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Sample records for face ethical dilemmas

  1. Some ethical dilemmas faced by Jewish doctors during the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelouche, Tessa

    2005-12-01

    The discourse on physicians and ethics in the Nazi regime usually refers to the violation of medical ethics by Nazi doctors who as a guild and as individuals applied their professional knowledge, training and status in order to facilitate murder and medical "experimentation". In the introduction to this article I will give a brief outline of this vast subject. In the main article I wish to bear witness to the Jewish physicians in the ghettos and the camps who tried to the best of their ability to apply their professional training according to ethical principles in order to prolong life as best as they could, despite being forced to exist and work under the most appalling conditions. These prisoner doctors were faced with impossible existential, ethical and moral dilemmas that they had not encountered beforehand. This paper addresses some of these ethical quandaries that these prisoner doctors had to deal with in trying to help their patients despite the extreme situations they found themselves in. This is an overview of some of these ethical predicaments and does not delve into each one separately for lack of space, but rather gives the reader food for thought. Each dilemma discussed deserves an analysis of its own in the context of professionalism and medical ethics today.

  2. Ethical dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabro, Christian

    2015-01-01

    What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter.......What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter....

  3. Ethical dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabro, Christian

    2015-01-01

    What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter.......What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter....

  4. Analyzing Ethics in the Administration of Interscholastic Sports: Three Key Gender-Related Ethical Dilemmas Faced by Educational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen

    2010-01-01

    Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-related ethical dilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethical dilemmas involve (1)…

  5. Analyzing Ethics in the Administration of Interscholastic Sports: Three Key Gender-Related Ethical Dilemmas Faced by Educational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen

    2010-01-01

    Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-related ethical dilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethical dilemmas involve (1)…

  6. Faced with a dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    's legal right to choose TOP and considerations about the foetus' right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how physicians...... counsel women/couples after prenatal diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The midwives' practice in relation to late TOP was characterised by an acknowledgement of the growing ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late TOP. Other professions as well as structural...

  7. Institutions and Scholars Face Ethical Dilemmas over Pursuit of Research with Commercial Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1987-01-01

    Increased university efforts to help faculty members transfer the results of their research from the laboratory to the marketplace are posing ethical dilemmas for both institutions and scholars. Stanford's Office of Technology Licensing is cited, as are biotechnology developments, and secrecy and competitiveness issues. (LB)

  8. [Cancer screening: curative or harmful? An ethical dilemma facing the physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C; Weissbach, L

    2011-12-01

    Early detection based on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) presumably can reduce prostate cancer mortality. At the same time it is associated with a comparatively high rate of overdiagnosis involving tumors that would not have become apparent without screening since they would have remained asymptomatic during the patient's entire life. Current studies show that the probability of such an overdiagnosis is 12-48 times higher than one which would save a man's life. Thus, overdiagnosis poses an ethical dilemma for physicians: their actions (screening examination) can turn a healthy individual into a chronically ill person. This profoundly contradicts the principle of medical ethics to"do no harm." An open debate on whether early detection can be reconciled with doctors' ethical duties is hampered by the implications of liability law, faulty economic incentives, and the pressures of competition as well as the empirical practice of many physicians to overestimate the benefits of cancer screening.

  9. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne

    2006-01-01

    'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1...... to explore the program; for example, they can navigate the program using the 'Assist Me' option, which explains the basis of the ethical arguments. Reality text provides details of real events on which the case is based, and a glossary of terminology is available for the students to explore. Selected access...

  10. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne

    2006-01-01

    'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1......) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways...

  11. Facing Ethical Dilemmas in the Workplace: A Qualitative Study of HR Managers' Perceptions of the Influences on Their Behavior and the Implications for Building an Ethical Culture in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMontagne, Ramona Marie

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the perceptions of human resource managers who had faced ethical dilemmas in the workplace, to gain an understanding of how they felt their life experiences shaped their values in making ethical decisions. The experiences of ten human resource managers who believed they chose a right course of action when faced with…

  12. [Ethical dilemmas in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boléo-Tomé, J

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to speak of ethic dilemmas in a society that has relativism as the oficial philosophical and political doctrine, i.e., stable values and behavior references, are denied, both in health care and in any other area of human knowledge. In the field of medical sciences it is even pretended to pass from the observational methodology to a field of manipulation and manipulability. It is the very Ethic that is presented as a dilemma. In these conditions one needs to know the lines of thought that are defended, to replace and make disappear the stable ethic references: ecletism, historicism, scientificism, pragmatism, and nihilism itself, that lead to the 'new ethic paradigm', that has created by itself a pseudo-spirituality. The truth is we are adrift in the 'Ethic of Convenience' which changes according to the majorities. In this setting the way to go is to rediscover the abandoned ethic values: only with an objective ethic, with sound references and foundations, it is possible to re-establish and perfect the patient-physician relationship, for a better social health. And this begins with the ethic problem of human life.

  13. Ethical Dilemmas in Multicultural Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Maria; Fischer, Jerome M.; House, Sean G.

    2003-01-01

    In a random survey of counselors working with socioracial minority clients (N=256), multicultural ethical dilemmas were rated according to frequency encountered and significance. Comparisons of counselors' ratings of multicultural ethical dilemmas determined specific dilemmas relevant to counselors in various professional settings. (Contains 33…

  14. Ethical dilemmas in clerkship rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Michael F; Herb, Alice

    2013-11-01

    A sound clinical education should include the opportunity for medical students to engage in a spirited and informed discussion with faculty about the ethical challenges they will undoubtedly face. Unfortunately, in many medical schools today this goal is thwarted by many factors, including denial that a problem exists, relentless system overload, unprofessional behavior, breakdown in communication, and inertia. What is worse is that this problem is not new, and the fallout is not insignificant. Another potential contributing factor is burnout, which is well documented in a high percentage of medical students, residents, and faculty, and two of its most serious consequences are patient dissatisfaction and medical error.The authors draw on hundreds of student reflections on ethical dilemmas submitted during classroom exercises to examine persistent themes. They posit that classroom and didactic teaching is not enough to enable students to face ethical dilemmas. The authors call for a major culture change in medical education: "buy in" from top administration, especially the dean (and associate/assistant deans), chairs of all departments, and clerkship and residency training directors; the appointing of an ombudsperson and/or ethicist to oversee and resolve issues as they arise; instructional workshops and materials to enhance and impart skills for all teachers; remediation or retiring of errant faculty; and ongoing research and dialogue between and among medical centers about novel solutions.

  15. 77 FR 67380 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Ethical Dilemmas in Surgery and Utilization of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Dilemmas in Surgery and Utilization of Hospital Ethics Consultation Service: A Survey SUMMARY: Under the... Collection: Title: Ethical Dilemmas in Surgery and Utilization of Hospital Ethics Consultation Service: A... is intended to collect information about the ethical dilemmas that surgeons have faced in their...

  16. Ethical Dilemmas: A Model to Understand Teacher Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, Lisa Catherine; Kimber, Megan; Millwater, Jan; Cranston, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Over recent decades, the field of ethics has been the focus of increasing attention in teaching. This is not surprising given that teaching is a moral activity that is heavily values-laden. Because of this, teachers face ethical dilemmas in the course of their daily work. This paper presents an ethical decision-making model that helps to explain…

  17. Evidence, Ethics & Social Policy Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I. Miller

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the philosophy of the social sciences, the relationship between evidence, ethics, and social policy is in need of further analysis. The present paper is an attempt to argue that while important social policies can, and perhaps ought to be, grounded in ethical theory, they are seldom articulated in this fashion due to the ambiguity surrounding the "evidence condition." Using a consequentialist-utilitarian framework, and a case study of a policy dilemma, the authors analyze the difficulties associated with resolving policy-based dilemmas which must appeal to evidential support as a justification for an ethical stand. Implication for the relevance of ethics to social policy formulation are discussed in detail.

  18. Ethical Dilemmas and Modern Journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Ralph S.; Hesterman, Vicki

    In a study to examine journalistic integrity, two recent surveys answered by a combined total of 1,936 American journalists requested responses to questions as well as to specific hypothetical ethical dilemmas. In Survey A (conducted in 1983), questions were structured to provide information on beliefs and/or news media policy in four categories…

  19. Ethics dilemmas of early detection of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the ethics dilemmas of the early detection of overweight and obesity. Methods: Analysis of the ethical aspects of early detection. Results: The early detection of overweight and obesity entails a number of ethical dilemmas because it may both be helpful and harmful. It may help...

  20. Coverage: An Ethical Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Brenda J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how a high school journalism advisor dealt with ethical issues (including source attribution) surrounding the publication of a story about violation of school board policies by representatives of a nationally recognized ring company. (RS)

  1. 76 FR 72955 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: “Ethical Dilemmas in Surgery and Utilization of Hospital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request: ``Ethical Dilemmas in...: Ethical Dilemmas in Surgery and Utilization of Hospital Ethics Consultation Service: A Survey. Type of... collect information about the ethical dilemmas that surgeons have faced in their practices over the past...

  2. Ethical dilemma and resolution:a case scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Joseph K

    2007-01-01

    This article illustrates an ethical dilemma that I faced while treating an 86-year-old woman at her home. The ethical dilemma was caused due to several factors such as the expectations of the client (client/consumer rights), organisational expectations (employer, governmental and payer-source regulations) and my own personal values (one's moral philosophies, perceived social responsibilities, sense of professional duty) and how they all interact with each other. The case is a classic example of a seemingly simple yet frequent dilemma encountered by occupational and physical therapists in the United States serving clients who are covered by Medicare (the government's health insurance) for home health. The article is aimed at highlighting the various ethical principles involved in clinical decision-making, and it suggests methods for resolution of ethical dilemmas. Although the article is based against the backdrop of the US health care system, students and health care practitioners globally can relate to it.

  3. Ethical Obligations in the Face of Dilemmas Concerning Patient Privacy and Public Interests: The Sasebo Schoolgirl Murder Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadooka, Yasuhiro; Okita, Taketoshi; Asai, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    A murder case that had some features in common with the Tarasoff case occurred in Sasebo City, Japan, in 2014. A 15-year-old high school girl was murdered and her 16-year-old classmate was arrested on suspicion of homicide. One and a half months before the murder, a psychiatrist who had been examining the girl called a prefectural child consultation centre to warn that she might commit murder, but he did not reveal her name, considering it his professional duty to keep it confidential. Article 134 of the Japanese Criminal Law states that doctors should not disclose patient information obtained in clinical practice without a legitimate reason, but the Japanese Supreme Court has not specified what constitutes a legitimate reason. Mass media and commentators suggested that the murder could have been prevented if the psychiatrist had disclosed the girl's name to the authorities or had isolated her coercively in a psychiatric ward. However, the authors disagree with such claims. This article discusses obligations imposed on concerned individuals and third party members in cases involving ethical dilemmas regarding patient confidentiality and information disclosure. It is concluded that everyone should fulfill their obligations to prevent such tragedies and one should judge the appropriateness of others' actions based not on the consequences of their actions, but on the processes used to decide on a course of action and their commitment. It is necessary for us to establish a society in which concerned parties can do what they think is ethically best without fearing ungrounded charges. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Whistleblowing: an ethical dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan K. Pierson

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Because most organizations depend on computer systems that electronically store important data to perform crucial business functions, the integrity of these information systems is paramount. Securing company systems, however, is not always an easy task. More sophisticated systems often provide widespread access to computer resources and increased user knowledge, which may lead to added difficulties in maintaining security. This paper explores whistleblowing employees' exposing illegal or unethical computer practices taking place in the organization as a method of computer security and the support for whistleblowing found in codes of ethical conduct formulated by professional societies.

  5. Nurses' Resolutions of Six Ethical Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jeanette A.; Crisham, Patricia

    Six ethical dilemmas related to nursing practice were developed and presented to registered and trainee nurses for their resolution. A non-nurse group of university students also gave decisions about what a nurse should do in each ethically-loaded situation. A dilemma was classified as recurrent if its core problem was spontaneously mentioned by…

  6. Ethical-Economic Dilemmas in Business Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Remišová

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to support the idea of institutionalizing business ethics education at all business schools. Further, the article stresses the importance of using ethical-economic dilemmas in business ethics education. It argues that business students should learn that managerial work is too complex to make do with expertise and experience and help them to acquire the skill of ethical reflection of economic activity. Solving ethical-economic dilemmas in business ethics courses helps to develop cognitive skills in considering economic or managerial problems on the basis of ethical and economic interaction. In order to support the main purpose stated above, we aimed at getting a picture of how respondents assess and solve an ethical-economic dilemma. Hence, this article presents results of an empirical investigation of the ethical decision-making (EDM process on a sample of Slovak students of Management.

  7. Gender Differences In Responses To Hypothetical Business Ethical Dilemmas By Business Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie L. McInerney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Business leaders are often failing to display ethical behavior in business decisions. This paper examines the gender differences found in undergraduate business students when faced with ethical decision making dilemmas.

  8. Ethical dilemmas in journal publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Olubukola; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Parish, Lawrence Charles

    2012-01-01

    Physicians often face tremendous pressures and incentives to publish, sometimes leading to a compromise of ethical standards, either consciously or unconsciously. From the vantage of ethical authorship, we discuss what constitutes authorship; avoidance of ghost authorship; plagiarism, as well as self-plagiarism and duplicate publication; falsification; and fabrication. Editors also face ethical challenges, including how best to manage peer-review bias, to address reviewer tardiness, and to locate reviewers with appropriate expertise and professionalism. Editors need to deal with authors who fragment their work into multiple publications to enhance their curriculum vitae ("salami factor"), as well as to manage the financial benefits of advertising and to avoid conflicts of interest for the journal. Both authors and editors should be straightforward and principled throughout the publication process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An ethical dilemma in school nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, E; Taylor, S

    1999-10-01

    School nurses must consider the ethical principles that guide everyday practice. Autonomy, beneficence, justice, and nonmaleficence are the ethical principles most often confronted in the school setting. When beneficent care-giving begins to conflict with the family's decision-making autonomy, paternalism, a form of beneficence, affects the family's autonomy. This creates an ethical dilemma for the school nurse who guides his or her practice by ethical principles but who also must decide when it is appropriate to refer a child or family to a medical provider for further evaluation. A case study is presented to illustrate a specific ethical dilemma. The ethical dilemma is described using a model that examines external factors, professional responsibilities, and possible courses of action. The discussion includes cultural considerations and barriers pertinent to the case example.

  10. Between Ideals and Practice: Journalism Students Facing Ethical Dilemmas in Online Newsroom Teaching--Lessons From Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberholst, Mads Kaemsgaard; Hartley, Jannie Møller; Olsen, Maria Bendix

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at journalism students' experiences in a course that simulates an online newsroom. On the basis of a quantitative survey and more qualitative reflections from the students, we explore the dilemmas that students experience "working" as online journalists and how these are related to broader issues of journalistic…

  11. Perceptions and attitudes of community pharmacists toward professional ethics and ethical dilemmas in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković Rodríguez, Jadranka; Juričić, Živka

    2017-05-22

    Formal training in pharmacy ethics is relatively new in Croatia, and the professional code of ethics is more than 20 years old. Very little is known about how practicing pharmacists implement ethical considerations and relevant professional guidelines in their work. This study aimed to provide the first description of the perceptions and attitudes of Croatian community pharmacists toward ethics in pharmacy practice, how often they face certain ethical dilemmas and how they resolve them. A cross-sectional survey of 252 community pharmacists, including community pharmacists and pre-licensing trainees, was conducted in Zagreb, Croatia. This group accounts for 18% of licensed pharmacists in Croatia. The survey questions included four sections: general sociodemographic information, multiple-choice questions, pre-defined ethical scenarios, and ethical scenarios filled in by respondents. More than half of pharmacists (62.7%) face ethical dilemmas in everyday work. Nearly all (94.4%) are familiar with the current professional code of ethics in Croatia, but only 47.6% think that the code reflects the changes that the pharmacy profession faces today. Most pharmacists (83.3%) solve ethical dilemmas on their own, while nearly the same proportion (75.4%) think that they are not adequately trained to deal with ethical dilemmas. The pre-defined ethical scenarios experienced by the largest proportion of pharmacists are being asked to dispense a drug to someone other than the patient (93.3%), an unnecessary over-the-counter medicine (84.3%), a generic medicine clinically equivalent to the prescribed one (79.4%), or hormonal contraception over the counter (70.4%). The results demonstrate a need to improve formal pharmacy ethics education and training in how to assess ethical issues and make appropriate decisions, which implies the need for stronger collaboration between pharmacists and their professional association. Our results also highlight an urgent need to revise and update the

  12. Teaching, Learning and Ethical Dilemmas: Lessons from Albert Camus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past half century, Albert Camus's story "The Guest" has attracted a great deal of scholarly attention. "The Guest" focuses on the ethical dilemmas faced by Daru, a school teacher in Algeria, and the two visitors he receives one day: Balducci, a gendarme, and an unnamed Arab prisoner. This paper addresses Camus's text from an educational…

  13. Teaching, Learning and Ethical Dilemmas: Lessons from Albert Camus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past half century, Albert Camus's story "The Guest" has attracted a great deal of scholarly attention. "The Guest" focuses on the ethical dilemmas faced by Daru, a school teacher in Algeria, and the two visitors he receives one day: Balducci, a gendarme, and an unnamed Arab prisoner. This paper addresses Camus's text from an educational…

  14. Parental preference or child well-being: an ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Helen N

    2010-02-01

    An ethical dilemma that is not uncommon to encounter when caring for children occurs when parental preference does not appear to be in the child's best interest. Challenges facing the health care team are further amplified when the family's cultural background does not match that of the team. A case study will be used to illustrate the challenges of a pediatric palliative care ethical dilemma further complicated by cultural diversity. Review of the child's medical condition, patient/parent preferences, quality of life, and contextual features will be followed by an analysis and recommendations for resolution of this challenging situation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia PUIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article offers an insight on the ethical dilemmas specific to a public sector and brings some suggestions for coping with these. Ethics management is a complex system that deals also with ethical dilemmas. The instruments and tools of ethics management are helpful in dealing with these issues. There are a lot of cases in which public employees do not know what to do or how to react in a certain situation, so, a debate on this subject is very useful for people working in public institutions.

  16. From Theory to Practice: Facing Ethical Challenges as a Clinical Intern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, James P.; Pimentel, Sandra; Albano, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Although formal ethics classes provide a basic foundation in managing ethical dilemmas, professionals often point to their experiences on internship as an important training ground for consolidation of their ethical development. Clinical interns face many personal and professional transitions that can lead to a number of ethical dilemmas.…

  17. Understanding ethical dilemmas in the military workplace factors that influence the decision to take action

    OpenAIRE

    Blevins, Rodney D.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This study examines ethical dilemmas in the workplace and how organizational members move to resolve these challenges. Existing research was reviewed to gain insight and determine current views of ethical dilemmas experienced at work. A study was then conducted with Supply Corps Officers in the U.S. Navy to better understand the dilemmas they face in their daily work life. Officers were asked to think of a critical incident when they ...

  18. Ethics dilemmas of early detection of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the ethics dilemmas of the early detection of overweight and obesity. Methods: Analysis of the ethical aspects of early detection. Results: The early detection of overweight and obesity entails a number of ethical dilemmas because it may both be helpful and harmful. It may help...... people to lead a healthier life and non-detection could be considered neglectful. It may, however, cause anxiety, interfere with people’s integrity, focus only on individual causes and responsibilities, cause stigmatization and have adverse effects by inducing weight gain. Conclusions: Documentation...

  19. Ethical Dilemmas and Dimensions in Penetration Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Faily, Sharmal; McAlaney, John; Iacob, C

    2015-01-01

    Penetration testers are required to attack systems to evaluate their security, but without engaging in unethical behaviour while doing so. Despite work on hacker values and studies into security practice, there is little literature devoted to the ethical pressures associated with penetration testing. This paper presents several ethical dilemmas and dimensions associated with penetration testing;\\ud these shed light on the ethical positions taken by Penetration testers, and help identify poten...

  20. Case study: an ethical dilemma involving a dying patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsi, Alsacia L

    2008-01-01

    Nursing often deals with ethical dilemmas in the clinical arena. A case study demonstrates an ethical dilemma faced by healthcare providers who care for and treat Jehovah's Witnesses who are placed in a critical situation due to medical life-threatening situations. A 20-year-old, pregnant, Black Hispanic female presented to the Emergency Department (ED) in critical condition following a single-vehicle car accident. She exhibited signs and symptoms of internal bleeding and was advised to have a blood transfusion and emergency surgery in an attempt to save her and the fetus. She refused to accept blood or blood products and rejected the surgery as well. Her refusal was based on a fear of blood transfusion due to her belief in Bible scripture. The ethical dilemma presented is whether to respect the patient's autonomy and compromise standards of care or ignore the patient's wishes in an attempt to save her life. This paper presents the clinical case, identifies the ethical dilemma, and discusses virtue ethical theory and principles that apply to this situation.

  1. Code of ethics and ethical dilemmas' management in health professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Triadafyllidou

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As the main interest of health professionals is for the well-being of patients/clients, ethical decision making is one of the prominent elements of his/her professionalism. Aim: The present study aims to illustrate the role of ethical judgment and the so-called "moral imagination" in health professions. Method and material: Review of theoretical and research literature, including both classic and recent sources about ethical dilemmas that health professionals may anticipate, as well as the suggested ways to manage these dilemmas. Results: Health professionals often have to act in complicated situations. Review of relevant literature indicates that the professionals' ethical decisions are structured not only through the codes of ethics, but also through other collective practices, such as organizational culture and cultural schemas about the role of health professional. Resorting to schematic thinking may temporarily release the professional from his/her concerns, but in the long run, it may devoid him/her of the sense of satisfaction from work and of the ability to offer clients the optimal care. The development of the so-called "moral imagination" permits the professional to advance from the typical application of the rules to actual ethical judgment. Conclusions: Ethical decision making presupposes not only a thorough knowledge of ethical guidelines, but also the development of the ability to openly reflect upon the ethical dimensions of an issue (moral imagination that allows health professionals to overcome schematic thinking and investigate comprehensive solutions to ethical dilemmas.

  2. Students' Responses to Ethical Dilemmas in an Academic Setting and in the Work Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teer, Faye P.; Kruck, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    It is important for students to be prepared to act ethically when they face real world situations that test their ethical leadership. The purpose of this study was to examine university students' responses to ethical dilemmas. One hundred and sixty two students in numerous majors and both undergraduate and graduate classifications responded to a…

  3. Physiotherapy devices able to generate ethical dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Nadinne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical therapy is a medical specialty where the professionals help restore movement and function when someone is affected by injury, illness or disability. This paper wishes to establish the connection between ethics, physiotherapy and bioengineering. The research method was achieved using academic database searches based on specific keywords. A SWOT analysis of the physiotherapy devices utilization and design was made, for extracting ethical considerations. The main results suggest that physiotherapy devices are able to generate ethical dilemmas, classified in 4 main items: (1 Bioengineering in physical therapy, ethical and clinical standards for manufacturers; (2 Social impact of physical therapy devices and ethical issues; (3 Inter-professional lack of communication and ethical concerns; (4 Bioengineering ethical research and education. As conclusions, for the physical therapy or electrotherapy research equipment development, a multidisciplinary team is needed. The equipment used in rehabilitation must fulfil specific technical and scientific requirements drafted by the professionals.

  4. Caring ethics and a Somali reproductive dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narruhn, Robin; Schellenberg, Ingra R

    2013-06-01

    The use of traditional ethical methodologies is inadequate in addressing a constructed maternal-fetal rights conflict in a multicultural obstetrical setting. The use of caring ethics and a relational approach is better suited to address multicultural conceptualizations of autonomy and moral distress. The way power differentials, authoritative knowledge, and informed consent are intertwined in this dilemma will be illuminated by contrasting traditional bioethics and a caring ethics approach. Cultural safety is suggested as a way to develop a relational ontology. Using caring ethics and a relational approach can alleviate moral distress in health-care providers, while promoting collaboration and trust between providers and their patients and ultimately decreasing reproductive disparities. This article examines how a relational approach can be applied to a cross-cultural reproductive dilemma.

  5. Action ethical dilemmas in surgery: an interview study of practicing surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordam Ann

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe the kinds of ethical dilemmas surgeons face during practice. Methods Five male and five female surgeons at a University hospital in Norway were interviewed as part of a comprehensive investigation into the narratives of physicians and nurses about ethically difficult situations in surgical units. The transcribed interview texts were subjected to a phenomenological-hermeneutic interpretation. Results No gender differences were found in the kinds of ethical dilemmas identified among male and female surgeons. The main finding was that surgeons experienced ethical dilemmas in deciding the right treatment in different situations. The dilemmas included starting or withholding treatment, continuing or withdrawing treatment, overtreatment, respecting the patients and meeting patients' expectations. The main focus in the narratives was on ethical dilemmas concerning the patients' well-being, treatment and care. The surgeons narrated about whether they should act according to their own convictions or according to the opinions of principal colleagues or colleagues from other departments. Handling incompetent colleagues was also seen as an ethical dilemma. Prioritization of limited resources and following social laws and regulations represented ethical dilemmas when they contradicted what the surgeons considered was in the patients' best interests. Conclusion The surgeons seemed confident in their professional role although the many ethical dilemmas they experienced in trying to meet the expectations of patients, colleagues and society also made them professionally and personally vulnerable.

  6. Fetal tissue transplant research: ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnam, C R

    1996-01-01

    The transplant of cells from fetal tissue shows promise as a therapy for certain diseases. The use and research of fetal tissue, and methods of obtaining the tissue, have raised ethical dilemmas. Consideration must be given concerning the mother, the fetus, and the tissue recipient.

  7. Ethical Dilemmas in Retail Merchandising: Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulins, V. Ann; Lombardy, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas observed by students in retailing internships were the basis for a survey in which students indicated their perceptions as to whether case situations involved unethical behavior. Expanded case situations were offered to students for further exploration. The specific questions posed in this study included the following: (1) In what…

  8. Ethical Dilemmas in Retail Merchandising: Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulins, V. Ann; Lombardy, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas observed by students in retailing internships were the basis for a survey in which students indicated their perceptions as to whether case situations involved unethical behavior. Expanded case situations were offered to students for further exploration. The specific questions posed in this study included the following: (1) In what…

  9. The analysis and resolution of ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Perhaps no other field of medicine illustrates the ethical dilemmas occasioned by the explosion of technology more than neurology. Many dilemmas which at first appear to be ethical, however, are actually biotechnical, informational, or interpersonal in nature. For those which are, indeed, ethical, a review of existing information and acquisition of additional data can often serve to identify the proper response. When the optimal course of action remains unclear, the comprehensive, structured approach described in this chapter is both philosophically rigorous and clinically relevant. It takes into account a variety of critical considerations - including rights, duties, consequences, virtues, and similar cases - while utilizing both inductive and deductive methods. The end result is the "least bad" of available options, or, at the very least, a practical response which preserves future options and avoids crucial mistakes.

  10. Ethical Dilemmas in Teaching and Nursing: The Israeli Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2010-01-01

    This article explores a cross-occupational approach for dealing with ethical dilemmas by comparing teaching and nursing. Findings indicate more shared patterns of ethical dilemmas (such as caring for needs for others versus following formal codes) than dilemmas specific to teaching (e.g., advancing universal values versus advancing knowledge) or…

  11. Ethical Dilemmas in Teaching and Nursing: The Israeli Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2010-01-01

    This article explores a cross-occupational approach for dealing with ethical dilemmas by comparing teaching and nursing. Findings indicate more shared patterns of ethical dilemmas (such as caring for needs for others versus following formal codes) than dilemmas specific to teaching (e.g., advancing universal values versus advancing knowledge) or…

  12. [Ethical dilemma for nurses who manage marital violence in clinical setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-Li; Kuo, Ya-Wen; Huang, Mei-Chih

    2008-06-01

    Marital violence or intimate partner violence is a serious and recurring public health issue. In the clinical setting, battered women often seek medical advice, because of the health problems that result from marital violence. Thus, nursing staff are the first persons to come into contact with the battered women. Can nurses execute their notify responsibility to prevent continued injury before obtained the woman's agreement? Will this action violate the principle of autonomy or not? Nurses would face an ethical dilemma when they care for battered women. The purpose of this article is to use Aroskar's ethical decision making model to analyze and clarify the ethical dilemmas involved in managing marital violence, including: under the value systems of the person, the profession, and time to illustrate the basic information, decision theory dimensions, and ethical theories or positions. It is hoped that this article provides an ethical decision making model for the ethical dilemmas facing nurses who manage marital violence in the clinical setting.

  13. Examination of ethical dilemmas experienced by adult intensive care unit nurses in physical restraint practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdioğlu; Korhan, Esra Akin; Dizer, Berna; Gümüş, Fatma; Koyuncu, Rukiye

    2014-01-01

    Nurses are more likely to face the dilemma of whether to resort to physical restraints or not and have a hard time making that decision. This is a descriptive study. A total of 55 nurses participated in the research. For data collection, a question form developed by researchers to determine perceptions of ethical dilemmas by nurses in the application of physical restraint was used. A descriptive analysis was made by calculating the mean, standard deviation, and maximum and minimum values. The nurses expressed (36.4%) having difficulty in deciding to use physical restraint. Nurses reported that they experience ethical dilemmas mainly in relation to the ethic principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, and convenience. We have concluded that majority of nurses working in critical care units apply physical restraint to patients, although they are facing ethical dilemmas concerning harm and benefit principles during the application.

  14. Hill & Knowlton's Two Ethical Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1994-01-01

    Presents arguments for and against the acceptance, in 1990, of two controversial client accounts by the public relations agency Hill & Knowlton. Examines the ethical implications of both accounts and concludes that whatever ethical infractions may have occurred reflect the agency's dominant public relations practices, not necessarily the "greedy…

  15. An approach to ethic dilemmas of geriatric medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Francisco Morejón Giraldoni

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The bioethical formulation is based on three (or four principles: beneficence (and no maleficence, after some authors, justice and autonomy. In spite of multiple received criticisms this proposal have been enriched and strengthened. From this point, sanitary activity and the medical practice as well, can be considered as activities with a clear social insertion, thus susceptible of an ethical analysis which goes beyond of the narrow margins of the professional ethics. Population aging as a worldwide phenomenon will bring about a major demand of the assistance and social services. New ethic dilemmas could emerge from the demographic changes, related to the intergenerational, family and health services relationship overall. General practitioners and particularly gerontologist should be prepared to face this medical an ethical challenges.

  16. Ethical dilemma and moral distress: proposed new NANDA diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala, Beverly; Burkhart, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    To propose two NANDA diagnoses--ethical dilemma and moral distress--and to distinguish between the NANDA diagnosis decisional conflict and the proposed nursing diagnosis of ethical dilemma. Journal articles, books, and focus group research findings. Moral/ethical situations exist in health care. Nurses' experiences of ethical dilemmas and moral distress are extrapolated to the types and categories of ethical dilemmas and moral distress that patients experience and are used as the basis for development of two new nursing diagnoses. The two proposed NANDA diagnoses fill a void in current standardized terminology. It is important that nurses have the ability to diagnose ethical or moral situations in health care. Currently, NANDA does not offer a means to document this important phenomenon. The creation of two sets of nursing diagnoses, ethical dilemma and moral distress, will enable nurses to recognize and track nursing care related to ethical or moral situations.

  17. Ethical Dilemmas as Perceived by Healthcare Students with Teaching Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Janet R.; Mahan, Pamela L.; Garrity, April W.

    2010-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are experienced by all individuals, but are especially prevalent among healthcare professionals. Universities and colleges preparing students to work and provide care in this arena are currently addressing this challenge through traditional ethics courses and lectures. However, student perspectives of the major ethical dilemmas in…

  18. Ethical Dilemmas as Perceived by Healthcare Students with Teaching Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Janet R.; Mahan, Pamela L.; Garrity, April W.

    2010-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are experienced by all individuals, but are especially prevalent among healthcare professionals. Universities and colleges preparing students to work and provide care in this arena are currently addressing this challenge through traditional ethics courses and lectures. However, student perspectives of the major ethical dilemmas in…

  19. Nurse middle manager ethical dilemmas and moral distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Freda D; Wagner, Nurit; Toren, Orly

    2015-02-01

    Nurse managers are placed in a unique position within the healthcare system where they greatly impact upon the nursing work environment. Ethical dilemmas and moral distress have been reported for staff nurses but not for nurse middle managers. To describe ethical dilemmas and moral distress among nurse middle managers arising from situations of ethical conflict. The Ethical Dilemmas in Nursing-Middle Manager Questionnaire and a personal characteristics questionnaire were administered to a convenience sample of middle managers from four hospitals in Israel. Middle managers report low to moderate levels of frequency and intensity of ethical dilemmas and moral distress. Highest scores were for administrative dilemmas. Middle managers experience lower levels of ethical dilemmas and moral distress than staff nurses, which are irrespective of their personal characteristics. Interventions should be developed, studied, and then incorporated into institutional frameworks in order to improve this situation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Moral Dilemmas and the Concept of Value in Engineering Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Toshihiro

    The purpose of this paper is to show that the consideration of value is necessary to understand moral dilemmas in engineering ethics. First, the author shows that moral dilemmas are not fully understood in engineering ethics and argues that it is due to the lack of understanding of value. Second, the author considers the concept of value from the viewpoint of ‘desirability’ . Finally, three suggestions for improving engineering ethics in the understanding of moral dilemmas are made.

  1. Moral dilemmas in surgical training: intent and the case for ethical ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, M J

    1986-01-01

    It is often assumed that the central problem in a medical ethics issue is determining which course of action is morally correct. There are some aspects of ethical issues that will yield to such analysis. However, at the core of important medical moral problems is an irreducible dilemma in which all possible courses of action, including inaction, seem ethically unsatisfactory. When facing these issues ethical behaviour depends upon an individual's understanding and acceptance of this painful dilemma without recourse to external moral authority. PMID:3806633

  2. Critical incident. An ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    County, B

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this critical incident analysis is to demonstrate how knowledge of legal, moral and ethical issues has affected my nursing practice. This is a personal journey--an exploration of my own values and beliefs. The piece demonstrates how reviewing the literature has changed my stance on the issues discussed. Consequently, the piece is written in the first person, but references are used to substantiate my findings.

  3. Ethical Dilemma of Governmental Wiretapping

    CERN Document Server

    Mullikin, Arwen; Rahman, M

    2010-01-01

    USA Government wiretapping activities is a very controversial issue. Undoubtedly this technology can assist law enforced authority to detect / identify unlawful or hostile activities; however, this task raises severe privacy concerns. In this paper, we have discussed this complex information technology issue of governmental wiretapping and how it effects both public and private liberties. Legislation has had a major impact on the uses and the stigma of wiretapping for the war on terrorism. This paper also analyzes the ethical and legal concerns inherent when discussing the benefits and concerns of wiretapping. The analysis has concluded with the effects of wiretapping laws as they relate to future government actions in their fight against terrorists.

  4. Ibsen's Ethical Dilemma: A Case Study of Catiline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Weihong

    2005-01-01

    Catiline, Ibsen's first play, has often been undervalued.Ibsen's comments on this play that the ideas he expressed in this juvenile attempt are still what he thinks of after he has made great achievements in dramatic creation exactly show its true value.To a large extent, it is Catiline's persistent pursuit of his ideal that may have moved the dramatist who has throughout his own life pursued his own ideal.What's more, Ibsen may also have noticed the similar ethical dilemma that faces him and Catiline: the contraction between his earthly duties and his pursuit of the ideal.

  5. School District Superintendents' Response to Ethical Dilemmas: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Fay Simpson

    2009-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas, situations involving a conflict between values or principles, often arise when employees of school districts violate laws or professional codes of behavior. Ethical dilemmas also occur when there are inequities in educational programming, resulting in missed opportunities for students. This qualitative study, conducted with the…

  6. An Analysis of Student Choices in Medical Ethical Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloshin, Phyllis Lerman

    This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethical dilemmas. Medical ethical dilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was…

  7. An Analysis of Student Choices in Medical Ethical Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloshin, Phyllis Lerman

    This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethical dilemmas. Medical ethical dilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was…

  8. School District Superintendents' Response to Ethical Dilemmas: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Fay Simpson

    2009-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas, situations involving a conflict between values or principles, often arise when employees of school districts violate laws or professional codes of behavior. Ethical dilemmas also occur when there are inequities in educational programming, resulting in missed opportunities for students. This qualitative study, conducted with the…

  9. Solving Ethical Dilemmas with Children: Empowering Classroom Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Michelann

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies and discusses ethical dilemmas inherent when undertaking research with children or other vulnerable populations: power relations, risks and benefits, and informed consent and confidentiality (Maguire, 2005). Ethical dilemmas often arise when researchers attempt to merge the interests of their research and the interests of…

  10. Exploring Ethical Dilemmas Using the "Drifting Goals" Archetype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardoel, E. Anne; Haslett, Tim

    2006-01-01

    This article demonstrates how the system archetype "drifting goals" can be used in the classroom to explore ethical dilemmas. System archetypes provide a framework that shifts the focus from seeing ethical dilemmas as stemming solely from the acts of individuals to exploring the systemic structures that are responsible for generic patterns of…

  11. Ethical and legal dilemmas in infertility treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragojević-Dikić Svetlana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main characteristics of the new millennium is the affirmation of human rights in all aspects of human existence, with the intention of turning declarative statements into reality. Development of up-to-date assisted reproductive technologies (ART and their application in infertility treatment have raised numerous ethical, legal, religious, social and other questions. In vitro fertilization, donation of gametes, embryos and pre-embryos, cryopreservation of gametes, embryos, ovarian and testicular tissues, embryo transfer, genetic reproductive techniques, cloning and other sophisticated methods used in infertility treatment require cooperation between the medical and legal professions. Ethical aspects of human reproduction and assisted fertilization are based on full respect of the life of an individual even before conception, from pre-embryo stage, via embryo stage and fetus stage to a newborn infant. Regarding investigative and clinical projects, this standpoint implies the legalization of all ART procedures, unencumbered exchange of information and consensus about their application, and adherence to the basic ethical principles of autonomy benefit, justice and common welfare. Ethical postulates provide unequivocal directions in the creation of new life and resolve all possible ethical dilemmas, protecting the rights of doctors and participant in relevant procedures alike and reasserting the crucial principle - respect of human dignity.

  12. Ethical Dilemmas In Management: An African Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolaji Joachim Abiodun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern workplace is composed of people with diverse backgrounds in terms of nationality, culture, religion, age, education and socioeconomic status. Each of these people enters the work with different values, goals, and perceptions of acceptable behaviours. The diverse background creates ethical challenges for individuals as well as managers. There are issues and decisions that are to be made by workers in the organization that have implications for their job security and salary, and success of the organization. Pressure may be on the workers to protect their own interests, sometimes at the risk of losing personal and corporate integrity. This paper attempts to evaluate ethical dilemmas and conflicts from an Africa perspective, bearing in mind different value systems between western and African nations.

  13. Ethical dilemmas in workplace health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrante, J P; Sloan, R P

    1986-05-01

    In less than a decade, workplace health promotion programs designed to promote employee health and help reduce the high cost of health insurance premiums paid by business and industry have proliferated. Notwithstanding the latent benefits and cost savings that corporate management expects to gain from the investment in such programs, it is argued that workplace health promotion is not without potential misuse and that its goals and methods ought not to be above ethical scrutiny. Drawing on earlier work, we discuss how workplace health promotion may pose ethical problems related to social justice, protection of privacy, and social control. The attendant moral dilemmas for the professional whose responsibility it is to develop and implement such programs are also presented.

  14. Ethical dilemmas experienced by clinical psychology trainee therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Poornima; Sinha, Ananya; Sonkar, Suruchi; Raguram, Ahalya

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are inevitable during psychotherapeutic interactions, and these complexities and challenges may be magnified during the training phase. The experience of ethical dilemmas in the arena of therapy and the methods of resolving these dilemmas were examined among 35 clinical psychologists in training, through an anonymous and confidential online survey. The trainees' responses to four open-ended questions on any one ethical dilemma encountered during therapy were analysed, using thematic content analysis. The results highlighted that the salient ethical dilemmas related to confidentiality and boundary issues. The trainees also raised ethical questions regarding therapist competence, the beneficence and non-maleficence of therapeutic actions, and client autonomy. Fifty-seven per cent of the trainees reported that the dilemmas were resolved adequately, the prominent methods of resolution being supervision or consultation and guidance from professional ethical guidelines. The trainees felt that the professional codes had certain limitations as far as the effective resolution of ethical dilemmas was concerned. The findings indicate the need to strengthen training and supervision methodologies and professional ethics codes for psychotherapists and counsellors in India.

  15. Experienced Speech-Language Pathologists' Responses to Ethical Dilemmas: An Integrated Approach to Ethical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle; Balandin, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the approaches of experienced speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to ethical reasoning and the processes they use to resolve ethical dilemmas. Method: Ten experienced SLPs participated in in-depth interviews. A narrative approach was used to guide participants' descriptions of how they resolved ethical dilemmas. Individual…

  16. Medical confidentiality versus disclosure: Ethical and legal dilemmas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, V I O

    2009-02-01

    A case is described of a fifty year old single man who made disclosures about criminal sexual practices during a psychiatric assessment. In common practice with other professional men, a doctor is under a duty not to disclose, without the consent of his patient, information which he has gained in his professional capacity other than in exceptional circumstances. We discuss the ethical and legal considerations surrounding issues of medical confidentiality and the dilemma that sometimes face clinicians, when they feel obliged, in the public interest, to disclose information they have gained in confidence. Breach of confidences can have deleterious consequences; particularly for the doctor-patient relationship, but failure to disclose in some situations could have serious implications for the well-being of the wider society. Doctors should be aware of the basic principles of confidentiality and the ethical and legal framework around which they are built.

  17. Dilemmas in Military Medical Ethics: A Call for Conceptual Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochon, Christiane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increase in and evolving nature of armed conflicts, the ethical issues faced by military physicians working in such contexts are still rarely examined in the bioethics literature. Military physicians are members of the military, even if they are non-combatants; and their role is one of healer but also sometimes humanitarian. Some scholars wonder about the moral compatibility of being both a physician and soldier. The ethical conflicts raised in the literature regarding military physicians can be organized into three main perspectives: 1 moral problems in military medicine are particular because of the difficulty of meeting the requirements of traditional bioethical principles; 2 medical codes of ethics and international laws are not well adapted to or are too restrictive for a military context; and 3 physicians are social actors who should either be pacifists, defenders of human rights, politically neutral or promoters of peace. A review of the diverse dilemmas faced by military physicians shows that these differ substantially by level (micro, meso, macro, context and the actors involved, and that they go beyond issues of patient interests. Like medicine in general, military medicine is complex and touches on potentially contested views of the roles and obligations of the physician. Greater conceptual clarity is thus needed in discussions about military medical ethics.

  18. 艾滋病危险性性行为干预面临的伦理难题%Ethical Dilemma Facing AIDS-Risky Sexual Behavior Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海林

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the fact that sexual intercourse has become a major path of sexual transmitted diseases in our country,the AIDS-risky sexual behavior intervention naturally turns out to be the main means taken to prevent and control AIDS.Presently,the intervention of high risky sexual behaviors of AIDS patients still faces a series of ethic problems.For example,there exists an obvious conflict between sex moral education and sexual health education;commercial sexual behavior intervention is still faced with an ethical,legal and political plight;homosexuals generally living in the “underground”condition face the social environment of“Moral Ma-jority”;multi-sexual partners have very complicated behavior motives;condom promotion still facing ethical and legal disputes is hard to put into practice;and a significant number of HIV infected people and patients have not been identified or detected.In face of all these challenges and many other,China should adjust the AIDS prevention and control work pattern,implement the“Prevention First”policy,put the sexual behavior in-tervention as a major means of the current HIV/AIDS prevention and control,and adopt intervention strategies targeting the specific AIDS-risky sexual behaviors.%在性传播成为我国艾滋病传播主要途径的情况下,客观上要求把危险性性行为干预作为我国艾滋病防控的重点。目前我国艾滋病危险性性行为干预仍然面临一系列伦理难题,如性道德教育与性健康教育存在明显冲突,商业性性行为干预面临伦理、法律或政策困境,同性恋者面临“道德多数”的社会环境且基本处于“地下状态”,多性伴行为动机复杂,安全套推广仍然面临伦理、法律争议和实际困难,相当数量的艾滋病病毒感染者和病人未被发现等。面对这些难题,国家应在调整艾滋病防治工作格局、落实“预防为主”方针的基础上,明确把危险

  19. Korean nurses' ethical dilemmas, professional values and professional quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghee; Han, Yonghee; Kim, Ji-su

    2015-06-01

    In the changing medical environment, professional stress continuously increases as the individual's quality of life suffers. Of all the healthcare professions, nursing is especially prone to burnout, compassion fatigue and reduced compassion satisfaction, due to the tensions resulting from the physical and psychological stress of caring for extremely ill patients. This study examined the professional quality of life of clinical nurses in Korea and the relationship between their experiences in ethical dilemmas and professional values. This was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample consisting of 488 clinical nurses. We used four questionnaires to measure the participants' demographic characteristics, experiences in ethical dilemmas, professional nursing values and professional quality of life (ProQOL assessment, Version 5). Ethical considerations: This study received approval from the Institutional Review Board of Bronco Memorial Hospital. Written informed consent was given by all participants. The nurses' professional quality of life was affected by ethical dilemmas and professional nursing values. The factors influencing compassion satisfaction were age, client domain of ethical dilemmas, social awareness, professionalism of nursing and the roles of nursing services in professional values. The factors influencing burnout were marital status (married), religion (yes), human life domain, professional work domain of ethical dilemmas, social awareness and the role of nursing services in nursing professional values. The factors influencing secondary traumatic stress were human life domain, client domain and the professional work domain of ethical dilemmas. Intervention to help nurses increase their professional quality of life will have a greater chance of success if they are based on the nurses' values and beliefs about the ethical dilemmas they face and foster the establishment of positive professional values. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Ethical Dilemmas of Swedish School Leaders: Contrasts and Common Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Katarina; Johansson, Olof

    2007-01-01

    Being a skillful school leader presumes the competence to judge the ethical consequences of actions. This implies a need for all school agents to discover and analyze what values are at stake and, in turn, reconcile didactic rationality with ethical rationality. This article aims to explore ethical dilemmas in daily school practice, experienced…

  1. Ethical and Value Dilemmas in Urban Management Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Theodore H.

    This module represents one portion of the National Training and Development Service Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. It focuses on the issue of ethics in urban management performance and is designed to demonstrate that ethical dilemmas are a personal, complex, everyday managerial problem, and to enlarge the range of ethical options…

  2. Ethical considerations in face transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles S; Gander, Brian; Cunningham, Michael; Furr, Allen; Vasilic, Dalibor; Wiggins, Osborne; Banis, Joseph C; Vossen, Marieke; Maldonado, Claudio; Perez-Abadia, Gustavo; Barker, John H

    2007-10-01

    Human face transplantation is now a clinical reality. The surgical techniques necessary to perform these procedures have been used routinely in reconstructive microsurgery for many years. From an immunological standpoint since face and hand contain mostly the same tissues it is reasonable to assume that the same immunosuppressive regimen found to be effective in human hand transplants should also work in face transplantation. It is the ethical issues associated with the risks and benefits of performing facial transplantation that have posed the greatest challenges leading up to performing this new procedure. In this editorial, we will review some of the main events that have led to the recently performed human face transplants, specifically focusing on the key ethical issues at the center of this debate. We will discuss how the research and clinical experience in human hand transplantation laid the foundation for performing face transplantation and describe the research and the ethical guidelines upon which a team at the University of Louisville based their position "to move ahead" in spite of much criticism. Finally we will outline some of the key arguments against face transplantation, and conclude with a discussion on what comes next now that the first human face transplants have been performed.

  3. Physical therapists as double agents. Ethical dilemmas of divided loyalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, J

    1987-03-01

    Ethical dilemmas arise when physical therapists encounter conflicts between loyalty to their patients and loyalty to their employers. This type of ethical conflict is called "the dilemma of the double agent." If physical therapists perceive themselves as agents of their patients, their employment may be threatened. If physical therapists perceive themselves as agents of their employers, their patients may suffer physical or psychological harm. The double-agent dilemma is illustrated in this article by a hypothetical case study derived from sports physical therapy. Three ethical theories--egoism, utilitarianism, and formalism--are used to analyze the conflict and formulate solutions. A second conflict also is raised between patient autonomy and medical paternalism. As physical therapists become more autonomous, they will assume increased responsibility. Inherent in this increased responsibility is the obligation to recognize and confront ethical dilemmas in physical therapy practice. Resolving ethical dilemmas is difficult, but use of ethical theories can help in the systematic examination of basic assumptions and principles. This article introduces therapists to three ethical theories and presents a model for ethical decision making.

  4. Managing ethical dilemmas in community-based participatory research with vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Page, Ruth M; Shaw-Ridley, Mary

    2013-07-01

    This article describes two ethical dilemmas encountered by our research team during a project working with undocumented immigrants in Toronto, Canada. This article aims to be transparent about the problems the research team faced, the processes by which we sought to understand these problems, how solutions were found, and how the ethical dilemmas were resolved. Undocumented immigrants are a vulnerable community of individuals residing in a country without legal citizenship, immigration, or refugee status. There are more than half a million undocumented immigrants in Canada. Through an academic-community partnership, a study was conducted to understand the experiences of undocumented immigrants seeking health care in Toronto. The lessons outlined in this article may assist others in overcoming challenges and ethical dilemmas encountered while doing research with vulnerable communities.

  5. Ethical Leadership and Moral Literacy: Incorporating Ethical Dilemmas in a Case-­Based Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenlink, Patrick M.; Jenlink, Karen Embry

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine an ethical dilemma approach to case-based pedagogy for leadership preparation, which was used in a doctoral studies program. Specifically, the authors argue that preparing educational leaders for the ethical dilemmas and moral decision-making that define schools requires assessing current programs and pedagogical…

  6. Ethical Leadership and Moral Literacy: Incorporating Ethical Dilemmas in a Case-­Based Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenlink, Patrick M.; Jenlink, Karen Embry

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine an ethical dilemma approach to case-based pedagogy for leadership preparation, which was used in a doctoral studies program. Specifically, the authors argue that preparing educational leaders for the ethical dilemmas and moral decision-making that define schools requires assessing current programs and pedagogical…

  7. Exploring how IBCLCs manage ethical dilemmas: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1) recognizing the dilemma; 2) identifying context; 3) determining choices; 4) strategies used; 5) results and choices the mother made; and 6) follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation. PMID:22824376

  8. Exploring how IBCLCs manage ethical dilemmas: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel-Weiss Joy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1 recognizing the dilemma; 2 identifying context; 3 determining choices; 4 strategies used; 5 results and choices the mother made; and 6 follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation.

  9. A quick guide to ethical theory in healthcare: solving ethical dilemmas in nutrition support situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Suzie

    2006-04-01

    Ethical dilemmas can be challenging for the nutrition support clinician who is accustomed to evidence-based practice. The emotional and personal nature of ethical decision making can present difficulties, and conflict can arise when people have different ethical perspectives. An understanding of ethical terms and ethical theories can be helpful in clarifying the source of this conflict. These may include prominent ethical theories such as moral relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian absolutism, Aristotle's virtue ethics and ethics of care, as well as the key ethical principles in healthcare (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice). Adopting a step-by-step approach can simplify the process of resolving ethical problems.

  10. Novel ethical dilemmas arising in geriatric clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-Sordo, Elisa Constanza; de Hoyos, Adalberto; Méndez-Jiménez, Jorge; Altamirano-Bustamante, Nelly F; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Valderrama, Alejandro; García-Peña, Carmen; Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine empirically the state of the art of the medical care, when healthcare personal is confronted with ethical dilemmas related with the care they give to the geriatric population. An observational, longitudinal, prospective and qualitative study was conducted by analyzing the correlation between healthcare personnel-patient relationship, and ethical judgments regarding dilemmas that arise in daily clinical practice with geriatric patients. Mexican healthcare personnel with current active practices were asked to write up an ethical dilemma that arose frequently or that had impacted their medical practice. From the narrative input, we were able to draw up a database with 421 dilemmas, and those corresponding to patients 60 years and older were selected (n = 54, 12.8 %). The axiological analysis of the narrative dilemmas of geriatric patients was made using dialectical empiricism. The axiological analysis values found most frequently were classified into three groups: the impact of healthcare, the roles of the physician, and refusal of therapy; the healthcare role of educator, caring for the patients' life and the risk of imminent death where the values found more often. The persistence and universality of certain dilemmas in geriatrics calls for awareness and requires a good training in the ethical discernment of these dilemmas. This would help to improve substantially the care and the life quality of this population.

  11. Ethical Dilemmas of Turkish Counsellors: A Critical Incidents Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas from a national purposive sample of Turkish counsellors (N = 172) were collected using critical incidents technique. Content analysis was performed with open coding guided by the classification of American Counseling Association code of ethics. Incidents regarding confidentiality and privacy (56.4%), with 37.1% involving incidents…

  12. Ethical Dilemmas of Turkish Counsellors: A Critical Incidents Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas from a national purposive sample of Turkish counsellors (N = 172) were collected using critical incidents technique. Content analysis was performed with open coding guided by the classification of American Counseling Association code of ethics. Incidents regarding confidentiality and privacy (56.4%), with 37.1% involving incidents…

  13. "Living" Ethical Dilemmas for Researchers When Researching with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortari, Luigina; Harcourt, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore some of the ethical dilemmas that confront researchers when they seek to invite children's participation in research. It firstly tracks the historical landscape of ethical research and will examine the influence of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) on participatory research with children.…

  14. Imperfect twinning: a clinical and ethical dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardin, Daniela; Telles, Jorge Alberto B.; Betat, Rosilene da Silveira; Fell, Paulo Renato K.; da Cunha, André Campos; Targa, Luciano Vieira; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the history, epidemiology, etiology, gestational aspects, diagnosis and prognosis of imperfect twinning. DATA SOURCES Scientific articles were searched in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, using the descriptors "conjoined twins", "multiple pregnancy", "ultrasound", "magnetic resonance imaging" and "prognosis". The research was not delimited to a specific period of time and was supplemented with bibliographic data from books. DATA SYNTHESIS: The description of conjoined twins is legendary. The estimated frequency is 1/45,000-200,000 births. These twins are monozygotic, monochorionic and usually monoamniotic. They can be classified by the most prominent fusion site, by the symmetry between the conjoined twins or by the sharing structure. The diagnosis can be performed in the prenatal period or after birth by different techniques, such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography. These tests are of paramount importance for understanding the anatomy of both fetuses/children, as well as for prognosis and surgical plan determination. CONCLUSIONS Although imperfect twinning is a rare condition, the prenatal diagnosis is very important in order to evaluate the fusion site and its complexity. Hence, the evaluation of these children should be multidisciplinary, involving mainly obstetricians, pediatricians and pediatric surgeons. However, some decisions may constitute real ethical dilemmas, in which different points should be discussed and analyzed with the health team and the family. PMID:24142323

  15. Imperfect twinning: a clinical and ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardin, Daniela; Telles, Jorge Alberto B; Betat, Rosilene da Silveira; Fell, Paulo Renato K; Cunha, André Campos da; Targa, Luciano Vieira; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M

    2013-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the history, epidemiology, etiology, gestational aspects, diagnosis and prognosis of imperfect twinning. DATA SOURCES Scientific articles were searched in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, using the descriptors "conjoined twins", "multiple pregnancy", "ultrasound", "magnetic resonance imaging" and "prognosis". The research was not delimited to a specific period of time and was supplemented with bibliographic data from books. The description of conjoined twins is legendary. The estimated frequency is 1/45,000-200,000 births. These twins are monozygotic, monochorionic and usually monoamniotic. They can be classified by the most prominent fusion site, by the symmetry between the conjoined twins or by the sharing structure. The diagnosis can be performed in the prenatal period or after birth by different techniques, such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography. These tests are of paramount importance for understanding the anatomy of both fetuses/children, as well as for prognosis and surgical plan determination. CONCLUSIONS Although imperfect twinning is a rare condition, the prenatal diagnosis is very important in order to evaluate the fusion site and its complexity. Hence, the evaluation of these children should be multidisciplinary, involving mainly obstetricians, pediatricians and pediatric surgeons. However, some decisions may constitute real ethical dilemmas, in which different points should be discussed and analyzed with the health team and the family.

  16. Imperfect twinning: a clinical and ethical dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Denardin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To review the history, epidemiology, etiology, gestational aspects, diagnosis and prognosis of imperfect twinning. DATA SOURCES Scientific articles were searched in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, using the descriptors "conjoined twins", "multiple pregnancy", "ultrasound", "magnetic resonance imaging" and "prognosis". The research was not delimited to a specific period of time and was supplemented with bibliographic data from books. DATA SYNTHESIS: The description of conjoined twins is legendary. The estimated frequency is 1/45,000-200,000 births. These twins are monozygotic, monochorionic and usually monoamniotic. They can be classified by the most prominent fusion site, by the symmetry between the conjoined twins or by the sharing structure. The diagnosis can be performed in the prenatal period or after birth by different techniques, such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography. These tests are of paramount importance for understanding the anatomy of both fetuses/children, as well as for prognosis and surgical plan determination. CONCLUSIONS Although imperfect twinning is a rare condition, the prenatal diagnosis is very important in order to evaluate the fusion site and its complexity. Hence, the evaluation of these children should be multidisciplinary, involving mainly obstetricians, pediatricians and pediatric surgeons. However, some decisions may constitute real ethical dilemmas, in which different points should be discussed and analyzed with the health team and the family.

  17. Ethical dilemmas in geosciences. We can ask, but, can we ans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Philosophy tries to provide rules and principles enabling us to solve the ethical dilemmas we face in a wide sense, and, also, in particular fields as (geo)sciences. One alleged goal of ethics is to figure out how to solve ethical dilemmas. But, is it possible to solve such dilemmas? And what can we do if we cannot? An ethical dilemma is a problem that offers an alternative between two or more solutions, none of which proves to be fully acceptable in practice. Dilemmas arise because of conflict between the rightness or wrongness of the actions/means and the goodness or badness of the consequences/ends. They involve an apparent conflict between moral imperatives, in which to follow one would result in violating another. Can a geoscientist answer those dilemmas that appear in the exercise of his/her profession? Always? In some cases? Not at all? What if we cannot? Have we? As geoscientists, we hold the knowledge (our scientific principles), not perfect, thus fallible, and always subject to changes and improvements. If we have to do what is right, based on our principles, despite potentially bad consequences, then we have to be sure that the principle is an absolute true. But, are our scientific principles such a true? Deontological theories may deny that consequences are of any concern, provided the intention was a good one. However, if our principles are not perfect (and we know that): can we answer in one or other direction to geoethical dilemmas in good faith? Although, if a geoscientist action does usually go for the best consequences, sometimes bad consequences may be accepted. But, who have to decide to accept the bad consequences? If ethical dilemmas with a conflict between means and ends cannot simply be solved by a geoscientist, where is our duty? If there is no real solution to the conflict of the right with the good, in the sense that a solution usually seems to be expected, what has to be our professional attitude? When we have duties of omission and when

  18. Examining an ethical dilemma: a case study in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narrigan, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    When clients and health care providers differ in their understanding of what is right or wrong, an ethical dilemma may arise. Such dilemmas occur in everyday clinical practice. Health care providers have the professional responsibility to analyze these dilemmas. A clinical case study of an ethical dilemma that occurred in a cross-cultural context is examined. The language of the client and provider differed, and no interpreter service was available. Given these conditions, the provider's ethical dilemma was whether, and if so how, to give safe, satisfying care that respected the needs of a client with limited English proficiency. Measuring the morality of the provider's decisions and actions using Rawls' ethical theory of social justice finds deficits. A 10-step Bioethical Decision-Making Model by Thompson is used to demonstrate one method for analyzing the moral dimension of a clinical scenario focusing on the decisions and actions taken by a midwife. Scrutinizing ethically challenging clinical encounters will result in better understanding of the moral dimensions of practice.

  19. Complexity of the Current High and New Technology of Life Science Facing Ethical Dilemma during Its Development%论高新生命科学技术发展的伦理困境复杂性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉宇

    2015-01-01

    The current high and new technology of life science facing ethical dilemma during its development ,which is beyond general medical ethical issues on its complexity . The ethical complexity derives from three factors : the diversification of bioethical issues initiated by the complexity of the post‐modern moral diversification ;the high and new technology of life science not only intervenes in the body function ,but also causes the other interventions which are beyond physical body ;the complexity of the response of the current Chinese bioethics . This paper considered that bioethics exploration under the Chinese discourse system was a worthy development path .However ,how to integrate the traditional culture ,western incoming culture and the modern Chinese culture to solve the Chinese bioethical problems is a long and difficult way .%当下高新生命科学技术在发展过程中面临着诸多伦理困境,而其复杂性超过了一般性的医学道德问题。高新生命科学技术伦理困境的复杂性源于三个因素:当下后现代道德多元化的复杂性所引发的生命伦理问题多元化;高新生命科学技术不仅干预身体机能,还引发超身体干预;中国当下生命伦理学应对的复杂性。中国话语体系下的生命伦理学探索是值得发展的路径,但如何整合传统文化、西方传入文化和当下中国现代文化,以解决中国本土的生命伦理问题,任重而道远。

  20. Ethical Fairy Tales: Using Fairy Tales as Illustrative Ethical Dilemmas with Counseling Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kathryn L.; Malone, Stefanie L.

    2012-01-01

    Learning to navigate ethical dilemmas is important in counseling students' training. According to the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2009 standards, counseling students must receive ethics education. A common goal for counselor educators is to assist students in translating ethical theory into…

  1. Ethical Fairy Tales: Using Fairy Tales as Illustrative Ethical Dilemmas with Counseling Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kathryn L.; Malone, Stefanie L.

    2012-01-01

    Learning to navigate ethical dilemmas is important in counseling students' training. According to the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2009 standards, counseling students must receive ethics education. A common goal for counselor educators is to assist students in translating ethical theory into…

  2. Ethical dilemmas and PD as important steps towards critical e-government design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Jesper Bull

    2014-01-01

    -government is enacted inside government is sparse. Technology mediated public services in real world entail ethical dilemmas. By extracting ethical dilemmas from a qualitative e-government participatory design study, this paper shows how ethical dilemmas may inform future e-government design and design processes...

  3. Liberal democracy and nuclear despotism: two ethical foreign policy dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Doyle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article advances a critical analysis of John Rawls's justification of liberal democratic nuclear deterrence in the post-Cold War era as found in The Law of Peoples. Rawls's justification overlooked how nuclear-armed liberal democracies are ensnared in two intransigent ethical dilemmas: one in which the mandate to secure liberal constitutionalism requires both the preservation and violation of important constitutional provisions in domestic affairs, and the other in which this same mandate requires both the preservation and violation of the liberal commitment to international legal arrangements and to the rule of law generally. On this view, the choice to violate constitutional provisions and international legal arrangements is evidence of nuclear despotism. Moreover, this choice does not imply that the ethical foreign policy dilemmas were resolved. Instead, it implies that the dilemmas force liberal democratic governments into implementing ethically paradoxical policy outcomes.

  4. Nurses' workplace distress and ethical dilemmas in Tanzanian health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Elisabeth; Mbusa, Ester; Wadensten, Barbro

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Tanzanian nurses' meaning of and experiences with ethical dilemmas and workplace distress in different care settings. An open question guide was used and the study focused on the answers that 29 registered nurses supplied. The theme, ;Tanzanian registered nurses' invisible and visible expressions about existential conditions in care', emerged from several subthemes as: suffering from (1) workplace distress; (2) ethical dilemmas; (3) trying to maintaining good quality nursing care; (4) lack of respect, appreciation and influence; and (5) a heavy workload that did not prevent registered nurses from struggling for better care for their patients. The analysis shows that, on a daily basis, nurses find themselves working on the edge of life and death, while they have few opportunities for doing anything about this situation. Nurses need professional guidance to gain insight and be able to reflect on their situations, so that they do not become overloaded with ethical dilemmas and workplace distress.

  5. Do not resuscitate: reflections on an ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeannie

    This is a reflective account of an ethical dilemma encountered while on placement on a cardiology ward. Reflection is a process which allows practitioners to reveal and expose thoughts, behaviours and feelings that are present at a particular time. All reflective models are based on the principle that purposeful reflection results in a better understanding and awareness, thus enhancing clinical practice (Driscoll and Teh 2001). The Gibbs' Reflective Cycle has been selected for its simplicity and ease of use to aid personal development. The dilemma was identified and analysed from a professional, ethical and legal perspective. Pseudonyms are used to maintain confidentiality and protect the identities of all parties involved.

  6. The Ethical Dilemma in Globalizing Small Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob C. Nganga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is largely a theoretical exposition of ethical challenges that stifle the participation of smallbusinesses in the global value chains with particular reference to businesses in developing countries. Smallbusinessclusters in developing economies, remain locked in low-quality products and low-income markets.With little innovation, small business lack capacity to produce goods that can attract foreign demand. Yet,small enterprises must provide productive employment for an increasing number of job-seekers in thesecountries. Innovation growth in small enterprises is normally limited to apprenticeship process and as such,results in a dead-end to progress of indigenous technology. To promote creation and growth of small business,efforts are required to put the small business clusters in a global value chain as this enhances possibilities ofnew market avenues and as well as benching market indigenous innovative efforts to international standards.Exposure of small business to global market also encourages networks formations which are conduits of skillsfor quality improvement and valuation of products from the sector. However, the quest for improving theparticipation and market share of small business is faced with challenges that stem from the way the process ofglobalization has taken place over time. To overcome these globalization challenges, policy makers mustcontend with ethical issues that require to be addressed through consultative efforts at international arena.

  7. Ethical Dilemmas in Hospice and Palliative Care Units for Advanced Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyhan Bag

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethical dilemmas that face heathcare team members referring patients to hospice programs include the ability of clinicians to predict accurately a patient bad prognosis. They affect day-to-day patient management in palliative care programs including healthcare team members concern over the use of morphine because possible respiratory depression in the patient, the question of providing enteral or parenteral nutritional support to patients who refuse to eat and the question of providing parenteral fluids to patients who are unable to take fluids during the terminal phrases of illness. A final ethical dilemma concerns the methodology for quality of life research in palliative care. Understanding and resolving these ethical dilemmas is an important factor determining the quality of the caring for the patient. The ethical dilemmas that are discussed in the article likely to occur in this period can be prevented through his/her participation in the decisions concerning his or her treatment. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 65-79

  8. Surgical nurses' perceptions of ethical dilemmas, moral distress and quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKeyser Ganz, Freda; Berkovitz, Keren

    2012-07-01

    To describe surgical nurses' perceived levels of ethical dilemmas, moral distress and perceived quality of care and the associations among them. Nurses are committed to providing quality care. They can experience ethical dilemmas and moral distress while providing patient care. Little research has focused on the effect of moral distress or ethical dilemmas on perceived quality of care. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. After administration and institutional Research Ethics Committee approval, a researcher requested 119 surgical nurses working in two Israeli hospitals to fill out three questionnaires (personal background characteristics; Ethical Dilemmas in Nursing and Quality of Nursing Care). Data collection took place from August 2007 to January 2008. Participant mean age was 39·7 years. The sample consisted mostly of women, Jewish and married staff nurses. The majority of nurses reported low to moderate levels of ethical dilemma frequency but intermediate levels of ethical dilemma intensity. Frequency of ethical dilemmas was negatively correlated with level of nursing skill, meeting patient's needs and total quality of care. No important correlations were found between intensity of ethical dilemmas and quality of care. Levels of ethical dilemma frequency were higher than intensity. Nurses tended to be satisfied with their level of quality of care. Increased frequency of ethical dilemmas was associated with some aspects of perceived quality of care. Quality of care is related to ethical dilemmas and moral distress among surgical nurses. Therefore, efforts should be made to decrease the frequency of these feelings to improve the quality of patient care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. What Social Workers Should Know About Ethics: Understanding and Resolving Ethical Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine P. Congress

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing ethical issues and dilemmas that arise in professional practice is crucial for social work practitioners, educators, and students. After a discussion about the limited, although growing, literature on social work ethics, the ten main tenets form the most current NASW Code of Ethics are presented. These topics include limits to confidentiality, confidentiality and technology, confidentiality in family and group work, managed care, cultural competence, dual relationships, sexual relationships, impairment and incompetence of colleagues, application to administrators and relevance to social work educators. In addition to understanding the Code of Ethics, social workers can use the ETHIC model of decision making for resolving ethical dilemmas. This easy to use five step process includes examining personal, agency, client, and professional values, thinking about ethical standards and relevant laws, hypothesizing about consequences, identifying the most vulnerable, and consulting with supervisors and colleagues. A case example involving confidentiality, HIV/AIDS and family therapy demonstrates how social workers can use the ETHIC model.

  10. A virtue ethics approach to moral dilemmas in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, P

    2003-10-01

    Most moral dilemmas in medicine are analysed using the four principles with some consideration of consequentialism but these frameworks have limitations. It is not always clear how to judge which consequences are best. When principles conflict it is not always easy to decide which should dominate. They also do not take account of the importance of the emotional element of human experience. Virtue ethics is a framework that focuses on the character of the moral agent rather than the rightness of an action. In considering the relationships, emotional sensitivities, and motivations that are unique to human society it provides a fuller ethical analysis and encourages more flexible and creative solutions than principlism or consequentialism alone. Two different moral dilemmas are analysed using virtue ethics in order to illustrate how it can enhance our approach to ethics in medicine.

  11. Elementary science education: Dilemmas facing preservice teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sherry Elaine

    Prospective teachers are involved in a process of induction into a culture of teaching that has rules, or codes of conduct for engaging in teaching practice. This same culture of teaching exists within a larger culture of schooling that also has values and norms for behaviors, that over time have become institutionalized. Teacher educators are faced with the challenging task of preparing preservice teachers to resolve dilemmas that arise from conflicts between the pressure to adopt traditional teaching practices of schooling, or to adopt inquiry-based teaching practices from their university methods classes. One task for researchers in teacher education is to define with greater precision what factors within the culture of schooling hinder or facilitate implementation of inquiry-based methods of science teaching in schools. That task is the focus of this study. A qualitative study was undertaken using a naturalistic research paradigm introduced by Lincoln and Guba in 1985. Participant observation, interviews, discourse analysis of videotapes of lessons from the methods classroom and written artifacts produced by prospective teachers during the semester formed the basis of a grounded theory based on inductive analysis and emergent design. Unstructured interviews were used to negotiate outcomes with participants. Brief case reports of key participants were also written. This study identified three factors that facilitated or hindered the prospective teachers in this research success in implementing inquiry-based science teaching in their field placement classrooms: (a) the culture of teaching/teacher role-socialization, (b) the culture of schooling and its resistance to change, and (c) the culture of teacher education, especially in regards to grades and academic standing. Some recommendations for overcoming these persistent obstacles to best practice in elementary science teaching include: (a) preparing prospective teachers to understand and cope with change

  12. Leadership styles in ethical dilemmas when head nurses make decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydziunaite, V; Lepaite, D; Suominen, T

    2013-06-01

    The overlooked aspect in Lithuania is the dearth of leaders among head nurses, who bear the responsibility for decisions in ethical dilemmas. Understanding the application of leadership styles is fundamental to ensuring head nurses' abilities to influence outcomes for healthcare providers and patients. To identify the leadership styles applied by head nurses in decision making in ethical dilemmas on hospital wards. The data were collected by questionnaires completed by head nurses (n = 278) working in five major state-funded hospitals in each of the five regions of Lithuania. The data were analysed using SPSS 16.0, calculating descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Head nurses apply democratic, affiliative, transformational and sustainable leadership styles when resolving ethical dilemmas. The application of leadership styles is associated not only with specific situations, but also with certain background factors, such as years of experience in a head nurse's position, ward specialization and the incidence of ethical dilemmas. Nurses having been in a head nurse's position over 10 years use primitive leadership styles, notably bureaucratic leadership, more often than do those head nurses with only a few years of experience in such a position. The results highlight the need for head nurses to reflect on their practices and to find new ways of learning from practice, colleagues and patients. Head nurses' managerial decisions due to their 'executive power' can turn into a new state-of-the-art leadership in nursing. © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  13. Teachers' Critical Incidents: Ethical Dilemmas in Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore ethical dilemmas in critical incidents and the emerged responses that these incidents elicit. Most teachers try to suppress these incidences because of the unpleasant feelings they evoke. Fifty teachers participated in the study. A three-stage coding process derived from grounded theory was utilized. A taxonomy…

  14. Teachers' Critical Incidents: Ethical Dilemmas in Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore ethical dilemmas in critical incidents and the emerged responses that these incidents elicit. Most teachers try to suppress these incidences because of the unpleasant feelings they evoke. Fifty teachers participated in the study. A three-stage coding process derived from grounded theory was utilized. A taxonomy…

  15. Inclusivity and Moral Technology: Ethical Dilemmas in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Marnie

    1999-01-01

    Explores inclusive education and moral technology issues in the (Australian) English curriculum. Highlights issues of cultural diversity, culturally critical orientations to text in the postmodern classroom, and English teachers' ethical dilemmas when developing an inclusive curriculum. Discusses adolescents' reactions to short fiction collected…

  16. Inclusivity and Moral Technology: Ethical Dilemmas in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Marnie

    1999-01-01

    Explores inclusive education and moral technology issues in the (Australian) English curriculum. Highlights issues of cultural diversity, culturally critical orientations to text in the postmodern classroom, and English teachers' ethical dilemmas when developing an inclusive curriculum. Discusses adolescents' reactions to short fiction collected…

  17. Ethical Dilemmas Associated with Self-Disclosure in Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Michelle R.

    2004-01-01

    Personal and reflective writing assignments in psychology courses may prompt self-disclosure that presents ethical dilemmas. The literature discusses responsibilities of the psychologist in instances such as disclosure of suicidal ideation or threats of harming others within the context of the therapist-client relationship, but significantly less…

  18. ETHICAL REASONING: THE IMPACT OF ETHICAL DILEMMA, EGOISM AND BELIEF IN JUST WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfooz A. Ansari

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a 3 [dilemma: coercion and control (CC; conflict of interest (CI; personal integrity (PI] × 2 (egoism: self; organization × 2 (belief in just world (BJW: strong; weak between-subjects factorial design, we hypothesized the main effects of ethical dilemma, egoism, and BJW, and their interaction on ethical reasoning. The first two factors were manipulated by means of six vignettes and the last factor was a subject variable. Experimental participants were 384 managers representing 14 manufacturing organizations. Overall, utilitarian reasoning appeared to be a frequently used type of reasoning in relation to personal integrity dilemma involving self-interest, whereas principled reasoning appeared to be a frequently used reasoning in relation to personal integrity dilemma involving organizational-interest. BJW interacted strongly with the two manipulated factors in predicting ethical reasoning. Implications of the study are discussed, potential caveats are specified and recommendations for future research are provided.

  19. Levinas, Ethics, Pedagogy, and the Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    Emmanuel Levinas is one of those thinkers whose ideas about ethics and morality have something to say about teaching. Concerned with ethics in a world that seemed devoid of morality, Levinas posited the ultimate responsibility of the I for the Face. The Face, or the Other, the not-me according to Levinas, requires and demands this responsibility…

  20. [Adolescent drug use. Ethical dilemma in the diagnostic-therapeutic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalí Costa, J L; Pardo Gallego, M; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Serrano Troncoso, E; Gabaldon Fraile, S; Luaces Cubells, C

    2009-04-01

    Illegal drug use among adolescents has increased in recent years in Spain, as well as has the risk behaviours and problems typical of adolescence. The results of studies on drug use during this stage of life reveal the serious and wide-ranging consequences that can arise. Emergency services are often the first to receive and deal with these and its professionals must face situations that pose contradictions between two of the basic ethical principles, the principle of autonomy and the principle of beneficence; an ethical dilemma that is addressed in this work.

  1. A reconstructive ethic in the face of globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Adriana Alvarez Osses

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation seeks to expound a critical ethic of hegemonic globalisation. We reflect on the common good ethics of Franz Hinkelammert, the contribution made by the intercultural dialogue of Raúl Fornet-Betancourt, the Ethics of Liberation of Enrique Dussel, and the situated, contextual thinking of Rodolfo Kusch. At the same time, the text reflects on the dilemmas of  globalisation, especially with respect to polarisation and mutual incomprehension. We attempt to descry prospects for a situated critical ethic in the face of the cultural and economic order which governs the world. It is also important to consider the relevance of other assumptions which seek  to change the logic of negation and non-recognition that have led to the Self and Totality. As part of this prospect, we propose a reconstructive ethic for the rehabilitation of a world order which has no ears for the voice of the victims of the profit imperative and a functional ethic based on utilitarism. This reveals a void in supportive behavior which demands a more responsible attitude towards those sectors which have always been passed over. Thus we propose  an ethic which will strengthen dialogue in pursuit of other possibilities for the human race.

  2. Nursing students' responses to ethical dilemmas in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Grypdonck, M; Vuylsteke-Wauters, M; Janssen, P J

    1997-01-01

    In literature as well as in nursing practice a growing concern about nurses' ethical competence can be observed. Based on the cognitive theory of moral development by Kohlberg, this research examined nursing students' ethical behaviour in five nursing dilemmas. Ethical behaviour refers not only to the ethical reasoning of nursing students but also to the relationship between reasoning and behaviour. Kohlberg's definition of morality was refined by adding a care perspective. The results show that the majority of students can be located in the fourth moral stage according to Kohlberg's theory, that is, the conventional level of moral development. This finding implies that students are still guided by professional rules, norms and duties, and have not (yet) succeeded in making personal ethical decisions on the basis of their own principles and acting according to such decisions.

  3. The Genetic Counselor's Role in Managing Ethical Dilemmas Arising in the Laboratory Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcom, Jessica R; Kotzer, Katrina E; Waltman, Lindsey A; Kemppainen, Jennifer L; Thomas, Brittany C

    2016-10-01

    Ethical dilemmas are encountered commonly in the setting of the clinical genetic testing laboratory due to the complexity of genetic testing and the number of relevant stakeholders involved in the genetic testing process. Based on their clinical training and role within the laboratory, genetic counselors are uniquely equipped to identify and facilitate management of ethical dilemmas. This paper reviews the historical context of ethical theory and its application to the field of genetic counseling. Theoretical and applied ethics are explored in the context of dilemmas arising in the laboratory setting, with a focus on the role of the laboratory genetic counselor in managing ethical dilemmas. Two illustrative case examples are provided.

  4. Marginal capacity: the dilemmas faced in assessment and declaration.

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, V.

    1995-01-01

    Ontario is adopting informed-consent legislation that reflects increasing emphasis on patient autonomy and self-determination. Capacity assessment and declaration by physicians and other health care professionals are pivotal under the new legislation. While grossly capable or incapable patients provide few management difficulties, marginally capable patients provide a challenge for physicians who must assess capacity, and decisions concerning them emphasize the ethical dilemma involved in any...

  5. RPA Field Simulations:Dilemma Training for Legal and Ethical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-07

    RPA Field Simulations: Dilemma -Training for Legal and Ethical Decision-Making Professor Wilbur Scott Dept of...composite scenarios were developed incorporating best features, i.e., “ ethically challenging” moments: wicked dilemmas * cadets were...Impact on Ethics and Law of Armed Conflicts” University of Zurich 6-7 November 2015 BACKGROUND  4th year cadets in Behavioral

  6. Designing and Introducing Ethical Dilemmas into Computer-Based Business Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Paul L.; Scott, Timothy W.; Anderson, Philip H.

    2006-01-01

    This article makes two contributions to the teaching of business ethics literature. First, it describes the steps involved in developing effective ethical dilemmas to incorporate into a computer-based business simulation. Second, it illustrates these steps by presenting two ethical dilemmas that an instructor can incorporate into any business…

  7. A Model for Making Decisions about Ethical Dilemmas in Student Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert L.; Liu, Jin; Burgess, Yin

    2017-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study we investigated the development of a generalized ethics decision-making model that can be applied in considering ethical dilemmas related to student assessment. For the study, we developed five scenarios that describe ethical dilemmas associated with student assessment. Survey participants (i.e., educators) completed an…

  8. Designing and Introducing Ethical Dilemmas into Computer-Based Business Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Paul L.; Scott, Timothy W.; Anderson, Philip H.

    2006-01-01

    This article makes two contributions to the teaching of business ethics literature. First, it describes the steps involved in developing effective ethical dilemmas to incorporate into a computer-based business simulation. Second, it illustrates these steps by presenting two ethical dilemmas that an instructor can incorporate into any business…

  9. [Ethical dilemmas in public health care organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda Vicandi, M

    2014-01-01

    Today you can ask if you can apply ethics to organizations because much of the greater overall impact decisions are not made by private individuals, are decided by organizations. Any organization is legitimate because it satisfies a need of society and this legitimacy depends if the organization does with quality. To offer a good service, quality service, organizations know they need to do well, but seem to forget that should do well not only instrumental level, must also make good on the ethical level. Public health care organizations claim to promote attitudes and actions based on ethics, level of their internal functioning and level of achievement of its goals, but increased awareness and analysis of its inner workings can question it. Such entities, for its structure and procedures, may make it difficult for ethical standards actually govern its operation, also can have negative ethical consequences at the population level. A healthcare organization must not be organized, either structurally or functionally, like any other organization that offers services. In addition, members of the organization can not simply be passive actors. It is necessary that operators and users have more pro-ethical behaviors. Operators from the professionalism and users from liability. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. [Hospitalization by court order: ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; Schneider, Dulcinéia Ghizoni; Schneider, Nadir; dos Santos, Alessandra Ceci; Leal, Sandra Maria Cezar

    2013-03-01

    A qualitative study aimed at describing the situations experienced and the ethical dilemmas of nurses in the process of referring and receiving hospitalized patients by court order who require admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). A partially structured interview was conducted with 10 nurses who worked in the ICU and 10 who worked in the Emergency Room (ER) in public and private hospitals in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The data was analyzed following the Semantic Analysis. The results indicated that nurses experienced ethical dilemmas associated with problems of overcrowding in emergency rooms and ICUs, poor specialized technology and orientation as to the benefits provided by law. We concluded that it is essential for nurses to participate in discussions that allow the planning of the different instances that have been promoting this often chaotic situation.

  11. The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Hove, S. [MEDIAN, Passeig Pintor Romero 8, 08197 Valldoreix (Spain); Le Menestrel, Marc [University Pompeu Fabra, Ramon Trias Fargas 25-27, 08005 Barcelona (Spain); De Bettignies, Henri-Claude [INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, F-77305 Fontainebleau Cedex (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors.

  12. Moral distress related to ethical dilemmas among Spanish podiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo; Salvadores Fuentes, Paloma

    2010-05-01

    To describe the distress experienced by Spanish podiatrists related to ethical dilemmas, organisational matters, and lack of resources. A 2008 email survey of a representative sample of 485 Spanish podiatrists presenting statements about different ethical dilemmas, values and goals at the workplace. The response rate was 44.8%. Of all the respondents, 57% described sometimes having to act against their own conscience as distressing. Time constraints is the main cause of moral distress (67%) and 58% of respondents said that they found it distressing that patients have long waits for treatment. Distress related to inadequate treatment due to economical constraints or ineffectiveness was described by 60% of the podiatrists. Another 51% reported that time spent on administration and documentation is distressing. Female doctors experienced more distress than their male colleagues. Last, 36% of respondents reported that their workplace lacked strategies for dealing with ethical dilemmas. These study results identify moral distress among Spanish podiatrists mainly related to time constraints, patient demands and lack of resources. Moral distress varies with sex and age. Organisational strategies such as moral deliberation and responsive evaluation offer the potential to address moral distress.

  13. Medical and ethical dilemma in brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streba, Irina; Damian, Simona; Ioan, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    For centuries, death has been defined, medically speaking, as the irreversible cessation of breathing and of nervous and cardiac activity. What radically changed this definition was the introduction of the concept "brain death" in 1968, by the "Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School". According to it, the irreversible coma was associated with brain death and considered to be a criterion for the diagnosis of the deceased individual. The evergrowing need for transplant organs (provided this respects the dead honor rule, stipulating that organs can't be harvested unless someone is deceased) lead to making arbitrary decisions regarding the establishment of the exact time of death during the process of "losing life". What actually triggers the controversy related to the concept of brain death is the dilemma of associating this concept with that of biologic death or death of the person, the difference between the two being made by whether the mental characteristics are accepted or not in defining and individualizing the death of the human being. Given these circumstances, a dilemma appears--that of defining the death of the individual: we define death, as it has been for centuries, as the moment when the cardio-respiratory function no longer exists, which leads to the loss of tens of thousands of lives that might have been saved through transplant. Yet, this may lead to manipulating the border between life and death, with the risk of trespassing each individual's right to life.

  14. Ethical Dilemmas Involving the Military Awards Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    with the regulation and history ofmilitary awards. We must ensure that as Senior Leaders we do not put our subordinate leaders in these ethical...and not in keeping with the regulation and history of military awards. We must ensure that as Senior Leaders we do not put our subordinate leaders

  15. Virtue ethics: an approach to moral dilemmas in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arries, E

    2005-08-01

    Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and non-malificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consideration for the interpersonal nature of clinical nursing practice on the one hand, and is not always clear on how to judge which consequences are best on the other hand. When principles are in conflict it is not always easy to decide which principle should dominate. Furthermore, these frameworks do not take into account the importance of the interpersonal and emotional element of human experience. On the contrary, decision-making about moral issues in healthcare demands that nurses exercise rational control over emotions. This clearly focuses the attention on the nurse as moral agent and in particular their character. In this article I argue that virtue ethics as an approach, which focus of the character of a person, might provide a more holistic analysis of moral dilemmas in nursing and might facilitate more flexible and creative solutions when combined with other theories of moral decision-making. Advancing this argument, firstly, I provide the central features of virtue ethics. Secondly I describe a story in which a moral dilemma is evident. Lastly I apply virtue ethics as an approach to this moral dilemma and in particular focusing on the virtues inherent in the nurse as moral agent in the story.

  16. Virtue ethics: an approach to moral dilemmas in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Arries

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and nonmalificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consideration for the interpersonal nature of clinical nursing practice on the one hand, and is not always clear on how to judge which consequences are best on the other hand. When principles are in conflict it is not always easy to decide which principle should dominate. Furthermore, these frameworks do not take into account the importance of the interpersonal and emotional element of human experience. On the contrary, decision making about moral issues in healthcare demands that nurses exercise rational control over emotions. This clearly focuses the attention on the nurse as moral agent and in particular their character. In this article I argue that virtue ethics as an approach, which focus of the character of a person, might provide a more holistic analysis of moral dilemmas in nursing and might facilitate more flexible and creative solutions when combined with other theories of moral decision-making. Advancing this argument, firstly, I provide the central features of virtue ethics. Secondly I describe a story in which a moral dilemma is evident. Lastly I apply virtue ethics as an approach to this moral dilemma and in particular focusing on the virtues inherent in the nurse as moral agent in the story.

  17. End-of-life ethical dilemmas in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Grosek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustaining vital functions in critically ill in the ICU frequently allows prolongation of patient’s life even in circumstances where the treatment has lost its medical rationale and/or there is no hope for the patient’s condition to improve. Decision-making about termination of such treatment – usually referred to as futile, useless or inappropriate –, frequently presents a difficult ethical dilemma not only for the intensivists and other health-care workers but also for the patients and their relatives. The principles of biomedical ethics present a useful framework for decision-making in ethical dilemmas but cannot offer sufficiently explicit guidelines. Besides, the concepts of futility or futile treatment in the ICU are also not unequivocally defined. Thus, the decision regarding continuing or stopping treatment should be based on careful evaluation of the balance between its expected efficiency and benefits on the one hand and the burden imposed upon the patient on the other. If the burden clearly exceeds the expected benefits, the ethically sound decision is to terminate such treatment.

  18. Peeling Onions: Some Tools and a Recipe for Solving Ethical Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joan Claire

    1993-01-01

    Presents a process for solving ethical dilemmas: define the problem; identify facts; determine values; "slice" the problem different ways--duties, virtues, rights, and common good; rank ethical considerations; consult colleagues; and take action. (SK)

  19. Faced with a dilemma: Danish midwives' experiences with and attitudes towards late termination of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Hjøllund Christiansen, Anne; Petersson, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    and is influenced by a growing personalisation of the aborted foetus. The midwives strongly supported women’s legal right to choose termination of pregnancy and considerations about the foetus’ right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns...... ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late termination of pregnancy. Other professions as well as structural factors at the hospital highly influenced the midwives’ ability to organize their work with late terminations. There is a need for more...

  20. Information-sharing ethical dilemmas and decision-making for public health nurses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Chisato; Ota, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Masami

    2015-08-01

    Information sharing is one of the most important means of public health nurses collaborating with other healthcare professionals and community members. There are complicated ethical issues in the process. To describe the ethical dilemmas associated with client information sharing that Japanese public health nurses experience in daily practice and to clarify their decision-making process to resolve these dilemmas. Data were collected using a three-phase consensus method consisting of semi-structured interviews, self-administered questionnaires and a group interview. We surveyed administrative public health nurses in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. The semi-structured interviews were carried out with 12 administrative public health nurses, and the self-administered questionnaires were sent to all 899 administrative public health nurses. The group interview was carried out with eight administrative public health nurses. Ethical approval was granted by the ethics committee of the School of Health Sciences, Nagoya University, Japan (8-158, 9-130). Information-sharing ethical dilemmas occurred most often when clients' decisions did not coincide with the nurses' own professional assessments, particularly when they faced clinical issues that were inherently ambiguous. In their decision-making processes, nurses prioritised 'protection of health and life'. These findings suggest that, above all, they sought to address urgent risks to clients' lives while upholding the principle of client autonomy as much as possible. In such cases, the nurses made decisions regarding whether to share information about the client depending on the individual situation. Public health nurses should protect the client's health while taking into consideration their relationship with the client. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Ethical and medical dilemmas of space tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Melinda

    Space tourism is an important new venture, however it raises several issues that must be addressed; namely, the medical implications associated with space flight and potential for ethical problems surrounding the safety of such travel. It seems highly likely that businesses involved in space tourism could find themselves liable for any passenger deaths or injuries, if they are found to have been negligent. This paper, therefore, discusses such issues as the medical facilities that need to be made available on board a space facility, and the companies' duty to disclose to potential passengers the risks associated with microgravity and the likelihood of space sickness, loss of bone density, disease, and pregnancy.

  2. A Survey of Current and Projected Ethical Dilemmas of Rehabilitation Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Michael T.; Cartwright, Brenda Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study surveyed current and projected ethical dilemmas of rehabilitation counselors. Method: As a mixed-methods approach, the study used both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Results: Of the 211 participants who completed the survey, 116 (55.0%) reported an ethical dilemma. Based on the descriptions, common themes involved roles…

  3. Comparison of Ethical Dilemmas across Public and Private Sectors in Rehabilitation Counseling Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Scott; Garcia, Jorge; Siblo, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the nature of ethical dilemmas most frequently reported by rehabilitation counselors in the private and public sectors and determine if significant differences exist in how practitioners experience ethical dilemmas in these two settings. Method: A mixed-methods internet-based survey design was utilized and included descriptive,…

  4. Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenhorn, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Results of a survey asking public school counselors in Virginia to indicate their most common and most challenging ethical dilemmas are presented. Ninety-two school counselors reported that the most common and challenging ethical dilemmas included those involving student confidentiality, dual relationship with faculty, parental rights, and acting…

  5. Comparison of Ethical Dilemmas across Public and Private Sectors in Rehabilitation Counseling Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Scott; Garcia, Jorge; Siblo, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the nature of ethical dilemmas most frequently reported by rehabilitation counselors in the private and public sectors and determine if significant differences exist in how practitioners experience ethical dilemmas in these two settings. Method: A mixed-methods internet-based survey design was utilized and included descriptive,…

  6. Ethical tensions faced by dietetic students during fieldwork

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-05

    Sep 5, 2013 ... and moral values become particularly problematic and evident in arguments when ... An ethical dilemma creates tension when people hold conflicting views on a .... For example, children experiencing growth faltering for a ...

  7. Interviewing with or without the partner present? – An underexposed dilemma between ethics and methodology in nursing research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Haahr, Anita; Hall, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    on data collection. Design Discussion paper that draws on data from three phenomenological studies. Data sources Referring to three cases from our phenomenological studies, we discuss the different types of ethical and methodological dilemmas faced when undertaking joint and separate interviews...... be caught up in a dilemma between ethical concerns and methodological considerations. We argue that the presence of the partner during an interview session might influence the data and favour expressions of shared rather than individual experiences of the phenomenon studied. Furthermore, we argue......Aim To discuss ethical and methodological challenges related to in-depth interviews with patients and partners when interviewed together or separately. Background Increased interest in exploring illness phenomena from both patients' and partners' perspectives has emerged. The decision about how...

  8. Levinas's ethics as a basis of healthcare - challenges and dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordtug, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Levinas's ethics has in the last decades exerted a significant influence on Nursing and Caring Science. The core of Levinas's ethics - his analyses of how our subjectivity is established in the ethical encounter with our neighbour or the Other - is applied both to healthcare practice and in the project of building an identity of Nursing and Caring Science. Levinas's analyses are highly abstract and metaphysical, and also non-normative. Thus, his analyses cannot be applied directly to practical problems and questions. Theorists in Nursing and Caring Science are generally aware of this. Nevertheless, many of them use Levinas's analyses to explore and solve questions of practical and normative character. This article focuses on the challenges and dilemmas of using Levinas in this manner. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents some central ideas of Levinas's ethics based on the latter part of his authorship. The main focus is on the radicalism of Levinas's critique of the symbolic order (which includes concepts, categories, knowledge, etc.) - or as he puts it 'the said' - as a basis for subjectivity and responsibility. Levinas's notions of saying, anarchy, and singularity accentuate this point of view. These notions refer to conditions in the language, which counteract the symbolic order in the ethical encounter to such an extent that it becomes an incomprehensible. Levinas gives the argumentation a metaphysical frame: The encounter with the incomprehensible is an encounter with the Holy, which is not the ontological God, but a metaphysical desire. It is a mystery as to what this means, and herein lies possibly the main challenge when using Levinas's ethics in science and research: How to maintain the radicalism of his critique of the symbolic order when this is to be communicated in a scientific context that expects clarification of statements and ideas? The second part of the article explores this question by examining how some theorists use

  9. Twelve tips for the construction of ethical dilemma case-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsuen-Chiuan

    2017-04-01

    Ethical dilemma case-based examination (ethics Script Concordance Test, eSCT) is a written examination that can be delivered to a large group of examinees for the purpose of measuring high-level thinking. As it accommodates for diverse responses from experts, ethics SCT allows partial credits. The framework of ethics SCT includes a vignette with an ethical dilemma and a leading question, which asks the examinee to "agree" or "disagree", plus the shifts of prior decision by adding new information. In this article, the following tips for constructing this type of examination are provided: use "true" dilemmas, select an appropriate ethical issue, target high-level cognitive tasks, list key components, keep a single central theme, device quality scoring system, be important and plausible, be clear, select quality experts, validate, know the limitation, and be familiar with test materials. The use of eSCT to measure ethical reasoning ability appears to be both viable and desirable.

  10. A Right to Die?: Ethical Dilemmas of Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Dianne E.; Hazler, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Euthanasia is considered an important social issue of the 1990s. Mental health professionals should understand the differences between voluntary, involuntary, passive, and active euthanasia; mercy killing, and assisted suicide. Encourages counselors to ethically formulate client-supportive positions to help clients face life-and-death decisions.…

  11. A Right to Die?: Ethical Dilemmas of Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Dianne E.; Hazler, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Euthanasia is considered an important social issue of the 1990s. Mental health professionals should understand the differences between voluntary, involuntary, passive, and active euthanasia; mercy killing, and assisted suicide. Encourages counselors to ethically formulate client-supportive positions to help clients face life-and-death decisions.…

  12. Ethical Aspects of Professional Dilemmas in the First Year of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvik, Marit; Smith, Kari; Helleve, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Education is described as a moral enterprise and many of the professional dilemmas teachers encounter have an ethical aspect. Research on ethical situations that novice teachers experience, however, seems to be limited, and we know little about how teacher education can prepare student-teachers for dealing with ethical issues. In this article a…

  13. Feeling trapped and being torn: Physicians' narratives about ethical dilemmas in hemodialysis care that evoke a troubled conscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This study is part of a major study about difficulties in communicating ethical problems within and among professional groups working in hemodialysis care. Describing experiences of ethically difficult situations that induce a troubled conscience may raise consciousness about ethical problems and thereby open the way to further reflection. The aim of this study was to illuminate the meanings of being in ethically difficult situations that led to the burden of a troubled conscience, as narrated by physicians working in dialysis care. Method A phenomenological hermeneutic method was used to analyze the transcribed narrative interviews with five physicians who had varying lengths of experience in nephrology. Results The analysis shows that physicians working in hemodialysis care suffered from a troubled conscience when they felt torn by conflicting demands and trapped in irresolution. They faced ethical dilemmas where they were forced to make crucial decisions about life or death, or to prioritize when squeezed between time restraints and professional and personal demands. In these ethical dilemmas the physicians avoided arousing conflicts, were afraid of using their authority, were burdened by moral responsibility and felt devalued and questioned about their way of handling the situation. The findings point to another way of encountering ethical dilemmas, being guided by their conscience. This mean sharing the agony of deciding how to act, being brave enough to bring up the crucial problem, feeling certain that better ways of acting have not been overlooked, being respected and confirmed regarding decisions made. Conclusion The meanings of being in ethically difficult situations that led to the burden of a troubled conscience in those working in hemodialysis care, indicate the importance of increasing the level of communication within and among various professional groups - to transform being burdened by a troubled conscience into using conscience as a

  14. Advanced case of glioblastoma multiforme and pregnancy. An ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rasheedy, Intisar M; Al-Hameed, Fahad M

    2015-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant form of the glial tumors. Advanced and treated GBM is rarely associated with pregnancy for many reasons. Glioblastoma multiforme presenting during pregnancy carries unique challenges to the patient, baby, family, and health care providers. We describe an unusual case of advanced GBM that was treated with maximum doses of chemotherapy and radiations, and she became pregnant and presented at eighteenth weeks of gestation. Her medical management was associated with a significant ethical dilemma. We managed to deliver the baby safely through cesarean section at week 28 despite the critical condition of the mother. Unfortunately, the mother died 2 weeks post delivery. We concluded that although recurrent and treated GBM is rarely associated with pregnancy and carries dismal prognosis, but if it occurs, it can still be carried, and a multidisciplinary team work is the key for successful outcome.

  15. Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Psychological Counsellors Working at Different Institutions and Their Attitudes and Behaviours as a Response to These Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolay Akfert, Serpil

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the ethical dilemmas experiencing by the counsellors who work at different conditions and what they do to solve these dilemmas as well as the obstacles they have to deal with while resolving the dilemmas. This is a qualitative study in which multi-state pattern was used. For this research, 40 counsellors…

  16. Ethical dilemmas related to the HIV-positive person in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botes, Annatjie; Otto, Marianne

    2003-05-01

    This study's objectives were: (1) to describe and explore the ethical dilemmas surrounding the HIV-positive person in the workplace in South Africa; and (2) to describe the Rational Interaction for Moral Sensitivity (RIMS) approach as a possible mechanism for solving these ethical dilemmas. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research design was used. The target populations were HIV-positive employees and occupational health nurses working for a South African company. Data collected through individual HIV-positive employee interviews and occupational health nurse workgroups were analysed. The ethical dilemmas were conceptualized and described within the theoretical framework of the principles of ethics, namely, autonomy, beneficence, justice and confidentiality. To elicit a solution to the dilemmas, the data were recontextualized using the RIMS approach, a group decision-making strategy designed for the business environment.

  17. Ethical Perspective on Quality of Care: The Nature of Ethical Dilemmas Identified by New Graduate and Experienced Speech Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Belinda J.; Lincoln, Michelle; Blyth, Katrina; Balandin, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Speech pathologists are confronted by ethical issues when they need to make decisions about client care, address team conflict, and fulfil the range of duties and responsibilities required of health professionals. However, there has been little research into the specific nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech pathologists and…

  18. Care-managers' professional choices: ethical dilemmas and conflicting expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnessen, Siri; Ursin, Gøril; Brinchmann, Berit Støre

    2017-09-07

    Care-managers are responsible for the public administration of individual healthcare decisions and decide on the volume and content of community healthcare services given to a population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the conflicting expectations and ethical dilemmas these professionals encounter in their daily work with patients and to discuss the clinical implications of this. The study had a qualitative design. The data consisted of verbatim transcripts from 12 ethical reflection group meetings held in 2012 at a purchaser unit in a Norwegian city. The participants consist of healthcare professionals such as nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists and social workers. The analyses and interpretation were conducted according to a hermeneutic methodology. This study is part of a larger research project. Two main themes emerged through the analyses: 1. Professional autonomy and loyalty, and related subthemes: loyalty to whom/what, overruling of decisions, trust and obligation to report. 2. Boundaries of involvement and subthemes: private or professional, care-manager or provider and accessibility. Underlying values and a model illustrating the dimensions of professional responsibility in the care-manager role are suggested. The study implies that when allocating services, healthcare professionals need to find a balance between responsibility and accountability in their role as care-managers.

  19. Two cases of pontocerebellar hypoplasia: ethical and prenatal diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibola, Ayodeji J; Netzloff, Michael; Samaraweera, Ranji; Omar, Said A

    2010-02-01

    We report the clinical characteristics and the outcome of two cases of pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) in one family. The objective of this report is to describe the mode of presentation, discuss the clinical course, and address the dilemma of prenatal diagnosis and the prospects for genetic diagnosis for PCH. The first case is a 4-year-old boy in whom the diagnosis was made in the neonatal period. Despite extensive prenatal follow-up during the mother's subsequent pregnancy, prenatal diagnosis could not be made and a second affected child was born. Both siblings have severe developmental delay. The cases raise an important ethical dilemma about the most appropriate intervention if the mother of a child affected with PCH becomes pregnant. PCH is considered to have an autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance and a recurrence risk of 25% in each pregnancy. Until recently when genetic mutations in PCH types 2, 4, and 6 began to be identified, the lack of well-recognized genetic testing precluded experts from making clear recommendations. The best advice to these parents was difficult or elusive. With two children currently affected, should the parents terminate or continue with the latest pregnancy? Extensive monitoring with serial prenatal ultrasound failed in the previous pregnancy and resulted in the birth of the second affected child. It is evident that serial ultrasound scan may not be helpful in making the diagnosis prenatally. Therefore, other diagnostic modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging may be necessary and should be considered. With the identification of genetic basis or mutations in PCH types 2, 4, and 6 and possible development of commercial genetic testing for these types of PCH, reproductive decision or genetic testing during pregnancy should be recommended to affected families to enable informed choices. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  20. Resolving the ethical dilemma of nurse managers over chemically-dependent colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, W; Wilson, D

    1996-12-01

    This paper addresses the nurse manager's role regarding chemically-dependent nurses in the workplace. The manager may intervene by: terminating the contract of the impaired colleague; notifying a disciplinary committee; consulting with a counselling committee; or referring the impaired nurse to an employee assistance programme. A dilemma may arise about which of these interventions is ethically the best. The ethical theories relevant to nursing involve ethical relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian ethics, Kohlberg's justice, and Gilligan's ethic of care. Nurse managers first need to understand these theories in order to clarify their own perceptions and attitudes towards chemical dependency, and then satisfactorily resolve this ethical dilemma. Education and social learning are routes to a better understanding of chemical dependency and to broadening the ethical dimensions of nurse managers.

  1. Ethical and philosophical consideration of the dual-use dilemma in the biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Seumas; Selgelid, Michael J

    2007-12-01

    The dual-use dilemma arises in the context of research in the biological and other sciences as a consequence of the fact that one and the same piece of scientific research sometimes has the potential to be used for bad as well as good purposes. It is an ethical dilemma since it is about promoting good in the context of the potential for also causing harm, e.g., the promotion of health in the context of providing the wherewithal for the killing of innocents. It is an ethical dilemma for the researcher because of the potential actions of others, e.g., malevolent non-researchers who might steal dangerous biological agents, or make use of the original researcher's work. And it is a dilemma for governments concerned with the security of their citizens, as well as their health. In this article we construct a taxonomy of types of "experiments of concern" in the biological sciences, and thereby map the terrain of ethical risk. We then provide a series of analyses of the ethical problems and considerations at issue in the dual-use dilemma, including the impermissibility of certain kinds of research and possible restrictions on dissemination of research results given the risks to health and security. Finally, we explore the main available institutional responses to some of the specific ethical problems posed by the dual-use dilemma in the biological sciences.

  2. 'I am in blood Stepp'd in so far...': ethical dilemmas and the sports team doctor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Brian Meldan; McCarthy, Conor

    2010-02-01

    There are many ethical dilemmas that are unique to sports medicine because of the unusual clinical environment of caring for players within the context of a team whose primary objective is to win. Many of these ethical issues arise because the traditional relationship between doctor and patient is distorted or absent. The emergence of a doctor-patient-team triad has created a scenario in which the team's priority can conflict with or even replace the doctor's primary obligation to player well-being. As a result, the customary ethical norms that provide guidelines for most forms of clinical practice, such as patient autonomy and confidentiality, are not easily translated in the field of sports medicine. Sports doctors are frequently under intense pressure, whether implicit or explicit, from management, coaches, trainers and agents, to improve performance of the athlete in the short term rather than considering the long-term sequelae of such decisions. A myriad of ethical dilemmas are encountered, and for many of these dilemmas there are no right answers. In this article, a number of ethical principles and how they relate to sports medicine are discussed. To conclude, a list of guidelines has been drawn up to offer some support to doctors facing an ethical quandary, the most important of which is 'do not abdicate your responsibility to the individual player.''I am in blood Stepp'd in so far that, should I wade no more, Returning would be as tedious as to go o'er' -Macbeth: Act III, Scene IV, William Shakespeare.

  3. Reconsidering prenatal screening: an empirical-ethical approach to understand moral dilemmas as a question of personal preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E; Timmermans, D R M; van Leeuwen, E

    2009-07-01

    In contrast to most Western countries, routine offer of prenatal screening is considered problematic in the Netherlands. The main argument against offering it to every pregnant woman is that women would be brought into a moral dilemma when deciding whether to use screening or not. This paper explores whether the active offer of a prenatal screening test indeed confronts women with a moral dilemma. A qualitative study was developed, based on a randomised controlled trial that aimed to assess the decision-making process of women when confronted with a test offer. A sample of 59 women was interviewed about the different factors balanced in decision-making. Participants felt themselves caught between a need for knowledge and their unwillingness to take on responsibility. Conflict was reported between wishes, preferences and ethical views regarding parenthood; however, women did not seem to be caught in a choice between two or more ethical principles. Participants balanced the interests of the family against that of the fetus in line with their values and their personal circumstances. Therefore, we conclude that they are not so much faced with an ethical dilemma as conflicting interests. We propose that caregivers should provide the opportunity for the woman to discuss her wishes and doubts to facilitate her decision. This approach would help women to assess the meaning of testing within their parental duties towards their unborn child and their current offspring.

  4. Ethical Dilemmas of Rehabilitation Counselors: Results of an International Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvydas, Vilia; Barros-Bailey, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the results of an international qualitative study conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethical dilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation counselors…

  5. Ethical Dilemmas of Rehabilitation Counselors: Results of an International Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvydas, Vilia; Barros-Bailey, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the results of an international qualitative study conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethical dilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation counselors…

  6. Comparing Two Training Strategies to Increase Competence in Solving Ethical Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jorge; Froehlic, Robert; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rejiester, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This study examined which of two training models delivered through the internet led to better cultural competence in resolving ethical dilemmas with a sample of rehabilitation professionals. One type of training involved teaching a transcultural integrative model of ethical decision-making while the other training involved using the same…

  7. Comparing Two Training Strategies to Increase Competence in Solving Ethical Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jorge; Froehlic, Robert; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rejiester, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This study examined which of two training models delivered through the internet led to better cultural competence in resolving ethical dilemmas with a sample of rehabilitation professionals. One type of training involved teaching a transcultural integrative model of ethical decision-making while the other training involved using the same…

  8. Transplant in a patient with comorbid psychiatric illness: an ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyum, Eric N; Brown, Douglas; Zihni, Ahmed M; Keune, Jason D; Hong, Barry A; Kodner, Ira J; Ray, Shuddhadeb

    2014-11-01

    This article addresses a difficult ethical dilemma that transplant surgeons may potentially encounter: whether a patient with a psychiatric illness is a good candidate for a liver transplant. This case study illustrates the challenges involved when considering the ethical principles of patient self-determination, distributive justice of scarce medical resources, "social worth," and protection of vulnerable patient populations. Are patients with psychiatric illness able to provide consent for transplantation? Is it possible to avoid misallocating valuable donor organs and, at the same time, fairly allocate these resources? This article seeks to answer these questions and provide insight into this ethical dilemma.

  9. Of mode of reasoning and context: Danish evidence of accounting student’s moral reasoning abilities in resolving ethical dilemmas related to fraud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillalamarri, Sudarshan Kumar; Holm, Claus

    reasoning. The purpose of this study is three-fold, using Kohlberg’s theory of cognitive moral development; this study aims to examine the effect of mode of reasoning on ethical decision-making. Secondly, this study presents the respondents with two ethical contexts in auditing viz. fraud and mundane....... The aim is to examine the effect of facing ethical dilemmas arising out of detection of fraud, on the ethical decision-making ability of students. The impetus behind this is to observe the preparedness of accounting students in dealing with issues related to fraud. Finally, this study aims to examine...... were focused on ethical decision making ability of Danish auditors’, this study closes the loop by presenting an accounting students perspective. By providing an understanding of the complex issues involved in ethical decision-making, this study also serves strategically in strengthening ethics...

  10. The Changes of Ethical Dilemmas in Palliative Care. A Lesson Learned from Comparison Between 1998 and 2013 in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, An-Hsuan; Su, Peijen; Hu, Wen-Yu; Yao, Chien-An; Cheng, Shao-Yi; Lin, Yen-Chun; Chiu, Tai-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The current ethical dilemmas met by healthcare professionals were never compared with those 15 years ago when the palliative care system was newly developing in Taiwan. The aim of the study was to investigate the ethical dilemmas met by palliative care physicians and nurses in 2013 and compare the results with the survey in 1998. This cross-sectional study surveyed 213 physicians and nurses recruited from 9 representative palliative care units across Taiwan in 2013. The compared survey in 1998 studied 102 physicians and nurses from the same palliative care units. All participants took a questionnaire to survey the "frequency" and "difficulty" of 20 frequently encountered ethical dilemmas, which were grouped into 4 domains by factor analysis. The "ethical dilemma" scores were calculated and then compared across 15 years by Student's t tests. A general linear model analysis was used to identify significant factors relating to a high average "ethical dilemma" score in each domain. All of the highest-ranking ethical dilemmas in 2013 were related to insufficient resources. Physicians with less clinical experience had a higher average "ethical dilemma" score in clinical management. Physicians with dissatisfaction in providing palliative care were associated a higher average "ethical dilemma" score in communication. Nurses reported higher "ethical dilemma" scores in all items of resource allocation in 2013. Further analysis confirmed that, in 2013, nurses had a higher average "ethical dilemma" score in resource allocation after adjustment for other relating factors. Palliative care nursing staff in Taiwan are more troubled by ethical dilemmas related to insufficient resources than they were 15 years ago. Training of decision making in nurses under the framework of ethical principles and community palliative care programs may improve the problems. To promote the dignity of terminal cancer patients, long-term fundraising plans are recommended for countries in which the

  11. Considering ethical dilemmas related to brain death in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Chatziioannidis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain death (BD, as the irreversible and permanent loss of cerebral and brainstem function, is relatively uncommon among newborns who need life support. It is considered the result of an acute and irreversible central nervous system insult. Asphyxia, severe intracranial hemorrhage and infection are the most common causes of  BD in children. BD diagnosis is usually based on clinical criteria. Dilemmas about life prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants – as brain dead infants are – has become challenging since neonatal intensive care unit (NICU care has developed, quality of life and resource issues are nowadays continuously underlined. Caring for premature babies is expensive and costs have risen especially since an increased number of infants with handicaps survives. Intensivists’ main duty is first to save lives and then to interrupt treatment in certain conditions like detrimental brain damage. The objective of this article is to present ethical decisions regarding brain dead newborns in order to balance between organ donation necessities and withholding/withdrawing treatment, with respect to the important role of infants’ parents in the process.

  12. Commentary: The forensic report--an inevitable nexus for resolving ethics dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ethics-related dilemmas arise in forensic psychiatry as in all psychiatric practice. Although most can be resolved by following the AAPL Ethics Guidelines and the AAPL Ethics Questions and Answers, the more complex ones inevitably have no easy solutions. Ethics-based duties can conflict without clear guidance on prioritization. Weighing competing factors necessitates more than merely following a rule, since there are potentially conflicting rules, and ethical practitioners may prioritize them differently. Concerns pertaining to the death penalty and defendants who are victims of discrimination are especially difficult. Such considerations usually are in the realm of aspirational ethics, with conclusions open to debate. They need consideration by most practitioners concerned with determining the most ethical course of action. Much as it is insufficient for an ethical citizen merely to avoid breaking the law, it is not enough to avoid violating any one guideline while remaining blind to context. Most such dilemmas need resolution long before testimony and arise first in the way the forensic assessment is conducted and in decisions on the data to be included in a report and how they are presented. Although there can be legitimate differences of opinion about how to weigh and resolve conflicting considerations, ethics-related dilemmas should not be sidestepped.

  13. REASONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF APPLIED LEADERSHIP STYLES IN ETHICAL DILEMMAS WHEN NURSE MANAGERS MAKE DECISIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydziunaite, V; Suominen, T

    2014-09-21

    Abstract Background: Understanding the reasons and consequences of leadership styles in ethical dilemmas is fundamental to exploring nurse managers' abilities to influence outcomes for patients and nursing personnel. Purpose: To explain the associations between different leadership styles, reasons for their application and its consequences when nurse managers make decisions in ethical dilemmas. Methods: The data were collected between 15 October 2011 and 30 April 2012 by statistically validated questionnaire. The respondents (n=278) were nurse managers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0, calculating Spearman's correlations, the Stepwise Regression and ANOVA. Results: The reasons for applying different leadership styles in ethical dilemmas include personal characteristics, years in work position, institutional factors, and the professional authority of nurse managers. The applied leadership styles in ethical dilemmas are associated with the consequences regarding the satisfaction of patients', relatives' and nurse managers' needs. Conclusions: Nurse managers exhibited leadership styles oriented to maintenance, focusing more on the "doing the job" than on managing the decision-making in ethical dilemmas.

  14. Ethical Dilemmas in the Biology Undergraduate Classroom: Role-Playing Congressional Testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Wiles

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Students often struggle with weighing multiple sides of bioethical dilemmas. The assignment described here incorporates discussion of ethical dilemmas in an upper-level undergraduate biology course. Students are introduced to ethical dilemmas in genetics through discussion of issues in small groups. They are then polled as to what positions they take on each dilemma and are assigned to argue a side opposite of one of their choices. Each student receives a subpoena to appear before a Senate subcommittee to give testimony as an expert witness. This role-play provides students with a starting point and motivation for developing their argument as well as a way to distance themselves from their own opinions by acting as someone holding the opposite stance. At the end of the presentations, students are required to reflect on the experience.

  15. Ethical dilemmas in the biology undergraduate classroom: role-playing congressional testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Amy M

    2014-12-01

    Students often struggle with weighing multiple sides of bioethical dilemmas. The assignment described here incorporates discussion of ethical dilemmas in an upper-level undergraduate biology course. Students are introduced to ethical dilemmas in genetics through discussion of issues in small groups. They are then polled as to what positions they take on each dilemma and are assigned to argue a side opposite of one of their choices. Each student receives a subpoena to appear before a Senate subcommittee to give testimony as an expert witness. This role-play provides students with a starting point and motivation for developing their argument as well as a way to distance themselves from their own opinions by acting as someone holding the opposite stance. At the end of the presentations, students are required to reflect on the experience.

  16. Virtue ethics - an old answer to a new dilemma? Part 1. Problems with contemporary medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselbrook, David

    2015-02-01

    The commonest practical model used in contemporary medical ethics is Principlism. Yet, while Principlism is a widely accepted consensus statement for ethics, the moral theory that underpins it faces serious challenges in its attempt to provide a coherent and accepted system of moral analysis. This inevitably challenges the stability of such a consensus statement and makes it vulnerable to attack by competitors such as preference consequentialism. This two-part paper proposes an inclusive version of virtue theory as a more grounded system of moral analysis. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  17. Ethical issues in presymptomatic genetic testing for minors: a dilemma in Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresneau, Brice; Brugières, Laurence; Caron, Olivier; Moutel, Grégoire

    2013-06-01

    In 2001, a French expert panel recommended that presymptomatic tests should not be carried out on minors in families affected by Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), flying in the face of possible parental demands for such testing. We decided to investigate the legitimacy of such a recommendation. We conducted a national multicenter survey using self-administered questionnaires mailed to French oncogeneticists in 33 regional centers in France. We aimed to (1) determine the extent to which these doctors were confronted with parental requests for TP53 testing, (2) study how they responded to these requests and the arguments used and (3) assess the attitude of oncogeneticists concerning the normative framework regulating the prescription of tests for minors. Twenty oncogeneticists stated that they had managed at least one LFS family. Eleven of these doctors had been confronted with parental requests for testing and three had prescribed such tests on at least one occasion. The oncogeneticists gave balanced medical, psychological and ethical arguments, highlighting the dilemma they face in the decision-making process. This dilemma is due to the lack of a consensus concerning this recommendation, which aims to protect the minor by limiting presymptomatic tests to cases in which a clear medical benefit can be demonstrated but which prevents the unique situation of particular families from being taken into account. In conclusion, the recommendation has a normative status but first, from a clinical stance, it is difficult to dissociate it from the evaluation of individual family situations, and second, the benefit of a specific medical follow-up for TP53 mutation carriers is currently being investigated.

  18. Study of ethical perception of undergraduate students on dilemmas concerning tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Alexandre Antunes Paes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the ethical perception of students on ethical dilemmas of social, economic and environmental common tourist activity. The practice of tourism constantly presents ethical dilemmas in their social actors need to make decisions. Depending on how decisions are taken the effects of such actions, can generate benefits or harms to society due to the constant changes that occur between these social agents when there is the purchase of services and tourism products. It is due to such aspects that makes prominent analyze the ethical perception of the students, since they will be future decision makers and tourism service providers. In this way, we interviewed 103 undergraduate students of tourism course at a public university in northeastern Brazil considering a non-probability sampling for accessibility and convenience. For this analysis was developed with a range of social, economic and environmental nature scenarios. The items were based on six moral issues pertaining to the integrative model Jones (1991 which together form the moral intensity: the magnitude of the impact, social consensus effect of probability, time immediacy, concentration and proximity effect. Among the results is greater ethical awareness for environment-related dilemma and an unethical action tendency for economic die dilemma.

  19. Staff attitudes to talking openly about ethical dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Leila

    2010-01-01

    on business ethics communication and behavior reveals that a good predictor of ethical conduct is open workplace dialogue about ethics.  In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers are proposed on the basis of focus group...... aim at providing insight that can help managers in their attempts to promote open workplace dialogue about ethical issues....

  20. Applying an ethical decision-making tool to a nurse management dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toren, Orly; Wagner, Nurith

    2010-05-01

    This article considers ethical dilemmas that nurse managers may confront and suggests an ethical decision-making model that could be used as a tool for resolving such dilemmas. The focus of the article is on the question: Can nurse managers choose the ethically right solution in conflicting situations when nurses' rights collide with patients' rights to quality care in a world of cost-effective and economic constraint? Managers' responsibility is to ensure and facilitate a safe and ethical working environment in which nurses are able to give quality care to their patients. In nursing it is frequently declared that managers' main obligations are to patients' needs and their rights to receive quality care. However, managers' ethical responsibilities are not only to patients but also to the nurses working in their institution. This article describes a real (but disguised) situation from an Israeli health care context to illustrate the dilemmas that may arise. The question is posed of whether nurse managers can maintain patients' and nurses' rights and, at the same time, fulfill their obligation to the conflicting demands of the organization. The article also offers a way to solve conflict by using an ethical decision-making model.

  1. Researching Transformation at a South African University--Ethical Dilemmas in the Politics of Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Salma

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the complexity of researching institutional culture and the ethical dilemmas posed in representing staff according to race and gender, drawing on three qualitative studies undertaken at a previously white South African university between 2000 and 2007. During the research process, issues of representation became a concern…

  2. "Bridge over Troubled Water": Phenomenologizing Filipino College Deans' Ethical Dilemmas in Academic Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catacutan, Maria Rosario G.; de Guzman, Allan B.

    2016-01-01

    This phenomenological study intends to capture and describe Filipino college deans' lived experiences of ethical dilemmas as they carry out their work as administrators. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews and following Collaizzi's method, data was collected and subjected to cool and warm analyses yielding a set of themes and sub-themes that…

  3. Ethical Tensions and Dilemmas Experienced in a Northern Ugandan Social Work Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ethical tensions and dilemmas that arose for 2 U.S. social work students during an 8-month international clinical internship in northern Uganda. These students encountered cultural differences related to issues of confidentiality, autonomy, and self-determination. Student experiences were analyzed using the cultural…

  4. Ethical Tensions and Dilemmas Experienced in a Northern Ugandan Social Work Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ethical tensions and dilemmas that arose for 2 U.S. social work students during an 8-month international clinical internship in northern Uganda. These students encountered cultural differences related to issues of confidentiality, autonomy, and self-determination. Student experiences were analyzed using the cultural…

  5. Ethical Dilemmas in Applying Second-Wave Information Technology to Social Work Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikel, Julie G.; Cnaan, Ram A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes second wave information technology in social work as characterized by modern databases, decision-support systems, expert systems, electronic networks, and therapeutic applications that have greater impact on direct practice. Assesses ethical dilemmas posed by use of second-wave information technology in social work practice to encourage…

  6. Staff attitudes to talking openly about ethical dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Leila

    2010-01-01

    To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. Research...... on business ethics communication and behavior reveals that a good predictor of ethical conduct is open workplace dialogue about ethics.  In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers are proposed on the basis of focus group...... interviews at the healthcare company Novo Nordisk.   It was found that interest in discussing ethical issues was influenced by two main factors: employee conceptualizations of business ethics, and the level of inter-collegial trust, credibility, and confidence. In this paper, by examining these phenomena, I...

  7. Staff Attitudes to Talking Openly About Ethical Dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Leila

    2011-01-01

    , research on business ethics communication and behavior indicates a relatively clear, positive link between open workplace dialogue about ethical issues and ethical conduct. In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers...... are proposed on the basis of focus group interviews with staff at the Denmark and Brazil affiliates of the global healthcare company Novo Nordisk. It was found that interest in discussing ethical issues was influenced by two main factors: employee conceptualizations of business ethics, and the level of inter......To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. In contrast...

  8. The principle of double effect applied to ethical dilemmas of social robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of social robots into society will require that they follow ethical principles which go beyond consequentialism. In this paper, I show how to apply the principle of double effect to solve an ethical dilemma involving robots studied by Alan Winfield and colleagues. The principle...... of double effect states conditions for ethically acceptable behavior when there are both positive and negative consequences of an action. I propose a formal semantics with actions, causes, intentions, and utilities based upon the work of Judea Pearl, John Horty, and others. With this formal semantics...

  9. Learning Environment at Work: Dilemmas Facing Professional Employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Andersen, Anders Siig

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to increase efficiency and democracy, the modernozation of the public sector has involved an increase in market and user control, an increased application of technology, a decentralization of responsibilities and competencies, and more management and personnel development initiatives....... The article analyze the learning environment in two govermental worksites in Denmark and shows how professional employees respond to the dilemmas posed by modernization at work....

  10. To tell or not to tell? The ethical dilemma of the would-be whistleblower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Janet

    2010-05-01

    Despite the growing emphasis placed on the responsible conduct of research, little attention has been devoted to the question of what an individual should do upon discovering research misconduct. This article takes seriously the dilemma of a would-be whistleblower. It identifies ethical considerations that can be taken into account in moral decision-making about reporting research misconduct. It also offers rough guidelines about the moral significance of each consideration in the decision-making process based on the facts of the case in question. The article, therefore, offers tools for a would-be whistleblower to use to arrive at a defensible resolution to a difficult dilemma.

  11. Liderazgo etico (Ethical Leadership). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    Until very recently, ethical issues were given little attention in administrator-preparation programs. This digest in Spanish outlines the ethical responsibilities of school leaders and the dilemmas that they face. It offers the following suggestions for resolving ethical dilemmas: (1) Leaders should have and be willing to act on a definite sense…

  12. Painful dilemmas: the ethics of animal-based pain research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M.; Sandøe, Peter; Olsson, I. A. S.

    2009-01-01

    While it has the potential to deliver important human benefits, animal-based pain research raises ethical questions, because it involves inducing pain in sentient beings. Ethical decision-making, connected with this variety of research, requires informed harm-benefit analysis, and the aim of this...

  13. A Study of Reactions to Ethical Dilemmas in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacks, Don W.; Wright, Donald K.

    In order to justify ethical instruction for media students, 109 university students in basic communication courses were asked to confront a moral-ethical problem, specifically, the request for information that a sponsoring company or organization wished suppressed. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: working for a public…

  14. Educational Context: Preparing Accounting Students to Identify Ethical Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiot, Mary Jo; Daniel, David; Glandon, Sid; Glandon, TerryAnn

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of different contexts in an educational process on measures of ethical sensitivity and levels of moral reasoning of accounting majors in the first Intermediate Accounting course. The educational process compared a context that centers on ethical issues with one that focuses on technical accounting issues. At the end of the…

  15. Painful dilemmas: the ethics of animal-based pain research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M.; Sandøe, Peter; Olsson, I. A. S.

    2009-01-01

    While it has the potential to deliver important human benefits, animal-based pain research raises ethical questions, because it involves inducing pain in sentient beings. Ethical decision-making, connected with this variety of research, requires informed harm-benefit analysis, and the aim of this...

  16. Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

  17. Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

  18. Moral Dilemmas in a Military Context. a Case Study of a Train the Trainer Course on Military Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baarle, Eva; Bosch, Jolanda; Widdershoven, Guy; Verweij, Desiree; Molewijk, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Moral competence is important for soldiers who have to deal with complex moral dilemmas in practice. However, openly dealing with moral dilemmas and showing moral competence is not always easy within the culture of a military organization. In this article, based on analysis of experiences during a train the trainer course on military ethics, we…

  19. Moral Dilemmas in a Military Context. a Case Study of a Train the Trainer Course on Military Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baarle, Eva; Bosch, Jolanda; Widdershoven, Guy; Verweij, Desiree; Molewijk, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Moral competence is important for soldiers who have to deal with complex moral dilemmas in practice. However, openly dealing with moral dilemmas and showing moral competence is not always easy within the culture of a military organization. In this article, based on analysis of experiences during a train the trainer course on military ethics, we…

  20. Moral dilemmas in professions of public trust and the assumptions of ethics of social consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubiel-Zielińska Paulina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to show the possibility of applying assumptions from ethics of social consequences when making decisions about actions, as well as in situations of moral dilemmas, by persons performing occupations of public trust on a daily basis. Reasoning in the article is analytical and synthetic. Article begins with an explanation of the basic concepts of “profession” and “the profession of public trust” and a manifestation of the difference between these terms. This is followed by a general description of professions of public trust. The area and definition of moral dilemmas is emphasized. Furthermore, representatives of professions belonging to them are listed. After a brief characterization of axiological foundations and the main assumptions of ethics of social consequences, actions according to Vasil Gluchman and Włodzimierz Galewicz are discussed and actions in line with ethics of social consequences are transferred to the practical domain. The article points out that actions in professional life are obligatory, impermissible, permissible, supererogatory and unmarked in the moral dimension. In the final part of the article an afterthought is included on how to solve moral dilemmas when in the position of a representative of the profession of public trust. The article concludes with a summary report containing the conclusions that stem from ethics of social consequences for professions of public trust, followed by short examples.

  1. Strategies for Navigating Common Ethical Dilemmas Encountered by Operational Radiation Safety Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Robert J; Rios, Janelle

    2016-02-01

    Because operational radiation safety professionals can encounter ethical dilemmas in the course of their work, codes of ethics and professional standards of conduct are maintained by the Health Physics Society (HPS) and the American Academy of Health Physics (AAHP). While these works provide valuable guidance, they do not operationalize the types of ethical dilemmas radiation safety practitioners might encounter. For example, consider the ethical conundrum of “dual loyalty,” defined as the situation in which an individual holds simultaneous obligations to two or more parties. In the case of radiation safety, practicing professionals hold obligations to the workers being protected and to the leaders of the organization. If these obligations are in conflict, serious difficulties can arise. The conundrum of dual loyalty is described and a strategy for reducing its effect is discussed. Two other common ethical issues; “confidentiality” and “organizational dissent” are similarly presented. A foundation from which to launch an ongoing dialogue about ethical issues within the radiation safety profession is also proposed.

  2. Strategies for Navigating Common Ethical Dilemmas Encountered by Operational Radiation Safety Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, RJ; Rios, J

    2017-01-01

    Because operational radiation safety professionals can encounter ethical dilemmas in the course of their work, codes of ethics and professional standards of conduct are maintained by the Health Physics Society (HPS) and the American Academy of Health Physics (AAHP). While these works provide valuable guidance, they do not operationalize the types of ethical dilemmas radiation safety practitioners might encounter. For example, consider the ethical conundrum of “dual loyalty”, defined as the situation in which an individual holds simultaneous obligations to two or more parties. In the case of radiation safety, practicing professionals hold obligations to the workers being protected and to the leaders of the organization. If these obligations are in conflict, serious difficulties can arise. The conundrum of dual loyalty is described and a strategy for reducing its effect is discussed. Two other common ethical issues; “confidentiality” and “organizational dissent” are similarly presented. A foundation from which to launch an ongoing dialogue about ethical issues within the radiation safety profession is also proposed. PMID:26710164

  3. The impact of a modern medical curriculum on students' proposed behaviour on meeting ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, John; Schwartz, Lisa; McConnachie, Alex; Morrison, Jillian

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of a modern medical curriculum on students' proposed behaviour on encountering ethical dilemmas. Cohort design. University of Glasgow Medical School. The first intake of students into Glasgow's new curriculum (n = 238). Main outcome measure Student answers consistent with consensus professional judgement on the ethical dilemmas posed by the vignettes of the Ethics and Health Care Survey Instrument. The probability of giving a consensus answer was lowest pre-Year 1 and highest post-Year 1. It reduced slightly post-Years 3 and 5, but remained significantly higher than at pre-Year 1. The performance of students undertaking a 1-year intercalated BSc, however, appeared to regress on testing post-Year 4. While the first year of the curriculum had a positive impact on students, the remainder of the curriculum did not impact to the same extent. These findings support the recommendation that small group teaching, the predominant teaching method in Year 1, should be preferred to lecture and large group teaching, the predominant method of the remaining curricular years. Full integration of ethics and law teaching within the rest of the curriculum is recommended, particularly during the clinical years. This has training implications for all medical teachers involved in the curriculum. The assessment of ethics should be incorporated into all formal examinations. It is recommended that ethics be addressed as part of a wider approach to professionalism in order to promote integration.

  4. Virtue ethics--an old answer to a new dilemma? Part 2. The case for inclusive virtue ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselbrook, David

    2015-03-01

    While Principlism is a widely accepted consensus statement for ethics, the moral theory that underpins it faces serious challenges. This two-part paper proposes a version of virtue theory as a more grounded system of moral analysis. Part 2 examines the role of basic moral theory as the foundation to ethics and suggests how virtue theory can be used as a central framework for ethics while being inclusive of insights from deontology and consequentialism.

  5. Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems: An Ethical Leadership Dilemma to Satisfy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Llewellyn E; Tallman, Erin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the parameters and the dynamics of Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) that create an ethical leadership dilemma to satisfy patients in the hospital setting while still ensuring appropriate care for quality clinical outcomes. Under the Affordable Care Act, hospitals and health care systems are in a high-stakes struggle of winners and losers based on HCAHPS scores. This high-stakes struggle creates unintended consequences of an ethical dilemma of doing what is right for the patient versus doing whatever it takes to please the patient in order to achieve high scores of satisfaction that are tied to better reimbursements. This article also reports the results of a national survey of 500 chief executive officers by the authors about the attitudes and frustrations of chief executive officers confronting the wild unrest caused by HCAHPS.

  6. Tolerant Paternalism: Pro-ethical Design as a Resolution of the Dilemma of Toleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridi, Luciano

    2016-12-01

    Toleration is one of the fundamental principles that inform the design of a democratic and liberal society. Unfortunately, its adoption seems inconsistent with the adoption of paternalistically benevolent policies, which represent a valuable mechanism to improve individuals' well-being. In this paper, I refer to this tension as the dilemma of toleration. The dilemma is not new. It arises when an agent A would like to be tolerant and respectful towards another agent B's choices but, at the same time, A is altruistically concerned that a particular course of action would harm, or at least not improve, B's well-being, so A would also like to be helpful and seeks to ensure that B does not pursue such course of action, for B's sake and even against B's consent. In the article, I clarify the specific nature of the dilemma and show that several forms of paternalism, including those based on ethics by design and structural nudging, may not be suitable to resolve it. I then argue that one form of paternalism, based on pro-ethical design, can be compatible with toleration and hence with the respect for B's choices, by operating only at the informational and not at the structural level of a choice architecture. This provides a successful resolution of the dilemma, showing that tolerant paternalism is not an oxymoron but a viable approach to the design of a democratic and liberal society.

  7. Nurse Activism in the newborn intensive care unit: actions in response to an ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Peggy Doyle

    2014-03-01

    Nurses working in a newborn intensive care unit report that treatment decision disagreements for infants in their care may lead to ethical dilemmas involving all health-care providers. Applying Rest's Four-Component Model of Moral Action as the theoretical framework, this study examined the responses of 224 newborn intensive care unit nurses to the Nurses Ethical Involvement Survey. The three most frequent actions selected were as follows: talking with other nurses, talking with doctors, and requesting a team meeting. The multiple regression analysis indicates that newborn intensive care unit nurses with greater concern for the ethical aspects of clinical practice (p = .001) and an increased perception of their ability to influence ethical decision making (p = .018) were more likely to display Nurse Activism. Future research is necessary to identify other factors leading to and inhibiting Nurse Activism as these findings explained just 8.5% of the variance.

  8. Test Your Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currents, 1987

    1987-01-01

    To illustrate the sorts of ethical quandaries institutional advancement professionals face, five fictitious case studies were compiled, including the matching gift muddle, deception dilemma, public relations predicament, vexing vendor, and the plagiarism puzzle. (MLW)

  9. Social Decision Making Social Dilemmas, Social Values, and Ethical Judgments

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Roderick M; Bazerman, Max H

    2009-01-01

    This book, in honor of David Messick, is about social decisions and the role cooperation plays in social life. Noted contributors who worked with Dave over the years will discuss their work in social judgment, decision making and ethics which was so important to Dave.The book offers a unique and valuable contribution to the fields of social psychology and organizational behavior. Ethical decision making, a central focus of this volume, is highly relevant to current scholarship and research in both disciplines. The volume will be suitable for graduate level courses in organizational behavior, s

  10. The case of juvenile polygraphy as a clinical ethics dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Polygraph interrogations are used by half of all surveyed juvenile sex offender (JSO) treatment programs in the United States. This is a distinctive and controversial practice that is rarely if ever used with other juvenile delinquent populations, and that is rarely used or is banned from JSO treatment programs in other countries. Clinical polygraphy is an ethically sensitive issue because it involves mental health therapists in involuntary coercive interrogations of minors. This article reviews core mental health professional ethics principles for juveniles. JSO polygraphy is used as an illustrative issue for applying human rights principles to a practice in light of its benefits, risks, and available alternatives.

  11. Dilemmas with Dilemmas...Exploring the Suitability of Dilemma Stories as a Way of Addressing Ethical Issues in Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settelmaier, Elisabeth

    Traditionally, many science educators have taught science without addressing ethical questions. However, the inclusion of moral discourse in science teaching may help educators to bring to the fore problematic issues in relation to science, and it may offer an opportunity for students to practice their future engagement in the public discourse…

  12. Collaborative Writing in the Business Writing Classroom: An Ethical Dilemma for the Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Dennis H.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that business writing students need to be prepared for the collaborative work and writing they will face in the workplace. Explores ethical problems with the collaborative approach in the classroom. Describes practical solutions to those problems. (SR)

  13. An exploratory study of the pressures and ethical dilemmas in the audit conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Espinosa-Pike

    2016-01-01

    The results of this study are also of particular relevance for the legal and professional Spanish auditing regulators as they face, at this moment, the challenge of developing a set of ethical standards that should improve the ethical judgment and behavior of accounting professionals.

  14. The ethical dilemma of embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzar, Nabeel; Manzar, Bushra; Hussain, Nuzhat; Hussain, M Fawwad Ahmed; Raza, Sajjad

    2013-03-01

    To determine the knowledge, attitude, and ethical concerns of medical students and graduates with regard to Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) research. This questionnaire based descriptive study was conducted at the Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), Pakistan from February to July 2008. A well structured questionnaire was administered to medical students and graduate doctors, which included their demographic profile as well as questions in line with the study objective. Informed consent was taken and full confidentiality was assured to the participants. Data were entered in a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version.12) and analyzed. A total of 204 male and 216 female medical students and doctors were administered questionnaires out of which 105 males (51.4%) and 108 females (50%) were aware of the embryonic stem cell research and its ethical implications. Forty percent males and 47% of females were of the opinion that life begins at conception. Forty-six percent males and 39% females were in favor of stem cell research while only 31% males and 28% females supported the ESC research. Less than 1/3 of students supported using frozen embryos for research purposes while more than 2/3 indicated that they were unlikely to support abortion for stem cell research purposes. The majority of the students were in favor of stem cell research with some reservations regarding ESC research. A sizeable number of students withheld their views, reflecting their poor understanding of medical ethics. The result of the study indicates a need for incorporating bioethics into the medical curriculum.

  15. Biomedical ethical evaluation of Turkish newspaper articles on face transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Göçmen Baykara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of face transplants has become possible in Turkey and the world in recent years. Face transplants are not just an exchange of tissue between the donor and the recipient and are social and ethical issues concerning the health care institutions, health care team and the public. The interest and criticism of the health care professionals, institutions, public and media regarding the transplants have led to various ethical problems.This study aimed to perform an biomedical ethical evaluation of the newspaper articles on face transplant cases. The study used retrospective, descriptive, qualitative and quantitative data. The study scope included news from the three highest-selling newspapers published in Turkey with Internet archives that were accessible online. An evaluation form developed by the investigators after a literature review was used for evaluation of the articles.According to the study data, we found that the articles focused mostly on benefits such as the positive changes in the individual patient and the relatives, the decreased or eliminated psychological pain of the patient, the importance of organ transplants, and increased trust in the health care team. The most common violations in the articles were regarding protection of privacy and confidentiality by announcing the names of the donor and recipient, and sharing the treatment process.In conclusion, the necessary training must be provided to ensure health care staff, health care institutions and journalists possess the necessary ethical sensitivity and act according to professional ethical principles.

  16. The principle of double effect applied to ethical dilemmas of social robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of social robots into society will require that they follow ethical principles which go beyond consequentialism. In this paper, I show how to apply the principle of double effect to solve an ethical dilemma involving robots studied by Alan Winfield and colleagues. The principle...... of double effect states conditions for ethically acceptable behavior when there are both positive and negative consequences of an action. I propose a formal semantics with actions, causes, intentions, and utilities based upon the work of Judea Pearl, John Horty, and others. With this formal semantics......, the question of whether an action is permitted according to the principle of double effect is reduced to deciding whether a certain formula is true or otherwise....

  17. Ethical aspects of face recognition systems in public places.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2004-01-01

    This essay examines ethical aspects of the use of facial recognition technology for surveillance purposes in public and semipublic areas, focusing particularly on the balance between security and privacy and civil liberties. As a case study, the FaceIt facial recognition engine of Identix Corporatio

  18. Ethical and moral dilemmas in the treatment of an abusive parent--the occupational therapy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luboshitsky, D; Weil, F

    1993-01-01

    Treating patients who physically abuse their children creates in the therapist moral and ethical dilemmas which challenge his or her ability to maintain a professional conduct and attitude. In such cases the therapist usually finds himself or herself confronted with the following dilemmas: (a) treatment of a patient who experiences therapy as a no-choice situation; (b) treatment of a patient whose conduct is in conflict with the moral values of the therapist; (c) the obligation of the therapist to report the abusive acts to the authorities versus his or her duty to protect the patient's right to confidentiality; and (d) the therapist's loyalty to the patient's welfare, when it is in conflict with the abused person's welfare. These issues are illustrated through the following case study examined in the context of occupational therapy (OT): A 26-year-old married woman, mother to a four-month-old infant was referred to therapy after causing severe burns to her daughter's hands. As a child the patient experienced physical abuse by her parents. The patient viewed treatment as her only possible means of keeping her child. On the other hand, she was suspicious of verbal therapy, as she assumed that the contents might incriminate her. Occupational therapy was therefore a major therapeutic modality used to assess and improve her disturbed psychosocial occupational performances. The article describes the way in which the OT approach helped overcome and resolve the moral and ethical dilemmas raised in the case.

  19. The clinician's dilemma: two dimensions of ethical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Grant; Chamberlain, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    There is a continuing intense medico-ethico-legal debate around legalized euthanasia and physician assisted suicide such that ethically informed clinicians often agree with the arguments but feel hesitant about the conclusion, especially when it may bring about a change in law. We argue that this confusion results from the convergence of two continua that underpin the conduct of a clinician and are especially prominent in psychiatry. The two continua concern the duty of care and the importance of patient autonomy and they do not quite map into traditional divides in debates about sanctity of life, paternalism, and autonomy. As ethical dimensions, they come into sharp focus in the psychological complexities of end-of-life care and they form two key factors in most ethical and legal or disciplinary deliberations about a clinician's actions. Whereas both dimensions are important when a clinician reflects on what s/he has done or should do, they need careful balancing in a request for euthanasia or physician assisted suicide where the patient wants to take a decisive role in his or her own end-of-life care. However, end-of-life is also a situation where clinicians often encounter 'cries for help' so that both continua are importantly in play. Balancing these two continua without using blunt legal instruments is often required in psychiatric care in such a way as to problematize the idea that patient decisions should dominate the care options available. A simplistic approach to that issue arguably plays into what has been called an 'impoverished construction of life and death' and, some would say, devalues the basic commitments fundamental to medical care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethical dilemmas in nursing: the role of the nurse and perceptions of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinch, W J

    1985-11-01

    This study investigated decision making in ethical dilemmas and attitudes toward professional autonomy. It was based on Murphy's identification of three nurse-patient relationship models. The model identification was the result of Murphy's investigation of the levels of moral reasoning of nurse practitioners, from Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Autonomy is necessary for patient advocacy in Murphy's highest order model of nurse-patient relationship. 109 freshmen, 103 seniors, and 82 graduates (baccalaureate nursing) were examined for model selection, risk-taking, restrictions, and anxiety in the decision-making process in specific situations. Autonomy was measured independently. The most significant results indicated that freshmen were less likely to select the autonomous model of relationship, had lower attitudes toward professional nursing autonomy, and were less willing to take risks. Graduates were lower than either student group in their perceptions of restrictions and anxiety. The responses to each dilemma itself varied by situation in relation to the model preferred.

  1. Using fertile couples as embryo donors: An ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Leila; Omani Samani, Reza

    2014-03-01

    The use of donated embryos has offered hope for infertile couples who have no other means to have children. In Iran, fertility centers use fertile couples as embryo donors. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of this procedure will be discussed. We conclude that embryo-donation should be performed with frozen embryos thus preventing healthy donors from being harmed by fertility drugs. There must be guidelines for choosing the appropriate donor families. In countries where commercial egg donation is acceptable, fertile couples can be procured as embryo donors thus fulfilling the possible shortage of good quality embryos. Using frozen embryos seems to have less ethical, religious and legal problems when compared to the use of fertile embryo donors.

  2. [How does Hinduism analyze an ethical clinical dilemma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samtani B, Suraj; Jadue Z, Mariana; Beca I, Juan Pablo

    2009-11-01

    It is indispensable for physicians to understand and recognize the fusion of different cultures, to deliver the best possible service to patients with different cultural backgrounds, especially when ethical-medical problems are involved. The Hindu community in Chile differs in significant ways with the western culture. This is especially true for some issues such as the belief in reincarnation or gender inequality, among others. These discrepancies can be relevant for the analysis of several bioethical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the different beliefs, traditions and Hindu visions. We hereby present a review of Hinduism, its relation with medical practice and, as an example, a case of abortion in a Hindu family. Reviewing the traditions, beliefs and methods will help to understand and respect the beliefs of different cultures in contemporary and globalized bioethics.

  3. The 'control' question 'test' (CQT) polygrapher's dilemma: logico-ethical considerations for psychophysiological practitioners and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furedy, J J

    1993-11-01

    The so-called 'control' question 'test' (CQT) has been criticized on methodological and ethical grounds by psychophysiologists. The ethical analyses have focussed on the possibility that the CQT's interrogative features may elicit false confessions, but an empirical problem is that the rate of these false confessions is difficult to establish. In this conceptual note, this author raises a logico-ethical problem for the CQT, called the Polygrapher's Dilemma (PD). The two horns of the PD are to damage the innocent examinee classified as deceptive and damage to those examinees' psychological well being who are classified as non-deceptive to the relevant questions and who are not even debriefed concerning their feelings of unease about issues raised by the comparison, so-called 'control' questions. Although there may be arguments about which of the PD's two horns are more serious, there is no doubt that both are, in an absolute sense, ethically negative. Nor is there an ethically justifiable third alternative available. It is also contended that not only practitioners but also researchers (who use the CQT in laboratory, 'mock-crime' situations) are affected by PD. Finally, it is noted that PD exists only for the CQT procedure and not for the more standardized and scientifically based Guilty Knowledge Technique.

  4. Use of animals in experimental research: an ethical dilemma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumans, V

    2004-10-01

    Mankind has been using animals already for a long time for food, for transport and as companion. The use of animals in experimental research parallels the development of medicine, which had its roots in ancient Greece (Aristotle, Hippocrate). With the Cartesian philosophy in the 17th century, experiments on animals could be performed without great moral problems. The discovery of anaesthetics and Darwin's publication on the Origin of Species, defending the biological similarities between man and animal, contributed to the increase of animal experimentation. The increasing demand for high standard animal models together with a critical view on the use of animals led to the development of Laboratory Animal Science in the 1950s with Russell and Burch's three R's of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement as guiding principles, a field that can be defined as a multidisciplinary branch of science, contributing to the quality of animal experiments and to the welfare of laboratory animals. The increased interest in and concern about animal welfare issues led to legislative regulations in many countries and the establishment of animal ethics committees.

  5. Is Kantian ethics left defenseless in the face of evil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stapleton

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Within this essay the question of whether Kantian ethics is left defenseless in the face of evil is unfolded. Some thinkers claim that it is not advisable to rigorously adhere to the categorical imperative. That is to say, it is prudent only to follow the categorical imperative, acting in such a way that you may will that the maxim of your actions becomes a universal law, when one is dealing with other ethical beings. However, when dealing with evil, it is claimed that we should develop other special principles that allow for consequences favorable to the ethical party. This essay takes exception with this claim, demonstrating that for Kant such a problem would not have even appeared. Furthermore, this essay argues that to deviate from the moral principle does damage to the truth and humanity as a whole.

  6. Pain medicine versus pain management: ethical dilemmas created by contemporary medicine and business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeser, John D; Cahana, Alex

    2013-04-01

    The world of health care and the world of business have fundamentally different ethical standards. In the past decades, business principles have progressively invaded medical territories, leading to often unanticipated consequences for both patients and providers. Multidisciplinary pain management has been shown to be more effective than all other forms of health care for chronic pain patients; yet, fewer and fewer multidisciplinary pain management facilities are available in the United States. The amazing increase in interventional procedures and opioid prescriptions has not led to a lessening of the burden of chronic pain patients. Ethical dilemmas abound in the treatment of chronic pain patients: many are not even thought about by providers, administrators, insurance companies, or patients. We call for increased pain educational experiences for all types of health care providers and the separation of business concepts from pain-related health care.

  7. Dilemmas in mandatory reporting of domestic violence: carative ethics in emergency rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, B

    1998-01-01

    Laws are clear when it comes to reporting child abuse, elder abuse, or maltreatment of the disabeled; however, the fuzzy area of domestic violence, or injury to women by their husbands or intimates, puzzles the system ethically and legally. Experts are divided on the issue of mandatory reporting of domestic violence by health care professionals. As exemplified by the Florida law, the crux of the problem may be twofold. First, the law requires reporting of certain incidents that are ambiguously defined. Second, reporting may be mandatory without the patient's consent. Many experts in the field of domestic violence suggest that mandated reporting by health care workers is not in the best interests of the victims; it may lead to more violence and increase the victim's reluctance to get needed health care. This victim vulnerability creates ethical dilemmas in the emergency department, often the first outside contact after a violent incident. This paper examines the implications of reporting applied to emergency practice in the context of basic ethical standards. The application of mandatory reporting laws to competent adult victims presents questions related to nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, confidentiality, and a variety of contextual issues that arise from these main ethical domains.

  8. Ethics Training in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Guloksuz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although ethics training is one of the core components of psychiatric education, it is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of many educational institutions. It is shown that many of the psychiatry residents received no ethics training in both residency and medical school. Predictably, over half of the psychiatry residents had faced an ethical dilemma that they felt unprepared to meet, and nearly all of them indicated ethics education would have helped them to solve this dilemma. In addition to learning about the fundamental topics of ethics like confidentiality, boundary violations, justice, benefience and nonmaleficence, psychiatrists must also learn to deal with other hidden ethical dilemmas which are mostly due to the changing world order. It is obvious that residency training should include a well developed ethics curriculum. However, some still believe that ethical principles cannot be taught and are formed in one’s early moral development. Accepting the fact that teaching ethics is difficult, we believe that it is getting easier with the new methods for teaching in medicine. These methods are clinical supervisions, rol-models, case studies, role playing, small group discussions, team based learning and “let’s talking medicine” groups which is a useful methods for discussing ethics dilemmas on daily practice and C.A.R.E (Core Beliefs, Actions, Reasons, Experience which is a special training method for teaching ethics. In this review, the need of ethics training in residency curriculum will be discussed and new methods for teaching ethics will be proposed.

  9. Hotel-type nursing and ethical dilemmas due to business interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Zupančič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the age of neoliberalism, there are differences in the implementation of nursing activities due to business interests being integrated into nurse-patient relationships. An example of this is hotel-type nursing, which involves fulfilling patients’ needs by charging for nursing services (or by charging an additional fee for extra services. Whether this constitutes a contemporary nursing development or a danger is an important question.  This paper explores an approach to resolving ethical dilemmas, which often emerge when the interests of businesses, nurses, and patients are integrated, as contemporary nursing is implemented according to community care principles.Methods: In a case study of nurses’ activities conducted in June 2013 and 2014 in three different institutions, the methods of observation and interviews were used. The collected data were analyzed using Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT methodology, and then verified and updated with a power diagram qualitative interpretation and the Decide, Establish, Consider, Identify, Develop, and Implement (DECIDE decision-making model.Results: Based on my study of hotel-type nursing, an approach to resolving ethical dilemmas which arise with the integration of business interests into nurse-patient relationships is explained.Discussion: Hotel-type nursing involves an adaptation by nurses to a change in their relationship with the patient. This adaptation must ensure that the nurse’s professionalism is recognized as being significantly more beneficial to the patient than a reduction of the nurse’s role to one of simply fulfilling a patient’s wishes.Conclusion: Hotel-type nursing can be advantageous in the development of contemporary nursing if nurses adhere to high ethical standards and practice self-control.

  10. Perspectives on Medical Students’ Reflections on Ethical Dilemmas during their Clinical Stay. Oral Presentation, COMET Conference in Aalborg, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gormsen, Lise Kirstine; Søndergaard, Sara; Hoffmann, Tine

    Work-in- progress Roundtable: Title: What ethical problems are out there? – a study of medical students’ reflexive writing about ethical dilemmas in the clinic. Authors: Lise Gormsen, MD, MHH, PhD., Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Denmark Jane Ege Møller, MA, PhD., Center.......gormsen@ki.au.dk Conference themes: Ethics and Communication Medical Education Research Ethics Values and Responsibilities in Professional Practice Background: As many other countries, Denmark has implemented the seven physician roles as the basis for medical education. Pre-graduate medical education in ethics contribute.......Schön) We have collected reflexive texts (45 texts, 199 pages in total) produced by 4th-year students (n=316). The texts were analyzed and characteristic patterns were characterized. Results: The students observe 3 types of ethical problem 1) everyday problems e.g. confidentiality in a busy ward 2...

  11. [Ethical issues in nursing leadership].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Fang; Hung, Chich-Hsiu

    2005-10-01

    Social transition causes shifts and changes in the relationship between health professionals and their patients. In their professional capacity, it is important today for nurses to handle ethical dilemmas properly, in a manner that fosters an ethical environment. This article investigates the ethical concerns and decision processes of nurses from a knowledge construction perspective, and examines such issues as patient needs, staff perceptions, organizational benefits, and professional image. The decision making methods commonly used when facing ethical dilemma explored in this study include the traditional problem solving, nursing process, MORAL model, and Murphy's methods. Although decision making for ethical dilemmas is governed by no universal rule, nurses are responsible to try to foster a trusting relationship between employee and employer, health care providers and patients, and the organization and colleagues. When decision making on ethical dilemmas is properly executed quality care will be delivered and malpractice can be reduced.

  12. Comprehensive STD/HIV prevention education targeting US adolescents: review of an ethical dilemma and proposed ethical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E J; Simpson, E M

    2000-07-01

    Adolescents are increasingly at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The prolonged latency period, sometimes in excess of five years, and the incubation period of up to 10 years before the manifestation of symptoms, may foster adolescents' false sense of invincibility and denial as they often do not see the devastating effects of the disease in their peers until they are older. In turn, their practice of safer sex may be hindered and thereby contribute to the escalation of this public health crisis among sexually active adolescents. Prevention-focused recommendations were made in the USA as a result of this crisis. Recommendations were made to: (1) include STD/HIV education in the curricula of grades kindergarten to 12; (2) increase to at least 75% the proportion of primary care and mental health professionals who provide age-appropriate STD/HIV prevention counselling to adolescents; and (3) expand HIV prevention services to include age-appropriate HIV education curricula for students in grades 4-12 in 95% of schools. Yet, in the USA, the provision of school-based comprehensive STD/HIV education has been difficult to achieve owing to certain limitations and, in some instances, legal action. These limitations include: limited student access; restricted content; and the implementation of sporadic and/or brief educational programmes. Given these recommendations and the fact that adolescents are acquiring STDs and HIV infections at increasing rates, and despite the limitations and legal actions, do health care professionals not have an ethical obligation to provide adolescents with comprehensive STD/HIV prevention education? This ethical dilemma will be discussed using the ethical decision-making principles of 'autonomy' and 'beneficence', and a decision-making model proposed by Thompson and Thompson, and by Chally and Loric.

  13. The impending financial healthcare burden and ethical dilemma of systemic therapy in metastatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad Kashif; Bal, Susan; Wise-Draper, Trisha

    2016-09-01

    Metastatic cancer remains a devastating disease that threatens to disrupt entire family structures creating economic and psychosocial stress. Fortunately, great strides have resulted in improved therapies over the years but at a huge social-economic cost. The economic burden has risen greatly and carries with it new ethical concerns when deciding treatment. Here, we discuss the financial and ethical challenges that oncologists and their patients face in the era of novel treatment strategies. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:323-328. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Relationship between Theoretical Orientation and Countertransference Expectations: Implications for Ethical Dilemmas and Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert M; Gazzillo, Francesco; Blake, Andrea; Bornstein, Robert F; Etzi, Janet; Lingiardi, Vittorio; McWilliams, Nancy; Rothery, Cheryll; Tasso, Anthony F

    2016-05-01

    Countertransference (CT) awareness is widely considered valuable for differential diagnosis and the proactive management of ethical dilemmas. We predicted that the more practitioners' theoretical orientation (TO) emphasizes insight into the dynamics of subjective mental life, the better they will be at using their CT expectations in differential diagnosis with high-risk patients. To test this hypothesis, we compared psychodynamic therapy (PDT) practitioners who emphasize insight into subjective mental life with practitioners who do not emphasize this epistemology. Results indicated that PDT practitioners expected significantly more CT than practitioners of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and other practitioners (e.g., family systems, humanistic/existential and eclectic) to patients with borderline personality organization overall. PDT practitioners had significantly more CT expectations to patients with borderline-level pathologies as compared with neurotic-level patients than both CBT and other practitioners. PDT practitioners were significantly more expectant of CT issues than CBT practitioners with respect to the personality disorders most associated with acting out and risk management problems (e.g., paranoid, psychopathic, narcissistic, sadistic, sadomasochistic, masochistic, hypomanic, passive-aggressive, counterdependent and counterphobic). The other practitioners generally had CT expectations between PDT and CBT. These findings suggest that clinical training into CT may be useful in differential diagnoses and in helping to avoid ethical dilemmas regardless of one's theoretical preference. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Insight into countertransference can be used to help with differential diagnoses and to help prevent possible management problems with acting out patients. The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual is a useful taxonomy in that it includes countertransference as a diagnostic aid. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Workplace Literacy: Ethical Issues through the Lens of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folinsbee, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Even though principles to guide practice are crucial, there are no hard-and-fast rules for resolving ethical issues--dilemmas that are not easily resolvable because they present opposing values and outcomes that may harm to certain groups of people if not properly considered. This article describes a number of ethical dilemmas faced as a workplace…

  16. Ethical decision-making in the dilemma of the intersex infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Breanna L; Cheney, Teresa B; Hayman, Annette B

    2014-03-01

    The Making Ethical Decisions about Surgical Intervention (MEDSI) tool is designed to guide health care professionals, patients, and families faced with ethically charged decisions regarding surgical interventions for pediatric patients. MEDSI is built on the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and patient autonomy and created to promote truth-telling, compassion, respect for patient cultural and religious preferences, and appropriate follow up in the clinical setting. Following an overview of the 8 steps that compose MEDSI, the tool is applied to the management of intersex infants. The birth of a child with a disorder of sexual development (DSD) and ambiguous genitalia presents an ethically challenging situation for the family and health care team. The use of the MEDSI model is demonstrated in a case study involving the decision of surgical intervention in the management of an intersex child.

  17. The ethical Dilemma of lifestyle change: designing for sustainable schools and sustainable citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Wheeler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how participation and sustainability are being addressed by architects within the Building Schools for the Future (BSF programme in the UK. The intentions promoted by the programme are certainly ambitious, but the ways to fulfil these aims are ill-explored. Simply focusing on providing innovative learning technologies, or indeed teaching young people about physical sustainability features in buildings, will not necessarily teach them the skills they will need to respond to the environmental and social challenges of a rapidly changing world. However, anticipating those skills is one of the most problematic issues of the programme. The involvement of young people in the design of schools is used to suggest empowerment, place-making and to promote social cohesion but this is set against government design literature which advocates for exemplars, standard layouts and best practice, all leading to forms of standardisation. The potentials for tokenistic student involvement and conflict with policy aims are evident. This paper explores two issues: how to foster in young people an ethic towards future generations, and the role of co-design practices in this process. Michael Oakeshott calls teaching the conversation of mankind. In this paper, I look at the philosophy of Hannah Arendt, Emmanuel Levinas, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Luce Irigaray to argue that investigating the ethical dilemmas of the programme through critical dialogue with students offers an approach to meeting government objectives, building sustainable schools, and fostering sustainable citizenship.

  18. Limiting the access to direct-acting antivirals against HCV: an ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Ivan; Maraolo, Alberto E; Niola, Massimo; Graziano, Vincenzo; Borgia, Guglielmo; Paternoster, Mariano

    2016-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects about 200 million people worldwide and represents a leading cause of liver-related mortality. Eradication of HCV infection, achieved mainly through direct-acting antivirals (DAA), results in a decrease of mortality and an improvement of quality of life. These drugs have a maximal efficacy and an optimal tolerability. However, their high cost precludes a universal access even in wealthy countries. Areas covered: This article deals with the policies adopted for the use of the new anti-HCV drugs, especially in Europe and most of all in Italy, supposedly the developed country with the highest HCV prevalence. The literature search was performed using Pubmed and Web of Science. Moreover, national regulatory institutional websites were consulted. Expert commentary: The current policy of limitation to the access of the DAA presents a series of ethical issues that makes it non-applicable. A 'treat-all' strategy should resolve all ethical dilemmas, by virtue of the wide benefits of anti-HCV treatment not only for the advanced stage of infection, but also for the initial stages. A reduction in price of the drugs is the actual condition to achieve such a change.

  19. 高等教育的创新发展研究——高等教育伦理困境的原因探析%Research on Higher Education Innovation Development:Higher Education Ethical Dilemma Reason Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常佩艳

    2012-01-01

    高等教育所面临的伦理困境,不断引起人们的反思.面对高等教育的伦理困境,我们经常思考是什么原因导致高等教育不能朝良性方向发展,反而面临着越来越多的困境,这一直是高等教育研究者不断探讨并研究的问题.针对当前高等教育的所面临的学校管理、教师育人以及学生学习等方面的困境,笔者认为应从多角度去分析高等教育所面临的困境,并分析这些困境所产生的真正原因,因为只有分析清楚了原因,我们才能针对问题原因,提出有效的解决措施.%Higher education faces ethical dilemma, and constantly arouses people's reflection. Facing the ethical predicaments of higher education, we often think what causes higher education can't develop towards the benign direction, but faces more and more troubles. It has been the topic that higher education researchers continuously explore and research. In view of dilemma in the school management, education for people and students' learning that the current higher education faces. The author thinks that we should analyze the dilemma that higher education faces from the multiple perspectives, and analyzes the causes of the dilemma, because only analyzing reason, we can put forward effective measures according to the reasons of problems.

  20. Ethical dilemmas, work-related guilt, and posttraumatic stress reactions of news journalists covering the terror attack in Norway in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backholm, Klas; Idås, Trond

    2015-04-01

    News journalists working on crisis-related assignments may experience dilemmas with regard to how to conduct their work without causing additional harm to first-hand victims. In this study, we investigated how exposure to journalistic ethical dilemmas during the Oslo/Utøya terror attack in 2011 and subsequent work-related guilt were related to the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions. Norwegian journalists (N = 371) covering the terror attack participated in a web-based survey 8-9 months after the incident. We found that females reported more ethical dilemmas during the assignment than males (n = 356, d = 0.51). We also found that being on the scene was not related to more exposure to dilemmas (n = 311, d = 0.01). Moreover, we discovered that work-related guilt had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between exposure to ethical dilemmas and severity of PTS reactions (n = 344, completely standardized indirect effect size = .11, 95% CI [.04, .19]. The results showed that exposure to ethical dilemmas may affect the development of long-term psychological impairment. We concluded that media organizations can prevent postcrisis impairment by preparing employees for possible exposure to dilemmas during crisis-related assignments. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  1. Emmanuel Levinas & Paulo Freire: The Ethics of Responsibility for the Face-to-Face Interaction in the Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Margarita Victoria

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is a reflection on the ethics of education on the net as a contribution to the face-to-face interaction in the virtual world. We think the ethics is a result of a process of responsible interchange with others. Two important thinkers of the last few decades, Emmanuel Levinas e Paulo Freire contribute each one with one's…

  2. The Moral Values and Dilemmas in Romanian University. The Influence of Prosperity on Ethical Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena IORGA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Upon analysis, it appears that education is the only solution to prevail over this moral crisis; the dilemma of contemporary society, faced with this moral challenge, lies at the crossroads between philosophy and pedagogy. Moral value education cannot be reduced to “civic education” or to “human rights education”, as it lies at the crossroads between the logic of the mind and the logic of the heart, which generate values together. A “new ethics” is necessary, one which must reflect our historical standpoint, because the overthrow of a set of values and the inauguration of a “new moral” cannot be achieved by one “brilliant Zarathustra”.The questions of our papers are: What was and what is it now the University? And what are university professors’ responsibilities? Are the social-economical changes influencing the academic activity?

  3. [Ethical dilemmas in gastroenterology practice in Latin-American countries: the AIGE survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jmelnitzky, A C; Cohen, H; Fossman, E; Ovando, L; Costa Gil, J E

    1999-01-01

    (truth, informed consent), the autonomic decision of biological death versus the sacrament of life, justice in allocation resources, confidentiality and social concern, abortion, and many other controversies linked to tecno-scientific development, impact the practice of Gastroenterology in latinoamerican countries. However medical answers to ethical dilemmas are not uniform. Although our results ought to be verified by other studies they clearly suggest the needs for systematic incorporation of applicated Ethics in pre and postgraduate Gastroenterology curricula, besides the regular activities of our regional institutions.

  4. Evaluation of Viewpoints of Health Care Professionals on the Role of Ethics Committees and Hospitals in the Resolution of Clinical Ethical Dilemmas Based on Practice Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Brian S; Carlson, Jestin N; Hegde, Gajanan G; Shang, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind

    2016-03-01

    We sought to evaluate whether health care professionals' viewpoints differed on the role of ethics committees and hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethical dilemmas based on practice location. We conducted a survey study from December 21, 2013 to March 15, 2014 of health care professionals at six hospitals (one tertiary care academic medical center, three large community hospitals and two small community hospitals). The survey consisted of eight clinical ethics cases followed by statements on whether there was a role for the ethics committee or hospital in their resolution, what that role might be and case specific queries. Respondents used a 5-point Likert scale to express their degree of agreement with the premises posed. We used the ANOVA test to evaluate whether respondent views significantly varied based on practice location. 240 health care professionals (108-tertiary care center, 92-large community hospitals, 40-small community hospitals) completed the survey (response rate: 63.6 %). Only three individual queries of 32 showed any significant response variations across practice locations. Overall, viewpoints did not vary across practice locations within question categories on whether the ethics committee or hospital had a role in case resolution, what that role might be and case specific queries. In this multicenter survey study, the viewpoints of health care professionals on the role of ethics committees or hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethics cases varied little based on practice location.

  5. The Fossil Fuel Divestment Movement: An Ethical Dilemma for the Geosciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, C. H.; Kammen, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    For over 200 years, fossil fuels have been the basis for an industrial revolution that has delivered a level of prosperity to modern society unimaginable during the previous 5000 years of human civilization. However, society's dependence on fossil fuels is coming to an end for two reasons. The first reason is because our fossil fuel reserves are running out, oil in this century, natural gas during the next century, and coal a few centuries later. The second reason is because fossil fuels are having a devastating impact on the habitability of our planet, disrupting our climate system and acidifying our oceans. So the question is not whether we will discontinue using fossil fuels, but rather whether we will stop using them before they do irreparable damage to the Earth's life-support systems. Within our geoscience community, climate scientists have determined that a majority of existing fossil fuel reserves must remain unburned if dangerous climate change and ocean acidification are to be avoided. In contrast, Exxon-Mobil, Shell, and other members of the fossil fuel industry are pursuing a business model that assumes all of their reserves will be burned and will not become stranded assets. Since the geosciences have had a long and mutually beneficial relationship with the fossil fuel industry, this inherent conflict between climate science and industrial interests presents an ethical dilemma for many geoscientists. This conflict is further heightened by the fossil fuel divestment movement, which is underway at over 400 college and university campuses around the world. This presentation will explore some of the ethical and financial issues being raised by the divestment movement from a geoscientist's perspective.

  6. Skyview Foods: Eric's Real Dilemma with Channel Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    As a marketing analyst, Eric is faced with several ethical dilemmas. When asked to engage in unethical and illegal behavior, Eric must decide whether to obey his boss and fudge the numbers (the counts of product purchased in order to get reimbursed more from the manufacturer during special sales) or take the ethical route. The case consists of two…

  7. Normalized Paper Credit Assignment: A Solution for the Ethical Dilemma Induced by Multiple Important Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hui

    2017-09-21

    With the growth of research collaborations, the average number of authors per article and the phenomenon of equally important authorships have increased. The essence of the phenomenon of equally important authorships is the approximately equal importance of authors, both because of the difficulties in comparing authors' contributions to a paper and some actual research evaluation practices, which (approximately) give full paper credit only to the most important authors. A mechanism for indicating that various authors contributed equally is required to maintain and strengthen collaboration. However, the phenomenon of multiple important authors can cause unfair comparisons among the research contributions and abilities of authors of different papers. This loophole may be exploited. Normalizing the credit assigned to a given paper's authors is an easy way to solve this ethical dilemma. This approach enables fair comparisons of the contributions by the authors of different articles and suppresses unethical behaviour in author listings. Bibliometric researchers have proposed mature methods of normalized paper credit assignment that would be easy to use given the current level of computer adoption.

  8. Critical review of available treatment options for treatment refractory depression and anxiety - clinical and ethical dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolar Dušan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment-resistant mood and anxiety disorders require an intensive therapeutic approach, and it should balance benefits and adverse effects or other potential detrimental effects of medications. The goal of treatment is to provide consistent and lasting improvement in symptoms of depression and anxiety. Benzodiazepines are effective for anxiety symptoms, but with no sustained treatment effects. Other medication treatment options for anxiety disorders are outlined. Ketamine is usually very effective in treating major depressive disorder but without sustained benefits. Long-term use may pose a significant risk of developing tolerance and dependence. Stimulant medication augmentation for treatment-resistant depression is effective for residual symptoms of depression, but effects are usually short-lasting and it sounds more as an artificial way of improving energy, alertness and cognitive functioning. Synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana are increasingly prescribed for various medical conditions, but more recently also for patients with mood and anxiety disorders. All of these treatments may raise ethical dilemmas about appropri­ateness of prescribing these medications and a number of questions regarding the optimal treatment for patients with treatment-resistant depression and treatment refractory anxiety disorders.

  9. 职业院校教师专业化发展的现代伦理困境%Modern ethical dilemma of vocational school teachers′ specialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏玉娇

    2016-01-01

    At present the state vigorously is promoting the development of vocational colleges and meanwhile strengthening the construction of vocational teachers.But on one hand because of the special nature of vocational college teachers that is the professional development of teachers is usually defined as professional knowledge and technical maturity and on the other hand the teacher′s moral development is limited in the standard ethics and personalities neglected all of which together with many modern social ethics make the development of teachers′professional ethics has been extremely important ethical point of virtue ethics has been free in the field.However lots of main value thoughts in the modern society such as modernity instrumetal ra⁃tionality and normative ethics at a large extent have been pushing the development of the ethics of vocational teachers′ profes⁃sion to a incomplete way.Therefore it is undoubted to face the dilemma of ethical development at this kind of phenomena during the teachers′professional development in vocational colleges.%当前,国家大力推进职业院校的发展,并加大职业院校的师资建设。但由于职业院校教师本身的特殊性,通常把教师的专业发展定义在专业领域的学科知识以及技术的成熟度上,把教师的道德性发展限定在规范伦理之内,而忽视了教师本身的独特个性。同时现代社会多种价值理念交织,使对教师专业化发展有着极其重要伦理指向的德性伦理一直游离在“场外”。然而,现代社会的多种主流价值理念,诸如现代性、工具理性以及规范伦理都在很大程度上使职业院校教师专业化的伦理朝着不完整的方向发展。因此,在这种境遇中推进职业院校教师专业化发展,无疑会面临着伦理发展的困境。

  10. Ethical and Moral Decision Making: Praxis and Hermeneutics for School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Joan Quinn

    2011-01-01

    There has been a renewed interest in the inclusion of ethics as part of educators' training and interest in understanding the moral and ethical dimensions of educational practice. This research was designed to study the types of dilemmas school level leaders face, the characteristics of typical dilemmas, and the implications for leader…

  11. Facing Dilemmas: Teacher-Educators' Ways of Constructing a Pedagogy of Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillema, Harm; Kremer-Hayon, Lya

    2005-01-01

    Teacher-educators' conceptions of teaching may influence their teaching practice in a variety of ways. The concept of dilemma may provide an adequate framework to disclose how teacher-educators realise their conceptions of teaching in actual teaching practice. In our view, dilemmas constitute a powerful conceptualisation to find out about the…

  12. 'A band of brothers'-an exploration of the range of medical ethical issues faced by British senior military clinicians on deployment to Afghanistan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernthal, Elizabeth M; Draper, H J A; Henning, J; Kelly, J C

    2017-06-01

    To identify and explore features of ethical issues that senior clinicians faced as deployed medical directors (DMDs) to the British Field Hospital in Afghanistan as well as to determine the ethical training requirements for future deployments. A qualitative study in two phases conducted from November 2014 to June 2015. Phase 1 analysed 60 vignettes of cases that had generated ethical dilemmas for DMDs. Phase 2 included focus groups and an interview with 13 DMDs. Phase 1 identified working with limited resources, dual conflict of meeting both clinical and military obligations and consent of children as the most prevalent ethical challenges. Themes found in Phase 2 included sharing clinical responsibilities with clinicians from other countries and not knowing team members' ways of working, in addition to the themes from Phase 1. This study has drawn together examples of scenarios to form a repository that will aid future training. Recommendations included undertaking ethics training together as a team before, during and after deployment which must include all nationalities who are assigned to the same operational tour, so that different ethical views can be explored beforehand. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. 'They say Islam has a solution for everything, so why are there no guidelines for this?' Ethical dilemmas associated with the births and deaths of infants with fatal abnormalities from a small sample of Pakistani Muslim couples in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alison

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents ethical dilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritative knowledge of their doctors, religious experts, and senior family members in response to the ethical dilemmas they faced. There was little knowledge or open discussion of the view that Islam permits the termination of pregnancy for serious or fatal abnormality within 120 days and there was considerable disquiet over the idea of ending a pregnancy. For some parents, whether their newborn baby would draw breath was a main worry, with implications for the baby's Muslim identity and for the recognition of loss the parents would receive from family and community. This concern sometimes conflicted with doctors' concerns to minimize risk to future pregnancies by not performing a Caesarean delivery if a baby is sure to die. The paper also identifies parents' concerns and feelings of wrong-doing regarding the withdrawal of artificial life-support from infants with multiple abnormalities. The conclusion considers some of the implications of these observations for the counselling and support of Muslim parents following the pre- or neo-natal diagnosis of fatal abnormalities in their children.

  14. A Few Philosophical Remarks Regarding Lévinas Face Ethics in Online Social Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Mircea TURCULET

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We live today in a world that depends on technology. The development of technology oblige us to find better ethics necessary to solve the new moral problems brought by the technology evolution. An example of such technologies are online social networking. These sites can be described as revolutionary technologies due to the fact that they have a huge political and social impact. As social impact of social networking sites grows so are the new ethical problems. The originality of this articles stands in the fact that is trying to prove that not all existent ethics can be applied to resolve new ethical problems brought by social networking. For example in online social networking Lévinas Face Ethics cannot be applied because this ethics was made to described a real face-to-face meeting with the Other, not one intermediated by computers or avatars. To prove our point we construct arguments as sensitivity problem in Lévinas ethics or the search of foundations of Lévinas image ethics. We used arguments from mind philosophy to prove that Face can enter the virtual world as image, but Lévinas image philosophy proves that image, photos, films or avatars have no moral statute.

  15. Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

    2013-01-01

    Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged.

  16. Vaginal Birth After Caesarean Section in Low Resource Settings: The Clinical and Ethical Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanyonyi, Sikolia; Muriithi, Francis G

    2015-10-01

    Vaginal birth after Caesarean section (VBAC) has long been practised in low resource settings using unconventional methods. This not only poses danger to the woman and her baby, but could also have serious legal and ethical implications. The adoption of this practice has been informed by observational studies with many deficiencies; this is so despite other studies from settings in which the standard of care is much better that show that elective repeat Caesarean section (ERCS) may actually be safer than VBAC. This raises questions about whether we should insist on a dangerous practice when there are safer alternatives. We highlight some of the challenges faced in making this decision, and discuss why the fear of ERCS may not be justified after all in low resource settings. Since a reduction in rates of Caesarean section may not be applicable in these regions, because their rates are already low, the emphasis should instead be on adequate birth spacing and safer primary operative delivery.

  17. An ethics dilemma: when parents and doctors disagree on the best treatment for the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Daniel; Brugières, Laurence; Corradini, Nadège; Vivant, Florence; Hartmann, Olivier

    2004-09-01

    The increasing complexity of present day medicine--with highly effective and yet risky treatments, individual and collective expectations, and evolving ideological and cultural landmarks--often gives rise to difficult ethical problems. Specific meetings are valuable for understanding such problems, acquiring the relevant skills and for gaining and transmitting experience on how to solve them. Parents and doctors may disagree about what is the best treatment. Such a difference of opinion is not rare but usually a solution can easily be found. This is not the case when the child is treated for a severe illness and when there is no clearly defined or satisfactory treatment for him\\her. We present how a dramatic conflict arose between the parents and the doctors faced with such a case (mostly because the staff failed to understand early enough the psychological factors at the root of the father's demands), how clinical, institutional and ethical problems were analysed during a meeting, and how they were solved.

  18. Ethical Dilemma and Countermeasures of Hospice Care%临终关怀的伦理困境及对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢和成

    2016-01-01

    First of all, this paper discussed the ethical dilemmas of hospice care from four aspects. Secondly, it deeply analyzed the reasons of the ethical dilemmas in view of life ethics, medical ethics, family ethics and social ethics, etc. Finally, aiming at these ethical dilemmas and reasons, it put forward the concrete countermeasures to the terminally ill persons, medical staffs, family members, the government and the social public that related to hos-pice career, in the hope of promoting the development of hospice career.%首先,从四个方面论述了临终关怀所面临的伦理困境;其次,针对其伦理困境从生命伦理、医学伦理、家庭伦理与社会伦理等方面深层次地分析了原因;最后,针对这些伦理困境及原因,提出了与临终关怀事业相关的临终者、医护人员、家属、政府和社会公众的具体的对策,以期推动临终关怀事业向前发展。

  19. Diagnostic dilemma; report of a bizarre case of advanced scalp and face angiosarcoma and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emejulu JKC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Jude-Kennedy C Emejulu1, Igwebuike V Onyiaorah2, Cornelius O Ukah2, Titus OG Chukwuanukwu3, Nneka JF Osuigwe1, Effiong E Akang4, Adefolarin O Malomo51Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, PMB 5025 Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Department of Pathology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, PMB 5025 Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 3Plastic Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, PMB 5025 Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 4Department of Pathology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; 5Department of Neurological Surgery, Institute of Neurological Sciences, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, NigeriaAbstract: A 36-year-old male painter presented to our service in 2007 with an ulcerated solitary scalp swelling of 8 months’ duration. The mass was a dormant, painless, pea-sized growth, which he had had since childhood and which he bruised in a passenger motorcycle road traffic accident 8 months prior to presentation. The accident caused it to flare up and progressively increase in size, with associated pain, contact bleeding, and ulceration. A work-up for excision biopsy was proposed, but the patient defaulted and presented 2 years later with an increased number of lesions all around the scalp and face and in an obviously deteriorating clinical status with regional lymph node involvement at this stage. An incisional biopsy was then carried out and the histological reports came out with three different diagnoses of glioblastoma multiforme, poorly differentiated angiosarcoma, and squamous cell carcinoma, constituting a major diagnostic dilemma for our service.Keywords: angiosarcoma, glioblastoma multiforme, head, neck, squamous cell carcinoma

  20. Managing Organisational Ethics: Professionalism, Duty and HR Practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Segon

    2014-01-01

    After almost 20 years of researching, teaching and consulting in business and organisational ethics, this emerging field seems to be facing an organisational dilemma. Who should manage the ethics and integrity systems that are slowly being adopted by Australian firms?During consulting engagements with numerous Australian businesses it has become clear that the task of managing ethics and integrity systems, i.e. creation of codes of ethics, ethics committees, information programs, conducting o...

  1. Ethical issues in the use of the bogus pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, H; Handelsman, M M

    1997-04-01

    This article addresses the ethics of utilizing the bogus pipeline (BPL) procedure in social psychological research. A debate is presented between 2 positions: One challenges the use of the BPL based on ethical principles, and the other confronts these challenges. The debate addresses the void in previous BPL literature regarding concerns about the ethics of using this technique, and raises awareness about potential ethical dilemmas faced by BPL users. The BPL is discussed from utilitarian and deontological ethical perspectives.

  2. A prisoner's dilemma with asymmetrical payoffs: revealing the challenges faced by performing arts health and wellness practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Gongbing; Visentin, Peter

    2010-03-01

    In a prisoner's dilemma, constructed narratives are used to demonstrate problems within individual rationality and decision-making. Performing artists can be seen as facing a type of prisoner's dilemma in their careers: they must practice repeated movements for long periods in order to improve, yet despite the short-term perception of gained artistic benefit, the long-term consequences may be playing-related musculoskeletal disorders and injury. To help avoid such an outcome, educators and health and wellness practitioners must function as negotiators, engaging in discussions of artistry as part of establishing credibility and encouraging behaviors that keep artists in efficient, healthy behaviors. By setting practice time limits that are considerate of the intensity of each specific task, performers can improve their performance on a daily basis and become more skilled at planning their future training.

  3. Business Ethics Development: Dilemma and Proposals%企业道德建设的困境及其破解方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小兰

    2012-01-01

    Business ethics is a company's soft power. After an analysis of business ethics and its significance, and the dilemma of its development, principles and ways to improve business ethics and tackle the dilemma are proposed from the perspective of business and society, which aims to offer some theoretical guidance for business ethics development.%摘要:企业道德是企业的一种软实力。在对企业道德建设的涵义和意义、企业道德建设的企业与社会困境分析基础上,提出了破解企业道德建设困局的原则和方法,以期对企业道德提升提供理论指导。

  4. Advanced restorative dentistry - a problem for the elderly? An ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C G

    2015-03-01

    to cope with the operative demands and financial burden of resolving their deteriorating dental situation and so complex implant-born structures and precision removable prostheses should probably be avoided for those individuals contemplating entering a care situation. Therefore, the timing of the provision of complex dentistry poses an ethical dilemma. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  5. Ethical Issues in Continuing Professional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Patricia Ann

    2000-01-01

    Continuing professional education practitioners often face ethical dilemmas regarding their obligations to multiple stakeholders and issues arising in new arenas such as the workplace, distance education, and collaboration with business. Codes of ethics can guide practice, but practitioners should also identify their personal core values system…

  6. Reflections on Ethical Dilemmas in Working with So-Called "Vulnerable" and "Hard-to-Reach" Groups: Experiences from the Foodways and Futures Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombert, Karolina; Douglas, Flora; McArdle, Karen; Carlisle, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on ethical limitations and dilemmas encountered during fieldwork of the Foodways and Futures project (2013-2016). Foodways and Futures is a qualitative action research project aimed at exploring the food choices of former homeless young people (aged 16-25) in Aberdeenshire. In Scotland, where over 13,000 young people become…

  7. The Dilemma of Practical Ethics Education for Contemporary College Students and the Research for a Solution%当代大学生道德实践教育的困境及对策探寻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧

    2016-01-01

    当前大学生道德实践教育遭遇严峻挑战,这与社会层面的功利主义、实用主义等思想的侵蚀和个人境界的层次、自律性不强等主客观方面原因都有内在关联。可通过道德教育目标的崇高定位、道德教育内容的德性培育和道德教育方式的体验养成等途径来加以完善。%The practical ethics education for college students is facing a severe challenge which shares a connection with objective and subjective factors such as,social utilitarianism,the influence of pragmatism,personal ideological level, lacking of self-discipline, etc. The dilemma can be enhanced by aiming at a higher target in ethical education, fostering the ethical characters of ethical education,and the acquirement of experiencing ethical teaching methods.

  8. Dealing with Dilemmas in a Morally Polarized Era: The Conflicting Ethical Codes of Educational Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.

    1998-01-01

    Considers qualitative research the authors (both education professors) conducted while teaching an ethics course in different semesters over seven years. Examines and deconstructs personal and professional codes of ethics, including their own and those of doctoral students. The study found that students' professional and personal ethics codes…

  9. Et klinisk etisk dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Through the presentation of a concrete ethical dilemma, this article presents the praxis of a clinical ethics committee in Denmark. The dilemma was analysed in the clinical ethics committee of psychiatry in the region of Southern Denmark. The dilemma is well known in psychiatry; it concerns...... symptoms. However, she agrees to meet with the community treatment team. How are they to act? Should they accept her refusal of antipsychotic medication, though they see it as the best treatment? This dilemma is analysed and described according to Beauchamps and Childress four fundamental principles: 1...

  10. Discuss on Ethical Dilemma in School Social Work%试论学校社会工作中的伦理困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣飞霞; 陈琼

    2012-01-01

    As a kind of professional work to help people, social work has developed vigorously in recent years with the strong support of the government, society and enterprises. In some developed cities which lie in coastal areas, school social work has come into being as well. Many schools have had professional team of social work. Nevertheless, school social workers still face various ethical dilemmas in the process of services.%近年来,社会工作作为一项专业的助人工作,在政府、社会、企业等各方面的大力支持下蓬勃发展。沿海地区一些发达城市里,学校社会工作也开始起动,很多学校都拥有了专业的社会工作队伍,然而学校社会工作者在提供服务的过程中,却常常陷入种种伦理困境。

  11. Ethics and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Courtney Page

    of gene therapy, and the authority of its practitioners. The politics of ethics can also be discerned in practice: the UK research ethics system structures scientific work but cannot account for the various, complex, and on-going ethical dilemmas that patients and practitioners face when undertaking gene....... However, social scientists have yet to devote much attention to this ethically contentious and medically complex field. This project aimed to identify and explore social and ethical factors shaping gene therapy practice in clinical settings. It is based on six months of participant observation in a London...... children’s hospital (the UKCH), thirty-two interviews with key actors in the gene therapy field, and scientific and policy document analysis. One of the main interests of this research is with the politics of ethics. The thesis shows that ‘ethical boundary work’ was central to establishing the credibility...

  12. Ethics: A Bridge for Studying the Social Contexts of Professional Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Bruce W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a method for helping students evaluate ethical issues in a systematic way, based on Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Recommends the case-study approach for creating social constructs in which students face ethical dilemmas, and outlines a case-study ethics unit using Kohlberg's model. (MM)

  13. Ethics: A Bridge for Studying the Social Contexts of Professional Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Bruce W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a method for helping students evaluate ethical issues in a systematic way, based on Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Recommends the case-study approach for creating social constructs in which students face ethical dilemmas, and outlines a case-study ethics unit using Kohlberg's model. (MM)

  14. Communicating Effectively to Resolve Ethical Concerns: The Role of School Psychology Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olley, Rivka I.

    2010-01-01

    It is incumbent upon each school psychologist to engage in ethical behavior based on current ethical codes guiding school psychology. The school psychologist is often the team member most knowledgeable regarding federal and state laws mandating educational services. Sometimes ethical dilemmas that school psychologists face are the result of a…

  15. Expansion of undergraduate courses in nursing: dilemmas and contradictions facing the labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Lara Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We sought to analyze, from the perspective of professors and students, the reasons and consequences of the expansion of undergraduate courses in nursing, discussing the dilemmas and the contradictions confronting the labor market. It was a qualitative study with data obtained from focus groups, conducted in 18 undergraduate nursing courses in the state of Minas Gerais, during the period of February to October of 2011. The narratives were submitted to critical discourse analysis. The results indicated that the education of the nurse was permeated by insecurity as to the future integration into the labor market. The insecurity translates into dilemmas that referred to employability and the precariousness of the working conditions. In this context, employment in the family health strategy emerges as a mirage. One glimpses the need for a political agenda with the purpose of discussion about education, the labor market and the determinants of these processes.

  16. Ethics in the Supervisory Relationship: Supervisors' and Doctoral Students' Dilemmas in the Natural and Behavioural Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfström, Erika; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of ethical issues in supervision among doctoral students and supervisors. The nature of ethical issues identified by doctoral students (n = 28) and their supervisors (n = 14) is explored and the degree of fit and misfit between their perceptions in two cases representing the natural and behavioural sciences is…

  17. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in Suicide Prevention: The Case of Telephone Helpline Rescue Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishara, Brian L.; Weisstub, David N.

    2010-01-01

    The ethical basis of suicide prevention is illustrated by contrasting helpline emergency rescue policies of the Samaritans and the AAS and the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. We contrast moralist, relativist, and libertarian ethical premises and question whether suicide can be rational. Samaritans respect a caller's right to…

  18. Ethical challenges facing veterinary professionals in Ireland: results from Policy Delphi with vignette methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M; More, S J; Morton, D B; Hanlon, A

    2016-10-29

    Ethics is key to the integrity of the veterinary profession. Despite its importance, there is a lack of applied research on the range of ethical challenges faced by veterinarians. A three round Policy Delphi with vignette methodology was used to record the diversity of views on ethical challenges faced by veterinary professionals in Ireland. Forty experts, comprising veterinary practitioners, inspectors and nurses, accepted to participate. In round 1, twenty vignettes describing a variety of ethically challenging veterinary scenarios were ranked in terms of ethical acceptability, reputational risk and perceived standards of practice. Round 2 aimed at characterising challenges where future policy development or professional guidance was deemed to be needed. In round 3, possible solutions to key challenges were explored. Results suggest that current rules and regulations are insufficient to ensure best veterinary practices and that a collective approach is needed to harness workable solutions for the identified ethical challenges. Challenges pertaining mostly to the food chain seem to require enforcement measures whereas softer measures that promote professional discretion were preferred to address challenges dealing with veterinary clinical services. These findings can support veterinary representative bodies, advisory committees and regulatory authorities in their decision making, policy and regulation. British Veterinary Association.

  19. Challenges to ethics and professionalism facing the contemporary neurologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, James L

    2014-09-30

    Challenges to ethics and professionalism that can harm neurologists and their patients include the commercialization of medicine, poorly designed Medicare regulations, conflicts of interest, physician employment by hospitals, faulty measurement of medical quality care, electronic health records, electronic communications with patients, and the demotion of the role of physician beneficence. These threats can lead to inaccurate medical record-keeping, unnecessary medical care, a decline in the primacy of patients' interests, and damage to the sanctity of the patient-physician relationship. The increasing frequency of physician burnout can be attributed at least partially to unmitigated stresses on practicing physicians, particularly the growing time pressures for patient visits, the mounting daily requirements of documentation, and the increasing burden of time-consuming but unproductive tasks. Recommended correctives include reforming billing documentation regulations, improving electronic health records, designing proper quality indicators integrating physician wellness, and incorporating reasonable physician workflows in the design of accountable care organizations.

  20. Bringing compassion to the ethical dilemma in killing kangaroos for conservation: comment on "Conservation through sustainable use" by Rob Irvine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramp, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Ethical debate on the killing of kangaroos has polarised conservation and animal welfare science, yet at the heart of these scientific disciplines is the unifying aim of reducing harm to non-human animals. This aim provides the foundation for common ground, culminating in the development of compassionate conservation principles that seek to provide mechanisms for achieving both conservation and welfare goals. However, environmental decision-making is not devoid of human interests, and conservation strategies are commonly employed that suit entrenched positions and commercial gain, rather than valuing the needs of the non-human animals in need of protection. The case study on the wild kangaroo harvest presents just such a dilemma, whereby a conservation strategy is put forward that can only be rationalised by ignoring difficulties in the potential for realising conservation benefits and the considerable welfare cost to kangaroos. Rather than an open debate on the ethics of killing game over livestock, in this response I argue that efforts to bring transparency and objectivity to the public debate have to date been obfuscated by those seeking to maintain entrenched interests. Only by putting aside these interests will debate about the exploitation of wildlife result in humane, compassionate, and substantive conservation benefits.

  1. The major medical ethical challenges facing the public and healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz F Alkabba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the relatively high expenditure on healthcare in Saudi Arabia, its health system remains highly centralized in the main cities with its primary focus on secondary and tertiary care rather than primary care. This has led to numerous ethical challenges for the healthcare providers. This article reports the results of a study conducted with a panel of practitioners, and non-clinicians, in Saudi Arabia, in order to identify the top ten ethical challenges for healthcare providers, patients, and their families. Materials and Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional, descriptive, and qualitative one. The participants were asked the question: "What top ten ethical challenges are Saudis likely to face in health care?" The participants were asked to rank the top ten ethical challenges throughout a modified Delphi process, using a ranking Scale. A consensus was reached after three rounds of questions and an experts′ meeting. Results: The major 10 ethical issues, as perceived by the participants in order of their importance, were: (1 Patients′ Rights, (2 Equity of resources, (3 Confidentiality of the patients, (4 Patient Safety, (5 Conflict of Interests, (6 Ethics of privatization, (7 Informed Consent, (8 Dealing with the opposite sex, (9 Beginning and end of life, and (10 Healthcare team ethics. Conclusion: Although many of the challenges listed by the participants have received significant public and specialized attention worldwide, scant attention has been paid to these top challenges in Saudi Arabia. We propose several possible steps to help address these key challenges.

  2. Post Traumatic Delayed Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy (FNP): Diagnostic Dilemma of Expressionless Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Mittal, Radhey Shyam

    2015-04-01

    Bilateral facial nerve palsy [FNP] is a rare condition. Mostly it is idiopathic. Post traumatic bilateral FNP is even more rare and having unique neurosurgical considerations. Post traumatic delayed presentation of bilateral FNP is socially debilitating and also having diagnostic challenge. Due to lack of facial asymmetry as present in unilateral facial paralysis, it is difficult to recognize. We are presenting a case of delayed onset bilateral FNP who developed FNP after 12 days of head injury with a brief discussion of its diagnostic dilemma and management along with literature review.

  3. WORKING WITH OR AGAINST THE SYSTEM: ETHICAL DILEMMAS FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    JOCELYN SACKEY; YLVA FÄLTHOLM; HÅKAN YLINENPÄÄ

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to address entrepreneurship and ethics from the perspective of the Ghanaian entrepreneur in small and medium-size enterprises to extend our understanding of issues influencing entrepreneurial behavior in developing economies such as Ghana. Our study specifically addresses three typical situations in which business ethics are challenged: (1) When applying for business information and permits, (2) When competing for business contracts and financing and (3) When dealing ...

  4. Ethical Issues in Early Intervention: Voices from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Able, Harriet; West, Tracey A.; Lim, Chih Ing

    2017-01-01

    Ethical considerations are integral to our professional lives when we are faced with difficult choices regarding services and supports for children and families. Often, the right choice in service delivery for young children with disabilities ages birth to 5 years is unclear due to a myriad of factors potentially creating ethical dilemmas. This…

  5. Top 10 health care ethics challenges facing the public: views of Toronto bioethicists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Jennifer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous ethical challenges that can impact patients and families in the health care setting. This paper reports on the results of a study conducted with a panel of clinical bioethicists in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the purpose of which was to identify the top ethical challenges facing patients and their families in health care. A modified Delphi study was conducted with twelve clinical bioethicist members of the Clinical Ethics Group of the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics. The panel was asked the question, what do you think are the top ten ethical challenges that Canadians may face in health care? The panel was asked to rank the top ten ethical challenges throughout the Delphi process and consensus was reached after three rounds. Discussion The top challenge ranked by the group was disagreement between patients/families and health care professionals about treatment decisions. The second highest ranked challenge was waiting lists. The third ranked challenge was access to needed resources for the aged, chronically ill, and mentally ill. Summary Although many of the challenges listed by the panel have received significant public attention, there has been very little attention paid to the top ranked challenge. We propose several steps that can be taken to help address this key challenge.

  6. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    London Leslie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter.

  7. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter. PMID:20718963

  8. Ethical Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Mary Kathryn

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the dilemma of how to respond to student papers advancing morally repugnant positions. Advocates conceptualizing writing as an ethical act and connecting ethics and revision. Describes briefly how three such student papers were handled. (SR)

  9. Bedside resource stewardship in disasters: a provider's dilemma practicing in an ethical gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    During disasters, clinicians may be forced to play dual roles, as both a provider and an allocator of scarce resources. At present, a clear framework to govern resource stewardship at the bedside is lacking. Clinicians who find themselves practicing in this ethical gap between clinical and public health ethics can experience significant moral distress. One provider describes her experience allocating an oxygen tank in the intensive care unit at a hospital in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, immediately following the 2010 earthquake. Using a clinical vignette and reflective narrative she attempts to identify the factors that influenced her allocation decision, opening up the factors for commentary and debate by an ethicist. A better paradigm for the ethical care of patients during disasters is needed to better guide provider choices in the future.

  10. The two faces of conscientiousness: duty and achievement striving in escalation of commitment dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H

    2001-06-01

    The author proposes that 2 facets of conscientiousness, duty and achievement striving, affect decision makers in escalation of commitment dilemmas in opposing ways, thus masking the predictive ability of a broad measure of conscientiousness. It is proposed that duty is associated with an other-centered orientation and that achievement striving is associated with a self-centered orientation. Analyses of decisions from 360 respondents showed that duty was associated with a deescalation of commitment, achievement striving was associated with an escalation of commitment, and the broad measure of conscientiousness was unassociated with commitment. The author advocates the utility of understanding potential self-centered versus other-centered aspects of the criterion of interest when conducting personality-based research.

  11. At the ethical crossroads: how a gastroenterology procedure unit negotiated a solution for a reoccurring ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gair, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The gastroenterology procedures environment has proven to be fertile ground for the realization of moral distress as it relates to the practice of nursing. Specifically, nurses are expected to fulfill their duty as advocates for their clients at all times and within all contexts; however, their ability to discharge this essential function has been complicated by such influential factors as sedating medications, competing ethical motivations, discordant conclusions of moral reasoning and action, as well as competing institutional factors. This article begins with a fictional case study to introduce readers to the contextual essence of the moral distress that a group of gastroenterology nurses was collectively experiencing. Subsequently, the aim of this article was to explicate how one department, with the aid of an ethics committee, negotiated a process similar to the case study to develop a pragmatic policy and identify an educational primer that encourages nurses to reexamine and value the tangible realities inherent and expected of an advocate in the dynamically complex environment that characterizes all gastroenterology procedure environments where gastroenterology nurses practice.

  12. Managerji HRM in njihove etične dileme = Human Resource Managers and Their Ethical Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Primožič

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Douglas Renwick (2003 said that the personnel function plays therole of guardian of employees’ wellbeing, but on the other hand, hesaid that personnel managers also tamper with the wellbeing of employees.Looking at Renwick’s theory through Ulrich’s model of personnelmanagers as guardians of employees’ wellbeing, they play therole of strategic partners, managers of the changes and the role of theemployees representatives. Gantz and Hayes (in Payne and Wayland,1999 explicated a few fields where we can talk of ethical conflict whileperforming these roles: discrimination, psychological tests, anti-unionbehaviour, design of work flow, job insecurity, discipline, confidentiality,privacy, and firing because of technological redundancy. In this paperwe explore the field of potential and real ethical conflicts of humanresource managers.What are the most important values of humanresources managers? In which areas do ethical conflicts occur?And how do they solve these conflicts on an everyday basis? We usedquestionnaires to gather data on these issues. We found out that managerswho are in leading positions suffer the most, next are those whohave had long tenure. In this situation ethical codes don’t help much.

  13. Psychotropic Medication Consultation in Schools: An Ethical and Legal Dilemma for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, John S.; Thaler, Cara L.; Hirsch, Amanda J.

    2006-01-01

    Assessing, consulting, and intervening with students being treated with psychotropic medications is an increasingly common activity for school psychologists. This article reviews some of the literature providing evidence for the greater need for training in school psychopharmacology. A legal and ethical case study is presented that highlights the…

  14. On Tour with the "Accidental" Expert: Ethical Dilemmas of the Development Consultant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Michael L.

    This paper explores Max Weber's study of the origins of the secularization of the Puritan work ethic and examines the hybridized category of secular science expert. The hybrid construct provides an opening for the critical analysis of the concrete activity of development from two perspectives, the structural and the individual. The individual…

  15. Students' Perceptions of Ethical Dilemmas Involving Professors: Examining the Impact of the Professor's Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Christopher M.

    2005-01-01

    Three hundred sixteen undergraduate students from two liberal arts colleges rated the ethical nature of six different fictional scenarios. Each scenario described interactions between a professor and student. The gender of the fictional professor was varied randomly. Thus, for any particular scenario, a participant may be rating the behavior of a…

  16. Ethical and Epistemic Dilemmas in Empirically-Engaged Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anne; Glass, Ronald David

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines several ethical and epistemological issues that arise when philosophers conduct empirical research focused on, or in collaboration with, community groups seeking to bring about systemic change. This type of research can yield important policy lessons about effective community-driven reform and how to incorporate the voices of…

  17. Ethical Dilemmas and Emergent Values Encountered by Working College Students: Implications for Marketing Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Victoria D.; Smith, Rachel Korthage; Bush, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of pedagogical research exists on developing curricula and ethics training tools to prepare college graduates for entering the workforce. However, many college students are "already" in the workforce while they attend school. Many of these jobs are entry-level or frontline employee positions in retail or service industries,…

  18. Exploring Ethical Dilemmas for Principals Arising from Role Conflict with School Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Megan; Campbell, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Acting in the best interests of students is central to the moral and ethical work of schools. Yet tensions can arise between principals and school counsellors as they work from at times opposing professional paradigms. In this article we report on principals' and counsellors' responses to scenarios covering confidentiality and the law,…

  19. COVER It: A Comprehensive Framework for Guiding Students through Ethical Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jennifer M.; Yordy, Eric D.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a model that aims to create a greater ability to recognize the negative aspects of making unethical decisions. To this end, the authors developed an ethical decision-making model to aid students through the process of analyzing these situations--a model that is easy to remember and apply. Through this model, the COVER model,…

  20. COVER It: A Comprehensive Framework for Guiding Students through Ethical Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jennifer M.; Yordy, Eric D.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a model that aims to create a greater ability to recognize the negative aspects of making unethical decisions. To this end, the authors developed an ethical decision-making model to aid students through the process of analyzing these situations--a model that is easy to remember and apply. Through this model, the COVER model,…

  1. International Ethical Dilemmas Confronting Australian Managers: Implications for the Training and Development of Employees Working Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, Kerry; Marshall, Verena

    2004-01-01

    Globalisation has seen diverse cultures becoming increasingly entwined and interdependent as business organisations operate in a borderless world. When organisations operate internationally they often find that countries differ in what is considered wrong or right. The objectives of the research were to identify cross-cultural ethical dilemmas…

  2. Ethical Dilemmas and Emergent Values Encountered by Working College Students: Implications for Marketing Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Victoria D.; Smith, Rachel Korthage; Bush, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of pedagogical research exists on developing curricula and ethics training tools to prepare college graduates for entering the workforce. However, many college students are "already" in the workforce while they attend school. Many of these jobs are entry-level or frontline employee positions in retail or service industries,…

  3. Caring for 'Very Important Patients'--Ethical Dilemmas and Suggestions for Practical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfandre, David; Clever, Sarah; Farber, Neil J; Hughes, Mark T; Redstone, Paul; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani

    2016-02-01

    The care of Very Important Patients (VIPs) is different from other patients because they may receive greater access, attention, and resources from health care staff. Although the term VIP is used regularly in the medical literature and is implicitly understood, in practice it constitutes a wide and heterogeneous group of patients that have a strong effect on health care providers. We define a VIP as a very influential patient whose individual attributes and characteristics (eg, social status, occupation, position), coupled with their behavior, have the potential to significantly influence a clinician's judgment or behavior. Physicians, celebrities, the politically powerful, and philanthropists, may all become VIPs in the appropriate context. The quality of care may be inferior because health care professionals may deviate from standard practices when caring for them. Understanding the common features among what may otherwise be very different groups of patients can help health care providers manage ethical concerns when they arise. We use a series of vignettes to demonstrate how VIPs behavior and status can influence a clinician's judgment or actions. Appreciating the ethical principles in these varied circumstances provides health care professionals with the tools to manage ethical conflicts that arise in the care of VIPs. We conclude each vignette with guidance for how health care providers and administrators can manage the ethical concern.

  4. Assessing the Role of Business Faculty Values and Background in the Recognition of an Ethical Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Auken, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The author sought to determine whether business faculty values and background can discriminate between a yes or no response to the introduction of an ethically challenged product. The results reveal that two competing views of the enterprise (stakeholder vs. stockholder) along with a faculty member's departmental membership do discriminate in the…

  5. Ethical Issues in Covering Teen Suicide Stories: Deadly Dilemmas and Fatal Flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Susan

    A study examined news coverage by "The Saint Petersburg Times" of a local double teen suicide in August 1993. Focusing on how the story was covered, the study explored the newspaper's decision-making process, analyzing the process in relation to standard philosophical methods in ethics and recognized journalistic principles. As background,…

  6. 男性不育的伦理学困境%Ethical Dilemmas in Male Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰峰; 唐化勇

    2014-01-01

    针对男性不育这一愈来愈突出的社会现象,首先阐述了其定义和患病原因,然后主要从伦理学方面对其进行了分析。包括两部分,即男性患有不育症后的伦理学问题和诊断治疗中的伦理学问题。男性辅助生殖技术可实现患者的正常生育,但在供精上存在着诸多伦理学问题,而且对受孕女方也有一定的风险。最后介绍了精原干细胞移植法的研究现状及治疗男性不育中存在的伦理问题。%Aiming at the social phenomenon of male sterility of the increasing lyprominent,and expatiates the definition and the reason of disease,then mainly from the ethics aspect has carried on the analysis to it. Includes two parts,namely,male with ethical issues of ethics and the diagnosis and treatment of infertility in the normal fertility of assisted reproductive technology can realize the patients,but there are many problems in ethics for precision,but also have a certain risk to pregnant woman. Finally to introduce the ethical problemsstatus and treatment of infertile male spermatogonial stem cell transplantation in the law.

  7. Survey of ethical dilemmas facing intensivists in South Africa in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with HIV/AIDS were not discriminated against in admission to ... 1 Department of Family Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, Nelson R Mandela ... A cross-sectional, descriptive, quantitative and analytical attitudes- .... Decision about terminal care should involve the ICU staff, the patient and the family.

  8. “Take me Home and Allow me to Die Peacefully.”- An Ethical Dilemma of Grave Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhastagir SS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: Brain death that refers to the irreversible end of all brain activity, including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life, due to total necrosis of the cerebral neurons following loss of blood flow and oxygenation [1,2]. Using brain-death criteria, the medical community can declare a person legally dead even if life support equipment keeps the body's metabolic processes working. However, putting an end to someone’s life createsmany ethical dilemmas. Many patients perceive death as a natural part of life, or relief from pain and they may express a wish to diequickly and painlessly. They often ask the treating physician and their family to be taken home and allowed to die peacefully. However,the next of kin may want the patient to be actively treated and kept alive. The physician hopes that the patient will survive and resortsto technical means to keep the patient alive. Who should decide; the patient, the family or the physician?

  9. Low utilization of extra embryos in donor oocyte in vitro fertilization cycles: an ethical dilemma to donor management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Heather; Briton-Jones, Christine; Hill, David

    2013-08-01

    To explore outcomes of donor In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) cycles with regards to cryopreservation and utilization of extra embryos after fresh transfer. A database search was performed to identify all consecutive fresh donor oocyte cycles from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010 at a private fertility laboratory. Parameters analyzed included: number of oocytes retrieved, number of patients choosing embryo cryopreservation, number of patients returning for frozen embryo transfer (FET), and pregnancy outcomes. A total of 1070 fresh oocyte donor cycles were identified. Average number of oocytes retrieved was 16.9 ± 7.9, and average number of embryos transferred was 2.3 ± 0.96. Sixty-six percent of patients cryopreserved excess embryos following fresh transfer, and only 40 % of these patients ultimately returned for FET. Patients who conceived in their fresh cycle were much less likely to return for FET than those who did not (25 % v 65 %, p ethical dilemmas when considering the large numbers of remaining embryos that will never be utilized.

  10. Grounded for an ethical dilemma: disequilibrium in a commercial airline pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Friedlander, Joel A

    2012-10-01

    This article presents the case of a 41-year-old airline pilot with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo who requests that his diagnosis not be disclosed to his commercial airline employer or his aviation medical examiner because it may result in the suspension of medical certification. The legal and ethical requirements for physicians reporting impaired pilots are discussed as well as practical recommendations for handling such situations. The argument is made that a physician's obligation to honor patient confidentiality should not take precedence over his or her duty to protect the safety and well-being of the airplane passengers and the general public. If the patient chooses not to self-report, a physician has an ethical obligation to report the patient's medical condition to the Federal Aviation Administration.

  11. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident—An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Ionela Elisabeta Ciobanu; Darian Rusu; Stefan-Ioan Stratul; Andreea Cristina Didilescu; Corina Marilena Cristache

    2016-01-01

    Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments. Its occurrence may drastically affect the outcome of the treatment, transforming a common otherwise efficient endodontic procedure into a complication such as tooth extraction. In order to discuss the ethical and legal consequences, two cases of dental strip perforations are herewith presen...

  12. The organizational context of ethical dilemmas: a role-playing simulation for the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosberg, M A

    2001-01-01

    The allocation of health care resources often requires decision makers to balance conflicting ethical principles. The resource-constrained intensive care unit (ICU) provides an ideal setting to study how decision makers go about their balancing act in a complex and dynamic environment. The author presents a role-playing simulation exercise which models ICU admission and discharge decision making. Designed for the class-room, the simulation engages a variety of ethical, managerial, and public policy issues including end-of-life decision making, triage, and rationing. The simulation is based on a sequence of scenarios or "decision rounds" delineating conditions in the ICU in terms of disposition of ICU patients, number of available ICU beds, prognoses of candidates for admission, and other physiological and organizational information. Students, playing the roles of attending physician, hospital administrator, nurse manager, triage officer, and ethics committee member, are challenged to reach consensus in the context of multiple power centers and conflicting goals. An organization theory perspective, incorporated into the simulation, provides insight on how decisions are actually made and stimulates discussion on how decision making might be improved.

  13. Ethical Dilemma and Management of Infertility in HIV Seropositive Discordant Couples: A Case Study in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeora, Ouj; Chukwuneke, Fn

    2013-01-01

    The traditional African society places an invaluable premium on procreation and, in some communities, a woman's place in her matrimony is only confirmed on positive reproductive outcome. Infertility is rife in Nigeria, and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection is a global pandemic, which has led to a drop in life expectancy across the world. In Nigeria, a number of cultural norms relating to gender roles and power dynamics constitute a serious barrier to issues of sexuality and infertility. Couples are concerned about their infertility diagnostic test being disclosed to each other, especially before marriage. This concern is understandable, especially in an environment that lacks the modern concepts and attitude toward sexual matters. This is complicated by the advent of HIV/AIDS infection and the societal mind-set that look at seropostive individuals as transgressors. At present, sexual and reproductive health rights are currently not in place because ethical issues are not given prominence by many physicians in Nigeria. A case of an infertile and seropostive discordant couple, which raised a lot of medical and ethical concerns, is presented here to awaken the consciousness of Nigerian physicians and stimulate discussions on the ethical matters such as this in clinical practice.

  14. Ethical Dilemmas in Artsybashev’s%论阿尔志跋绥夫《工人舍维廖夫》中的伦理困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪树东

    2014-01-01

    阿尔志跋绥夫的小说无不带有俄罗斯灵魂特有的尖锐、阴郁和深刻,其中呈现的伦理困境至今依然具有砭人肌骨的寒意。深入解读此种伦理困境,对于后来者无疑还是既恼人又具有诱惑力的挑战。在长篇小说《工人舍维廖夫》中,阿尔志跋绥夫展示了暴力革命伦理的虚无主义本质,暴力革命者在自我神化和自我厌弃的悖论中,最终走向了恐怖主义的泥沼。分析其中的人性逻辑和伦理困境,对于超越暴力革命的局限性依然具有重要的启发意义。%There are Russian soul's specific sharpness,gloom and profundity in the fictions of Artsybashev. The ethical dilemmas which have been revealed by his fictions can still make us feel the biting chill. It is a trouble and tempting challenging for the late-comers to interpret the ethical dilemmas. In the fiction , Artsybashev revealed nihilism essence of violent revolution's ethics;violent revolutionaries who were always inclined to deify and reject selves would fall into the swamp of terrorism. Analysing thoroughly the logic of human nature and ethical dilemmas in his fictions is still of importance for us to transcend the limitations of violent revolution.

  15. Political Concepts for the Ethical Debate on Dilemmas on Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Israel Rodríguez Soriano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay is a reflection on some of the political elements embedded in the ethical problems of medically assisted suicide and euthanasia. The thesis work is that political theoretical founda­tions of modern nations are aimed to protect the lives of people, a fact that responds to a series of historical processes of the very development of modern political theory. These fundamentals directly affect the cultural and political positions for the refusal to accept the legalization or regulation of the two practices in question, thus denying the right of self-determination in human decision making on the own life and death.

  16. What Are the Ethical Issues Facing Global-Health Trainees Working Overseas? A Multi-Professional Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, James D; Logar, Tea; Le, Phuoc; Glass, Marcia

    2016-07-13

    The aim of this study was to identify global health ethical issues that health professional trainees may encounter during electives or placements in resource-limited countries. We conducted a qualitative study involving focus groups and an interview at the University of California San Francisco. Participants were multi-professional from the Schools of Medicine, Nursing and Pharmacy and had experience working, or teaching, as providers in resource-limited countries. Eighteen participants provided examples of ethical dilemmas associated with global-health outreach work. Ethical dilemmas fell into four major themes relating to (1) cultural differences (informed consent, truth-telling, autonomy); (2) professional issues (power dynamics, training of local staff, corruption); (3) limited resources (scope of practice, material shortages); (4) personal moral development (dealing with moral distress, establishing a moral compass, humility and self awareness). Three themes (cultural differences, professional issues, limited resources) were grouped under the core category of "external environmental and/or situational issues" that trainees are confronted when overseas. The fourth theme, moral development, refers to the development of a moral compass and the exercise of humility and self-awareness. The study has identified case vignettes that can be used for curriculum content for global-health ethics training.

  17. What Are the Ethical Issues Facing Global-Health Trainees Working Overseas? A Multi-Professional Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Harrison

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify global health ethical issues that health professional trainees may encounter during electives or placements in resource-limited countries. We conducted a qualitative study involving focus groups and an interview at the University of California San Francisco. Participants were multi-professional from the Schools of Medicine, Nursing and Pharmacy and had experience working, or teaching, as providers in resource-limited countries. Eighteen participants provided examples of ethical dilemmas associated with global-health outreach work. Ethical dilemmas fell into four major themes relating to (1 cultural differences (informed consent, truth-telling, autonomy; (2 professional issues (power dynamics, training of local staff, corruption; (3 limited resources (scope of practice, material shortages; (4 personal moral development (dealing with moral distress, establishing a moral compass, humility and self awareness. Three themes (cultural differences, professional issues, limited resources were grouped under the core category of “external environmental and/or situational issues” that trainees are confronted when overseas. The fourth theme, moral development, refers to the development of a moral compass and the exercise of humility and self-awareness. The study has identified case vignettes that can be used for curriculum content for global-health ethics training.

  18. Faced with a dilemma: Danish midwives' experiences with and attitudes towards late termination of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Hjøllund Christiansen, Anne; Petersson, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    literature. Aim: To explore Danish midwives’ experiences with and attitudes towards late termination of pregnancy. Focus was on how midwives perceive their own role in late termination of pregnancy and how their professional identity is influenced by working with late termination of pregnancy in a time where...... ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late termination of pregnancy. Other professions as well as structural factors at the hospital highly influenced the midwives’ ability to organize their work with late terminations. There is a need for more...... thorough investigation of how to secure the best possible working conditions for midwives and how to optimise the care for women/couples going through late termination of pregnancy....

  19. The Role of Moral Reasoning and Order Effects on Ethical Decision Making Ability: Novice vs. Experienced Accounting Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillalamarri, Sudarshan Kumar; Holm, Claus

    investigates the order effects of presentation of dilemmas on ethical decision making ability of novice and experienced accounting students. Rest (1979, 1983, 1991) categorizes moral reasoning into prescriptive reasoning i.e. consideration of what should ideally be done to resolve a particular ethical dilemma...... and deliberative reasoning i.e. consideration of what would actually be done in resolving ethical dilemmas. Because of lack of work experience, novice accounting students often do not face scenarios where there is a difference between their prescriptive and deliberative reasoning. This study hypothesizes...... to accounting students. This study calls for a more practical and hands-on approach to ethics training, one, which teaches students not only to deal with dilemmas ideally but also, trains them to handle dilemmas where the ideal may not always translate into the actual....

  20. `I Don't Even Have Time to be Their Friend!' Ethical Dilemmas in Ph.D. Supervision in the Hard Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfström, Erika; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2015-11-01

    This study focused on exploring students' and supervisors' perceptions of ethical problems in doctoral supervision in the natural sciences. Fifteen supervisors and doctoral students in one research community in the natural sciences were interviewed about their practices and experiences in the doctoral process and supervision. We explored to what extent doctoral students and supervisors experienced similar or different ethical challenges in the supervisory relationship and analyzed how the experiences of ethical dilemmas in supervision could be understood in light of the structure and practices of natural science research groups. The data were analyzed by theory-driven content analysis. Five ethical principles, namely non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy, fidelity and justice, were used as a framework for identifying ethical issues. The results show that one major question that appears to underpin many of the emerging ethical issues is that the supervisors and students have different expectations of the supervisory role. The second important observation is that doctoral students primarily described their own experiences, whereas the supervisors described their activities as embedded in a system and elaborated on the causes and consequences at a system level.

  1. The Ethical and Legal Dilemma in Terminating the Physician-Patient Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderovitch, Helen

    2016-05-01

    A physician-patient relationship is essential for the well-being of the patient, for without a strong and trusting relationship between both individuals, the patient may not receive the best care that they deserve. There are many legal policies and ethical principles a physician must follow when caring for a patient. It is both the legal and moral duty of the physician to act in the best interests of their patients, while making sure to respect them regardless of background and personal behaviours. The relationship is secured with both trust and respect, for without trust, the patient may hold back from stating their conditions which will result in the physician not providing them with all the care they require. Sometimes, lack of some of these key characteristics of the physician-patient relationship and other circumstances, may cause either the patient or the physician to terminate the relationship. Termination of a relationship creates a difficult situation for the patient, and therefore there are only specific situations where a physician may have permission to follow through and terminate their relationship. Both the law and ethical principles play a role in the decisions made by the physician in regards to their relationship with the patient, but regardless, the physician has the obligation to make sure their patient is receiving care by one means or another.

  2. Cultural issues and ethical dilemmas in palliative and end-of-life care in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Olarte, J M; Guillen, D G

    2001-01-01

    The concept of palliative care differs according to cultures and traditions. In Spain, palliative care programs have expanded in recent years. The European Commission Research Project in Palliative Care Ethics has sponsored ongoing research to analyze and clarify the conceptual differences in providing palliative care to patients in European countries with diverse cultures and backgrounds. The authors present key ethical issues in clinical practice in palliative and end-of-life care in Spain and how these issues are influenced by Spanish culture. They discuss typical characteristics of the Spanish conceptual approach to palliative care, which might be relevant in an even larger Latin palliative care context. The cultural tradition in Spain influences attitudes toward euthanasia, sedation, the definition of terminality, care in the last 48 hours of life, diagnosis disclosure, and information. The overall care of terminally ill patients with an Hispanic background includes not only the treatment of disease, but also the recognition and respect of their traditions and culture. The Spanish palliative care movement has shifted its focus from starting new programs to consolidating and expanding the training of the professionals already working in the existing programs. Although there is a general consensus that a new philosophy of care is needed, the interpretation and application of this general philosophy are different in diverse sociocultural contexts.

  3. The Risks of Revolution: Ethical Dilemmas in 3D Printing from a US Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Erica L

    2016-10-01

    Additive manufacturing has spread widely over the past decade, especially with the availability of home 3D printers. In the future, many items may be manufactured at home, which raises two ethical issues. First, there are questions of safety. Our current safety regulations depend on centralized manufacturing assumptions; they will be difficult to enforce on this new model of manufacturing. Using current US law as an example, I argue that consumers are not capable of fully assessing all relevant risks and thus continue to require protection; any regulation will likely apply to plans, however, not physical objects. Second, there are intellectual property issues. In combination with a 3D scanner, it is now possible to scan items and print copies; many items are not protected from this by current intellectual property laws. I argue that these laws are ethically sufficient. Patent exists to protect what is innovative; the rest is properly not protected. Intellectual property rests on the notion of creativity, but what counts as creative changes with the rise of new technologies.

  4. [Ethical dilemma in research: informed consent in clinical studies on persons with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinoff, Gary

    2012-09-01

    With the world's population aging, there is an increase in the number of demented elderly. It is vital to study this phenomenon in epidemiological and clinical studies, particularly the effects on the increasing numbers of demented elderly. Researchers need to understand the factors predicting the general decline in the demented elderly. However, before any research is undertaken, it is necessary to obtain approval from the Local Internal Review Board. This committee is responsible to maintain accepted national and international ethical standards. The basis for recruitment to a study is the signature on the informed consent form, where the patient is required to understand the study, internalize the study's aim, to consider all options and finally, to express an opinion. Potential elderly participants need to have their judgment evaluated before signing the form. In cases where the subject is incapable, some countries, including Israel, require that there be a legal guardianship. This is a long and complicated process that causes researchers not to recruit demented patients into a study which may actually be beneficial to all. Some countries allow a proxy to sign informed consent forms to permit the demented subject to participate in the study. Often the threshold may depend on the invasiveness of the intervention. The problem of proxies to sign informed consent form troubles researchers worldwide. This article addresses the history and development of ethics in research, and raises the issue to promote an official policy for proxy consent signing.

  5. Place as an ethical dilemma in contemporary art. Events of solidarity of multiple voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Guilherme Vergara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing a parallel with the rich participation of the individual as both body and voice, now active on the streets of Brazil, this paper explores the changes in process in contemporary artistic practice and identifies an urgent ethical clamor for visual art. From the vantage point of emerging ethical-esthetic practices, the street protests can be seen as symptoms of an exhausted social order. Increasingly we are seeing a body of work emerge that is tired of art ruled by the production of objects and favors the development of a visual aesthetic that gives place to the meaning of the local and the relational artistic event tied to the multi-sensorial activation of the body where the meaning of presence and the presence of meanings are interwoven. The paper examines the meaning of presence and the temporality of body and voice as forms of therapeutic and microgeographic poetic resistance that speak to the emergence of new ethicalaesthetic caring practices for the public meaning of art in institutions, museums and biennials.

  6. "Here's my dilemma". Moral case deliberation as a platform for discussing everyday ethics in elderly care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Dam, S; Abma, T A; Kardol, M J M; Widdershoven, G A M

    2012-09-01

    Our study presents an overview of the issues that were brought forward by participants of a moral case deliberation (MCD) project in two elderly care organizations. The overview was inductively derived from all case descriptions (N = 202) provided by participants of seven mixed MCD groups, consisting of care providers from various professional backgrounds, from nursing assistant to physician. The MCD groups were part of a larger MCD project within two care institutions (residential homes and nursing homes). Care providers are confronted with a wide variety of largely everyday ethical issues. We distinguished three main categories: 'resident's behavior', 'divergent perspectives on good care' and 'organizational context'. The overview can be used for agendasetting when institutions wish to stimulate reflection and deliberation. It is important that an agenda is constructed from the bottom-up and open to a variety of issues. In addition, organizing reflection and deliberation requires effort to identify moral questions in practice whilst at the same time maintaining the connection with the organizational context and existing communication structures. Once care providers are used to dealing with divergent perspectives, inviting different perspectives (e.g. family members) to take part in the deliberation, might help to identify and address ethical 'blind spots'.

  7. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident-An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Ionela Elisabeta; Rusu, Darian; Stratul, Stefan-Ioan; Didilescu, Andreea Cristina; Cristache, Corina Marilena

    2016-01-01

    Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments. Its occurrence may drastically affect the outcome of the treatment, transforming a common otherwise efficient endodontic procedure into a complication such as tooth extraction. In order to discuss the ethical and legal consequences, two cases of dental strip perforations are herewith presented. Due to the existence of risk factors for dental strip perforation, experience of the clinician and the use of magnification and modern imagistic methods (CBCT) may avoid or reduce the frequency of this type of accidents. Under correct working circumstances, dental stripping should not be regarded as a malpractice but as a procedural accident. However, the patient must always be informed, before and during the endodontic procedure, about the event and the possible complications that may occur.

  8. Hospital costs and clinical characteristics of continuous renal replacement therapy patients: a continuous ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustasse, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the clinical characteristics and examines hospital costs involved in the care of 117 patients undergoing Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) between January 1999 and August 2002. The majority (70.9%) of the patients undergoing CRRT expired in the hospital. Statistically significant differences were found with respect to the length of stay for discharge status and gender; and with respect to costs for surgery versus no surgery and gender. Significant differences were also found between discharge status and gender, age, and cardiovascular surgery. The results of this study raise economic and ethical questions related to the cost/benefit of CRRT and the futility of the treatment. Hospitals should ensure that they have utilization protocols in place for CRRT, promote cooperation between intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and nephrologists, and create multi-disciplinary CRRT teams in an effort to maximize the effectiveness of therapy and minimize costs.

  9. The dilemma and reality of transplant tourism: an ethical perspective for liver transplant programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiano, Thomas D; Rhodes, Rosamond

    2010-02-01

    Transplant programs are likely to encounter increasing numbers of patients who return after receiving an organ transplant abroad. These patients will require ongoing medical care to monitor their immunosuppression and to provide treatment when the need arises. Transplant societies have condemned transplantation with organs purchased abroad and with organs procured from executed prisoners in China. Nevertheless, transplant programs require guidance on how to respond to the needs of returning transplant tourists and to the needs of patients who may choose to become transplant tourists. This discussion presents a case that raised such issues in our program. It goes on to offer reasons for considering a program's responses in terms of the most relevant principles of medical ethics, namely beneficence and nonjudgmental regard.

  10. Ethical dilemma of mandated contraception in pharmaceutical research at catholic medical institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Murray Joseph; O'Brien, Richard; Rendell, Marc; Salzman, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The Catholic Church proscribes methods of birth control other than sexual abstinence. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognizes abstinence as an acceptable method of birth control in research studies, some pharmaceutical companies mandate the use of artificial contraceptive techniques to avoid pregnancy as a condition for participation in their studies. These requirements are unacceptable at Catholic health care institutions, leading to conflicts among institutional review boards, clinical investigators, and sponsors. Subjects may feel coerced by such mandates to adopt contraceptive techniques inconsistent with their personal situation and beliefs; women committed to celibacy or who engage exclusively in non-heterosexual activities are negatively impacted. We propose principles to insure informed consent to safeguard the rights of research subjects at Catholic institutions while mitigating this ethical conflict. At the same time, our proposal respects the interests of pharmaceutical research agencies and Catholic moral precepts, and fully abides by regulatory guidance.

  11. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident—An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Ionela Elisabeta; Rusu, Darian; Didilescu, Andreea Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments. Its occurrence may drastically affect the outcome of the treatment, transforming a common otherwise efficient endodontic procedure into a complication such as tooth extraction. In order to discuss the ethical and legal consequences, two cases of dental strip perforations are herewith presented. Due to the existence of risk factors for dental strip perforation, experience of the clinician and the use of magnification and modern imagistic methods (CBCT) may avoid or reduce the frequency of this type of accidents. Under correct working circumstances, dental stripping should not be regarded as a malpractice but as a procedural accident. However, the patient must always be informed, before and during the endodontic procedure, about the event and the possible complications that may occur. PMID:27672458

  12. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident—An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Elisabeta Ciobanu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti instruments. Its occurrence may drastically affect the outcome of the treatment, transforming a common otherwise efficient endodontic procedure into a complication such as tooth extraction. In order to discuss the ethical and legal consequences, two cases of dental strip perforations are herewith presented. Due to the existence of risk factors for dental strip perforation, experience of the clinician and the use of magnification and modern imagistic methods (CBCT may avoid or reduce the frequency of this type of accidents. Under correct working circumstances, dental stripping should not be regarded as a malpractice but as a procedural accident. However, the patient must always be informed, before and during the endodontic procedure, about the event and the possible complications that may occur.

  13. Ethical Problems in Teaching: "Paramedic" Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Donald W.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses ethical dilemmas that professors face in the classroom, drawing on three examples involving students: (1) discussing the illegal activities of an employer; (2) participating in politically controversial military activities; and (3) making racist comments. Argues that academic and professional organizations should issue codes of ethics…

  14. Ethical Navigation in Leadership Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Kvalnes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Business leaders frequently face dilemmas, circumstances where whatever course of action they choose, something of important value will be offended. How can an organisation prepare its decision makers for such situations? This article presents a pedagogical approach to dilemma training for business leaders and managers. It has evolved through ten years of experience with human resource development, where ethics has been an integral part of programs designed to help individuals to become excellent in their professional roles. The core element in our approach is The Navigation Wheel, a figure used to keep track of relevant decision factors. Feedback from participants indicates that dilemma training has helped them to recognise the ethical dimension of leadership. They respond that the tools and concepts are highly relevant in relation to the challenges that occur in the working environment they return to after leadership training.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v6i1.1778

  15. ‘THEY SAY ISLAM HAS A SOLUTION FOR EVERYTHING, SO WHY ARE THERE NO GUIDELINES FOR THIS?’ ETHICAL DILEMMAS ASSOCIATED WITH THE BIRTHS AND DEATHS OF INFANTS WITH FATAL ABNORMALITIES FROM A SMALL SAMPLE OF PAKISTANI MUSLIM COUPLES IN BRITAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHAW, ALISON

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents ethical dilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritative knowledge of their doctors, religious experts, and senior family members in response to the ethical dilemmas they faced. There was little knowledge or open discussion of the view that Islam permits the termination of pregnancy for serious or fatal abnormality within 120 days and there was considerable disquiet over the idea of ending a pregnancy. For some parents, whether their newborn baby would draw breath was a main worry, with implications for the baby's Muslim identity and for the recognition of loss the parents would receive from family and community. This concern sometimes conflicted with doctors' concerns to minimize risk to future pregnancies by not performing a Caesarean delivery if a baby is sure to die. The paper also identifies parents' concerns and feelings of wrong-doing regarding the withdrawal of artificial life-support from infants with multiple abnormalities. The conclusion considers some of the implications of these observations for the counselling and support of Muslim parents following the pre- or neo-natal diagnosis of fatal abnormalities in their children. PMID:21649685

  16. Protest of doctors: a basic human right or an ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Imran Naeem

    2014-03-10

    Peaceful protests and strikes are a basic human right as stated in the United Nations' universal declaration on human rights. But for doctors, their proximity to life and death and the social contract between a doctor and a patient are stated as the reasons why doctors are valued more than the ordinary beings. In Pakistan, strikes by doctors were carried out to protest against lack of service structure, security and low pay. This paper discusses the moral and ethical concerns pertaining to the strikes by medical doctors in the context of Pakistan. The author has carefully tried to balance the discussion about moral repercussions of strikes on patients versus the circumstances of doctors working in public sector hospitals of a developing country that may lead to strikes. Doctors are envisaged as highly respectable due to their direct link with human lives. Under Hippocrates oath, care of the patient is a contractual obligation for the doctors and is superior to all other responsibilities. From utilitarian perspective, doctors' strikes are justifiable only if there is evidence of long term benefits to the doctors, patients and an improvement in service delivery. Despite that, it is hard to justify such benefits against the risks to the patients. Harms that may incur to the patients include: prolongation of sufferings, irreversible damage to health, delay in treatment, death, loss of work and waste of financial resources.In a system of socialized medicine, government owing to greater control over resources and important managerial decisions should assume greater responsibility and do justice to all stakeholders including doctors as well as patients. If a doctor is underpaid, has limited options for career growth and is forced to work excessively, then not only quality of medical care and ability to act in the best interests of patients is adversely affected, it may also lead to brain drain. There is no single best answer against or in favor of doctors' industrial

  17. The Moral Imperative: Transformative Leadership and the Perceptions of Ethics Training among High School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakin, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    School leadership has always been a moral undertaking. Contemporary school leaders face complex ethical dilemmas every day. A limited amount of research exists to describe the extent to which school principals feel formally prepared to be ethical leaders. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between the self-identified…

  18. Does the Golem Feel Pain? Moral Instincts and Ethical Dilemmas Concerning Suffering and the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devor, Marshall; Rappaport, Isabelle; Rappaport, Z Harry

    2015-07-01

    Pain has variously been used as a means of punishment, extracting information, or testing commitment, as a tool for education and social control, as a commodity for sacrifice, and as a draw for sport and entertainment. Attitudes concerning these uses have undergone major changes in the modern era. Normative convictions on what is right and wrong are generally attributed to religious tradition or to secular-humanist reasoning. Here, we elaborate the perspective that ethical choices concerning pain have much earlier roots that are based on instincts and brain-seated empathetic responses. They are fundamentally a function of brain circuitry shaped by processes of Darwinian evolution. Social convention and other environmental influences, with their idiosyncrasies, are a more recent, ever-changing overlay. We close with an example in which details on the neurobiology of pain processing, specifically the question of where in the brain the experience of pain is generated, affect decision making in end-of-life situations. By separating innate biological substrates from culturally imposed attitudes (memes), we may arrive at a more reasoned approach to a morality of pain prevention. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.

  19. 运动生理学研究中的道德伦理与困境——基于生命伦理学视阈的研究%Ethics and Moral Dilemma in the Study on Physiology of Sport and Exercise --On the Perspective of Bioethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金岭; 张淑香

    2012-01-01

    Exercise physiology has some distinct features such as intercross and so on, research methods of medical and other related disciplines are introduced by many researchers of contemporary exercise physiology, which lead to the research field of exercise physiology is broadened as well as the content of it is enriched contin- uously. It is just the application of new science and technology, combined with intervention and application of ways and means in medical, triggering a series of new ethical issues. Ensuing moral and ethical issues have caught our exercise physiology researchers in a dilemma. Based on the issues talked above, study ron the ethics and dilemma produced in the research of exercise physiology from the Perspective of bioethics is one of the social responsibilities which a sport scientist must take of. In this paper, by means of literature review, field survey, interview, etc. , the evolution of bioethics and research status in China are described. After that, the study on many problems of moral and ethical dilemma exercise physiology researcher faced has been conducted. And final- ly, some constructive suggestions were put forward in the paper.%运用文献资料、专家访谈法等研究方法,对生命伦理学的演进及其在我国的研究状况进行了阐述。在此基础上,对我国运动生理学研究中的道德伦理与面临的困境进行了深入剖析,最后,针对存在的问题提出了一些富有建设性的对策与意见。

  20. X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita: a case report and ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Heba M; Rincon, Marielisa

    2014-07-01

    Our objective is to present the first case report of X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita in a child conceived by a donated egg and which also presented atypically, with initial mineralocorticoid deficiency. Case report with literature review. A late preterm fraternal twin male, conceived by in vitro fertilization of donated eggs, presented shortly after birth with feeding intolerance, hyponatremia, and hyperkalemia. Testing revealed a low aldosterone level, high plasma renin activity, normal cortisol level, and normal 17-hydroxyprogesterone level. He was diagnosed with 18-hydroxylase deficiency based on low 18-hydroxycorticosterone levels and was treated with mineralocorticoid successfully for 17 months. At age 18 months, he presented with dehydration secondary to herpetic gingivostomatitis and was found to be hypoglycemic, hyponatremic, hyperkalemic, and acidotic, with a low serum cortisol level. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test revealed low levels of all adrenal cortex products, with an elevated ACTH level. He was started on glucocorticoids. Genetic testing confirmed X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC). His asymptomatic fraternal twin underwent genetic testing and the results were negative. The fertility center records indicated that the mother had donated eggs to other families, but none of the children were known to have this disorder. The egg donor was informed but did not pursue genetic testing. We report a case of X-linked AHC presenting in the context of extraordinary ethical considerations. Our case raises a question unique to the era of assisted reproduction: should routine genetic screening of gamete donors be done for rare but potentially life-threatening conditions?

  1. The ethics curriculum for doctor of nursing practice programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Anne Griswold; Smith, Jennifer A

    2008-01-01

    Ethical questions dealt with by nurses who have Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degrees include traditional bioethical questions, but also business and legal ethics. Doctorally prepared nurses are increasingly in positions to make ethical decisions rather than to respond to decisions made by others. The traditional master's-degree advanced practice nursing curriculum does not address the extended expertise and decision-making skills needed by DNP practitioners as they face these new types of ethical dilemmas. We propose that a curricular framework that addresses clinical, research, business, and legal ethics is needed by all DNP students.

  2. 高校成人教师伦理困境的现实思考%Realistic Thinking of Ethical Dilemma of Colleges and Universities' Adult Education Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑宁霞; 牛丽珍

    2015-01-01

    Adult education teachers in colleges and universities are working in the front line of adult education .Due to the multiplicity of the role and the particularity of the nature of their work , they often find it easy to trap in the ethical dilemma caused by value orientation of the binary oppo‐sition ,conflict of role definition ,and evaluation anomie .Therefore ,it's of great theoretical and realistic significance to explore the ethical dilemma of adult university teachers and to help them a‐chieve the unity of individual and social value .%高校成人教师工作在成人教育的第一线,由于其角色的多重性和工作性质的特殊性,常常陷入二元对立的价值取向、角色冲突的价值定位及评价失范的价值考量等造成的伦理困境当中。因此,探讨高校成人教师的伦理困境,帮助其获得个体价值和社会价值的统一,具有重要的理论价值和实践意义。

  3. Incorporating cultural issues in education for ethical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, Susan; Klotz, Linda

    2007-07-01

    The population of most non-dominant ethnic groups in the USA is growing dramatically. Faculty members are challenged to develop curricula that adequately prepare our future nurses. An increased focus on clinical ethics has resulted from the use of sophisticated technology, changes in health care financing, an increasing elderly population and the shift of care from inpatient to outpatient settings. Nurses frequently face situations demanding resolution of ethical dilemmas involving cultural differences. Nursing curricula must include content on both ethics and cultural sensitivity. Active student participation is an important element providing a foundation for ethical practice. A proposed educational format was introduced with graduating baccalaureate students. In a pilot study, curricular content on cultural sensitivity and ethical practice was taught in separate modules. Students were then asked to identify and problem solve an ethical dilemma involving patients and professional caregivers from vastly different cultures. Course faculty members provided discussion questions to guide the students' thinking.

  4. Ethical conflicts in the prehospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J G; Arnold, R; Siminoff, L; Wolfson, A B

    1992-10-01

    To assess the range of ethical conflicts that confront prehospital care providers. Convenience sample, from October 1989 to January 1990. An urban advanced life support emergency medical service that transports approximately 3,000 patients per month. Six hundred seven paramedic responses were analyzed by a single observer. An ethical conflict was identified when the paramedic faced a dilemma about what "ought to be done" and the paramedic's values conflicted or potentially conflicted with the patient's. Cases with potential ethical consequence were brought to experts in medical ethics and epidemiology for further analysis and classification. Ethical conflicts arose in 14.4% of paramedic responses (88 of 607 cases). Twenty-seven percent of the conflicts involved issues of informed consent, such as refusal of treatment or transport, conflicts of hospital destination, treatment of minors, and consent for research. Difficulties regarding the duty of the paramedics, usually under threatening circumstances, accounted for 19% of the dilemmas encountered. Requests for limitation of resuscitation accounted for 14%. Other circumstances that presented ethical conflicts involved questions of patient competence (17%), resource allocation (10%), confidentiality (8%), truth telling (3%), and training (1%). The data demonstrate a range of ethical conflicts in the prehospital setting and point to areas in which policy needs to be developed. The data also can be used in a prehospital ethics curriculum for paramedics and physicians. Because case sampling was not strictly random, absolute conclusions should not be drawn regarding the frequency of the dilemmas.

  5. An Introduction to Ethical Dilemmas of British and American Medical Students and Their Medical Ethics Education%英美医学生伦理困境及教育问题研究简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜刚; 罗肖泉

    2014-01-01

    英美学者研究认为,医学生在医学院校学习和临床培训期间,由于其身份地位、文化冲突以及医疗管理等方面的原因而经历的种种伦理困境,易于使他们陷入情感和心理的困扰、信仰和行为的冲突、理想和现实的矛盾之中,并最终导致其价值观和伦理原则的损害。他们呼吁教育工作者应当承担起帮助学生应对复杂的矛盾问题以及学习职业伦理困境的处理经验的责任。这些成果对深入研究和积极探索我国医学伦理教育的有效路径具有重要的借鉴意义。%British and American researchers hold the fact that medical students incline to be haunted with emotional and mental problems ,religion and behavior conflicts ,as well as the ideal and realistic contradictions .All these problems are resulted from all kinds of ethical dilemmas they experienced during their studies and clinical trainings in medical schools , due to their different identities ,status ,cultural backgrounds and medical managements .These problems can destroy the values and ethical principles of these medical students . To solve the problems , the researchers appeal to educators to shoulder on the responsibility to help the students to deal with the complicated problems and learn how to compromise in ethical dilemmas .The author believed these conclusions could be taken as an important reference to further study medical ethical education in China .

  6. The case for a code of ethics in an ambulatory care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, I D; Richard, A J

    1995-07-01

    The health care industry leads others in the development and use of professional codes of ethics. However, ambulatory care facilities continue to operate without coherent ethical guidelines addressing the workplace itself. New diagnostic and treatment capabilities, coupled with economic pressures, have intensified the ethical dilemmas facing the ambulatory care practice. This article argues that office codes of ethics decrease the risk of liability exposure, clarify the expectations of patients and staff, and foster responsible ethical reflection in the workplace. Material for this article was gathered from relevant literature in the areas of business ethics, bioethics, and health care management.

  7. Staying quiet or getting out: some ideological dilemmas faced by women who experience violence from male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Alison J; Adams, Peter J

    2009-12-01

    Violence against women by men who are their intimate partners is now recognized internationally as a significant problem and one that impacts on social and community development and on the health of women and children. Women commonly report little of this violence. In this paper, we discuss the various socially constructed dilemmas for women that may silence them from talking of such violence. Billig et al.'s (1988) concept of ideological dilemmas emerged as a useful analytic device from which to analyse the discourses of 20 women who had experienced violence from their male partners. In particular, the influence of ideologies of patriarchy and of equity, and ideologies of individualism and collectivism were found to impact on some women's talk of such violence. This research contributes to the current debate on the psychosocial by describing the ways in which ideological dilemmas interweave across the social and the psychological.

  8. Ethical Dilemmas in Individual and Collective Rights-Based Approaches to Tertiary Education Scholarships: The Cases of Canada and Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    One of the ongoing debates in Canadian higher education is the dilemma of the brain drain and the seemingly conflicting goals between the strategies and intentions of various government departments. While Citizenship and Immigration Canada aims to recruit the brightest students from across the globe to study in Canada and to enable their long-term…

  9. Ethical Dilemmas in Individual and Collective Rights-Based Approaches to Tertiary Education Scholarships: The Cases of Canada and Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    One of the ongoing debates in Canadian higher education is the dilemma of the brain drain and the seemingly conflicting goals between the strategies and intentions of various government departments. While Citizenship and Immigration Canada aims to recruit the brightest students from across the globe to study in Canada and to enable their long-term…

  10. "Can I Have a Grade Bump?" the Contextual Variables and Ethical Ideologies That Inform Everyday Dilemmas in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukewich, Kristie R.; Wood, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Educators are regularly confronted with moral dilemmas for which there are no easy solutions. Increasing course sizes and program enrolments, coupled with a new consumerist attitude towards education, have only further exacerbated the quantity and quality of students' requests for special academic consideration (Macfarlane, 2004). Extensions, late…

  11. Reconsidering prenatal screening: an empirical-ethical approach to understand moral dilemmas as a question of personal preferences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, E.; Timmermans, D.R.; Leeuwen, E. van

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to most Western countries, routine offer of prenatal screening is considered problematic in the Netherlands. The main argument against offering it to every pregnant woman is that women would be brought into a moral dilemma when deciding whether to use screening or not. This paper

  12. Reconsidering prenatal screening: an empirical-ethical approach to understand moral dilemmas as a question of personal preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Gonzalez, M.E.; Timmermans, D.R.M.; Leeuwen, van E.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to most Western countries, routine offer of prenatal screening is considered problematic in the Netherlands. The main argument against offering it to every pregnant woman is that women would be brought into a moral dilemma when deciding whether to use screening or not. This paper

  13. Reconsidering prenatal screening: an empirical-ethical approach to understand moral dilemmas as a question of personal preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Gonzalez, M.E.; Timmermans, D.R.M.; Leeuwen, van E.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to most Western countries, routine offer of prenatal screening is considered problematic in the Netherlands. The main argument against offering it to every pregnant woman is that women would be brought into a moral dilemma when deciding whether to use screening or not. This paper explore

  14. Reconsidering prenatal screening: an empirical-ethical approach to understand moral dilemmas as a question of personal preferences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, E.; Timmermans, D.R.; Leeuwen, E. van

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to most Western countries, routine offer of prenatal screening is considered problematic in the Netherlands. The main argument against offering it to every pregnant woman is that women would be brought into a moral dilemma when deciding whether to use screening or not. This paper explore

  15. The Ethical Dilemmas Raised by Artificial Intelligence%人工智能体的道德确立与伦理困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东浩

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of artificial intelligence unlocked people's thoughts on traditional ethical ideas. With technology innovation,artificial intelligence has enriched its connotation;it's freer and more inde-pendent,which has protruded the problem of safety.While in the process of design and application,the traditional developing approaches have fell behind.People are beginning to question the morals and the whereabouts of the related ethical issues.Human-computer integration may be helpful in establishing arti-ficial intelligence ethics and human-computer interaction and exchange may have a positive role in solving the ethical dilemmas raised by artificial intelligence.Harmonious coexistence between man and machine may be a path taking artificial intelligence out of moral dilemma in the future.%人工智能体道德的出现引发了人们对传统伦理体制的思考。随着技术不断革新,人工智能体的内涵也不断丰富,它的自由性和独立性日趋进步。人工智能体的安全性凸显,在设计和应用人工智能体的过程中,传统的研发进路已然落后。人们对人工智能体有无道德以及道德去向提出了质疑。人工智能体走向人机一体化可能更有助于人工智能体道德的确立,人机之间的互动与交流对于人工智能体道德所引发的伦理困境而言具有进步意义。人机之间的和谐相处可能是未来人工智能体道德迈出困境的一条路径。

  16. The role of veterinarians in equestrian sport: a comparative review of ethical issues surrounding human and equine sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Madeleine L H

    2013-09-01

    Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethical dilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. By comparing the existing literature on human sports medicine, this article reviews the ethical dilemmas which face veterinarians treating equine athletes, and the role of regulators in contributing to or resolving those dilemmas. Major ethical dilemmas occur both between and during competitions. These include conflicts of responsibility, conflicts between the need for client confidentiality and the need to share information in order to maximise animal welfare, and the need for an evidence base for treatment. Although many of the ethical problems faced in human and equine sports medicine are similar, the duty conferred upon a veterinarian by the licensing authority to ensure the welfare of animals committed to his or her care requires different obligations to those of a human sports medicine doctor. Suggested improvements to current practice which would help to address ethical dilemmas in equine sports medicine include an enhanced system for recording equine injuries, the use of professional Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics to establish acceptable responses to common ethical problems, and insistence that treatment of equine athletes is evidence-based (so far as possible) rather than economics-driven.

  17. The role of veterinarians in equestrian sport: A comparative review of ethical issues surrounding human and equine sports medicine☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Madeleine L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethical dilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. By comparing the existing literature on human sports medicine, this article reviews the ethical dilemmas which face veterinarians treating equine athletes, and the role of regulators in contributing to or resolving those dilemmas. Major ethical dilemmas occur both between and during competitions. These include conflicts of responsibility, conflicts between the need for client confidentiality and the need to share information in order to maximise animal welfare, and the need for an evidence base for treatment. Although many of the ethical problems faced in human and equine sports medicine are similar, the duty conferred upon a veterinarian by the licensing authority to ensure the welfare of animals committed to his or her care requires different obligations to those of a human sports medicine doctor. Suggested improvements to current practice which would help to address ethical dilemmas in equine sports medicine include an enhanced system for recording equine injuries, the use of professional Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics to establish acceptable responses to common ethical problems, and insistence that treatment of equine athletes is evidence-based (so far as possible) rather than economics-driven. PMID:23773811

  18. The social worker as moral citizen: ethics in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, S S

    1997-05-01

    Social workers today face some of the most complex ethical dilemmas in the history of the profession. This article presents a framework of moral citizenship to guide ethical social work practice. The framework includes the action philosophies of philosopher Hannah Arendt and Lutheran theologian Paul Tillich integrated with concepts of professional responsibility and the unique contributions of social work pioneer Charlotte Towle. Social conscience and social consciousness, including awareness, thinking, feeling, and action, are major components of the framework.

  19. Ethical and legal dilemmas around termination of pregnancy for severe fetal anomalies: A review of two African neonates presenting with ventriculomegaly and holoprosencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, S C; Mamdoo, F

    2015-12-01

    Termination of pregnancy (TOP) or feticide for severe fetal anomalies is ethically and morally challenging and maybe considered illegal in countries with restrictive abortion laws. While diagnostic modalities such as fetal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and genetic screening have improved prenatal diagnosis, these technologies remain scarce in many African countries making diagnosis and counseling regarding TOP difficult. Ethical dilemmas such as women's autonomy rights may conflict with fetus' right to personhood, and doctor's moral obligations to society. In liberal jurisdictions, previable fetuses may not have legal rights of personhood; therefore, appropriate action would be to respect pregnant women's decisions regarding TOP. However, in countries with restrictive abortion laws the fetus maybe imbued with the right of personhood at conception, making TOP illegal and exposing doctors and patients to potential criminal prosecution. Birth of a severely disabled baby with independent legal rights creates further conflicts between parents and clinicians complicating healthcare decision-making. Irrespective of the maternal decision to accept or refuse TOP, the psychological and emotional impact of an impaired fetus or neonate, often lead to moral distress and posttraumatic stress reactions in parents. Doctors have legal and ethical obligations to provide an accurate antenatal diagnosis with full disclosure to enable informed decision making. Failure to provide timely or accurate diagnosis may lead to allegations of negligence with potential liability for "wrongful birth" or "wrongful life" following birth of severely disabled babies. Mismanagement of such cases also causes misuse of scarce healthcare resources in resource-poor countries. This paper describes ethical challenges in clinical management of two neonates born following declined and failed feticide for severe central nervous system anomalies with a critical appraisal of the relevant literature.

  20. Ethical Dilemmas when Diagnosing Hypertension Dilemas éticos en el diagnóstico de hipertensión arterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Montero Díaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A review on the ethical dilemmas in the diagnosis of hypertension and some elements in the emergence of the bioethics concept was performed. Ethical conflicts that appear at each stage of diagnosis of hypertension: at the time of providing the information, at the point of indication and performance of diagnostic tests, when communicating the diagnosis and during subsequent decision making were identified. We conclude that technological development will introduce new ethical decisions in the diagnosis of hypertension that will increasingly involve the interests of society and create, in one way or another, ethical and moral conflict in the decision making process.Se realizó una revisión sobre los dilemas éticos en el diagnóstico de la hipertensión arterial, así como de algunos elementos en el surgimiento del concepto de bioética. Se identificaron los conflictos éticos que aparecen en cada etapa del diagnóstico de la hipertensión arterial: en el momento de suministrar la información, en el instante de la indicación y realización de las pruebas diagnósticas, en la comunicación del diagnóstico y en la toma de decisiones posteriores. Se concluye que el desarrollo tecnológico va a introducir nuevas decisiones éticas en el diagnóstico de la hipertensión arterial que van a involucrar cada vez más los intereses de la sociedad y crear de una manera u otra conflictos éticos y morales en la toma de decisiones.

  1. Authenticity or autonomy? When deep brain stimulation causes a dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Felicitas

    2013-12-01

    While deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with Parkinson's disease has typically raised ethical questions about autonomy, accountability and personal identity, recent research indicates that we need to begin taking into account issues surrounding the patients' feelings of authenticity and alienation as well. In order to bring out the relevance of this dimension to ethical considerations of DBS, I analyse a recent case study of a Dutch patient who, as a result of DBS, faced a dilemma between autonomy and authenticity. This case study is meant to point out the normatively meaningful tension patients under DBS experience between authenticity and autonomy.

  2. Ethical Issues Related to Restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Offers a framework for thinking about ethical principles through the use of codes of ethics. Examines the ethical issues of restructuring and discusses specific ethical dilemmas. Specifically outlines ethics related to resources allocation and management, and details critical points in restructuring. Argues that ethical guidelines help shape…

  3. Improving Ethical Attitudes or Simply Teaching Ethical Codes? The Reality of Accounting Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…

  4. Improving Ethical Attitudes or Simply Teaching Ethical Codes? The Reality of Accounting Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…

  5. Ethical considerations in disease management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a cross-cultural, worldwide perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J A

    1998-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is universally fatal. Technological advances have provided a means to impact upon, without radically improving, the natural history of the disease. In addition, we now have the capability of potentially identifying patients who are pre-symptomatic carriers of the rare heritable forms of the disease. These capabilities provide the basis for the numerous ethical dilemmas that face patients, physicians, and agencies responsible for health care expenditures; dilemmas that can only be amplified between cultures. This paper attempts to address some of the major ethical issues germane to the care of ALS patients. It discusses the emergence of autonomy as the reigning principle of medical ethics in the United States and its potential conflict with the ethical dilemma of limited resource allocation. Finally, it attempts to compare and contrast, in an admittedly anecdotal and fragmentary fashion, the perspective of other cultures regarding the care of ALS patients.

  6. Developing the Optimal Protocol to Aid in Ethical Decision Making Involving Terminally Ill Patients at Womack Army Community Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    Administration D)TIC ELECTEamb" S MAY3O,199Q By Captain James C. Kohler, MSC August 1984 is( 05IB0 6ON . TAnhM ,.,r A 90 05 29 036 DlfibUn* ftd SECURITY...followed external factors should be considered. Issues in Reproduction Scientific advances have produced ethical dilemmas in newborn care, genetic ...Infant Care Review Committees (ICRC) to address ethical problems. 3 0 Other dilemmas being faced are the ethics of genetic engineering, such as who

  7. Human papillomavirus infection, vaccination, and cervical cancer communication: the protection dilemma faced by women in southern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Sadie P; Dorgan, Kelly A; Duvall, Kathryn L; Garrett, Linda H

    2011-11-30

    Human papillomavirus is the most frequently occurring sexually transmitted infection and has been recognized as the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Understanding the shift in public awareness caused by recent changes to cervical prevention is critical to addressing cervical cancer disparities in Appalachia. Since the human papillomavirus vaccine was approved for prevention, little data have been collected regarding human papillomavirus risk assessment and vaccine perceptions among Appalachian women. The purpose of the authors in this study was to investigate communication and cultural issues via a social scripting framework that could influence human papillomavirus vaccine uptake among southern Appalachian women; and explore participants' perceptions of human papillomavirus, cervical cancer, and the vaccine. A qualitative, descriptive design was employed to examine these issues in eight counties in northeast Tennessee and southwest Virginia. Thirty-nine women aged 18-49 years participated in a single individual interview or focus group session from October 2007 through August 2008. Interview and focus group data were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Two major themes emerged from the data: the human papillomavirus vaccine protection dilemma and spheres of silence surrounding the human papillomavirus vaccine protection dilemma. Study findings suggested areas for future research and may assist healthcare professionals in approaching southern Appalachian women as they make decisions regarding cervical cancer prevention.

  8. Does Moral Case Deliberation Help Professionals in Care for the Homeless in Dealing with Their Dilemmas? A Mixed-Methods Responsive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spijkerboer, R P; van der Stel, J C; Widdershoven, G A M; Molewijk, A C

    2017-03-01

    Health care professionals often face moral dilemmas. Not dealing constructively with moral dilemmas can cause moral distress and can negatively affect the quality of care. Little research has been documented with methodologies meant to support professionals in care for the homeless in dealing with their dilemmas. Moral case deliberation (MCD) is a method for systematic reflection on moral dilemmas and is increasingly being used as ethics support for professionals in various health-care domains. This study deals with the question: What is the contribution of MCD in helping professionals in an institution for care for the homeless to deal with their moral dilemmas? A mixed-methods responsive evaluation design was used to answer the research question. Five teams of professionals from a Dutch care institution for the homeless participated in MCD three times. Professionals in care for the homeless value MCD positively. They report that MCD helped them to identify the moral dilemma/question, and that they learned from other people's perspectives while reflecting and deliberating on the values at stake in the dilemma or moral question. They became aware of the moral dimension of moral dilemmas, of related norms and values, of other perspectives, and learned to formulate a moral standpoint. Some experienced the influence of MCD in the way they dealt with moral dilemmas in daily practice. Half of the professionals expect MCD will influence the way they deal with moral dilemmas in the future. Most of them were in favour of further implementation of MCD in their organization.

  9. Facing Paradox Everyday: A Heideggerian Approach to the Ethics of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Agnese, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I wish to offer insight into the role of paradox in teaching. I will do so by analyzing teachers' everyday work, taking a qualitative approach and constructing a small-scale empirical study. Philosophically, my attempt is framed by Heidegger's thought. Drawing from research data, I argue the following: (a) paradoxes and dilemmas are…

  10. 信访治理伦理困境的政治社会学诠解%An Explanation of Political Sociology for Ethical Dilemma of Petition Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田先红

    2012-01-01

    The generation and spread of all kinds of unreasonable petition have gradually dominated the logic alignment of petition governance. The mainstream trend of marginal petition behavior is the characteriza- tion of dilemma of state transformation. In the process of disintegration of all - around enlightenment govern- ment, the secularization of ideology and dispersion of rights discourse make the statute ability of ideology of- fered by the state decline. The right to speak of the state washes out quickly. The ethical dilemma of petition governance precisely displays that the state falls into winding of ideology, cant dominate the direction of it and cant offer forceful right to speak. In order to reverse the fracture situation of ideological transformation and to jump out of the dilemma of petition governance, it is necessary to make overall arrangements from both politi- cal level and governance level.%各种不合理上访行为的产生和蔓延,逐渐主导了信访治理的逻辑走向。边缘式上访行为的主流化趋势,是国家转型困局的表征。在全能教化政体走向解体的过程中,意识形态的世俗化和权利话语的弥散,使国家所提供的意识形态对民众的规约能力下降,国家的话语权快速流失。信访治理遭遇的伦理困境,正是国家陷入意识形态缠绕、无力主导意识形态方向和提供强有力的话语权的表现。为扭转国家意识形态转型断裂的局面,走出信访治理困境,需要从政治与治理两个层面统筹安排。

  11. A Computerised Business Ethics Expert System -A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Brenner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Where unethical business decision-making arises from failures of ethical perception, there is an important role for ethical training and decision-making tools. These may help business people to consider all relevant issues when assessing the ethical status of potential decisions. Ethical training programmes give business people a basic understanding of the principles which underlie ethical judgements and equip them with many of the necessary skills for dealing with the ethical dilemmas which they face in their jobs. Similarly, ethical decision-making tools may guide managers through the various ethical considerations which are relevant to business decision-making and help them to develop their ethical-perceptual skills. Furthermore, by establishing and reinforcing good ethical decision-making practices, training programmes and decision-making tools may also reduce the incidence of self-consciously unethical decision-making. A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making by the use of computerized business ethics expert systems is proposed. These systems have the potential to guide business people through a process of ethical evaluation while simultaneously fulfilling an educational role, thus providing many of the benefits of both training programmes and decision-making tools. While the prospect of a computer system which could simply make ethical judgements for business people is both unrealistic and undesirable, a system which leads human decision-makers through a structured assessment process has the potential for genuine benefits. Keywords: Expert Systems, Ethical Decision Making

  12. An embodied response: ethics and the nurse researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reflect on situational ethics in qualitative research and on a researcher's embodied response to ethical dilemmas. Four narratives are presented. They are excerpts from field notes taken during an observational study on Norwegian public health nursing practice. The stories capture situational ethical challenges the author experienced during her research. The author's reflections on feelings of uncertainty, discomfort and responsibility, and Levinas' philosophy help to illuminate the ethical challenges faced. The study shows that the researcher always participates, to some degree, and is never merely a spectator making solely rational choices. Ethical challenges in field research cannot always be solved, yet must be acknowledged. Feelings of vulnerability are embodied responses that remind us of the primacy of ethics. More so, it is the primacy of ethics that gives rise to feelings of vulnerability and embodied responses.

  13. The Impact of the Nurse-Physician Professional Relationship on Nurses' Experience of Ethical Dilemmas in Effective Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Niekerk, Leesa Micole; Martin, Frances

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 1,015 Australian registered nurses found that those who felt adequately consulted by physicians were significantly more likely to initiate consultation. Nurses dissatisfied with their relationship with physicians were more likely to experience ethical conflicts related to pain management. Level of satisfaction with this relationship…

  14. Ethical psychiatry in an uncertain world: conversations and parallel truths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepping Peter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Psychiatric practice is often faced with complex situations that seem to pose serious moral dilemmas for practitioners. Methods for solving these dilemmas have included the development of more objective rules to guide the practitioner such as utilitarianism and deontology. A more modern variant on this objective model has been 'Principlism' where 4 mid level rules are used to help solve these complex problems. In opposition to this, there has recently been a focus on more subjective criteria for resolving complex moral dilemmas. In particular, virtue ethics has been posited as a more sensitive method for helping doctors to reason their way through difficult ethical issues. Here the focus is on the character traits of the practitioner. Bloch and Green advocated another way whereby more objective methods such as Principlism and virtue ethics are combined to produce what they considered sound moral reasoning in psychiatrists. This paper points out some difficulties with this approach and instead suggests that a better model of ethical judgment could be developed through the use of narratives or stories. This idea puts equal prima facie value on the patient's and the psychiatrist's version of the dilemma they are faced with. It has the potential to lead to a more genuine empathy and reflective decision-making.

  15. Ethical psychiatry in an uncertain world: conversations and parallel truths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Alexander M; Lepping, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatric practice is often faced with complex situations that seem to pose serious moral dilemmas for practitioners. Methods for solving these dilemmas have included the development of more objective rules to guide the practitioner such as utilitarianism and deontology. A more modern variant on this objective model has been 'Principlism' where 4 mid level rules are used to help solve these complex problems. In opposition to this, there has recently been a focus on more subjective criteria for resolving complex moral dilemmas. In particular, virtue ethics has been posited as a more sensitive method for helping doctors to reason their way through difficult ethical issues. Here the focus is on the character traits of the practitioner. Bloch and Green advocated another way whereby more objective methods such as Principlism and virtue ethics are combined to produce what they considered sound moral reasoning in psychiatrists. This paper points out some difficulties with this approach and instead suggests that a better model of ethical judgment could be developed through the use of narratives or stories. This idea puts equal prima facie value on the patient's and the psychiatrist's version of the dilemma they are faced with. It has the potential to lead to a more genuine empathy and reflective decision-making. PMID:19555473

  16. Polygrapher's dilemma or psychologist's chimaera: a reply to Furedy's logico-ethical considerations for psychophysiological practitioners and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honts, C R; Kircher, J C; Raskin, D C

    1995-12-01

    We respond to Furedy's article in this journal where he raised an issue he referred to as the "Polygrapher's dilemma" (Furedy, J.J. (1993) Int. J. Psychophysiol., 15: 263-267). Furedy claimed that the control question test, the most commonly applied psychophysiological detection of deception test, is inherently subjective and harmful to subjects in both the field and the laboratory. Fortunately, Furedy's arguments were based on inaccurate representations of the control question test and on flawed logic. To correct Furedy's misrepresentations, we present an accurate description of how the control question test is used and evaluated. We then examine the results of empirical research that address Furedy's concerns. Furedy's concerns are found to be lacking on almost all counts. Finally, we discuss the findings from several studies that Furedy failed to mention but are directly relevant to the issues he raised.

  17. Teaching medical ethics to meet the realities of a changing health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstone, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The changing context of medical practice--bureaucratic, political, or economic--demands that doctors have the knowledge and skills to face these new realities. Such changes impose obstacles on doctors delivering ethical care to vulnerable patient populations. Modern medical ethics education requires a focus upon the knowledge and skills necessary to close the gap between the theory and practice of ethical care. Physicians and doctors-in-training must learn to be morally sensitive to ethical dilemmas on the wards, learn how to make professionally grounded decisions with their patients and other medical providers, and develop the leadership, dedication, and courage to fulfill ethical values in the face of disincentives and bureaucratic challenges. A new core focus of medical ethics education must turn to learning how to put ethics into practice by teaching physicians to realistically negotiate the new institutional maze of 21st-century medicine.

  18. Healthcare on the Battlefield : in search of a legal and ethical framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2014-01-01

    During armed conflicts healthcare workers or medical personnel often work under extremely difficult and dangerous circumstances. In such situations doctors and nurses, hospitals and medical units are at a serious risk of being attacked. Medical personnel also face complex ethical dilemmas when it co

  19. Healthcare on the Battlefield : in search of a legal and ethical framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2014-01-01

    During armed conflicts healthcare workers or medical personnel often work under extremely difficult and dangerous circumstances. In such situations doctors and nurses, hospitals and medical units are at a serious risk of being attacked. Medical personnel also face complex ethical dilemmas when it co

  20. Healthcare on the Battlefield : in search of a legal and ethical framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2014-01-01

    During armed conflicts healthcare workers or medical personnel often work under extremely difficult and dangerous circumstances. In such situations doctors and nurses, hospitals and medical units are at a serious risk of being attacked. Medical personnel also face complex ethical dilemmas when it

  1. Doing the right thing: relief agencies, moral dilemmas and responsibility in political emergencies and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slim, H

    1997-09-01

    In recent years a new generation of relief workers and relief agencies has become embroiled in the heat of civil wars and political emergencies, and the humanitarian community has had to revisit its fundamental principles and address the ethics of what it does. This paper sets out to continue this important debate by emphasising that ethical analysis should always be an essential part of humanitarian practice. The paper seeks to recognise the difficult moral choices relief agencies are facing today and gives some practical guidelines to relief agency staff when confronting the ethics of a given situation. In particular, it hopes to introduce some ethical principles into the debate about humanitarianism and contribute to the moral vocabulary which is being developed to improve relief agencies' ethical analysis. The paper starts by looking at the essential characteristics of a moral dilemma, and the way in which other types of tough choice can masquerade as moral dilemmas. It then introduces some basic moral principles surrounding the key ethical notions of action consequences and moral responsibility in an effort to show how relief agencies might begin to develop a process of ethical analysis in their work. Finally, it explores how relief agencies might develop a more intuitive form of ethical analysis based on an organisational conscience and moral role models.

  2. The medical-legal quandary of healthcare in capital punishment: an ethical dilemma for the anesthesia provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin W

    2008-12-01

    The case of Brase v Rees was presented before the US Supreme Court to consider the constitutionality of death by lethal injection as practiced in the state of Kentucky. The 3-drug combination of sodium thiopental, pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride is a key aspect in question. Capital punishment conflicts with medical and nursing code of ethics preventing providers who are skilled at difficult intravenous (IV) access, assessment of appropriate sedation, and involvement without fear of disciplinary action. Therefore, untrained or undertrained personnel from the prison have been delegated these duties. Cases in which failure to establish or maintain IV access has led to executions lasting up to 90 minutes before the execution was complete. Participation by skilled medical personnel has been a debate between the medical and legal communities since the inception of lethal injection. Healthcare should reevaluate the ethical and moral principle of beneficence as the legal system attempts to evaluate the constitutionality of lethal injection. Can a nurse or doctor step out of the role of medical professional, use knowledge and skill to make death by lethal injection more humane, and not violate the ethical principle of "do no harm"?

  3. Ethical Challenges Facing Greenland in the Present Era of Globalization: Towards Global Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the developments of ethics and politics in the Arctic region have again become an issue for international discussion. One main issue is the problem of climate change and sustainability of the Arctic region. This problem is linked to the issue of exploitation of natural resources in the Arctic region, not at least in Greenland. Indeed, the general issue is how we should define ethics of the environment and sustainability as a general principle for the Arctic region. It is important to discuss what is at stake and how we define the problem in relation to the different participating stakeholders. This paper deals with these problems as a case for global ethics and it proposes a vision of ethical and political responsibility for sustainable development in order to deal with such problems.

  4. [The Algerian Ethics Committee in the face of bureaucratic and religious competition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossoukine, Abdelhafid

    2007-01-01

    Affected by a fashion imported from Europe and following the example of some Arab countries, Algeria has instituted by decree its first Ethics Committee for Health Sciences. Between the fatwahs of the Islamic High Committee and the directives of the Ministry of Health, the Algerian Ethics Committee, in its composition, its way of functioning and its opposition to change, brings together all the contradictions of a society in gestation.

  5. 'Faced' with responsibility: Levinasian ethics and the challenges of responsibility in Norwegian public health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Anne; Svensson, Tommy

    2007-07-01

    This paper is concerned with aspects of responsibility in Norwegian public health nursing. Public health nursing is an expansive profession with diffuse boundaries. The Norwegian public health nurse does not perform 'hands on' nursing, but focuses on the prevention of illness, injury, or disability, and the promotion of health. What is the essence of ethical responsibility in public health nursing? The aim of this article is to explore the phenomenon based on the ethics of responsibility as reflected upon by the philosopher Emanuel Levinas (1906-1995). From an ethical point of view, responsibility is about our duty towards the Other, a duty we have not always chosen, are prepared for, or can fully explain; but it is nevertheless a demand we have to live with. Interviews with five experienced Norwegian nurses provide the empirical base for reflection and interpretation. The nurses share stories from their practice. In interpreting the nurses' stories, the following themes emerge: personal responsibility; boundaries; temporality; worry, fear, and uncertainty; and a sense of satisfaction. As the themes are developed further, it becomes apparent that, despite their diversity, they are all interrelated aspects of ethical responsibility. Responsibility for the Other cannot be avoided, ignored, or transferred. The nurses' responsibility is personal and infinite. Levinasian ethics can help nurses understand the importance of accepting that being a responsive carer can involve not only contentment in the predictable, but also the fear, worry, and uncertainty of the unpredictable.

  6. Towards Increasing Business Students' Confidence in Facing an Ethically Confusing Business Environment: A Strategic Management Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Wolfgramm, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presentation will focus on the application of self leadership and strategic management concepts to help make sense of the current global financial crisis and its critical connection with our future business professionals' perceptions of ethical behavior. The author will explore ideas that lead to the strengthening of business students'…

  7. Ethical Dilemma of Placebo in Clinical Trials%安慰剂在临床试验中的伦理学困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田侃; 刘义胜

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To focus on the ethical dilemma of placebo and its legal dispute.Methods: Both of the positive and negative views on the use of placebo were brielfy sorted out with the application of Kant's philosophy for further analysis. Results and Conclusion:The use of placebo in clinical trials violated Kant’s philosophicla principle “People end in itself” and the principles of medicine, and was subject to an unreasonable risk. In order to reduce the unreasonable risks in clinical trials and protect life and health of every subject, the clinical trials should be designed more scientiifcally.%目的:探讨安慰剂使用的伦理困境与法理争议。方法:对使用安慰剂正反两方面的观点进行简要梳理,运用康德哲学思想进一步剖析安慰剂的伦理缺陷与公正缺失。结果与结论:在临床试验中使用安慰剂,违背了康德“人本身就是目的”的哲学思想,给受试者带来不合理的风险,亦违背了医学原则。为了降低安慰剂的不合理风险,应对临床试验进行更为科学的设计,保护每一位受试者的生命健康权。

  8. Importance of Ethics in Surgical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Menderes Özçiftçi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of ethics, also called moral philosophy, involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. Ethics is an established system of moral principles that govern the rules of conduct. Medical ethics define what the physician ought to do and how he or she should behave. Some of us may think that ethics are unimportant in surgery, however, we should be aware that surgeons operate daily in the theater of moral choice. Ethical considerations, such as diagnosis and treatment, are essential features of the surgical care for each patient (1. Surgeons working in surgical units increasingly face ethical problems owing to growth in scientific knowledge and technology, and the availability of new diagnostic equipment and treatment opportunities. The applications become more complex and the decisions more difficult as advancing technology provides greater opportunities to save lives and relieve pain and suffering. More and more surgical procedures are now carried out in older patients who have multiple and more serious diseases than ever before (2. Doctors often face with ethical dilemmas related to providing care that maintains patients’ dignity while attending their advanced medical treatment. Organizational and financial constraints in hospitals, and professional relationships with colleagues and other healthcare providers also create ethical problems for surgeons as they try to act appropriately towards patients and relatives (3. Studies have shown, however, that physicians often are in doubt about the best and correct actions to take for the patients in specific situations (2-4. In fact, the majority of surgeons with little or no education in bioethics face many ethical challenges in daily practice. The overall aim of this article was to analyze surgeons’ experiences of living with ethical difficulties in their work, and highlight the importance of ethical requirements in surgical practice.

  9. Designing an Ethics Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

  10. Designing an Ethics Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

  11. Jeb Stewart's Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedo, Kelli M.; Dickerson, William E.

    2010-01-01

    This case study creates a dilemma that many school districts face. Public education is under-funded. Principals are expected to be the instructional leaders and are held accountable for student achievement. Is it appropriate then for public schools to have local businesses as benefactors when teaching personnel are involved? The conflict between…

  12. The Roles and Ethics of Journalism: How Chinese Students and American Students Perceive Them Similarly and Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Arant, David

    2014-01-01

    This study compares how American and Chinese journalism students view the importance of various journalistic roles and the difficulties of ethical dilemmas faced by journalists. Chinese students perceive greater difficulty in resolving conflict of interests and making a fair representation of the news while American students find greater…

  13. The Roles and Ethics of Journalism: How Chinese Students and American Students Perceive Them Similarly and Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Arant, David

    2014-01-01

    This study compares how American and Chinese journalism students view the importance of various journalistic roles and the difficulties of ethical dilemmas faced by journalists. Chinese students perceive greater difficulty in resolving conflict of interests and making a fair representation of the news while American students find greater…

  14. Ethical Concerns in School Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Wayne C.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses ethical dilemmas inherent in the school setting that result from conflicts in counselor responsibilities to pupils, parents, and school. An ethical dilemma involving a pregnant student who is considering an abortion is described, and some possible counselor responses are discussed. (Author)

  15. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  16. What's the matter with business ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, A

    1993-01-01

    The more business ethics secures its status in campuses across the country, the more bewildering it appears to actual managers. It's not that managers dislike the idea of doing the right thing. As University of Toronto Assistant Professor Andrew Stark argues, far too many business ethicists just haven't offered them the practical advice they need. Before business ethics became a formal discipline, advocates of corporate social responsibility claimed that the market would ultimately reward ethical behavior. But ethics and interests did not always intersect so fruitfully in the real world. And when they did not, managers were left in the dark to grope for the right ethical course. In the 1970s, the brand-new field of business ethics came onto the scene to address this issue. Critical of the "ethics pays" approach, academics held that ethics and interests can and do conflict. Still, scholars took an equally unrealistic line. To them, a manager's motivation could be either altruistic or self-interested, but never both. In short, ethicists still weren't addressing the difficult moral dilemmas that managers face on a day-to-day basis, and only recently have they begun to do so. After some initial stumbles, ethicists are getting their hands dirty and seriously considering the costs of doing the right thing. Finally, a new business ethics is emerging that acknowledges and accepts the messy world of mixed motives. As a result, novel concepts are springing up: moderation, pragmatism, minimalism, among others.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. The student with a thousand faces: from the ethics in video games to becoming a citizen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Yupanqui J.; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2012-12-01

    Video games, as technological and cultural artifacts of considerable influence in the contemporary society, play an important role in the construction of identities, just as other artifacts (e.g., books, newspapers, television) played for a long time. In this paper, we discuss this role by considering video games under two concepts, othering and technopoly, and focus on how these concepts demand that we deepen our understanding of the ethics of video games. We address here how the construction of identities within video games involves othering process, that is, processes through which, when signifying and identifying `Ourselves', we create and marginalize `Others'. Moreover, we discuss how video games can play an important role in the legitimation of the technopoly, understood as a totalitarian regime related to science, technology and their place in our societies. Under these two concepts, understanding the ethics of video games goes beyond the controversy about their violence. The main focus of discussion should lie in how the ethics of video games is related to their part in the formation of the players' citizenship. Examining several examples of electronic games, we consider how video games provide a rich experience in which the player has the opportunity to develop a practical wisdom ( phronesis), which can lead her to be a virtuous being. However, they can be also harmful to the moral experiences of the subjects when they show unethical contents related to othering processes that are not so clearly and openly condemned as violence, as in the cases of sexism, racism or xenophobia. Rather than leading us to conclude that video games needed to be banned or censored, this argument makes us highlight their role in the (science) education of critical, socially responsible, ethical, and politically active citizens, precisely because they encompass othering processes and science, technology, and society relationships.

  18. Love and caring. Ethics of face and hand--an invitation to return to the heart and soul of nursing and our deep humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jean

    2003-01-01

    This manuscript offers a new view of old and timeless values: the essential ethic of love, informed by contemporary European philosophies, and caring theory, as well as ancient poetry and wisdom traditions. It integrates some of the philosophical views of Levinas and Logstrup with Watson's Transpersonal Caring Theory. The metaphysics, metaphors, and meanings associated with "ethics of face," the "infinity of the human soul," and "holding another's life in our hands" are tied to a deeply ethical foundation for the timeless practice of love and caring, as a means to sustain, not only our shared humanity, but the profession of nursing itself.

  19. Advertising Ethics: Student Attitudes and Behavioral Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Jami A.; Kendrick, Alice; McKinnon, Lori Melton

    2013-01-01

    A national survey of 1,045 advertising students measured opinions about the ethical nature of advertising and ethical dilemmas in the advertising business. More than nine out of ten students agreed that working for a company with high ethical standards was important. Students rated all twelve workplace dilemmas presented as somewhat unethical. For…

  20. Advertising Ethics: Student Attitudes and Behavioral Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Jami A.; Kendrick, Alice; McKinnon, Lori Melton

    2013-01-01

    A national survey of 1,045 advertising students measured opinions about the ethical nature of advertising and ethical dilemmas in the advertising business. More than nine out of ten students agreed that working for a company with high ethical standards was important. Students rated all twelve workplace dilemmas presented as somewhat unethical. For…

  1. A Framework for Ethical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunby, Susan Sweat

    This paper on ethical issues in the gerontological nursing curriculum explores meanings of the concept of ethics and differences between ethical decision making and other decision-making processes. Four mind-sets about health care that influence the analysis of ethical dilemmas, identified by M. Aroskar, are described. The contributions of…

  2. Health Care Ethics: Dilemmas, Issues and Conflicts. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Annual Fall Workshop (6th, Indianapolis, Indiana, September 5-6, 1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prock, Valencia N., Ed.; And Others

    A variety of ethical issues confronting the nursing profession are examined in these proceedings. The following papers are presented: (1) "Ethics: Care & Conflict," by Leah Curtin; (2) "The Interface of Politics and Ethics in Nursing," by Mila Aroskar; (3) "Pluralistic Ethical Decision-Making," by Rita Payton; (4)…

  3. Ethical Dilemma and Countermeasure in Clinical Setting for Nurses in Department of Organ Transplantation%器官移植科护士在临床工作中的伦理困惑及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆秋江; 叶海丹; 林清华; 陈公云; 陈璐

    2012-01-01

    针对器官移植科护士在临床工作中遭遇的伦理困惑,即对“移植术前家属要求不告知患者病情”、“照顾临终患者”及“实习护士带教”的困惑.提出以下解决对策:确定患者的根本利益所在,思考并灵活运用适当的伦理原则,采取有效的沟通方式及负责任的伦理行为,关怀照顾患者的身体和情绪反应,维护患者的根本利益,尊重及保障患者的权益.通过长期、循序渐进的临床护理伦理决策训练,提高伦理决策能力,在解决临床伦理问题的同时,又兼顾患者的最大利益,为其提供高品质的护理服务.%Based on the ethical dilemma usually encountered by nurses in the department of organ transplantation , such as not telling patients their diseases before transplantation according to their family members, taking care of the dying patients, and teaching the internship nurses, this paper proposed the following countermeasures: considering the fundamental benefits of patients, correctly applying the etkical principles, adopting effective communications and responsible ethical actions, taking care of patients'physical and emotional responses, respecting and ensuring the legal rights of patients. The ability of ethical decision making should be promoted via a long - term, gradual and orderly training, which can not only facilitate to resolve the ethical dilemmas but also give consideration to the patients right and provide high quality nursing service.

  4. Business ethics and sustainability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fundamental issues about obligations to shareholders. DISCUSSION PAPER. Business ... Keywords: business ethics, managing ethical practice, morality, sustainable hospitality ..... are facing increasing pressure on their natural, cultural and.

  5. Ethical dilemma and countermeasures of organ transplantation in China%我国器官移植中的伦理困境及解决思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊民胜; 李久辉

    2012-01-01

    In the last ten years organ transplantations in China have made substantial progress in the field of transplantation techniques, transplantation quantity and quality, clinical management and regulation establishment. Meanwhile, the organ transplantation in China has some inherent disadvantages: the technical teams coming mainly from experts after overseas studies; clinical technologies introduced from the west, weakness in the fundamental research and innovation; retarded law and regulation establishment, lacking of institutional guarantee for a sound transplantation development. All these have created a number of shortcomings concerning the sources of organ donation and organ distribution: non regulated usage of death penalty prisoners' organ, homicide for organ selling, organ selling from the living, and patient recruitment by internet, which arose worldwide attention and criticism. It is thus of importance to review and synthesize the history of organ transplantation in China, to analyze the misunderstanding and ethical dilemma in its practices, and to find correct ways to develop it so as to promote a better and healthier development of organ transplantation in China.%我国的器官移植近10年来有了发展,无论从技术层面、移植数量和质量、临床管理以及法规建设上都有了长足的进步.然而,由于我们在开展器官移植方面的先天不足,例如从事器官移植的技术队伍主要是来自海外学成归来的专家;技术主要靠引进西方的临床技术,在基础研究和创新方面相对薄弱;在法律和管理制度的建设方面相对滞后,没有建立一个从制度上保证器官移植健康开展的系统,使得在器官供体来源和器官的公正分配上存在许多欠缺.因此有必要对我国的器官移植历史进行回顾和总结,对我国在器官移植中存在的错误观念和伦理困境进行剖析,寻找适合我国开展器官移植的正确途径,促进我国的器官移植事业健康发展.

  6. Dilemmas in private psychiatric practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanasaheb M Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A practicing psychiatrist faces dilemmas on a number of occasions, in deciding the best course of action he/she needs to undertake while treating a patient. At times, this choice may not be in accordance with the ethical and moral principles and may in fact appear to violate patient′s autonomy and rights. Aim: To study the nature of psychiatric practice by the practicing psychiatrist in the areas of admission, discharge, consent, physical restraint, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, certification, treatment, suicide and psychotherapy. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight psychiatrists gave consent to participate in the study. A special proforma was prepared, which addresses the common dilemmas in the clinical psychiatric practice. All the psychiatrists were given specially designed profoma and were requested to fill the proforma with appropriate answers. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: There were 42 male and 6 female psychiatrists. The age of the psychiatrists ranged from 28 to 65 years with a mean of 43.08 years. The mean duration of practice of these psychiatrists was 14.81΁11.07 years. Question and answers related to admission, discharge, consent, physical restraint, ECT, certification, treatment, suicide and psychotherapy are discussed. Conclusions: The present standard and practice especially in private psychiatric set-up does not confirm to the rules, recommendations, and regulations suggested by Mental Health Act 1987, Mental Health Authorities and various guidelines of practice. Indian Psychiatric Society and other professional bodies need to take steps to prepare guidelines for a good psychiatric practice.

  7. Are ethical norms and current policies still relevant in face of the recent mass terror events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tomer; Goldberg, Avishay; Adini, Bruria

    2016-10-04

    The widespread utilization of social media in recent terror attacks in major European cities should raise a "red flag" for the emergency medical response teams. The question arises as to the impact of social media during terror events on the healthcare system. Information was published well before any emergency authority received a distress call or was requested to respond. Photos published at early stages of the attacks, through social media were uncensored, presenting identifiable pictures of victims. Technological advancements of recent years decrease and remove barriers that enable the public to use them as they see fit. These attacks raise ethical considerations for the patients and their rights as they were outsourced from the medical community, into the hands of the public. The healthcare system should leverage social media and its advantages in designing response to terror, but this requires a re-evaluation and introspection into the current emergency response models.

  8. Offerpositionens dilemmaer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2008-01-01

    Denne artikel handler om nogle af de dilemmaer, som offerpositionering kan indebære. Der er tale om dilemmaer, som ofte overses af de autoriteter, der har med mennesker udsat for relationel aggression at gøre. At indtage en eksplicit offerposition kan nogle gange betyde endelig eksklusion fra de ...

  9. Beyond privacy and exposure: ethical issues within citizen-facing analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindrod, Peter

    2016-12-28

    We discuss the governing forces for analytics, especially concerning citizens' behaviours and their transactions, that depend on which of three spheres of operation an institution is in (corporate, public sector/government and academic). We argue that aspirations and missions also differ by sphere even as digital spaces have drawn these spheres ever closer together. We propose that citizens' expectations and implicit permissions for any exploitation of their data require the perception of a fair balance of benefits, which should be transparent (accessible to citizens) and justifiable. We point out that within the corporate sphere most analytics does not concern identity, targeted marketing nor any direct interference with individual citizens; but instead it supports strategic decision-making, where the data are effectively anonymous. With the three spheres we discuss the nature of models deployed in analytics, including 'black-box' modelling uncheckable by a human mind, and the need to track the provenance and workings or models. We also examine the recent evolution of personal data, where some behaviours, or tokens, identifying individuals (unique and yet non-random) are partially and jointly owned by other individuals that are themselves connected. We consider the ability of heavily and lightly regulated sectors to increase access or to stifle innovation. We also call for clear and inclusive definitions of 'data science and analytics', avoiding the narrow claims of those in technical sub-sectors or sub-themes. Finally, we examine some examples of unethical and abusive practices. We argue for an ethical responsibility to be placed upon professional data scientists to avoid abuses in the future.This article is part of the themed issue 'The ethical impact of data science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Ethical Grand Rounds: Teaching Ethics at the Point of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airth-Kindree, Norah M M; Kirkhorn, Lee-Ellen C

    2016-01-01

    We offer an educational innovation called Ethical Grand Rounds (EGR) as a teaching strategy to enhance ethical decision-making. Nursing students participate in EGR-flexible ethical laboratories, where they take stands on ethical dilemmas, arguing for--or against--an ethical principle. This process provides the opportunity to move past normative ethics, that is, an ideal ethical stance in accord with ethical conduct codes, to applied ethics, what professional nurses would do in actual clinical practice, given the constraints that exist in contemporary care settings. EGR serves as a vehicle to translate "what ought to be" into "what is."

  11. An ethical perspective on problems multinational companies in the apparel industry face, when outsourcing their production to developing countries with inadquate institutions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This thesis addresses the ethical problems multinational companies in the apparel industry face, when outsourcing their production to developing countries with inadequate institutions. I will use a case study of Bangladesh, to reveal the actions of Primark, Kappahl and the Benetton Group. These companies will be evaluated in light of three ma...

  12. On the spot ethical decision-making in CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear event) response: approaches to on the spot ethical decision-making for first responders to large-scale chemical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebera, Andrew P; Rafalowski, Chaim

    2014-09-01

    First responders to chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) events face decisions having significant human consequences. Some operational decisions are supported by standard operating procedures, yet these may not suffice for ethical decisions. Responders will be forced to weigh their options, factoring-in contextual peculiarities; they will require guidance on how they can approach novel (indeed unique) ethical problems: they need strategies for "on the spot" ethical decision making. The primary aim of this paper is to examine how first responders should approach on the spot ethical decision-making amid the stress and uncertainty of a CBRN event. Drawing on the long-term professional CBRN experience of one of the authors, this paper sets out a series of practical ethical dilemmas potentially arising in the context of a large-scale chemical incident. We propose a broadly consequentialist approach to on the spot ethical decision-making, but one which incorporates ethical values and rights as "side-constraints".

  13. The Stories We Tell: Introduction to the Special Issue on Ethical Challenges in Community Psychology Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Morris, Michael

    2017-09-18

    This Special Issue examines ethical challenges in community psychology research and practice. The literature on ethics in community psychology has remained largely abstract and aspirational, with few concrete examples and case studies, so the goal of this Special Issue was to expand our written discourse about ethical dilemmas in our field. In these articles, researchers and practitioners share stories of specific ethical challenges they faced and how they sought to resolve them. These first-person narratives examine how ethical challenges come about, how community psychology values inform ethical decision making, and how lessons learned from these experiences can inform an ethical framework for community psychology. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  14. Unraveling Ethics: Reflections from a Community-Based Participatory Research Project with Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine A.; Hewson, Jennifer; Shier, Michael; Morales, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    There is limited literature describing the ethical dilemmas that arise when conducting community-based participatory research. The following provides a case example of ethical dilemmas that developed during a multi-method community-based participatory action research project with youth in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Several ethical dilemmas emerged…

  15. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The

  16. Applied Ethics and tertiary education in South Africa: Teaching Business Ethics at the University of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Kretzschmar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how Applied Ethics, especially Business Ethics, is taught at the University of South Africa (Unisa. This discussion refers to the content of a particular Unisa module, Theoretical and Applied Ethics, which serves as an introduction to Bio-medical Ethics, Business Ethics and Environmental Ethics. The fundamentals of this course are: defining ethics; providing methods for moral decision-making; describing the role of ethics in a particular field and addressing common dilemmas in a specific context. The intention is to empower students to identify issues they are likely to face in the workplace, and to grow in confidence in their ability to make sound moral decisions when required to do so. The aim of this article is to contribute to the ongoing discussion between tertiary institutions about how the teaching of Business Ethics can be promoted, how moral decision-making in the workplace can be encouraged and what role theological ethics can play in this regard.

  17. Ethical perceptions of employees in small retailing firms: A case of indigenous-owned fast-food outlets in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patient Rambe

    2017-07-01

    Aim: The overall aim of this study is to contribute to ethical theory and literature by demonstrating how employees’ ethical perceptions and behaviour shape the strategic orientations of the business. To achieve this aim, the study sought to: (1 establish the typical ethical dilemmas that employees of these retail firms faced in their daily tasks, (2 assess how they responded to these ethical challenges, (3 ascertain whether demographic factors such as age, level of education, gender and their position in the organisational hierarchy influence their reaction to ethical dilemmas; and (4 determine these employees’ overall perceptions of ethical issues within their organisations. Setting: The study was conducted on employees of an indigenous-owned fast-food firm operating in two cities in Zimbabwe. Methods: A survey was conducted on 108 employees working in two cities. A structured questionnaire was developed and administered to the employees. Results: The results suggested that a majority of the respondents were ethically conscious and could make ethical choices. In addition, most respondents deemed the ethical scenarios presented to them as morally wrong, suggesting that the surveyed employees wished to engage in ethical behaviour. However, while the respondents were deemed to be ethically astute in their individual capacities, they seemed to lack an in-depth knowledge of the ethical policies of their organisation. Conclusion: The study concludes that owners and managers of small firms should provide interventions to cascade ethical policy to the lower ranks of the organisation to enhance the ethical perception amongst employees of these firms. The study implication is that an institutional top-down approach is critical to embedding ethical sensitivity into employees without which employees may continue to speculate about the business ethics of their organisation.

  18. Intragastric balloon: ethics, medical need and cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzampassi, Katerina; Shrewsbury, Anne D

    2008-01-01

    The development of the intragastic balloon as a safe, noninvasive, alternative method to weight reduction raises all the ethical questions routinely faced by practitioners of other forms of cosmetic surgery. In the case of the morbidly, severely or merely obese, the surgeon is faced with a medical decision in a situation defined by medical parameters. The case of the overweight or normal may, however, create an ethical dilemma in which the doctor is forced to make decisions of a nonmedical nature, for which his training has not prepared him, and relating essentially to his personal attitudes and moral beliefs, culture and the recognition that 'if I don't, somebody else--possibly less competent--will'.

  19. Teaching Ethics: Telling Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Ann

    1995-01-01

    In order to develop moral literacy, nursing students should be exposed to both rules- and justice-based ethics and to a feminist care perspective. They can learn to analyze and understand ethical dilemmas and to tell their own stories in order to identify the influences on their decision making. (SK)

  20. 从“善有恶报”看当今社会的伦理困境%A Critical Look at Ethical Dilemma in Contemporary Society from "One Good Turn Never Deserves Another"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁; 吴杨婷

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the various immoral phenomena caused by some people′s ill-treatment towards good deeds,starting from the moral options of utilitarianism as well as the ineffectiveness of the moral law,the paper critically analyzed the ethical dilemma in contemporary society,and proposed relevant measures to solve current moral problems.%分析各种"善有恶报"的不道德现象,从功利主义的道德选择和道德律令的失效着手,深入剖析当今社会的伦理困境,在此基础上提出解决现存道德问题的相应对策。

  1. The Ethics of Anti-aging Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Parker

    2017-05-08

    Interventions aiming to slow, stop, or reverse the aging process are starting to enter clinical trials. Though this line of research is nascent, it has the potential to not only prevent prolonged human suffering, but also to extend human well-being. As this line of research develops, it is important to understand the ethical constraints of conducting such research. This paper discusses some of these constraints. In particular, it discusses the ethical difficulties of conducting this research in a way that would produce reliable data regarding the effectiveness of an anti-aging intervention. Clinical trials of such interventions, I argue, will be faced with a dilemma between two confounding variables. Eliminating the variables requires introducing ethically problematic research practices. Thus, researchers must either perform research in ethically problematic ways, or forego the conduct of high-impact clinical research on anti-aging interventions.

  2. Ethical dilemmas in college psychological consultant of psychological crisis intervention and coping research%高校心理咨询师心理危机干预中伦理困境与应对研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽娟

    2015-01-01

    The psychological crisis is common to the psychological state of college students is a kind of special status, by psychological crisis caused by a series of events received extensive attention of the outside world public opinion. Therefore, to carry out effective psychological intervention measures is a major problem of colleges and universities is urgently needed. College counselors are dedicated to the important part of psychological crisis, have more professional knowledge of psychology. Through the present situation of psychological crisis intervention in colleges and universities, the author in this paper, the ethical dilemma of psychological crisis intervention, put forward a series of measures to solve the ethical dilemma.%心理危机是大学生心理状态中常见的一种特殊状态,由心理危机引发的一系列事件受到外界舆论的广泛关注。因此,开展有效的心理干预措施是各大高校刻不容缓的重大问题。高校心理咨询师是专门处理心理危机事件的重要构成部分,具备较为专业的心理学知识。笔者通过我国高校心理危机干预现状,阐述心理危机干预中的伦理困境,提出一系列解决伦理困境的措施。

  3. Ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses presented in nursing publications Dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeros y presentados en publicaciones de enfermería Dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros apresentados em publicações de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adelane Alves Monteiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This systematic literature review used nursing studies about "ethics" published in the SCIELO database. The objective was to identify the ethical dilemmas of nursing, based on a literature review of nursing publications between 2002 and 2006. Forty publications were found, of which seventeen were selected. The analysis of the articles permitted the organization of the following categories: ethics, the health system and nursing practice; ethics and nursing teaching-learning; ethics and nursing care. We noticed that the authors attributed a multidimensional approach to ethical issues. However, we considered it necessary to pay closer attention to the ethical aspects involved in nursing practice. There is a clear need for further studies, showing new ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses, so that they can contribute to a change in attitude, with outcomes for professional practice.Se trata de una revisión sistemática de la literatura, realizada en artículos del área de la enfermería, contenidos en el banco de datos SCIELO, y que abordaron el tema "ética". El estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los dilemas éticos de la enfermería a partir de una revisión de la literatura en publicaciones sobre esa área, en el período de 2002 a 2006. Se localizaron cuarenta publicaciones, de las cuales fueron seleccionadas diecisiete. El análisis de los artículos permitió la organización de las categorías en: ética, el sistema de salud y la práctica de enfermería, ética y la enseñanza-aprendizaje en la enfermería y, ética y el cuidado de enfermería. Se percibió que los autores realizaron, sobre las cuestiones éticas, un abordaje multidimensional, entretanto, se consideró necesario, en este estudio, dar mayor atención a los aspectos éticos que se encuentran frecuentemente en la práctica de enfermería. Quedó clara la necesidad de realizar otros estudios que pongan en evidencia nuevos dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeros, en el

  4. Perceived Difficulty of Moral Dilemmas Depends on Their Causal Structure: A Formal Model and Preliminary Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhnert, Barbara; Lindner, Felix; Bentzen, Martin Mose

    We introduce causal agency models as a modeling technique for representing and reasoning about ethical dilemmas. We find that ethical dilemmas, although they look similar on the surface, have very different causal structures. Based on their structural properties, as identified by the causal agency...... models, we cluster a set of dilemmas in Type 1 and Type 2 dilemmas. We observe that for Type 2 dilemmas but not for Type 1 dilemmas a utilitarian action dominates the possibility of refraining from action. Hence, we hypothesize, based on the model, that Type 2 dilemmas are perceived as less difficult...... than Type 1 dilemmas by human reasoners. A behavioral study where participants rated the difficulty of dilemmas supports the models’ predictions....

  5. Agriculture’s Ethical Horizon, book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughly 6.5 billion people inhabit the earth, but over 1 billion people regularly go hungry. This food shortfall poses an ethical dilemma for agriculture, and Agriculture's Ethical Horizon grapples with this dilemma. It argues that agricultural productivity has been the quintessential value of agr...

  6. 法理与伦理的互动与困境——中国法伦理学研究30年%Interaction between and Dilemma of Legal Theory and Ethics --Review on Studies on Legal Ethics in China for 30 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培超; 张启江

    2012-01-01

    道德与法律始终是法理学与伦理学学科研究的基本范畴,然而,两大学科之间的互动阙如,造成理论研究成果互不通约的困境。作为两大学科交叉形成的法伦理学研究范式试图消除该困境,形成互动,此等努力与愿望在该学科近30年的发展进程中得到了见证。%Morals and law are the basic category of the research of legal ethics and ethics. However, the lack of interaction between these two subjects causes the dilemma of uncommensurability of theoretical research achievements. The research paradigm of legal eth- ics as interdisciplinary subject aims to eliminate this dilemma and form interaction, which is evidenced by the subject development of 30 years.

  7. Towards a framework for the elicitation of dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Marc J. C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper covers the main findings of the doctoral research that was concerned with seeking to extend aspects of dilemma theory. In professional practice, the Trompenaars Hampden-Turner Dilemma Reconciliation ProcessTM is a vehicle delivering dilemma theory in application. It informs a manager or leader on how to explore the dilemmas they face, how to reconcile the tensions that result, and how to structure the action steps for implementing the reconciled solutions. This vehicle forms the pr...

  8. Ethical Leadership Behaviours of School Administrators from Teachers’ Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder Boydak Özan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to determine the degree of ethical leadership behaviours of school administrators according to teachers’ opinions. As a quantitative research, this study was carried out in the academic year of 2010-2011 with 371 teachers who were employed in elementary schools. Ethical Leadership Questionnaire developed by Langlois (2007 has been used in the research. Findings of study reveal that as the year of seniority increases, more teachers think that administrators act within the ethical standards. Teachers’ opinions about school administrators’ ethical leadership behaviours do not differentiate according to the teachers’ gender variable. However; in terms of branch variable, a significant difference is observed in teachers’ opinions about their school administrators’ ethical leadership behaviours when they faced with an ethical problem. Class teachers’ opinions are more positive than branch teachers’ opinions regarding school administrators’ ethical leadership behaviours. Results indicate that teachers think that their school administrators often faced with an ethical dilemma while deciding upon personnel issues. This study concludes that establishing written ethical codes for school administrators may help them to make decisions with integrity, fairness, and in a more ethical manner especially about personnel issues.

  9. Home Nutrition Support: Ethics and Reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karen; McGinnis, Carol

    2016-06-01

    Ethical dilemmas challenge providers on both sides of the hospital and clinic doors. In addition to establishing the nutrition care plan and guiding the client into the home setting with safe and effective parenteral or enteral nutrition therapy, procuring home nutrition support involves meeting documentation requirements and verifying that clients meet reimbursement criteria for home therapy based on third-party payer criteria. Providers have entered a realm for which training has been scarce and they face moral and ethical dilemmas involving serving as patient advocates, possibly stretching the truth to fit the clinical documentation to criteria vs maintaining professional integrity. Nutrition research and evidence-based practice have outpaced modifications to policies including Medicare's national and local coverage determinations, the bulk of which have not seen revisions in 32 years. This review elucidates clinical dilemmas and urges a political call to action to advocate for changes in current, outdated requirements for reimbursement. Given the current healthcare environment and trend toward expedited hospital stays, patients may be better served (and nourished) with revised guidelines.

  10. Assisted or Hastened Death: The Healthcare Practitioner’s Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Rod D; Wilson, Donna M; Malpas, Phillipa

    2012-01-01

    Assisting or hastening death is a dilemma with many ethical as well as practical issues facing healthcare practitioners in most countries worldwide now. Various arguments for and against assisted dying have been made over time but the call from the public for the legalisation of euthanasia and assisted suicide has never been stronger. While some studies have documented the reluctance of medical and other healthcare professionals to be involved in the practice of assisted dying or euthanasia, there is still much open debate in the public domain. Those who have the most experience of palliative care are strongest in their opposition to hastening death. This paper explores salient practical and ethical considerations for healthcare practitioners associated with assisting death, including a focus on examining the concepts of autonomy for patients and healthcare practitioners. The role of the healthcare practitioner has clearly and undoubtedly changed over time with advances in healthcare practices but the duty of care has not changed. The dilemmas for healthcare practitioners thus who have competent patients requesting hastened death extends far beyond acting within a country’s laws as they go to the very heart of the relationship between the practitioner and patient. PMID:23121745

  11. Teaching Ethics by Case Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromer, Margot Joan

    1980-01-01

    Starting with basic philosophic positions and principles, nursing students can be helped to analyze ethical dilemmas of increasing complexity. A hypothetical situation is presented and discussed as an example of a case study used to teach these principles. (CT)

  12. Simulation: a new approach to teaching ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Margaret; Phillippi, Julia C; Collins, Michelle R

    2015-01-01

    The importance of ethical conduct in health care was acknowledged as early as the fifth century in the Hippocratic Oath and continues to be an essential element of clinical practice. Providers face ethical dilemmas that are complex and unfold over time, testing both practitioners' knowledge and communication skills. Students learning to be health care providers need to develop the knowledge and skills necessary to negotiate complex situations involving ethical conflict. Simulation has been shown to be an effective learning environment for students to learn and practice complex and overlapping skills sets. However, there is little guidance in the literature on constructing effective simulation environments to assist students in applying ethical concepts. This article describes realistic simulations with trained, standardized patients that present ethical problems to graduate-level nurse-midwifery students. Student interactions with the standardized patients were monitored by faculty and peers, and group debriefing was used to help explore students' emotions and reactions. Student feedback postsimulation was exceedingly positive. This simulation could be easily adapted for use by health care education programs to assist students in developing competency with ethics.

  13. New Innovative Ethical Principles in Increasing Road Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Miletić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Future managers are faced daily with a variety of ethical dilemmas in traffic that need to be balanced by the interests of all participants. The question is whether a new innovative model of ethical principles could be developed that would increase road safety.Purpose: The a im is to raise the level of social responsibility and relationship of participants in traffic as well as warn all participants on the importance of safety. In addition, the purpose is to share suggestions to other researchers for further research studies in the area of increasing traffic safety.Method: We carried out a quantitative study (survey among first year post-graduate students studying at a higher education school focused on quality management in south-eastern Slovenia. The article presents five different ethical scenarios.Results: The participants have very similar views on judging individual ethical dilemmas. The desire to increase road safety, have led to new useful suggestions for further study of innovative new ethical principles in the field of safety, such as: no death victims annually, adequate road infrastructure, improved vehicle technology, video surveillance systems, and so on.Organization: Relevant authorities should promote models of ethical thinking and the introduction of codes of conduct at an early age. As such, the state, police, rescuers, fire departments, hospitals, and so on, would have fewer deaths due to serious traffic accidents.Society: By taking these results and further research suggestions into account, society would gain a new model that would be based on zero accidents annually.Originality: Research in the field of ethics and innovative ethical principles of traffic safety is limited. The article presents practical examples of ethical and moral decision-making that we encounter in daily traffic. But nothing much is done to make it better ("every day the same story".Limitations/Future Research: The research study

  14. Simone De Beauvoir's Ethics and Postmodern Ambiguity: The Assertion of Freedom in the Face of the Absurd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Patrick; Morris, Marla

    1999-01-01

    Despite de Beauvoir's language of bifurcations in her writings, she actually initiates a process of deconstructing Cartesian distinctions between the individual and society, past and present, present and future, means and ends, and ethics and freedom. The paper reconceptualizes her book, "The Ethics of Ambiguity," proposing a movement…

  15. Simone De Beauvoir's Ethics and Postmodern Ambiguity: The Assertion of Freedom in the Face of the Absurd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Patrick; Morris, Marla

    1999-01-01

    Despite de Beauvoir's language of bifurcations in her writings, she actually initiates a process of deconstructing Cartesian distinctions between the individual and society, past and present, present and future, means and ends, and ethics and freedom. The paper reconceptualizes her book, "The Ethics of Ambiguity," proposing a movement…

  16. Race and Ethical Reasoning: The Importance of Race to Journalistic Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Renita

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effects of race of news subjects on student journalists' ethical reasoning. Explains that journalism students were presented with four ethical dilemmas that working journalists might encounter. Concludes that the race of the people in the ethical dilemmas presented had a significant impact on ethical reasoning. (PM)

  17. Race and Ethical Reasoning: The Importance of Race to Journalistic Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Renita

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effects of race of news subjects on student journalists' ethical reasoning. Explains that journalism students were presented with four ethical dilemmas that working journalists might encounter. Concludes that the race of the people in the ethical dilemmas presented had a significant impact on ethical reasoning. (PM)

  18. Moral Dilemmas in Pediatric Orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, John J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Otsuka, Norman Y

    2015-12-01

    All orthopedic surgeons face moral dilemmas on a regular basis; however, little has been written about the moral dilemmas that are encountered when providing orthopedic care to pediatric patients and their families. This article aims to provide surgeons with a better understanding of how bioethics and professionalism apply to the care of their pediatric patients. First, several foundational concepts of both bioethics and professionalism are summarized, and definitions are offered for 16 important terms within the disciplines. Next, some of the unique aspects of pediatric orthopedics as a subspecialty are reviewed before engaging in a discussion of 5 common moral dilemmas within the field. Those dilemmas include the following: (1) obtaining informed consent and assent for either surgery or research from pediatric patients and their families; (2) performing cosmetic surgery on pediatric patients; (3) caring for pediatric patients with cognitive or physical impairments; (4) caring for injured pediatric athletes; and (5) meeting the demand for pediatric orthopedic care in the United States. Pertinent considerations are reviewed for each of these 5 moral dilemmas, thereby better preparing surgeons for principled moral decision making in their own practices. Each of these dilemmas is inherently complex with few straightforward answers; however, orthopedic surgeons have an obligation to take the lead and better define these kinds of difficult issues within their field. The lives of pediatric patients and their families will be immeasurably improved as a result. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. The Ethics of Workplace Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper.......A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper....

  20. The Ethics of Workplace Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper.......A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper....

  1. Researching from within: External and Internal Ethical Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Alan; Arthur, Linet

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the superficial and deep ethical and moral dilemmas confronting "insider" researchers, which we term external and internal ethical engagement. External ethical engagement refers to the traditional, easily identifiable ethical issues that insider researchers attend to by submitting their application for ethical approval to…

  2. 'Wicked' ethics: Compliance work and the practice of ethics in HIV research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, Carol A

    2013-12-01

    Using ethnographic material collected between 2003 and 2007 in five HIV clinics in the US, South Africa, Uganda, and Thailand, this article examines "official ethics" and "ethics on the ground." It compares the ethical conundrums clinic staff and researchers confront in their daily work as HIV researchers with the dilemmas officially identified as ethical issues by bioethicists and people responsible for ethics reviews and compliance with ethics regulations. The tangled relation between ethical problems and solutions invites a comparison to Rittel and Webber's "wicked problems." Official ethics' attempts to produce universal solutions often make ethics problems even more wickedly intractable. Ethics on the ground is in part a reaction to this intractability.

  3. [Toward a practical ethic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbelle, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between ethics and philosophy and jurisdiction is described; different kinds of ethics are presented. The increasing pressure of liberal points of view has boosted the ethics of utility. The ethics of care oppose a too rational utilitarianism, taking into consideration relationships such as the caregiver-patient relationship. In the multicultural society ethics of care and virtue ethics are being criticised for not giving universal answers to ethical dilemmas. Can one still define "doing good"? Is "doing good" so culturally biased that it no longer provides the basis for ethical conduct? An accurate procedural assessment of values, sometimes interpreted quite differently in different cultures, could be a tool to judge values in a less relativistic way.

  4. Subjectivity Dilemma of Economic Ethics-Decision Behavior Logic of Local Government%经济伦理主体性困境--地方政府决策行为逻辑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王姝

    2015-01-01

    Local governments′decision -making motives should be a overall balance of efficiency and fairness. However,for a long time,ethical concepts of economic isolated development and one -sided growth have caused local governments to face with troubles including conflict of values,reversal of tool means and purpose of human de-velopment,departure of traditional ethics of the market economy irrational,fracture of economic ethics and ecologi-cal ethics and so on,which they can′t solve.Local governments need deep reflection and interpretation of their own stations and should set up legislative concept and construct modernized ethics and establish public ethics awareness to remove market enchantment.%地方政府决策行为动机应是效率与公平的综合平衡。但长期以来以放任经济的孤立发展和片面增长为旨趣的经济伦理概念使地方政府自身陷入无法解决的困境,包括:价值理念的冲突;工具手段与人类发展目的的颠倒;基于传统伦理观念的市场经济非理性悖离;经济伦理与生态伦理的断裂等。地方政府需要深刻反思与解读自身境遇,通过树立法权观念,实现伦理道德建设的现代化以及树立公共伦理意识等除市场附魅困境。

  5. Payment of research participants: current practice and policies of Irish research ethics committees.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Eric

    2013-09-01

    Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking.

  6. The Ethics of Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoloth, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    This chapter intends to lay out some essential ethics questions that might frame the next step of space exploration. In this, I undertake two sorts of tasks. The first is to respond to the core ethic question: Is it ethical to travel in space? The second, assuming for the moment that I can convince you that the first premise can be justified, is to comment on what ethical challenges will face us there. It is appropriate to have a philosopher comment on this at the fortieth anniversary celebration, since it was also in 1962 that the National Academy of Science first convened a panel of philosophers to comment on space travel. They asked at that time whether it was indeed a worthwhile pursuit to travel in space and what might be expected of such an effort. What is at stake in any such boundary crossing is how the changing of essential human perimeters changes our own moral status. Will such boundary crossing worsen our human condition, or will it enhance it? In this way, the geopolitical quest is then linked to the quest for ontology, Pisarro hunting for the fountain of youth, for gold, and for territory. What follows are a series of ethical claims that link the problem of discovery in the larger world and the attendant ethical dilemmas of our explorations, as well as how this exploration alters our concepts of life on Earth. In this, the role of the ethicist is to function as both a skeptic and a stranger, aware of the optimism of science and the pessimism of philosophy.

  7. The catatonic dilemma expanded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weder Natalie

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Catatonia is a common syndrome that was first described in the literature by Karl Kahlbaum in 1874. The literature is still developing and remains unclear on many issues, especially classification, diagnosis, and pathophysiology. Clinicians caring for psychiatric patients with catatonic syndromes continue to face many dilemmas in diagnosis and treatment. We discuss many of the common problems encountered in the care of a catatonic patient, and discuss each problem with a review of the literature. Focus is on practical aspects of classification, epidemiology, differential diagnosis, treatment, medical comorbidity, cognition, emotion, prognosis, and areas for future research in catatonic syndromes.

  8. Managing Organisational Ethics: Professionalism, Duty and HR Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Segon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available After almost 20 years of researching, teaching and consulting in business and organisational ethics, this emerging field seems to be facing an organisational dilemma. Who should manage the ethics and integrity systems that are slowly being adopted by Australian firms?During consulting engagements with numerous Australian businesses it has become clear that the task of managing ethics and integrity systems, i.e. creation of codes of ethics, ethics committees, information programs, conducting of audits, etc, more often than not seems to be delegated to Human Resources Managers and their Departments. This trend appears to be unique to the Australian setting and contrary to the US where Ethics Officers and Compliance Officers assume this role.The purpose of this paper is to consider the question of who is appropriate to manage the ethics function in the Australian context. A literature review will examine the concept of professionalism and what characteristics and duties qualifies an occupation as a profession. In particular it will identify the role of knowledge and the existence of an organisation or association that regulates and licences the individual to operate as a professional. It will then identify the roles, responsibilities and characteristics of ethics officers so as to determine the knowledge required to undertake this task in an organisation setting.Given the predisposition to delegate this function to Human Resources practitioners in Australian Organisations, a review of formal Postgraduate Human Resources programs at the major Australian Universities will be undertaken. The objective of this task is to determine whether such programs contain any specific ethics content, in particular the creation of codes of ethics, codes of conduct, ethics training and the conducting of ethics audits. This will establish whether Australian Human Resource professions are sufficiently equipped with the knowledge and capabilities required to undertake

  9. Emerging ethical issues in pediatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwomeh, Benedict C; Caniano, Donna A

    2011-06-01

    With the rapid pace of technological advancement and changing political, social, and legal attitudes, physicians face new ethical dilemmas. For pediatric surgeons, these emerging issues affect our relationship with, and the care we provide, to our patients and their families. In this review, we explore issues related to professionalism in pediatric surgery practice, the value of apology, and the risks associated with sleep deprivation. Furthermore, we discuss how the imperative of patient safety presents an opportunity for specialty-driven effort to define standards for the surgical care of children and a responsible process for introducing surgical innovations. Finally, we remind pediatric surgeons of their ethical and professional duty to support clinical research, and advocate the acceptance of community equipoise as sufficient basis for enrolling children in clinical trials.

  10. The legal and ethical implications of social media in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Rachel; Reinisch, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Social media is a growing and popular means of communication. It is understandable that health care providers may not share identifying information on patients through these sources. Challenges arise when patients and family members wish to record the care provided in the emergency department. The health care provider may be faced with an ethical and possibly legal dilemma when social media is present in the emergency department. This article seeks to discuss the legal and ethical principles surrounding social media in the emergency department.

  11. School Psychologists' Ethical Strain and Rumination: Individual Profiles and Their Associations with Weekly Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtala, Mari; Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru

    2017-01-01

    We investigated school psychologists' experiences of ethical strain (the frequency of ethical dilemmas at work and the stress caused by these dilemmas) and dilemma-related rumination outside working hours. Individual latent profiles were estimated at the study baseline based on these three dimensions. The psychologists' weekly well-being (vigor,…

  12. School Psychologists' Ethical Strain and Rumination: Individual Profiles and Their Associations with Weekly Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtala, Mari; Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru

    2017-01-01

    We investigated school psychologists' experiences of ethical strain (the frequency of ethical dilemmas at work and the stress caused by these dilemmas) and dilemma-related rumination outside working hours. Individual latent profiles were estimated at the study baseline based on these three dimensions. The psychologists' weekly well-being (vigor,…

  13. 文化帝国主义与加拿大传播业的困境%Cultural Imperialism and the Dilemma Faced by Canadian Mass Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欢雨

    2012-01-01

      Cultural imperialism exists not only between western and eastern countries,but also among developed nations,Canada is a typical case. The mass media in Canada are highly advanced and largely Canadian-owned but filled with American content. This dilemma has gravely threatened Canada’s culture industry and national identity. This paper tries to uncover the historical,geographical,economical and cultural factors involved in the dilemma,which may prove to be helpful in other countries’fighting against the United States’ cultural hegemony.%  文化帝国主义不仅存在于东西方国家之间,也存在与西方国家内部,加拿大就是一个典型的案例。虽然加拿大拥有世界上最先进的大众传播体系,但传播的内容却不是加拿大而是美国的,这一困境已经威胁到了加拿大的文化生存和身份认同。本文试图从历史、地理、经济、文化等方面来发掘加拿大传播业困境的成因,为其他国家反抗美国文化入侵、发展民族文化提供有益的启示。

  14. Social Media Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffersen, Mette Buhl; Boukaouit, Dounia; Weeke Hervit, Benjamin Helmer; Winther Brødreskift, Ditte; Makilä, Riia Marette; Pingel Vogel, Klara Elisa; Wolter Strate, Simon

    2012-01-01

    With the opportunities for anonymity and free expression on the Internet it is it is not inconceivable that moral and ethical dilemmas occur. To give examples of this, we have chosen to analyse two case studies that are concerned with ethical dilemmas. The first case concerns the hacker group “Anonymous” which revealed personal information and accused two men of being paedophiles. The second case deals with the violation of privacy based on the famous meme “Scumbag Steve”. The two dimensions ...

  15. "I Don't Even Have Time to Be Their Friend!" Ethical Dilemmas in Ph.D. Supervision in the Hard Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfström, Erika; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on exploring students' and supervisors' perceptions of ethical problems in doctoral supervision in the natural sciences. Fifteen supervisors and doctoral students in one research community in the natural sciences were interviewed about their practices and experiences in the doctoral process and supervision. We explored to what…

  16. Ethical decision-making: the doctrine of sin and grace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Giles

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethical decision-making presupposes the possession of a free will. Central to a discussion on reformed ethics is the question of the bounds of freedom of the will. The reformed tradition, along with the wider Christian tradition, affirms that the will is not free in the Pelagian sense of being absolutely free, but is constrained by the effects of humanity’s fall from original righteousness. This ariticle considers the nature and extent to which the will is considered free, or no longer free at all. The question posed here, within the reformed theoretic ethical framework, is whether the will is so vitiated that a person is in- capable of any effective choice of action or inaction in the face of any moral dilemma, or does fallen humanity still possess some ability to make a free choice, albeit under conditions of impaired freedom of the will?

  17. Ethical Newsgathering Values of the Public and Press Photographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Craig H.

    1983-01-01

    Compares the reactions of photojournalists and the public to hypothetical ethical dilemmas confronting press photographers. Concludes that the two groups disagree significantly in their reactions to 17 of 19 ethical situations. (FL)

  18. Codes of ethics in occupational health – are they important?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses the ethical competence of occupational health professionals (OHPs). ... ethical dilemma an occupational physician may have to confront. An occupational ..... RISK WASTE. Waste Treatment & Disposal is our business.

  19. 高血压脑出血患者护理的伦理困境和对策%Ethical Dilemmas and Countermeasures in Hypertensive Cerebral Hemorrhage Patient Nursing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞素卿; 娄志玲; 季林玲; 邵吉红; 周莉丽

    2012-01-01

    高血压脑出血因其致死率和致残率高,导致预期治疗效果与患者实际状况之间、医院诊疗结果与传统死亡观之间、患者亲属之间产生一系列伦理冲突,也使密切和他们接触的护理人员不得不面对伦理困境.建议护理人员尊重生命,尊重患者和家属的价值观和信仰,加强护理管理,合理安排护理人员编制,加强伦理知识的学习和应用,促进护患和谐,提高患者和家属的生活质量.%Hypertension cerebral hemorrhage patients have high fatality rate and disability rate, which resulted in the ethical conflicts between treatment expection and the patients actual condition, hospital diagnosis results and the traditional view of life and death, and between the patients and their families, also bring some dilemmas for nursing staff who have close contact with them. This paper proposed that nursing staff should show respect for the values and believes of patients and their families'concept, enhancing care management, rationalizing the arrangements of nursing management and strengthening the learning and application of ethics knowledge so as to establish a harmonious relationship between the nursing staff and patients and thus improve the life quality of patients their families.

  20. Sexual harassment within the marine sciences and the ethical dilemmas of collaboration: a case study in the education and reportino methods available to scientists, students, and staff on board a federal research vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohern, J.

    2016-02-01

    Within the Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines, a disparity between male and female involvement persists on the order of about 3:1. While roughly 40% of men with STEM degrees go on to pursue STEM jobs, just 26% of women with STEM degrees hold jobs within the STEM field. There are a number of contributing factors to these disparities, but one pernicious factor is the issue of sexual harassment and discrimination. For the marine sciences this is an especially concerning issue because our field research frequently takes place hundreds of miles offshore. Despite education and policy initiatives, sexual harassment pervades many research vessels and is often never addressed, discouraging female involvement and limiting the opportunities available to women. Ethical dilemmas develop when administrators do not want to risk limited field schedules and funding while investigations are conducted and harassment issues resolved. Additionally, scientists and staff often collaborate between institutions, benefitting science but blurring the lines of responsibility. In one such case, administrators within a federal research office declined to report sexual harassment taking place between contracted crew members on their research vessel. The lengthy review process and lack of culpability discourages reporting of sexual harassment and allows problematic situations to occur. This case study reviews the reporting mechanisms currently in place, the barriers to reporting, and the proposed methods for more effectively resolving discriminatory workplaces. Collaboration within marine science is an absolute necessity, and our research benefits from diverse working groups. As marine scientists we have an ethical responsibility to ensure safe working environments for both the scientists and the staff who make our research possible.

  1. Resisting Ethical Paralysis: A Postmodern Critique of Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Teresa

    Patricia Bizzell argues that inquiry into ethics and English studies is paralyzed by the view that "the imposition of ideological agendas...[is]...morally questionable," yet "our moral sensibility motivates us to promote particular ethic positions." The field is caught in this dilemma because its postmodern skepticism forces it…

  2. 基于文献计量的护理伦理困境与决策研究状况及热点分析%Bibliometric Analysis on Research Status and Hotspots of Nursing Ethical Dilemmas and Decision-making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 李维; 周志超

    2014-01-01

    Nursing ethical dilemmas and decision-making is a hot area of nursing ethics research in recent years in China. Totally 1491 papers on nursing ethical dilemmas and decision-making covered in Web of Science database were analyzed by application of HistCite and CiteSpace analysis tools, and the distribution of publication years, countries, key papers, the way of evolution and research hotspot were revealed in this article, in order to provide reference for nursing ethics decision-making research.%护理伦理困境与决策是近年来国内护理伦理学研究的热点。本文基于科学引文数据库Web of Science,应用HistCite和CiteSpace分析工具,对1491篇国际有关护理伦理困境与决策的研究论文进行文献计量研究,分析其时间分布、国家分布、关键文献、演进路径和研究热点,为国内护理伦理决策研究提供参考。

  3. The cultural and philosophical foundations of normative medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T P

    1994-11-01

    Thirty years ago, the idea that culture and philosophy could provide a foundation for normative medical ethics was more easily entertained than it is today when the very notion of a norm, whether culturally, philosophically or ethically derived, is in itself a problem. In large measure this comes from our contemporary embrace of cultural and philosophical pluralism and an increasing tendency to exchange the difficult belief in abstract and universally applicable norms for the more accessible notion that ethical values are cultural and relative derivatives. Despite this, in the face of the unprecedented ethical dilemmas presented by modern medicine, we have attempted to apply traditional ethical norms and analysis to modern medicine to establish a consensus for its right practice. Unfortunately, the attempt has not been successful, so that wherever we turn we find that ethical problems in medicine remain intractable and unresolved. That, in turn, has prompted a certain scepticism about the efficacy of ethics in medicine. In order to understand why we have reached this impasse, it is essential to realize that we have seriously underestimated the way science and technology have informed and, as a consequence, transformed the practice of medicine. Contributing to this, our tendency to think of technology simply as a way of doing things has blinded us to the fact that it is more fundamentally a way of thinking, knowing and valuing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Integrating anticipated nutrigenomics bioscience applications with ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Lise; Ozdemir, Vural; Gremmen, Bart; Godard, Béatrice

    2008-03-01

    Nutrigenomics is a subspecialty of nutrition science which aims to understand how gene-diet interactions influence individuals' response to food, disease susceptibility, and population health. Yet ethical enquiry into this field is being outpaced by nutrigenomics bioscience. The ethical issues surrounding nutrigenomics face the challenges of a rapidly evolving field which bring forward the additional dimension of crossdisciplinary integrative research between social and biomedical sciences. This article outlines the emerging nutrigenomics definitions and concepts and analyzes the existing ethics literature concerning personalized nutrition and presents "points to consider" over ethical issues regarding future nutrigenomics applications. The interest in nutrigenomics coincides with a shift in emphasis in medicine and biosciences toward prevention of future disease susceptibilities rather than treatment of already established disease. Hence, unique ethical issues emerge concerning the extent to which nutrigenomics can alter our relation to food, boundaries between health and disease, and the folklore of medical practice. Nutrigenomics can result in new social values, norms, and responsibilities for both individuals and societies. Nutrigenomics is not only another new application of "-omics" technologies in the context of gene-diet interactions. Nutrigenomics may fundamentally change the way we perceive human illness while shifting the focus and broadening the scope of health interventions from patients to healthy individuals. In resource- and time-limited healthcare settings, this creates unique ethical dilemmas and distributive justice issues. Ethical aspects of nutrigenomics applications should be addressed proactively, as this new science develops and increasingly coalesces with other applications of genomics in medicine and public health.

  5. Ethical Dilemmas and the Thinking Path to be Dissolved in Social Work%社会工作中的伦理困境及化解路径思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张啸; 高杰

    2014-01-01

    Altruism is social workers must have the psychological quality , Self pay reward and external reward are endogenous and exogenous motives. The altruistic motivation model is constructed to analyze the psychological mechanism of social workers behavior and ethical dilemmas, to correctly understand of the contradictions and conflicts existing in the social work decisions, and know the effect and influence of reward in decision-making.%利他主义是社会工作者所必须具备的心理品质,自我酬赏和外来酬赏是利他行为的内源性与外源性动机。通过构建利他动机模型来分析社会工作者行为的心理机制和伦理困境,能正确认识社会工作决策中存在的矛盾和冲突,理解酬赏在困境决策中的作用和影响。

  6. The ethics of withdrawing artificial food and fluid from terminally ill patients: an end-of-life dilemma for Japanese nurses and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Emiko; Davis, Anne J; Aiba, Toshiaki

    2002-01-01

    End-of-life issues have become an urgent problem in Japan, where people are among the longest lived in the world and most of them die while connected to high-technology medical equipment. This study examines a sensitive end-of-life ethical issue that concerns patients, families and nurses: the withdrawal of artificial food and fluid from terminally ill patients. A sample of 160 Japanese nurses, who completed a questionnaire that included forced-choice and open-ended questions, supported this act under only two specific conditions: if the patient requested it, and if it relieved the patient's suffering. They considered that the doctor's orders, the family's request, or the patient's advanced age did not ethically justify this act. A small number of people who had recently lost a relative took part in semistructured interviews focusing on their experiences of their terminally ill relatives being given artificial food and fluid. Ethical, social and cultural factors surrounding this issue are discussed.

  7. Ethics in independent nurse consulting: strategies for avoiding ethical quicksand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Eileen L; Robinson, Jennifer C

    2010-11-01

    Changes in health care have created a variety of new roles and opportunities for nurses in advanced practice. One of these changes is the increasing number of advanced practice nurses carrying out independent consultation. Differences in goals between business and health care may create ethical dilemmas for nurse consultants. The purpose of this article is to describe possible ethical pitfalls that nurse consultants may encounter and strategies to prevent or solve these dilemmas. Three themes related to nursing codes of ethics will be discussed: the duty to uphold human rights, the duty to fulfill commitments, and the duty to practice the profession competently.

  8. Ethical Issues in the End of Life Care for Cancer Patients in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mobasher

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the recent years, advances in medical technologies for end stage cancer patients’ care have affected the end-of-life decision-making in clinical practice and exposed oncologists to serious ethical dilemmas. But little is known about oncologists' viewpoints in our country regarding their ethical problems in this mention. We aimed to clarify the ethical dilemmas which Iranian oncologists may face in our health care setting and to determine factors influencing decision-making process.Methods: In this qualitative study, a phenomenological approach was used. We interviewed 8 cancer specialists in teaching hospitals in Iran and used content analysis to identify codes and categorize themes in the data.Results: During the process of analysis, three main themes emerged about ethical dilemmas in end of life care for advanced cancer patients: illness factors, socio-cultural context and patient-physician relationship. Cancer specialists identified ethical problems on several main issues, the most important of which were telling the truth in Iranian cultural context, uncertainty in end stage definition, multidisciplinary team working and cost consideration in Iranian health care system.Conclusion: Health care and insurance system in Iran face to end of life care challenges; therefore, health care providers and policy makers need to allocate appropriate resources and programs to improve quality of care in terminal stages. Appropriate physicians’ communication skills training, multidisciplinary team working and supplementary insurance services that provide essential health care can improve the quality of care of patients with end stages of cancer. The findings of this study can help us to provide ethical policies for decision-making in end-of-life care.

  9. Puzzler's dilemma

    CERN Document Server

    Niederman, Derrick

    2012-01-01

    The Puzzler's Dilemma explores the world of classic logic puzzles, and tells the amazing stories behind them, from the Lighthouse of Alexandria to code-breaking with the Enigma machine. Here are brain teasers that even maths whizzes have never seen explained by a mind as nimble and playful as Derrick Niederman's, the author of Number Freak and the New York Times's near-genius crossword setter. A man is found dead in a room, hanging from a rope with only a puddle of water beneath him: What happened? Just the thing to get your brain working at full speed!

  10. Encyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Reviewed By Yavuz

    2008-01-01

    233Rapid developments in information andcommunication technologies have created newsecurity threats along with ethical dilemmas. Thesedevelopments have been so fast that appropriatesecurity precautions and ethical codes fail to keeppace with the technological developments. In thisrespect, education of both professionals andordinary citizens regarding information technologyethics carries utmost importance. Encyclopedia ofInformation Ethics and Security serves as anauthentic and comprehensive r...

  11. Encyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Reviewed By Yavuz

    2008-01-01

    233Rapid developments in information andcommunication technologies have created newsecurity threats along with ethical dilemmas. Thesedevelopments have been so fast that appropriatesecurity precautions and ethical codes fail to keeppace with the technological developments. In thisrespect, education of both professionals andordinary citizens regarding information technologyethics carries utmost importance. Encyclopedia ofInformation Ethics and Security serves as anauthentic and comprehensive r...

  12. THE TOURISM INDUSTRY OF ETHICS AND TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa ENEA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry is one of the largest industries in the world, and despite recent events that have made its operating environment more complex, the industry continues to grow [Theobald, 2005, Global Tourism, 3rdedn., Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier]. Commensurate to the size of the industry is a growth in the number of students pursuing degree courses in tourism around the world. Despite an increasingly sophisticated literature, the relative recency of the industry and its study has meant little attention has been paid in the ethics literature to the dilemmas facing tourism managers and its students. Based on interviews with senior members of the tourism industry six scenarios are developed with pertinence to the challenges faced by industry practitioners today.

  13. 大数据预测的伦理困境与出路%Ethical Dilemmas and Solutions of Big Data Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋洁; 陈芳; 何亮亮

    2014-01-01

    立足海量信息资源与尖端分析技术的大数据预测模型在有效指导商业决策、优化资源分配、降低管理成本并提升教育科研水平的同时,存在结果预判挑战自由、隐私披露挑战尊严、信息垄断挑战公平、固化标签挑战正义等伦理背反问题。亟待通过健全以尊重原则、橡皮原则、无害原则、可持续发展原则等为核心的后现代数据伦理体系,有效表达各方自由意志并平衡利益冲突、顺利传承良善伦理观念、实现大数据生态系统的良性循环、推动人类生存价值与自然永续发展的和谐共进。%Based on mass data and sophisticated technique, big data prediction can effectively guide business decision-making, optimize resource allocation, reduce administrative costs, and enhance education and scientific research levels. We focus on issues of violating ethical standards, such as results prediction infringing freedom, privacy disclosure infringing dignity, information monopoly infringing fairness, and stereotypes infringing justice, etc. The article proposes specific initiatives of constructing the system of ethical principles, such as respect, rubber, harmlessness, and sustainable development, which will express each free will, balance conflict of interest, inherit kind ethical opinions, realize the virtuous cycle of big data ecosystem, and promote harmonious development of human survival value and natural age-long development.

  14. Developing Ethical Knowledge in the Spirit of Judaism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to describe Jewish teachers' perceptions about their ethical dilemmas based on stories derived from the Bible. Sixty teachers were asked to submit descriptions of their ethical dilemmas to the study website; submissions were then discussed in focus groups. The findings were grouped by the ATLAS.ti into five categories: Telling…

  15. Ethical dilemma: offering short-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for terminally ill children who are not candidates for long-term mechanical circulatory support or heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Venkat; Costello, John P; Peer, Syed M; Klugman, Darren; Nath, Dilip S

    2014-04-01

    The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in terminally ill pediatric patients who are not candidates for long-term mechanical circulatory support or heart transplantation requires careful deliberation. We present the case of a 16-year-old female with a relapse of acute lymphoid leukemia and acute-on-chronic cardiomyopathy who received short-term ECMO therapy. In addition, we highlight several ethical considerations that were crucial to this patient's family-centered care and demonstrate that this therapy can be accomplished in a manner that respects patient autonomy and family wishes.

  16. The Study of the Ethics Dilemma during the Teaching Procedure of Medical Genetics%医学遗传学教学中的伦理困境与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红英; 杨利丽; 王刚

    2014-01-01

    为探讨医学遗传学教学中伦理学问题的正确授课方法,我们采用随机抽取﹑面对面交流﹑匿名调查问卷等方法与学生沟通,获得了学生对医学遗传学教学中伦理学问题看法的最真实的资料。总结正确方法,将伦理学问题贯穿到医学遗传学教学过程中,真正达到“教书育人”的目的。%To investigate the correct teaching method of the ethics problem in Medical Gentics. We get the real viewpoint from students by random selection, face to face talking and anonymous questionnaire. And we summarize the data and put the ethics problem into the teaching procedure of Medical Genetics. To achieve the aim of “impart knowledge and educate people”.

  17. Global Ethics Applied: Global Ethics, Economic Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Stückelberger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Global Ethics Applied’ in four volumes is a reader of 88 selected articles from the author on 13 domains: Vol. 1 Global Ethics, Economic Ethics; Vol. 2 Environmental Ethics; Vol. 3 Development Ethics, Political Ethics, Dialogue and Peace Ethics, Innovation and Research Ethics, Information and Communication Ethics; Vol. 4 Bioethics and Medical Ethics, Family Ethics and Sexual Ethics, Leadership Ethics, Theological Ethics and Ecclesiology, Methods of Ethics. It concludes with the extended Bibli...

  18. Whole-genome association studies for multigenic diseases: ethical dilemmas arising from commercialization--the case of genetic testing for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Bertrand R; Tsai, Daniel Fu Chang

    2010-07-01

    This paper examines some ethical issues arising from whole-genome association studies for multigenic diseases, focusing on the case of autism. Events occurring following the announcement of a genetic test for autism in France (2005-2009) are described to exemplify the ethical controversies that can arise when genetic testing for autism is applied prematurely and inappropriately promoted by biotech companies. The authors argue that genetic tests assessing one or a few genes involved in highly multigenic disorders can only be useful if: (1) the genetic linkage found in the scientific study must be statistically convincing, reproducible and also applicable to the population to which the individual considered belongs (scientific validity); (2) the relative risk conferred by the 'high-risk' allele should be high enough to be significant to the patient (significant impact); (3) use of the test should lead to some improvement of outcome for the patient, resulting from adapted treatment if available, or at least from adjustment of lifestyle (or life goals) prompted by the new knowledge generated (clinical utility). Decisions concerning genetic testing for autism involve scientific judgement, value judgement and good knowledge of a constantly evolving therapeutic environment. The implementation of genetic tests for highly multigenic diseases thus requires strong mechanisms to ensure that they are used in a fashion that can benefit patients, and these mechanisms must be able to cope with rapid progress in scientific knowledge and therapeutic intervention.

  19. An ethical dilemma: malignant melanoma in a 51-year-old patient awaiting simultaneous kidney and pancreas transplantation for type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, L C; Banerjee, A; Augustine, T; Douglas, J F

    2016-07-01

    Malignant melanoma is a high-risk skin cancer that, in potential transplant recipients, is considered a substantial contraindication to solid organ transplantation due to significant risk of recurrence with immunosuppression. Current guidelines stipulate waiting between 3 and 10 years after melanoma diagnosis. However, in young patients with end-stage organ failure and malignant melanoma, complex ethical and moral issues arise. Assessment of the true risk associated with transplantation in these patients is difficult due to lack of prospective data, but an autonomous patient can make a decision that clinicians may perceive to be high risk. The national and worldwide shortage of available organs also has to be incorporated into the decision to maximize the net benefit and minimize the risk of graft failure and mortality. The incidence of malignant melanoma worldwide is increasing faster than that of any other cancer and continues to pose ethically challenging decisions for transplant specialists evaluating recipients for solid organ transplantation. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Teaching Empathy and Ethical Decision Making in Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Diane F.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers in behavioral ethics seek to understand how individuals respond to the ethical dilemmas in their lives. In any given situation, multiple social and psychological variables interact to influence ethical decision making. The purpose of this article is to explore how one such variable, empathy, affects the ethical decision-making process…

  1. Reflective Ethical Inquiry: Preparing Students for Life. IDEA Paper #54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualters, Donna M.; McDaniels, Melissa; Cohen, Perrin

    2013-01-01

    Although universities often teach ethics courses, they do not always teach students how to apply ethical course content to ethical dilemmas they encounter on a day-to-day basis. The Awareness-Investigation-Responding (AIR) model of ethical inquiry bridges this gap by scaffolding the reflective process and empowering students to make more caring,…

  2. The Role of Communication in Organizations: Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, John D., Jr.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines a theoretical framework of ethics, power, and communication in the workplace, which provides a backdrop for viewing ethical decisions. Explains that business managers are often caught in a dilemma between job pressures and personal ethical codes. Proposes communication as a means of fostering more ethical organizational behavior. (SG)

  3. The Role of Communication in Organizations: Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, John D., Jr.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines a theoretical framework of ethics, power, and communication in the workplace, which provides a backdrop for viewing ethical decisions. Explains that business managers are often caught in a dilemma between job pressures and personal ethical codes. Proposes communication as a means of fostering more ethical organizational behavior. (SG)

  4. [How to Understand "Clinical Ethics" and "Research Ethics" in Clinical Settings--Incorporation of IRB, REC, and CEC in Hospital Organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ita, Koichiro

    2016-02-01

    As the traditional definition of "medical ethics" has recently changed markedly with advances in medical knowledge and technology, medical doctors and researchers in Japan are required to understand and apply both research and clinical ethics. Quite frequently, ethical problems in clinical settings cannot be addressed by the simple application of good will, hard work, and perseverance by medical personnel. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) have jointly published "Ethical Guidelines for Clinical Studies;" however, clear guidelines (legal, ministerial, or governmental) outlining the expectations regarding clinical ethics do not exist. All medical personnel face deep ethical dilemmas. In these instances, if the fulfillment of 'ethics' relies solely on the capacity of personnel to apply their own individual moral efforts, the result will be burn-out among these workers who have a strong sense of responsibility. In order to avoid this, a system which comprises multiple physicians, nurses, and other personnel must be established, allowing collaboration when an appropriate response is required. A major factor supporting this approach is the offering of Clinical Ethics Consultations.

  5. Internação por ordem judicial: dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros Internación por orden judicial: dilemas éticos vividos por enfermeros Hospitalization by court order: ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira Vargas

    2013-03-01

    dilemmas of nurses in the process of referring and receiving hospitalized patients by court order who require admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. A partially structured interview was conducted with 10 nurses who worked in the ICU and 10 who worked in the Emergency Room (ER in public and private hospitals in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The data was analyzed following the Semantic Analysis. The results indicated that nurses experienced ethical dilemmas associated with problems of overcrowding in emergency rooms and ICUs, poor specialized technology and orientation as to the benefits provided by law. We concluded that it is essential for nurses to participate in discussions that allow the planning of the different instances that have been promoting this often chaotic situation.

  6. Environmental Education Research in Southern Africa: Dilemmas of Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel

    2004-01-01

    These multiple framings of our reflections on environmental education research in southern Africa are written as dilemmas of interpretation that aim to disrupt any temptation to generalise or essentialise its qualities and characteristics. Recognising that research is a textual practice, we use J. M. Coetzee's portrayal of the dilemmas faced by…

  7. Toward an horizon in design ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Anjou, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    This paper suggests that design ethics can be enriched by considering ethics beyond the traditional approaches of deontology, teleology, and virtue ethics. Design practice and design ethics literature tend to frame ethics in design according to these approaches. The paper argues that a fundamental and concrete ethical understanding of design ethics can also be found in Sartrean Existentialism, a philosophy centered on the individual and his/her absolute freedom. Through the analysis of four core concepts of Sartrean Existentialism that define a specific ethics, the paper illustrates why such philosophical approach is relevant to design ethics. The paper also shows how Sartrean Existentialism and its ethics apply to critical issues of professional practice in design such as professional engagement and design decision-making. The paper finally argues that Sartre's philosophy and ethics is a perspective that offers the designer in design practice a solid ground to engage his/her ethical dilemma.

  8. [Issues, dilemmas and managerial strategies of potential ethical risks associated with the implementation of patient partnership practices in psychiatry: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lierville, Anne-Lise; Grou, Christine; Pelletier, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    In terms of health and social services, the territory of the province of Quebec is covered by four large 'integrated university health networks,' which are involved in the coordination of care delivery and medical training. The francophone components of the public mental health system for Montreal are thus primarily linked to the Integrated University Health Network of University of Montreal. In 2010, the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Montreal has included in its development strategy a firm commitment to the development and implementation of the 'patient partner expertise' in research, training and care in order to make this expertise no less than the brand of the Faculty. This commitment applies to all medical specialties that are taught at University of Montreal, including in psychiatry. More recently, the Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal (IUSMM) has endorsed a new clinical vision that promotes full citizenship, which implies that service users and carers are considered as full partners with a specific expertise to be fully deployed. The objective of this paper is to examine, from an ethical point of view, the challenges that may be associated with involving such lay persons in various levels of mental health care planning and delivery, and in research. This study is mainly based on a review of the institutional processes that are in place at the IUSMM to promote service users' participation in care planning and delivery, and in research. The focus is on the practicalities and conditions for the exercise of such an active participation, as some questions and concerns emerged through a series of interviews with different stakeholders. These issues are addressed and discussed through the lenses of the ethical values that were formalized at IUSMM. Despite a firm institutional commitment at IUSMM to implement its new citizenship-oriented clinical vision through greater service users' involvement, little is known about the possible

  9. Ethical issues and Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié

    2013-10-11

    The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper. 

  10. The moral experience of the patient with chronic pain: bridging the gap between first and third person ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ian; Jones, Mark; Thacker, Michael; Swisher, Laura Lee

    2014-03-01

    There has been a widespread call for an ethics in the management of patients with chronic pain which is patient centered and takes into account the lived experience of the patient. It has been argued in literature that current "duty" or principlist-based models of ethics (so-called 3rd person ethics) have not adequately addressed the needs of either patients or practitioners in this area. Two strands of literature within phenomenology were reviewed: the literature of interpretative phenomenological analysis and the study of the lived experience of the person with chronic pain; and the contribution of phenomenology in neo-Aristotelian virtue ethics (1st person ethics). Patients experience chronic pain in existential and moral terms in addition to their biomedical issues, facing dilemmas in understanding their own self-identity and in attempting to recover a sense of moral worth and agency. We outline a patient-centered ethics to underpin contemporary collaborative, multimodal approaches in the management of chronic pain. We firstly describe an agency-oriented, neo-Aristotelian 1st person ethics and then outline a hermeneutic relationship with extant "duty-based," 3rd person bioethics. The utility of the ethics model we propose (the ethical reasoning bridge) lies in its capacity for developing a sense of moral agency for both practitioner and patient, resonating with the current emphasis of seeking active engagement of patients in management. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. IS ETHICAL HACKING ETHICAL?

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN; DANISH JAMIL,

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

  12. Ethical Guidelines for Computer Security Researchers: "Be Reasonable"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassaman, Len

    For most of its existence, the field of computer science has been lucky enough to avoid ethical dilemmas by virtue of its relatively benign nature. The subdisciplines of programming methodology research, microprocessor design, and so forth have little room for the greater questions of human harm. Other, more recently developed sub-disciplines, such as data mining, social network analysis, behavioral profiling, and general computer security, however, open the door to abuse of users by practitioners and researchers. It is therefore the duty of the men and women who chart the course of these fields to set rules for themselves regarding what sorts of actions on their part are to be considered acceptable and what should be avoided or handled with caution out of ethical concerns. This paper deals solely with the issues faced by computer security researchers, be they vulnerability analysts, privacy system designers, malware experts, or reverse engineers.

  13. Ethics in Maritime Medicine: Introduction to Workshop 6 - Ethics and Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne; Ergle, Andra

    The workshop will be formed as an occasion to reflect upon the ethical dimensions of our practice as professional in maritime occupational health. The point of departure for this reflection will consist of dilemmas we have encountered - or may encounter - in our daily work. Dilemmas have often...... their source in ethical deliberations, where contrasting sets of principles may be at stake. Examples of such dilemmas could be for medical assessment: What are the consequences for the seaman/fisherman of one's decisions? How much and for how long time should one follow up medically, economically, etc when...... (Fabienne Knudsen) - Codes of Ethics and Practical wisdom (Andra Ergle) - Ethical dilemmas in the physician's clinic (Emmie Knudtzon) The main part of the workshop will consist of group discussion on questions/problems originating as far as possible from the participants' own experience. At last...

  14. 资源可持续利用:一种资源利用伦理原则%Sustainable utilization: an ethical principle of resources utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈安宁

    2001-01-01

    论文阐释了资源利用伦理的概念,从历史实践、现实需求和社会基本伦理意识等方面说明资源可持续利用伦理原则的合理性,用博弈论方法重点讨论了资源可持续利用伦理原则在资源利用中克服“囚徒困境”的作用,伦理失灵的原因和伦理法律化的必要性。%The paper expounds the concept of the ethics of resources utilization.Based on the analyses of practices and actual demands of the ethics of sustainable utilization,and basic ethical consciousness in the society,the paper explains the rationality of the ethical principle of sustainable utilization.It points out that ethical principle of sustainable utilization can be deduced from “ veil of ignorance between intergenerations"and is intergenerational fair.The paper gives the frame of the analysis of ethical function in the game of resources utilization and discusses the ethical mechanisms about putting away the“ prisoners dilemma",the reasons of ethics failure and the necessity of ethics legalization in resources utilization.This paper considers that if persons have enough high moral level or trust in others ,they can avoid falling into the “ prisoners dilemma" ,on the contrary,when they dont t have enough high moral level ,or can t trust others,they have to face entire ethics failure and “ isolation paradox" in resources utilization,therefore,the ethics of sustainable utilization need to be legalized.

  15. 人工智能体的道德确立与伦理困境%Moral establishment and ethical dilemma of artificial intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁晨希

    2016-01-01

    At present, after years of testing the Google driverless car occurred a serious traffic accident, resulting in casualties, the emergence of this event, and in time wil be the development of artificial inteligence pushed to the cusp location above. The research and development of artificial intelligence has always been controversial. Many experts and scholars believe that different artificial intelligence researchers in the study of artificial inteligence behind al have different philosophical thinking and philosophy, the development of this problem has been faced with some difficulties.%目前,经过多年测试的谷歌无人驾驶的汽车发生了严重的交通事故,导致人员伤亡,这一事件的出现,在一次的将人工智能体的发展推到了风口浪尖的位置上面。人工智能体的研究与发展一直以来都是备受人们的争议的。很多的专家学者认为,不同的人工智能的研究者在研究人工智能的背后都有着不同的哲学思考与哲学预想,关于这一问题的发展一直以来都面临着一定得困境。

  16. Exploring the Ethical Imagination: Conversation as Practice Versus Committee as Gatekeeper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabi Redwood

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This conversation (from which some excerpts are reproduced below was part of the preparatory work for my (Sabi doctorate in education in which I focus on ethical decision-making in qualitative research in health care settings. Les and I hope that readers who share our concerns about how qualitative studies are reviewed may contribute to this dialogue so that, as a community of researchers, we can start to think and speak differently about ethics and ethical decision-making in qualitative research. Thinking and speaking differently, we hope, may bring about changes in the review processes to make them more congruent with the values of our work and reflect more faithfully the tensions and dilemmas we, and our students, face in our practice. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602341

  17. What is the Business of Ethics in Business Ethics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    the cultural value base of the organization, stakeholder relations, etc.. The second movement promotes the idea that ethics is something that threatens us by exposing us to dilemmas and differences. The paper concludes that business ethics is both a source of solutions and questions. This acknowledgement......For the last decades, business ethics have spread from a new brand of a few socially and environmentally benevolent companies to the corporate mainstream. Thus, today, business ethics have become a central concern for both business managers and researchers in order to manage the cultural value base...... of the organization, stakeholder relations, etc.. Throughout the history of business ethics, though, and especially in the last decade, a series of studies have criticized the dominant view of business ethics for being instrumental and reductive. This critique often dismisses business ethics altogether. This paper...

  18. Introducing the Medical Ethics Bowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Allison; Green, Rochelle; Cunningham, Thomas V; Eisenberg, Leah R; Hester, D Micah

    2016-01-01

    Although ethics is an essential component of undergraduate medical education, research suggests that current medical ethics curricula face considerable challenges in improving students' ethical reasoning. This article discusses these challenges and introduces a promising new mode of graduate and professional ethics instruction for overcoming them. We begin by describing common ethics curricula, focusing in particular on established problems with current approaches. Next, we describe a novel method of ethics education and assessment for medical students that we have devised: the Medical Ethics Bowl (MEB). Finally, we suggest the pedagogical advantages of the MEB when compared to other ethics curricula.

  19. Ethical calculus: the cross-cultural dilemmas and moral burdens of Fatih Akin's 'The Edge of Heaven' [Review of: F. Akin Auf der anderen Seite = The edge of heaven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, T.

    2008-01-01

    Fatih Akin's 2007 film "Auf der anderen Seite" ("The Edge of Heaven" is discussed, focusing on the plot, the themes, the cross-cultural and moral dilemmas within it, and its context within Akin's other movies.

  20. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a