of human assets to such hazards and the global population density were much lower than today. The most extreme events during the last 2,000 years would cause today unparalleled

  4. Increased Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) Is Associated With Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer in Jamaican Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, Nitin; Jackson, Maria D.; Bennett, Franklyn; Hébert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin malignancy; and it accounts for the most cancer deaths among Jamaican males. Diet has been implicated in the etiology of prostate cancer, including through its effects on inflammation. Method We examined the association between a newly developed dietary inflammatory index (DII) and prostate cancer in a case-control study of 40-80 year-old Jamaican males. A total of 229 incident cases and 250 controls attended the same urology out-patient clinics at 2 major hospitals and private practitioners in the Kingston, Jamaica Metropolitan area between March 2005 and July 2007. The DII was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was expanded to assess diet and cancer in this Jamaican population. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios, with DII as continuous and expressed as quartiles. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, total energy intake, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, physical activity and family history of prostate cancer. Results Men in the highest quartile of the DII were at higher risk of prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.14–5.04 (Ptrend = 0.08)] compared to men in the lowest DII quartile. Conclusion These data suggest a pro-inflammatory diet, as indicated by increasing DII score, may be a risk factor for prostate cancer in Jamaican men. PMID:26226289

  5. Anthropogenic warming has increased drought risk in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Swain, Daniel L; Touma, Danielle

    2015-03-31

    California is currently in the midst of a record-setting drought. The drought began in 2012 and now includes the lowest calendar-year and 12-mo precipitation, the highest annual temperature, and the most extreme drought indicators on record. The extremely warm and dry conditions have led to acute water shortages, groundwater overdraft, critically low streamflow, and enhanced wildfire risk. Analyzing historical climate observations from California, we find that precipitation deficits in California were more than twice as likely to yield drought years if they occurred when conditions were warm. We find that although there has not been a substantial change in the probability of either negative or moderately negative precipitation anomalies in recent decades, the occurrence of drought years has been greater in the past two decades than in the preceding century. In addition, the probability that precipitation deficits co-occur with warm conditions and the probability that precipitation deficits produce drought have both increased. Climate model experiments with and without anthropogenic forcings reveal that human activities have increased the probability that dry precipitation years are also warm. Further, a large ensemble of climate model realizations reveals that additional global warming over the next few decades is very likely to create ∼ 100% probability that any annual-scale dry period is also extremely warm. We therefore conclude that anthropogenic warming is increasing the probability of co-occurring warm-dry conditions like those that have created the acute human and ecosystem impacts associated with the "exceptional" 2012-2014 drought in California.

  6. Complex contribution of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder to veteran suicide: facing an increasing challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elizabeth A D

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this case study is to present the complex contribution of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to suicide and international standards of treatment among veterans deployed to the Middle East. PTSD carries increased physical and psychological health risk in combat soldiers. Internationally, guidelines for PTSD promote cognitive behavior therapies, specifically exposure therapy, as first line treatment; however, implementation varies among countries. Evidence supports the benefit of exposure-based psychotherapy for combat-related PTSD. Commonly prescribed antidepressants and other psychotherapy treatments may not be as beneficial. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Risk Analysis and Prediction of Floor Failure Mechanisms at Longwall Face in Parvadeh-I Coal Mine using Rock Engineering System (RES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababaei, Sajjad; Saeedi, Gholamreza; Jalalifar, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    The floor failure at longwall face decreases productivity and safety, increases operation costs, and causes other serious problems. In Parvadeh-I coal mine, the timber is used to prevent the puncture of powered support base into the floor. In this paper, a rock engineering system (RES)-based model is presented to evaluate the risk of floor failure mechanisms at the longwall face of E 2 and W 1 panels. The presented model is used to determine the most probable floor failure mechanism, effective factors, damaged regions and remedial actions. From the analyzed results, it is found that soft floor failure is dominant in the floor failure mechanism at Parvadeh-I coal mine. The average of vulnerability index (VI) for soft, buckling and compressive floor failure mechanisms was estimated equal to 52, 43 and 30 for both panels, respectively. By determining the critical VI for soft floor failure mechanism equal to 54, the percentage of regions with VIs beyond the critical VI in E 2 and W 1 panels is equal to 65.5 and 30, respectively. The percentage of damaged regions showed that the excess amount of used timber to prevent the puncture of weak floor below the powered support base is equal to 4,180,739 kg. RES outputs and analyzed results showed that setting and yielding load of powered supports, length of face, existent water at face, geometry of powered supports, changing the cutting pattern at longwall face and limiting the panels to damaged regions with supercritical VIs could be considered to control the soft floor failure in this mine. The results of this research could be used as a useful tool to identify the damaged regions prior to mining operation at longwall panel for the same conditions.

  8. Global risk of big earthquakes has not recently increased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Peter M; Stark, Philip B

    2012-01-17

    The recent elevated rate of large earthquakes has fueled concern that the underlying global rate of earthquake activity has increased, which would have important implications for assessments of seismic hazard and our understanding of how faults interact. We examine the timing of large (magnitude M≥7) earthquakes from 1900 to the present, after removing local clustering related to aftershocks. The global rate of M≥8 earthquakes has been at a record high roughly since 2004, but rates have been almost as high before, and the rate of smaller earthquakes is close to its historical average. Some features of the global catalog are improbable in retrospect, but so are some features of most random sequences--if the features are selected after looking at the data. For a variety of magnitude cutoffs and three statistical tests, the global catalog, with local clusters removed, is not distinguishable from a homogeneous Poisson process. Moreover, no plausible physical mechanism predicts real changes in the underlying global rate of large events. Together these facts suggest that the global risk of large earthquakes is no higher today than it has been in the past.

  9. A-waves increase the risk of developing neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srotova, Iva; Vlckova, Eva; Dusek, Ladislav; Bednarik, Josef

    2017-08-01

    A-waves, which are observed following the M-wave during motor nerve conduction studies (NCS), are late responses that are frequently found in many types of neurogenic disorders. However, A-waves are also common in healthy individuals, where their significance remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether the occurrence of A-waves does in fact represent an increased risk for the future development of changes upon NCS or needle electromyography (EMG) in the corresponding nerve. Nerve conduction studies/needle electromyography findings at control examination were evaluated in relation to the occurrence of initial A-waves in 327 individuals who had undergone repeated NCS/EMG examination and exhibited normal initial findings, with or without the occurrence of A-waves as the only acceptable abnormality. The odds ratio, which reflects the predictive power of the occurrence of A-waves at the initial testing for the development of an abnormality (neuropathy or radiculopathy) at the follow-up examination, ranged from 2.7 (p = .041) in the tibial nerve and 3.9 (p = .034) in peroneal one, to 30.0 (p = .002) in the ulnar nerve. A-waves constitute an initial abnormality in all nerves, and they may be predictive for the future development of broader NCS/EMG abnormalities in the corresponding nerve.

  10. Placental Cadmium Levels Are Associated with Increased Preeclampsia Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Jessica E; Ray, Paul; Bodnar, Wanda; Cable, Peter H; Boggess, Kim; Offenbacher, Steven; Fry, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposure to heavy metals is a potentially modifiable risk factor for preeclampsia (PE). Toxicologically, there are known interactions between the toxic metal cadmium (Cd) and essential metals such as selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), as these metals can protect against the toxicity of Cd. As they relate to preeclampsia, the interaction between Cd and these essential metals is unknown. The aims of the present study were to measure placental levels of Cd, Se, and Zn in a cohort of 172 pregnant women from across the southeast US and to examine associations of metals levels with the odds of PE in a nested case-control design. Logistic regressions were performed to assess odds ratios (OR) for PE with exposure to Cd controlling for confounders, as well as interactive models with Se or Zn. The mean placental Cd level was 3.6 ng/g, ranging from 0.52 to 14.5 ng/g. There was an increased odds ratio for PE in relationship to placental levels of Cd (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.2). The Cd-associated OR for PE increased when analyzed in relationship to lower placental Se levels (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5) and decreased with higher placental Se levels (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.5-1.9). Similarly, under conditions of lower placental Zn, the Cd-associated OR for PE was elevated (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.8-3.9), whereas with higher placental Zn it was reduced (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.8-2.0). Data from this pilot study suggest that essential metals may play an important role in reducing the odds of Cd-associated preeclampsia and that replication in a larger cohort is warranted.

  11. Factors Predicting Adherence to Risk Management Behaviors of Women at Increased Risk for Developing Lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Kerry A.; Miller, Suzanne M.; Roussi, Pagona; Taylor, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Lymphedema affects 20-30% of women following breast cancer treatment. However, even when women are informed, they do not necessarily adhere to recommended lymphedema self-management regimens. Utilizing the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing framework, we assessed cognitive and emotional factors influencing adherence to lymphedema risk management. Methods Women with breast cancer who had undergone breast and lymph node surgery were recruited through the Fox Chase Cancer Centre breast clinic. Participants (N=103) completed measures of lymphedema-related perceived risk, beliefs and expectancies, distress, self-regulatory ability to manage distress, knowledge, and adherence to risk management behaviors. They then received the American Cancer Society publication “Lymphedema: What Every Woman with Breast Cancer Should Know”. Cognitive and affective variables were reassessed at 6- and 12-months post-baseline. Results Maximum likelihood multilevel model analyses indicated that overall adherence increased over time, with significant differences between baseline and 6- and 12- month assessments. Adherence to wearing gloves was significantly lower than that for all other behaviors except electric razor use. Distress significantly decreased, and knowledge significantly increased, over time. Greater knowledge, higher self-efficacy to enact behaviors, lower distress, and higher self-regulatory ability to manage distress were associated with increased adherence. Conclusions Women who understand lymphedema risk management and feel confident in managing this risk are more likely to adhere to recommended strategies. These factors should be rigorously assessed as part of routine care to ensure that women have the self-efficacy to seek treatment and the self-regulatory skills to manage distress, which may undermine attempts to seek medical assistance. PMID:24970542

  12. Therapy for triggered acute risk prevention in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofler, Geoffrey H; Spinaze, Monica; Shaw, Elizabeth; Buckley, Thomas

    2013-06-15

    Heavy physical exertion, emotional stress, heavy meals, and respiratory infection transiently increase the risk of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, and stroke; however, it remains uncertain how to use this information for disease prevention. We determined whether it was feasible for those with either risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) or known CVD to take targeted medication for the hazard duration of the triggering activity to reduce their risk. After a run-in of 1 month, 20 subjects (12 women and 8 men) aged 68.6 years (range 58 to 83) recorded for 2 months all episodes of physical and emotional stress, heavy meal consumption, and respiratory infection. For each episode, the subjects were instructed to take either aspirin 100 mg and propranolol 10 mg (for physical exertion and emotional stress) or aspirin 100 mg alone (for respiratory infection and heavy meal consumption) and to record their adherence. Adherence with taking the appropriate medication was 86% according to the diary entries, with 15 of 20 subjects (75%) achieving ≥80% adherence. Propranolol taken before exertion reduced the peak heart rate compared with similar exercise during the run-in period (118 ± 21 vs 132 ± 16 beats/min, p = 0.016). Most subjects (85%) reported that it was feasible to continue taking the medication in this manner. In conclusion, it is feasible for those with increased CVD risk to identify potential triggers of acute CVD and to take targeted therapy at the time of these triggers.

  13. Is use of fall risk-increasing drugs in an elderly population associated with an increased risk of hip fracture, after adjustment for multimorbidity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorell, Kristine; Ranstad, Karin; Midlöv, Patrik;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk factors for hip fracture are well studied because of the negative impact on patients and the community, with mortality in the first year being almost 30% in the elderly. Age, gender and fall risk-increasing drugs, identified by the National Board of Health and Welfare in Sweden...... level and risk of hip fracture in an elderly population. METHODS: Data were from Östergötland County, Sweden, and comprised the total population in the county aged 75 years and older during 2006. The odds ratio (OR) for hip fracture during use of fall risk-increasing drugs was calculated by multivariate......, are well known risk factors for hip fracture, but how multimorbidity level affects the risk of hip fracture during use of fall risk-increasing drugs is to our knowledge not as well studied. This study explored the relationship between use of fall risk-increasing drugs in combination with multimorbidity...

  14. Does breastfeeding increase risk of early childhood caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, L

    2015-09-01

    According to the WHO, "breastfeeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years of age or beyond". However, several studies have reported prolonged and unrestricted breastfeeding as a potential risk factor for primary tooth caries (ECC). On-demand breastfeeding, particularly while lying down at night, would seem to cause ECC because milk remains in the baby's mouth for long periods of time. There is lack of evidence that human milk is cariogenic; other factors, such as oral hygiene, may be more influential in caries development than on-demand breastfeeding. Moreover the biomechanics of breastfeeding differs from those of bottle feeding and milk is expressed into the soft palate and swallowed without remaining on teeth. Indeed we cannot forget that the main factor influencing caries development in infants is the presence of bacteria streptococcus mutans that thrives in a combination of sugars, small amounts of saliva and a low pH. Today the question is open and recently Chaffee, Felines, Vitolo et al. [2014] have found that breastfeeding for 24 months or longer increases the prevalence of severe early childhood caries in low-income families in Porto Alegre, Brazil. These results do not claim that prolonged breastfeeding is the cause of tooth decay; we can expect an association with food for infants often rich in refined sugars, which cause the reduction of the protective effect of saliva on the deciduous teeth enamel. In Japan, Kato, Yorifuji, Yamakawa et al. [2015] have found that infants who had been breastfed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively fed with formula. The authors themselves say, however, that further studies

  15. Taking chances in the face of threat: romantic risk regulation and approach motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Justin V; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M; Holmes, John G

    2009-06-01

    Four studies examine the hypothesis that goals adopted by high and low self-esteem people (HSEs and LSEs) to manage risk in romantic relationships may reflect global shifts in approach motivation and subsequently affect risk taking in nonsocial domains. In Studies 1 and 2, threats to participants' romantic relationships heightened HSEs' self-reported general approach motivation while lowering LSEs' approach motivation. In Studies 2 through 4, HSEs exhibited riskier decision making (i.e., a greater tendency to pursue rewards and ignore risks) in nonsocial domains following a relationship threat manipulation whereas LSEs made more conservative decisions. These results suggest that the romantic risk regulation may be inherently linked to a broader approach and avoidance system and that specific risk regulation behaviors may be driven by global motivational shifts to a greater degree than previously theorized.

  16. Increased risk of intestinal cancer in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Tine; Gamborg, Michael; Matzen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The risk of intestinal malignancy in Crohn's disease (CD) remains uncertain since risk estimates vary worldwide. The global CD population is growing and there is a demand for better knowledge of prognosis of this disease. Hence, the aim of the present study was to conduct a meta...

  17. Midlife Cardiovascular Risk Factors May Increase Chances of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This study supports the importance of controlling vascular risk factors like high blood pressure early in life in an effort to prevent ... agreement with previous studies, an analysis of vascular risk factors showed ... or high blood pressure, also called hypertension, had a higher chance of ...

  18. HIV infection does not contribute to increased cardiovascular risk as assessed by Framingham risk score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ramsay

    2012-11-01

    significant predictors. The overall mean cfPWV for the HIV cohort (n=47 was 9.09±2.13 m/s compared to 11.95±2.37 m/s in the control group (n=46(p<0.01. HIV infection does not contribute to increased cardiovascular risk as assessed by Framingham risk score or carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. This may be due to good control of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and a healthy lifestyle in this cohort.

  19. Do oral contraceptives increase risk of contracting HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Some clinicians claim that the potential association between oral contraceptive (OC) use and HIV infection is cause for concern. A study of prostitutes conducted in Kenya showed OC use to be the single most common cofactor in sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus infection. A similar study conducted in the US was unable to confirm an association. In the Kenya study, 123 HIV seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi were followed for 54 months and assessed for seroconversion to HIV and occurrence of sexually transmitted diseases. 91% of the women who seroconverted were using OCs; 73% of the women who remained seronegative were using OCs. Demographic features, sexual behavior, number of daily sex partners, and parenteral exposure were not related to seroconversion. No significant associations were found between HIV infection and sexual activity and condom use. Independent associations were found between seroconversion and OC use, genital ulcer disease (GUD), and chlamydia trachomatis infections. It is possible that OCs increase the risk of acquiring chlamydia because cervical ectropion creates a greater exposure of columnar epithelium to infecting agents. The multicenter, cross-sectional, collaborative study of 638 prostitutes in 8 areas of the US found that HIV infection was totally unrelated to OC use. Prostitutes with no evidence of intravenous drug use were studied. 5% of the women were found to be infected with HIV. The most common variables associated with HIV infection were seromarkers for hepatitis B and syphilis and sex with "nonpaying partners." About 80% of the prostitutes reported using condoms regularly with clients; only 16% used condoms with their boyfriends or husbands. About 30% (194) of the prostitutes reported they had used OCs for at least 1 month out of the past 5 years. 9 of those women (4.6%) were positive for HIV. Of 444 prostitutes who had never used OC during the past 5 years, 21 or 4.73% were HIV positive.

  20. Standard laboratory tests to identify older adults at increased risk of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Susan E; Rockwood, Michael R H; Mitnitski, Arnold; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-10-07

    Older adults are at an increased risk of death, but not all people of the same age have the same risk. Many methods identify frail people (that is, those at increased risk) but these often require time-consuming interactions with health care providers. We evaluated whether standard laboratory tests on their own, or added to a clinical frailty index (FI), could improve identification of older adults at increased risk of death. This is a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study, where community dwelling and institutionalized participants in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging who also volunteered for blood collection (n = 1,013) were followed for up to six years. A standard FI (FI-CSHA) was constructed from data obtained during the clinical evaluation and a second, novel FI was constructed from laboratory data plus systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements (FI-LAB). A combined FI included all items from each index. Predictive validity was tested using Cox proportional hazards analysis and discriminative ability by the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Of 1,013 participants, 51.3% had died by six years. The mean baseline value of the FI-LAB was 0.27 (standard deviation 0.11; range 0.05 to 0.63), the FI-CSHA was 0.25 (0.11; 0.02 to 0.72), and the combined FI was 0.26 (0.09; 0.06 to 0.59). In an age- and sex-adjusted model, with each increment in the FI-LAB, the hazard ratios increased by 2.8% (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.04). The hazard ratios for the FI-CSHA and the combined FI were 1.02 (1.01 to 1.03) and 1.04 (1.03 to 1.05), respectively. The FI-LAB and FI-CSHA remained independently associated with death in the face of the other. The areas under the ROC curves were 0.72 for FI-LAB, 0.73 for FI-CSHA and 0.74 for the combined FI. An FI based on routine laboratory data can identify older adults at increased risk of death. Additional evaluation of this approach in clinical settings is warranted.

  1. Does preterm birth increase a child's risk for language impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansavini, Alessandra; Guarini, Annalisa; Justice, Laura M; Savini, Silvia; Broccoli, Serena; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo

    2010-12-01

    Although premature birth is associated with lags in language acquisition, it is unclear whether preterms exhibit an elevated risk for language impairment (LI). This study determined whether preterms, without frank cerebral damage, at 2;6 and 3;6 exhibited a higher rate of risk for LI as compared to full-terms, and also sought to identify predictors of risk. Sixty-four Italian very immature preterms were assessed longitudinally at 2;6 and 3;6; age-matched full-terms served as controls at 2;6 (n=22) and 3;6 (n=40). Each completed individualized assessments of cognition and language ability. At each time point, using cut-offs specific to each of the language measures, children were differentiated into two groups (at risk for LI, not at risk). The percentage of full-terms at risk for LI at 2;6 (9.1% to 13.6%) and 3;6 (7.5%) was consistent with prior estimates of LI at these ages. The percentage of preterms at risk for LI at 2;6 (16.1% to 24.1%) and 3;6 (34.4%) was higher at both ages and statistically significant at 3;6 (difference=26.8%, 95% CI=12.3% to 41.4%). The best model predicting risk status at 3;6 was preterms' mean length of utterance (MLU) at 2;6, (sensitivity 72.73%, specificity 85%) when adjusting for maternal education. Preterms exhibit a heightened risk for LI in the preschool years, since about one in four preterms at 2;6 and one in three preterms at 3;6 experiences significant lags in language acquisition. Findings argue the importance of early identification of language difficulties among preterms coupled with implementation of systematic language-focused interventions for these youngsters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ASSET ALLOCATION AND ASSET PRICING IN THE FACE OF SYSTEMIC RISK: A LITERATURE OVERVIEW AND ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISTOPH MEINERDING

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed overview of the current research linking systemic risk, financial crises and contagion effects among assets on the one hand with asset allocation and asset pricing theory on the other hand. Based on the ample literature about definitions, measurement and properties of systemic risk, we derive some elementary ingredients for models of financial contagion and assess the current state of knowledge about asset allocation and asset pricing with explicit focus on syst...

  3. Tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) calling and risk-sensitive foraging in the face of threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeberg, Todd M; Krama, Tatjana; Vrublevska, Jolanta; Krams, Indriķis; Kullberg, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Individuals often produce alarm or mobbing calls when they detect a threat such as a predator. Little is known about whether such calling is affected by the facial orientation of a potential threat, however. We tested for an effect of facial orientation of a potential threat on tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor, a songbird that uses chick-a-dee calls in a variety of social contexts. In two studies, a human observer wore an animal mask that either faced or faced away from the focal bird(s). In Study 1, focal birds were individual titmice captured in a walk-in trap, and the observer stood near the trapped bird. In Study 2, focal birds were titmouse flocks utilizing a feeding station and the observer stood near the station. In both studies, calling behavior was affected by mask orientation. In Study 2, foraging and agonistic behavior were also affected. Titmice can therefore perceive the facial orientation of a potential threat, and this perception affects different behavioral systems, including calling. Our results indicate sensitivity of titmice to the facial orientation of a potential predator in two quite different motivational contexts. This work suggests the possibility of strategic signaling by prey species depending upon the perceptual space of a detected predator.

  4. Seroma indicates increased risk of lymphedema following breast cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Jørgensen, Mads Gustaf; Haugaard, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Lymphedema is one of the most serious complications following breast cancer treatment. While many risk factors are well described the role of seroma formation has recently produced mixed results. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate if seroma is a risk factor for development of lymphedema...... in one of the largest retrospective cohort studies. Material and methods We included all patients with unilateral breast cancer treated in the period of 2008-2014. Data regarding treatment and breast cancer characteristics were retrieved from the national breast cancer registry. Data regarding lymphedema...... treatment and seroma aspirations were retrieved from local treatment codes. Results In total 1822 patients were included of which 291 developed lymphedema. Multivariate cox regression analysis showed that seroma was an independent risk factor (HR 1.92 CI 1.30-2.85, p= 0.001). Other independent risk factors...

  5. Increased genetic risk for obesity in premature coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher B; Nikpay, Majid; Stewart, Alexandre F R; McPherson, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    There is ongoing controversy as to whether obesity confers risk for CAD independently of associated risk factors including diabetes mellitus. We have carried out a Mendelian randomization study using a genetic risk score (GRS) for body mass index (BMI) based on 35 risk alleles to investigate this question in a population of 5831 early onset CAD cases without diabetes mellitus and 3832 elderly healthy control subjects, all of strictly European ancestry, with adjustment for traditional risk factors (TRFs). We then estimated the genetic correlation between these BMI and CAD (rg) by relating the pairwise genetic similarity matrix to a phenotypic covariance matrix between these two traits. GRSBMI significantly (P=2.12 × 10(-12)) associated with CAD status in a multivariate model adjusted for TRFs, with a per allele odds ratio (OR) of 1.06 (95% CI 1.042-1.076). The addition of GRSBMI to TRFs explained 0.75% of CAD variance and yielded a continuous net recombination index of 16.54% (95% CI=11.82-21.26%, Pobesity and CAD. This analysis supports the hypothesis that obesity is a causal risk factor for CAD.

  6. Aspirin increases the risk of venous thromboembolism in surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmparas, Galinos; Jain, Monica; Mehrzadi, Devorah; Melo, Nicolas; Chung, Rex; Bloom, Matthew; Ley, Eric J; Margulies, Daniel R

    2014-10-01

    The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) for patients taking an antiplatelet agent is largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the association between antiplatelet agent use before admission with the risk of in-hospital VTE in surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients. A retrospective review of all patients admitted to the surgical ICU at a Level I trauma center over 30 months was performed. Patients who underwent diagnostic imaging for VTE were selected. Patients were divided based on whether or not antiplatelet agents were used before admission (APTA vs NAPTA). The primary outcome was VTE occurrence. A forward logistic regression model was used to identify factors independently associated with the primary outcome. During the study period, 461 (24%) patients met inclusion criteria: 70 (15%) APTA and 391 (85%) NAPTA. After adjusting for confounding factors, APTA patients were at a significantly higher risk for developing VTE (59 vs 40%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 3.0; adjusted P = 0.04). Whether or not antiplatelet agents were resumed during the hospital stay and the day on which they were resumed did not affect VTE risk. In conclusion, surgical ICU patients receiving antiplatelet agents before admission are at a significantly higher risk for development of VTE.

  7. Hazards Faced by Young Designated Drivers: In-Car Risks of Driving Drunken Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J. Carroll

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study explored the risk in the practice of young designated drivers transporting drunken peers. Young drivers 18-29 years old in Alberta, Canada participated in 12 focus groups (N = 146. Interviews were semi-structured. A key finding is that when highly intoxicated youth are driven by a designated driver who is a peer, they are likely to behave in ways that are unsafe. Unsafe actions of drunken passengers in the vehicle include physical “rough-housing” with the driver, creating stress for the driver that leads to high risk driving situations and disrupting safe driving through nausea and in-car vomiting.

  8. What increases the risk of malnutrition in Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, Svetlana; Pekic, Vlasta; Popijac, Zeljka; Pucic, Tomislav; Petek, Marta; Kuric, Tihana Gilman; Misevic, Sanja; Kramaric, Ruzica Palic

    2017-04-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are at a higher risk of malnutrition. The prevalence has been estimated to 0-24%, while 3%-60% of PD patients are reported to be at risk of malnutrition. To date, there is no clear explanation for malnutrition in these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and to analyze factors that influence its appearance. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was used to determine normal nutritional status; at risk of malnutrition; and already malnourished status. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) parts III and IV, Hoehn and Yahr scale (H&Y scale), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease-Rating Scale - eating part (QUIP-RS) and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) were used to evaluate the factors affecting patient nutritional status. Out of 96 patients, 55,2% were at risk of malnutrition, while 8,3% had already been malnourished. Age, H&Y scale, UPDRS part III, 'off' periods and depression influence negatively on MNA. More patients with 'off' periods were rigor dominant. Thyroid gland hormone therapy was related to malnutrition, while patients with normal nutritional status used ropinirole more often than pramipexole. Factors affecting nutritional status are age, motor symptoms and stage severity, 'off' states, rigidity dominant type with 'off' states, and thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Ropinirole exhibited the possible 'protective' effect against malnutrition.

  9. The Heavenly Liquidity Twin : The Increasing Importance of Liquidity Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Montes-Negret, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Liquidity and solvency have been called the "heavenly twins" of banking (Goodhart, Charles, 'Liquidity Risk Management', Financial Stability Review -- Special Issue on Liquidity, Banque de France, No. 11, February, 2008). Since these "twins" interact in complex ways, it is difficult -- particularly at times of crisis--to distinguish between them, especially in the presence of information a...

  10. Increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, N; Gotland, N; Uhre, M L;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An association between infection and arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) has been suggested. Here we examined the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and other ATE after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: Danish register-based nation-wide observational cohort study...

  11. Increased Risk of Myofascial Pain Syndrome Among Patients with Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Chen; Shen, Cheng-Che; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Yang, Albert C

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of developing myofascial pain syndrome among patients diagnosed with insomnia. We conducted a population-based longitudinal study of a matched cohort with 7,895 participants (1,579 patients with insomnia and 6,316 controls) who were selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The patients were observed for a maximum of 10 years to determine the incidence of newly diagnosed myofascial pain syndrome. A Cox regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with myofascial pain syndrome in patients with insomnia. During the 10-year follow-up period, 182 insomnia patients (14.9 per 1,000 person-years) and 379 controls (7.5 per 1,000 person-years) were diagnosed with myofascial pain syndrome. The incidence risk ratio of myofascial pain syndrome between the insomnia and control patients was 2.00 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.67-2.38, P  myofascial pain syndrome (95% CI = 1.62-2.31, P  myofascial pain syndrome in patients with insomnia. Patients with insomnia had a higher risk of developing myofascial pain syndrome than controls. This study adds to the understanding of the complex relationship between sleep disturbance and pain.

  12. Early menarche is associated with increased risk of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Sofie; Gade, Elisabeth; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine the association between early menarche and risk of post-menarcheal asthma. METHODS: Using data from two multidisciplinary questionnaire surveys, conducted eight years apart, we prospectively studied 10,648 female twins, 12-41 years of age, from the nationwide Danish Twin Registry...

  13. Care for patients with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boheemen, C. van; Geffen, K. van; Philbert, D.; Bos, M.; Dis, I. van; Strijbis, A.; Bouvy, M.; Dijk, L. van

    2010-01-01

    Background: In 2009, a national standard of care for vascular risk management (VRM) was developed. This standard, which was sent to all general practitioners (GPs), contains requirements for optimal care. One requirement is the formulation of a written individual-care plan which contains an extended

  14. Starting Hormone Therapy at Menopause Increases Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to a January 28, 2011 article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, women who start taking menopausal hormone therapy around the time of menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who begin taking hormones a few years later.

  15. Does aircraft noise exposure increase the risk of hypertension in the population living near airports in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Lefèvre, Marie; Champelovier, Patricia; Lambert, Jacques; Laumon, Bernard

    2017-02-01

    The largest study until now around 6 major European airports, the HYENA (HYpertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports) study, reported an excess risk of hypertension related to long-term aircraft noise exposure. The DEBATS (Discussion on the health effects of aircraft noise) study investigated the relationship between this exposure and the risk of hypertension in men and in women near French airports. Blood pressure of 1244 participants older than 18 years of age was measured. Information about health, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors was collected by means of a face-to-face questionnaire performed at home by an interviewer. Aircraft noise exposure was assessed for each participant's home address using noise maps. They were calculated with the Integrated Noise Model with a 1 dB(A)-resolution. The major potential confounders being risk factors for hypertension were included in the logistic regression models: age, occupational activity, body mass index, physical activity and alcohol consumption. After adjustment for the main potential confounders, an exposure-response relationship was evidenced between the risk of hypertension and aircraft noise exposure at night for men only. A 10-dB(A) increase in Lnight was associated with an OR of 1.34 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.97). These findings contribute to the overall evidence suggesting that aircraft noise exposure at night-time may increase the risk of hypertension in men. Hypertension is a well-known and established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The association reported in the present study between aircraft noise and hypertension implies that aircraft noise might be a risk factor also for cardiovascular disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Prematurity at birth and increased cardiovascular risk: is a metabolomic approach the right solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Bassareo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, steady progress in the field of physiopathology and the use of increasingly sophisticated technological procedures have resulted in an increase in the survival rates of babies born preterm. However, some of these individuals, although surviving, may at times be faced with severe consequences. Some conditions may be manifested at an early age (particularly dysmorphisms as well as neurological and ophthalmological conditions, whilst others (namely renal and cardiovascular events, evolve gradually and are manifested only years later. In a number of reports in literature it has been demonstrated how prematurity and consequent low weight at birth are risk factors for developing hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes, QTc interval prolongation at basal electrocardiogram, early endothelial dysfunction, structural and functional cardiac modifications, and increased death rates from coronary heart disease. Even some drugs used in the neonatal management of preterm babies may have a detrimental effect on their future cardiac function. The aim of this narrative review was to overview the up to know few reports about metabolomics (a new and promising technique which allows the systematic study of the complete set of metabolites in a biological sample applied to the identification of a possible future cardiovascular system involvement in subjects born preterm. An outlook of the requirements for future researches has been also discussed.

  17. Virtual driving and risk taking: do racing games increase risk-taking cognitions, affect, and behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Guter, Stephanie; Frey, Dieter

    2007-03-01

    Research has consistently shown that aggressive video console and PC games elicit aggressive cognitions, affect, and behaviors. Despite the increasing popularity of racing (driving) games, nothing is known about the psychological impact of this genre. This study investigated whether playing racing games affects cognitions, affect, and behaviors that can promote risk taking in actual road traffic situations. In Study 1, the authors found that the frequency of playing racing games was positively associated with competitive driving, obtrusive driving, and car accidents; a negative association with cautious driving was observed. To determine cause and effect, in Study 2, the authors manipulated whether participants played 1 of 3 racing games or 1 of 3 neutral games. Participants who played a racing game subsequently reported a higher accessibility of cognitions and affect positively associated with risk taking than did participants who played a neutral game. Finally, on a more behavioral level, in Study 3, the authors found that men who played a racing game subsequently took higher risks in computer-simulated critical road traffic situations than did men who played a neutral game. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  18. Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Chih [Community Medicine Research Center and Institute of Public Health, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Otolaryngology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Tumor Center, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Su, Yu-Chieh [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Tumor Center, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Ho, Hsu-Chueh [Department of Otolaryngology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Tumor Center, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hung, Shih-Kai; Lee, Moon-Sing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Tumor Center, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Wen-Yen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Tumor Center, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Chou, Pesus [Community Medicine Research Center and Institute of Public Health, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Sung, E-mail: enttcd@hotmail.com [Division of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Radiation/chemoradiotherapy-induced carotid stenosis and cerebrovascular events in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) can cause severe disability and even death. This study aimed to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke in this patient population over more than 10 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: The study cohorts consisted of all patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of NPC (n = 1094), whereas patients hospitalized for an appendectomy during 1997 and 1998 (n = 4376) acted as the control group and surrogate for the general population. Cox proportional hazard model was performed as a means of comparing the stroke-free survival rate between the two cohorts after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. Results: Of the 292 patients with ischemic strokes, 62 (5.7%) were from the NPC cohort and 230 (5.3%) were from the control group. NPC patients ages 35-54 had a 1.66 times (95% CI, 1.16-2.86; p = 0.009) higher risk of ischemic stroke after adjusting for patient characteristics, comorbidities, geographic region, urbanization level of residence, and socioeconomic status. There was no statistical difference in ischemic stroke risk between the NPC patients and appendectomy patients ages 55-64 years (hazard ratio = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56-1.33; p = 0.524) after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions: Young NPC patients carry a higher risk for ischemic stroke than the general population. Besides regular examinations of carotid duplex, different irradiation strategies or using new technique of radiotherapy, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy, should be considered in young NPC patients.

  19. A two fold risk of metabolic syndrome in a sample of patients with schizophrenia: do consanguinity and family history increase risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Hamaq, Abdulla O A A; Dafeeah, Elnour E

    2014-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are at greater risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and other cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of the study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its criteria among patients with schizophrenia (Sz) according to the revised criteria of NCEP ATP III and assess which component contributed to the increased risk of the MetS in schizophrenia patients. This was a matched case-control study. Outpatient clinics of the Psychiatry department and Primary Health Care (PHC) Centers of the Supreme Council of Health, State of Qatar. The study was carried out among patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy subjects above 20 years old. The study based on matched by age and gender of 233 cases and 466 controls. The survey was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011. Face to face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire followed by laboratory tests. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program - Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among schizophrenic patients (36.5%) were significantly higher than healthy subjects (18.7%) (pschizophrenia patients were more likely to have three or more metabolic abnormalities compared to men. The study indicated that metabolic syndrome was highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. The female gender was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The identification and clinical management of this high risk group is of great importance. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Freezing behaviour facilitates bioelectric crypsis in cuttlefish faced with predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedore, Christine N; Kajiura, Stephen M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2015-12-07

    Cephalopods, and in particular the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, are common models for studies of camouflage and predator avoidance behaviour. Preventing detection by predators is especially important to this group of animals, most of which are soft-bodied, lack physical defences, and are subject to both visually and non-visually mediated detection. Here, we report a novel cryptic mechanism in S. officinalis in which bioelectric cues are reduced via a behavioural freeze response to a predator stimulus. The reduction of bioelectric fields created by the freeze-simulating stimulus resulted in a possible decrease in shark predation risk by reducing detectability. The freeze response may also facilitate other non-visual cryptic mechanisms to lower predation risk from a wide range of predator types. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Increased pancreatic cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Michael; Børge Johannesen, Tom; Gilbert, Ethel S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated among testicular cancer (TC) survivors. However, the roles of specific treatments are unclear. METHODS: Among 23 982 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1947-1991, doses from radiotherapy to the pancreas were estimated for 80 pancreatic cancer...... patients and 145 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary pancreatic cancer was 1.1% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. Radiotherapy (72 (90%) cases and 115 (80%) controls) was associated...... with the number of cycles of chemotherapy with alkylating or platinum agents (P=0.057), although only one case was exposed to platinum. CONCLUSIONS: A dose-response relationship exists between radiation to the pancreas and subsequent cancer risk, and persists for over 20 years. These excesses, although small...

  2. An Increased Risk of Osteoporosis during Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Annapoorna, N.; Rao, G. Venkateswara; Reddy, N S; Rambabu, P.; Rao, K.R.S.Samabasiva

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mineral density and mechanistic imbalances of bone tissue that may result in reduced skeletal strength and an enhanced susceptibility to fractures. Osteoporosis in its most common form affects the elderly (both sexes) and all racial groups of human beings. Multiple environmental risk factors like acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are believed to be one of the causes of osteoporosis. Recently a high incidence of osteoporosis has been obs...

  3. Increasing Effectiveness and Efficiency Through Risk-Based Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Security Administration, risk-based security, resource deployment, game theory, big data 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 77 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...The University of Melbourne , 2006), http://www.csdila.unimelb.edu.au/ publication/theses/Kevin_Mcdougall_PhD_Thesis.pdf. 7 Ibid. 5 At present...of this research: • Does the proposed option violate “the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses , papers, and effects, against

  4. Endometriosis increases the risk of obstetrical and neonatal complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berlac, Janne Foss; Hartwell, Dorthe; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel

    2017-01-01

    . RESULTS: The 19 331 women with endometriosis had a higher risk of severe preeclampsia (OR 1.7 95% CI, 1.5-2.0), hemorrhage in pregnancy (OR 2.3, 2.0-2.5), placental abruption (OR 2.0, 1.7-2.3), placenta previa (OR 3.9, 3.5-4.3), premature rupture of membranes (OR 1.7, 1.5-1.8), and retained placenta (OR 3...

  5. Increased facial width-to-height ratio and perceived dominance in the faces of the UK's leading business leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrajih, Shuaa; Ward, Jamie

    2014-05-01

    The relative proportion of the internal features of a face (the facial width-to-height ratio, FWH) has been shown to be related to individual differences in behaviour in males, specifically competitiveness and aggressiveness. In this study, we show that the Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of the leading UK businesses have greater FWHs than age- and sex-matched controls. We demonstrate that perceivers, naive as to the nature of the stimuli, rate the faces of CEOs as higher in dominance or success, and that ratings of dominance or success are themselves correlated with the FWH ratio. We find no association with other inferred traits such as trustworthiness, attraction or aggression. The latter is surprising given previous research demonstrating a link between FWH and ratings of aggression. We speculate that the core association may be between FWH and drive for dominance or power, but this can be interpreted as aggression only in particular circumstances (e.g., when the stimuli are comprised of faces of young, as opposed to middle-aged, men).

  6. Left Visual Field Biases when Infants Process Faces: A Comparison of Infants at High- and Low-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Eva; Gastgeb, Holly; Strauss, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    While it is well-known that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties processing faces, very little is known about the origins of these deficits. The current study focused on 6- and 11-month-old infants who were at either high-risk (n = 43) or low-risk (n = 31) for developing ASD based on having a sibling already diagnosed…

  7. Increasing the usability of drought information for risk management in the Arbuckle Simpson Aquifer, Oklahoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Towler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tools are needed that can add value to existing drought information and customize it for specific drought management contexts. This study develops a generalized framework that can be used to link local impacts with readily available drought information, thus increasing the usability of existing drought products in decision making. We offer a three-step risk-based framework that can be applied to specific decision-making contexts: (i identify hydrologic impact thresholds, (ii develop threshold exceedance model, and (iii evaluate exceedance likelihood. The framework is demonstrated using a study site in south-central Oklahoma, which is highly susceptible to drought and faces management challenges. Stakeholder input from interviews are used to identify “moderate” and “extreme” thresholds below which water needs are not met for important uses. A logistic regression model translates existing drought information to the likelihood of exceeding the identified thresholds. The logistic model offers an improvement over climatology, and the 12-month Standardized Precipitation Index is shown to be the best drought index predictor. The logistic model is used in conjunction with historical drought information to give a retrospective look at the risk of drought impacts from the beginning of the century. Results show the 1980s to early 2000s to be an anomalously wet period, and that recent drying trends and impacts do not appear to be unusual for the 20th century. This drought risk analysis can be used as a baseline by local managers to guide future decision making under climate uncertainty.

  8. Mathematical Modeling for Risk Averse Firm Facing Loss Averse Customer’s Stochastic Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungbeom Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize the firm’s profit during a finite planning horizon, a dynamic programming model is used to make joint pricing and inventory replenishment decision assuming that customers are loss averse and the firm is risk averse. We model the loss averse customer’s demand using the multinomial choice model. In this choice model, we consider the acquisition and transition utilities widely used by a mental accounting theory which also incorporate the reference price and actual price. Then, we show that there is an optimal inventory policy which is base-stock policy depending on the accumulated wealth in each period.

  9. Risk, ritual and health responsibilisation: Japan's 'safety blanket' of surgical face mask-wearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Adam; Horii, Mitsutoshi

    2012-11-01

    This article begins to develop an understanding of surgical mask-wearing in Japan, now a routine practice against a range of health threats. Their usage and associated meanings are explored through surveys conducted in Tokyo with both mask wearers and non-mask wearers. It contests commonly held cultural views of the practice as a fixed and distinctively Japanese collective courtesy to others. A historical analysis suggests that an originally collective, targeted and science-based response to public health threats has dispersed into a generalised practice lacking a clear end or purpose. Developed as part of the biomedical response to the Spanish flu of 1919, the practice resonated with folk assumptions as making a barrier between purity and pollution. But mask-wearing became socially embedded as a general protective practice only from the 1990s through a combination of commercial, corporate and political pressures that responsibilised individual health protection. These developments are usefully understood amidst the uncertainty created by Japan's 'second modernity' and the fracturing of her post-war order. Mask-wearing is only one form of a wider culture of risk; a self-protective risk ritual rather than a selfless collective practice.

  10. Assessment of psychosocial risks faced by workers in Almería-type greenhouses, using the Mini Psychosocial Factor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-García, M E; Callejón-Ferre, A J; Pérez-Alonso, J; Sánchez-Hermosilla, J

    2013-03-01

    This work reports the use of the Mini Psychosocial Factor (MPF) method for assessing the psychosocial risks faced by agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Spain) with the aim of improving their health. The variables Rhythm, Mobbing, Relationships, Health, Recognition, Autonomy, Emotional Involvement, Support, Compensation, Control, Demands, and Mental Load were recorded using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 15 questions. The sex, age, and nationality of the respondents (n = 310) were also recorded, as were the type of greenhouse in which each worked, the size of the greenhouse, and the crop grown. The results showed psychosocial risks to exist for the workers. Multiple correspondence analysis, however, showed that moderate risks can be offset by new prevention programmes that improve Spanish legislation in terms of workers' salaries, worker-employer social days, work timetables to facilitate family life, and training courses. This could improve the work environment and health of Almería's greenhouse workers as well as their productivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased systemic inflammation is a risk factor for COPD exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Groenewegen (Karin); D.S. Postma (Dirkje); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); P.L.M.L. Wielders (Pascal); N.J.J. Schlösser (Noel); E.F.M. Wouters (Emiel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: COPD is characterized by episodic increases in respiratory symptoms, so-called exacerbations. COPD exacerbations are associated with an increase in local and systemic inflammation. Data of a previously published study in a well-characterized COPD cohort were analyzed to defin

  12. Increased systemic inflammation is a risk factor for COPD exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, Karin H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Hop, Wim C. J.; Wielders, Pascal L. M. L.; Schlosser, Noel J. J.; Wouters, Entiel F. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: COPD is characterized by episodic increases in respiratory symptoms, so-called exacerbations. COPD exacerbations are associated with an increase in local and systemic inflammation. Data of a previously published study in a well-characterized COPD cohort were analyzed to define predictive

  13. Smoking increases the risk of relapse after successful tuberculosis treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    d’Arc Lyra Batista, Joanna; de Fátima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque, Maria; de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent tobacco smoking has been identified as a risk factor for developing tuberculosis, and two studies which have investigated its association with relapse of tuberculosis after completion of treatment had conflicting results (and did not control for confounding). The objective of this study was to investigate risk factors for tuberculosis relapse, with emphasis on smoking. Methods A cohort of newly diagnosed TB cases was followed up from their discharge after completion of treatment (in 2001–2003) until October 2006 and relapses of tuberculosis ascertained during that period. A case of relapse was defined as a patient who started a second treatment during the follow up. Results Smoking (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.23–5.21) and living in an area where the family health program was not implemented (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.46–8.93) were found to be independently associated with relapse of tuberculosis. Conclusions Our results establish that smoking is associated with relapse of tuberculosis even after adjustment for the socioeconomic variables. Smoking cessation support should be incorporated in the strategies to improve effectiveness of Tuberculosis Control Programs. PMID:18556729

  14. Thyroid Cancer Risk Is Not Increased in Diabetic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated thyroid cancer risk with regards to diabetes status and diabetes duration, and with the use of anti-diabetic drugs including sulfonylurea, metformin, insulin, acarbose, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, by using a population-based reimbursement database in Taiwan. Methods A random sample of 1,000,000 subjects covered by the National Health Insurance was recruited. After excluding patients with type 1 diabetes, 999730 subjects (495673 men and 504057 women) were recruited into the analyses. Logistic regression estimated the odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for independent variables including age, sex, diabetes status/duration, anti-diabetic drugs, other medications, comorbidities, living regions, occupation and examinations that might potentially lead to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in various models. Results The diabetic patients had a significantly higher probability of receiving potential detection examinations (6.38% vs. 5.83%, Pdiabetes status was 0.816 (0.652–1.021); and for diabetes duration diabetes was 0.071 (0.010–0.507), 0.450 (0.250–0.813), 0.374 (0.203–0.689) and 1.159 (0.914–1.470), respectively. Among the anti-diabetic agents, only sulfonylurea was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, OR (95% CI): 1.882 (1.202–2.947). The OR (95% CI) for insulin, metformin, acarbose, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone was 1.701 (0.860–3.364), 0.696 (0.419–1.155), 0.581 (0.202–1.674), 0.522 (0.069–3.926) and 0.669 (0.230–1.948), respectively. Furthermore, patients with benign thyroid disease or other cancer, living in Kao-Ping/Eastern regions, or receiving potential detection examinations might have a significantly higher risk; and male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, vascular complications or use of statin, aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs might be associated with a significantly lower risk. Conclusions There is a lack of an overall

  15. No Increased Risk for Primary Osteoarthritis in Liver Cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Thomas; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic synovial inflammation causes primary osteoarthritis, but it is unknown whether chronic systemic inflammation does, too. Patients with cirrhosis have chronic systemic inflammation and therefore we examined the association between cirrhosis and primary osteoarthritis of the hip...... and knee. METHODS: In Danish healthcare databases we identified all residents over 60 years diagnosed with cirrhosis in 1994-2011, and for each of them we sampled five age- and gender-matched reference persons from the general population. We excluded everyone with risk factors for secondary osteoarthritis...... and computed incidence rates of primary osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. We used stratified Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratios of primary osteoarthritis for cirrhosis patients vs. reference persons in strata defined by gender, age, cirrhosis etiology, and ascites vs. no ascites. We also computed...

  16. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Pernille; Grunnet, Louise G; Pilgaard, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genetic susceptibility, low birth weight (LBW), and aging are key etiological factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. LBW is common among twins. It is unknown whether twin status per se is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, and valid concordance rates of type 2 diabetes...... in twins on a lifetime perspective are lacking. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A clinical study was done on a population-based cohort of same-sex elderly monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins (n = 297) and singleton control subjects (C) (n = 71) including measures of anthropometry and glucose tolerance....... In addition, type 2 diabetes incidence cases in twins (n = 626) and singletons (n = 553) were identified through the National Diabetes Register. RESULTS: Twins were more abdominally obese, insulin resistant, and glucose intolerant, as evidenced by a higher A1C (%) (means +/- SD) (MZ: 6.0 +/- 1.0, DZ: 5...

  17. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Hosseini, Zeynab; Raayat, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse sensitization was not seen in the control group. Occupational allergy symptoms were reported by 19 horse riders. Two horse riders with no history of clinical symptoms showed positive skin reactions to horse allergens. To decrease the high risk of occupational sensitization among horse riders, workplace conditions should be improved to reduce the load of airborne horse allergens. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  18. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Moghtaderi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. Material and Methods: A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. Results: The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse sensitization was not seen in the control group. Occupational allergy symptoms were reported by 19 horse riders. Two horse riders with no history of clinical symptoms showed positive skin reactions to horse allergens. Conclusions: To decrease the high risk of occupational sensitization among horse riders, workplace conditions should be improved to reduce the load of airborne horse allergens.

  19. Do environmental pollutants increase obesity risk in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Hollis-Hansen, K; Ren, X; Qiu, Y; Qu, W

    2016-12-01

    Obesity has become a global epidemic and threat to public health. A good understanding of the causes can help attenuate the risk and spread. Environmental pollutants may have contributed to the rising global obesity rates. Some research reported associations between chemical pollutants and obesity, but findings are mixed. This study systematically examined associations between chemical pollutants and obesity in human subjects. Systematic review of relevant studies published between 1 January 1995 and 1 June 2016 by searching PubMed and MEDLINE®. Thirty-five cross-sectional (n = 17) and cohort studies (n = 18) were identified that reported on associations between pollutants and obesity measures. Of them, 16 studies (45.71%) reported a positive association; none reported a sole inverse association; three (8.57%) reported a null association only; six (17.14%) reported both a positive and null association; seven (20.00%) reported a positive and inverse association; and three studies (8.57%) reported all associations (positive, inverse and null). Most studies examined the association between multiple different pollutants, different levels of concentration and in subsamples, which results in mixed results. Thirty-three studies reported at least one positive association between obesity and chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, biphenyl A, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and more. Certain chemicals, such as biphenyl A, were more likely to have high ORs ranging from 1.0 to 3.0, whereas highly chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls were more likely to have negative ORs. Effects of chemicals on the endocrine system and obesity might vary by substance, exposure level, measure of adiposity and subject characteristics (e.g. sex and age). Accumulated evidences show positive associations between pollutants and obesity in humans. Future large, long-term, follow-up studies are needed to assess impact of chemical pollutants on obesity

  20. Increase of baclofen intoxications : risks involved and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbouw, M E L; Hoge, H L; Meulenbelt, J; Jansman, F G A

    2014-01-01

    Baclofen has been increasingly used in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). We present a patient with AWS and psychiatric comorbidity who ingested 700 mg of baclofen. ICU admission was necessary for ventilatory support and symptomatic treatment. The patient was dismissed without seque

  1. Patients at increased fracture risk: identification and pharmacological treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, C.

    2016-01-01

    Fragility fractures are common and are associated with a substantial burden for patients and the healthcare system. Hip fractures in particular are associated with increased morbidity, institutionalisation, and even mortality with a mortality rate between 20-30% in the first year. This burden is inc

  2. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Bagrow, James P.; Hines, Paul D. H.

    2017-03-01

    Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade. This paper compares the robustness of simple topological network models to models that more accurately reflect the dynamics of cascading in a particular case of coupled infrastructures. First, we compare a topological contagion model to a power grid model. Second, we compare a percolation model of internetwork cascading to three models of interdependent power-communication systems. In both comparisons, the more detailed models suggest substantially different conclusions, relative to the simpler topological models. In all but the most extreme case, our model of a “smart” power network coupled to a communication system suggests that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability, in contrast to the percolation model. Together, these results suggest that robustness can be enhanced by interconnecting networks with complementary capabilities if modes of internetwork failure propagation are constrained.

  3. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Bagrow, James P.; Hines, Paul D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade. This paper compares the robustness of simple topological network models to models that more accurately reflect the dynamics of cascading in a particular case of coupled infrastructures. First, we compare a topological contagion model to a power grid model. Second, we compare a percolation model of internetwork cascading to three models of interdependent power-communication systems. In both comparisons, the more detailed models suggest substantially different conclusions, relative to the simpler topological models. In all but the most extreme case, our model of a “smart” power network coupled to a communication system suggests that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability, in contrast to the percolation model. Together, these results suggest that robustness can be enhanced by interconnecting networks with complementary capabilities if modes of internetwork failure propagation are constrained. PMID:28317835

  4. Chronic vitamin C deficiency increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E

    2007-01-01

    The studies on experimental animals (guinea pigs, monkeys, fish) have confirmed the important role of ascorbic acid deficiency in the development of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, but the clinical experience is not quite uniform. Metaanalyses of randomized controlled trials performed on subjects without established vitamin C-deficiency conclud that the evidence of the presence or absence of benefits derived from the ability of ascorbic acid to prevent cardiovascular diseases is not sufficient. This review is an outline of numerous clinical, epidemiological and prospective studies that have found a positive role of vitamin C in the prevention of atherosclerosis. If we admit the possibility that vitamin C deficiency is a significant risk factor of atherogenesis, due to ethical reasons it is impossible to perform long-term controlled trials on subjects with proved vitamin C deficiency, to recommend them not to change their nutrition and lifestyle, and to administer placebo to the control group. Therefore the proof of atherogenic effect of chronic vitamin C deficiency is limited to indirect evidence only. In this review many new data on the positive effects of ascorbic acid on human cardiovascular system are summarized and the mechanisms of its protective influence on blood vessels are discussed (Fig.5, Ref. 45). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  5. Cannabis use and childhood trauma interact additively to increase the risk of psychotic symptoms in adolescence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harley, M

    2010-10-01

    Adolescent cannabis use has been shown in many studies to increase the risk of later psychosis. Childhood trauma is associated with both substance misuse and risk for psychosis. In this study our aim was to investigate whether there is a significant interaction between cannabis use and childhood trauma in increasing the risk for experiencing psychotic symptoms during adolescence.

  6. The Racing-Game Effect : Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmueller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Joerg; Odenwaelder, Joerg; Kastenmüller, A.; Odenwälder, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation

  7. The Racing-Game Effect : Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmueller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Joerg; Odenwaelder, Joerg; Kastenmüller, A.; Odenwälder, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptacek R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radek Ptacek,1,2 George B Stefano,1,3 Simon Weissenberger,1 Devang Akotia,1 Jiri Raboch,1 Hana Papezova,1 Lucie Domkarova,1 Tereza Stepankova,1 Michal Goetz4 1Department of Psychiatry, Charles University 1st Medical Faculty and General Teaching Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychology, University of New York in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 3MitoGenetics Research Institute, MitoGenetics, LLC, Farmingdale, NY, USA; 4Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs. In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1 impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2 other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3 poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4 other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from

  9. Increasing Physical Activity Decreases Hepatic Fat and Metabolic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Tanya L; Gyllenhammer, Lauren E; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Goran, Michael I; Davis, Jaimie N

    2012-04-01

    This study assessed the changes in time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on fat depots, insulin action, and inflammation. Longitudinal data were generated from 66 Hispanic adolescents (15.6±1.1 yr; BMI percentile 97.1±3.0) who participated in a 16-wk nutrition or nutrition+exercise intervention. There were no effects of the intervention on PA, but there were inter-individual changes in PA. For purposes of this analysis, all intervention groups were combined to assess how changes in PA during 16 wk affected changes in adiposity, insulin action, and markers of inflammation. MVPA was assessed by 7-day accelerometry, total body fat via DXA, liver fat by MRI, and insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR via a fasting blood draw. A repeated measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of MVPA on fat depots, insulin action, and inflammatory markers. Sixty-two percent of participants increased MVPA (mean increase, 19.7±16.5 min/day) and 38% decreased MVPA (mean decrease, 10.7±10.1 min/day). Those who increased MVPA by as little as 20 min per day over 16 wk, compared to those who decreased MVPA, had significant reductions in liver fat (-13% vs. +3%; P=0.01), leptin levels (-18% vs. +4%; P=0.02), and fasting insulin (-23% vs. +5%; P=0.05). These findings indicate that a modest increase in MVPA can improve metabolic health in sedentary overweight Hispanic adolescents.

  10. Increased risk for irritable bowel syndrome after acute diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Erica; Fuller, Garth; Bolus, Roger; Modi, Rusha; Vu, Michelle; Shahedi, Kamyar; Shah, Rena; Atia, Mary; Kurzbard, Nicole; Sheen, Victoria; Agarwal, Nikhil; Kaneshiro, Marc; Yen, Linnette; Hodgkins, Paul; Erder, M Haim; Spiegel, Brennan

    2013-12-01

    Individuals with diverticulosis frequently also have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but there are no longitudinal data to associate acute diverticulitis with subsequent IBS, functional bowel disorders, or related emotional distress. In patients with postinfectious IBS, gastrointestinal disorders cause long-term symptoms, so we investigated whether diverticulitis might lead to IBS. We compared the incidence of IBS and functional bowel and related affective disorders among patients with diverticulitis. We performed a retrospective study of patients followed up for an average of 6.3 years at a Veteran's Administration medical center. Patients with diverticulitis were identified based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision codes, selected for the analysis based on chart review (cases, n = 1102), and matched with patients without diverticulosis (controls, n = 1102). We excluded patients with prior IBS, functional bowel, or mood disorders. We then identified patients who were diagnosed with IBS or functional bowel disorders after the diverticulitis attack, and controls who developed these disorders during the study period. We also collected information on mood disorders, analyzed survival times, and calculated adjusted hazard ratios. Cases were 4.7-fold more likely to be diagnosed later with IBS (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-14.0; P = .006), 2.4-fold more likely to be diagnosed later with a functional bowel disorder (95% CI, 1.6-3.6; P < .001), and 2.2-fold more likely to develop a mood disorder (CI, 1.4-3.5; P < .001) than controls. Patients with diverticulitis could be at risk for later development of IBS and functional bowel disorders. We propose calling this disorder postdiverticulitis IBS. Diverticulitis appears to predispose patients to long-term gastrointestinal and emotional symptoms after resolution of inflammation; in this way, postdiverticulitis IBS is similar to postinfectious IBS. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by

  11. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have sugg...

  12. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have sugg...

  13. Selenium deficiency risk predicted to increase under future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gerrad D.; Droz, Boris; Greve, Peter; Gottschalk, Pia; Poffet, Deyan; McGrath, Steve P.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Smith, Pete; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2017-01-01

    Deficiencies of micronutrients, including essential trace elements, affect up to 3 billion people worldwide. The dietary availability of trace elements is determined largely by their soil concentrations. Until now, the mechanisms governing soil concentrations have been evaluated in small-scale studies, which identify soil physicochemical properties as governing variables. However, global concentrations of trace elements and the factors controlling their distributions are virtually unknown. We used 33,241 soil data points to model recent (1980–1999) global distributions of Selenium (Se), an essential trace element that is required for humans. Worldwide, up to one in seven people have been estimated to have low dietary Se intake. Contrary to small-scale studies, soil Se concentrations were dominated by climate–soil interactions. Using moderate climate-change scenarios for 2080–2099, we predicted that changes in climate and soil organic carbon content will lead to overall decreased soil Se concentrations, particularly in agricultural areas; these decreases could increase the prevalence of Se deficiency. The importance of climate–soil interactions to Se distributions suggests that other trace elements with similar retention mechanisms will be similarly affected by climate change. PMID:28223487

  14. Azithromycin (AZM) treatment increases survival of high risk corneal allotransplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Carlos A.; Rowe, Alexander M.; Yun, Hongmin; Knickelbein, Jared E.; Lathrop, Kira L.; Hendricks, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To test the therapeutic efficacy of AZM, a macrolide antibiotic for prolonging murine “high risk” corneal allograft survival. Methods Fully MHC mismatched corneas were transplanted from C57BL/6 donors to BALB/c recipients with suture-induced vascularized “high risk” corneal beds. Recipient mice were either not treated or treated with topical AZM, oral AZM, or both. Evaluation of graft vascularization and clarity was performed in masked fashion. Lymph nodes were excised and analyzed for CD4, FoxP3, and CD44 by flow cytometry; and for T cell priming by proliferation and cytokine production in mixed lymphocyte cultures. Corneal whole mounts were evaluated by confocal microscopy. Results The incidence of graft rejection in the control group (81.8%) was significantly reduced by AZM treatment (18.2% topical, 21.7% oral, 33.3% topical + oral), although corneal vascularization was not affected by treatment. The frequency of corneas that retained complete clarity following transplantation was higher in the AZM treated groups. Reduced graft rejection in the AZM treated groups was not associated with a reduced allospecific T cell response or increased frequency of T regulatory cells. Conclusions AZM is effective in prolonging survival of “high risk” corneal allografts by an as yet undefined mechanism that does not appear to involve modulation of corneal neovascularization or allo-specific T cell priming. PMID:23407315

  15. Hair keratin mutations in tooth enamel increase dental decay risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverger, Olivier; Ohara, Takahiro; Shaffer, John R; Donahue, Danielle; Zerfas, Patricia; Dullnig, Andrew; Crecelius, Christopher; Beniash, Elia; Marazita, Mary L; Morasso, Maria I

    2014-12-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the human body and has a unique combination of hardness and fracture toughness that protects teeth from dental caries, the most common chronic disease worldwide. In addition to a high mineral content, tooth enamel comprises organic material that is important for mechanical performance and influences the initiation and progression of caries; however, the protein composition of tooth enamel has not been fully characterized. Here, we determined that epithelial hair keratins, which are crucial for maintaining the integrity of the sheaths that support the hair shaft, are expressed in the enamel organ and are essential organic components of mature enamel. Using genetic and intraoral examination data from 386 children and 706 adults, we found that individuals harboring known hair disorder-associated polymorphisms in the gene encoding keratin 75 (KRT75), KRT75(A161T) and KRT75(E337K), are prone to increased dental caries. Analysis of teeth from individuals carrying the KRT75(A161T) variant revealed an altered enamel structure and a marked reduction of enamel hardness, suggesting that a functional keratin network is required for the mechanical stability of tooth enamel. Taken together, our results identify a genetic locus that influences enamel structure and establish a connection between hair disorders and susceptibility to dental caries.

  16. Thinking Concretely Increases the Perceived Likelihood of Risks: The Effect of Construal Level on Risk Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lermer, Eva; Streicher, Bernhard; Sachs, Rainer; Raue, Martina; Frey, Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Recent findings on construal level theory (CLT) suggest that abstract thinking leads to a lower estimated probability of an event occurring compared to concrete thinking. We applied this idea to the risk context and explored the influence of construal level (CL) on the overestimation of small and underestimation of large probabilities for risk estimates concerning a vague target person (Study 1 and Study 3) and personal risk estimates (Study 2). We were specifically interested in whether the often-found overestimation of small probabilities could be reduced with abstract thinking, and the often-found underestimation of large probabilities was reduced with concrete thinking. The results showed that CL influenced risk estimates. In particular, a concrete mindset led to higher risk estimates compared to an abstract mindset for several adverse events, including events with small and large probabilities. This suggests that CL manipulation can indeed be used for improving the accuracy of lay people's estimates of small and large probabilities. Moreover, the results suggest that professional risk managers' risk estimates of common events (thus with a relatively high probability) could be improved by adopting a concrete mindset. However, the abstract manipulation did not lead managers to estimate extremely unlikely events more accurately. Potential reasons for different CL manipulation effects on risk estimates' accuracy between lay people and risk managers are discussed.

  17. Increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 in humans after solar exposure under natural conditions compared to artificial UVB exposure of hands and face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta, Pameli; Bogh, Morten Karsten; Olsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D studies are often performed under controlled laboratory conditions and the findings may be difficult to translate to natural conditions. We aimed to determine and compare the doses of natural solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) with doses of artificial UVB radiation of hands and face needed...... UVR doses in standard erythema doses (SEDs) were determined with personal wristwatch UV-dosimeters. 29 volunteers (Group 2) received artificial UVB doses of 6 SEDs (N = 14) and 3 SEDs (N = 15) on hands and face during late-winter/early-spring when outdoor UVB is negligible. 25(OH)D-levels were...... limited to hands and face. Instead the earliest period (week 17-19) with significant Δ25(OH)D, occurring after a mean of 2 days of sun-exposing more than hands and face, was used to estimate an approximate UVR dose required to increase 25(OH)D. This estimate resulted in a dose of 4.1 solar SEDs required...

  18. Increasing pesticide-resistant ectoparasitic infections may increase pesticide poisoning risks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2008-01-01

    Head louse and scabies mite infestations are common among pre-school and school-age children, and topical pesticides are frequently prescribed to treat such conditions. Ectoparasite resistance to the safest and most commonly prescribed pyrethrin/pyrethroid pesticides for ectoparasitic infections has, however, been increasing since the 1980s. The increasing resistance of these arthropods to the safest pesticides may lead to greater use of more toxic, alternative pesticides to control infestations and to prevent institutional outbreaks. MEDLINE and Cochrane searches, 1966-2008, were conducted to assess the impact of increasing pesticide resistance on prescribing practices for ectoparasitic infections and to describe the evolving global epidemiology of pediatric poisonings by more toxic pediculicides and miticides, including carbamates, organochlorines, and organophosphates. Pharmacists, physicians, and poison control personnel should be fully informed about increasing pesticide resistance among the most commonly encountered ectoparasites of children and the institutionalized and be prepared to prevent and to treat accidental home and institutional pesticide poisonings with more toxic pesticides.

  19. Bias of health estimates obtained from chronic disease and risk factor surveillance systems using telephone population surveys in Australia: results from a representative face-to-face survey in Australia from 2010 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Dal Grande

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging communication technologies have had an impact on population-based telephone surveys worldwide. Our objective was to examine the potential biases of health estimates in South Australia, a state of Australia, obtained via current landline telephone survey methodologies and to report on the impact of mobile-only household on household surveys. Methods Data from an annual multi-stage, systematic, clustered area, face-to-face population survey, Health Omnibus Survey (approximately 3000 interviews annually, included questions about telephone ownership to assess the population that were non-contactable by current telephone sampling methods (2006 to 2013. Univariable analyses (2010 to 2013 and trend analyses were conducted for sociodemographic and health indicator variables in relation to telephone status. Relative coverage biases (RCB of two hypothetical telephone samples was undertaken by examining the prevalence estimates of health status and health risk behaviours (2010 to 2013: directory-listed numbers, consisting mainly of landline telephone numbers and a small proportion of mobile telephone numbers; and a random digit dialling (RDD sample of landline telephone numbers which excludes mobile-only households. Results Telephone (landline and mobile coverage in South Australia is very high (97 %. Mobile telephone ownership increased slightly (7.4 %, rising from 89.7 % in 2006 to 96.3 % in 2013; mobile-only households increased by 431 % over the eight year period from 5.2 % in 2006 to 27.6 % in 2013. Only half of the households have either a mobile or landline number listed in the telephone directory. There were small differences in the prevalence estimates for current asthma, arthritis, diabetes and obesity between the hypothetical telephone samples and the overall sample. However, prevalence estimate for diabetes was slightly underestimated (RCB value of −0.077 in 2013. Mixed RCB results were found for having a

  20. Increasing Treatment Seeking Among At-Risk Service Members Returning from Warzones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-13-2-0032 TITLE: Increasing Treatment Seeking Among At- Risk Service Members Returning from Warzones PRINCIPAL...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-2-0032 Increasing Treatment Seeking Among At- Risk Service Members Returning from Warzones 5b...include area code) Nothing listed 15 USAMRMC 2 Abstract Increasing Treatment Seeking Among At- Risk Service Members Returning from Warzones PI

  1. Increased risk for fetal loss in carriers of the factor V Leiden mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi, [No Value; Middeldorp, S; de Kam, PJ; Koopman, MMW; van Pampus, ECM; Hamulyak, K; Prins, MH; Buller, HR; van der Meer, J

    1999-01-01

    Background: An increased risk for fetal loss caused by placental thrombosis is probable in carriers of the factor V Leiden mutation but has not been demonstrated consistently in previous studies. Objective: To determine the overall risk for fetal loss and the separate risks for miscarriage and still

  2. Sensory neurons signal for an increase in rat gastric mucosal blood flow in the face of pending acid injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, P; Livingston, E H; Guth, P H

    1991-08-01

    Disruption of the gastric mucosal barrier is quickly followed by an increase in gastric mucosal blood flow, which is thought to be a defensive reaction to prevent further injury. This study examined how this increase in blood flow is brought about. When the stomach of urethane-anesthetized rats was perfused with 0.15N HCl, disruption of the gastric mucosal barrier with 15% ethanol increased the disappearance of acid from the gastric lumen and enhanced gastric mucosal blood flow. This increase in blood flow was blocked by local arterial infusion of tetrodotoxin (60 ng/min) to the stomach and by chemical ablation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons. Inhibition of the blood flow increase was associated with exaggeration of gross and histological injury to the mucosa. IV injection of atropine (0.2 mg/kg) or pyrilamine (2 mg/kg) did not affect blood flow increase in response to barrier disruption, whereas morphine injection (2 mg/kg) inhibited it. The current findings show that the increase in gastric mucosal blood flow that follows disruption of the gastric mucosal barrier in the presence of acid is mediated by sensory neurons that seem to monitor acid back-diffusion and in turn signal for a protective increase in blood flow.

  3. Humber-in-a-Box : Gamification to Communicate Coastal Flood Risk in the Face of Rising Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. J.; van Rij, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Humber-in-a-Box is an immersive visualisation of the Humber Estuary (on the east coast of the UK), designed to communicate coastal flood risk in the face of rising seas. It is designed for use in a busy festival-like setting. The user views the environment via an Oculus Rift Virtual Reality (VR) headset and is able to explore using an XBOX controller. A live simulation of tidal flows on a modelled version of the estuary can be viewed on a box in the centre of a virtual room. Using the controller, the user is able to raise sea levels and see what happens as the tide levels adjust. Humber-in-a-Box uses a numerical model built with data used for published research. The hydraulic component of the CAESAR-Lisflood model code was incorporated into the UNITY-3D gaming engine, and the model uses recorded tidal stage data, bathymetry and elevations to build the virtual environment and drive the simulation. Present day flood defences are incorporated into the model, and in conjunction with modelling tidal flows, this provides a better representation of future flood risk than simpler linear models. The user is able to raise and lower sea levels between -10 m and 100 m, in 1m increments, and can reset the simulation to present day levels with one button click. Humber-in-a-Box has been showcased at several outreach events and has proven to be very popular and effective in an environment where time with each user is pressured, and information needs to exchange quickly. It has also been used in teaching at Undergraduate level, although the full potential of this is yet to be explored. A non-interactive version of the application is available on YouTube which is designed for use with Google Cardboard and similar kit.

  4. In Your Face: Risk of Punishment Enhances Cognitive Control and Error-Related Activity in the Corrugator Supercilii Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn R Lindström

    Full Text Available Cognitive control is needed when mistakes have consequences, especially when such consequences are potentially harmful. However, little is known about how the aversive consequences of deficient control affect behavior. To address this issue, participants performed a two-choice response time task where error commissions were expected to be punished by electric shocks during certain blocks. By manipulating (1 the perceived punishment risk (no, low, high associated with error commissions, and (2 response conflict (low, high, we showed that motivation to avoid punishment enhanced performance during high response conflict. As a novel index of the processes enabling successful cognitive control under threat, we explored electromyographic activity in the corrugator supercilii (cEMG muscle of the upper face. The corrugator supercilii is partially controlled by the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC which is sensitive to negative affect, pain and cognitive control. As hypothesized, the cEMG exhibited several key similarities with the core temporal and functional characteristics of the Error-Related Negativity (ERN ERP component, the hallmark index of cognitive control elicited by performance errors, and which has been linked to the aMCC. The cEMG was amplified within 100 ms of error commissions (the same time-window as the ERN, particularly during the high punishment risk condition where errors would be most aversive. Furthermore, similar to the ERN, the magnitude of error cEMG predicted post-error response time slowing. Our results suggest that cEMG activity can serve as an index of avoidance motivated control, which is instrumental to adaptive cognitive control when consequences are potentially harmful.

  5. In Your Face: Risk of Punishment Enhances Cognitive Control and Error-Related Activity in the Corrugator Supercilii Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Björn R; Mattsson-Mårn, Isak Berglund; Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control is needed when mistakes have consequences, especially when such consequences are potentially harmful. However, little is known about how the aversive consequences of deficient control affect behavior. To address this issue, participants performed a two-choice response time task where error commissions were expected to be punished by electric shocks during certain blocks. By manipulating (1) the perceived punishment risk (no, low, high) associated with error commissions, and (2) response conflict (low, high), we showed that motivation to avoid punishment enhanced performance during high response conflict. As a novel index of the processes enabling successful cognitive control under threat, we explored electromyographic activity in the corrugator supercilii (cEMG) muscle of the upper face. The corrugator supercilii is partially controlled by the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) which is sensitive to negative affect, pain and cognitive control. As hypothesized, the cEMG exhibited several key similarities with the core temporal and functional characteristics of the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) ERP component, the hallmark index of cognitive control elicited by performance errors, and which has been linked to the aMCC. The cEMG was amplified within 100 ms of error commissions (the same time-window as the ERN), particularly during the high punishment risk condition where errors would be most aversive. Furthermore, similar to the ERN, the magnitude of error cEMG predicted post-error response time slowing. Our results suggest that cEMG activity can serve as an index of avoidance motivated control, which is instrumental to adaptive cognitive control when consequences are potentially harmful.

  6. Increasing nest predation will be insufficient to maintain polar bear body condition in the face of sea ice loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Cody J; Richardson, Evan; McGeachy, David; Iverson, Samuel A; Gilchrist, Hugh G; Semeniuk, Christina A D

    2017-05-01

    Climate change can influence interspecific interactions by differentially affecting species-specific phenology. In seasonal ice environments, there is evidence that polar bear predation of Arctic bird eggs is increasing because of earlier sea ice breakup, which forces polar bears into nearshore terrestrial environments where Arctic birds are nesting. Because polar bears can consume a large number of nests before becoming satiated, and because they can swim between island colonies, they could have dramatic influences on seabird and sea duck reproductive success. However, it is unclear whether nest foraging can provide an energetic benefit to polar bear populations, especially given the capacity of bird populations to redistribute in response to increasing predation pressure. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model of the predator-prey relationship between polar bears and common eiders, a common and culturally important bird species for northern peoples. Our model is composed of two types of agents (polar bear agents and common eider hen agents) whose movements and decision heuristics are based on species-specific bioenergetic and behavioral ecological principles, and are influenced by historical and extrapolated sea ice conditions. Our model reproduces empirical findings that polar bear predation of bird nests is increasing and predicts an accelerating relationship between advancing ice breakup dates and the number of nests depredated. Despite increases in nest predation, our model predicts that polar bear body condition during the ice-free period will continue to decline. Finally, our model predicts that common eider nests will become more dispersed and will move closer to the mainland in response to increasing predation, possibly increasing their exposure to land-based predators and influencing the livelihood of local people that collect eider eggs and down. These results show that predator-prey interactions can have nonlinear responses to

  7. Increased risk of eczema but reduced risk of early wheezy disorder from exclusive breast-feeding in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, Charlotte; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2010-01-01

    Breast-feeding is recommended for the prevention of eczema, asthma, and allergy, particularly in high-risk families, but recent studies have raised concern that this may not protect children and may even increase the risk. However, disease risk, disease manifestation, lifestyle, and the choice...

  8. Increased Bleeding Risk With Concurrent Use of Selective Serotonin Reuptake inhibitors and Coumarins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalekamp, Tom; Klungel, Olaf H; Souverein, Patrick C; de Boer, Anthonius

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with vitamin K antagonists (coumarins) is associated with an increased risk of bleeding. Because use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is also associated with an increased risk of bleeding, we assessed the odds ratio (OR) of abnormal bleeding associated with SS

  9. Breast cancer patients with dense breasts do not have increased death risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    High mammographic breast density, which is a marker of increased risk of developing breast cancer, does not seem to increase the risk of death among breast cancer patients, according to a study led by Gretchen L. Gierach, Ph.D., NCI. Image shows physician

  10. Increased Bleeding Risk With Concurrent Use of Selective Serotonin Reuptake inhibitors and Coumarins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalekamp, Tom; Klungel, Olaf H; Souverein, Patrick C; de Boer, Anthonius

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with vitamin K antagonists (coumarins) is associated with an increased risk of bleeding. Because use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is also associated with an increased risk of bleeding, we assessed the odds ratio (OR) of abnormal bleeding associated with

  11. Fuel poverty increases risk of mould contamination, regardless of adult risk perception & ventilation in social housing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard A; Thornton, Christopher R; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Osborne, Nicholas J

    2015-06-01

    Fuel poverty affects 2.4 million UK homes leading to poor hygrothermal conditions and risk of mould and house dust mite contaminations, which in turn increases risk of asthma exacerbation. For the first time we assess how fuel poverty, occupants' risk perception and use of mechanical ventilation mediate the risk of mould contamination in social housing. Postal questionnaires were sent to 3867 social housing properties to collect adult risk perception, and demographic and environmental information on occupants. Participant details were linked to data pertaining to the individual properties. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals while allowing for clustering of individuals coming from the same housing estate. We used Structured Equation Modelling and Goodness of Fit analysis in mediation analyses to examine the role of fuel poverty, risk perception, use of ventilation and energy efficiency. Eighteen percent of our target social housing populations (671 households) were included into our study. High risk perception (score of 8-10) was associated with reduced risk of mould contamination in the bedrooms of children (OR 0.5 95% CI; 0.3-0.9) and adults (OR 0.4 95% CI; 0.3-0.7). High risk perception of living with inadequate heating and ventilation reduced the risk of mould contamination (OR 0.5 95% CI; 0.3-0.8 and OR 0.5 95% CI; 0.3-0.7, respectively). Participants living with inadequate heating and not heating due to the cost of fuel had an increased risk of mould contamination (OR 3.4 95% CI; 2.0-5.8 and OR 2.2 95% CI; 1.5-3.2, respectively). Increased risk perception and use of extractor fans did not mediate the association between fuel poverty behaviours and increased risk of mould contamination. Fuel poverty behaviours increased the risk of mould contamination, which corresponds with existing literature. For the first time we used mediation analysis to assess how this association maybe modified by occupant behaviours

  12. Variation among genotypes in responses to increasing temperature in a marine parasite: evolutionary potential in the face of global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Boris W; Lloyd, Melanie M; Poulin, Robert; Studer, Anja

    2014-11-01

    Climates are changing worldwide, and populations are under selection to adapt to these changes. Changing temperature, in particular, can directly impact ectotherms and their parasites, with potential consequences for whole ecosystems. The potential of parasite populations to adapt to climate change largely depends on the amount of genetic variation they possess in their responses to environmental fluctuations. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to look at differences among parasite genotypes in response to temperature, with the goal of quantifying the extent of variation among conspecifics in their responses to increasing temperature. Snails infected with single genotypes of the trematode Maritrema novaezealandensis were sequentially acclimatised to two different temperatures, 'current' (15°C) and 'elevated' (20°C), over long periods. These temperatures are based on current average field conditions in the natural habitat and those predicted to occur during the next few decades. The output and activity of cercariae (free-swimming infective stages emerging from snails) were assessed for each genotype at each temperature. The results indicate that, on average, both cercarial output and activity are higher at the elevated acclimation temperature. More importantly, the output and activity of cercariae are strongly influenced by a genotype-by-temperature interaction, such that different genotypes show different responses to increasing temperature. Both the magnitude and direction (increase or decrease) of responses to temperature varied widely among genotypes. Therefore, there is much potential for natural selection to act on this variation, and predicting how the trematode M. novaezealandensis will respond to the climate changes predicted for the next century will prove challenging.

  13. Generalization of affective learning about faces to perceptually similar faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verosky, Sara C; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    Different individuals have different (and different-looking) significant others, friends, and foes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether these social face environments can shape individual face preferences. First, participants learned to associate faces with positive, neutral, or negative behaviors. Then, they evaluated morphs combining novel faces with the learned faces. The morphs (65% and 80% novel faces) were within the categorical boundary of the novel faces: They were perceived as those faces in a preliminary study. Moreover, a second preliminary study showed that following the learning, the morphs' categorization as similar to the learned faces was indistinguishable from the categorization of actual novel faces. Nevertheless, in the main experiment, participants evaluated morphs of "positive" faces more positively than morphs of "negative" faces. This learning generalization effect increased as a function of the similarity of the novel faces to the learned faces. The findings suggest that general learning mechanisms based on similarity can account for idiosyncratic face preferences.

  14. Risk assessment tools to identify women with increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. Complexity or simplicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Hermann, Anne Pernille

    2013-01-01

    A huge number of risk assessment tools have been developed. Far from all have been validated in external studies, more of them have absence of methodological and transparent evidence and few are integrated in national guidelines. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to provide an overview...... of existing valid and reliable risk assessment tools for prediction of osteoporotic fractures. Additionally, we aimed to determine if the performance each tool was sufficient for practical use and lastly to examine whether the complexity of the tools influenced their discriminative power. We searched Pub...... fracture outcomes. High quality studies in randomized design with population-based cohorts with different case mixes are needed. © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research....

  15. Women referred for occupational risk assessment in pregnancy have no increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Signe Brøker; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane Marie;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to study the association between pregnant women's referral status for occupational risk assessment, and their risk of preterm delivery (... pregnant women referred to two Danish clinics of occupational medicine (Copenhagen and Aarhus) from 1984 to 2010 were compared with the referred women's 1,077 non-referred pregnancy outcomes and with the pregnancy outcomes of 345,467 gainfully employed women from the same geographical areas and time period....... Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Calculations were adjusted for the mother's age at delivery, parity, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, smoking, and in supplementary analyses for year of birth. RESULTS: Referred women gave birth to children...

  16. Increase in the Risk of Respiratory Disorders in Adults and Children Related to Crop-Growing in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Environmental factors are an increasing concern for respiratory health in developing countries. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Nigerien people living in cultivated areas have more respiratory symptoms than those living in pastoral areas. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 in two populations during the rainy season when land is cultivated. Environmental factors including pesticide use and respiratory symptoms were collected in adults and children during face-to-face interviews. Multivariate analysis between exposures and symptoms was performed in children and in adults separately. Results. The study included 471 adults and 229 children. Overall, none of the households reported the use of pesticides for agricultural purposes. However, 87.2% reported the use of insecticides at home. Multivariate analysis showed that people living in agricultural areas compared to those in pastoral areas had an increased risk of respiratory symptoms in adults (wheezing, dyspnea, sudden shortness of breath, and cough without fever and in children (cough without fever. The use of insecticides showed no effect on respiratory symptoms after adjustment. Conclusion. This first epidemiological study on the environment and respiratory health conducted in Niger demonstrates a significant relationship between respiratory manifestations and the agricultural characteristics of the living area. However only the effect of insecticides in the home on respiratory health was observed.

  17. Genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure increases risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Laiyuan; Chen, Shufeng; Yang, Xueli; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Chen, Jichun; Li, Ying; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Hongfan; Liu, Fangcao; Huang, Chen; Shen, Chong; Shen, Jinjin; Yu, Ling; Xu, Lihua; Mu, Jianjun; Wu, Xianping; Ji, Xu; Guo, Dongshuang; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Yang, Zili; Wang, Renping; Yang, Jun; Yan, Weili; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-10-01

    Although multiple genetic markers associated with blood pressure have been identified by genome-wide association studies, their aggregate effect on risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease is uncertain, particularly among East Asian who may have different genetic and environmental exposures from Europeans. We aimed to examine the association between genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease in 26 262 individuals in 2 Chinese population-based prospective cohorts. A genetic risk score was calculated based on 22 established variants for blood pressure in East Asian. We found the genetic risk score was significantly and independently associated with linear increases in blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease (P range from 4.57×10(-3) to 3.10×10(-6)). In analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors including blood pressure, individuals carrying most blood pressure-related risk alleles (top quintile of genetic score distribution) had 40% (95% confidence interval, 18-66) and 26% (6-45) increased risk for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, respectively, when compared with individuals in the bottom quintile. The genetic risk score also significantly improved discrimination for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and led to modest improvements in risk reclassification for cardiovascular disease (all the Phypertension and cardiovascular disease and provides modest incremental information to cardiovascular disease risk prediction. The potential clinical use of this panel of blood pressure-associated polymorphisms remains to be determined.

  18. At-Risk Variant in TCF7L2 for Type II Diabetes Increases Risk of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas; Ingason, Andrés; Djurovic, Srdjan;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with increased risk of type II diabetes and metabolic disorders. However, it is unclear whether this comorbidity reflects shared genetic risk factors, at-risk lifestyle, or side effects of antipsychotic medication. METHODS: Eleven known risk variants of type...... (SGENE+) using Mantel-Haenszel test. RESULTS: One type II diabetes at-risk allele located in TCF7L2, rs7903146 [T], was associated with schizophrenia in the discovery sample (p = .0052) and in the replication with an odds ratio of 1.07 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.14, p = .033). CONCLUSION...... II diabetes were genotyped in patients with schizophrenia in a sample of 410 Danish patients, each matched with two healthy control subjects on sex, birth year, and month. Replication was carried out in a large multinational European sample of 4089 patients with schizophrenia and 17,597 controls...

  19. The response of European forests to expected climate change: are mixed-forests better adapted to face increasing drought stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossiord, C.; Granier, A.; Gessler, A.; Bonal, D.

    2013-12-01

    Scenarios predict a global increase in the frequency and intensity of soil drought during the growing season in many regions around the world and whether managed forest ecosystems will adapt and survive to these changes in the next decades still remains to be resolved. Given the economic value of forestry, management practices adapted to future climatic conditions have to be implemented. Species interactions, by influencing the functioning of forest ecosystems, can modify the response of forest ecosystems to changing environmental conditions. More diverse forest ecosystems have been shown to display enhanced productivity or transpiration thanks to facilitation or complementary mechanisms for resource acquisition among species. However, the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning depends on environmental conditions (the 'stress-gradient' hypothesis). Thus, in the context of climate change, whether more diverse forest ecosystems would necessarily be more resilient and better adapted in terms of carbon and water balance to more severe drought conditions remains to be addressed. To test this hypothesis at continental scale, we compared the influence of tree species diversity on ecosystem-level water use efficiency in the major forest types across Europe between two years with highly contrasted soil water conditions during the growing season (wet vs. dry years). Ecosystem water use efficiency represents the time-integrated trade-off between ecosystem-level carbon gain and transpiration and was assessed by analysing the carbon isotope composition of tree rings of tree species growing in pure vs. mixed stands at 6 study sites along a North-South gradient in Europe. Our results confirmed that the physiological response of forest ecosystems to changing soil water conditions is differentially influenced by species diversity and their interactions across this European gradient. Promoting mixed species forests in management practice plans may thus not

  20. Cyberbullying: the new face of workplace bullying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Carmel; Campbell, Marilyn Anne

    2009-08-01

    While the subject of cyberbullying of children and adolescents has begun to be addressed, less attention and research have focused on cyberbullying in the workplace. Male-dominated workplaces such as manufacturing settings are found to have an increased risk of workplace bullying, but the prevalence of cyberbullying in this sector is not known. This exploratory study investigated the prevalence and methods of face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying of males at work. One hundred three surveys (a modified version of the revised Negative Acts Questionnaire [NAQ-R]) were returned from randomly selected members of the Australian Manufacturing Workers' Union (AMWU). The results showed that 34% of respondents were bullied face-to-face, and 10.7% were cyberbullied. All victims of cyberbullying also experienced face-to-face bullying. The implications for organizations' "duty of care" in regard to this new form of bullying are indicated.

  1. Increased risk of ALL among premature infants is not explained by increased prevalence of pre-leukemic cell clones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Madsen, Hans O.; Vestergaard, Therese Risom;

    2010-01-01

    The multi-hit hypothesis for paediatric leukemogenesis states that an initial genetic hit (often occurring prenataly) must be followed by one or more hit(s) before a cell become leukeamic. Studies have demonstrated the presence of pre-leukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells at levels 10(-3) to 10......(-4) in 1% of newborns (i.e. 100-fold their risk of t(12;21)-positive ALL), but only at levels of 10(-5) to 10(-6) in 0.5% adults. As the risk of developing ALL is inversely associated to the gestational age at birth, we investigated if this increased risk could be explained by an increase in prevalence...... in the prevalence and magnitude of preleukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells compared to previously published data from mature children could be demonstrated. This indirectly supports the theory that prevalence and quantity of preleukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells peaks at term or early childhood and that exogenous...

  2. Elevated CO₂ increases tree-level intrinsic water use efficiency: insights from carbon and oxygen isotope analyses in tree rings across three forest FACE sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; Saurer, Matthias; Cherubini, Paolo; Calfapietra, Carlo; McCarthy, Heather R; Norby, Richard J; Francesca Cotrufo, M

    2013-01-01

    Elevated CO₂ increases intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE(i) ) of forests, but the magnitude of this effect and its interaction with climate is still poorly understood. We combined tree ring analysis with isotope measurements at three Free Air CO₂ Enrichment (FACE, POP-EUROFACE, in Italy; Duke FACE in North Carolina and ORNL in Tennessee, USA) sites, to cover the entire life of the trees. We used δ¹³C to assess carbon isotope discrimination and changes in water-use efficiency, while direct CO₂ effects on stomatal conductance were explored using δ¹⁸O as a proxy. Across all the sites, elevated CO₂ increased ¹³C-derived water-use efficiency on average by 73% for Liquidambar styraciflua, 77% for Pinus taeda and 75% for Populus sp., but through different ecophysiological mechanisms. Our findings provide a robust means of predicting water-use efficiency responses from a variety of tree species exposed to variable environmental conditions over time, and species-specific relationships that can help modelling elevated CO₂ and climate impacts on forest productivity, carbon and water balances.

  3. Subfertility increases risk of testicular cancer: evidence from population-based semen samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Heidi A; Anderson, Ross E; Aston, Kenneth I; Carrell, Douglas T; Smith, Ken R; Hotaling, James M

    2016-02-01

    To further understand the association between semen quality and cancer risk by means of well defined semen parameters. Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. A total of 20,433 men who underwent semen analysis (SA) and a sample of 20,433 fertile control subjects matched by age and birth year. None. Risk of all cancers as well as site-specific results for prostate cancer, testicular cancer, and melanoma. Compared with fertile men, men with SA had an increased risk of testicular cancer (hazard rate [HR] 3.3). When the characterization of infertility was refined using individual semen parameters, we found that oligozoospermic men had an increased risk of cancer compared with fertile control subjects. This association was particularly strong for testicular cancer, with increased risk in men with oligozoospermia based on concentration (HR 11.9) and on sperm count (HR 10.3). Men in the in the lowest quartile of motility (HR 4.1), viability (HR 6.6), morphology (HR 4.2), or total motile count (HR 6.9) had higher risk of testicular cancer compared with fertile men. Men with sperm concentration and count in the 90th percentiles of the distribution (≥178 and ≥579 × 10(6)/mL, respectively), as well as total motile count, had an increased risk of melanoma (HRs 2.1, 2.7, and 2.0, respectively). We found no differences in cancer risk between azoospermic and fertile men. Men with SA had an increased risk of testicular cancer which varied by semen quality. Unlike earlier work, we did not find an association between azoospermia and increased cancer risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The most physically active Danish adolescents are at increased risk for developing spinal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Boyle, Eleanor; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    physical activity, the RR was 1.03 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.05) for reporting spinal pain at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In general, physical activity did not affect the risk of spinal pain during follow-up, but the 10% most active adolescents were at increased risk of developing spinal pain. Thus, vigorous physical...

  5. Increased risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in household child contacts exposed to passive tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya; Karnani, Nisha; Connell, David W; Millington, Kerry A; Dosanjh, Davinder; Bakir, Mustafa; Soysal, Ahmet; Deeks, Jonathan; Lalvani, Ajit

    2014-12-01

    Risk factors associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection were investigated in a prospective cohort of household child tuberculosis contacts. A significantly increased risk of acquiring infection was associated with exposure to passive cigarette smoke, higher number of index cases, younger age and reduced household monthly income.

  6. Chronic kidney disease stages 1-3 increase the risk of venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocak, G.; Verduijn, M.; Vossen, C. Y.; Lijfering, W. M.; Dekker, F. W.; Rosendaal, F. R.; Gansevoort, R. T.; Mahmoodi, B. K.

    2010-01-01

    P>Background: End-stage renal disease has been associated with venous thrombosis (VT). However, the risk of VT in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CKD patients with stage 1-3 disease are at increased risk

  7. Non-exposure parenting increases risk of bullying behavior in junior high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surilena Hasan

    2016-05-01

    Non-exposure parenting was the most relevant risk factor of bullying behavior. Low self-esteem increases the risk of bullying behavior. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying prevention and intervention programs that should have a special focus on families of primary high school students.

  8. Increased risk of breast cancer following different regimens of hormone replacement therapy frequently used in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlberg, Claudia; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown an increased risk of breast cancer following hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The aim of this study was to investigate whether different treatment regimens or the androgenecity of progestins influence the risk of breast cancer differently. The Danish Nurse Cohort...

  9. Polymorphisms Near TBX5 and GDF7 Are Associated With Increased Risk for Barrett's Esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palles, Claire; Chegwidden, Laura; Li, Xinzhong; Findlay, John M.; Farnham, Garry; Giner, Francesc Castro; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Kovac, Michal; Adams, Claire L.; Prenen, Hans; Briggs, Sarah; Harrison, Rebecca; Sanders, Scott; MacDonald, David; Haigh, Chris; Tucker, Art; Love, Sharon; Nanji, Manoj; Decaestecker, John; Ferry, David; Rathbone, Barrie; Hapeshi, Julie; Barr, Hugh; Moayyedi, Paul; Watson, Peter; Zietek, Barbara; Maroo, Neera; Gay, Laura; Underwood, Tim; Boulter, Lisa; McMurtry, Hugh; Monk, David; Patel, Praful; Ragunath, Krish; Al Dulaimi, David; Murray, Iain; Koss, Konrad; Veitch, Andrew; Trudgill, Nigel; Nwokolo, Chuka; Rembacken, Bjorn; Atherfold, Paul; Green, Elaine; Ang, Yeng; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Chow, Wu; Paterson, Stuart; Kadri, Sudarshan; Beales, Ian; Grimley, Charles; Mullins, Paul; Beckett, Conrad; Farrant, Mark; Dixon, Andrew; Kelly, Sean; Johnson, Matthew; Wajed, Shahjehan; Dhar, Anjan; Sawyer, Elinor; Roylance, Rebecca; Onstad, Lynn; Gammon, Marilie D.; Corley, Douglas A.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Bird, Nigel C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Reid, Brian J.; Ye, Weimin; Liu, Geoffrey; Romero, Yvonne; Bernstein, Leslie; Wu, Anna H.; Casson, Alan G.; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Whiteman, David C.; Risch, Harvey A.; Levine, David M.; Vaughan, Tom L.; Verhaar, Auke P.; van den Brande, Jan; Toxopeus, Eelke L.; Spaander, Manon C.; Wijnhoven, Bas P. L.; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; Krishnadath, Kausilia; Wijmenga, Cisca; Trynka, Gosia; McManus, Ross; Reynolds, John V.; O'Sullivan, Jacintha; MacMathuna, Padraic; McGarrigle, Sarah A.; Kelleher, Dermot; Vermeire, Severine; Cleynen, Isabelle; Bisschops, Raf; Tomlinson, Ian; Jankowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Barrett's esophagus (BE) increases the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We found the risk to be BE has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 6p21 (within the HLA region) and on 16q23, where the closest protein-coding gene is FOXF1. Subse

  10. Polymorphisms near TBX5 and GDF7 are associated with increased risk for Barrett's esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Palles (Claire); L. Chegwidden (Laura); X. Li (Xinzhong); J.M. Findlay (John M.); G. Farnham (Garry); F. Castro Giner (Francesc); M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel); M. Kovac (Michal); C.L. Adams (Claire L.); H. Prenen (Hans); S. Briggs (Sarah); R. Harrison (Rebecca); S. Sanders (Scott); D. Macdonald (David); K. Haigh (Katharina); A.T. Tucker (Art); S. Love (Sharon); M. Nanji (Manoj); J. Decaestecker (John); D.R. Ferry (David); B. Rathbone (Barrie); J. Hapeshi (Julie); H. Barr (Hugh); P. Moayyedi (Paul); P. Watson (Peter); B. Zietek (Barbara); N. Maroo (Neera); L. Gay (Laura); T. Underwood (Tim); L. Boulter (Lisa); H. McMurtry (Hugh); A.B. Monk (Alastair); P. Patel (Poulam); K. Ragunath (Krish); D. Al Dulaimi (David); I. Murray (Iain); C. Koss (Clara); A. Veitch (Andrew); N. Trudgill (Nigel); C. Nwokolo (Chuka); B. Rembacken; P. Atherfold (Paul); E.K. Green (Elaine K); Y. Ang (Yeng); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); W. Chow (Wu); S. Paterson (Stuart); S. Kadri (Sudarshan); I. Beales (Ian); C. Grimley (Charles); P. Mullins (Paul); C. Beckett (Conrad); M. Farrant (Mark); A. Dixon (Andrew); S. Kelly (Sean); M. Johnson (Matthew); S. Wajed (Shahjehan); A. Dhar (Archana); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); R. Roylance (Rebecca); L. Onstad (Lynn); M.D. Gammon (Marilie); D.A. Corley (Douglas); N. Shaheen (Nazima); N.C. Bird (Nigel); B.G.S. Hardie (Bruce); B.J. Reid (Brian); W. Ye (Weimin); G. Liu (Geoffrey); Y. Romero (Yvonne); L. Bernstein (Leslie); A.H. Wu (Anna H.); A.G. Casson (Alan); R.C. Fitzgerald (Rebecca); D.C. Whiteman (David C.); H. Risch (Harvey); D.M. Levine (David M.); T.L. Vaughan (Thomas); A.P. Verhaar (Auke); J. Van Den Brande (Jan); E.L.A. Toxopeus (Eelke); M.C.W. Spaander (Manon); B.P.L. Wijnhoven (Bas); L.J.W. van der Laan (Luc); K.K. Krishnadath (Kausilia); C. Wijmenga (Cisca); G. Trynka (Gosia); R. McManus (Ross); J.V. Reynolds (John V.); J. O'Sullivan (Jacintha); P. Macmathuna (Padraic); S.A. McGarrigle (Sarah A.); D. Kelleher (Dermot); S. Vermeire (Séverine); I. Cleynen (Isabelle); R. Bisschops (Raf); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); J.A. Jankowski (Janusz Antoni)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground & Aims Barrett's esophagus (BE) increases the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We found the risk to be BE has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 6p21 (within the HLA region) and on 16q23, where the closest protein-coding gene is F

  11. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking by Enhancing Activity in the Brain's Reward Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; O'Brien, Lia; Uckert, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The presence of peers increases risk taking among adolescents but not adults. We posited that the presence of peers may promote adolescent risk taking by sensitizing brain regions associated with the anticipation of potential rewards. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in adolescents, young adults, and adults as they made decisions in a…

  12. Smoking increases the risk for colorectal adenomas in patients with Lynch syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Botma, A.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Nagengast, F.M.; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Vasen, H.F.A.; Kampman, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high risk of developing colorectal carcinomas and adenomas at a young age, due to inherited mutations in mismatch repair genes. We investigated whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol intake, increase this risk.

  13. Smoking Increases the Risk for Colorectal Adenomas in Patients With Lynch Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, Renate M.; Botma, Akke; Van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Kampman, Ellen

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high risk of developing colorectal carcinomas and adenomas at a young age, due to inherited mutations in mismatch repair genes. We investigated whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol intake, increase this risk.

  14. Smoking increases the risk for colorectal adenomas in patients with Lynch syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Botma, A.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Nagengast, F.M.; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Vasen, H.F.A.; Kampman, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high risk of developing colorectal carcinomas and adenomas at a young age, due to inherited mutations in mismatch repair genes. We investigated whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol intake, increase this risk. M

  15. Smoking Increases the Risk for Colorectal Adenomas in Patients With Lynch Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, Renate M.; Botma, Akke; Van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Kampman, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high risk of developing colorectal carcinomas and adenomas at a young age, due to inherited mutations in mismatch repair genes. We investigated whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol intake, increase this risk. METH

  16. Smoking increases the risk for colorectal adenomas in patients with Lynch syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Botma, A.; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Nagengast, F.M.; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Vasen, H.F.; Kampman, E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high risk of developing colorectal carcinomas and adenomas at a young age, due to inherited mutations in mismatch repair genes. We investigated whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol intake, increase this risk. METH

  17. Polymorphisms Near TBX5 and GDF7 Are Associated With Increased Risk for Barrett's Esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palles, Claire; Chegwidden, Laura; Li, Xinzhong; Findlay, John M.; Farnham, Garry; Giner, Francesc Castro; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Kovac, Michal; Adams, Claire L.; Prenen, Hans; Briggs, Sarah; Harrison, Rebecca; Sanders, Scott; MacDonald, David; Haigh, Chris; Tucker, Art; Love, Sharon; Nanji, Manoj; Decaestecker, John; Ferry, David; Rathbone, Barrie; Hapeshi, Julie; Barr, Hugh; Moayyedi, Paul; Watson, Peter; Zietek, Barbara; Maroo, Neera; Gay, Laura; Underwood, Tim; Boulter, Lisa; McMurtry, Hugh; Monk, David; Patel, Praful; Ragunath, Krish; Al Dulaimi, David; Murray, Iain; Koss, Konrad; Veitch, Andrew; Trudgill, Nigel; Nwokolo, Chuka; Rembacken, Bjorn; Atherfold, Paul; Green, Elaine; Ang, Yeng; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Chow, Wu; Paterson, Stuart; Kadri, Sudarshan; Beales, Ian; Grimley, Charles; Mullins, Paul; Beckett, Conrad; Farrant, Mark; Dixon, Andrew; Kelly, Sean; Johnson, Matthew; Wajed, Shahjehan; Dhar, Anjan; Sawyer, Elinor; Roylance, Rebecca; Onstad, Lynn; Gammon, Marilie D.; Corley, Douglas A.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Bird, Nigel C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Reid, Brian J.; Ye, Weimin; Liu, Geoffrey; Romero, Yvonne; Bernstein, Leslie; Wu, Anna H.; Casson, Alan G.; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Whiteman, David C.; Risch, Harvey A.; Levine, David M.; Vaughan, Tom L.; Verhaar, Auke P.; van den Brande, Jan; Toxopeus, Eelke L.; Spaander, Manon C.; Wijnhoven, Bas P. L.; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; Krishnadath, Kausilia; Wijmenga, Cisca; Trynka, Gosia; McManus, Ross; Reynolds, John V.; O'Sullivan, Jacintha; MacMathuna, Padraic; McGarrigle, Sarah A.; Kelleher, Dermot; Vermeire, Severine; Cleynen, Isabelle; Bisschops, Raf; Tomlinson, Ian; Jankowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Barrett's esophagus (BE) increases the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We found the risk to be BE has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 6p21 (within the HLA region) and on 16q23, where the closest protein-coding gene is FOXF1. Subse

  18. Polymorphisms near TBX5 and GDF7 are associated with increased risk for Barrett's esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Palles (Claire); L. Chegwidden (Laura); X. Li (Xinzhong); J.M. Findlay (John M.); G. Farnham (Garry); F. Castro Giner (Francesc); M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel); M. Kovac (Michal); C.L. Adams (Claire L.); H. Prenen (Hans); S. Briggs (Sarah); R. Harrison (Rebecca); S. Sanders (Scott); D. Macdonald (David); K. Haigh (Katharina); A.T. Tucker (Art); S. Love (Sharon); M. Nanji (Manoj); J. Decaestecker (John); D.R. Ferry (David); B. Rathbone (Barrie); J. Hapeshi (Julie); H. Barr (Hugh); P. Moayyedi (Paul); P. Watson (Peter); B. Zietek (Barbara); N. Maroo (Neera); L. Gay (Laura); T. Underwood (Tim); L. Boulter (Lisa); H. McMurtry (Hugh); A.B. Monk (Alastair); P. Patel (Poulam); K. Ragunath (Krish); D. Al Dulaimi (David); I. Murray (Iain); C. Koss (Clara); A. Veitch (Andrew); N. Trudgill (Nigel); C. Nwokolo (Chuka); B. Rembacken; P. Atherfold (Paul); E.K. Green (Elaine K); Y. Ang (Yeng); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); W. Chow (Wu); S. Paterson (Stuart); S. Kadri (Sudarshan); I. Beales (Ian); C. Grimley (Charles); P. Mullins (Paul); C. Beckett (Conrad); M. Farrant (Mark); A. Dixon (Andrew); S. Kelly (Sean); M. Johnson (Matthew); S. Wajed (Shahjehan); A. Dhar (Archana); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); R. Roylance (Rebecca); L. Onstad (Lynn); M.D. Gammon (Marilie); D.A. Corley (Douglas); N. Shaheen (Nazima); N.C. Bird (Nigel); B.G.S. Hardie (Bruce); B.J. Reid (Brian); W. Ye (Weimin); G. Liu (Geoffrey); Y. Romero (Yvonne); L. Bernstein (Leslie); A.H. Wu (Anna H.); A.G. Casson (Alan); R.C. Fitzgerald (Rebecca); D.C. Whiteman (David C.); H. Risch (Harvey); D.M. Levine (David M.); T.L. Vaughan (Thomas); A.P. Verhaar (Auke); J. Van Den Brande (Jan); E.L.A. Toxopeus (Eelke); M.C.W. Spaander (Manon); B.P.L. Wijnhoven (Bas); L.J.W. van der Laan (Luc); K.K. Krishnadath (Kausilia); C. Wijmenga (Cisca); G. Trynka (Gosia); R. McManus (Ross); J.V. Reynolds (John V.); J. O'Sullivan (Jacintha); P. Macmathuna (Padraic); S.A. McGarrigle (Sarah A.); D. Kelleher (Dermot); S. Vermeire (Séverine); I. Cleynen (Isabelle); R. Bisschops (Raf); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); J.A. Jankowski (Janusz Antoni)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground & Aims Barrett's esophagus (BE) increases the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We found the risk to be BE has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 6p21 (within the HLA region) and on 16q23, where the closest protein-coding gene is F

  19. No Increased Risk of Cancer after Coal Tar Treatment in Patients with Psoriasis or Eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofzen, Judith H. J.; Aben, Katja K. H.; Oldenhof, Ursula T. H.; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Alkemade, Hans A.; van de Kerkhof, Peter C. M.; van der Valk, Pieter G. M.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.

    Coal tar is an effective treatment for psoriasis and eczema, but it contains several carcinogenic compounds. Occupational and animal studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after exposure to coal tar. Many dermatologists have abandoned this treatment for safety reasons, although the risk of

  20. Ankylosing spondylitis confers substantially increased risk of clinical spine fractures : a nationwide case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prieto-Alhambra, D; Muñoz-Ortego, J; De Vries, F; Vosse, D; Arden, N K; Bowness, P; Cooper, C; Diez-Perez, A; Vestergaard, P

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) leads to osteopenia/osteoporosis and spine rigidity. We conducted a case-control study and found that AS-affected patients have a 5-fold and 50 % increased risk of clinical spine and all clinical fractures, respectively. Excess risk of both is highest in the f

  1. Hepatitis C virus infection increases risk of developing end-stage renal disease using competing risk analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jung Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD and hepatitis C virus (HCV infection are closely linked and both increase patient mortality. The association of HCV and risk of developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD has not been analyzed with competing risk model. METHOD: We enrolled a prospective cohort of 4,185 patients (mean age, 62 years; 41% female registered in the CKD integrated care program at two affiliated hospitals of Kaohsiung Medical University in Taiwan between November 11, 2002 and May 31, 2009. With competing risk model, we analyzed the association of HCV infection, defined by seropositive of anti-HCV antibody, and hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, defined by seropositive of HBV surface antigen, with the risk of entering ESRD. RESULTS: The prevalence of HCV infection was 7.6% and it increased with the CKD stages (trend test, P<0.001, while the prevalence of HBV infection was 7.4% and no specific trend among CKD stages (tend test, P = 0.1. During the 9,101 person-year follow-up period, there were 446 death and 1,205 patients entering ESRD. After adjusting death as the competing risk, the estimated 5-year cumulative incidence rate of ESRD among patients with and without HCV infection were 52.6% and 38.4%, respectively (modified log-rank, P<0.001. Multivariable analysis showed that HCV infection, but not HBV infection, had higher risk of developing ESRD compared with cases without infection (HCV, HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.07-1.62; HBV, HR: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.89-1.35. Subgroup analyses showed consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: With death-adjusted competing risk analysis, HCV infection is associated with an increased risk of developing ESRD in CKD cohort.

  2. Women referred for occupational risk assessment in pregnancy have no increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Signe Brøker; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2015-01-01

    pregnant women referred to two Danish clinics of occupational medicine (Copenhagen and Aarhus) from 1984 to 2010 were compared with the referred women's 1,077 non-referred pregnancy outcomes and with the pregnancy outcomes of 345,467 gainfully employed women from the same geographical areas and time period....... Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Calculations were adjusted for the mother's age at delivery, parity, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, smoking, and in supplementary analyses for year of birth. RESULTS: Referred women gave birth to children....../or that the occupational risk assessment and counselling of pregnant women are preventing these selected adverse pregnancy outcomes. FUNDING: The Research Unit at Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at Bispebjerg Hospital supported the study financially. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant. The study...

  3. Extreme Temperatures May Increase Risk for Low Birth Weight at Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at term, NIH study suggests Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Monday, February 27, 201 7 -Stock photo Extreme hot or cold temperatures during pregnancy may increase the risk that infants born at ...

  4. Increased Risks of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma in Male and Female Chinese Herbalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yu Yang

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: The significant risk of urothelial carcinoma noted in male herbalists increases our suspicion that this is an occupational disease that renders regular health assessment of herbalists an urgent necessity.

  5. Central obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among urban adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianty Pradono

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence in the population aged >15 years increased within 5 years. Lack of physical activity and central obesity were the major risk factors of T2DM prevalence in urban adults.

  6. NIH study shows increased risk for two types of myotonic muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults with a form of muscular dystrophy called myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD) may be at increased risk of developing cancer, according to a study by investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  7. Increased risk of venous thromboembolism and arterial cardiovascular events in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole; Lindhardsen, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    This focused review describes the current knowledge of the association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and as well as venous thromboembolism this disease shares inflammatory mechanisms with IBD. Patients...... with IBD have a high risk of venous thromboembolism especially during IBD flare-ups. Their risk of arterial cardiovascular disease may also be increased. The risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with IBD warrants clinical attention, and it is possible that the risk can be modified by applying anti...

  8. Eucalypts face increasing climate stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Nathalie; Pollock, Laura J; McAlpine, Clive A

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change is already impacting species and ecosystems across the planet. Trees, although long-lived, are sensitive to changes in climate, including climate extremes. Shifts in tree species' distributions will influence biodiversity and ecosystem function at scales ranging from local to landscape; dry and hot regions will be especially vulnerable. The Australian continent has been especially susceptible to climate change with extreme heat waves, droughts, and flooding in recent years, and this climate trajectory is expected to continue. We sought to understand how climate change may impact Australian ecosystems by modeling distributional changes in eucalypt species, which dominate or codominate most forested ecosystems across Australia. We modeled a representative sample of Eucalyptus and Corymbia species (n = 108, or 14% of all species) using newly available Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios developed for the 5th Assessment Report of the IPCC, and bioclimatic and substrate predictor variables. We compared current, 2025, 2055, and 2085 distributions. Overall, Eucalyptus and Corymbia species in the central desert and open woodland regions will be the most affected, losing 20% of their climate space under the mid-range climate scenario and twice that under the extreme scenario. The least affected species, in eastern Australia, are likely to lose 10% of their climate space under the mid-range climate scenario and twice that under the extreme scenario. Range shifts will be lateral as well as polewards, and these east-west transitions will be more significant, reflecting the strong influence of precipitation rather than temperature changes in subtropical and midlatitudes. These net losses, and the direction of shifts and contractions in range, suggest that many species in the eastern and southern seaboards will be pushed toward the continental limit and that large tracts of currently treed landscapes, especially in the continental interior, will change dramatically in terms of species composition and ecosystem structure.

  9. Risk management strategy to increase the safety of workers in the nanomaterials industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Min-Pei, E-mail: lingmp@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wei-Chao; Liu, Chia-Chyuan [Department of Cosmetic Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yi-Shiao; Chueh, Miao-Ju [Industrial Safety and Health Association of the ROC, Taipei 11670, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, Tung-Sheng [Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Council of Labor Affairs, Taipei 22143, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer On-site assessment of nanomaterials using physiochemical and cytotoxic analysis can help identify risks for each nanomaterials manufacturing plant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The risk of the nanomaterials manufacturing plants can be divided into three levels based on exposure routes (tier 1), aspect identification (tier 2), and toxicological screening (tier 3). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer According to the different risk levels, the precautionary risk management (PRM) such as technology control, engineering control, and personal protective equipment were applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PRM strategy can be effectively reduced workers risks for nanomaterial industries. - Abstract: In recent years, many engineered nanomaterials (NMs) have been produced, but increasing research has revealed that these may have toxicities far greater than conventional materials and cause significant adverse health effects. At present, there is insufficient data to determine the permissible concentrations of NMs in the workplace. There is also a lack of toxicity data and environmental monitoring results relating to complete health risk assessment. In view of this, we believe that workers in the NMs industry should be provided with simple and practical risk management strategy to ensure occupational health and safety. In this study, we developed a risk management strategy based on the precautionary risk management (PRM). The risk of the engineered NMs manufacturing plants can be divided into three levels based on aspect identification, solubility tests, dermal absorption, and cytotoxic analyses. The risk management strategies include aspects relating to technology control, engineering control, personal protective equipment, and monitoring of the working environment for each level. Here we report the first case in which a simple and practical risk management strategy applying in specific engineered NMs manufacturing plants. We are

  10. Assessment of Credit Risk Approaches in Relation with Competitiveness Increase of the Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipovová Eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on a presentation and analysis of selected methods of credit risk management in relation with competitiveness increase of the banking sector. The article is defined credit risk approaches under the Basel III gradually. Aim of this contribution constitutes various methods of credit risk management and effects of their usage on regulatory capital amount in respect of corporate exposures. Optimal equity amount in relation to the risk portfolio presents an essential prerequisite of performance and competitiveness growth of commercial banks. Gradually capital requirements using Standardized Approach and Internal Based Approach in a case of used and unused techniques of credit risk reduce has been quantified. We presume that sophisticated approach means significant saving for bank’s equity which increases competitiveness of banking sector also. Within the article, quantification of capital savings in case of Standardized (with and without assigned external ratings and Foundation Internal Based Approach at the selected credit portfolio has been effected.

  11. Nine-year risk of depression diagnosis increases with increasing self-reported concussions in retired professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Harding, Herndon P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2012-10-01

    Concussions may accelerate the progression to long-term mental health outcomes such as depression in athletes. To prospectively determine the effects of recurrent concussions on the clinical diagnosis of depression in a group of retired football players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Members of the National Football League Retired Players Association responded to a baseline General Health Survey (GHS) in 2001. They also completed a follow-up survey in 2010. Both surveys asked about demographic information, number of concussions sustained during their professional football career, physical/mental health, and prevalence of diagnosed medical conditions. A physical component summary (Short Form 36 Measurement Model for Functional Assessment of Health and Well-Being [SF-36 PCS]) was calculated from responses for physical health. The main exposure, the history of concussions during the professional playing career (self-report recalled in 2010), was stratified into 5 categories: 0 (referent), 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10+ concussions. The main outcome was a clinical diagnosis of depression between the baseline and follow-up GHS. Classic tabular methods computed crude risk ratios. Binomial regression with a Poisson residual and robust variance estimation to stabilize the fitting algorithm estimated adjusted risk ratios. χ(2) analyses identified associations and trends between concussion history and the 9-year risk of a depression diagnosis. Of the 1044 respondents with complete data from the baseline and follow-up GHS, 106 (10.2%) reported being clinically diagnosed as depressed between the baseline and follow-up GHS. Approximately 65% of all respondents self-reported sustaining at least 1 concussion during their professional careers. The 9-year risk of a depression diagnosis increased with an increasing number of self-reported concussions, ranging from 3.0% in the "no concussions" group to 26.8% in the "10+" group (linear trend: P concussions and depression was

  12. Increased risk of flooding on the coast of Alicante (Region of Valencia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olcina Cantos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, episodes of flooding on the coast of Alicante (Spain have led to substantial losses in human life in economic terms. With increased exposure to these phenomena comes also increased vulnerability. Given the various effects of flooding in areas of similar exposure, differences in vulnerability across regions at risk need to be analysed also in terms of the socioeconomic factors of the groups of society that may be affected, and of their perception of risk. This paper studies the increased risk of flooding in three locations on the Alicante coast as a result of urban occupation of areas subject to this hazard. The consequences of the most recent episodes in this area are analysed and a risk assessment, using survey-based research in the affected areas, is performed.

  13. Cumulative family risk predicts increases in adjustment difficulties across early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M

    2013-06-01

    Family is an important socialization context for youth as they move through early adolescence. A significant feature of this complex socialization context is the accumulation of potential family risk factors that may compromise youth adjustment. This study examined cumulative family risk and adolescents' adjustment difficulties in 416 two-parent families using four waves of annual longitudinal data (51% female youth). Risk factors in four family domains were examined: socioeconomic, parents' psychological realm, marital, and parenting. Cumulative family risk experienced while in 6th grade was associated concurrently with daughters' higher internalizing problems and with increased internalizing problems during early adolescence. Cumulative family risk was associated concurrently with sons' higher externalizing problems and with daughters' increased externalizing problems over time. Cumulative family risk was associated concurrently with lower grades and with declining grades over time for both daughters and sons. The number of risk domains also was associated with youths' adjustment difficulties during early adolescence, providing evidence that risk in two-parent families involves more than ineffective parenting. These findings suggest a critical need to provide strong support for families in reducing a variety of stressors across multiple family domains as their children traverse early adolescence.

  14. Caffeine protects against increased risk-taking propensity during severe sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Kamimori, Gary H; Balkin, Thomas J

    2011-09-01

    Previous research suggests that sleep deprivation is associated with declines in metabolic activity within brain regions important for judgement and impulse control, yet previous studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding the effects of sleep loss and caffeine on risk-taking. In this study, 25 healthy adults (21 men, four women) completed the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) and Evaluation of Risks (EVAR) scale at regular intervals to examine behavioral and self-reported risk-taking propensity during 75 h of continuous sleep deprivation. Participants received either four double-blind administrations of 200 mg caffeine (n=12) or indistinguishable placebo (n=13) gum bi-hourly during each of the 3 nights of sleep deprivation. No significant effects of drug group or sleep deprivation were evident on the BART or EVAR when measured at 51 h of wakefulness. However, by 75 h, the placebo group showed a significant increase in risk-taking behavior on the cost-benefit ratio and total number of exploded balloons on the BART, whereas the caffeine group remained at baseline levels. On the EVAR, several factors of self-reported risk-taking propensity, including total risk, impulsivity and risk/thrill seeking, were reduced among subjects receiving caffeine across the 3 days of sleep deprivation, but remained at baseline levels for the placebo group. These results suggest that 3 nights of total sleep deprivation led to a significant increase in behavioral risk-taking but not self-reported perception of risk-propensity. Overnight caffeine prevented this increase in risky behavior. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Genetic Variants Related to Longer Telomere Length are Associated with Increased Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Brown, Kevin M; Johansson, Mattias; Wang, Zhaoming; Foll, Matthieu; Li, Peng; Rothman, Nathaniel; Savage, Sharon A; Gaborieau, Valerie; McKay, James D; Ye, Yuanqing; Henrion, Marc; Bruinsma, Fiona; Jordan, Susan; Severi, Gianluca; Hveem, Kristian; Vatten, Lars J; Fletcher, Tony; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Larsson, Susanna C; Wolk, Alicja; Banks, Rosamonde E; Selby, Peter J; Easton, Douglas F; Pharoah, Paul; Andreotti, Gabriella; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Koutros, Stella; Albanes, Demetrius; Mannisto, Satu; Weinstein, Stephanie; Clark, Peter E; Edwards, Todd E; Lipworth, Loren; Gapstur, Susan M; Stevens, Victoria L; Carol, Hallie; Freedman, Matthew L; Pomerantz, Mark M; Cho, Eunyoung; Kraft, Peter; Preston, Mark A; Wilson, Kathryn M; Gaziano, J Michael; Sesso, Howard S; Black, Amanda; Freedman, Neal D; Huang, Wen-Yi; Anema, John G; Kahnoski, Richard J; Lane, Brian R; Noyes, Sabrina L; Petillo, David; Colli, Leandro M; Sampson, Joshua N; Besse, Celine; Blanche, Helene; Boland, Anne; Burdette, Laurie; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Skryabin, Konstantin G; Yeager, Meredith; Mijuskovic, Mirjana; Ognjanovic, Miodrag; Foretova, Lenka; Holcatova, Ivana; Janout, Vladimir; Mates, Dana; Mukeriya, Anush; Rascu, Stefan; Zaridze, David; Bencko, Vladimir; Cybulski, Cezary; Fabianova, Eleonora; Jinga, Viorel; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lubinski, Jan; Navratilova, Marie; Rudnai, Peter; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Benhamou, Simone; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Cussenot, Olivier; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Canzian, Federico; Duell, Eric J; Ljungberg, Börje; Sitaram, Raviprakash T; Peters, Ulrike; White, Emily; Anderson, Garnet L; Johnson, Lisa; Luo, Juhua; Buring, Julie; Lee, I-Min; Chow, Wong-Ho; Moore, Lee E; Wood, Christopher; Eisen, Timothy; Larkin, James; Choueiri, Toni K; Lathrop, G Mark; Teh, Bin Tean; Deleuze, Jean-Francois; Wu, Xifeng; Houlston, Richard S; Brennan, Paul; Chanock, Stephen J; Scelo, Ghislaine; Purdue, Mark P

    2017-08-07

    Relative telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been evaluated as a potential biomarker for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk in several studies, with conflicting findings. We performed an analysis of genetic variants associated with leukocyte telomere length to assess the relationship between telomere length and RCC risk using Mendelian randomization, an approach unaffected by biases from temporal variability and reverse causation that might have affected earlier investigations. Genotypes from nine telomere length-associated variants for 10 784 cases and 20 406 cancer-free controls from six genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of RCC were aggregated into a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) predictive of leukocyte telomere length. Odds ratios (ORs) relating the GRS and RCC risk were computed in individual GWAS datasets and combined by meta-analysis. Longer genetically inferred telomere length was associated with an increased risk of RCC (OR=2.07 per predicted kilobase increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]:=1.70-2.53, p0.5) with GWAS-identified RCC risk variants (rs10936599 and rs9420907) from the telomere length GRS; despite this exclusion, a statistically significant association between the GRS and RCC risk persisted (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.36-2.21, pbody of evidence indicating some aspect of longer telomere length is important for RCC risk. Telomeres are segments of DNA at chromosome ends that maintain chromosomal stability. Our study investigated the relationship between genetic variants associated with telomere length and renal cell carcinoma risk. We found evidence suggesting individuals with inherited predisposition to longer telomere length are at increased risk of developing renal cell carcinoma. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Quantification of increased flood risk due to global climate change for urban river management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, M

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect future rainfall patterns. These changes should be taken into account when assessing future flooding risks. This study presents a method for quantifying the increase in flood risk caused by global climate change for use in urban flood risk management. Flood risk in this context is defined as the product of flood damage potential and the probability of its occurrence. The study uses a geographic information system-based flood damage prediction model to calculate the flood damage caused by design storms with different return periods. Estimation of the monetary damages these storms produce and their return periods are precursors to flood risk calculations. The design storms are developed from modified intensity-duration-frequency relationships generated by simulations of global climate change scenarios (e.g. CGCM2A2). The risk assessment method is applied to the Kanda River basin in Tokyo, Japan. The assessment provides insights not only into the flood risk cost increase due to global warming, and the impact that increase may have on flood control infrastructure planning.

  17. Are changes in breast self-exam recommendations and early misperceptions of breast cancer risk increasing women's future risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polek, Carolee; Hardie, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Young women, high school age, are exposed to breast cancer messages targeting adult women that can result in misperceptions, increasing future risks. Changes in breast self-exam screening recommendations may reduce nurse practitioner (NP) time addressing breast health. This study characterized misperceived knowledge of breast cancer risk in younger women. A survey (338 high school students aged 14 to 19) was conducted to assess their perceptions of breast cancer etiologies and risk behaviors. Survey results indicated 20% to 50% of students had misperceptions about breast cancer risk, and the mean knowledge score for all items was 65.47%. There were no differences in students with familial breast cancer histories or those instructed in breast self-exam. Approximately 12% reported being fearful, avoiding public health messages, and approximately 20% thought breastfeeding increased breast cancer risk. The findings suggest that school-based programs are not addressing misperceptions related to breast health effectively. A National Cancer Institute survey found that NPs and other providers are the most trusted sources of health information. Given the low rates of breast cancer in young women and recommendations against teaching breast self-exam, it is important for NPs to be knowledgeable about common misperceptions and address them with their patients. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  18. Does high sugar consumption exacerbate cardiometabolic risk factors and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Laaksonen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar has been relatively high in the Nordic countries; the impact of sugar intake on metabolic risk factors and related diseases has been debated. The objectives were to assess the effect of sugar intake (sugar-sweetened beverages, sucrose and fructose on association with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related metabolic risk factors (impaired glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, uric acid, inflammation markers, and on all-cause mortality, through a systematic review of prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled intervention studies published between January 2000 and search dates. The methods adopted were as follows: the first search was run in PubMed in October 2010. A second search with uric acid as risk marker was run in April 2011. The total search strategy was rerun in April 2011 in SveMed+. An update was run in PubMed in January 2012. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 2,743 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. The outcome was that out of the 17 studies extracted, 15 were prospective cohort studies and two were randomised controlled crossover trials. All of the studies included only adults. With respect to incident type 2 diabetes (nine studies, four of six prospective cohort studies found a significant positive association for sugar-sweetened beverage intake. In general, larger cohort studies with longer follow-up more often reported positive associations, and BMI seemed to mediate part of the increased risk. For other metabolic or cardiovascular risk factors or outcomes, too few studies have been published to draw conclusions. In conclusion, data from prospective cohort studies published in the years 2000–2011 suggest that sugar-sweetened beverages probably increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. For related metabolic risk factors, cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality and other types of sugars, too few studies

  19. BMI increase through puberty and adolescence is associated with risk of adult stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Claes; Bygdell, Maria; Sondén, Arvid; Jern, Christina; Rosengren, Annika; Kindblom, Jenny M

    2017-07-25

    To evaluate the contribution of prepubertal childhood body mass index (BMI) and BMI change through puberty and adolescence, 2 distinct developmental BMI parameters, for risk of adult stroke in men. In this population-based study in Gothenburg, Sweden, men born in 1945-1961 with information on both childhood BMI at age 8 and BMI change through puberty and adolescence (BMI at age 20-BMI at age 8) were followed until December 2013 (n = 37,669). Information on stroke events was retrieved from high-quality national registers (918 first stroke events, 672 ischemic stroke events [IS], 207 intracerebral hemorrhage events [ICH]). BMI increase through puberty and adolescence (hazard ratio [HR] 1.21 per SD increase; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.28), but not childhood BMI, was independently associated with risk of adult stroke. Subanalyses revealed that BMI increase through puberty and adolescence was associated with both IS (HR per SD increase 1.19; 95% CI 1.11-1.28) and ICH (HR per SD increase 1.29; 95% CI 1.15-1.46). High BMI increase during puberty was strongly associated with increased risk of adult hypertension (odds ratio per SD increase 1.35; 95% CI 1.32-1.39). BMI increase through puberty and adolescence is associated with risk of adult IS and ICH in men. We propose that greater BMI increases during puberty contribute to increased risk of adult stroke at least partly via increased blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Face pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begin in other places in the body. Abscessed tooth (ongoing throbbing pain on one side of the lower face that ... face, and aggravated by eating. Call a dentist. Pain is persistent, ... by other unexplained symptoms. Call your primary provider.

  1. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with age in HIV-positive men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, K; Reiss, P; Ryom, L;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to statistically model the relative increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) per year older in Data collection on Adverse events of anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) and to compare this with the relative increased risk of CVD per year older in general population risk...... effect was determined using the Akaike information criterion. We compared the ageing effect from D:A:D with that from the general population risk equations: the Framingham Heart Study, CUORE and ASSIGN risk scores. RESULTS: A total of 24 323 men were included in analyses. Crude MI, CHD and CVD event...... rates per 1000 person-years increased from 2.29, 3.11 and 3.65 in those aged 40-45 years to 6.53, 11.91 and 15.89 in those aged 60-65 years, respectively. The best-fitting models included inverse age for MI and age + age(2) for CHD and CVD. In D:A:D there was a slowly accelerating increased risk of CHD...

  2. Procalcitonin increase in early identification of critically ill patients at high risk of mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ulrik; Heslet, L; Jensen, TH;

    2006-01-01

    in the multivariate Cox regression analysis model. C-reactive protein and leukocyte increases did not show these qualities. The adjusted hazard ratio for procalcitonin increase for 1 day was 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.3-2.7). The relative risk for mortality in the intensive care unit for patients...

  3. Normal breast physiology: the reasons hormonal contraceptives and induced abortion increase breast-cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Angela

    2014-01-01

    A woman gains protection from breast cancer by completing a full-term pregnancy. In utero, her offspring produce hormones that mature 85 percent of the mother's breast tissue into cancer-resistant breast tissue. If the pregnancy ends through an induced abortion or a premature birth before thirty-two weeks, the mother's breasts will have only partially matured, retaining even more cancer-susceptible breast tissue than when the pregnancy began. This increased amount of immature breast tissue will leave the mother with more sites for cancer initiation, thereby increasing her risk of breast cancer. Hormonal contraceptives increase breast-cancer risk by their proliferative effect on breast tissue and their direct carcinogenic effects on DNA. Hormonal contraceptives include estrogen-progestin combination drugs prescribed in any manner of delivery: orally, transdermally, vaginally, or intrauterine. This article provides the detailed physiology and data that elucidate the mechanisms through which induced abortion and hormonal contraceptives increase breast-cancer risk.

  4. Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I

    1994-01-01

    reported on the child's general hygiene. 756 (86%) of the 881 eligible participants were followed up 10 years later. The influence of family factors in childhood on the risk of obesity (body-mass index > 95th centile) in young adulthood was estimated by odds ratios with control for age and body-mass index......The association of various features of family life with obesity in childhood is well established, but less is known about the effect of these influences on the risk of later obesity. In this prospective, population-based study, we examined the influence of parental care in childhood on the risk...... in 1974, sex, and social background. Family structure (biological or other parents and number of siblings) did not significantly affect the risk of adult obesity. Parental neglect greatly increased the risk in comparison with harmonious support (odds ratio 7.1 [95% CI 2.6-19.3]). Dirty and neglected...

  5. Multiplicity and early gestational age contribute to an increased risk of cerebral palsy from assisted conception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Grove, Jakob; Schendel, Diana;

    2010-01-01

    : The risk of CP is increased after both IVF and OI. The increased risk of CP in children born after assisted conception, and in particular IVF, is strongly associated with the high proportion of multiplicity and preterm delivery in these pregnancies. A more widespread use of single embryo transfer warrants....... When we included the intermediate factors multiplicity and gestational age in multivariate models, the risk of CP in assisted conception disappeared. In general, children with CP born after assisted conception had similar CP subtypes and co-morbidities as children with CP born after NC. CONCLUSION......BACKGROUND: This paper assesses the risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in children born after assisted conception compared with children born after natural conception (NC). METHODS: This population based follow-up study included all 588,967 children born in Denmark from 1995 to 2003. Assisted conception...

  6. Increased risk of fragility fractures among HIV infected compared to uninfected male veterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Womack

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection has been associated with an increased risk of fragility fracture. We explored whether or not this increased risk persisted in HIV infected and uninfected men when controlling for traditional fragility fracture risk factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cox regression models were used to assess the association of HIV infection with the risk for incident hip, vertebral, or upper arm fracture in male Veterans enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Virtual Cohort (VACS-VC. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios comparing HIV status and controlling for demographics and other established risk factors. The sample consisted of 119,318 men, 33% of whom were HIV infected (34% aged 50 years or older at baseline, and 55% black or Hispanic. Median body mass index (BMI was lower in HIV infected compared with uninfected men (25 vs. 28 kg/m²; p<0.0001. Unadjusted risk for fracture was higher among HIV infected compared with uninfected men [HR: 1.32 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.47]. After adjusting for demographics, comorbid disease, smoking and alcohol abuse, HIV infection remained associated with an increased fracture risk [HR: 1.24 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.39]. However, adjusting for BMI attenuated this association [HR: 1.10 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.25]. The only HIV-specific factor associated with fragility fracture was current protease inhibitor use [HR: 1.41 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.70]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV infection is associated with fragility fracture risk. This risk is attenuated by BMI.

  7. Women more vulnerable than men when facing risk for treatment-induced infertility: a qualitative study of young adults newly diagnosed with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armuand, Gabriela M; Wettergren, Lena; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Lampic, Claudia

    2015-02-01

    Being diagnosed with cancer constitutes not only an immediate threat to health, but cancer treatments may also have a negative impact on fertility. Retrospective studies show that many survivors regret not having received fertility-related information and being offered fertility preservation at time of diagnosis. This qualitative study investigates newly diagnosed cancer patients' experiences of fertility-related communication and how they reason about the risk of future infertility. Informants were recruited at three cancer wards at a university hospital. Eleven women and 10 men newly diagnosed with cancer participated in individual semi-structured interviews focusing on three domains: experiences of fertility-related communication, decision-making concerning fertility preservation, and thoughts and feelings about the risk of possible infertility. Data was analyzed through qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in three sub-themes, 'Getting to know', 'Reacting to the risk' and 'Handling uncertainty', and one main theme 'Women more vulnerable when facing risk for infertility', indicating that women reported more negative experiences related to patient-provider communication regarding fertility-related aspects of cancer treatment, as well as negative emotional reactions to the risk of infertility and challenges related to handling uncertainty regarding future fertility. The informants described distress when receiving treatment with possible impact on fertility and used different strategies to handle the risk for infertility, such as relying on fertility preservation or thinking of alternative ways to achieve parenthood. The negative experiences reported by the female informants may be related to the fact that none of the women, but almost all men, had received information about and used fertility preservation. Women newly diagnosed with cancer seem to be especially vulnerable when facing risk for treatment-induced infertility. Lack of shared decision

  8. Acceptance and adherence to chemoprevention among women at increased risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roetzheim, Richard G; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Fulp, William; Matos Gomez, Elizabeth; Clayton, Elissa; Tollin, Sharon; Khakpour, Nazanin; Laronga, Christine; Lee, Marie Catherine; Kiluk, John V

    2015-02-01

    Chemoprevention is an option for women who are at increased risk of breast cancer (five year risk ≥1.7%). It is uncertain, however, how often women accept and complete five years of therapy and whether clinical or demographic factors predict completion. Medical records were abstracted for 219 women whose five year risk of breast cancer was ≥1.7% and who were offered chemoprevention while attending a high risk breast clinic at the Moffitt Cancer Center. We examined the likelihood of accepting chemoprevention and completing five years of therapy, and potential clinical and demographic predictors of these outcomes, using multivariable logistic regression and survival analysis models. There were 118/219 women (54.4%) who accepted a recommendation for chemoprevention and began therapy. The likelihood of accepting chemoprevention was associated with lifetime breast cancer risk and was higher for women with specific high risk conditions (lobular carcinoma in situ and atypical ductal hyperplasia). Women with osteoporosis and those that consumed alcohol were also more likely to accept medication. There were 58/118 (49.2%) women who stopped medication at least temporarily after starting therapy. Based on survival curves, an estimated 60% of women who begin chemoprevention will complete five years of therapy. A substantial percentage of women at increased risk of breast cancer will decline chemoprevention and among those that accept therapy, approximately 40% will not be able to complete five years of therapy because of side effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Elderly individuals with increased risk of falls show postural balance impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Márcio Rogério de; Inokuti,Thiago Tadashi; Bispo,Nuno Noronha da Costa; Oliveira,Deise Aparecida de Almeida Pires; Oliveira, Rodrigo Franco de; Silva Jr.,Rubens Alexandre da

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Falls are a serious public health problem. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether elderly individuals with increased risk of falls have a postural balance deficit, evaluated using a force platform during a one-leg stance. Materials and methods The sample consisted of 94 physically independent elderly individuals from the EELO project. The instruments used were the Downton scale, in order to assess the risk as well as the history of falls, and the force platform t...

  10. Increased risk of hip fractures in patients with dementia: a nationwide population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hao-Kuang; Hung, Chao-Ming; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Tai, Yi-Cheng; Lu, Kang; Liliang, Po-Chou; Lin, Chi-Wei; Lee, Yi-Che; Fang, Pei-Hsuan; Chang, Li-Ching; Li, Ying-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Background Dementia has been associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. However, little research has been conducted on the impact of dementia on wrist or vertebral fracture development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dementia is a risk factor for different types of fracture in Taiwan. Methods The study sample was drawn from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database of reimbursement claims, and comprised 1408 patients who visited ambulatory care centers or ...

  11. Increasing idiosyncratic risk and converging gender differentials in the labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Yongseok Shin; Donghoon Lee

    2007-01-01

    The gender differentials in schooling and labor market outcomes have narrowed significantly in the last few decades. At the same time, it is well documented that idiosyncratic income risk has risen over the same period. We define idiosyncratic risk as the variance of the unobserved wage component in the labor market. We estimate the structural parameters of the model using the US data on schooling, employment and earnings in the 1970s. With a mean-preserving increase in the wage variance, men...

  12. Towards increased reliability by objectification of Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment (HARA) of automated automotive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Khastgir, Siddartha; Birrell, Stewart A.; Dhadyalla, Gunwant; Sivencrona, Håkan; Jennings, P. A. (Paul A.)

    2017-01-01

    Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment (HARA) in various domains like automotive, aviation, process industry etc. suffer from the issues of validity and reliability. While there has been an increasing appreciation of this subject, there have been limited approaches to overcome these issues. In the automotive domain, HARA is influenced by the ISO 26262 international standard which details functional safety of road vehicles. While ISO 26262 was a major step towards analysing hazards and risks, lik...

  13. Genetically predicted longer telomere length is associated with increased risk of B-cell lymphoma subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Lan, Qing; Slager, Susan L; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Teras, Lauren R; Camp, Nicola J; Cerhan, James R; Spinelli, John J; Wang, Sophia S; Nieters, Alexandra; Vijai, Joseph; Yeager, Meredith; Wang, Zhaoming; Ghesquières, Hervé; McKay, James; Conde, Lucia; de Bakker, Paul I W; Cox, David G; Burdett, Laurie; Monnereau, Alain; Flowers, Christopher R; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Giles, Graham G; Melbye, Mads; Gu, Jian; Jackson, Rebecca D; Kane, Eleanor; Purdue, Mark P; Vajdic, Claire M; Albanes, Demetrius; Kelly, Rachel S; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lawrence, Charles; Hutchinson, Amy; Zhi, Degui; Habermann, Thomas M; Link, Brian K; Novak, Anne J; Dogan, Ahmet; Asmann, Yan W; Liebow, Mark; Thompson, Carrie A; Ansell, Stephen M; Witzig, Thomas E; Tilly, Hervé; Haioun, Corinne; Molina, Thierry J; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Glimelius, Bengt; Adami, Hans-Olov; Roos, Göran; Bracci, Paige M; Riby, Jacques; Smith, Martyn T; Holly, Elizabeth A; Cozen, Wendy; Hartge, Patricia; Morton, Lindsay M; Severson, Richard K; Tinker, Lesley F; North, Kari E; Becker, Nikolaus; Benavente, Yolanda; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; Staines, Anthony; Lightfoot, Tracy; Crouch, Simon; Smith, Alex; Roman, Eve; Diver, W Ryan; Offit, Kenneth; Zelenetz, Andrew; Klein, Robert J; Villano, Danylo J; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Yawei; Holford, Theodore R; Turner, Jenny; Southey, Melissa C; Clavel, Jacqueline; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolph; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Angelucci, Emanuele; Di Lollo, Simonetta; Rais, Marco; De Vivo, Immaculata; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Huang, Jinyan; Ma, Baoshan; Ye, Yuanqing; Chiu, Brian C H; Liang, Liming; Park, Ju-Hyun; Chung, Charles C; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Salles, Gilles; Glenn, Martha; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Curtin, Karen; Wu, Xifeng; Smedby, Karin E; de Sanjose, Silvia; Skibola, Christine F; Berndt, Sonja I; Birmann, Brenda M; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2016-04-15

    Evidence from a small number of studies suggests that longer telomere length measured in peripheral leukocytes is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, these studies may be biased by reverse causation, confounded by unmeasured environmental exposures and might miss time points for which prospective telomere measurement would best reveal a relationship between telomere length and NHL risk. We performed an analysis of genetically inferred telomere length and NHL risk in a study of 10 102 NHL cases of the four most common B-cell histologic types and 9562 controls using a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising nine telomere length-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. This approach uses existing genotype data and estimates telomere length by weighing the number of telomere length-associated variant alleles an individual carries with the published change in kb of telomere length. The analysis of the telomere length GRS resulted in an association between longer telomere length and increased NHL risk [four B-cell histologic types combined; odds ratio (OR) = 1.49, 95% CI 1.22-1.82,P-value = 8.5 × 10(-5)]. Subtype-specific analyses indicated that chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) was the principal NHL subtype contributing to this association (OR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.93-3.51,P-value = 4.0 × 10(-10)). Significant interactions were observed across strata of sex for CLL/SLL and marginal zone lymphoma subtypes as well as age for the follicular lymphoma subtype. Our results indicate that a genetic background that favors longer telomere length may increase NHL risk, particularly risk of CLL/SLL, and are consistent with earlier studies relating longer telomere length with increased NHL risk.

  14. Identification of a DMBT1 polymorphism associated with increased breast cancer risk and decreased promoter activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchatchou, Sandrine; Riedel, Angela; Lyer, Stefan;

    2010-01-01

    According to present estimations, the unfavorable combination of alleles with low penetrance but high prevalence in the population might account for the major part of hereditary breast cancer risk. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) has been proposed as a tumor suppressor for breast cancer...... and other cancer types. Genomewide mapping in mice further identified Dmbt1 as a potential modulator of breast cancer risk. Here, we report the association of two frequent and linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with increased breast cancer risk in women above the age of 60 years: DMBT1 c.-93C>T...

  15. Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased breast cancer risk: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Ruchi; Kelley, George A; Hartley, Tara A; Rockett, Ian R H

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although individual metabolic risk factors are reported to be associated with breast cancer risk, controversy surrounds risk of breast cancer from metabolic syndrome (MS). We report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between MS and breast cancer risk in all adult females. Methods. Studies were retrieved by searching four electronic reference databases [PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science, and ProQuest through June 30, 2012] and cross-referencing retrieved articles. Eligible for inclusion were longitudinal studies reporting associations between MS and breast cancer risk among females aged 18 years and older. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each study and pooled using random-effects models. Publication bias was assessed quantitatively (Trim and Fill) and qualitatively (funnel plots). Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I (2) statistics. Results. Representing nine independent cohorts and 97,277 adult females, eight studies met the inclusion criteria. A modest, positive association was observed between MS and breast cancer risk (RR: 1.47, 95% CI, 1.15-1.87; z = 3.13; p = 0.002; Q = 26.28, p = 0.001; I (2) = 69.55%). No publication bias was observed. Conclusions. MS is associated with increased breast cancer risk in adult women.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome Is Associated with Increased Breast Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Bhandari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although individual metabolic risk factors are reported to be associated with breast cancer risk, controversy surrounds risk of breast cancer from metabolic syndrome (MS. We report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between MS and breast cancer risk in all adult females. Methods. Studies were retrieved by searching four electronic reference databases [PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, Web of Science, and ProQuest through June 30, 2012] and cross-referencing retrieved articles. Eligible for inclusion were longitudinal studies reporting associations between MS and breast cancer risk among females aged 18 years and older. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each study and pooled using random-effects models. Publication bias was assessed quantitatively (Trim and Fill and qualitatively (funnel plots. Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I2 statistics. Results. Representing nine independent cohorts and 97,277 adult females, eight studies met the inclusion criteria. A modest, positive association was observed between MS and breast cancer risk (RR: 1.47, 95% CI, 1.15–1.87; z=3.13; p=0.002; Q=26.28, p=0.001; I2=69.55%. No publication bias was observed. Conclusions. MS is associated with increased breast cancer risk in adult women.

  17. The use of mifepristone in abortion associated with an increased risk of uterine leiomyomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Shu, Li; Luo, Hui; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the association between widespread use of mifepristone in abortions and risk of uterine leiomyomas.We conducted a case-control study of 305 patients with uterine leiomyomas between January 2011 and July 2012; 311 women with ordinary vaginitis were selected as controls during the same period. Data were collected by questionnaires (including past history, life history, menstruation history, reproductive history, abortion history, the use of mifepristone, and uterine leiomyomas risk factors) and calculated by univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses; odds ratios and its 95% confidence interval were calculated to estimate the risk for uterine leiomyomas.Abortion with mifepristone was one of the risk factors for uterine leiomyomas, and the risk increased with increasing frequency of mifepristone use. Family history of uterine leiomyomas, body mass index, age at menarche, number of full-term delivery, and medical abortion history were also correlated with uterine leiomyomas.The use of mifepristone in abortion will increase the risk to develop uterine leiomyomas.

  18. Radiation to supraclavicular and internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer increases the risk of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, G; Holmberg, L; Garmo, H; Terent, A; Blomqvist, C

    2009-03-10

    The aim of this study was to assess whether adjuvant treatment of breast cancer (BC) affects the risk of stroke, and to explore radiation targets and fraction doses regarding risk and location of stroke. In a Swedish BC cohort diagnosed during 1970-2003, we carried out a nested case-control study of stroke after BC, with relevant details extracted from medical records. The odds ratio (OR) for radiotherapy (RT) vs that of no RT did not differ between cases and controls (OR=0.85; confidence interval, CI=0.6-1.3). Radiotherapy to internal mammary chain (IMC) and supraclavicular (SCL) lymph nodes vs that of no RT was associated with a higher, although not statistically significant, risk of stroke (OR=1.3; CI=0.8-2.2). In a pooled analysis, RT to IMC and SCL vs the pooled group of no RT and RT to breast/chest wall/axilla (but not IMC and SCL), showed a significant increase of stroke (OR=1.8; CI=1.1-2.8). There were no associations between cancer laterality, targets of RT, and location of stroke. The radiation targets, IMC and SCL, showed a statistically significant trend for an increased risk of stroke with daily fraction dose. Our finding of a target-specific increased risk of stroke and a dose-response relationship for daily fraction dose, indicate that there may be a causal link between RT to the IMC and SCL and risk of stroke.

  19. Risk perception, risk management and safety assessment: what can governments do to increase public confidence in their vaccine system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Noni E; Smith, Jennifer; Appleton, Mary

    2012-09-01

    For decades vaccine program managers and governments have devoted many resources to addressing public vaccine concerns, vaccine risk perception, risk management and safety assessment. Despite ever growing evidence that vaccines are safe and effective, public concerns continue. Education and evidence based scientific messages have not ended concerns. How can governments and programs more effectively address the public's vaccine concerns and increase confidence in the vaccine safety system? Vaccination hesitation has been attributed to concerns about vaccine safety, perceptions of high vaccine risks and low disease risk and consequences. Even when the public believes vaccines are important for protection many still have concerns about vaccine safety. This overview explores how heuristics affect public perception of vaccines and vaccine safety, how the public finds and uses vaccine information, and then proposes strategies for changes in the approach to vaccine safety communications. Facts and evidence confirming the safety of vaccines are not enough. Vaccine beliefs and behaviours must be shaped. This will require a shift in the what, when, how and why of vaccine risk and benefit communication content and practice. A change to a behavioural change strategy such as the WHO COMBI program that has been applied to disease eradication efforts is suggested.

  20. Genetically Driven Hyperglycemia Increases Risk of Coronary Artery Disease Separately From Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Jordi; Leong, Aaron; Posner, Daniel C; Porneala, Bianca; Masana, Lluís; Dupuis, Josée; Florez, Jose C

    2017-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that genetically raised hyperglycemia increases coronary artery disease (CAD) risk separately from the risk conferred by type 2 diabetes as a whole. We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using summary-level statistics from the largest published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) (n = 133,010 participants free of diabetes) and CAD (n = 63,746 case subjects and 130,681 control subjects) of predominantly European ancestry. FG-increasing variants associated with type 2 diabetes from the largest GWAS for type 2 diabetes were excluded. Variants with pleiotropic effects on other CAD risk factors (blood lipids, blood pressure, and obesity) were excluded using summary-level data from the largest published GWAS. Data from the Framingham Heart Study were used to validate the MR instrument and to build an FG genetic risk score (GRS). In an instrumental variable analysis comprising 12 FG-raising variants, a 1 mmol/L increase in FG revealed an effect-size estimate of 1.43 CAD odds (95% CI 1.14-1.79). The association was preserved after excluding variants for heterogeneity and pleiotropic effects on other CAD risk factors (odds ratio [OR] 1.33 [95% CI 1.02-1.73]). The 12 FG-increasing variants did not significantly increase type 2 diabetes risk (OR 1.05 [95% CI 0.91-1.23]), and its prevalence was constant across FG GRS quintiles (P = 0.72). Our data support that genetic predisposition to hyperglycemia raises the odds of CAD separately from type 2 diabetes and other CAD risk factors. These findings suggest that modulating glycemia may provide cardiovascular benefit. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Drug-induced long QT syndrome increases the risk of drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, Frank F

    2016-02-01

    There is strong evidence linking inherited long QT syndromes with an increased risk of drowning due to fatal arrhythmias in the water. Drug-induced long QT syndrome (DILQTS) is hypothesized to increase the risk of drowning by similar mechanisms. It is suggested that QT prolongation caused by a drug or drugs, when combined with the autonomic conflict associated with the mammalian dive reflex and/or the cold shock reflex, sets up conditions that may result in a sudden fatal arrhythmia while in water - thus an increased risk of drowning related to a drug-induced prolongation of the QT interval. Many widely used drugs prolong the QT interval thus raising a drug safety issue that needs confirmation or refutation.

  2. Obesity increases the risk for high-grade prostate cancer: results from the REDUCE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Adriana C; Howard, Lauren E; Moreira, Daniel M; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Andriole, Gerald L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    Studies suggest that obesity is associated with lower risk of prostate cancer but more aggressive cancers. As obesity lowers PSA levels, these observations may be influenced by detection bias. We examined the association between obesity and risk of low- and high-grade prostate cancer in REDUCE, in which biopsies were largely independent of PSA. The REDUCE study tested dutasteride for prostate cancer risk reduction in men with a PSA of 2.5 to 10.0 ng/mL and a negative biopsy. Study participants included 6,729 men who underwent at least one on-study biopsy. The association between baseline body mass index (BMI obese) and risk of high-grade (Gleason ≥7) or low-grade prostate cancer (Gleason prostate cancer was examined using multinomial logistic regression. Overall, 1,739 men (27%) were normal weight, 3,384 (53%) overweight, and 1,304 (20%) were obese. Obesity was associated with lower risk of low-grade prostate cancer in both univariable (OR, 0.74; P = 0.001) and multivariable analyses (OR, 0.79; P = 0.01). In univariable analysis, obesity was not associated with high-grade prostate cancer (OR, 1.08; P = 0.50). However, in multivariable analysis, obesity was associated with increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR, 1.28; P = 0.042). This analysis was not able to address how obesity may influence prostate cancer progression. Obesity is associated with decreased risk of low-grade and increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer. These data provide further support to the hypothesis that obesity is associated with aggressive prostate cancer. Obesity is linked with aggressive prostate cancer. Avoiding obesity may prevent the risk of developing high-grade prostate cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Increased risk of cancer mortality associated with cadmium exposures in older Americans with low zinc intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Caffrey, James L; Lin, Jou-Wei; Bayliss, David; Faramawi, Mohammed F; Bateson, Thomas F; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) exposure has been associated with increased cancer risk, and zinc (Zn) appears to reduce that risk. However, little is known about the combined influence of Cd and Zn on cancer risk. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between Cd exposure, Zn intake, and cancer mortality risks. The analyses used 5204 subjects aged 50 yr or older from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994) and the mortality follow-up through December 31, 2006. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test associations. In total, 569 cancer deaths were recorded during an average follow-up of 12.4 yr, including 155 from lung, 61 from prostate, and 26 from breast cancer. A positive association between Cd and cancer mortality risk was identified for both genders. Despite limited cause-specific deaths, the increased risk associated with Cd was significant for lung cancer in men. All-cause cancer mortality risk was significantly elevated among women with Zn intakes below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) compared with women who met the RDA. The effect of low dietary Zn was not observed in men. Similar trends for prostate and breast cancer deaths were not significant. There was a significant inverse association between cancer deaths and the Zn-to-Cd ratio for both genders. Cd exposure is an important independent risk factor of cancer mortality in older Americans and the risk appears exaggerated in those with inadequate dietary Zn. Additional studies are required to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which Zn participates in the carcinogenic influence of Cd.

  4. Increasing prevalence, changes in diagnostic criteria, and nutritional risk factors for autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, Yasmin H

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) diagnoses has been increasing for decades, but researchers cannot agree on whether the trend is a result of increased awareness, improved detection, expanding definition, or an actual increase in incidence or a combination of these factors. Though both genetic and multiple environmental risk factors have been studied extensively, many potentially modifiable risk factors including nutritional and immune function related risk factors such as vitamin D, folic acid, and metabolic syndrome have not received sufficient attention. Several recent studies have put forward hypotheses to explain the mechanism of association between both folic acid and vitamin D and autism. A continuous rise in the prevalence of autism in the USA has coincided with a significant enhancement of maternal folate status with FDA mandated folic acid fortification of certain foods starting in 1998. There is also a growing body of research that suggests that vitamin D status either in utero or early in life may be a risk for autism. In this communication, controversies regarding increase in estimate of prevalence, implications of changes in definition, and possible association between some modifiable nutritional risk factors such as folic acid and vitamin D and ASD will be discussed.

  5. Mechanism and preclinical prevention of increased breast cancer risk caused by pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, Svasti; Dong, Jie; Hein, Sarah; Reddy, Jay P; Du, Zhijun; Toneff, Michael; Holloway, Kimberly; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Huang, Shixia; Atkinson, Rachel; Woodward, Wendy; Jindal, Sonali; Borges, Virginia F; Gutierrez, Carolina; Zhang, Hong; Schedin, Pepper J; Osborne, C Kent; Tweardy, David J; Li, Yi

    2013-12-31

    While a first pregnancy before age 22 lowers breast cancer risk, a pregnancy after age 35 significantly increases life-long breast cancer risk. Pregnancy causes several changes to the normal breast that raise barriers to transformation, but how pregnancy can also increase cancer risk remains unclear. We show in mice that pregnancy has different effects on the few early lesions that have already developed in the otherwise normal breast-it causes apoptosis evasion and accelerated progression to cancer. The apoptosis evasion is due to the normally tightly controlled STAT5 signaling going astray-these precancerous cells activate STAT5 in response to pregnancy/lactation hormones and maintain STAT5 activation even during involution, thus preventing the apoptosis normally initiated by oncoprotein and involution. Short-term anti-STAT5 treatment of lactation-completed mice bearing early lesions eliminates the increased risk after a pregnancy. This chemoprevention strategy has important implications for preventing increased human breast cancer risk caused by pregnancy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00996.001.

  6. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O.; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for ‘extensive cattle ranching’, ‘agro-silvopastoral use’ and ‘intensive cattle ranching and agriculture’. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire

  7. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire and land

  8. Increased fracture rate in women with breast cancer: a review of the hidden risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Body Jean-Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with breast cancer, particularly individuals diagnosed at a relatively early age, have an increased incidence of fractures. Fractures can have serious clinical consequences including the need for major surgery, increased morbidity and mortality, increased cost of disease management, and reduced quality of life for patients. The primary cause of the increased fracture risk appears to be an accelerated decrease in bone mineral density (BMD resulting from the loss of estrogenic signaling that occurs with most treatments for breast cancer, including aromatase inhibitors. However, factors other than BMD levels alone may influence treatment decisions to reduce fracture risk in this setting. Our purpose is to review current evidence for BMD loss and fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer and discuss pharmacologic means to reduce this risk. Results Fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer may be influenced by the rate of BMD loss and the consequent rapid alterations in bone microarchitecture, in addition to the established fracture risk factors in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The rapid decrease in BMD during adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy for breast cancer may necessitate more aggressive pharmacotherapy than is indicated for healthy postmenopausal women who develop osteoporosis. Over the last few years, clinical trials have established the effectiveness of bisphosphonates and other antiresorptive agents to preserve BMD during adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. In addition, some bisphosphonates (eg, zoledronic acid may also delay disease recurrence in women with hormone-responsive tumors, thereby providing an adjuvant benefit in addition to preserving BMD and potentially preventing fractures. Conclusions It is likely that a combined fracture risk assessment (eg, as in the WHO FRAX algorithm will more accurately identify both women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and women with breast cancer who require

  9. Association of Low Serum Concentration of Bilirubin with Increased Risk of Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    bilirubin with increased risk of coronary artery dises . Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada Cliii Chem 1994,40:18-23. Fax 416-481-2899 10 CLINICAL...performed for abnor- according to the maximum coronary stenosis at angiog- mal repolarization, decreased thallium uptake, cardiac raphy: < 10% (no...g AD-A276 272... 08/17/93 Association of Low Serum Concentration of Bilirubin IN-House with Increased Risk of Coronary Artery Disease PE 62202F

  10. Low adiponectin levels and increased risk of type 2 diabetes in patients with myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan S; Pedersen, Sune H;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced in adipose tissue, directly suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulating fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake...... in skeletal muscle and insulin secretion. In healthy humans, low plasma adiponectin levels associate with increased risk of T2DM; however, the relationship between adiponectin and T2DM in patients with MI has never been investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively included 666 patients with ST-segment...

  11. Prolonged clot lysis time increases the risk of a first but not recurrent venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, Alev; Baglin, Trevor P; Luddington, Roger; Baglin, Caroline A; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid

    2016-03-01

    The role of the fibrinolytic system in the development of venous thrombosis (VT) is unclear. We studied the risk of first and recurrent VT associated with reduced fibrinolysis, as measured by clot lysis time (CLT). We also studied the relationship between CLT and thrombin generation to determine if any relationship between CLT and VT was affected by thrombin generation. Analyses were performed in the Thrombophilia Hypercoagulability Environmental risk for Venous Thromboembolism Study, a two-centre population-based case-control study, including 579 patients and 338 controls, with patients followed from the event to determine incidence of recurrent VT. Hypofibrinolysis was associated with a 1·8-fold increased risk of a first VT [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·2-2·7]. Adjustment for sex, age, study location and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) did not change the result. The risk of VT was 2·9-fold increased when the 90th percentiles of prolonged CLT and high ETP were combined, with the highest risk for unprovoked first events (Odds Ratio = 4·2, 95% CI 1·3-13·5). In the follow-up study the Hazard Ratio for a recurrent VT associated with hypofibrinolysis was 1·5 (95% CI 0·9-2·6). A weak dose response effect was observed in relation to prolongation of CLT and recurrent VT. Although hypofibrinolysis constitutes a risk factor for a first VT, an association with recurrence is, at best, weak.

  12. Excessive alcohol consumption increases risk taking behaviour in travellers to Cusco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Mozo, Karen; Pantenburg, Birte; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2011-03-01

    The risks associated with alcohol intoxication are rarely discussed during pre-travel counselling. However, alcohol immoderation abroad may increase the exposure to health risks. Few studies have addressed alcohol consumption and risk taking behaviour in travellers to South America. From October to December of 2004, travellers leaving the city of Cusco in Peru were asked to fill out anonymous questionnaires regarding demographics, self-reported alcohol consumption, illness and risk behaviour for sexually-transmitted infection (STI) and travellers diarrhoea. Most travellers (87.2%) consumed alcohol and 20.4% reported inebriation in Cusco. Those admitting inebriation were more likely to be male, single, Cusco were more likely to seek medical attention, change itinerary, and report decreased satisfaction with the trip experience. In the multivariate analysis, inebriation was independently associated with reporting higher numbers of unsafe food choices, illicit drug use, and risky sexual activity. It is concluded that alcohol intoxication during travel was associated with increased risk taking behaviour for common travel related conditions. Although travel related illnesses were not associated with inebriation, some markers of illness severity were more often reported by those who admitted intoxication. Risk for heavy alcohol use abroad should be assessed during the pre-travel visit in certain groups and appropriate counselling should be provided.

  13. IS IMPAIRED FASTING GLUCOSE ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED RISK OF CORONARY ATEROSCLEROSIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hashemi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Impaired fasting glucose identifies individuals at high risk of progression to diabetes but the role of IFG as a coronary artery disease risk factor, independent of its progression to diabetes and its association with other coronary artery disease risk factors ,is unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the hypothesis that impaired fasting glucose increased the likelihood of atherosclerotic plaque formation. Blood chemistry data as well as traditional coronary artery disease risk factors from 812 patients referred for coronary angiography to heart centers in Shahid- Chamran and Sina hospital, Isfahan, Iran were recorded. The population were stratified into three groups according to American Diabetes Association criteria: normal fasting glucose (n=608, impaired fasting glucose(n=92 and diabetes mellitus(n=112.We use extent, Vessel and stenosis scores to indicate the coronary artery involvement. KrusKal-Wallis test showed that the means of extent, Vessel and stenosis scores are not significantly different between three groups(P> 0.05. Multivariate linear regression analysis, using extent score of coronary artery disease as dependent variable and traditional risk factors and impaired fasting glucose as independent variables did not show any significant difference either. Our data suggested that impaired fasting glucose is not associated with increased risk of coronary atherosclerosis.

  14. Joint modeling of genetically correlated diseases and functional annotations increases accuracy of polygenic risk prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of disease risk based on genetic factors is an important goal in human genetics research and precision medicine. Advanced prediction models will lead to more effective disease prevention and treatment strategies. Despite the identification of thousands of disease-associated genetic variants through genome-wide association studies (GWAS in the past decade, accuracy of genetic risk prediction remains moderate for most diseases, which is largely due to the challenges in both identifying all the functionally relevant variants and accurately estimating their effect sizes. In this work, we introduce PleioPred, a principled framework that leverages pleiotropy and functional annotations in genetic risk prediction for complex diseases. PleioPred uses GWAS summary statistics as its input, and jointly models multiple genetically correlated diseases and a variety of external information including linkage disequilibrium and diverse functional annotations to increase the accuracy of risk prediction. Through comprehensive simulations and real data analyses on Crohn's disease, celiac disease and type-II diabetes, we demonstrate that our approach can substantially increase the accuracy of polygenic risk prediction and risk population stratification, i.e. PleioPred can significantly better separate type-II diabetes patients with early and late onset ages, illustrating its potential clinical application. Furthermore, we show that the increment in prediction accuracy is significantly correlated with the genetic correlation between the predicted and jointly modeled diseases.

  15. Twelve-single nucleotide polymorphism genetic risk score identifies individuals at increased risk for future atrial fibrillation and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Hayato; Shiffman, Dov; Smith, J Gustav; Sjögren, Marketa; Lubitz, Steven A; Ellinor, Patrick T; Louie, Judy Z; Catanese, Joseph J; Engström, Gunnar; Devlin, James J; Kathiresan, Sekar; Melander, Olle

    2014-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is prevalent and there is a clinical need for biomarkers to identify individuals at higher risk for AF. Fixed throughout a life course and assayable early in life, genetic biomarkers may meet this need. Here, we investigate whether multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms together as an AF genetic risk score (AF-GRS) can improve prediction of one's risk for AF. In 27 471 participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, a prospective, community-based cohort, we used Cox models that adjusted for established AF risk factors to assess the association of AF-GRS with incident AF and ischemic stroke. Median follow-up was 14.4 years for incident AF and 14.5 years for ischemic stroke. The AF-GRS comprised 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms that had been previously shown to be associated with AF at genome-wide significance. During follow-up, 2160 participants experienced a first AF event and 1495 had a first ischemic stroke event. Participants in the top AF-GRS quintile were at increased risk for incident AF (hazard ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.73-2.31; P=2.7×10(-21)) and ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.46; P=0.02) when compared with the bottom quintile. Addition of the AF-GRS to established AF risk factors modestly improved both discrimination and reclassification (Pstroke. Targeting diagnostic or therapeutic interventions to this subset may prove clinically useful. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler obesity? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers.

  17. Perinatal risk factors increase the risk of being affected by both type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlercreutz, Emma H; Wingren, Carl Johan; Vincente, Raquel P; Merlo, Juan; Agardh, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated whether perinatal factors influenced the risk of a double diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease. We used multinomial logistic regression models to study the associations between perinatal factors, gender, mode of delivery, season of birth and the risk of type 1 diabetes, coeliac disease or both, in Swedish-born singleton children. We found that 4327 of the 768 395 children (0.6%) had been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, 3817 (0.5%) had been diagnosed with coeliac disease and 191 (0.02%) were affected by both diseases. If the children already had type 1 diabetes (n = 4518), the absolute risk of being affected by coeliac disease increased to 4.2% (n = 191). Children with both type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease were more likely to be female (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.01-1.97), delivered by Caesarean section (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.07-2.39), have native-born Swedish mothers (OR = 4.84, 95% CI = 1.96-11.97) or be born during the summer months (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.07-1.92). The increased risk of being affected by a double diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease was modulated by perinatal risk factors. This suggests that early life events are important when it comes to children with type 1 diabetes also developing coeliac disease. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. X-ray microscopy as an approach to increasing accuracy and efficiency of serial block-face imaging for correlated light and electron microscopy of biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushong, Eric A; Johnson, Donald D; Kim, Keun-Young; Terada, Masako; Hatori, Megumi; Peltier, Steven T; Panda, Satchidananda; Merkle, Arno; Ellisman, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    The recently developed three-dimensional electron microscopic (EM) method of serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) has rapidly established itself as a powerful imaging approach. Volume EM imaging with this scanning electron microscopy (SEM) method requires intense staining of biological specimens with heavy metals to allow sufficient back-scatter electron signal and also to render specimens sufficiently conductive to control charging artifacts. These more extreme heavy metal staining protocols render specimens light opaque and make it much more difficult to track and identify regions of interest (ROIs) for the SBEM imaging process than for a typical thin section transmission electron microscopy correlative light and electron microscopy study. We present a strategy employing X-ray microscopy (XRM) both for tracking ROIs and for increasing the efficiency of the workflow used for typical projects undertaken with SBEM. XRM was found to reveal an impressive level of detail in tissue heavily stained for SBEM imaging, allowing for the identification of tissue landmarks that can be subsequently used to guide data collection in the SEM. Furthermore, specific labeling of individual cells using diaminobenzidine is detectable in XRM volumes. We demonstrate that tungsten carbide particles or upconverting nanophosphor particles can be used as fiducial markers to further increase the precision and efficiency of SBEM imaging.

  19. Social and economic factors of the natural risk increasing: estimation of the Russian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, E.

    2004-04-01

    This study is an attempt to assess quantitatively social and economic factors that determine vulnerability of Russian regions to natural risk, to trace the space differences of the considered factors, and to group the regions by their similarity. In order to indicate the regional differences in social and economic development, equipment condition, dangerous substances accumulation, and social trouble four the most suitable parameters were estimated, including the per capita production of Gross Regional Product (GRP), capital consumption, volume of total toxic waste, and crime rate. Increase of the first parameter causes vulnerability reducing, the increase of the last three causes its increasing. Using multidimensional cluster analysis five types of regions were found for Russia according to similarity of the considered parameters. These types are characterized with higher value of a single (rarely two) chosen parameter, which seems to be sufficient enough to affect natural risks increasing in these regions in near future. Only few regions belonging to the fifth type proved to have rather high value of GRP and relatively low values of the other parameters. The negative correlation was found between a number of natural disasters (ND) and the per capita GRP in case when some parameters reached anomalously high value. The distinctions between regions by prevailing different parameters, which result in natural risk increasing, help risk management to find directions where to focus on.

  20. Social and economic factors of the natural risk increasing: estimation of the Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Petrova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to assess quantitatively social and economic factors that determine vulnerability of Russian regions to natural risk, to trace the space differences of the considered factors, and to group the regions by their similarity. In order to indicate the regional differences in social and economic development, equipment condition, dangerous substances accumulation, and social trouble four the most suitable parameters were estimated, including the per capita production of Gross Regional Product (GRP, capital consumption, volume of total toxic waste, and crime rate. Increase of the first parameter causes vulnerability reducing, the increase of the last three causes its increasing. Using multidimensional cluster analysis five types of regions were found for Russia according to similarity of the considered parameters. These types are characterized with higher value of a single (rarely two chosen parameter, which seems to be sufficient enough to affect natural risks increasing in these regions in near future. Only few regions belonging to the fifth type proved to have rather high value of GRP and relatively low values of the other parameters. The negative correlation was found between a number of natural disasters (ND and the per capita GRP in case when some parameters reached anomalously high value. The distinctions between regions by prevailing different parameters, which result in natural risk increasing, help risk management to find directions where to focus on.

  1. Alcohol Abuse Increases Rebleeding Risk and Mortality in Patients with Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärkkäinen, Jussi M; Miilunpohja, Sami; Rantanen, Tuomo; Koskela, Jenni M; Jyrkkä, Johanna; Hartikainen, Juha; Paajanen, Hannu

    2015-12-01

    No current data are available on rebleeding and mortality risk in patients who use alcohol excessively and are admitted for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). This information could help in planning interventions and follow-up protocols for these patients. This study provides contemporary data on the long-term outcome after first-time NVUGIB in alcohol abusers (AAs) compared to non-abusers (NAs). Consecutive patients hospitalized for their first acute gastrointestinal bleeding from 2009 through 2011 were retrospectively recorded and categorized as AA or NA. Risk factors for one-year mortality and rebleeding were identified, and patients were further monitored for long-term mortality until 2015. Alcohol abuse was identified in 19.7% of patients with NVUGIB (n = 518). The one-year rebleeding rate was 16.7% in AAs versus 9.1% in NAs (P = 0.027). Alcohol abuse was associated with a twofold increase in rebleeding risk (P = 0.025); the risk especially increased 6 months after the initial bleeding. The study groups did not differ significantly in 30-day (6.0%) or one-year mortality rates (20.5%). However, there was a tendency for higher overall mortality in AAs than NAs after adjustment of comorbidities. AAs with NVUGIB are at high risk of rebleeding, and mortality is increased in AA patients. A close follow-up strategy and long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy are recommended for AA patients with peptic ulcer or esophagitis.

  2. Polymorphisms of the DNA methyltransferase 1 associated with reduced risks of Helicobacter pylori infection and increased risks of gastric atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jiang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: DNA methyltransferase-1(DNMT1 is an important enzyme in determining genomic methylation patterns in mammalian cells. We investigated the associations between SNPs in the DNMT1 gene and risks of developing H. pylori seropositivity, gastric atrophy and gastric cancer in the Chinese population. METHODS: The study consisted of 447 patients with gastric cancer; 111 patients with gastric atrophy; and 961 healthy controls. Five SNPs, rs10420321, rs16999593, rs8101866, rs8111085 and rs2288349 of the DNMT1 gene were genotyped. Anti-H.pylori IgG was detected by ELISA. Gastric atrophy was screened by the level of serum pepsinogen Ι and II and then confirmed by endoscopy and histopatholgical examinations. RESULTS: The age- and sex-adjusted OR of H. pylori seropositivity was 0.67 (95%CI: 0.51-0.87 for rs8111085 TC/CC genotypes, significantly lower than the TT genotype in healthy controls. The adjusted OR of H.pylori seropositivity was 0.68 (95%CI: 0.52-0.89 for rs10420321 AG/GG genotypes. In addition, patients carrying rs2228349 AA genotype have a significantly increased risk for H.pylori seropositivity (OR=1.67; 95%CI: 1.02-2.75. Further haplotype analyses also showed that the ATTTG and ATCTA are significantly associated with increased risks in H.pylori infection compared to the GTCCG haplotype (OR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.08-1.77; OR=1.40, 95% CI: 1.09-1.80. The adjusted ORs of gastric atrophy were 1.66 (95%CI: 1.06-2.61 for rs10420321 GG genotype, and 1.67 (95%CI 1.06-2.63, P=0.03 for rs8111085 CC genotype, but no association was found between SNPs in the DNMT1 gene and risk of developing gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with rs10420321 GG and rs8111085 CC genotype of the DNMT1 gene were associated with reduced risks for H.pylori infection. On the other hand, higher risks of gastric atrophy were found in the carriers with these two genotypes compared to other genotypes. Our results suggested that SNPs of DNMT1 could be used as genotypic

  3. Risk Factors Associated with Mortality and Increased Drug Costs in Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingliang; Sun, Gang; Zhang, Xiu-li; Zhang, Xiao-mei; Liu, Qing-sen; Huang, Qi-yang; Lau, James W Y; Yang, Yun-sheng

    2015-06-01

    To determine risk factors associated with mortality and increased drug costs in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We retrospectively analyzed data from patients hospitalized with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding between January 2001-December 2011. Demographic and clinical characteristics and drug costs were documented. Univariate analysis determined possible risk factors for mortality. Statistically significant variables were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Multiple linear regression analyzed factors influencing drug costs. p 60, systolic blood pressurebleeding rate is 11.20% and mortality is 5.74%. The mortality risk in patients with comorbidities was higher than in patients without comorbidities, and was higher in patients requiring blood transfusion than in patients not requiring transfusion. Rebleeding was associ-ated with mortality. Rebleeding, blood transfusion, and prolonged hospital stay were associated with increased drug costs, whereas bleeding from lesions in the esophagus and duodenum was associated with lower drug costs.

  4. Genetic Variation in NFKBIE Is Associated With Increased Risk of Pneumococcal Meningitis in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbo, Lene F; Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Clausen, Louise N;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are frequent pathogens in life-threatening infections. Genetic variation in the immune system may predispose to these infections. Nuclear factor-κB is a key component of the TLR-pathway, controlled by inhibitors, encoded by the genes...... and 1273 controls were included. We included 406 cases with meningococcal meningitis, 272 with meningococcal bacteremia, and 672 controls. The NFKBIE SNP was associated with increased risk of pneumococcal meningitis (aOR 1.68; 95% CI: 1.20-2.36), but not bacteremia (aOR 1.08; 95% CI: 0.......86-1.35). The remaining SNPs were not associated with susceptibility to invasive disease. None of the SNPs were associated with risk of IMD or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: A NFKBIE polymorphism was associated with increased risk of pneumococcal meningitis....

  5. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Are at Increased Risk of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantsø, Bjørn; Simonsen, Jacob; Hoffmann, Steen;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD), and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic diseases characterized by an inappropriate immune response, which may also increase the risk of infections. We investigated the risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) before and after...... diagnosis of IBD in a population-based cohort study. METHODS: In a cohort of 74,156 IBD patients and 1,482,363 non-IBD controls included and followed during 1977-2013, hazard rate ratios (HRs) for IPD in IBD patients vs. controls were calculated by Cox regression. Within the IBD group, we also calculated...... the risk according to ever use of specific IBD medications. Next, using conditional logistic regression, we evaluated the odds of IPD prior to IBD diagnosis. RESULTS: The HRs for IPD within the first 6 months after IBD diagnosis were significantly and more than threefold increased and then decreased...

  6. Anticipating divine protection? Reminders of god can increase nonmoral risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupor, Daniella M; Laurin, Kristin; Levav, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Religiosity and participation in religious activities have been linked with decreased risky behavior. In the current research, we hypothesized that exposure to the concept of God can actually increase people's willingness to engage in certain types of risks. Across seven studies, reminders of God increased risk taking in nonmoral domains. This effect was mediated by the perceived danger of a risky option and emerged more strongly among individuals who perceive God as a reliable source of safety and protection than among those who do not. Moreover, in an eighth study, when participants were first reminded of God and then took a risk that produced negative consequences (i.e., when divine protection failed to materialize), participants reported feeling more negatively toward God than did participants in the same situation who were not first reminded of God. This research contributes to an understanding of the divergent effects that distinct components of religion can exert on behavior.

  7. Does topical isotretinoin exposure during pregnancy increase the risk of congenital malformations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Yılmaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old patient learned that she was 7 weeks pregnant while she was using topical isotretinoin + erythromycin gel for acne treatment and referred to Izmir Katip Celebi University Teratology Information Service for information regarding the risk of teratogenicity. Systemic use of isotretinoin is well-known for its teratogenic effects and case reports suggesting possible teratogenic effects regarding topical exposure to retinoids in pregnancy exist in the literature. However, findings reported in four prospective controlled studies do not suggest an increased congenital malformation risk in case of inadvertent exposure during pregnancy. This manuscript aims to give a summary and evaluation of available data for counseling pregnant patients regarding the possible teratogenic risk of inadvertent topical isotretinoin exposure during pregnancy. It also aims to emphasize the importance of increasing communication between pregnant patients, clinicians and teratology information services for the benefit of mother and unborn.

  8. Climate change, extreme events and increased risk of salmonellosis in Maryland, USA: Evidence for coastal vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengsheng; Shaw, Kristi S; Upperman, Crystal R; Blythe, David; Mitchell, Clifford; Murtugudde, Raghu; Sapkota, Amy R; Sapkota, Amir

    2015-10-01

    Salmonella is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Patterns of salmonellosis have been linked to weather events. However, there is a dearth of data regarding the association between extreme events and risk of salmonellosis, and how this risk may disproportionately impact coastal communities. We obtained Salmonella case data from the Maryland Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (2002-2012), and weather data from the National Climatic Data Center (1960-2012). We developed exposure metrics related to extreme temperature and precipitation events using a 30 year baseline (1960-1989) and linked them with county-level salmonellosis data. Data were analyzed using negative binomial Generalized Estimating Equations. We observed a 4.1% increase in salmonellosis risk associated with a 1 unit increase in extreme temperature events (incidence rate ratio (IRR):1.041; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.013-1.069). This increase in risk was more pronounced in coastal versus non-coastal areas (5.1% vs 1.5%). Likewise, we observed a 5.6% increase in salmonellosis risk (IRR:1.056; CI:1.035-1.078) associated with a 1 unit increase in extreme precipitation events, with the impact disproportionately felt in coastal areas (7.1% vs 3.6%). To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evidence showing that extreme temperature/precipitation events-that are expected to be more frequent and intense in coming decades-are disproportionately impacting coastal communities with regard to salmonellosis. Adaptation strategies need to account for this differential burden, particularly in light of ever increasing coastal populations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Increased risk of lymphoid neoplasms in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Masala, Giovanna; Antonioli, Elisabetta; Chiara Susini, Maria; Guglielmelli, Paola; Pieri, Lisa; Maggi, Laura; Caini, Saverio; Palli, Domenico; Bogani, Costanza; Ponziani, Vanessa; Pancrazzi, Alessandro; Annunziato, Francesco; Bosi, Alberto

    2009-07-01

    Association of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) with lymphoproliferative neoplasm (LPN) has been occasionally reported. The aim of this study, which included 353 patients with polycythemia vera and 467 with essential thrombocythemia, was to assess whether the risk of developing LPN is increased in MPN patients. Expected numbers of LPN incident cases were calculated based on 5-year age group, gender, and calendar time-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population of the same area. Standardized incidence ratios were computed to estimate the relative risk of developing LPN. Analyses were carried out for the whole series and then separately for essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera, gender, and JAK2V617F genotype. With 4,421 person-years, we found 11 patients developing LPN, including four chronic lymphocytic leukemias, five non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and two plasma cell disorders, after a median interval time of 68 months from MPN diagnosis. Cumulative risk to develop LPN at 5 and 10 years was 0.93% (95% confidence interval, 0.39-2.22) and 2.96% (95% confidence interval, 1.52-5.72), respectively. There was a 3.44-fold increased risk of LPN compared with the general population, ranging from 2.86 for plasma cell disorder to 12.42 for chronic lymphocytic leukemia; the risk was significantly increased in JAK2V617F mutated patients (5.46-fold) and in males (4.52-fold). The JAK2V617F mutation was found in lymphoid tumor cells in two of three cases evaluated, indicating that, in some patients, LPN originated in a JAK2V617F mutated common lymphoid-myeloid hematopoietic progenitor cell. We conclude that the risk of developing LPN is significantly increased in MPN patients compared with the general population.

  10. Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency, independent of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hsun Ho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The association between type 2 diabetes and low testosterone has been well recognized. However, testosterone levels in men with prediabetes have been rarely reported. We aimed to investigate whether prediabetes was associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency. METHODS: This study included 1,306 men whose sex hormones was measured during a medical examination. Serum total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured; free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations were calculated by Vermeulen's formula. Prediabetes was defined by impaired fasting glucose (IFG, impaired postprandial glucose (IPG, or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c 5.7%-6.4%. Logistic regression was performed to obtain the odds ratios (OR for subnormal total testosterone (<300 ng/dL or free testosterone (<6 ng/dL in prediabetic and diabetic men compared with normoglycemic individuals, while adjusting for age, BMI, waist circumference, and metabolic syndrome (MetS. RESULTS: Normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes were diagnosed in 577 (44.2%, 543 (41.6%, and 186 (14.2% men, respectively. Prediabetes was associated with an increased risk of subnormal total testosterone compared to normoglycemic individuals (age-adjusted OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.38-2.54. The risk remained significant in all multivariate analyses. After adjusting for MetS, the OR in prediabetic men equals that of diabetic patients (1.49 versus 1.50. IFG, IPG, and HbA1c 5.7%-6.4% were all associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency, with different levels of significance in multivariate analyses. However, neither prediabetes nor diabetes was associated with subnormal free testosterone in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency, independent of obesity and MetS. After adjusting for MetS, the risk equals that of diabetes. Our data suggest that testosterone should be measured routinely in men with

  11. Overweight increases risk of trimester hypothyroxinaemia in iodine-deficient pregnant woman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Boonstra, A.; Winichagoon, P.; Zimmerman, M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothyroxinaemia early in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development. Increased body weight has been associated with low thyroxine concentrations in non-pregnant women. In pregnant women, morbid maternal obesity is a risk factor for thyroid dysfunction. But whether lesser degrees of overweight th

  12. Proton pump inhibitors do not increase the risk of acute rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, G.A.J van; Kerkhofs, C.H.; Logt, F. van de; Hilbrands, L.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is the prodrug of mycophenolic acid (MPA). Proton pump inhibitors impair exposure to MPA due to incomplete conversion from MMF. Lower exposure to MPA could result in an increased risk of acute rejection. We investigated whether MMF-treated renal transplant pat

  13. Genetically predicted longer telomere length is associated with increased risk of B-cell lymphoma subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Lan, Qing; Slager, Susan L; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Teras, Lauren R; Camp, Nicola J; Cerhan, James R; Spinelli, John J; Wang, Sophia S; Nieters, Alexandra; Vijai, Joseph; Yeager, Meredith; Wang, Zhaoming; Ghesquières, Hervé; McKay, James; Conde, Lucia; de Bakker, Paul I W; Cox, David G; Burdett, Laurie; Monnereau, Alain; Flowers, Christopher R; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Giles, Graham G; Melbye, Mads; Gu, Jian; Jackson, Rebecca D; Kane, Eleanor; Purdue, Mark P; Vajdic, Claire M; Albanes, Demetrius; Kelly, Rachel S; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lawrence, Charles; Hutchinson, Amy; Zhi, Degui; Habermann, Thomas M; Link, Brian K; Novak, Anne J; Dogan, Ahmet; Asmann, Yan W; Liebow, Mark; Thompson, Carrie A; Ansell, Stephen M; Witzig, Thomas E; Tilly, Hervé; Haioun, Corinne; Molina, Thierry J; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Glimelius, Bengt; Adami, Hans-Olov; Roos, Göran; Bracci, Paige M; Riby, Jacques; Smith, Martyn T; Holly, Elizabeth A; Cozen, Wendy; Hartge, Patricia; Morton, Lindsay M; Severson, Richard K; Tinker, Lesley F; North, Kari E; Becker, Nikolaus; Benavente, Yolanda; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; Staines, Anthony; Lightfoot, Tracy; Crouch, Simon; Smith, Alex; Roman, Eve; Diver, W Ryan; Offit, Kenneth; Zelenetz, Andrew; Klein, Robert J; Villano, Danylo J; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Yawei; Holford, Theodore R; Turner, Jenny; Southey, Melissa C; Clavel, Jacqueline; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolph; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Angelucci, Emanuele; Di Lollo, Simonetta; Rais, Marco; De Vivo, Immaculata; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Huang, Jinyan; Ma, Baoshan; Ye, Yuanqing; Chiu, Brian C H; Liang, Liming; Park, Ju-Hyun; Chung, Charles C; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Salles, Gilles; Glenn, Martha; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Curtin, Karen; Wu, Xifeng; Smedby, Karin E; de Sanjose, Silvia; Skibola, Christine F; Berndt, Sonja I; Birmann, Brenda M; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from a small number of studies suggests that longer telomere length measured in peripheral leukocytes is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, these studies may be biased by reverse causation, confounded by unmeasured environmental exposures and might mis

  14. Child food insecurity increases risks posed by household food insecurity to young children's health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Food Security Scale (USFSS) measures household and child food insecurity (CFI) separately. Our goal was to determine whether CFI increases risks posed by household food insecurity (HFI) to child health and whether the Food Stamp Program (FSP) modifies these effects. From 1998 to 2004, 17,158 ...

  15. Diet induced obesity increases the risk of colonic tumorigenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikalidis, Angelos K; Fitch, Mark D; Fleming, Sharon E

    2013-10-01

    A large body of epidemiological data indicates that obesity increases the risk of colon cancer in humans. There are limited studies using rodent models where the relationship between obesity and colon cancer has been studied. In this study, wild-type diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and lean wild-type controls were used to investigate the influence of obesity on the risk of colon cancer. We hypothesized that the obese phenotype would exhibit increased colonic tumorigenesis. Colon cancer was chemically induced by injecting the mice with azoxymethane (AOM) at levels that we experimentally determined to result in equivalent AOM concentrations in circulating blood. Risk of colon cancer was assessed via microscopic examination of entire colons for aberrant crypts, aberrant crypt foci and proliferation levels. The DIO mice were found to have significantly more aberrant crypts and aberrant crypt foci as well as increased proliferation of colonocytes per mouse compared to wild-type control mice, supporting the epidemiological data that obesity increases the risk of colonic tumorigenesis.

  16. The Effects of Fall-Risk-Increasing Drugs on Postural Control : A Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Maartje H.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Moek, Marije A.; Tulner, Linda R.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analyses showed that psychotropic drugs (antidepressants, neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, antiepileptic drugs) and some cardiac drugs (digoxin, type IA anti-arrhythmics, diuretics) are associated with increased fall risk. Because balance and gait disorders are the most consistent predictors of f

  17. Polycystic ovary syndrome and early-onset preeclampsia : reproductive manifestations of increased cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman-Verhulst, Susanne M.; van Rijn, Bas B.; Westerveld, H. Egbertine; Franx, Arie; Bruinse, Hein W.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Goverde, Angelique J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women is a major healthcare issue. Detection of premenopausal women with increased risk of CVD could enhance prevention strategies and reduce first event-related morbidity and mortality. In this study, we argue that an unfavorable meta

  18. Interleukin-4 receptor −3223C→T Polymorphism is Associated with Increased Gastric Adenocarcinoma Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Burada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer remains one of the most common types of cancer worldwide, with a large geographical variation in incidence and mortality rates. Cytokine polymorphisms are the most studied host polymorphisms and are associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer in many regions, but have not been studied extensively in Eastern European populations.

  19. Study Finds Small Increase in Cancer Risk after Childhood CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study published in the June 6, 2012, issue of The Lancet shows that radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) scans in childhood results in very small but increased risks of leukemia and brain tumors in the first decade after exposure.

  20. Oral Bisphosphonate Use Increases the Risk for Inflammatory Jaw Disease: A Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Schwartz, Kristoffer; Rejnmark, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to address whether among people living in Denmark, those treated with medications to prevent osteoporosis have an increased risk for inflammatory jaw disease compared with those not treated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A historical cohort study was designed to c...

  1. Overweight increases risk of trimester hypothyroxinaemia in iodine-deficient pregnant woman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Boonstra, A.; Winichagoon, P.; Zimmerman, M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothyroxinaemia early in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development. Increased body weight has been associated with low thyroxine concentrations in non-pregnant women. In pregnant women, morbid maternal obesity is a risk factor for thyroid dysfunction. But whether lesser degrees of overweight

  2. Increasing Threat of Brucellosis to Low-Risk Persons in Urban Settings, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shouyi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Xiaoning; Wang, Wenjing; Hou, Shuiping; Li, Tingting; Zhao, Shuoxian; Yang,Zhicong; Li, Chengyao

    2014-01-01

    Cases of brucellosis were diagnosed in 3-month-old twins and their mother. An epidemiologic survey suggested that raw sheep or goat meat might be the source of Brucella melitensis infection. This finding implies that the increasing threat of brucellosis might affect low-risk persons in urban settings in China.

  3. One Debt-Financing Option May Increase Risk of College Bankruptcies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basken, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A common type of variable-rate financing has suddenly increased the risk of bankruptcy for an unknown number of colleges, said two experts at credit-rating agencies. The threat affects mostly less-wealthy colleges that have used variable-rate bonds either to get a better price when borrowing or because they lacked bond ratings and had little other…

  4. Does Obesity Increase Risk for Iron Deficiency? A Review of the Literature and the Potential Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cepeda-Lopez, A.C.; Aeberli, I.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing obesity is a major global health concern while at the same time iron-deficiency anemia remains common worldwide. Although these two conditions represent opposite ends of the spectrum of over- and under-nutrition, they appear to be linked: overweight individuals are at higher risk of iron

  5. When Combined with Chemotherapy, Bevacizumab Is Associated with Increased Risk of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer patients who receive the targeted therapy bevacizumab (Avastin) in combination with chemotherapy are at increased risk of serious side effects that may lead to death, according to a meta-analysis of 16 clinical trials that was published February 2,

  6. Overweight increases risk of trimester hypothyroxinaemia in iodine-deficient pregnant woman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Boonstra, A.; Winichagoon, P.; Zimmerman, M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothyroxinaemia early in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development. Increased body weight has been associated with low thyroxine concentrations in non-pregnant women. In pregnant women, morbid maternal obesity is a risk factor for thyroid dysfunction. But whether lesser degrees of overweight th

  7. Does Obesity Increase Risk for Iron Deficiency? A Review of the Literature and the Potential Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cepeda-Lopez, A.C.; Aeberli, I.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing obesity is a major global health concern while at the same time iron-deficiency anemia remains common worldwide. Although these two conditions represent opposite ends of the spectrum of over- and under-nutrition, they appear to be linked: overweight individuals are at higher risk of iron

  8. THE INTERSECTION OF INDEPENDENT LIES: INCREASING REALISM IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1966, Levins presented a philosophical discussion on making inference about populations using clusters of models. In this article we provide an overview of model inference in ecological risk assessment, discuss the benefits and trade-offs of increasing model realism, show the...

  9. Increased risk of second malignancies after in situ breast carcinoma in a population-based registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle); M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke); M.J.C. van der Sangen (Maurice); R.M.H. Roumen (Rudi); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAmong 1276 primary breast carcinoma in situ (BCIS) patients diagnosed in 1972-2002 in the Southern Netherlands, 11% developed a second cancer. Breast carcinoma in situ patients exhibited a two-fold increased risk of second cancer (standardised incidence ratios (SIR): 2.1, 95% confidence

  10. Withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs in older persons: Effect on mobility test outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van der Velde (Nathalie); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Previously, we have shown that withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs) as a single intervention reduces falls incidence. Improvement of mobility may be an important factor in this finding and we therefore tested whether mobility tests improved after FRID withdrawal.

  11. Does Discretion in Lending Increase Bank Risk? Borrower Self-Selection and Loan Officer Capture Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze whether discretionary lending increases bank risk. We use a panel dataset of matched bank and borrower data. It offers the chief advantages that we can directly identify soft information in banks’ lending decisions and that we observe ex post defaults of borrowers.Consistent

  12. Does Discretion in Lending Increase Bank Risk? Borrower Self-Selection and Loan Officer Capture Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper we analyze whether discretionary lending increases bank risk. We use a panel dataset of matched bank and borrower data. It offers the chief advantages that we can directly identify soft information in banks’ lending decisions and that we observe ex post defaults of borrowers.

  13. Chemotherapy-related thrombocytosis: does it increase the risk of thromboembolism?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S; Shahid, R K; Bhatt, H; Lee-Ying, R; Lim, J

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapy increases the risk of thromboembolism in patients with cancer. Although thrombocytopenia is a known side effect of chemotherapy, reactive thrombocytosis related to chemotherapy is uncommonly reported. The present study aimed to determine the incidence of gemcitabine-related thrombocytosis and the associated risk of thromboembolism. Medical records of 250 consecutive patients with a malignant disease who received gemcitabine-based therapy were reviewed. A multivariate analysis was done to determine factors associated with thromboembolism. A total of 220 eligible patients with a median age of 63 years (range 26-83) were identified. Of these 220 patients, 95% had advanced malignancy and 59% had received prior chemotherapy. A total of 69% of patients received a platinum combination. In all, 46% patients experienced thrombocytosis following chemotherapy, with a median platelet count of 632 × 10(9)/l (range 457-1,385). Twenty-three of the 220 patients experienced a vascular event within 6 weeks of treatment. Eleven patients with thrombocytosis experienced a vascular event compared with 10 patients without thrombocytosis (not significant). On multivariate analysis, leukocytosis (odds ratio 5.8, 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.8) and comorbid illnesses (odds ratio 4.1, 95% confidence interval 1.4-12.6) were correlated with thromboembolism. Although gemcitabine-based therapy has been associated with an increased incidence of thrombocytosis, it does not increase the risk of thromboembolism in cancer patients. Leukocytosis and comorbid illnesses do increase the risk of thromboembolism. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Early Erythropoietin Administration does not Increase the Risk of Retinopathy in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hsu Chou

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: EPO administration did not significantly increase the risk of ROP of any stage reported or Stage ≥3. Further clinical trials investigating the impact of EPO on ROP in premature infants should include all confounding factors to clarify this important issue.

  15. The legal aspects of the termination of unwanted pregnancies and the risks faced by the medical doctor: a UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C

    2003-03-01

    Historical perspective of terminations of unwanted pregnancies in the UK. Moral and ethical considerations imposed by established church's teachings becoming increasingly in conflict with the wishes and expectations of a more secular society. Recognition that illegal abortion was, as a matter of fact available, at great risk to vulnerable girls and women. Eventually public demand and a radical and reforming government led to the current Statutory Framework. Statutory provisions: Offences against the Person Act 1861, Sections 58 and 59; Infant Life Preservation Act 1929 Section 1. Recognition of the limited flexibility allowed by the law in the original restrictive statutory framework. The direction to the jury in July 1938 by Macnaghten J in the case of R. v. Bourne [1939] 1 KB 687, where an eminent obstetrician was acquitted after carrying out an abortion on a young rape victim. Then the modern statutory provisions: Abortion Act 1967, amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990. The statutory framework provides for healthcare professionals not to have to take part in terminations if they have a conscientious objection to doing so. While there are still fierce challenges from moral pressure groups when any changes in the detail of the law are proposed--such as reducing the maximum gestation period for a lawful termination--as a whole society seems to have accepted the current law. Issues affecting doctors who consider and provide terminations; current medico-legal problems relating to wanted pregnancies that have been lost by reason of clinical negligence, and unwanted children that have been born by reason of clinical negligence.

  16. Maternal Food Insecurity Is Associated with Increased Risk of Certain Birth Defects1,2

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, Suzan L.; Yang, Wei; Herring, Amy; Abrams, Barbara; Shaw, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    Food insecurity represents a lack of access to enough food to meet basic needs. We hypothesized that food insecurity may increase birth defect risks, because it is an indicator of increased stress or compromised nutrition, which are both implicated in birth defect etiologies. This study used population-based case-control data. Included in the analysis were 1,189 case mothers and 695 control mothers who were interviewed by telephone. We calculated a food insecurity score as the number of affir...

  17. Older Adults at Increased Risk as Pedestrians in Victoria, Australia: An Examination of Crash Characteristics and Injury Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hern, Steve; Oxley, Jennifer; Logan, David

    2015-01-01

    to be injured in parking lots, at driveway intersections, and on sidewalks compared to younger cohorts. Spatial analyses revealed older pedestrian crash clusters on arterial roads in urban shopping precincts. Significantly higher rates of hospital admissions were found for pedestrians over the age of 75 years and for abdominal, head, and neck injuries; conversely, older adults were underrepresented in emergency department presentations (mainly lower and upper extremity injuries), suggesting an increased severity associated with older pedestrian injuries. Average length of hospital stay also increased with increasing age. This analysis revealed age differences in collision risk and injury outcomes among older adults and that aggregate analysis of older pedestrians can distort the significance of risk factors associated with older pedestrian injuries. These findings have implications that extend to the development of engineering, behavioral, and enforcement countermeasures to address the problems faced by the oldest pedestrians and reduce collision risk and improve injury outcomes.

  18. Does Schizophrenia in Offspring Increase the Risk of Developing Alzheimer's Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Rohde

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Prior studies have consistently found a higher risk of dementia in individuals with schizophrenia, but whether this is due to a common etiology between the disorders remains obscure. We wanted to elucidate this association by investigating whether schizophrenia in offspring increases the risk of Alzheimer's dementia. Methods: All individuals born between 1930 and 1953 were identified through national registers and followed from their 50th birthday until the date of Alzheimer's dementia, death or end of the study. Regressions were performed to evaluate the association between offspring with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's dementia. Results: Individuals with offspring with schizophrenia did not have an increased risk of Alzheimer's dementia [incidence rate ratio (IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.88-1.07] compared to individuals with offspring without psychiatric contact. This finding remained stable when evaluating early-onset (IRR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.91-1.31 and late-onset Alzheimer's dementia (IRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-1.07. Similar findings were made for vascular and unspecified dementia. Conclusion: The finding of no familial coaggregation between schizophrenia and Alzheimer's dementia may suggest that no common etiology between the disorders exists. This may indicate that the excess risk of dementia in individuals with schizophrenia is a by-product of the higher rates of somatic comorbidity and adverse health risk factors among these individuals.

  19. High Birth Weight Increases the Risk for Bone Tumor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songfeng Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There have been several epidemiologic studies on the relationship between high birth weight and the risk for bone tumor in the past decades. However, due to the rarity of bone tumors, the sample size of individual studies was generally too small for reliable conclusions. Therefore, we have performed a meta-analysis to pool all published data on electronic databases with the purpose to clarify the potential relationship. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 independent studies with more than 2796 cases were included. As a result, high birth weight was found to increase the risk for bone tumor with an Odds Ratio (OR of 1.13, with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI ranging from 1.01 to 1.27. The OR of bone tumor for an increase of 500 gram of birth weight was 1.01 (95% CI 1.00–1.02; p = 0.048 for linear trend. Interestingly, individuals with high birth weight had a greater risk for osteosarcoma (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.06–1.40, p = 0.006 than those with normal birth weight. In addition, in the subgroup analysis by geographical region, elevated risk was detected among Europeans (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.00–1.29, p = 0.049. The present meta-analysis supported a positive association between high birth weight and bone tumor risk.

  20. Traditional marijuana, high-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids: increasing risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robin M; Quigley, Harriet; Quattrone, Diego; Englund, Amir; Di Forti, Marta

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose-response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co-administration of cannabidiol. This latter is a constituent of traditional hashish, but is largely absent from modern high-potency forms of cannabis. Argument continues over the extent to which genetic predisposition is correlated to, or interacts with, cannabis use, and what proportion of psychosis could be prevented by minimizing heavy use. As yet, there is not convincing evidence that cannabis use increases risk of other psychiatric disorders, but there are no such doubts concerning its detrimental effect on cognitive function. All of the negative aspects are magnified if use starts in early adolescence. Irrespective of whether use of cannabis is decriminalized or legalized, the evidence that it is a component cause of psychosis is now sufficient for public health messages outlining the risk, especially of regular use of high-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids. © 2016 World Psychiatric Association.

  1. Does Infection During Pregnancy Outside of the Time of Delivery Increase the Risk of Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Kathleen F; Osmundson, Sarah S; Caughey, Aaron B; Snowden, Jonathan M

    2017-02-01

    Objective We sought to evaluate whether maternal antepartum infection (excluding chorioamnionitis) is associated with cerebral palsy (CP). Study Design This is a secondary analysis from a multicenter trial in women at risk of preterm delivery who received antenatal magnesium sulfate versus placebo. We compared the risk of CP in the children of women who had evidence of antepartum infection over the course of pregnancy to those women who had no evidence of antepartum infection during pregnancy. Results Within a cohort of 2,251 women who met our inclusion criteria, 1,350 women had no history of infection in pregnancy and 801 women had a history of some type of antepartum infection during pregnancy. The incidence of CP was similar between the two groups (4.9 vs 5.0%; p = 0.917). After adjustment for maternal and obstetric confounders, we observed no significantly increased risk of CP among infants born to women with evidence of antepartum infection; (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.09 (0.72, 1.66); p = 0.68). Conclusion Compared with women with no evidence of antepartum infection during pregnancy, those women with infections excluding chorioamnionitis may not be at an increased risk of delivering an infant with CP. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Traditional marijuana, high‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids: increasing risk for psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robin M.; Quigley, Harriet; Quattrone, Diego; Englund, Amir; Di Forti, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose‐response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co‐administration of cannabidiol. This latter is a constituent of traditional hashish, but is largely absent from modern high‐potency forms of cannabis. Argument continues over the extent to which genetic predisposition is correlated to, or interacts with, cannabis use, and what proportion of psychosis could be prevented by minimizing heavy use. As yet, there is not convincing evidence that cannabis use increases risk of other psychiatric disorders, but there are no such doubts concerning its detrimental effect on cognitive function. All of the negative aspects are magnified if use starts in early adolescence. Irrespective of whether use of cannabis is decriminalized or legalized, the evidence that it is a component cause of psychosis is now sufficient for public health messages outlining the risk, especially of regular use of high‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids. PMID:27717258

  3. Increasing risk of cataract in HCV patients receiving anti-HCV therapy: A nationwide cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Ju, Shu-Woei; Wang, I-Kuan; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Hsu, Wu-Huei

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with increased systemic oxidative stress, which leads to cardiovascular events, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Similarly, cataract is also associated with increased oxidative stress. The association between HCV infection and increased risk of cataract remains unclear. Methods A total of 11,652 HCV-infected patients and 46,608 age- and sex-matched non-HCV infected patients were identified during 2003–2011. All patient data were tracked until a diagnosis of cataract, death, or the end of 2011. Cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated. Results The mean follow-up durations were 5.29 and 5.86 years for the HCV and non-HCV cohorts, respectively. The overall incidence density rate for cataract was 1.36 times higher in the HCV cohort than in the non-HCV cohort (1.86 and 1.37 per 100 person-y, respectively). After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, and anxiety, patients with HCV infection had an increased risk of cataract compared with those without HCV infection [adjusted HR = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14–1.32]. HCV-infected patients receiving interferon–ribavirin therapy had a 1.83 times higher (95% CI = 1.40–2.38) risk of cataract than non-HCV infected patients did. Conclusion HCV infection, even without the complication of cirrhosis, is associated with an increased risk of cataract, and this risk is higher in HCV-infected patients undergoing interferon–ribavirin therapy. PMID:28264004

  4. Obesity Not Necessary, Risk of Symptomatic Cholelithiasis Increases as a Function of BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharga, Bikram; Sharma, Barun Kumar; Nishant, Kumar; Bhutia, Phuchungla; Tamang, Roshan; Jain, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a well-established risk factor for cholelithiasis. But most of the studies have actually tried to establish the risk of cholelithiasis in overweight and obese people. Very few studies have addressed the issue of cholelithiasis in patients with otherwise normal Body Mass Index (BMI). In this study we have tried to establish if there is any relationship between increasing BMI and cholelithiasis. Aim To establish a relationship between increasing BMI and risk of cholelithiasis. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis was carried out after doing a prospective pilot study. Ten years data of patients admitted to surgery ward with complaints of pain abdomen was reviewed. Patients with cholelithiasis were segregated as cases and patients with some other diagnosis were selected as controls. Patients with incidental diagnosis of cholelithiasis were excluded. Appropriate analytical tools were used to draw the results using SPSS© 20. Results Over 11,000 patients data was reviewed and 7,182 patients were selected for inclusion into the study. Major exclusion was due to incomplete availability of data. Cholelithiasis group had 2,872 patients and rest of the patients served as controls against them. Female patients outnumbered their male counterparts in cholelithiasis group. Mean age of the gallstone patients was 37.09 years, almost 2 years younger than their controls. Mean BMI of all patients was 23.55 kg/m2 and in cholelithiasis and control group was 24.93 and 22.62, respectively (df=1, F>1635.395, pcholelithiasis group were within the normal BMI range. Conclusion We concluded that it’s not only the overweight or obese patients who develop symptomatic cholelithiasis but also the individuals with normal BMI. The risk of symptomatic cholelithiasis increases with every increase in BMI. Risk of symptomatic cholelithiasis also increases in women and as the age advances. PMID:27891394

  5. A Western Dietary Pattern Increases Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fabiani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC risk. While the associations between PC risk with the glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by “a posteriori” methods. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risks estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs, for a first-percentile increase in dietary pattern score, were combined by a dose-response meta-analysis. Twelve observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified a “Healthy pattern” and a “Western pattern”. The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.88–1.04 while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.08–1.65. In addition, the “Carbohydrate pattern”, which was analyzed in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.35–2.00. A significant linear trend between the Western (p = 0.011 pattern, the Carbohydrate (p = 0.005 pattern, and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small number of studies included in the meta-analysis suggests that further investigation is necessary to support these findings.

  6. Genetic variants associated with increased risk of malignant pleural mesothelioma: a genome-wide association study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Matullo

    Full Text Available Asbestos exposure is the main risk factor for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM, a rare aggressive tumor. Nevertheless, only 5-17% of those exposed to asbestos develop MPM, suggesting the involvement of other environmental and genetic risk factors. To identify the genetic risk factors that may contribute to the development of MPM, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS; 370,000 genotyped SNPs, 5 million imputed SNPs in Italy, among 407 MPM cases and 389 controls with a complete history of asbestos exposure. A replication study was also undertaken and included 428 MPM cases and 1269 controls from Australia. Although no single marker reached the genome-wide significance threshold, several associations were supported by haplotype-, chromosomal region-, gene- and gene-ontology process-based analyses. Most of these SNPs were located in regions reported to harbor aberrant alterations in mesothelioma (SLC7A14, THRB, CEBP350, ADAMTS2, ETV1, PVT1 and MMP14 genes, causing at most a 2-3-fold increase in MPM risk. The Australian replication study showed significant associations in five of these chromosomal regions (3q26.2, 4q32.1, 7p22.2, 14q11.2, 15q14. Multivariate analysis suggested an independent contribution of 10 genetic variants, with an Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC of 0.76 when only exposure and covariates were included in the model, and of 0.86 when the genetic component was also included, with a substantial increase of asbestos exposure risk estimation (odds ratio, OR: 45.28, 95% confidence interval, CI: 21.52-95.28. These results showed that genetic risk factors may play an additional role in the development of MPM, and that these should be taken into account to better estimate individual MPM risk in individuals who have been exposed to asbestos.

  7. Genetic variants associated with increased risk of malignant pleural mesothelioma: a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matullo, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Simonetta; Betti, Marta; Fiorito, Giovanni; Ferrante, Daniela; Voglino, Floriana; Cadby, Gemma; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Rosa, Fabio; Russo, Alessia; Hirvonen, Ari; Casalone, Elisabetta; Tunesi, Sara; Padoan, Marina; Giordano, Mara; Aspesi, Anna; Casadio, Caterina; Ardissone, Francesco; Ruffini, Enrico; Betta, Pier Giacomo; Libener, Roberta; Guaschino, Roberto; Piccolini, Ezio; Neri, Monica; Musk, Arthur W B; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Hui, Jennie; Beilby, John; James, Alan L; Creaney, Jenette; Robinson, Bruce W; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Palmer, Lyle J; Mirabelli, Dario; Ugolini, Donatella; Bonassi, Stefano; Magnani, Corrado; Dianzani, Irma

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos exposure is the main risk factor for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a rare aggressive tumor. Nevertheless, only 5-17% of those exposed to asbestos develop MPM, suggesting the involvement of other environmental and genetic risk factors. To identify the genetic risk factors that may contribute to the development of MPM, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS; 370,000 genotyped SNPs, 5 million imputed SNPs) in Italy, among 407 MPM cases and 389 controls with a complete history of asbestos exposure. A replication study was also undertaken and included 428 MPM cases and 1269 controls from Australia. Although no single marker reached the genome-wide significance threshold, several associations were supported by haplotype-, chromosomal region-, gene- and gene-ontology process-based analyses. Most of these SNPs were located in regions reported to harbor aberrant alterations in mesothelioma (SLC7A14, THRB, CEBP350, ADAMTS2, ETV1, PVT1 and MMP14 genes), causing at most a 2-3-fold increase in MPM risk. The Australian replication study showed significant associations in five of these chromosomal regions (3q26.2, 4q32.1, 7p22.2, 14q11.2, 15q14). Multivariate analysis suggested an independent contribution of 10 genetic variants, with an Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) of 0.76 when only exposure and covariates were included in the model, and of 0.86 when the genetic component was also included, with a substantial increase of asbestos exposure risk estimation (odds ratio, OR: 45.28, 95% confidence interval, CI: 21.52-95.28). These results showed that genetic risk factors may play an additional role in the development of MPM, and that these should be taken into account to better estimate individual MPM risk in individuals who have been exposed to asbestos.

  8. A Western Dietary Pattern Increases Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Roberto; Minelli, Liliana; Bertarelli, Gaia; Bacci, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with the glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by “a posteriori” methods. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risks estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs), for a first-percentile increase in dietary pattern score, were combined by a dose-response meta-analysis. Twelve observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified a “Healthy pattern” and a “Western pattern”. The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.08–1.65). In addition, the “Carbohydrate pattern”, which was analyzed in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.35–2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western (p = 0.011) pattern, the Carbohydrate (p = 0.005) pattern, and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small number of studies included in the meta-analysis suggests that further investigation is necessary to support these findings. PMID:27754328

  9. Adjunctive selective estrogen receptor modulator increases neural activity in the hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus during emotional face recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, E; Weickert, C S; Lenroot, R; Kindler, J; Skilleter, A J; Vercammen, A; White, C; Gur, R E; Weickert, T W

    2016-05-03

    Estrogen has been implicated in the development and course of schizophrenia with most evidence suggesting a neuroprotective effect. Treatment with raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, can reduce symptom severity, improve cognition and normalize brain activity during learning in schizophrenia. People with schizophrenia are especially impaired in the identification of negative facial emotions. The present study was designed to determine the extent to which adjunctive raloxifene treatment would alter abnormal neural activity during angry facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Twenty people with schizophrenia (12 men, 8 women) participated in a 13-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of adjunctive raloxifene treatment (120 mg per day orally) and performed a facial emotion recognition task during functional magnetic resonance imaging after each treatment phase. Two-sample t-tests in regions of interest selected a priori were performed to assess activation differences between raloxifene and placebo conditions during the recognition of angry faces. Adjunctive raloxifene significantly increased activation in the right hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus compared with the placebo condition (family-wise error, Pschizophrenia. These findings support the hypothesis that estrogen plays a modifying role in schizophrenia and shows that adjunctive raloxifene treatment may reverse abnormal neural activity during facial emotion recognition, which is relevant to impaired social functioning in men and women with schizophrenia.

  10. Adjunctive selective estrogen receptor modulator increases neural activity in the hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus during emotional face recognition in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, E; Weickert, C S; Lenroot, R; Kindler, J; Skilleter, A J; Vercammen, A; White, C; Gur, R E; Weickert, T W

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen has been implicated in the development and course of schizophrenia with most evidence suggesting a neuroprotective effect. Treatment with raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, can reduce symptom severity, improve cognition and normalize brain activity during learning in schizophrenia. People with schizophrenia are especially impaired in the identification of negative facial emotions. The present study was designed to determine the extent to which adjunctive raloxifene treatment would alter abnormal neural activity during angry facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Twenty people with schizophrenia (12 men, 8 women) participated in a 13-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of adjunctive raloxifene treatment (120 mg per day orally) and performed a facial emotion recognition task during functional magnetic resonance imaging after each treatment phase. Two-sample t-tests in regions of interest selected a priori were performed to assess activation differences between raloxifene and placebo conditions during the recognition of angry faces. Adjunctive raloxifene significantly increased activation in the right hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus compared with the placebo condition (family-wise error, Pschizophrenia. These findings support the hypothesis that estrogen plays a modifying role in schizophrenia and shows that adjunctive raloxifene treatment may reverse abnormal neural activity during facial emotion recognition, which is relevant to impaired social functioning in men and women with schizophrenia. PMID:27138794

  11. Vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities: a retrospective study on sexual violence, substance use and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, Argentina E; Strathdee, Steffanie; Muñoz, Fatima A; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Silverman, Jay G

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of female sex workers (FSWs) conducted in the Mexico-US border region have focused on individual HIV risk, centered on sexual behaviors and substance abuse patterns. Little attention has been drawn to the reality that sex workers are often parents whose children potentially face vulnerabilities unique to their family situation. The objective of the present study was to identify the vulnerabilities faced by the children of FSWs in two Mexican-US border cities. From 2008 to 2010, 628 FSW-injection drug users underwent interviewer-administered surveys and HIV/STI testing. Approximately one in five participants (20%) reported having a parent involved in sex work and majority referred it was their mother (88%). Close to one-third of participants (31%) reported first injecting drugs sex as a minor (sex work. These findings begin to lay the groundwork for understanding the potential vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers. Understanding these potential needs is necessary for creating relevant, evidence-based interventions focused on supporting these women.

  12. Long sleep duration associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsai-Chen; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Huang, Ying-Hsiang; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to examine the association between sleep duration and arterial stiffness among adults of different ages, because to date there has been only one study on this relationship, which was confined to middle-aged civil servants. Cross-sectional study. A health examination center in National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Taiwan. A total of 3,508 subjects, age 20-87 y, were enrolled after excluding those with a history of cerebrovascular events, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and taking lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensives, hypoglycemic agents, and anti-inflammatory drugs, from October 2006 to August 2009. N/A. SLEEP DURATION WAS CLASSIFIED INTO THREE GROUPS: short ( 8 h). Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity (baPWV), and increased arterial stiffness was defined as baPWV ≥ 1400 cm/sec. The sleep duration was different for subjects with and without increased arterial stiffness in males, but not in females. In the multivariate analysis for males, long sleepers (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, P = 0.034) but not short sleepers (OR 0.98, P = 0.92) had a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness. In addition, age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, hypertension, diabetes, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, cigarette smoking, and exercise were also independently associated factors. However, in females, neither short nor long sleep duration was associated with increased arterial stiffness. Long sleep duration was associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness in males. Short sleepers did not exhibit a significant risk of increased arterial stiffness in either sex. Tsai TC, Wu JS, Yang YC, Huang YH, Lu FH, Chang CJ. Long sleep duration associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness in males. SLEEP 2014;37(8):1315-1320.

  13. Increased risk of colon cancer after external radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapiti, Elisabetta; Fioretta, Gerald; Verkooijen, Helena M; Zanetti, Roberto; Schmidlin, Franz; Shubert, Hyma; Merglen, Arnaud; Miralbell, Raymond; Bouchardy, Christine

    2008-09-01

    Radiotherapy can induce second cancers. Controversies still exist regarding the risk of second malignancies after irradiation for prostate cancer. We evaluated the risk of developing colon and rectum cancers after prostate cancer in irradiated and nonirradiated patients. Using data from the population-based Geneva cancer registry, we included in the study all men with prostate cancer diagnosed between 1980 and 1998 who survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. Of the 1,134 patients, 264 were treated with external radiotherapy. Patients were followed for occurrence of colorectal cancer up to 31 December, 2003. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIR) using incidence rates for the general population to obtain the expected cancer incidence. The cohort yielded to 3,798 person-years. At the end of follow-up 19 patients had developed a colorectal cancer. Among irradiated patients the SIR for colorectal cancer was 3.4 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.7-6.0). Compared to the general population, the risk was significantly higher for colon cancer (SIR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.8-7.6), but not for rectal cancer (SIR = 2.0, 95% CI: 0.2-7.2). The risk of colon cancer was increased in the period of 5-9 years after diagnosis (SIR = 4.7, 95% CI: 2.0-9.2). The overall SIR of secondary cancer in patients treated with radiotherapy was 1.35 (p = 0.056). Nonirradiated patients did not have any increased risk of rectal or colon cancer. This study shows a significant increase of colon but not rectum cancer after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The risk of second cancer after irradiation, although probably small, needs nevertheless to be carefully monitored.

  14. New Metrics for Evaluating Technical Benefits and Risks of DGs Increasing Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, Mohammad Amin; Aghaei, Jamshid; Barani, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    and risks should be qualified and quantified. This paper introduces several probabilistic indices to evaluate the potential operational effects of increasing penetration of renewable DG units such as wind power and photovoltaic on rural distribution network with the aid of evaluating technical benefits...... and risks trade-offs. A probabilistic generation-load model is suggested to calculate these indices which combine a large number of possible operating conditions of renewable DG units with their probabilities. Temporal and annual indices of voltage profile and line flow related attributes such as Interest...

  15. Increased risk of death with congenital anomalies in the offspring of male semiconductor workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Chun; Wang, Jung-Der; Hsieh, Gong-Yih; Chang, Yu-Yin; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Female workers in the semiconductor industry have higher risks of subfertility and spontaneous abortion, but no studies exploring male-mediated developmental toxicity have been published. This study aimed to investigate whether the offspring of male workers employed in the semiconductor manufacturing industry had an increased risk of death with congenital anomalies. The 6,834 male workers had been employed in the eight semiconductor companies in Taiwan between 1980 and 1994. We identified the live born children with or without congenital anomalies of the workers using the National Birth and Death Registries from the Department of Health, Taiwan. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of birth outcomes and deaths, controlling for infant sex, maternal age, and paternal education. A total of 5,702 children were born to male workers during the period 1980-1994. There were increased risks of deaths with congenital anomalies (adjusted OR, 3.26; and 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-9.44) and heart anomalies (OR, 4.15; 95% CI, 1.08-15.95) in the offspring of male workers who were employed during the two months before conception. We found evidence of a possible link between paternal preconception exposure of semiconductor manufacturing and an increased risk of congenital anomalies, especially of the heart. The possible etiological basis needs to be corroborated in further research.

  16. Apolipoprotein E polymorphisms increase the risk of post-stroke depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-bin Li; Jie Wang; An-ding Xu; Jian-min Huang; Lan-qing Meng; Rui-ya Huang; Jun-li Wang

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms are involved in neurodegenerative disease. However, it is unclear whetherAPOE affects post-stroke depression. Accordingly, we hypothesized thatAPOE polymorphisms modify the risk of post-stroke depression. Here, we performed a hospital-based case-control study (including 76 cerebral infarction cases with post-stroke depression, 88 cerebral infarction cases without post-stroke depression, and 109 controls without any evidence of post-stroke depression or cerebral infarction) to determine possible association betweenAPOE rs429358 and rs7412 polymorphisms and risk of post-stroke depression. Our ifndings show no difference among the groups with regards genotype distribution of the rs7412 polymorphism. In contrast,APOE genotypes with rs429358-C alleles increased the risk of post-stroke depression. Further, the rs429358 polymorphism was associated with significantly decreased regional cerebral blood flow values in the left temporal lobe of post-stroke depression cases. Additionally, the rs429358 polymorphism was not only associated with depression severity, but with increasing serum levels of total cholesterol. These re-sults suggest that theAPOE rs429358 polymorphism is associated with increased risk of developing post-stroke depression, and thatAPOE rs429358-C allele genotypes may be detrimental to recovery of nerve function atfer stoke. Indeed, these ifndings provide clinical data for future post-stroke depression gene interventions.

  17. Apolipoprotein E polymorphisms increase the risk of post-stroke depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-bin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have shown that apolipoprotein E (APOE polymorphisms are involved in neurodegenerative disease. However, it is unclear whether APOE affects post-stroke depression. Accordingly, we hypothesized that APOE polymorphisms modify the risk of post-stroke depression. Here, we performed a hospital-based case-control study (including 76 cerebral infarction cases with post-stroke depression, 88 cerebral infarction cases without post-stroke depression, and 109 controls without any evidence of post-stroke depression or cerebral infarction to determine possible association between APOE rs429358 and rs7412 polymorphisms and risk of post-stroke depression. Our findings show no difference among the groups with regards genotype distribution of the rs7412 polymorphism. In contrast, APOE genotypes with rs429358-C alleles increased the risk of post-stroke depression. Further, the rs429358 polymorphism was associated with significantly decreased regional cerebral blood flow values in the left temporal lobe of post-stroke depression cases. Additionally, the rs429358 polymorphism was not only associated with depression severity, but with increasing serum levels of total cholesterol. These results suggest that the APOE rs429358 polymorphism is associated with increased risk of developing post-stroke depression, and that APOE rs429358-C allele genotypes may be detrimental to recovery of nerve function after stoke. Indeed, these findings provide clinical data for future post-stroke depression gene interventions.

  18. CREB1 gene polymorphisms combined with environmental risk factors increase susceptibility to major depressive disorder (MDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Yanjie; Yang, Xiuxian; Qiu, Xiaohui; Qiao, Zhengxue; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Sui, Hong; Ma, Jingsong

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most severe psychiatric disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of CREB1 gene polymorphisms on risk of developing MDD and the joint effects of gene-environment interactions. Genotyping was performed by Taqman allelic discrimination assay among 586 patients and 586 healthy controls. A significant impact on rs6740584 genotype distribution was found for childhood trauma (P = 0.015). We did not find an association of CREB1 polymorphisms with MDD susceptibility. However, we found a significantly increased risk associated with the interactions of CREB1 polymorphisms and drinking (OR = 11.67, 95% CI = 2.52-54.18; OR = 11.52, 95% CI = 2.55-51.95 for rs11904814; OR = 4.18, 95% CI = 1.87-9.38; OR = 5.02, 95% CI = 2.27-11.14 for rs6740584; OR = 7.58, 95% CI = 2.05-27.98; OR = 7.59, 95% CI = 2.12-27.14 for rs2553206; OR = 8.37, 95% CI = 3.02-23.23; OR = 7.84, 95% CI = 2.93-20.98 for rs2551941). We also noted that CREB polymorphisms combined with family harmony and childhood trauma conferred increased susceptibility for MDD. In conclusion, polymorphisms in the CREB gene may not be independently associated with MDD risk, but they are likely to confer increased susceptibility by interacting with environmental risk factors in the Chinese population.

  19. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of active tuberculosis: a systematic review of 13 observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie Y Jeon

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus (DM increases the risk of active tuberculosis (TB. The rising prevalence of DM in TB-endemic areas may adversely affect TB control. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of observational studies assessing the association of DM and TB in order to summarize the existing evidence and to assess methodological quality of the studies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify observational studies that had reported an age-adjusted quantitative estimate of the association between DM and active TB disease. The search yielded 13 observational studies (n = 1,786,212 participants with 17,698 TB cases. Random effects meta-analysis of cohort studies showed that DM was associated with an increased risk of TB (relative risk = 3.11, 95% CI 2.27-4.26. Case-control studies were heterogeneous and odds ratios ranged from 1.16 to 7.83. Subgroup analyses showed that effect estimates were higher in non-North American studies. CONCLUSION: DM was associated with an increased risk of TB regardless of study design and population. People with DM may be important targets for interventions such as active case finding and treatment of latent TB and efforts to diagnose, detect, and treat DM may have a beneficial impact on TB control.

  20. Associations between sleep loss and increased risk of obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Kristen L; Van Cauter, Eve

    2008-01-01

    During the past few decades, sleep curtailment has become a very common in industrialized countries. This trend for shorter sleep duration has developed over the same time period as the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Evidence is rapidly accumulating to indicate that chronic partial sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity and diabetes. Laboratory studies in healthy volunteers have shown that experimental sleep restriction is associated with an adverse impact on glucose homeostasis. Insulin sensitivity decreases rapidly and markedly without adequate compensation in beta cell function, resulting in an elevated risk of diabetes. Prospective epidemiologic studies in both children and adults are consistent with a causative role of short sleep in the increased risk of diabetes. Sleep curtailment is also associated with a dysregulation of the neuroendocrine control of appetite, with a reduction of the satiety factor, leptin, and an increase in the hunger-promoting hormone, ghrelin. Thus, sleep loss may alter the ability of leptin and ghrelin to accurately signal caloric need, acting in concert to produce an internal misperception of insufficient energy availability. The adverse impact of sleep deprivation on appetite regulation is likely to be driven by increased activity in neuronal populations expressing the excitatory peptides orexins that promote both waking and feeding. Consistent with the laboratory evidence, multiple epidemiologic studies have shown an association between short sleep and higher body mass index after controlling for a variety of possible confounders.

  1. Inverse birth cohort effects in ovarian cancer : Increasing risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and decreasing risk in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Janet R.; Mourits, Marian J.; Teixeira, Natalia; Jansen, Liesbeth; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; de Bock, Geertruida H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. BRCA1/2 carriers are at increased risk of ovarian cancer, and some reports suggest an increasing risk in more recent birth cohorts. In contrast, decreasing incidences have been observed in the general population. The aim was to assess the birth cohort effect on ovarian cancer risk in BRCA

  2. Inverse birth cohort effects in ovarian cancer : Increasing risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and decreasing risk in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Janet R.; Mourits, Marian J.; Teixeira, Natalja; Jansen, Liesbeth; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; de Bock, Geertruida H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. BRCA1/2 carriers are at increased risk of ovarian cancer, and some reports suggest an increasing risk in more recent birth cohorts. In contrast, decreasing incidences have been observed in the general population. The aim was to assess the birth cohort effect on ovarian cancer risk in BRCA

  3. Social isolation induces autophagy in the mouse mammary gland: link to increased mammary cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumis, Allison; Cook, Katherine L; Andrade, Fabia O; Hu, Rong; Kidney, Emma; Zhang, Xiyuan; Kim, Dominic; Carney, Elissa; Nguyen, Nguyen; Yu, Wei; Bouker, Kerrie B; Cruz, Idalia; Clarke, Robert; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2016-10-01

    Social isolation is a strong predictor of early all-cause mortality and consistently increases breast cancer risk in both women and animal models. Because social isolation increases body weight, we compared its effects to those caused by a consumption of obesity-inducing diet (OID) in C57BL/6 mice. Social isolation and OID impaired insulin and glucose sensitivity. In socially isolated, OID-fed mice (I-OID), insulin resistance was linked to reduced Pparg expression and increased neuropeptide Y levels, but in group-housed OID fed mice (G-OID), it was linked to increased leptin and reduced adiponectin levels, indicating that the pathways leading to insulin resistance are different. Carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis was significantly higher in I-OID mice than in the other groups, but cancer risk was also increased in socially isolated, control diet-fed mice (I-C) and G-OID mice compared with that in controls. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling (GRP78; IRE1) was upregulated in the mammary glands of OID-fed mice, but not in control diet-fed, socially isolated I-C mice. In contrast, expression of BECLIN1, ATG7 and LC3II were increased, and p62 was downregulated by social isolation, indicating increased autophagy. In the mammary glands of socially isolated mice, but not in G-OID mice, mRNA expressions of p53 and the p53-regulated autophagy inducer Dram1 were upregulated, and nuclear p53 staining was strong. Our findings further indicated that autophagy and tumorigenesis were not increased in Atg7(+/-) mice kept in social isolation and fed OID. Thus, social isolation may increase breast cancer risk by inducing autophagy, independent of changes in body weight.

  4. Ante partum depression and husband’s mental problem increased risk maternity blues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Ismail

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternity blues disorder (MB is common, and it is usually undiagnosed. This study to identify several risk factors related to MB. Subjects were pregnant women who had antenatal and delivery at the Persahabatan Hospital (RSP Jakarta from 1 November 1999 to 15 August 2001. Consecutive sampling and was followed-up until two-week postpartum. Those who ever had psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders were excluded. MB and ante partum depression (APD detected by using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Husband’s mental status based on Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90 respectively. Among 580 subjects, 25% suffering from MB. Compared with those who did not have APD, those who experienced it had more than three-fold increased risk to be MB [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.57; 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.54;5.03]. Those who had not healthy baby on the first 5 days afterbirth than who had healthy baby had twice increased risk to be MB (aHR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.34 ; 3.66. Who had husband with problem in mental health had 1.9 increased risk to be MB (aHR = 1.91; 95% CI = 1.36 ; 2.68. Stress during pregnancy had 1.6 increased risk to be MB (aHR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.14 ; 2.25. To control MB, special attention should be paid to women who had APD history, who had unhealthy baby on 5 first days afterbirth, who had husbands’ mental health problems, and who had stress during pregnancy. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:74-80Keywords: ante partum, maternity blues, depression, mental problem

  5. Increased risk of serious pneumococcal disease in patients with atopic conditions other than asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji A; Kita, Hirohito; Yawn, Barbara P; Boyce, Thomas G; Yoo, Kwang H; McGree, Michaela E; Weaver, Amy L; Wollan, Peter; Jacobson, Robert M; Juhn, Young J

    2010-01-01

    We reported an increased risk of serious pneumococcal disease (SPD) among patients with asthma. It is not known whether this is true for patients with other atopic conditions. To determine the relationship between atopic conditions other than asthma and SPD. The study subjects were residents of Rochester, Minn, who developed SPD between 1964 and 1983 and their 2 sex-matched and age-matched controls. We used a population-based computer-linked medical diagnosis system to identify all individuals with potential SPD. All records were reviewed by using explicit predetermined criteria for SPD. All individuals with atopic conditions were identified by the physician diagnoses including atopic dermatitis or eczema, allergic rhinitis, and hay fever documented in medical records. The associations between these atopic conditions and SPD were assessed by using conditional logistic regression. A total of 3941 records were reviewed, and we identified 174 SPD cases. Of these 174 cases, 50.6% were male, and 94.3% were Caucasian. Twenty-six (14.9%) of the SPD cases and 29 (8.3%) of the controls had atopy. Atopic conditions other than asthma were associated with an increased risk of SPD (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.04-4.35; P = .04) after adjusting for smoking status, previous high-risk conditions for SPD, educational status, and ethnicity. Like asthma, other atopic conditions, particularly atopic dermatitis, are associated with an increased risk of SPD. There may be a common immunogenetic mechanism underlying increased risk of SPD among individuals with either asthma or other atopic conditions. Our study findings need to be studied further. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Obesity increases the risk of renal involvement in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Li; Liu, Zheng-Juan; Bai, Xue-Mei; Wang, Yu-Chuan; Li, Guo-Hua; Yan, Xue-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between obesity and renal involvement in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). A retrospective study of 141 pediatric patients with HSP was conducted in our hospital. The clinical data of all patients were collected from the electronic medical record management system from January 2010 to June 2014. The possible risk factors of renal involvement, especially obesity, were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Renal involvement occurred in 45/141 of the patients. A univariate analysis showed that an age more than 7 years at onset, persistent purpura, obesity, time from symptoms onset to diagnosis more than 14 days, and decreased C3 all increased the risk of renal involvement in HSP. The forward stepwise logistic regression analysis indicated obesity (odds ratio (OR) 4.43, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.896 to 10.358), age more than 7 years at onset (OR 2.81, 95 % CI 1.142 to 6.907), and persistent purpura (OR 2.57, 95 % CI 1.119 to 5.909) were independent risk factors for renal involvement. Our results show that obesity can increase the hazard of renal involvement in children with HSP and reconfirm that older age at onset and persistent purpura are the independent risk factors for renal involvement. • There have been some reports that obesity was associated with the development of renal injury. • It is not clear whether obesity can increase the risk of renal involvement in children with HSP. What is New: • The main finding of this study is that obesity can increase the hazard of renal involvement in children with HSP.

  7. Persistent Reactive Thrombocytosis May Increase the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease Among Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Sudeep Dhoj; Hadid, Hiba; Imam, Waseem; Hassan, Ahmad; Usman, Muhammad; Jafri, Syed-Mohammed; Schairer, Jason

    2015-10-01

    IBD patients are at increased risk of coronary artery disease in the absence of traditional risk factors. However, the disease-related risk factors remain poorly understood although increased inflammation seems to increase cardiovascular disease risk in IBD. Thrombocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease, and a subset of IBD patients have reactive thrombocytosis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of persistent reactive thrombocytosis on the development of coronary artery disease in IBD. We evaluated a retrospective cohort of 2525 IBD patients who were evaluated at the Henry Ford hospital from 2000 to 2004. We performed a case-control study comparing patients with persistent thrombocytosis and patients without persistent thrombocytosis. Cases (n = 36) and controls (n = 72) were matched for age and gender. Coronary artery disease incidence was compared between the two groups. Cases (n = 36) and controls (n = 72) were matched for age and gender. Cases and controls were similar in age at onset of IBD (41.5 vs. 35.5, p value 0.11) and smoking status (33.3 vs. 27.8%, p value 0.66). Persistent thrombocytosis was less common among Caucasian patients (44.44 vs. 62.5%, p value 0.09) and more common in patients who had exposure to steroids during the study follow-up period. Coronary artery disease occurred in 13 (36.1%) patients with persistent thrombocytosis compared to only seven (9.7%) patients in the control group. Persistent reactive thrombocytosis among IBD patients is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. Further studies should characterize the clinical and molecular associations of this phenomenon and determine appropriate therapeutic measures.

  8. Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J C; Hechinger, R F; Wood, A C; Stewart, T E; Kuris, A M; Lafferty, K D

    2017-08-01

    Most species aggregate in local patches. High host density in patches increases contact rate between hosts and parasites, increasing parasite transmission success. At the same time, for environmentally transmitted parasites, high host density can decrease infection risk to individual hosts, because infective stages are divided among all hosts in a patch, leading to safety in numbers. We tested these predictions using the California horn snail, Cerithideopsis californica (=Cerithidea californica), which is the first intermediate host for at least 19 digenean trematode species in California estuaries. Snails become infected by ingesting trematode eggs or through penetration by free-swimming miracidia that hatch from trematode eggs deposited with final-host (bird or mammal) feces. This complex life cycle decouples infective-stage production from transmission, raising the possibility of an inverse relationship between host density and infection risk at local scales. In a field survey, higher snail density was associated with increased trematode (infected snail) density, but decreased trematode prevalence, consistent with either safety in numbers, parasitic castration, or both. To determine the extent to which safety in numbers drove the negative snail-density-trematode-prevalence association, we manipulated uninfected snail density in 83 cages at eight sites within Carpinteria Salt Marsh (California, USA). At each site, we quantified snail density and used data on final-host (bird and raccoon) distributions to control for between-site variation in infective-stage supply. After three months, overall trematode infections per cage increased with snail biomass density. For egg-transmitted trematodes, per-snail infection risk decreased with snail biomass density in the cage and surrounding area, whereas per-snail infection risk did not decrease for miracidium-transmitted trematodes. Furthermore, both trematode recruitment and infection risk increased with infective

  9. Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Julia C; Hechinger, R.F.; Wood, A.C.; Stewart, T.E.; Kuris, A.M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    Most species aggregate in local patches. High host density in patches increases contact rate between hosts and parasites, increasing parasite transmission success. At the same time, for environmentally-transmitted parasites, high host density can decrease infection risk to individual hosts, because infective stages are divided among all hosts in a patch, leading to safety in numbers. We tested these predictions using the California horn snail, Cerithideopsis californica (=Cerithidea californica), which is the first intermediate host for at least 19 digenean trematode species in California estuaries. Snails become infected by ingesting trematode eggs or through penetration by free-swimming miracidia that hatch from trematode eggs deposited with final-host (bird or mammal) feces. This complex life cycle decouples infective-stage production from transmission, raising the possibility of an inverse relationship between host density and infection risk. In a field survey, higher snail density was associated with increased trematode (infected snail) density, but decreased trematode prevalence, consistent with either safety in numbers, parasitic castration, or both. To determine the extent to which safety in numbers drove the negative snail density-trematode prevalence association, we manipulated uninfected snail density in 83 cages at eight sites within Carpinteria Salt Marsh (CA, USA). At each site, we quantified snail density and used data on final-host (bird and raccoon) distributions to control for between-site variation in infective-stage supply. After three months, overall trematode infections per cage increased with snail-biomass density. For egg-transmitted trematodes, per-snail infection risk decreased with snail-biomass density in the cage and surrounding area, whereas per-snail infection risk did not decrease for miracidium-transmitted trematodes. Furthermore, both trematode recruitment and infection risk increased with infective-stage input, but this was

  10. Elevated Lipoprotein(a) Levels, LPA Risk Genotypes, and Increased Risk of Heart Failure in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sough to test whether elevated lipoprotein(a) levels and corresponding LPA risk genotypes (low number of kringle IV type 2 repeats, rs3798220 and rs10455872, minor allele carriers) are associated with an increased risk of heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Elevated lipoprotein......(a) levels represent a genetically determined risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI) and aortic valve stenosis (AVS). It is presently unknown whether elevated lipoprotein(a) levels also cause heart failure (HF). METHODS: We combined 2 general population studies, the Copenhagen City Heart Study (n = 10...... mediation analyses. RESULTS: Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels were associated with multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for HF of 1.10 (95% CI: 0.97 to 1.25) for the 34th to 66th percentiles (8 to 19 mg/dl), 1.24 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.42) for the 67th to 90th percentiles (20 to 67 mg/dl), 1.57 (95% CI: 1.32 to 1...

  11. Increased risk of precocious puberty in internationally adopted children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, G.; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Skakkebæk, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    for a Korean child was at the same level as observed among adopted children from India and South America. In the study population, 99% of Korean children were adopted before 2 years of age, which may contribute to explaining our finding. In Korea, children appointed for adoption are often living in foster care......BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that internationally adopted children have an increased risk of developing precocious puberty, but no epidemiologic risk estimates have previously been calculated. We aimed to assess the risk of developing precocious puberty in intercountry adoptees, children...... immigrating with their family, and descendants of immigrants living in Denmark. METHODS: Patients who were registered with the diagnosis of precocious puberty during the period 1993-2001 were identified through the national patient registry. The background population of children born from 1983 to 2001 were...

  12. Climate Change Is Increasing the Risk of the Reemergence of Malaria in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Ivanescu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatic modifications lead to global warming; favouring the risk of the appearance and development of diseases are considered until now tropical diseases. Another important factor is the workers’ immigration, the economic crisis favouring the passive transmission of new species of culicidae from different areas. Malaria is the disease with the widest distribution in the globe. Millions of people are infected every year in Africa, India, South-East Asia, Middle East, and Central and South America, with more than 41% of the global population under the risk of infestation with malaria. The increase of the number of local cases reported in 2007–2011 indicates that the conditions can favour the high local transmission in the affected areas. In the situation presented, the establishment of the level of risk concerning the reemergence of malaria in Romania becomes a priority.

  13. Climate Change Is Increasing the Risk of the Reemergence of Malaria in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanescu, Larisa; Bodale, Ilie; Florescu, Simin-Aysel; Roman, Constantin; Acatrinei, Dumitru; Miron, Liviu

    2016-01-01

    The climatic modifications lead to global warming; favouring the risk of the appearance and development of diseases are considered until now tropical diseases. Another important factor is the workers' immigration, the economic crisis favouring the passive transmission of new species of culicidae from different areas. Malaria is the disease with the widest distribution in the globe. Millions of people are infected every year in Africa, India, South-East Asia, Middle East, and Central and South America, with more than 41% of the global population under the risk of infestation with malaria. The increase of the number of local cases reported in 2007-2011 indicates that the conditions can favour the high local transmission in the affected areas. In the situation presented, the establishment of the level of risk concerning the reemergence of malaria in Romania becomes a priority.

  14. Are cancer survivors at an increased risk for divorce? A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Frederiksen, Kirsten;

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for divorce among cancer survivors. We conducted a nationwide, population-based study of 46,303 persons aged 30-60 years in whom selected cancers were diagnosed in 1981-2000 and 221,028 randomly sampled, cancer-free controls. Information...... for survivors of cervix cancer, who had an increased risk for divorce, we found that cancer survivors were not at greater risk for divorce than the general population (rate ratios (RR), 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0;1.1 and RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.9;1.0 for women and men, respectively). This finding shows...... that cancer survivors need not have unnecessary fears for their marriage....

  15. Macroscopic extent of gastric mucosal atrophy: increased risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Noritoshi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to estimate whether the macroscopic extent of gastric mucosal atrophy is associated with a risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using a case-control study in Japanese subjects, a population known to have a high prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori infection. Methods Two hundred and fifty-three patients who were diagnosed as having esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 253 sex- and age-matched controls were enrolled in the present study. The macroscopic extent of gastric mucosal atrophy was evaluated based on the Kimura and Takemoto Classification. A conditional logistic regression model with adjustment for potential confounding factors was used to assess the associations. Results Body gastritis, defined endoscopically, was independently associated with an increased risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion Our findings suggest that macroscopic body gastritis may be a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  16. Increased risk of revision in patients with non-traumatic femoral head necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Camilla; Fenstad, Ann M; Furnes, Ove

    2014-01-01

    is not associated with poor outcome. We compared the risk of revision after operation with THA due to FHN or POA in the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) database including Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Patients and methods - 427,806 THAs performed between 1995 and 2011 were included......Background and purpose - Previous studies of patients who have undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA) due to femoral head necrosis (FHN) have shown an increased risk of revision compared to cases with primary osteoarthritis (POA), but recent studies have suggested that this procedure...... groups was 86% (95% CI: 86-86) and 77% (CI: 74-80). After adjusting for covariates, the relative risk (RR) of revision for any reason was higher in patients with FHN for both periods studied (up to 2 years: RR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.34-1.54; p

  17. Editor's Highlight: Base Excision Repair Variants and Pesticide Exposure Increase Parkinson's Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Laurie H; Paul, Kimberly C; Howlett, Evan H; Lawal, Hakeem; Boppana, Sridhar; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate; Greenamyre, J Timothy

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to certain pesticides induces oxidative stress and increases Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is found in dopaminergic neurons in idiopathic PD and following pesticide exposure in experimental models thereof. Base excision repair (BER) is the major pathway responsible for repairing oxidative DNA damage in cells. Whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BER genes alone or in combination with pesticide exposure influence PD risk is unknown. We investigated the contributions of functional SNPs in 2 BER genes (APEX1 and OGG1) and mitochondrial dysfunction- or oxidative stress-related pesticide exposure, including paraquat, to PD risk. We also studied the effect of paraquat on levels of mtDNA damage and mitochondrial bioenergetics. 619 PD patients and 854 population-based controls were analyzed for the 2 SNPs, APEX1 rs1130409 and OGG1 rs1052133. Ambient pesticide exposures were assessed with a geographic information system. Individually, or in combination, the BER SNPs did not influence PD risk. Mitochondrial-inhibiting (OR = 1.79, 95% CI [1.32, 2.42]), oxidative stress-inducing pesticides (OR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.22, 2.11]), and paraquat (OR = 1.54, 95% CI [1.23, 1.93]) were associated with PD. Statistical interactions were detected, including for a genetic risk score based on rs1130409 and rs1052133 and oxidative stress inducing pesticides, where highly exposed carriers of both risk genotypes were at the highest risk of PD (OR = 2.21, 95% CI [1.25, 3.86]); similar interactions were estimated for mitochondrial-inhibiting pesticides and paraquat alone. Additionally, paraquat exposure was found to impair mitochondrial respiration and increase mtDNA damage in in vivo and in vitro systems. Our findings provide insight into possible mechanisms involved in increased PD risk due to pesticide exposure in the context of BER genotype variants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  18. Multiple cervical levels: increased risk of dysphagia and dysphonia during anterior cervical discectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, Joseph; DiCapua, John; Nardi, Dominic; Pekmezaris, Renee; Moise, Gregory; Lesser, Martin; Dimarzio, Paola

    2012-10-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy (ACD) is widely used for symptomatic cervical spine pathologies. The most common complications associated with this type of surgery are dysphagia and dysphonia; however, the risk factors associated with them have not been adequately elucidated. The purpose of this study is to assess the incidence of self-reported dysphagia and dysphonia and the associated risk factors after ACD. This study used a retrospective chart review of 149 patients who underwent ACD at a tertiary care facility operating in the New York metropolitan area over a period of 2½ years. Charts for ACD patients were reviewed by 6 trained researchers. Incidence rates for self-reported dysphagia and dysphonia were calculated using 95% exact confidence intervals (CI). Risk factors such as age, sex, surgical hours, number of disc levels, airway class, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, fiberoptic intubation, and intubation difficulty were assessed using logistic regression. The incidence of self-reported dysphagia was 12.1% (95% exact CI, 7.3%-18.4%); for dysphonia the self-reported incidence was 5.4% (95% exact CI, 2.3%-10.3%). Patients who underwent surgery at ≥4 cervical levels had a significant 4-fold increased risk (odds ratio=4; 95% CI, 1.1-13.8) of developing dysphonia and/or dysphagia compared with patients who underwent surgery at a single surgical level. This study confirms previous findings that the risk of developing dysphagia and/or dysphonia increases with the number of surgical levels, with multiple cervical levels representing a significantly higher postoperative risk, as compared with surgery at 1 level.

  19. Low-trauma fractures indicate increased risk of hip fracture in frail older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian Sheng; Cameron, Ian D; Simpson, Judy M; Seibel, Markus J; March, Lyn M; Cumming, Robert G; Lord, Stephen R; Sambrook, Philip N

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the risk of subsequent fractures after low-trauma fracture in frail older people. A total of 1412 elderly residents (mean age 86.2 years, SD 7.0 years, female 77%) were recruited from aged care facilities in Australia. Residents were assessed and then followed for any fracture for 2 years and hip fractures for at least 5 years. Residents with and without a newly acquired fracture in the first 2 years were compared for risk of subsequent hip fracture. Residents with a nonhip fracture in the first 2 years had an increased risk of subsequent hip fracture for about 2.5 years, whereas those with a hip fracture had a similar risk over the whole period compared with those with no fracture. During these 2.5 years, 60, 28, and 6 subsequent hip fractures occurred in the nonfracture group (n = 953), the nonhip fracture group (n = 194), and the hip fracture group (n = 101), respectively, resulting in the probability of subsequent hip fracture of 8.0%, 19.9%, and 10.4%, respectively. Compared with the nonfracture group, the hazard ratio (HR) was 2.82 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.73-4.59; p < .001] for the nonhip fracture group and 1.48 (95% CI 0.63-3.49, p = .37) for the hip fracture group after adjusting for age, sex, residence type, calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation, fracture history, weight, lower leg length, immobility, cognitive function, and medications. Frail institutionalized older people with newly acquired fractures are at increased risk of subsequent hip fracture for the next few years. Accordingly, despite their advanced age, they are a high-priority target group to investigate interventions that might reduce the risk of hip fracture.

  20. Vitamin Supplementation Increases Risk of Subclinical Mastitis in HIV-Infected Women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Joanne E.; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + β-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + β-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, antiretroviral naïve Tanzanian women who were recruited during pregnancy and followed-up after delivery. Breast milk samples were obtained approximately every 3 mo. Any subclinical mastitis was defined as a ratio of the sodium to potassium (Na:K) breast milk concentrations > 0.6 and further classified as either moderate (Na:K ≥ 0.6 and ≤ 1) or severe (Na:K > 1.0). Fifty-eight percent of women had at least 1 episode of any subclinical mastitis. Women assigned to multivitamins (B complex, C, and E) had a 33% greater risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.005) and a 75% greater risk of severe subclinical mastitis (P = 0.0006) than women who received the placebo. Vitamin A + β-carotene also increased the risk of severe subclinical mastitis by 45% (P = 0.03). Among women with CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 350 cells/μL, multivitamin intake resulted in a 49% increased risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.006); by contrast, there were no treatment effects among women with CD4+ T-cell counts mastitis. PMID:20739447

  1. Women with chromosomally normal male fetuses are at increased risk of being referred for invasive testing following first-trimester risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltoft, Caroline Borregaard; Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Rode, Line

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the gender distribution in karyotype results from chorionic villus samples and amniocenteses performed due to an increased risk for Down syndrome based on first-trimester combined risk assessment....

  2. Left atrial enlargement increases the risk of major adverse cardiac events independent of coronary vasodilator capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Angela S. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Murthy, Venkatesh L.; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gayed, Peter; Bruyere, John; Di Carli, Marcelo F. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Wu, Justina [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, and the Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Dorbala, Sharmila [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and the Division of Cardiology, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Section, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Longstanding uncontrolled atherogenic risk factors may contribute to left atrial (LA) hypertension, LA enlargement (LAE) and coronary vascular dysfunction. Together they may better identify risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic LA hypertension as assessed by LAE modifies the relationship between coronary vascular function and MACE. In 508 unselected subjects with a normal clinical {sup 82}Rb PET/CT, ejection fraction ≥40 %, no prior coronary artery disease, valve disease or atrial fibrillation, LAE was determined based on LA volumes estimated from the hybrid perfusion and CT transmission scan images and indexed to body surface area. Absolute myocardial blood flow and global coronary flow reserve (CFR) were calculated. Subjects were systematically followed-up for the primary end-point - MACE - a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure, stroke, coronary artery disease progression or revascularization. During a median follow-up of 862 days, 65 of the subjects experienced a composite event. Compared with subjects with normal LA size, subjects with LAE showed significantly lower CFR (2.25 ± 0.83 vs. 1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.01). LAE independently and incrementally predicted MACE even after accounting for clinical risk factors, medication use, stress left ventricular ejection fraction, stress left ventricular end-diastolic volume index and CFR (chi-squared statistic increased from 30.9 to 48.3; p = 0.001). Among subjects with normal CFR, those with LAE had significantly worse event-free survival (risk adjusted HR 5.4, 95 % CI 2.3 - 12.8, p < 0.0001). LAE and reduced CFR are related but distinct cardiovascular adaptations to atherogenic risk factors. LAE is a risk marker for MACE independent of clinical factors and left ventricular volumes; individuals with LAE may be at risk of MACE despite normal coronary vascular function. (orig.)

  3. Genetic variants and increased risk of meningioma: an updated meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Lei-Lei; Wang, Xi-Rui; Li, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Various genetic variants have been reported to be linked to an increased risk of meningioma. However, no confirmed conclusion has been obtained. The purpose of the study was to investigate potential meningioma-associated gene polymorphisms, based on published evidence. Materials and methods An updated meta-analysis was performed in September 2016. After electronic database searching and study screening, we selected eligible case-control studies and extracted data for meta-analysis, using Mantel–Haenszel statistics. P-values, pooled odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results We finally selected eight genes with ten polymorphisms: MLLT10 rs12770228, CASP8 rs1045485, XRCC1 rs1799782, rs25487, MTHFR rs1801133, rs1801131, MTRR rs1801394, MTR rs1805087, GSTM1 null/present, and GSTT1 null/present. Results of meta-analyses showed that there was increased meningioma risk in case groups under all models of MLLT10 rs12770228 (all OR >1, P1, P1, P<0.05). However, no significantly increased meningioma risks were observed for CASP8 rs1045485, XRCC1 rs25487, rs1799782, MTHFR rs1801133, MTR rs1805087, or GSTM1/GSTT1 null mutations. Conclusion Our updated meta-analysis provided statistical evidence for the role of MLLT10 rs12770228, MTRR rs1801394, and MTHFR rs1801131 in increased susceptibility to meningioma. PMID:28405167

  4. Mechanisms of increased risk of tumorigenesis in Atm and Brca1 double heterozygosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jufang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that heterozygosity for a single gene is linked with tumorigenesis and heterozygosity for two genes increases the risk of tumor incidence. Our previous work has demonstrated that Atm/Brca1 double heterozygosity leads to higher cell transformation rate than single heterozygosity. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully understood yet. In the present study, a series of pathways were investigated to clarify the possible mechanisms of increased risk of tumorigenesis in Atm and Brca1 heterozygosity. Methods Wild type cells, Atm or Brca1 single heterozygous cells, and Atm/Brca1 double heterozygous cells were used to investigate DNA damage and repair, cell cycle, micronuclei, and cell transformation after photon irradiation. Results Remarkable high transformation frequency was confirmed in Atm/Brca1 double heterozygous cells compared to wild type cells. It was observed that delayed DNA damage recognition, disturbed cell cycle checkpoint, incomplete DNA repair, and increased genomic instability were involved in the biological networks. Haploinsufficiency of either ATM or BRCA1 negatively impacts these pathways. Conclusions The quantity of critical proteins such as ATM and BRCA1 plays an important role in determination of the fate of cells exposed to ionizing radiation and double heterozygosity increases the risk of tumorigenesis. These findings also benefit understanding of the individual susceptibility to tumor initiation.

  5. Factors That Increase Risk of Celiac Disease Autoimmunity After a Gastrointestinal Infection in Early Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Kaisa M; Lynch, Kristian F; Liu, Edwin; Lönnrot, Maria; Simell, Ville; Briese, Thomas; Koletzko, Sibylle; Hagopian, William; Rewers, Marian; She, Jin-Xiong; Simell, Olli; Toppari, Jorma; Ziegler, Anette-G; Akolkar, Beena; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Lernmark, Åke; Hyöty, Heikki; Triplett, Eric W; Agardh, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms of gluten immunogenicity in patients with celiac disease. We studied temporal associations between infections and the development of celiac disease autoimmunity, and examined effects of HLA alleles, rotavirus vaccination status, and infant feeding. We monitored 6327 children in the United States and Europe carrying HLA risk genotypes for celiac disease from 1 to 4 years of age for presence of tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (the definition of celiac disease autoimmunity), until March 31, 2015. Parental reports of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections were collected every third month from birth. We analyzed time-varying relationships among reported infections, rotavirus vaccination status, time to first introduction of gluten, breastfeeding, and risk of celiac disease autoimmunity using proportional hazard models. We identified 13,881 gastrointestinal infectious episodes (GIE) and 79,816 respiratory infectious episodes. During the follow-up period, 732 of 6327 (11.6%) children developed celiac disease autoimmunity. A GIE increased the risk of celiac disease autoimmunity within the following 3 months by 33% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.59). This risk increased 2-fold among children born in winter and introduced to gluten before age 6 months (HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.46-2.98), and increased 10-fold among children without HLA-DQ2 alleles and breastfed for fewer than 4 months (HR, 9.76; 95% CI, 3.87-24.8). Risk of celiac disease autoimmunity was reduced in children vaccinated against rotavirus and introduced to gluten before age 6 months (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36-0.88). Gastrointestinal infections increase the risk of celiac disease autoimmunity in children with genetic susceptibility to this autoimmune disorder. The risk is modified by HLA genotype, infant gluten consumption, breastfeeding, and rotavirus vaccination, indicating complex interactions among infections, genetic factors

  6. Increased risk taking in relation to chronic stress in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandita eCeccato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured learning-independent risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS. We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify chronic cortisol exposure. We discovered a significant, positive correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations.

  7. Grey matter networks in people at increased familial risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Sprooten, Emma; Job, Dominic; Johnstone, Eve C; Owens, David G C; Willshaw, David; Seriès, Peggy; Lawrie, Stephen M

    2015-10-01

    Grey matter brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia, but it is still unclear at which point during the development of the illness these disruptions arise and whether these can be associated with behavioural predictors of schizophrenia. We investigated if single-subject grey matter networks were disrupted in a sample of people at familial risk of schizophrenia. Single-subject grey matter networks were extracted from structural MRI scans of 144 high risk subjects, 32 recent-onset patients and 36 healthy controls. The following network properties were calculated: size, connectivity density, degree, path length, clustering coefficient, betweenness centrality and small world properties. People at risk of schizophrenia showed decreased path length and clustering in mostly prefrontal and temporal areas. Within the high risk sample, the path length of the posterior cingulate cortex and the betweenness centrality of the left inferior frontal operculum explained 81% of the variance in schizotypal cognitions, which was previously shown to be the strongest behavioural predictor of schizophrenia in the study. In contrast, local grey matter volume measurements explained 48% of variance in schizotypy. The present results suggest that single-subject grey matter networks can quantify behaviourally relevant biological alterations in people at increased risk for schizophrenia before disease onset.

  8. Recent victimization increases risk for violence in justice-involved persons with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Binder, Renée L; McNiel, Dale E

    2014-04-01

    A large body of research has examined relationships between distal experiences of victimization and the likelihood of engaging in violence later in life. Less is known about the influence of recent violent victimization on risk for violence perpetration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine prospectively whether recent victimization in adulthood increases the risk of future violence. Specifically, the present study assessed the incremental validity of recent violent victimization in the prediction of future violence in a sample of justice-involved adults with serious mental illness. The study examined (a) whether recent experiences of violent victimization (i.e., within 6 months of the baseline assessment) predicted a greater likelihood of perpetrating violence in the next year, and (b) whether inclusion of recent victimization enhanced the predictive validity of a model of violence risk in a sample of justice-involved adults with severe mental illness (N = 167). Hierarchical logistic regression analyses indicated that exposure to recent violent victimization at the baseline assessment predicted a greater likelihood of engaging in violent behavior during the year follow-up period. Additionally, recent exposure to violence at the baseline assessment continued to explain a significant amount of variance in a model of future violence perpetration above the variance accounted for by well-established violence risk factors. Taken together, the findings suggest that recent victimization is important to consider in understanding and evaluating risk of violence by persons with mental disorders who are involved in the criminal justice system.

  9. Increased risk of colorectal cancer in type 2 diabetes is independent of diet quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra Jarvandi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poor diet increases the risk of both colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes. We investigated the role of diet in the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer. METHODS: We analyzed data from 484,020 individuals, aged 50-71 years who participated in the prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study and were cancer free at baseline (1995-1996. History of diabetes was self-reported. Diet quality was measured with the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005, using a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Cox regression models were constructed to estimate the hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of first primary incident colorectal cancer, overall and by anatomical location. RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 9.2 years, we identified 7,598 new cases of colorectal cancer. After controlling for non-dietary confounders, diabetes was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (HR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.36. Further adjustment for diet quality did not attenuate this association. Diabetes was associated with a HR of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.40 in individuals with good diet (quartile 4 of HEI-2005 and 1.58 (95% CI: 1.34, 1.86 in those with poor diet (quartile 1 of HEI-2005, compared to those with no diabetes and good diet. Moreover, diabetes was associated with a stronger risk of proximal than distal colon cancer (HR: 1.33 vs. HR: 1.20, while poor diet was associated with a weaker risk of proximal colon cancer (HR: 1.18 vs. HR: 1.46. CONCLUSION: Diabetes and poor diet, independently and additively are associated with the increased risk of colorectal cancer.

  10. Increased risk of severe depression in male partners of women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Saito-Nakaya, Kumi; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Uchitomi, Yosuke; Johansen, Christoffer

    2010-12-01

    A few small studies published to date have suggested that major psychosocial problems develop in the partners of cancer patients; however, to the authors' knowledge, no studies to date have addressed their risk for severe depression. In a retrospective cohort study, the risk for hospitalization with an affective disorder of the male partners of women with breast cancer was investigated, using unbiased, nationwide, population-based information. Followed were 1,162,596 men born between 1925 and 1973 who were aged ≥30 years at study entry, resided in Denmark between 1994 and 2006, had no history of hospitalization for an affective disorder, and had lived continuously with the same partner for at least 5 years. A Cox regression analysis included detailed clinical information regarding the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and on annually updated socioeconomic and health-related indicators obtained from national administrative and disease registers. During the 13 years of follow-up, breast cancer was diagnosed in the partners of 20,538 men. On multivariable analysis, men whose partner was diagnosed with breast cancer were found to be at an increased risk of being hospitalized with an affective disorder (hazards ratio, 1.39; 95%confidence interval, 1.20-1.61), with a dose-response pattern for the severity of breast cancer. Furthermore, men whose partner died after breast cancer had a significant, 3.6-fold increase in risk for an affective disorder when compared with men whose partner survived breast cancer. The results of the current study supported the hypothesis that men whose partner had breast cancer were at an increased risk for hospitalization with an affective disorder. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  11. Lifetime Increased Cancer Risk in Mice Following Exposure to Clinical Proton Beam–Generated Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerweck, Leo E., E-mail: lgerweck@mgh.harvard.edu; Huang, Peigen; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Paganetti, Harald; Zhou, Yenong

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the life span and risk of cancer following whole-body exposure of mice to neutrons generated by a passively scattered clinical spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) proton beam. Methods and Materials: Three hundred young adult female FVB/N mice, 152 test and 148 control, were entered into the experiment. Mice were placed in an annular cassette around a cylindrical phantom, which was positioned lateral to the mid-SOBP of a 165-MeV, clinical proton beam. The average distance from the edge of the mid-SOBP to the conscious active mice was 21.5 cm. The phantom was irradiated with once-daily fractions of 25 Gy, 4 days per week, for 6 weeks. The age at death and cause of death (ie, cancer and type vs noncancer causes) were assessed over the life span of the mice. Results: Exposure of mice to a dose of 600 Gy of proton beam–generated neutrons, reduced the median life span of the mice by 4.2% (Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival, P=.053). The relative risk of death from cancer in neutron exposed versus control mice was 1.40 for cancer of all types (P=.0006) and 1.22 for solid cancers (P=.09). For a typical 60 Gy dose of clinical protons, the observed 22% increased risk of solid cancer would be expected to decrease by a factor of 10. Conclusions: Exposure of mice to neutrons generated by a proton dose that exceeds a typical course of radiation therapy by a factor of 10, resulted in a statistically significant increase in the background incidence of leukemia and a marginally significant increase in solid cancer. The results indicate that the risk of out-of-field second solid cancers from SOBP proton-generated neutrons and typical treatment schedules, is 6 to 10 times less than is suggested by current neutron risk estimates.

  12. Worsening Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegenerative Pathology Progressively Increase Risk for Delirium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H.J.; Skelly, Donal T.; Murray, Carol; Hennessy, Edel; Bowen, Jordan; Norton, Samuel; Brayne, Carol; Rahkonen, Terhi; Sulkava, Raimo; Sanderson, David J.; Rawlins, J. Nicholas; Bannerman, David M.; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Cunningham, Colm

    2015-01-01

    Background Delirium is a profound neuropsychiatric disturbance precipitated by acute illness. Although dementia is the major risk factor this has typically been considered a binary quantity (i.e., cognitively impaired versus cognitively normal) with respect to delirium risk. We used humans and mice to address the hypothesis that the severity of underlying neurodegenerative changes and/or cognitive impairment progressively alters delirium risk. Methods Humans in a population-based longitudinal study, Vantaa 85+, were followed for incident delirium. Odds for reporting delirium at follow-up (outcome) were modeled using random-effects logistic regression, where prior cognitive impairment measured by Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) (exposure) was considered. To address whether underlying neurodegenerative pathology increased susceptibility to acute cognitive change, mice at three stages of neurodegenerative disease progression (ME7 model of neurodegeneration: controls, 12 weeks, and 16 weeks) were assessed for acute cognitive dysfunction upon systemic inflammation induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg). Synaptic and axonal correlates of susceptibility to acute dysfunction were assessed using immunohistochemistry. Results In the Vantaa cohort, 465 persons (88.4 ± 2.8 years) completed MMSE at baseline. For every MMSE point lost, risk of incident delirium increased by 5% (p = 0.02). LPS precipitated severe and fluctuating cognitive deficits in 16-week ME7 mice but lower incidence or no deficits in 12-week ME7 and controls, respectively. This was associated with progressive thalamic synaptic loss and axonal pathology. Conclusion A human population-based cohort with graded severity of existing cognitive impairment and a mouse model with progressing neurodegeneration both indicate that the risk of delirium increases with greater severity of pre-existing cognitive impairment and neuropathology. PMID:25239680

  13. Maternal dyslipidemia during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm birth: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuying Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported an inconsistent relationship between maternal lipid levels and preterm birth (PTB. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the association between maternal dyslipidemia and PTB. Overall, three nested case-control studies and eight cohort studies were eligible. Effect estimates [odds ratio(OR/relative risk] were pooled using a fixed-effects or a random-effects model. Subgroup and metaregression analyses were conducted to evaluate the sources of heterogeneity. Eleven studies involving 13,025 pregnant women were included. Compared with pregnant women with normal lipid levels, the women with elevated levels of lipids had an increased risk of PTB, and the pooled OR was 1.68 [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.25–2.26]; meanwhile, women with lower levels of lipids also had a trend of an increased risk of PTB (OR=1.52, 95% CI=0.60–3.82. The pooled ORs for elevated levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and lower levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol were 1.71 (95% CI: 1.05–2.79, 1.55 (95% CI: 1.13–2.12, 1.19 (95% CI: 0.95–1.48, and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.14–1.56, respectively. The present meta-analysis found that maternal dyslipidemia during pregnancy, either the elevated total cholesterol or triglycerides, was associated with an increased risk of PTB. These findings indicate that a normal level of maternal lipid during pregnancy may reduce the risk of PTB.

  14. Polypharmacy is associated with an increased risk of bleeding in elderly patients with venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiss, Waltraud; Méan, Marie; Limacher, Andreas; Righini, Marc; Jaeger, Kurt; Beer, Hans-Jürg; Osterwalder, Joseph; Frauchiger, Beat; Matter, Christian M; Kucher, Nils; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne; Cornuz, Jacques; Banyai, Martin; Lämmle, Bernhard; Husmann, Marc; Egloff, Michael; Aschwanden, Markus; Rodondi, Nicolas; Aujesky, Drahomir

    2015-01-01

    Polypharmacy, defined as the concomitant use of multiple medications, is very common in the elderly and may trigger drug-drug interactions and increase the risk of falls in patients receiving vitamin K antagonists. To examine whether polypharmacy increases the risk of bleeding in elderly patients who receive vitamin K antagonists for acute venous thromboembolism (VTE). We used a prospective cohort study. In a multicenter Swiss cohort, we studied 830 patients aged ≥ 65 years with VTE. We defined polypharmacy as the prescription of more than four different drugs. We assessed the association between polypharmacy and the time to a first major and clinically relevant non-major bleeding, accounting for the competing risk of death. We adjusted for known bleeding risk factors (age, gender, pulmonary embolism, active cancer, arterial hypertension, cardiac disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic liver and renal disease, diabetes mellitus, history of major bleeding, recent surgery, anemia, thrombocytopenia) and periods of vitamin K antagonist treatment as a time-varying covariate. Overall, 413 (49.8 %) patients had polypharmacy. The mean follow-up duration was 17.8 months. Patients with polypharmacy had a significantly higher incidence of major (9.0 vs. 4.1 events/100 patient-years; incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.18, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.32-3.68) and clinically relevant non-major bleeding (14.8 vs. 8.0 events/100 patient-years; IRR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.27-2.71) than patients without polypharmacy. After adjustment, polypharmacy was significantly associated with major (sub-hazard ratio [SHR] 1.83, 95 % CI 1.03-3.25) and clinically relevant non-major bleeding (SHR 1.60, 95 % CI 1.06-2.42). Polypharmacy is associated with an increased risk of both major and clinically relevant non-major bleeding in elderly patients receiving vitamin K antagonists for VTE.

  15. Identification of traumatic stress reactions in women at increased risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nangel M; Wellisch, David K

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that the diagnosis and treatment of cancer may constitute a traumatic event that generates in patients and some of their family members traumatic reactions that are consistent with the symptom profile of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study was conducted to establish the degree to which women at increased familial risk for breast cancer showed such traumatic reactions and to establish which demographic or psychological variables may contribute to the experience of such traumatic reactions in at-risk individuals. Seventy-three women from the Revlon UCLA Breast Center High Risk Clinic were assessed for traumatic reactions that might be consistent with the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD. The results showed that women at increased risk for breast cancer exhibited traumatic responses similar to those reported by cancer patients. When the authors used a self-report instrument that maps onto DSM-IV criteria, 4% of the study subjects reported symptoms consistent with criteria for a potential diagnosis of PTSD, and an additional 7% of the subjects reported symptoms consistent with potentially subclinical levels of PTSD, according to DSM-IV criteria.

  16. Estimation of cancer risks and benefits associated with a potential increased consumption of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Richard; Johnston, Jason; Tucker, Kevin; DeSesso, John M; Keen, Carl L

    2012-12-01

    The current paper provides an analysis of the potential number of cancer cases that might be prevented if half the U.S. population increased its fruit and vegetable consumption by one serving each per day. This number is contrasted with an upper-bound estimate of concomitant cancer cases that might be theoretically attributed to the intake of pesticide residues arising from the same additional fruit and vegetable consumption. The cancer prevention estimates were derived using a published meta-analysis of nutritional epidemiology studies. The cancer risks were estimated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods, cancer potency estimates from rodent bioassays, and pesticide residue sampling data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The resulting estimates are that approximately 20,000 cancer cases per year could be prevented by increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, while up to 10 cancer cases per year could be caused by the added pesticide consumption. These estimates have significant uncertainties (e.g., potential residual confounding in the fruit and vegetable epidemiologic studies and reliance on rodent bioassays for cancer risk). However, the overwhelming difference between benefit and risk estimates provides confidence that consumers should not be concerned about cancer risks from consuming conventionally-grown fruits and vegetables.

  17. Intakes of red meat, processed meat, and meat mutagens increase lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tram Kim; Cross, Amanda J; Consonni, Dario; Randi, Giorgia; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Caporaso, Neil E; Sinha, Rashmi; Subar, Amy F; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2009-02-01

    Red and processed meat intake may increase lung cancer risk. However, the epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent and few studies have evaluated the role of meat mutagens formed during high cooking temperatures. We investigated the association of red meat, processed meat, and meat mutagen intake with lung cancer risk in Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology, a population-based case-control study. Primary lung cancer cases (n = 2,101) were recruited from 13 hospitals within the Lombardy region of Italy examining approximately 80% of the cases from the area. Noncancer population controls (n = 2,120), matched to cases on gender, residence, and age, were randomly selected from the same catchment area. Diet was assessed in 1,903 cases and 2,073 controls and used in conjunction with a meat mutagen database to estimate intake of heterocyclic amines (HCA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Multivariable odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for sex-specific tertiles of intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Red and processed meat were positively associated with lung cancer risk (highest-versus-lowest tertile: OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.2; P trend processed meat, and meat mutagens were independently associated with increased risk of lung cancer.

  18. LRRK2 G2019S mutations are associated with an increased cancer risk in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Barrett, Matthew J; Stanley, Kaili M; Luciano, Marta San; Shanker, Vicki; Severt, Lawrence; Hunt, Ann; Raymond, Deborah; Ozelius, Laurie J; Bressman, Susan B

    2010-11-15

    Leucine rich repeat kinase (LRRK2) G2019S mutations are presumed to cause PD through a toxic gain of function of the protein kinase. Small molecule kinase inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of certain cancers, and some antioncogenic agents such as sunitinib, may nonspecifically inhibit LRRK2. Few studies, however, have assessed cancer risk in LRRK2 mutation carriers. To explore this risk, we evaluated records of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) PD patients participating in genetic research. Charts were reviewed for 163 unrelated AJ PD patients, 31 of whom harbored the G2019S mutation. History of cancer was queried at baseline intake using a form reviewing medical conditions, and charts were reviewed for all follow-up visits. 9/31 LRRK2 G2019S mutation carriers had nonskin cancers, whereas 15/132 without mutations had nonskin cancers, representing an almost threefold increased risk in this group (HR 2.9, 95% CI 1.3-6.6). Age at first nonskin cancer was younger in the LRRK2 carriers (56.0 years) than the noncarriers (62.0 years), but was not significant. 67% of the LRRK2 carriers had their cancer before the onset of PD, whereas only 40% of noncarriers developed their first nonskin cancer before onset of PD. While further evaluation is warranted, our findings indicate an increased risk of nonskin cancers in LRRK2 G2019S mutation carriers, which may be related to toxic gain of function of mutated LRRK2.

  19. African American Children At-Risk of Increasingly Conflicted Teacher-Student Relationships in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilt, Jantine; Hughes, Jan N

    Previous studies found different trajectories of conflicted relationships with teachers predictive of academic underachievement. However, little is known about what places children at risk for atypical conflict trajectories. This follow-up study examines whether African American ethnicity, IQ, and SES are unique predictors of teacher-student conflict trajectories taking into account sociobehavioral predictors, including aggression and prosocial behavior. The study included the same ethnically diverse sample of 657 academically at-risk children in which previously four latent growth classes of conflict trajectories (grades 1-5) predictive of underachievement were identified. In this follow-up study, 6 predictors were examined: African American ethnicity, SES, IQ (independent assessment), Inhibitory control (performance measure), and Aggression and Prosocial behavior (peer assessment). The results demonstrated that African American ethnicity, but not IQ and SES, uniquely predicted atypical conflict trajectories, while controlling for sociobehavioral predictors. African American children were at risk of increasingly conflicted relationships with elementary school teachers, which has been found to increase the risk of academic underachievement in middle school.

  20. Paternal age increases the risk for autism in an Iranian population sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasanfar Roksana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder which is known to have a strong genetic component and is most likely oligogenic. However, the necessary role of environmental factors has been well documented. Prior research suggests that parental characteristics, such as age and level of education, may be associated with a risk of autism. Parental age has been shown to be associated with many disorders, such as schizophrenia, childhood cancer and fetal death. However, results from studies of parental age and autism are inconsistent. Methods In the present study, we investigated the association of autism with parental age in 179 autism cases and 1611 matched cohort children from Iran. Each case was matched with nine cohort controls on parental education, sex, order of birth, consanguineous marriage, urbanism and province of residence. The Cox regression model was used to carry out conditional logistic regression on the matched data. Results There was a significant association between higher paternal age, but not maternal age, and an increasing risk of autism. An analysis of the combined effect of parental age and education also revealed that parents with higher education had an increased risk of having autistic children, with a dose-response effect of parental age. Conclusions This study, which is the first epidemiological study of autism in Iran, provides evidence of the association of paternal age and risk of autism.

  1. Increased risks of coronary heart disease and stroke among spousal caregivers of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianguang; Zöller, Bengt; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan

    2012-04-10

    Spousal caregivers of cancer patients suffer psychological and physical burdens that may affect their risk of subsequently developing coronary heart disease and stroke. Cancer patients were identified in the Swedish Cancer Registry, and information on their spouses was retrieved from the Swedish Multi-Generation Register. Follow-up of caregivers was performed from the date of the first diagnosis of cancer in their spouses through 2008. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated for spousal caregivers of cancer patients compared with those without an affected spouse. After the cancer diagnosis in wives, the risks of coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke in husbands were 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.16), 1.24 (95% CI, 1.21-1.27), and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.18-1.32), respectively. The corresponding risks in wives with an affected husband were 1.13 (95% CI, 1.10-1.16), 1.29 (95% CI, 1.26-1.32), and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.19-1.34). The increases were consistent over time and were more pronounced if the spouse was affected by a cancer with a high mortality rate, such as pancreatic and lung cancers. Spousal caregivers of cancer patients have increased risks of coronary heart disease and stroke that persist over time. Clinical attention should be paid to spousal caregivers, especially those caring for cancer patients with high mortality rates.

  2. Women with chromosomally normal male fetuses are at increased risk of being referred for invasive testing following first-trimester risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltoft, Caroline Borregaard; Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Rode, Line;

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the gender distribution in karyotype results from chorionic villus samples and amniocenteses performed due to an increased risk for Down syndrome based on first-trimester combined risk assessment.......This study investigated the gender distribution in karyotype results from chorionic villus samples and amniocenteses performed due to an increased risk for Down syndrome based on first-trimester combined risk assessment....

  3. Infections Increase Risk of Arterial and Venous Thromboses in Danish Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baronaite Hansen, Renata; Jacobsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Infections and thromboses are known complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We investigated if infectious episodes in patients with SLE were followed by an increased risk of thrombotic events. METHODS: A cohort of 571 patients with prevalent or incident SLE was followed...... for a mean of 8.9 ± 7.6 years. All episodes of hospitalized infections or episodes of cutaneous herpes zoster as well as arterial and venous thrombotic events were identified by retrospective chart review and prospective updating of a clinical database. For time-dependent analyses adjusted for age, sex...... was increased [relative rate (RR) 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.6, and RR 2.8, 95% CI 1.3-5.9, respectively]. Venous thromboses were in particular more prevalent after respiratory infections (RR 5.4, 95% CI 2.3-13). CONCLUSION: The temporal associations observed in this study indicate that infections could be risk factors...

  4. Leptospirosis risk increases with changes in species composition of rat populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuerkauf, Jörn; Perez, Julie; Taugamoa, Alefosio; Niutoua, Iasinito; Labrousse, Didier; Gula, Roman; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Jourdan, Hervé; Goarant, Cyrille

    2013-04-01

    Rats are major reservoirs of leptospirosis and considered as a main threat to biodiversity. A recent introduction of Rattus rattus to the island of Futuna (Western Polynesia) provided the opportunity to test if a possible change in species composition of rat populations would increase the risk of leptospirosis to humans. We trapped rodents on Wallis and Futuna and assessed Leptospira carriage in 357 rodents ( Rattus norvegicus, R. rattus, Rattus exulans, and Mus domesticus) from 2008 to 2012. While Leptospira prevalence in rodents and the composition of rat populations on Futuna fluctuated with rainfall, the biomass of Leptospira-carrying rodents has been continuously rising from 2008 to 2012. Our results suggest that the introduction of R. rattus increases the risk to humans being infected with leptospirosis by rats.

  5. Leptospirosis risk increases with changes in species composition of rat populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuerkauf, Jörn; Perez, Julie; Taugamoa, Alefosio; Niutoua, Iasinito; Labrousse, Didier; Gula, Roman; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Jourdan, Hervé; Goarant, Cyrille

    2013-04-01

    Rats are major reservoirs of leptospirosis and considered as a main threat to biodiversity. A recent introduction of Rattus rattus to the island of Futuna (Western Polynesia) provided the opportunity to test if a possible change in species composition of rat populations would increase the risk of leptospirosis to humans. We trapped rodents on Wallis and Futuna and assessed Leptospira carriage in 357 rodents (Rattus norvegicus, R. rattus, Rattus exulans, and Mus domesticus) from 2008 to 2012. While Leptospira prevalence in rodents and the composition of rat populations on Futuna fluctuated with rainfall, the biomass of Leptospira-carrying rodents has been continuously rising from 2008 to 2012. Our results suggest that the introduction of R. rattus increases the risk to humans being infected with leptospirosis by rats.

  6. Racial and Ethnic Minorities at Increased Risk for Gastric Cancer in a Regional US Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Elizabeth; Duan, Lewei; Wu, Bechien U

    2017-04-01

    Limited data are available on risk factors for gastric cancer in the United States. We aimed to characterize risk for gastric cancer based on race/ethnicity and additional established risk factors. We conducted a retrospective cohort study from 2008 to 2014 from an integrated health care system in Southern California to assess incidence of gastric cancer by race/ethnicity. We then conducted an age- and sex-matched case-cohort study to evaluate additional risk factors: Helicobacter pylori infection, tobacco use, family history, obesity, language, and socioeconomic status. Subgroup analysis was performed for language and socioeconomic status by race/ethnicity. The incidence of gastric cancer in the reference (non-Hispanic white) population was 8.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.7-8.7) cases per 100,000 person-years. Incidence values for Asians, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic black persons were higher: 12.7 (95% CI, 11.1-14.3), 12.7 (95% CI, 11.7-13.7), and 11.8 (95% CI, 10.3-13.2) cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively (all P gastric cancer; the odds ratio (OR) for non-Hispanic black persons was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.22-1.72; P gastric cancer (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.6-4.4) (all P gastric cancer in Asians (P = .05). Higher annual median income was associated with reduced risk (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75-0.95; P = .0004). In a population study in Southern California, we found racial/ethnic minorities to have a 40%-50% increase in risk of gastric cancer compared with the non-Hispanic white population. In addition to H pylori infection, smoking, family history, and low socioeconomic status were also associated with increased risk. Further characterization of high-risk groups may identify populations appropriate for targeted screening. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prostate cancer patients may have an increased risk of coexisting advanced colorectal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko SH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sun-Hye Ko,1,2 Myong Ki Baeg,2,3 Woong Jin Bae,4 Pumsoo Kim,3 Myung-Gyu Choi2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Internal Medicine, International St Mary’s Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University, Incheon, South Korea; 4Department of Urology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea Background/aims: Patients being treated for prostate cancer (PCa have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, whether PCa patients are inherently at a higher risk of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs is unknown. We aimed to investigate the risk of CRNs in PCa patients.Materials and methods: Patients who had been diagnosed with PCa at a tertiary medical center and had colonoscopy within 1 year of the PCa diagnosis were investigated. Patients were propensity-matched 1:2 by age and body mass index to asymptomatic control subjects who had undergone colonoscopy for routine health screening. CRN was defined as histological confirmation of an adenoma or adenocarcinoma component. Advanced CRN was defined as any of the following: 1 histological findings of high-grade dysplasia, 2 inclusion of villous features, 3 tumor ≥1 cm in size, or 4 presence of an adenocarcinoma. Risk factors for CRN and advanced CRN were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis.Results: A total of 191 patients diagnosed with PCa had colonoscopies within 1 year of PCa diagnosis. Of these, 23 patients with a history of previous malignancy and seven with incomplete colonoscopies were excluded, leaving 161 patients in the PCa group. Although presence of PCa was not a significant risk factor for CRN by multivariate analysis, PCa was a significant risk factor for advanced CRN (odds ratio [OR] 3.300; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.766–6.167; P<0

  8. Effectiveness of Increased Nuchal Translucency in Detecting Pregnancies at Risk for Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna González Herrera

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: assessment of embryonic anatomy by ultrasound since early ages leads to the detection of pregnancies at risk for chromosomal abnormalities. Advanced maternal age alone is not enough. Objective: to assess the results of the nuchal translucency measurement at the first trimester ultrasound as a sonographic marker of chromosomal abnormalities.Methods: a sample of 29 334 pregnant women was studied from September 2006 to December 2010. General performance of the sonographic marker was assessed taking into account the years and maternal age. Effectiveness of increased nuchal translucency in the indirect detection of chromosomal abnormalities was determined using the common parameters. Results: the net number of increased nuchal translucencies diminished over the years, as well as the absolute amount of prenatal karyotypes performed; but its proportion increased along with the positive prenatal karyotypes among women with increased nuchal translucency. Among the 71 fetuses with increased translucency, seven cases of chromosomal abnormalities were confirmed by other elements of the prenatal program. The sensitivity of the isolated nuchal translucency was 14.6%; specificity was high (99.8%; positive and negative predictive values were 18.4% and 99.9%, respectively. Rates of false positives were very low. Conclusions: high specificity reaffirms nuchal translucency as a good early marker of risk for chromosomal abnormalities, particularly Down syndrome and Trisomy 18, with a minimum rate of indications for invasive testing and an extra increase in the detection of fetal defects.

  9. Limits and risks of the cross-cultural research in Public Relations and Communication management. The increase in macro surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Humanes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As consequence of the growth of the public relations and the strategic communication there has been increased the interest to know the professional practice across the world. Diverse studies have been realized in the last decades from the perspective of international public relations and specifically from the contextual level. Nevertheless, only in the last years there are developing quantitative macrosurveys that take the comparison as an aim between countries and regions. In this article we discuss the limitations and methodological risks that face the above mentioned researches at present.Como consecuencia del crecimiento de las Relaciones Públicas y la Comunicación estratégica se ha acrecentado el interés por conocer la práctica profesional a través del mundo. Diversos estudios se han realizado en las últimas décadas desde la perspectiva de Relaciones Públicas internacionales y específicamente desde la perspectiva contextual. Sin embargo, sólo en los últimos años se están desarrollando macroencuestas cuantitativas que tienen por objetivo la comparación entre países y regiones. En este artículo discutimos las limitaciones y riesgos metodológicos que enfrentan dichas investigaciones en la actualidad.

  10. Do foreign portfolio flows increase risk in emerging stock markets? Evidence from six Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo, Diego A.; Castaño, Milena M.

    2011-01-01

    Foreign portfolio flows have been blamed for causing instability in emerging markets, especially during financial crises. This study measured the effect of foreign capital flows on volatility and exposure to world market risk in the six largest Latin American stock markets: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Peru, for around 10 years including the 2008 World financial crisis. This will test whether these flows cause instability for those markets and increase their exposure to inte...

  11. Increasing Treatment Seeking Among at-Risk Service Members Returning from Warzones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    stakeholders place on developing and implementing a comprehensive program to reduce suicide among U.S. service members and Veterans. Rates of suicide ...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We propose a randomized controlled clinical trial of 1,200 military service members who are at increased risk for suicide but...by phone, and has been shown to promote treatment-seeking including in a preliminary study of OEF/OIF Veterans with elevated posttraumatic stress

  12. Women with minor menstrual irregularities have increased risk of preeclampsia and low birthweight in spontaneous pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnesen, Barbara; Oddgeirsdóttir, Hanna L; Naver, Klara Vinsand

    2016-01-01

    examination-based gestational age. Outcome measures were gestational diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia, preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth, prolonged pregnancy, birthweight, umbilical artery pH ... with more than 7 days' deviation between self-reported and ultrasound examination-based gestational age were compared with women with a deviation of 7 days or less. RESULTS: Irregular menstrual cycle before conception increases the risk of preeclampsia (7.9% vs. 5.2%, p

  13. Increase in overall mortality risk in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving different oral diabetes drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E A Pigarova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по статье: Pantalone KM, Kattan MW, Yu C, Wells BJ, Arrigain S, Jain A, Atreja A, Zimmerman RS. Increase in overall mortality risk in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving glipizide, glyburide or glimepiride monotherapy versus metformin: a retrospective analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012 Sep;14(9:803-809.

  14. Antibiotics in Pregnancy Increase Children's Risk of Otitis Media and Ventilation Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Tine Marie; Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Mora-Jensen, Anna-Rosa Cecilie; Bisgaard, Hans

    2017-04-01

    To study the association between antibiotic intake in pregnancy and the development of otitis media and placement of ventilation tubes (VTs) in the offspring under the hypothesis that antibiotics in pregnancy may alter the offspring's propensity for disease. Data from the 700 children in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010 unselected birth cohort study were used. Information on maternal antibiotic use and other exposures during pregnancy was collected prospectively from interviews and validated in national registries. Otitis media episodes were registered in a prospective diary for 3 years. Information regarding children's VTs was obtained from national registries. There were 514 children who had diary information and were included in the analysis regarding otitis media episodes. For VTs analysis, 699 children were included. Thirty-seven percent of the mothers received antibiotics during pregnancy, and this was associated with increased risk of otitis media (adjusted hazard ratio 1.30; 95% CI 1.04-1.63; P = .02). The risk of receiving VTs was especially associated with third trimester antibiotics (adjusted hazard ratio 1.60; 95% CI 1.08-2.36, P = .02). The risk of otitis media increased with increasing number of treatments (per-level adjusted hazard ratio 1.20; 95% CI 1.04-1.40; P = .02), but for VTs this association was not significant after adjustment. Maternal use of antibiotics during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of otitis media and VT insertions in the offspring. Antibiotics late in pregnancy mainly contributed to these effects, pointing toward potential transmission of an unfavorable microbiome from mother to child. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Does oral contraceptive pill increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear?

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Binesh; Ali Akhavan; Azar Pirdehghan; Mahnoosh Davoodi

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is noted that oral contraceptive pills increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear but results have been inconsistent across the populations. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the association between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) consumption and abnormal Pap smear in women who referred to Shahid Sadoughi and Madar hospitals in Yazd. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database of all Pap smear reports from 2009-2011 at Cytopa...

  16. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O.; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectorie...

  17. Does antiperspirant use increase the risk of aluminium-related disease, including Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, C

    1998-03-01

    Aluminium salts are the major constituent of many widely used antiperspirant products. The use of such antiperspirants has been linked with the systemic accumulation of aluminium and an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. But can the frequent use of aluminium-based antiperspirants lead to the accumulation of toxic levels of aluminium? And are there measures that we can take to reduce such accumulation without reducing the effectiveness of antiperspirants?

  18. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lien, Li-Ming [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Wen-Ting [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hung-Pin [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Hung-Yi, E-mail: hychiou@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  19. Serotonergic modulation of face-emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Ben, C M; Ferreira, C A Q; Alves-Neto, W C; Graeff, F G

    2008-04-01

    Facial expressions of basic emotions have been widely used to investigate the neural substrates of emotion processing, but little is known about the exact meaning of subjective changes provoked by perceiving facial expressions. Our assumption was that fearful faces would be related to the processing of potential threats, whereas angry faces would be related to the processing of proximal threats. Experimental studies have suggested that serotonin modulates the brain processes underlying defensive responses to environmental threats, facilitating risk assessment behavior elicited by potential threats and inhibiting fight or flight responses to proximal threats. In order to test these predictions about the relationship between fearful and angry faces and defensive behaviors, we carried out a review of the literature about the effects of pharmacological probes that affect 5-HT-mediated neurotransmission on the perception of emotional faces. The hypothesis that angry faces would be processed as a proximal threat and that, as a consequence, their recognition would be impaired by an increase in 5-HT function was not supported by the results reviewed. In contrast, most of the studies that evaluated the behavioral effects of serotonin challenges showed that increased 5-HT neurotransmission facilitates the recognition of fearful faces, whereas its decrease impairs the same performance. These results agree with the hypothesis that fearful faces are processed as potential threats and that 5-HT enhances this brain processing.

  20. Serotonergic modulation of face-emotion recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Del-Ben

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions of basic emotions have been widely used to investigate the neural substrates of emotion processing, but little is known about the exact meaning of subjective changes provoked by perceiving facial expressions. Our assumption was that fearful faces would be related to the processing of potential threats, whereas angry faces would be related to the processing of proximal threats. Experimental studies have suggested that serotonin modulates the brain processes underlying defensive responses to environmental threats, facilitating risk assessment behavior elicited by potential threats and inhibiting fight or flight responses to proximal threats. In order to test these predictions about the relationship between fearful and angry faces and defensive behaviors, we carried out a review of the literature about the effects of pharmacological probes that affect 5-HT-mediated neurotransmission on the perception of emotional faces. The hypothesis that angry faces would be processed as a proximal threat and that, as a consequence, their recognition would be impaired by an increase in 5-HT function was not supported by the results reviewed. In contrast, most of the studies that evaluated the behavioral effects of serotonin challenges showed that increased 5-HT neurotransmission facilitates the recognition of fearful faces, whereas its decrease impairs the same performance. These results agree with the hypothesis that fearful faces are processed as potential threats and that 5-HT enhances this brain processing.

  1. Osteoporosis health beliefs of women with increased risk of the female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu H; Wang, Ze; Okamura, Stephanie M

    2014-01-01

    Women with increased risk of the female athlete triad (Triad) are more susceptible to osteoporosis compared to other women. The study included 65 women with increased risk of the Triad who had their osteoporosis health beliefs measured to assess their concern for the disease. Participants were female collegiate cross-country runners at different levels of competition, including National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Divisions III, II, and I. Although these participants have an increased risk of the Triad and are more susceptible to osteoporosis, on a scale of 1 to 5, results showed that they had low to moderate perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis with a mean score as high as 2.81 and moderate perceived severity of osteoporosis with a mean score as high as 3.38. A statistically significant difference in perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis was found between female collegiate cross-country runners in the NAIA and those in the NCAA DIII. Reasons that could explain relatively low levels of concern for osteoporosis in female collegiate cross-country runners and reasons for significant differences in perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis are given, and recommendations for health education and intervention to help care for this population are provided.

  2. Osteoporosis Health Beliefs of Women with Increased Risk of the Female Athlete Triad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu H. Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women with increased risk of the female athlete triad (Triad are more susceptible to osteoporosis compared to other women. The study included 65 women with increased risk of the Triad who had their osteoporosis health beliefs measured to assess their concern for the disease. Participants were female collegiate cross-country runners at different levels of competition, including National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA Divisions III, II, and I. Although these participants have an increased risk of the Triad and are more susceptible to osteoporosis, on a scale of 1 to 5, results showed that they had low to moderate perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis with a mean score as high as 2.81 and moderate perceived severity of osteoporosis with a mean score as high as 3.38. A statistically significant difference in perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis was found between female collegiate cross-country runners in the NAIA and those in the NCAA DIII. Reasons that could explain relatively low levels of concern for osteoporosis in female collegiate cross-country runners and reasons for significant differences in perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis are given, and recommendations for health education and intervention to help care for this population are provided.

  3. Metabolic Syndrome Increases the Risk for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huajun; Cheng, Yanmei; Shao, Decheng; Chen, Junyuan; Sang, Yuan; Gui, Tao; Luo, Simin; Li, Jieruo; Chen, Chao; Ye, Yongguang; Yang, Yong; Li, Yikai

    2016-01-01

    Background. Studies revealed that metabolic factors might contribute substantially to osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. There has been an increasing interest to understand the relationship between knee OA and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of this study was to explore the association between metabolic syndrome and knee osteoarthritis using meta-analysis. Methods. Databases, including PUBMED, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, were searched to get relevant studies. Data were extracted separately by two authors and pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Results. The meta-analysis was finished with 8 studies with a total of 3202 cases and 20968 controls finally retrieved from the database search. The crude pooled OR is 2.24 (95% CI = 1.38–3.64). Although there was significant heterogeneity among these studies, which was largely accounted for by a single study, the increase in risk was still significant after exclusion of that study. The pooled adjusted OR remained significant with pooled adjusted OR 1.05 (95% CI = 1.03–1.07, p < 0.00001). No publication bias was found in the present meta-analysis. Conclusions. The synthesis of available evidence supports that metabolic syndrome increases the risk for knee osteoarthritis, even after adjustment for many risk factors.

  4. Preresection Obesity Increases the Risk of Hepatobiliary Complications in Short Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan N. Langnas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients developing the short bowel syndrome (SBS are at risk for hepatobiliary disease, as are morbidly obese individuals. We hypothesized that morbidly obese SBS individuals would be at increased risk for developing hepatobiliary complications. We reviewed 79 patients with SBS, 53 patients with initial body mass index (BMI < 35 were controls. Twenty-six patients with initial BMI > 35 were the obese group. Obese patients were more likely to be weaned off parenteral nutrition (PN (58% vs. 21%. Pre-resection BMI was significantly lower in controls (26 vs. 41. BMI at 1, 2, and 5 years was decreased in controls but persistently increased in obese patients. Obese patients were more likely to undergo cholecystectomy prior to SBS (42% vs. 32% and after SBS (80% vs. 39%, p < 0.05. Fatty liver was more frequent in the obese group prior to SBS (23% vs. 0%, p < 0.05 but was similar to controls after SBS (23% vs. 15%. Fibrosis (8% vs. 13% and cirrhosis/portal hypertension (19% vs. 21% were similar in obese and control groups. Overall, end stage liver disease (ESLD was similar in obese and control groups (19% vs. 11% but was significantly higher in obese patients receiving PN (45% vs. 14%, p < 0.05. Obese patients developing SBS are at increased risk of developing hepatobiliary complications. ESLD was similar in the two groups overall but occurs more frequently in obese patients maintained on chronic PN.

  5. Artificial Cold Air Increases the Cardiovascular Risks in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojian Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to investigate the effects of artificial cold air on cardiovascular risk in hypertensive subjects. An artificial cold air was simulated with hourly ambient temperature data of a real moderate cold air in China. Twenty-four male SHR rats were randomly divided into the minimum temperature (Tmin group, the rewarming temperature (Tr group and two concurrent control groups with six rats in each (Tmin and Tr represent two cold air time points, respectively. Tmin and Tr groups were exposed to the cold air that was stopped at Tmin and Tr, respectively. After cold air exposure, blood pressure, heart rate and body weight were monitored, blood was collected for the detection of some indexes like fibrinogen, total cholesterol and uric acid. Results demonstrated that blood pressure, whole blood viscosity, blood fibrinogen, total cholesterol and uric acid increased significantly both in the Tmin and Tr groups; low density lipoprotein/high density lipoprotein increased significantly only in Tr group; there was higher level of blood fibrinogen in the Tr group than the Tmin group; higher levels of creatine kinase-MB was found in both the Tmin and Tr groups. These results suggest that cold air may increase the cardiovascular risks in hypertensive subjects indirectly through its effects on the sympathetic nervous system and renin angiotensin system, blood pressure and atherosclerosis risk factors like blood viscosity and fibrinogen, lipids and uric acid in the blood.

  6. Rare variant in scavenger receptor BI raises HDL cholesterol and increases risk of coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Paolo; Khetarpal, Sumeet A.; Larach, Daniel B.; Hancock-Cerutti, William F.; Millar, John S.; Cuchel, Marina; DerOhannessian, Stephanie; Kontush, Anatol; Surendran, Praveen; Saleheen, Danish; Trompet, Stella; Jukema, J. Wouter; De Craen, Anton; Deloukas, Panos; Sattar, Naveed; Ford, Ian; Packard, Chris; Majumder, Abdullah al Shafi; Alam, Dewan S.; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Abecasis, Goncalo; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Erdmann, Jeanette; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Schmidt, Ruth Frikke; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Liu, Dajiang J.; Perola, Markus; Blankenberg, Stefan; Salomaa, Veikko; Männistö, Satu; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Ferrieres, Jean; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Ferrario, Marco; Kee, Frank; Willer, Cristen J.; Samani, Nilesh; Schunkert, Heribert; Butterworth, Adam S.; Howson, Joanna M. M.; Peloso, Gina M.; Stitziel, Nathan O.; Danesh, John; Kathiresan, Sekar; Rader, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C). In humans, high amounts of HDL-C in plasma are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Mice that have depleted Scarb1 (SR-BI knockout mice) have markedly elevated HDL-C levels but, paradoxically, increased atherosclerosis. The impact of SR-BI on HDL metabolism and CHD risk in humans remains unclear. Through targeted sequencing of coding regions of lipid-modifying genes in 328 individuals with extremely high plasma HDL-C levels, we identified a homozygote for a loss-of-function variant, in which leucine replaces proline 376 (P376L), in SCARB1, the gene encoding SR-BI. The P376L variant impairs posttranslational processing of SR-BI and abrogates selective HDL cholesterol uptake in transfected cells, in hepatocyte-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from the homozygous subject, and in mice. Large population-based studies revealed that subjects who are heterozygous carriers of the P376L variant have significantly increased levels of plasma HDL-C. P376L carriers have a profound HDL-related phenotype and an increased risk of CHD (odds ratio = 1.79, which is statistically significant). PMID:26965621

  7. Increased plasma N-glycome complexity is associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Toma; Gornik, Ivan; Vučković, Frano; Selak, Najda; Pavić, Tamara; Lukić, Edita; Gudelj, Ivan; Gašparović, Hrvoje; Biočina, Bojan; Tilin, Therese; Wennerström, Annika; Männistö, Satu; Salomaa, Veikko; Havulinna, Aki; Wang, Wei; Wilson, James F; Charutvedi, Nishi; Perola, Markus; Campbell, Harry; Lauc, Gordan; Gornik, Olga

    2017-09-13

    Better understanding of type 2 diabetes and its prevention is a pressing need. Changes in human plasma N-glycome are associated with many diseases and represent promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Variations in glucose metabolism directly affect glycosylation through the hexosamine pathway but studies of plasma glycome in type 2 diabetes are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether plasma protein N-glycome is changed in individuals who are at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Using a chromatographic approach, we analysed N-linked glycans from plasma proteins in two populations comprising individuals with registered hyperglycaemia during critical illness (increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes) and individuals who stayed normoglycaemic during the same condition: AcuteInflammation (59 cases vs 49 controls) and AcuteInflammation Replication (52 cases vs 14 controls) populations. N-glycome was also studied in individuals from FinRisk (37 incident cases of type 2 diabetes collected at baseline vs 37 controls), Orkney Complex Disease Study (ORCADES; 94 individuals with HbA1c > 6.5% [47.5 mmol/mol] vs 658 controls) and Southall and Brent Revisited (SABRE) cohort studies (307 individuals with HbA1c > 6.5% [47.5 mmol/mol] vs 307 controls). Individuals with increased risk for diabetes type 2 development (AcuteInflammation and AcuteInflammation Replication populations), incident cases of type 2 diabetes collected at baseline (FinRisk population) and individuals with elevated HbA1c (ORCADES and SABRE populations) all presented with increased branching, galactosylation and sialylation of plasma protein N-glycans and these changes were of similar magnitude. Increased complexity of plasma N-glycan structures is associated with higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and poorer regulation of blood glucose levels. Although further research is needed, this finding could offer a potential new approach for improvement in prevention

  8. Hormonal contraceptives and venous thromboembolism: Are inflammatory bowel disease patients at increased risk? A retrospective study on a prospective database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Pellino

    2015-12-01

    Our data show that patients with IBD in remission are not at higher risk of VTE due to oral oestrogen-containing contraceptives compared with non-IBD controls. Smokers are at increased risk, irrespective of the baseline disease.

  9. Does urticaria risk increase in patients with celiac disease? A large population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.; Lindelöf, Bernt; Rashtak, Shadi; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Murray, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Case reports and smaller case-control studies suggest an association between celiac disease (CD) and urticaria, but risk estimates have varied considerably across studies and as yet there are no studies on CD and the risk of future urticaria. Objective To examine the association between CD and urticaria. Methods We identified 28,900 patients with biopsy-verified CD (equal to Marsh stage 3) and compared them with 143,397 age- and sex-matched controls with regards to the risk of urticaria and chronic urticaria (duration ≥6 weeks). Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox regression model. Results During follow-up, 453 patients with CD and no previous diagnosis of urticaria developed urticaria (expected n=300) and 79 of these 453 had chronic urticaria (expected n=41). The corresponding HRs were 1.51 for any urticaria (95%CI=1.36–1.68) and 1.92 for chronic urticaria (95%CI=1.48–2.48). The absolute risk for urticaria in CD was 140/100,000 person-years (excess risk=47/100,000 person-years). Corresponding figures for chronic urticaria were 24/100,00 person-years and 12/100,000 person-years. Patients with CD were also at increased risk of having both urticaria (odds ratio, OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.12–1.52) and chronic urticaria (OR=1.54; 95%CI=1.08–2.18) prior to the CD diagnosis. Conclusion This study suggests that CD is associated with urticaria, especially chronic urticaria. PMID:24135663

  10. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search ...

  11. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? ... Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos Learn More PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What ...

  12. Low Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Increased Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hoon Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLow levels of physical activity (PA are strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and chronic diseases. However, few studies have examined this association in Koreans. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the associations between PA and MetS risks in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 1,016 Korean adults (494 males and 522 females participated in this study. PA levels were assessed using the International PA Questionnaire. MetS risk factors were determined using clinically established diagnostic criteria.ResultsCompared with the highest PA group, the group with the lowest level of PA was at greater risk of high triglyceride (TG in males (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 3.24 and of hemoglobin A1c ≥5.5% in females (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.00 to 3.04 after adjusting for age and body mass index. Compared with subjects who met the PA guidelines, those who did not meet the guidelines were more likely to have low high density lipoprotein cholesterol in both males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.58, and females (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.77. Furthermore, those who did not meet the PA guidelines were at increased risk of high TG levels in males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.86 and abnormal fasting glucose (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.20 and MetS (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.84 in females.ConclusionIncreased levels of PA are significantly associated with a decreased risk of abnormal MetS components.

  13. Overweight increases risk of first trimester hypothyroxinaemia in iodine-deficient pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Hypothyroxinaemia early in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development. Increased body weight has been associated with low thyroxine concentrations in non-pregnant women. In pregnant women, morbid maternal obesity is a risk factor for thyroid dysfunction. But whether lesser degrees of overweight that are much more common could be a risk factor for hypothyroxinaemia in pregnancy is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate if overweight increases risk for thyroid dysfunction, and specifically hypothyroxinaemia, in iodine-deficient pregnant women. We performed a cross-sectional study at first hospital visit among healthy Thai pregnant women. We measured weight and height, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), serum thyroid hormones and thyroglobulin. Pre-pregnancy weight and relevant dietary factors were determined by questionnaire, and body mass index (BMI) was used to classify weight status. Among 514 women (mean gestational age, 11 weeks) with a median UIC of 111 μg dL(-1) , indicating mild iodine deficiency, 12% had low free thyroxine (fT4) concentrations: 3% had overt hypothyroidism; 7% had subclinical hypothyroidism; and 8% had isolated hypothyroxinaemia. Based on pre-pregnancy BMI, 26% of women were overweight or obese. In a multiple regression model, BMI was a negative predictor of fT4 (β = -0.20, P Iodine-deficient pregnant Thai women who are overweight have a 3.6-fold higher risk of hypothyroxinaemia in the first trimester compared to normal weight women. Targeted screening should consider overweight a potential risk factor for thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women in iodine-deficient areas. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Lifetime ATS use and increased HIV risk among not-in-treatment opiate injectors in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawarski, Marek C.; Vicknasingam, Balasingam; Mazlan, Mahmud; Schottenfeld, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaysia has been experiencing significant drug abuse problems since the 1970s, and drug abuse is the major driver of HIV transmission in Malaysia. We investigated risk factors for HIV associated with use of amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) among not-in-treatment opiate injectors in Malaysia. Methods Between October of 2006 and May of 2008, we conducted a series of surveys in three major urban areas of Malaysia. A total of 732 opiate IDUs (679 males and 53 females) were enrolled in the three surveys. The survey instruments consisted of a structured interview on demographic characteristics, drug use history (including year of first use, and past month history of use of illicit drugs; lifetime and past month history of IDU or needle or equipment sharing), and HIV status. Results There were 194/704 (27.6%) HIV positive participants in the sample. Two factors were significantly associated with HIV infection in this sample: lifetime history of ATS use (OR [95%CI]: 2.3 [1.5–3.6]) and lifetime history of sharing of injection equipment (OR [95% CI]: 4.2 [1.8–9.8]). Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants reported high levels of current needle/equipment sharing practices: 82% vs. 75%, respectively. Conclusions ATS use spread rapidly in the study sample after 1997 and is associated with an increased risk of HIV infection in this population already at high risk because of opiate IDU. Out-of-treatment IDUs in Malaysia engage in high risk behaviors regardless of their HIV status. Increased education and public health prevention measures are needed to reduce HIV transmission risks in this population. PMID:22266088

  15. Does cytochrome P450 liver isoenzyme induction increase the risk of liver toxicity after paracetamol overdose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsi SS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarbjeet S Kalsi1,2, David M Wood2–4, W Stephen Waring5, Paul I Dargan2–4 1Emergency Department, 2Clinical Toxicology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London; 3King's Health Partners, 4King's College London, London; 5York Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, York, UK Abstract: Paracetamol (acetaminophen, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, 4-hydroxyacetanilide is the most common cause of acute liver failure in developed countries. There are a number of factors which potentially impact on the risk of an individual developing hepatotoxicity following an acute paracetamol overdose. These include the dose of paracetamol ingested, time to presentation, decreased liver glutathione, and induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP isoenzymes responsible for the metabolism of paracetamol to its toxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine (NAPQI. In this paper, we review the currently published literature to determine whether induction of relevant CYP isoenzymes is a risk factor for hepatotoxicity in patients with acute paracetamol overdose. Animal and human in vitro studies have shown that the CYP isoenzyme responsible for the majority of human biotransformation of paracetamol to NAPQI is CYP2E1 at both therapeutic and toxic doses of paracetamol. Current UK treatment guidelines suggest that patients who use a number of drugs therapeutically should be treated as “high-risk” after paracetamol overdose. However, based on our review of the available literature, it appears that the only drugs for which there is evidence of the potential for an increased risk of hepatotoxicity associated with paracetamol overdose are phenobarbital, primidone, isoniazid, and perhaps St John's wort. There is no evidence that other drugs often quoted as increasing risk, such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, primidone, rifampicin, rifabutin, efavirenz, or nevirapine, should be considered risk factors for hepatotoxicity in patients presenting with acute paracetamol overdose. Keywords

  16. A genetic risk score of 45 coronary artery disease risk variants associates with increased risk of myocardial infarction in 6041 Danish individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, N T; Borglykke, A; Allin, K H;

    2015-01-01

    discrimination improvement (IDI) added to the European SCORE for 10-year MI risk prediction. RESULTS: The GRS associated significantly with risk of incident MI (allele-dependent hazard ratio (95%CI): 1.06 (1.02-1.11), p = 0.01) but not with CAD (p = 0.39). Stratification revealed association of GRS with MI...... in men (1.06 (1.01-1.12), p = 0.02) and in individuals above the median of 45.11 years of age (1.06 (1.00-1.12), p = 0.03). There was no interaction between GRS and gender (p = 0.90) or age (p = 0.83). The GRS improved neither NRI nor IDI. CONCLUSION: The GRS of 45 GWAS identified risk variants increase...

  17. Is it possible to increase bioavailability but not environmental risk of PAHs in bioremediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Calvo, J J; Tejeda-Agredano, M C; Jimenez-Sanchez, C; Congiu, E; Sungthong, R; Niqui-Arroyo, J L; Cantos, M

    2013-10-15

    The current poor predictability of end points associated with the bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a large limitation when evaluating its viability for treating contaminated soils and sediments. However, we have seen a wide range of innovations in recent years, such as an the improved use of surfactants, the chemotactic mobilization of bacterial inoculants, the selective biostimulation at pollutant interfaces, rhizoremediation and electrobioremediation, which increase the bioavailability of PAHs but do not necessarily increase the risk to the environment. The integration of these strategies into practical remediation protocols would be beneficial to the bioremediation industry, as well as improve the quality of the environment.

  18. Biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy in intermediate-risk group men increases with the number of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuki Furubayashi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The number of intermediate risk factors is significantly associated with the PSA failure-free survival rate after radical prostatectomy in the intermediate-risk group. Patients classified into the intermediate-risk group based on all three intermediate risk factors are less likely to achieve a complete cure through surgery alone.

  19. Face Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Last November, surgeons in France successfully performed the world's first face transplant surgery. Ten days later, Chen Huanran in Beijing began soliciting patients who were ready to accept a face transplant, searching for China's first such patient through an advertisement on his website and other channels. Chen, chief orthopedic surgeon at the Plastic Surgery Hospital under the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, has conducted more than 300 transsexual operations and was considered one of the top com...

  20. Prolonged Operative Duration Increases Risk of Surgical Site Infections: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hang; Chen, Brian Po-Han; Soleas, Ireena M; Ferko, Nicole C; Cameron, Chris G; Hinoul, Piet

    The incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) across surgical procedures, specialties, and conditions is reported to vary from 0.1% to 50%. Operative duration is often cited as an independent and potentially modifiable risk factor for SSI. The objective of this systematic review was to provide an in-depth understanding of the relation between operating time and SSI. This review included 81 prospective and retrospective studies. Along with study design, likelihood of SSI, mean operative times, time thresholds, effect measures, confidence intervals, and p values were extracted. Three meta-analyses were conducted, whereby odds ratios were pooled by hourly operative time thresholds, increments of increasing operative time, and surgical specialty. Pooled analyses demonstrated that the association between extended operative time and SSI typically remained statistically significant, with close to twice the likelihood of SSI observed across various time thresholds. The likelihood of SSI increased with increasing time increments; for example, a 13%, 17%, and 37% increased likelihood for every 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min of surgery, respectively. On average, across various procedures, the mean operative time was approximately 30 min longer in patients with SSIs compared with those patients without. Prolonged operative time can increase the risk of SSI. Given the importance of SSIs on patient outcomes and health care economics, hospitals should focus efforts to reduce operative time.

  1. Simplifying consent for HIV testing is associated with an increase in HIV testing and case detection in highest risk groups, San Francisco January 2003-June 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola M Zetola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Populations at highest risk for HIV infection face multiple barriers to HIV testing. To facilitate HIV testing procedures, the San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center eliminated required written patient consent for HIV testing in its medical settings in May 2006. To describe the change in HIV testing rates in different hospital settings and populations after the change in HIV testing policy in the SFDH medical center, we performed an observational study using interrupted time series analysis. METHODS: Data from all patients aged 18 years and older seen from January 2003 through June 2007 at the San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH medical care system were included in the analysis. The monthly HIV testing rate per 1000 had patient-visits was calculated for the overall population and stratified by hospital setting, age, sex, race/ethnicity, homelessness status, insurance status and primary language. RESULTS: By June 2007, the average monthly rate of HIV tests per 1000 patient-visits increased 4.38 (CI, 2.17-6.60, p<0.001 over the number predicted if the policy change had not occurred (representing a 44% increase. The monthly average number of new positive HIV tests increased from 8.9 (CI, 6.3-11.5 to 14.9 (CI, 10.6-19.2, p<0.001, representing a 67% increase. Although increases in HIV testing were seen in all populations, populations at highest risk for HIV infection, particularly men, the homeless, and the uninsured experienced the highest increases in monthly HIV testing rates after the policy change. CONCLUSIONS: The elimination of the requirement for written consent in May 2006 was associated with a significant and sustained increase in HIV testing rates and HIV case detection in the SFDPH medical center. Populations facing the higher barriers to HIV testing had the highest increases in HIV testing rates and case detection in response to the policy change.

  2. [Increased risk of stillbirth in older mothers--a rationale for induction of labour before term?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, W; Wolff, F

    2014-10-01

    The average age of childbearing has risen markedly in Germany and other high-income countries during the past 2 decades. Women aged 35 years or older have an increase in pregnancy complications and in preexisting medical conditions including obesity, diabetes and hypertension as well as a significant increase in the gestational age-related rate of stillbirth compared to younger mothers. Additional individual risk factors for stillbirth are primiparity, body mass index>30 and smoking. After exclusion of risk factors the absolute risk of stillbirth in women aged≥40 years old is 2-fold higher (1 in 503 maternities) at 39/40 weeks of gestation compared to women agedinduction of labour at 39 weeks of gestation should be recommended in women of advanced maternal age has recently been discussed in a Scientific Impact Paper of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. In this context it should be taken into account that the rate of Caesarean sections in women aged 40 years or over is 40%, and, in particular, older nulliparous may request elective Caesaran section rather than elective induction of labour. Recent metaanalyses have shown that elective induction of labour before or after term is not associated with an increase of the Caesarean section rate compared to expectant management. Up to now no randomised controlled trials exist and consequently no -recommendations from current guidelines regarding induction of labour in women of advanced maternal age can be given. In any case, a careful consultation and an individual risk-benefit analysis regarding the obstetric management is mandatory, and the final decision should be made in agreement between the pregnant women and the obstetrician. Currently a randomised controlled trial in the U.K. comparing induction of labour at 39 weeks of gestation with expectant management in nulliparous women aged over 35 years is recruiting, with the aim to determine intrapartum complications and perinatal morbidity and

  3. Estrogen withdrawal, increased breast cancer risk and the KRAS-variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Terri P; Jung, Song-Yi; Kerin, Michael J; Salzman, David W; Nallur, Sunitha; Nemec, Antonio A; Dookwah, Michelle; Sadofsky, Jackie; Paranjape, Trupti; Kelly, Olivia; Chan, Elcie; Miller, Nicola; Sweeney, Karl J; Zelterman, Daniel; Sweasy, Joann; Pilarski, Robert; Telesca, Donatello; Slack, Frank J; Weidhaas, Joanne B

    2015-01-01

    The KRAS-variant is a biologically functional, microRNA binding site variant, which predicts increased cancer risk especially for women. Because external exposures, such as chemotherapy, differentially impact the effect of this mutation, we evaluated the association of estrogen exposures, breast cancer (BC) risk and tumor biology in women with the KRAS-variant. Women with BC (n = 1712), the subset with the KRAS-variant (n = 286) and KRAS-variant unaffected controls (n = 80) were evaluated, and hormonal exposures, KRAS-variant status, and pathology were compared. The impact of estrogen withdrawal on transformation of isogenic normal breast cell lines with or without the KRAS-variant was studied. Finally, the association and presentation characteristics of the KRAS-variant and multiple primary breast cancer (MPBC) were evaluated. KRAS-variant BC patients were more likely to have ovarian removal pre-BC diagnosis than non-variant BC patients (p = 0.033). In addition, KRAS-variant BC patients also appeared to have a lower estrogen state than KRAS-variant unaffected controls, with a lower BMI (P < 0.001). Finally, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) discontinuation in KRAS-variant patients was associated with a diagnosis of triple negative BC (P < 0.001). Biologically confirming our clinical findings, acute estrogen withdrawal led to oncogenic transformation in KRAS-variant positive isogenic cell lines. Finally, KRAS-variant BC patients had greater than an 11-fold increased risk of presenting with MPBC compared to non-variant patients (45.39% vs 6.78%, OR 11.44 [3.42–37.87], P < 0.001). Thus, estrogen withdrawal and a low estrogen state appear to increase BC risk and to predict aggressive tumor biology in women with the KRAS-variant, who are also significantly more likely to present with multiple primary breast cancer. PMID:25961464

  4. Does exposure to agricultural chemicals increase the risk of prostate cancer among farmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Marie-Elise; Désy, Marie; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Several studies suggest that farmers may be at increased risk of prostate cancer. The present analysis, based on a large population-based case-control study conducted among men in the Montreal area in the early 1980's, aim at identifying occupational chemicals which may be responsible for such increases. The original study enrolled 449 prostate cancer cases, nearly 4,000 patients with other cancers, as well as 533 population controls. Subjects were interviewed about their occupation histories, and a team of industrial hygienists assigned their past exposures using a checklist of some 300 chemicals. The present analysis was restricted to a study base of men who had worked as farmers earlier in their lives. There were a total of 49 men with prostate cancers, 127 with other cancers and 56 population controls. We created a pool of 183 controls combining the patients with cancers at sites other than the prostate and the population controls. We then estimated the odds ratio for prostate cancer associated with exposure to each of 10 agricultural chemicals, i.e., pesticides, arsenic compounds, acetic acid, gasoline engine emissions, diesel engine emissions, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum, lubricating oils and greases, alkanes with >or=18 carbons, solvents, and mononuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Based on a model adjusting for age, ethnicity, education, and respondent status, there was evidence of a two-fold excess risk of prostate cancer among farmers with substantial exposure to pesticides [odds ratio (OR)=2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-5.1], as compared to unexposed farmers. There was some suggestion, based on few subjects, of increased risks among farmers ever exposed to diesel engine emissions (OR=5.7, 95% CI 1.2-26.5). The results for pesticides are particularly noteworthy in the light of findings from previous studies. Suggestions of trends for elevated risks were noted with other agricultural chemicals, but these are largely novel and need

  5. Operative Risk for Major Lung Resection Increases at Extremes of Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Gulack, Brian C; Kim, Sunghee; Fernandez, Felix G; Ferguson, Mark K

    2017-01-01

    Although body mass index (BMI) has been used in risk stratification for lung resection, many models only take obesity into account. Recent studies have demonstrated that underweight patients also experience increased postoperative complications. We explored the relationship of extremes of BMI to outcomes after lung resection for non-small cell cancer. Patients in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons General Thoracic Surgery Database (2009 to 2014) undergoing elective lung resection for cancer were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders including functional status and spirometry. We evaluated 41,446 patients (median 68 years of age; 53% female) grouped by BMI: underweight (obese I (30 to 34.9 kg/m(2); 18.1%), obese II (35 to 39.9 kg/m(2); 6.4%), and obese III (≥40 kg/m(2); 3.6%). Pulmonary complication rates were higher in underweight and obese III patients compared to normal BMI patients (p Obese III patients had an increased risk of any major postoperative complication (adjusted OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.36). Overweight and obese class I to II patients had a lower risk of pulmonary complications and any postoperative event. BMI is associated with postoperative complications after lung resection for cancer. Being underweight or severely overweight is associated with an increased risk of complications, whereas being overweight or moderately obese appears to have a protective effect. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased risk of community-acquired pneumonia in COPD patients with comorbid cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sheng-Hao; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Chen, Ching-Pei; Chai, Woei-Horng; Yeh, Chin-Shui; Kor, Chew-Teng; Cheng, Shih-Lung; Chen, Jeremy JW; Lin, Ching-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective COPD patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) have worse clinical outcomes, as compared to those without COPD. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common comorbidity for COPD patients. Whether COPD with comorbid CVD will increase the risk of CAP is not well investigated. The incidence and factors associated with CAP in COPD patients with and without CVD were analyzed. Methods The medical records of patients with newly diagnosed COPD between 2007 and 2010 were reviewed. The patients’ characteristics, medical history of CVD, occurrence of CAP, and type of medication were recorded. Kaplan–Meier curves were used to assess the differences in cumulative incidence of CAP. Cox’s proportional hazards regression model was used to determine the adjusted hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals in relation to factors associated with CAP in COPD patients with and without CVD. Results Among 2,440 patients, 475 patients (19.5%) developed CAP during the follow-up period. COPD patients who developed CAP were significantly older, had lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second, frequent severe exacerbation and comorbid CVD, as well as received inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)-containing therapy than those without CAP. The cumulative incidence of CAP was higher in COPD patients with CVD compared to those without CVD. Patients who received ICS-containing therapy had significantly increased risk of developing CAP compared to those who did not. Conclusion For patients with COPD, comorbid CVD is an independent risk factor for developing CAP. ICS-containing therapy may increase the risk of CAP among COPD patients. PMID:27980402

  7. Critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis are at increased risk for extensive gallbladder inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Marios; Ambe, Peter C; Zirngibl, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a common diagnosis and surgery is the standard of care for young and fit patients. However, due to high risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality, surgical management of critically ill patients remains a controversy. It is not clear, whether the increased risk of perioperative complications associated with the management of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis is secondary to reduced physiologic reserve per se or to the severity of gallbladder inflammation. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis in a university hospital over a three-year-period was performed. The ASA scores at the time of presentation were used to categorize patients into two groups. The study group consisted of critically ill patients with ASA 3 and 4, while the control group was made up of fit patients with ASA 1 and 2. Both groups were compared with regard to perioperative data, postoperative outcome and extent of gallbladder inflammation on histopathology. Two hundred and seventeen cases of acute cholecystitis with complete charts were available for analysis. The study group included 67 critically ill patients with ASA 3 and 4, while the control group included 150 fit patients with ASA 1 and 2. Both groups were comparable with regard to perioperative data. Histopathology confirmed severe cholecystitis in a significant number of cases in the study group compared to the control group (37 % vs. 18 %, p = 0.03). Significantly higher rates of morbidity and mortality were recorded in the study group (p < 0.05). Equally, significantly more patients from the study group were managed in the ICU (40 % vs. 8 %, p = 0.001). Critically ill patients presenting with acute cholecystitis are at increased risk for extensive gallbladder inflammation. The increased risk of morbidity and mortality seen in such patients might partly be secondary to severe acute

  8. Increased risk of cancer in radon-exposed miners with elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerhovsky, Zdenek; Landa, Karel; Rössner, Pavel; Juzova, Dagmar; Brabec, Marek; Zudova, Zdena; Hola, Nora; Zarska, Hana; Nevsimalova, Emilie

    2002-02-15

    In spite of the extensive use of cytogenetic analysis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in the biomonitoring of exposure to various mutagens and carcinogens, the long-term effects of an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in individuals are still uncertain. Few epidemiologic studies have addressed this issue, and a moderate risk of cancer in individuals with an elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations has been observed. In the present study, we analyzed data on 1323 cytogenetic assays and 225 subjects examined because of occupational exposures to radon (range of exposure from 1.7 to 662.3 working level month (WLM)). Seventy-five subjects were non-smokers. We found 36 cases of cancer in this cohort. Chromatid breaks were the most frequently observed type of aberrations (mean frequency 1.2 per 100 cells), which statistically significantly correlated with radon exposure (Spearman's correlation coefficient R=0.22, P<0.001). Also, the frequency of aberrant cells (median of 2.5%) correlated with radon exposure (Spearman's correlation coefficient R=0.16, P<0.02). Smoking and silicosis were not associated with results of cytogenetic analyses. The Cox regression models, which accounted for the age at time of first cytogenetic assay, radon exposure, and smoking showed strong and statistically significant associations between cancer incidence and frequency of chromatid breaks and frequency of aberrant cells, respectively. A 1% increase in the frequency of aberrant cells was paralleled by a 62% increase in risk of cancer (P<0.000). An increase in frequency of chromatid breaks by 1 per 100 cells was followed by a 99% increase in risk of cancer (P<0.000). We obtained similar results when we analyzed the incidence of lung cancer and the incidence other than lung cancer separately. Contrary to frequency of chromatid breaks and frequency of aberrant cells, the frequency of chromatid exchanges, and chromosome-type aberrations were not predictive of cancer.

  9. Basic science and spine literature document bone morphogenetic protein increases cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E Epstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasingly, clinical articles document that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP/INFUSE: Medtronic, Memphis, TN, USA and its derivatives utilized in spinal surg