WorldWideScience

Sample records for face challenges related

  1. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  2. CHALLENGES FACING THE ESP PRACTITIONER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMION MINODORA OTILIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ESP teacher has to face certain challenges in his profession: One of the biggest challenges of the ESP teacher is the fact that he/she lacks the necessary knowledge of the subject to teach Business English, for instance, some researchers believing that such courses should be taught by subject teachers. The task of teaching ESP by ESL teachers is not an easy one. Dudley- Evans and St. John pointed out its complexity, identifying five key roles of the ESP practitioner: teacher, course designer and materials provider, collaborator, researcher and evaluator and this is probably the biggest challenge of the profession. The ESP practitioner has also to be aware of the fact that using a foreign language for workplace or study purposes requires not only linguistic proficiency and knowledge but also knowledge of work –related and disciplinary concepts.Last but not least, another challenge for the ESP practitioner is the use of technology in class, a valuable tool for helping with traditional forms of teaching and for creating new forms of communicating.Thus, the ESP practitioner has many things in common with the teacher of general English: he has to be familiar with linguistic development and teaching theories ,he has to be aware of contemporary ideas related to his position and role and he has to become familiar with the new technologies which can be used to improve his methodology.However,his role is more complex than that of a General English teacher.

  3. Facing the Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2014-01-01

    China's rise signifies a gradual transformation of the international system from unipolarity to a non-unipolar world. ,4s an organization of small and middle powers, ASEAN faces strategic uncertainties brought about by the power transition in the system. Deepening economic interdependence between...... ASEAN and China has amplified the economic cost for the ASEAN states to use traditional military means to deal with China s rise. Applying institutional balancing theory, this paper examines how ASEAN has adopted various institutional instruments, such as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the East Asia...... Summit (EAS), the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and the ASEAN Community, to constrain and shape China's behaviour in the region in the post-Cold War era. It argues that due to globalization and economic interdependence, the power transition in the 21st century is different from...

  4. Talking about epilepsy: Challenges parents face when communicating with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Stephanie; Lambert, Veronica; Gallagher, Pamela; Shahwan, Amre; Austin, Joan K

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the challenges that parents of children with epilepsy experienced when engaging in dialog with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, interviews were conducted with 34 parents of children with epilepsy (aged 6-16 years), consisting of 27 mothers and 7 fathers. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Findings revealed five main themes: normalizing epilepsy, the invisibility of epilepsy, information concealment, fear of misinforming the child, and difficulty in discussing particular epilepsy-related issues. Many of the communicative challenges experienced by parents impacted on their ability to engage openly in parent-child dialog about epilepsy in the home. Parents face specific challenges when choosing to communicate with their child about epilepsy, relating to creating a sense of normality, reducing fear of causing their child worry, and having a lack of epilepsy-related knowledge. Healthcare professionals who work closely with families living with epilepsy should remain mindful of the importance of discussing family communication surrounding epilepsy and the challenges parents of children with epilepsy face when talking about epilepsy within the home.

  5. Challenges Facing Group Work Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo; Kang, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Online group work can be complicated because of its asynchronous characteristics and lack of physical presence, and its requirements for skills in handling technology, human relationships, and content-related tasks. This study focuses on the administrative, logistical and relationship-related challenges in online group work. Challenges in areas…

  6. Legal and regulatory challenges currently facing diabetes treatment providers and related durable medical equipment suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Robert

    2013-03-01

    It has been estimated that 24 million Americans have diabetes, many of whom are Medicare beneficiaries. These individuals carefully monitor their blood glucose levels primarily through the use of in-home blood glucose testing kits. Although the test is relatively simple, the cumulative expense of providing glucose test strips and lancets to patients is ever increasing, both to the Medicare program and to uninsured individuals who must pay out-of-pocket for these testing supplies. This article discusses the diabetes durable medical equipment (DME) coverage under Part B Medicare, the establishment and role of DME Medicare administrative contractors, and national and local coverage requirements for diabetes DME suppliers. This article also discusses the federal government's ongoing concerns regarding the improper billing of diabetes testing supplies. To protect the Medicare Trust Fund, the federal government has contracted with multiple private entities to conduct reviews and audits of questionable Medicare claims. These private sector contractors have conducted unannounced site visits of DME supplier offices, interviewed patients and their families, placed suppliers on prepayment review, and conducted extensive postpayment audits of prior paid Medicare claims. In more egregious administrative cases, Medicare contractors have recommended that problematic providers and/or DME suppliers have their Medicare numbers suspended or, in some instances, revoked. More serious infractions can lead to civil or criminal liability. In the final part of this article, we will examine the future of enforcement efforts by law enforcement and Medicare contractors and the importance of understanding and complying with federal laws when ordering and supplying diabetes testing strips and lancets.

  7. Facing Tomorrow's Challenges - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural-science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet is an overview of the science strategy and describes how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

  8. Challenges faced by visually disabled people in use of medicines, self-adopted coping strategies and medicine-related mishaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeraratne, Chamari L; Opatha, Sharmika T; Rosa, Chamith T

    2012-01-01

    Difficulties faced by visually disabled people when using medicines, self-adopted coping strategies, and medicine-related mishaps have been under-explored locally and internationally. The objective of this study was to gain insight regarding this long-neglected issue. A descriptive cross-sectional study, using an interviewer administered questionnaire on 63 visually disabled adults was carried out at a vocational training centre and a school for visually disabled students in Sri Lanka. Among 63 participants, 71% wanted to be independent in medicine use and 79% in spite of difficulties had self-administered medicines. They had difficulty in locating medicines (25.39%), identifying medicines and medicine containers (17.46%), and administering liquid medications (25.39%). These difficulties led to inaccurate dosing (14.28%), missed doses (39.68%), and discontinuation of treatment prematurely (28.57%). Self-adopted coping strategies to overcome these difficulties included using different sized and shaped containers, tying medicines to the attire, and dipping their finger into a measuring cup while measuring liquid medicines. Mishaps related to medicines such as taking vinegar instead of gripe mixture and, putting ear drops into eyes were disclosed. There were many challenges for visually disabled people in taking medicines and some self-adopted coping strategies were inadequate to overcome these.

  9. Facing the challenge of multimorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Azaïs

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multimorbidity is a major public health challenge that is rising up the political and health agenda at an accelerated rate. Although the prevalence of multimorbidity increases with age, more than half of the population with multimorbidity are under the age of 65 years [1], with social deprivation a key determinant of multimorbidity in young and middle-aged adults [2,3]. From an individual’s perspective, multimorbidity reduces life expectancy [4–6], decreases physical functioning and quality of life [7], and increases the risk of depression and other mental health disorders [3]. From a healthcare provider’s perspective, multimorbidity is associated with increased health service use, a high risk of emergency and other hospital admissions, high rates of polypharmacy, and spiralling costs [8]. Current health systems, which are typically built around a single-disease framework, are poorly adapted to cope with patients with multimorbidity, who typically experience fragmented healthcare services, leading to potentially inefficient and ineffective care. It is increasingly clear that we need to change our perspective on multimorbidity in order to address it as a specific condition that requires tailored solutions and approaches. The urgent need to tackle multimorbidity in a more strategic, holistic, and cost-effective manner was evident at the 18th European Health Forum Gastein, a leading annual health policy event in the European Union (EU, held in the autumn of 2015. This Forum attracted policymakers, clinicians, health service managers, patients, and a broad range of other stakeholders, all of whom were invited to attend a session entitled “Facing the Challenge of Multimorbidity”. Journal of Comorbidity 2016;6(1:1–3

  10. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintero Corzo Josefina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Complying with school regulations and teachers’ instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality 
    of education.


    Responder a las normas escolares y a las instrucciones de los profesores es un principio básico de una clase excelente. Tanto los profesores novatos como los experimentados enfrentan situaciones problemáticas en las aulas de clase reales, especialmente en relación con la disciplina. Hay varias razones que explican la indisciplina en los colegios públicos y también estrategias variadas que los profesores principiantes crean y ensayan para superar tal reto. Este artículo reporta un estudio de investigación acción que ayudó a un grupo de profesores principiantes a superar la indisciplina en el aula de inglés en colegios públicos y a responder a iniciativas de desarrollo profesional con base en procesos de reflexión y toma de decisiones que las nuevas políticas educativas colombianas demandan de las nuevas generaciones de profesores para mejorar la calidad de la educación.

  11. Construction and Validation of a Survey Instrument to Determine the Gender-Related Challenges Faced by Pre-Service Male Primary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Vaughan; Pedersen, Scott; Hill, Allen; Callingham, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The gender-related challenges facing males entering the primary-school teaching profession have been well documented in the academic literature over recent decades. The majority of these data have come about through qualitative reports. Whilst qualitative methods provide important perspectives into these issues, the use of valid and reliable…

  12. The challenges facing sustainable and adaptive groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges facing sustainable and adaptive groundwater management ... provide the capacity to assure effective and sustainable resource regulation and allocation. ... of alternative strategies needed to achieve sustainable management.

  13. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing ...

  14. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing ...

  15. The Face Management Challenges of Sport Celebrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Luiza DUMITRIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While gaining centrality within the sport field, media accelerated its commodification process and facilitated sport actors becoming competitive on the celebrity market. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reconfiguration that the celebrity logic brought in terms of the mere condition of the sport actor and the face management challenges and remedial strategies that he has to cope with. I will thus focus on two main dimensions that I find to be constitutive for the celebrity status: one related to the augmented media exposure that sport stars are subject to and to the corollary symbolic reconfiguration of the boundaries between his public and his private life, and the second one related to the vulnerability that comes along with the new visibility of the complex repertoire of identities and social roles performed by the sport actors. Within this last dimension of the sport-related celebrity cycle of promotion, I will lay stress not only on the face threatening aspects for the sport stars, but also on the vulnerability transfer within the affinal branding network and the challenges it could bring for the brands that chose to associate their image with a sport celebrity. Thus, I argue that the kaleidoscopic public figures of sport celebrities requires high impression management involvement on their part, as well as more caution on the marketeers part.

  16. Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with twitter share with linkedin Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women Global Research Global Research NIAID's Role ... Career Stage Postdocs' Guide to Gaining Independence Small Business Programs Compare NIAID’s Small Business Programs High-Priority ...

  17. Facing Multiculturalism's Challenges in Korean Education and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olneck, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Multicultural policy in South Korea faces variants of challenges endemic to multiculturalism. These challenges are "dilemmas of difference," "variable terms of inclusion," and "legitimacy." In Korea, these challenges arise in a setting in which ethnic diversity is of relatively recent origin, an ideology of ethnic homogeneity is prevalent, and…

  18. Facing Multiculturalism's Challenges in Korean Education and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olneck, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Multicultural policy in South Korea faces variants of challenges endemic to multiculturalism. These challenges are "dilemmas of difference," "variable terms of inclusion," and "legitimacy." In Korea, these challenges arise in a setting in which ethnic diversity is of relatively recent origin, an ideology of ethnic…

  19. Exploring the challenges faced by polytechnic students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matore, Mohd Effendi @ Ewan Mohd; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to identify other challenges besides those already faced by students, in seven polytechnics in Malaysia as a continuation to the previous research that had identified 52 main challenges faced by students using the Rasch Model. The explorative study focuses on the challenges that are not included in the Mooney Problem Checklist (MPCL). A total of 121 polytechnic students submitted 183 written responses through the open questions provided. Two hundred fifty two students had responded from a students' perspective on the dichotomous questions regarding their view on the challenges faced. The data was analysed qualitatively using the NVivo 8.0. The findings showed that students from Politeknik Seberang Perai (PSP) gave the highest response, which was 56 (30.6%) and Politeknik Metro Kuala Lumpur (PMKL) had the lowest response of 2 (1.09%). Five dominant challenges were identified, which were the English language (32, 17.5%), learning (14, 7.7%), vehicles (13, 7.1%), information technology and communication (ICT) (13, 7.1%), and peers (11, 6.0%). This article, however, focus on three apparent challenges, namely, English language, vehicles, as well as computer and ICT, as the challenges of learning and peers had been analysed in the previous MPCL. The challenge of English language that had been raised was regarding the weakness in commanding the aspects of speech and fluency. The computer and ICT challenge covered the weakness in mastering ICT and computers, as well as computer breakdowns and low-performance computers. The challenge of vehicles emphasized the unavailability of vehicles to attend lectures and go elsewhere, lack of transportation service in the polytechnic and not having a valid driving license. These challenges are very relevant and need to be discussed in an effort to prepare polytechnics in facing the transformational process of polytechnics.

  20. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  1. Cultural Challenges Faced by Mexican Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugel, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This purpose of this investigation is to explore the cultural challenges faced by Mexican immigrant students through the study of current literature. Four themes emerged as a result of the investigation: dominant pedagogy, educational skills, deficit model, and student identities. The themes are discussed and suggestions are made as to how these…

  2. What are the challenges facing our industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This presentation relates to the changing business climate of the petroleum industry worldwide. The author gives a touch on the changes of what the industry is facing and the response together with the keys to long-term shareholder value

  3. Supreme Court rejects challenge to FACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-25

    On October 7, the US Supreme Court declined to hear Skott vs. US, a case challenging the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE). The 1994 law makes it a federal crime to use or attempt to use force, threat of force, or physical obstruction to injure, intimidate, or interfere with reproductive health care providers and their patients. The case came to the High Court after the US Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit overturned an earlier district court ruling and upheld the constitutionality of the federal statute in December 1995. Six Wisconsin anti-choice protestors, who had been arrested in September 1994 after participating in a blockade of a Milwaukee women's health facility, had successfully petitioned the US District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin to dismiss criminal charges based on FACE. While the district court held that Congress had no authority under the Commerce Clause or under the Fourteenth Amendment of the US Constitution to enact FACE, the appellate panel found that the lower court had not given sufficient consideration to congressional findings that the activities restricted by FACE substantially affect interstate commerce and are subject to the regulatory power of Congress. FACE has been upheld by the US Courts of Appeal for the Fourth, Eighth, and Eleventh Circuits and eleven federal district courts. Two district courts have found the law invalid. This marks the third time the High Court has refused to hear a challenge to the law.

  4. Compulsive exercise: links, risks and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenstein MB

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mia Beck Lichtenstein,1 Cecilie Juul Hinze,2 Bolette Emborg,3 Freja Thomsen,2 Simone Daugaard Hemmingsen4 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, 2Research Unit for Telepsychiatry and E-mental Health, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, 3Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 4Research Unit, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Abstract: Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder in either International Classification of Diseases or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The aim of this literature review was to critically examine the research on links (comorbidity, risks (negative consequences, and challenges faced (problems in a treatment context. This review found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy. This review summarizes and discusses findings on links/comorbidity, risks/negative consequences, and treatment challenges. We suggest that future studies should pay attention to both prevention and counseling in sports settings, where compulsive exercise

  5. Complex contribution of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder to veteran suicide: facing an increasing challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elizabeth A D

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this case study is to present the complex contribution of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to suicide and international standards of treatment among veterans deployed to the Middle East. PTSD carries increased physical and psychological health risk in combat soldiers. Internationally, guidelines for PTSD promote cognitive behavior therapies, specifically exposure therapy, as first line treatment; however, implementation varies among countries. Evidence supports the benefit of exposure-based psychotherapy for combat-related PTSD. Commonly prescribed antidepressants and other psychotherapy treatments may not be as beneficial. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Challenges and opportunities facing contractors in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Laryea, Samuel Amartei

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to ascertain and discuss the current challenges and opportunities facing construction contractors in Ghana. This involved a review of the economic, legal and political environments in which contractors in Ghana operate; a review of published studies on construction in developing countries generally and Ghana specifically; and in-depth interviews and discussions with seven building and civil engineering contractors in Ghana in 2009 and 2010. Six road contractors ...

  7. Droughts and water scarcity: facing challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luis S.

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity characterizes large portions of the world, particularly the Mediterranean area. It is due to natural causes - climate aridity, which is permanent, and droughts, that are temporary - and to human causes - long term desertification and short term water shortages. Droughts aggravate water scarcity. Knowledge has well developed relative to all processes but management tools still are insufficient as well as the tools required to support appropriate planning and management. Particularly, new approaches on tools for assessing related impacts in agriculture and other economic and social activities are required. Droughts occur in all climates but their characteristics largely differ among regions both in terms frequency, duration and intensity. Research has already produced a large number of tools that allow appropriate monitoring of droughts occurrence and intensity, including dynamics of drought occurrence and time evolution. Advances in drought prediction already are available but we still are far from knowing when a drought will start, how it will evolve and when it dissipates. New developments using teleconnections and GCM are being considered. Climate change is a fact. Are droughts occurrence and severity changing with global change? Opinions are divided about this subject since driving factors and processes are varied and tools for the corresponding analysis are also various. Particularly, weather data series are often too short for obtaining appropriate answers. In a domain where research is producing improved knowledge and innovative approaches, research faces however a variety of challenges. The main ones, dealt in this keynote, refer to concepts and definitions, use of monitoring indices, prediction of drought initiation and evolution, improved assessment of drought impacts, and possible influence of climate change on drought occurrence and severity.

  8. Challenges facing young African scientists in their research careers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges facing young African scientists in their research careers: A qualitative exploratory study. ... This study aimed at identifying the challenges that young African scientists face in their career development. Methods: This ... Article Metrics.

  9. Four Challenges That Global Health Networks Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Shiffman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Global health networks, webs of individuals and organizations with a shared concern for a particular condition, have proliferated over the past quarter century. They differ in their effectiveness, a factor that may help explain why resource allocations vary across health conditions and do not correspond closely with disease burden. Drawing on findings from recently concluded studies of eight global health networks—addressing alcohol harm, early childhood development (ECD, maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, pneumonia, surgically-treatable conditions, tobacco use, and tuberculosis—I identify four challenges that networks face in generating attention and resources for the conditions that concern them. The first is problem definition: generating consensus on what the problem is and how it should be addressed. The second is positioning: portraying the issue in ways that inspire external audiences to act. The third is coalition-building: forging alliances with these external actors, particularly ones outside the health sector. The fourth is governance: establishing institutions to facilitate collective action. Research indicates that global health networks that effectively tackle these challenges are more likely to garner support to address the conditions that concern them. In addition to the effectiveness of networks, I also consider their legitimacy, identifying reasons both to affirm and to question their right to exert power.

  10. Rural teachers' views: What are gender-based challenges facing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conjoin to exacerbate the difficulties facing girls and women (Molapo, 2005), and in .... based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho schools. ..... think that, indeed, females are weak, they cannot be leaders which is untrue.

  11. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FACING CHALLENGES IN 21ST CENTURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The 21st Century is the time for human seeking harmonizing with environment and carrying out sustainable development strategy. But sustainable development is facing many challenges. They may mainly include the follows: challenge comes from the contradiction between human and the earth, challenge of local benefit conflict to human common goal, challenge of competition to fairness, challenge of unbalanced development in regions and countries, challenge of diversity and challenge of calamity. Challenges are not only pressure, but also the motive force. Challenge exists, the motive force would never stop. Sustainable development was born in challenges, is developing in contradiction and will sustain in conflict.

  12. The improved relative entropy for face recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qi Rong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative entropy is least sensitive to noise. In this paper, we propose the improved relative entropy for face recognition (IRE. The IRE method of recognition rate is far higher than the LDA, LPP method, by experimental results on CMU PIE face database and YALE B face database.

  13. Scholarly publishing : The challenges facing the African university press

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngobeni, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the challenges that face the university press in Africa in general and South Africa in particular. It will start by examining the state of the university press in Africa, the state of the university press in South Africa, the challenges that face university presses, such

  14. A Variety of Diversity: Facing Higher Education's Educational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Eric L.

    2008-10-01

    First among the many important challenges facing American higher education is the need to improve the effectiveness of our educational programs. Public concern has heightened the sense of urgency for colleges and universities to make progress on improving and measuring educational outcomes, which is made more challenging by the varieties of diversity facing us. Diversity is not just an issue related to student recruitment or experience, but rather it is one that also relates to institutions and their faculties. New educational methods must address such diversity to be effective, and one possible example can be found in ongoing research at the University of Michigan that explores the educational implications of implementing a web-based lecture capture system in large lecture courses. Student use of and reactions to such systems is important, as is the potential to influence course performance for students in general, but also for underrepresented and at-risk student subpopulations. In addition to helping bring our current landscape into focus, this paper will identify effective practices as well as continuing challenges to improving educational practice for undergraduate students.

  15. Chinese Oil Industry Faces New Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese petrochemical companies should gird for new challenges in three years, triggered by cost-competitive products flooding in from overseas, especially the Middle East countries.This advice was highlighted by company executives and association leaders during a discussion on the sidelines of a petrochemical conference organized by the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association in early April.

  16. Educational challenges faced by international medical graduates in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Hashim Gastroenterology Department, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, UK Introduction: International medical graduates (IMGs in the UK constitute approximately one-quarter of the total number of doctors registered in the General Medical Council (GMC. The transition of IMGs into the health care system in the UK is accompanied by significant sociocultural and educational challenges. This study aims to explore the views of IMGs in medical training on the educational challenges they face.Methods: This study was conducted in the Kent, Surrey and Sussex region in 2015. All IMGs who work in medical (physicianly training programs were included. Data were collected through a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Thematic approach was used to analyze the qualitative data.Results: Of the total 61 IMGs included, 17 responded to the survey and 3 were interviewed. The common educational barriers faced by IMGs were related to lack of appreciation of the values and structure of the National Health Service (NHS, ethical and medicolegal issues, receiving feedback from colleagues and the different learning strategies in the UK. IMGs suggested introduction of a mandatory dedicated induction program in the form of formal teaching sessions. They also believed that a supervised shadowing period prior in the first job in the UK would be beneficial. Further assessment areas should be incorporated into the prequalifying examinations to address specific educational needs such as NHS structure and hospital policies. Other measures such as buddying schemes with senior IMGs and educating NHS staff on different needs of IMGs should also be considered.Conclusion: This study highlighted important educational challenges faced by IMGs and generated relevant solutions. However, the opinions of the supervisors and other health care professionals need to be explored. Keywords: international medical graduates, IMG, educational barriers

  17. Apparel Trade: The Challenge Facing Developing Economies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparel Trade: The Challenge Facing Developing Economies and Mauritius. ... after the complete phasing out of the Multi-Fibre Agreement (MFA), that the quantitative ... The post MFA era is thus expected to allow for free competition between ...

  18. Challenges Facing Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV among Infants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    health authority. The health systems also face a lot of challenges while implementing these programmes that would promptly .... unknown, the antiretroviral exposure history of the mother and .... era of National Health Insurance Scheme40, it is.

  19. Challenges Faced by Parents of Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Challenges Faced by Parents of Children with Congenital Heart Disease Page Content ​​​The first thing most parents want ... common and expected. About Congenital Heart Defects Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) is the most common type of birth ...

  20. Challenges Faced by Adult Learners Enrolled in Blended Distance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges Faced by Adult Learners Enrolled in Blended Distance Learning ... B Kapinga, M Mtani ... Data were collected in the form of interviews, email correspondences, and documents from participants - both learners and facilitators.

  1. Facing Global Challenges with Materials Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    The path of society evolution has long been associated with a growing demand for natural resources and continuous environmental degradation. During the last decades, this pace has accelerated considerably, despite the general concern with the legacy being left for the next generations. Looking ahead, the predicted growth of the world population, and the improvement of life conditions in most regions, point to an increasing demand for energy generation, resulting in additional pressure on the Earth's sustainability. Materials have had a key role in decreasing the use of natural resources, by either improving efficiency of existing technologies or enabling the development of radical new ones. The greenhouse effect (CO2 emissions) and the energy crisis are global challenges that can benefit from the development of new materials for the successful implementation of promising technologies and for the imperative replacement of fossil fuels by renewable sources.

  2. Facing Global Challenges with Materials Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Fernando

    2017-10-01

    The path of society evolution has long been associated with a growing demand for natural resources and continuous environmental degradation. During the last decades, this pace has accelerated considerably, despite the general concern with the legacy being left for the next generations. Looking ahead, the predicted growth of the world population, and the improvement of life conditions in most regions, point to an increasing demand for energy generation, resulting in additional pressure on the Earth's sustainability. Materials have had a key role in decreasing the use of natural resources, by either improving efficiency of existing technologies or enabling the development of radical new ones. The greenhouse effect (CO2 emissions) and the energy crisis are global challenges that can benefit from the development of new materials for the successful implementation of promising technologies and for the imperative replacement of fossil fuels by renewable sources.

  3. Challenges Faced in Modern Quality Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkowski Stanisław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Point of view, preferences and priorities of quality inspection in modern production systems have changed. Quality inspection in its activities is no longer limited only to the documentation of the past, nor is it seen solely as a tool for the detection of nonconformity. Nowadays, the most important quality inspection function is prevention, whose most important goal is to make it before nonconformity. What is expected from modern quality inspection is that it actively improves the production and quality as well as reduces the costs. The aim of the article is to present requirements, guidelines and challenges in the organization of modern quality inspection in a manufacturing company. The role of quality inspection in the classical model and modern model of quality improvement was presented. Determinants of effective quality inspection were presented, as well. The quality inspection methods that best fit into the paradigm of modern quality inspection, that is source inspection, together with visual management were pointed out.

  4. Next-generation proteomics faces new challenges in environmental biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengaud, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Environmental biotechnology relies on the exploration of novel biological systems and a thorough understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Next-generation proteomics based on the latest generation of mass analyzers currently allows the recording of complete proteomes from any microorganism. Interpreting these data can be straightforward if the genome of the organism is established, or relatively easy to perform through proteogenomics approaches if a draft sequence can be obtained. However, next-generation proteomics faces new, interesting challenges when the organism is distantly related to previously characterized organisms or when mixtures of organisms have to be analyzed. New mass spectrometers and innovative bioinformatics tools are reshaping the possibilities of homology-based proteomics, proteogenomics, and metaproteomics for the characterization of biological systems. Novel time- and cost-effective screening strategies are also possible with this methodology, as exemplified by whole proteome thermal profiling and subpopulation proteomics. The complexity of environmental samples allows for unique developments of approaches and concepts.

  5. Challenges Faced by Project Competition Participants and Recommended Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Turgay; Baydas, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Rabia M.; Goktas, Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    The numbers of project competitions and interest in this kind of competition have been steadily increasing in Turkey. Accordingly, it is important to determine what challenges teachers and students may face while preparing themselves for project competitions, so that recommendations may be made to overcome these challenges. This study investigated…

  6. Challenges Faced by Refugee New Parents from Africa in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M; Dennis, C L; Kariwo, M; Kushner, K E; Letourneau, N; Makumbe, K; Makwarimba, E; Shizha, E

    2015-08-01

    This study examines challenges faced by refugee new parents from Africa in Canada. Refugee new parents from Zimbabwe (n = 36) and Sudan (n = 36) were interviewed individually about challenges of coping concurrently with migration and new parenthood and completed loneliness and trauma/stress measures. Four group interviews with refugee new parents (n = 30) were subsequently conducted. Participants reported isolation, loneliness, and stress linked to migration and new parenthood. New gender roles evoked marital discord. Barriers to health-related services included language. Compounding challenges included discrimination, time restrictions for financial support, prolonged immigration and family reunification processes, uncoordinated government services, and culturally insensitive policies. The results reinforce the need for research on influences of refugees' stressful experiences on parenting and potential role of social support in mitigating effects of stress among refugee new parents. Language services should be integrated within health systems to facilitate provision of information, affirmation, and emotional support to refugee new parents. Our study reinforces the need for culturally appropriate services that mobilize and sustain support in health and health related (e.g., education, employment, immigration) policies.

  7. Challenges facing the development of cancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Mayer

    2014-01-01

    Just like any other effective immunization in medicine, cancer vaccines need to have antigens with particular specificity and immunostimulatory features, the immune responses to be elicited in the body, and therapeutic effect-regression or prevention of the cancer-must be meaningful and clinically observable. There are many choices for cancer antigens, such as tissue-specific proteins, cancer-specific proteins, class I- or class II-restricted peptides derived from those, or in situ and whole-cell-derived products are some examples. Another translational issue is that cancer patients are heterogeneous with respect to the extent to which the immune system is already activated with potential to impact the tumor growth or, conversely, the extent to which the immune system has been impaired through a prior and ongoing interaction with the tumor. Conventional or immunologic tests have potential to define a subset of patients with better chance or response, so that particular vaccines can be tested. Treatment of cancer patients is expensive, and trials are slow. To meet these challenges in practical terms will require not only careful scientific technical work for product development, coordination with clinicians to define patient subsets with diseases that can show responses, but also a comprehensive, practical implementation so that we can unlock the full potential of anticancer vaccines.

  8. The art museum facing the memory challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Rocha Roque

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Museums have emerged as a representative synthesis of a reality, so a question rises about the preservation of the memories inherent to the functional and symbolic objects. In the particular case of art museums, the goal was to build a heritage repository which would contribute to the creation of a cultural identity. So, the objects were mainly evaluated in terms of aesthetic excellence of its parameters, to the detriment of other meanings. On the other hand, also the historiography of art favored formal aspects, establishing authorities and styles. These circumstances determined the decontextualization of the object in the museum. In return, from mid-twentieth century onwards, the studies of the public, as a plural and diversified entity, and the theoretical debates around the meaning of the object, contributed to a redefinition of the museological speech. The museum had to offset losses due to the musealisation through a set of procedures and tools that recontextualize the meanings of the object in their multiple valences. Between the two vectors, decontextualization and recontextualization, the museum challenges our personal and collective memory.

  9. International IP Protection and Challenges Facing China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    I. Background The intellectual property-related legislation has been substantially in place in China. Compared with the national laws that are not clearly discussed in theory and from which no basic, sectorial laws are made, the laws in the field of intellectual property right is more sophistic, and the legislation in this regard in China is more developed than that in most developing countries. All the successive Directors General of the World Intellectual Property Organisation of the United Nations say...

  10. Challenges facing the marketing of scientific and research institutes

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Sojkin

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the challenges that scientific research institutions face in terms of their marketing, which have been divided into two groups of those associated with internal marketing and those linked to external marketing. The most significant and important determinants that constitute challenges to both internal and external marketing were described. The key aspects of each of the identified challenges were indicated, as was their impact on the implementation of the marketing polic...

  11. Challenges facing the marketing of scientific and research institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Sojkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the challenges that scientific research institutions face in terms of their marketing, which have been divided into two groups of those associated with internal marketing and those linked to external marketing. The most significant and important determinants that constitute challenges to both internal and external marketing were described. The key aspects of each of the identified challenges were indicated, as was their impact on the implementation of the marketing policy at institutions.

  12. Facing CLIL Challenges at University Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Granados Beltrán

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments in Content Language Integrated Learning have been carried out most of the time at primary and secondary education. However, not much is known about what higher education institutions are doing in this respect. This article aims to present an experience that occurred in the Languages Department at Universidad Central (Bogotá, Colombia in relation to the inclusion of content in language classes bymeans of project work. The way project work was organised as well as how it was evaluated in the different levels will be explained. Finally, a discussion of some surveys applied to both students and teachers to evaluate the experience will be presented, taking into consideration the advantages and limitations of this kind of work for university contexts.

  13. Conjunction Faces Alter Confidence-Accuracy Relations for Old Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, Mark Tippens; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    The authors used a state-trace methodology to investigate the informational dimensions used to recognize old and conjunction faces (made by combining parts of separately studied faces). Participants in 3 experiments saw faces presented for 1 s each. They then received a recognition test; faces were presented for varying brief durations and…

  14. NEW CHALLENGES FACED BY EUROPEAN COMPANIES AND THEIR STAKEHOLDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOBE Claudia-Maria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is currently affected by the financial crisis that spread internationally. The member states face difficulties such as price volatility, uncertainties, liquidity issues, cases of bankruptcy, increased unemployment rate, and decreasing GDP. The present paper analyses the challenges faced under these new circumstances by the European companies and their stakeholders. By taking into consideration the threats and weaknesses faced by firms and other interested parties, we emphasize the importance that transparency and communication among companies and their stakeholder have in overcoming financial difficulties.

  15. Beyond survival: Challenges facing South African automotive component exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Naude

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Objective: The South African automotive component industry faces huge challenges in a very competitive global market. The primary focus of this research article is to determine the challenges facing exporters within this industry with special reference to selected sub-sectors. The challenges are approached from a supply chain perspective only. Problem Investigated: The research problem of this study was to identify these unique challenges and ascertain whether the implementation of a 'philosophy of continuous improvement' could be used as a strategic tool to address the challenges they face in the market. Methodology: This study included a combination of literature review, interviews with managers in the selected sub-groups and questionnaires sent out to determine the challenges facing automotive component exporters. In order to test the content validity and the reliability of the questionnaire, a pilot study was conducted at two organisations that are the main suppliers of automotive filters for passenger vehicles. The non-probability convenience sample technique was used to select the sample and consisted of selected sub-sectors that contribute 64,1% of the total value of automotive component exports in South Africa. Out of twenty-seven questionnaires sent out, twenty (74% response rate were duly completed by the respondents and returned to the researcher. Findings: South Africa faces unique challenges and these are listed and ranked according to priority from most to least important as follows: 1. The reduction of production costs; 2. R/US$ exchange rate effect on the respondent's export sales and profit margin; 3. Exchange rate fluctuations; 4. Threats to the local automotive component market; and 5. Increased competition by way of manufactured imports being sold in the South African market. Value of Research: The study provides recommendations that can be used within the automotive component industry.

  16. Challenges facing eTextbook provision to South African schools

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the mandates of the Department of Basic Education (DBE) in South Africa is to distribute textbooks to both urban and remote rural schools. The challenge that the DBE faces in this regard is that the distribution machinery has not been...

  17. The Challenges Facing Catholic Education in France Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, François

    2016-01-01

    The effects of secularisation on society demand a rethinking of the identity and mission of Catholic schools in France. In 2013, the French bishops published a new directory which offers new approaches, described here, based on the three challenges facing Catholic education in France: linking social responsibility and evangelisation, setting up…

  18. Challenges and Opportunities Facing Technology Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    2009-01-01

    The technology education in Taiwan is prescribed in the national curriculum and provided to all students in grades 1-12. However, it faces the following challenges: (1) Lack of worthy image, (2) Inadequate teachers in elementary schools, (3) Deficient teaching vitality in secondary schools, and (4) Diluted technology teacher education programs. In…

  19. Challenges Facing Principals in the First Year at Their Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Adem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify key challenges of practice that principals face. In line with this purpose, the researcher has employed a qualitative research methodology, interviewing principals working in Amasya district, over and above doing document analysis to collect detailed information concerning leadership and administration…

  20. Accommodating Extension Clients Who Face Language, Vision, or Hearing Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angima, Sam; Etuk, Lena; Maddy, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    A survey-based study explored approaches used by one land-grant university to meet the needs of Extension clients who face language, vision, or hearing challenges. In attempts to serve such clients, the greatest gaps existed for clients whose main language was Spanish, followed by those who had vision impairments and then those who had hearing…

  1. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-12-15

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems. (author)

  2. Challenges Facing Chinese Refineries and Demand Forecast for 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongsheng

    2003-01-01

    @@ After several decades of development the processing capac ity of Chinese refineries has reached 276 million tons per year,ranking the fourth in the world. The refining industry has made great contribution to the growth of national economy in China. With changing times, especially after China's accession to the WTO, significant changes have occurred in economy, politics and petroleum market both at home and abroad. The survival and growth of Chinese refineries has faced new challenges.

  3. E-learning challenges faced by academics in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Nurul; Beer, Martin; Slack, Frances

    2015-01-01

    E-learning has become a necessity in higher education institutions and is being deployed in educational establishments throughout the world. Researchers have made much emphasis on its benefits but not much is discussed on the disadvantages of e-learning technology. This paper references some of the research work on the limitations of e-learning technology, categorises it in five challenges that teachers are faced with and suggestions for a successful e-learning outcome. This paper also discus...

  4. A personal perspective on challenges that face women scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Katharine

    2016-04-01

    Gender equality has been a topic of discussion throughout my long (now three decade) career. This alone illustrates the complex nature of the issue, and the lack of a simple solution, particularly as many of the daily challenges that women face are institution or discipline-specific. For this reason, I will summarize some of the issues that appear to me to be more general, and therefore ones that may have general solutions. The first and foremost relates to demands on women's time. One way that academic institutions have sought to overcome gender bias has been to require that every university committee have a female member; in departments, schools and faculties where women represent a minority, this necessarily means that women shoulder an inequitable share of the service duties. I have experienced this myself, seen it in promotion files at all levels, and observed it with regard to my female colleagues. Clearly time spent doing service is time not spent doing science. There is also an easy solution to this problem, which is to re-think the underlying assumption that men are necessarily gender-biased if they don't have a woman sitting in the room! Additional time demands can come from informal mentoring of both students and younger colleagues, particularly in cases where senior male colleagues are viewed as too important, or too intimidating, to be consulted on personal issues. Although I suspect that this problem may also be widespread, it is more difficult to quantify, and is therefore more difficult to factor into time allotments of departmental duties. A final thought relates to hiring practices. I have now worked in both the US and UK educational systems, which have very different interview and hiring protocols. I will review both, highlighting components that I think are most likely to promote equitable hiring practices.

  5. Challenging Scandinavian employment relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Madsen, Jørgen Steen

    2011-01-01

    and employment relations in the Danish, Norwegian and Swedish public sector. In this paper, we argue that although differences exist across the Scandinavian countries, it is evident that they have managed to adopt and implement NPM-inspired reforms without dismantling their universal welfare services and strong...

  6. Solutions to challenges facing a university digital library and press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, M P; Galvin, J R; Colbert, S I; D'Alessandro, D M; Choi, T A; Aker, B D; Carlson, W S; Pelzer, G D

    2000-01-01

    During the creation of a university digital library and press intended to serve as a medical reference and education tool for health care providers and their patients, six distinct and complex digital publishing challenges were encountered. Over nine years, through a multidisciplinary approach, solutions were devised to the challenges of digital content ownership, management, mirroring, translation, interactions with users, and archiving. The result is a unique, author-owned, internationally mirrored, university digital library and press that serves as an authoritative medical reference and education tool for users around the world. The purpose of this paper is to share the valuable digital publishing lessons learned and outline the challenges facing university digital libraries and presses.

  7. Higher education in the face of social challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cuevas Jiménez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher education refers to the subsequent training to high school education; that is undergraduate and graduate; whose mission is to preserve; develop and disseminate culture. Throughout the history of higher education it has undergone a process of transformation; mainly due to the development of knowledge and the transformation of society. In the process they highlighted two great moments; in the first; which culminated in the mid-twentieth century; it conceived the higher education institution encompassing all knowledge of society; and who graduated was ready to perform professionally throughout life; the second time; after those dates; it is conceivable that knowledge is no longer exclusive to the institution of higher education; and there can be no efficient performance without continuous training and continuous updating of knowledge. The objective of this work is to point out the general goals and some strategies of the students’ formation of superior education; to confront the big challenges that it faces today the society. To define this goals and strategies four challenge levels are considered: a physical; structural and politicalideological challenges; b challenges around the scientifictechnician and of the knowledge advances; c challenges of the internal structure of the formative process and the access to the superior education; and d challenges in the formation of values in the students. 

  8. Challenging Scandinavian employment relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Madsen, Jørgen Steen

    2011-01-01

    and employment relations in the Danish, Norwegian and Swedish public sector. In this paper, we argue that although differences exist across the Scandinavian countries, it is evident that they have managed to adopt and implement NPM-inspired reforms without dismantling their universal welfare services and strong......Building on the convergence/divergence approach, this paper examines whether recent new public management (NPM) inspired reforms entailing inter alia cutbacks in the public sector, marketisation and management by performance measures have had significant implications for service provision...... traditions of collective bargaining in the public sector. However, this restructuring is taking its toll on the work environment....

  9. Tolerance for distorted faces: challenges to a configural processing account of familiar face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Adam; Burton, A Mike

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition is widely held to rely on 'configural processing', an analysis of spatial relations between facial features. We present three experiments in which viewers were shown distorted faces, and asked to resize these to their correct shape. Based on configural theories appealing to metric distances between features, we reason that this should be an easier task for familiar than unfamiliar faces (whose subtle arrangements of features are unknown). In fact, participants were inaccurate at this task, making between 8% and 13% errors across experiments. Importantly, we observed no advantage for familiar faces: in one experiment participants were more accurate with unfamiliars, and in two experiments there was no difference. These findings were not due to general task difficulty - participants were able to resize blocks of colour to target shapes (squares) more accurately. We also found an advantage of familiarity for resizing other stimuli (brand logos). If configural processing does underlie face recognition, these results place constraints on the definition of 'configural'. Alternatively, familiar face recognition might rely on more complex criteria - based on tolerance to within-person variation rather than highly specific measurement.

  10. Challenges facing primary care practices aiming to implement patient-centered medical homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Melissa M; Rose, Danielle E; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Canelo, Ismelda A; Schectman, Gordon; Stark, Richard; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2014-07-01

    While the potential of patient-centered medical homes (PCMH) is promising, little is known empirically about the frontline challenges that primary care (PC) leaders face before making the decision to implement PCMH, let alone in making it a reality. Prior to the design and implementation of the Veterans Health Administration's (VA) national PCMH model--Patient Aligned Care Teams (PACT)--we identified the top challenges faced by PC directors and examined the organizational and area level factors that influenced those challenges. A national cross-sectional key informant organizational survey was fielded to the census of PC directors at VA medical centers and large community-based outpatient clinics (final sample n = 229 sites). PC directors were asked to rate the degree to which they faced 48 management challenges in eight PCMH-related domains (access, preventive care, chronic diseases requiring care in PC, challenging medical conditions, mental health/substance abuse, special populations, PC coordination of care, and clinical informatics). Responses were dichotomized as moderately-to-extremely challenging versus somewhat-slightly-not at all challenging. Items were rank ordered; chi square or regression techniques were used to examine variations in facility size, type, urban/rural location, and region. On average, VA PC directors reported 16 moderate-to-extreme challenges, and the top 20 challenges spanned all eight PCMH domains. Four of the top 20 challenges, including the top two challenges, were from the clinical informatics domain. Management of chronic non-malignant pain requiring opiate therapy was the third most reported challenge nationwide. Significant organizational and area level variations in reported challenges were found especially for care coordination. Better understanding of PC challenges ahead of PCMH implementation provides important context for strategic planning and redesign efforts. As a national healthcare system, the VA provides a unique

  11. The Challenges Faced by New Science Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharari, Salman

    Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions as teachers to educating children in a science classroom. Nevertheless, teachers, over their early years of practice, encounter numerous challenges to provide the most effective science instruction. Therefore, the current study was aimed to identify academic and behavioral classroom challenges faced by science teachers in their first three years of teaching in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, new science teacher gender, school level and years of teaching experience differences in perceptions of the challenges that they encountered at work were analyzed. The present study also investigated various types of support that new science teachers may need to overcome academic and behavioral classroom challenges. In order to gain insights about ways to adequately support novice science teachers, it was important to examine new science teachers' beliefs, ideas and perceptions about effective science teaching. Three survey questionnaires were developed and distributed to teachers of both sexes who have been teaching science subjects, for less than three years, to elementary, middle and high school students in Al Jouf public schools. A total of 49 novice science teachers responded to the survey and 9 of them agreed to participate voluntarily in a face-to-face interview. Different statistical procedures and multiple qualitative methodologies were used to analyze the collected data. Findings suggested that the top three academic challenges faced by new science teachers were: poor quality of teacher preparation programs, absence of appropriate school equipment and facilities and lack of classroom materials and instructional

  12. Challenges faced by dental undergraduates during clinical training: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental health-care professionals are expected to provide a wide range of dental care contributing to the quality of their patient's day-to-day lives, for which they are trained clinically during undergraduate (UG course. Owing to scarcity of literature pertaining to challenges faced by dental UGs during their clinical training, research was conducted. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess challenges faced by dental UGs during the first patient encounter with patients in clinical posting. Materials and Methods: Four focused group discussions (FGDs were conducted among 34 dental UGs using an FGD guide to facilitate the discussion process. A phenomenological approach was used to explore the lived experience of UGs. The recorded data were transcribed, translated, anonymized, and coded using Qualitative Data Analysis Miner software. Results: UGs were facing challenges related to communication, professionalism, and ethics every other day while treating patients. FGD conducted was able to explore the challenges faced by UGs during clinical posting such as language barrier, optimum utilization of material, and uphold confidentiality. Conclusions: Improving current state of UGs by taking care of all the mentioned challenges will help them become professionals with good communication skills.

  13. The challenges that parents of children with epilepsy face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampra, Matina; Tzerakis, Nikolas; Thomsen, Louise Lund Holm

    2017-01-01

    with the child found that parent–child communication improved. Conclusion This study provides valuable insight into the impact of epilepsy on parents of CwE, which might help hospital and school staff support families with greater understanding, sensitivity, and skill. The findings suggest that Greek authorities......Objective This qualitative study explored the challenges that Greek parents/caregivers of children with controlled epilepsy (CwE) face regarding the disorder. Methods Interviews were conducted based on open-ended questions guided by a review of the literature. A total of 91 parents/caregivers were......E: the disclosure of epilepsy and the absence of adequate information about coping with epilepsy. Parents in Greece were hesitant to reveal their child's epilepsy to school staff and their wider social milieu. Also, although satisfied with the patient-centered approach they experienced with their hospital doctor...

  14. The challenges that parents of children with epilepsy face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampra, Matina; Tzerakis, Nikolas; Thomsen, Louise Lund Holm

    2017-01-01

    Objective This qualitative study explored the challenges that Greek parents/caregivers of children with controlled epilepsy (CwE) face regarding the disorder. Methods Interviews were conducted based on open-ended questions guided by a review of the literature. A total of 91 parents/caregivers were......E: the disclosure of epilepsy and the absence of adequate information about coping with epilepsy. Parents in Greece were hesitant to reveal their child's epilepsy to school staff and their wider social milieu. Also, although satisfied with the patient-centered approach they experienced with their hospital doctor......, parents/caregivers found that they needed more education about the existing sources of psychosocial and emotional support to cope with their child's epilepsy personally and as a family. Finally, the parents/caregivers who let their child know about the epilepsy and discussed the implications...

  15. Challenges facing PBL tutors: 12 tips for successful group facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2005-12-01

    One of the main tasks of a problem-based learning (PBL) tutor is to facilitate group discussion. Group facilitation is about process rather than content. In this process, a tutor helps the group increase their skills and progress in their discussion. Several studies have highlighted strategies and training used in preparing PBL tutors. However, PBL tutors usually feel that it is not that easy to change their teaching style to the PBL format. They are sometimes unsure about their role or what strategy they might use to facilitate their students' discussion. This article in the '12 Tips' series is a detailed description of, and provides answers to, common challenges faced by PBL tutors. The tips provided in this manuscript should help tutors with practical answers. The article may be useful to PBL tutors, medical and health educators and those responsible for PBL training workshops.

  16. The Central Asian Armies Facing the Challenge of Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Peyrouse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the main challenges that Central Asian armies face, that is, the problem of training and formation. Having rapidly increased since 2007, Central Asian military budgets have been able to multiply the purchases of equipment and weapons from foreign partners (Russia, western countries, Israel, China, South Korea, etc.. Money is not enough, however, to get the military institution back on its feet in its most human aspect, that of formation. In fact, the teaching institutions and the training possibilities provided to conscripts and professional soldiers on contract are generally of inadequate quality and impede the overall military capacities of the Central Asian states. This article will examine the main problems of the Central Asian military institutions and will discuss the means that have been implemented by Central Asian governments to reduce the negative impact of difficulties in promoting human capital.

  17. Challenges faced by Pakistani pharmaceutical industry: An intellectual capital perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalique, Muhammad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual capital is recognized as one of the most critical factors for the success of organizations in a knowledge-based economy. In a knowledge-based economy high tech organizations are facing tremendous challenges to gain competitive advantage. The main objective of this study is to introduce the concept and applications of intellectual capital in Pakistani pharmaceutical industry. Pakistani pharmaceutical industry is one of the major industries and it has 70% of share to fulfill the demand of finished pharmaceutical products. This industry also contributes in economic growth and development. This study is a preliminary in nature and it will also be a milestone for future research on this topic.

  18. Facing a real person: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pönkänen, Laura M; Hietanen, Jari K; Peltola, Mikko J; Kauppinen, Pasi K; Haapalainen, Antti; Leppänen, Jukka M

    2008-03-05

    Although faces are typically perceived in the context of human interaction, face processing is commonly studied by displaying faces on a computer screen. This study on event-related potential examined whether the processing of faces differs depending on whether participants are viewing faces live or on a computer screen. In both the conditions, the participants were shown a real face, a dummy face, and a control object. N170 and early posterior negativity discriminated between faces and control object in both the conditions. Interestingly, early posterior negativity differentiated between the real face and the dummy face only in the live condition. The results indicate that a live face, as a potentially interacting stimulus, is processed differently than an inanimate face already at the early processing stages.

  19. Facing up to the challenges of advancing Craniofacial Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Paul A; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2015-07-01

    Craniofacial anomalies are among the most common human birth defects and have considerable functional, aesthetic, and social consequences. The early developmental origin as well as the anatomical complexity of the head and face render these tissues prone to genetic and environmental insult. The establishment of craniofacial clinics offering comprehensive care for craniofacial patients at a single site together with international research networks focused on the origins and treatment of craniofacial disorders has led to tremendous advances in our understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of congenital craniofacial anomalies. However, the genetic, environmental, and developmental sources of many craniofacial disorders remain unknown. To overcome this problem and further advance craniofacial research, we must recognize current challenges in the field and establish priority areas for study. We still need (i) a deeper understanding of variation during normal development and within the context of any disorder, (ii) improved genotyping and phenotyping and understanding of the impact of epigenetics, (iii) continued development of animal models and functional analyses of genes and variants, and (iv) integration of patient derived cells and tissues together with 3D printing and quantitative assessment of surgical outcomes for improved practice. Only with fundamental advances in each of these areas will we be able to meet the challenge of translating potential therapeutic and preventative approaches into clinical solutions and reduce the financial and emotional burden of craniofacial anomalies.

  20. Are reading and face processing related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K.; Petersen, Anders

    . In this light, investigating face processing in dyslexia, and reading in prosopagnosia becomes interesting: Do deficits in the two domains dissociate? We present data from 11 people with developmental prosopagnosia, which is a disorder of face processing in people with no known brain injury, and in the context...

  1. Are reading and face processing related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja; Petersen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    . In this light, investigating face processing in dyslexia, and reading in prosopagnosia becomes interesting: Do deficits in the two domains dissociate? Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a disorder of face processing in the absence of brain injury, and in the context of normal intelligence and general cognitive...

  2. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools (Comprensión y tratamiento de los retos asociados a la disciplina en el aula de lengua extranjera en escuelas públicas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Corzo, Josefina; Ramírez Contreras, Odilia

    2011-01-01

    Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as…

  3. Study of Different Face Recognition Algorithms and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Shankar Kurmi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available At present face recognition has wide area of applications such as security, law enforcement. Imaging conditions, Orientation, Pose and presence of occlusion are huge problems associated with face recognition. The performance of face recognition systems decreases due to these problems. Discriminant Analysis (LDA or Principal Components Analysis (PCA is used to get better recognition results. Human face contains relevant information that can extracted from face model developed by PCA technique. Principal Components Analysis method uses eigenface approach to describe face image variation. A face recognition technique that is robust to all situations is not available. Some techniques are better in case of illumination, some for pose problem and some for occlusion problem. This paper presents some algorithms for face recognition.

  4. THE CHALLENGES POLITICAL LEADERSHIP FACES IN THE MODERN WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Samsonova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Political leadership is a concept central to understanding political processes and outcomes, yet its definition is elusive. The study of political leadership has a long history. Many disciplines have contributed to this study, including history, philosophy, political theory, psychology etc. Leadership is a process in which leaders and followers interact dynamically in a particular situation or context. Leaders must be able to connect with followers to understand their mood and their initiative. There are essential and operational differences between a leader and a manager. Managerial effectiveness is related to an emphasis on rationality and organizational structure. Leadership effectiveness is linked to symbols and culture. The interactive nature of leader-followers-situation can help us better understand the changing nature of the leaderfollower relationship and the increasingly greater complexity of situations leaders and followers face in contemporary world. Good leadership makes a difference, and it can be enhanced through greater awareness of the important factors influencing the leadership process. The changes we are facing in today’s world demand a new breed of political leaders, new forms and mechanisms of leader-follower interaction that provide effective leadership. 

  5. Challenges facing academic urology training programs: an impending crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Chris M; McKenna, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    To determine the most pressing issues facing academic urology training centers. The supply of urologists per capita in the United States continues to decrease. Stricter resident requirements, restriction of resident duty hours, and a Graduate Medical Education (GME) funding cap on resident education has led to significant challenges for academic centers. A 32-question survey was sent to Society of University Urologists members. Respondents defined themselves as academic faculty tenure track, program director, academic chair, program director and academic chair, clinical faculty nontenure track, and community faculty member. A total of 143 of 446 members(32%) responded. A lack of funding was indicated as an obstacle to adding new residency positions (65% respondents) and recruiting new faculty (60% respondents). Residency positions not funded by GME (40% respondents) required either clinical or hospital dollars to support these slots. Most respondents (51%) indicated resident research rotations are funded with clinical dollars. Surgical skills laboratories are commonly used (85% respondents) and are supported mostly with hospital or clinical dollars. The majority of respondents (84%) indicated they would expand simulation laboratories if they had better funding. Other than urodynamics and ultrasound, urology residency training programs reported little income from ancillary dollars. There is a significant workforce shortage within urology training programs. Clinical revenue and hospital funding seem to be the main financial support engines to supplement the GME funding shortage, proficiency training, and faculty salary support for teaching. The current system of GME funding for urology residency programs is not sustainable. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Challenges facing air management for fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P.B. [Department of Energy (United States); Sutton, R. [Argonne National Lab. (United States); Wagner, F.W. [Energetics Incorporated (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. automotive industry are working cooperatively under the auspices of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) to develop a six-passenger automobile that can achieve up to 80 mpg. while meeting customer needs and all safety and emission requirements. These partners are continuing to invest heavily in the research and development of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells as a clean and efficient energy conversion system for the PNGV. A critical challenge facing fuel cell systems for the PNGV is the development of efficient, compact, cost-effective air management systems. The U.S. Department of Energy has been exploring several compressor/expander options for pressurized fuel cell systems, including scroll, toroidal intersecting vane, turbine, twin screw, and piston technologies. Each of these technologies has strengths and weaknesses regarding efficiency, pressure ratio over turndown, size and weight, and cost. This paper will present data from the U.S. Department of Energy's research and development efforts on air management systems and will discusses recent program developments resulting from an independent peer review evaluation. (author)

  7. Understanding Relationality: A Challenge for Religion Communicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas F. Cannon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Religion communicators in the United States face a conceptual challenge. Is their mission to sell a product, shape public opinion, package and distribute information, or manage interactions with social groups? These missions assume fundamentally different understandings of relationality. How do faith groups understand relationships? Are they based on community or some other set of attributes? If relationships relate to community, is that community based on shared belief or creation? Which view of community best fosters relationships that encourage cooperation and discourage polarization? The answers guide how faith groups value dialogue, respond to disagreements and understand public relations. This paper uses a hermeneutical approach and results from surveys of U.S. religion communicators and faith group leaders to suggest answers to those questions. The goal is to consider how religion communicators and faith group leaders understand public relations, how communicators approach their work and how they rate their skills for dealing with conflicts.

  8. ASF: Facing the Challenges for 15 Years and Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Belle-Hamer, N.; Nicoll, J.; Atwood, D.; Arko, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) of the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, has just celebrated its 15th year of experience in satellite remote sensing. ASF is involved in a wide range of activities - - from downlinking satellite data to developing data analysis tools, value-added products, and training for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) users. Satellite remote sensing data are acquired, processed, analyzed, and archived by ASF from several satellites; ASF has built expertise in handling and manipulating the data, SAR in particular. SAR is the only satellite imagery in the world today that can be acquired at any time of the day or night and during adverse weather conditions. It can be used to develop value-added products to aid in global climate change research. Examples include the SAR-derived coastal winds in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea; monitoring of the major ice shelves in the Arctic and Antarctic; and examining the impact on sea level from the Greenland ice sheets and glaciers. The challenges facing the use of remote-sensing data in climate change research can be divided into three major categories: economical, political, and technical. The expense of designing, building, and launching a satellite is substantial. The costs of the ground segment including data management can be substantial and should not be neglected. The US agency funding climate often has the research community pushing for new missions against declining federal budgets in direct competition with ongoing missions. On the political front, data policy, data ownership, and cost recovery are issues often perceived as insurmountable by the user community. The technical issues, while challenging, are often the easiest to solve. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, with the successful launch of the Advanced Land Observing System (ALOS), has embarked on a new way of handling the ground segment with the introduction of international data nodes. ASF will serve with NOAA

  9. Challenges Faced By Small, Medium And Micro Enterprises In The Nkonkobe Municipality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tendai Chimucheka; Fortunate Mandipaka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the challenges that are faced by entrepreneurs in the Nkonkobe Municipality in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and the objectives were to identify and suggest solutions for the challenges...

  10. Challenges faced by former child soldiers in the aftermath of war in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindevogel, Sofie; De Schryver, Maarten; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2013-06-01

    Warfare takes a profound toll of all layers of society, creating multiple and multilevel challenges that impinge on the psychosocial well-being of affected individuals. This study aims to assess the scope and salience of challenges confronting former child soldiers and at identifying additional challenges they face compared to non-recruited young people in war-affected northern Uganda. The study was carried out with a stratified random sample of northern Ugandan adolescents (n = 1,008), of whom a third had formerly been recruited (n = 330). The mixed-method comparison design consisted of a constrained free listing task to determine the challenges; a free sorting task to categorize them into clusters; and statistical analysis of their prevalence among formerly recruited youth and of how they compare with those of nonrecruited youth. Altogether, 237 challenges were identified and clustered into 15 categories, showing that formerly recruited participants mainly identified "emotional" and "training and skills"-related challenges. Compared with nonrecruited counterparts, they reported significantly more "emotional" and fewer "social and relational" challenges, with the exception of stigmatization. Overall, there was similarity between the challenges reported by both groups. The challenges confronting formerly recruited youths reach well beyond the effects of direct war exposure and emerge mainly from multiple influence spheres surrounding them. These challenges are largely shared in common with nonrecruited youths. This multidimensional and collective character of challenges calls for comprehensive psychosocial interventions through which healing the psychological wounds of war is complemented by mending the war-affected surroundings at all levels and in all life areas. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Challenges faced by parents of children with learning disabilities in Opuwo, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clever Taderera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parenting children with learning disabilities requires a high level of knowledge and access to resources, information and services. In developing countries, however, these resources and services are not always available. Parents in Namibia, a developing country, therefore face challenges addressing children’s learning and other developmental disabilities, including challenges related to preventative and supportive interventions.Objective: This research focuses on challenges faced by parents as they parent children with learning disabilities in Opuwo, Namibia.Method: In-depth interviews were conducted with eight parents regarding the challenges they face in parenting their children with learning disabilities. Thematic analysis enabled the researchers to identify, analyse and report on themes that emerged from the qualitative interview data.Results: Analysis of the interviews indicated that some participants had only a vague understanding of learning disabilities, as they did not have access to essential knowledge about this phenomenon. They also lacked an awareness of the availability of programmes, services and policies meant to benefit their children with learning disabilities. Participants voiced that they, their children with learning disabilities and community members have stereotypes and prejudices regarding learning disabilities. In this study, most of the children with learning disabilities were raised by single, unemployed parents who seemed to have access to less support from external sources than married couples parenting children with learning disabilities. These single parents are usually not married and because of lack of financial support from the other parent, the majority of them indicated that they struggle to meet the financial and material needs of their children.Conclusion: The researchers concluded that the participants in this study experience a range of challenges in parenting their children with learning

  12. Education to Face the Wicked Challenges of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bland Tomkinson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The nature of sustainable development requires new paradigms for education. Issues of sustainability are ‘wicked problems’ that do not lend themselves to conventional didactic approaches. The challenge for higher education is to examine interdisciplinary approaches to global societal responsibility and, within this, issues of education for sustainable development. Approach: A project, sponsored by the Royal Academy of Engineering, developed a course unit in sustainable development across several disciplines. The approach was initially pedagogic in nature, with a strong evaluative theme. At the same time, a Delphi study was undertaken by the same team and this inter-relates with the main project. The focus of the action research was a series of ‘wicked’ problems that would provide real-world challenges with no simple answers. Results: The project was evaluated in a number of ways, not least the pre-and post-testing of students’ attitudes and approaches, but also using nominal group techniques. The project demonstrated that an interdisciplinary PBL approach succeeded in deepening the learning of the students as well as developing key skills. Conclusion: The use of collaborative, group-based approaches, notably PBL, offers a key way of approaching the design of curricula for sustainable development and other areas of global societal responsibility that hinge on ‘wicked problems’.

  13. The Forgotten Tribe in ODL Systems: Challenges Faced by Visually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Faced by Visually Impaired Students in Institutions of Higher Learning. ... CH Tichauya, CR Alexander, M Paul, D Emanuel ... Data was collected through student interviews and questionnaires for lecturers and thematically analysed.

  14. Age-related face processing bias in infancy: evidence of perceptual narrowing for adult faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Bulf, Hermann; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Proietti, Valentina

    2014-02-01

    Recent data demonstrate a perceptual processing advantage for adult faces in both adults and young children, suggesting that face representation is shaped by visual experience accumulated with different face-age groups. As for species and race, this age bias may emerge during the first year of life as part of the general process of perceptual narrowing, given the extensive amount of social and perceptual experience accumulated with caregivers and/or other adult individuals. Using infant-controlled habituation and visual-paired comparison at test, two experiments were carried out to examine 3- and 9-month-olds' ability to discriminate within adult and infant faces. Results showed that, when they are provided with adequate time to visually compare the stimuli during test trials (Experiment 2), 3-month-olds exhibit above-chance discrimination of adult and infant faces. Instead, 9-month-olds discriminate adult faces but not infant faces (Experiments 1 and 2). Results provide the first evidence of age-related face processing biases in infancy, and show that by 9 months face representations tune to adult human faces.

  15. The major medical ethical challenges facing the public and healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz F Alkabba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the relatively high expenditure on healthcare in Saudi Arabia, its health system remains highly centralized in the main cities with its primary focus on secondary and tertiary care rather than primary care. This has led to numerous ethical challenges for the healthcare providers. This article reports the results of a study conducted with a panel of practitioners, and non-clinicians, in Saudi Arabia, in order to identify the top ten ethical challenges for healthcare providers, patients, and their families. Materials and Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional, descriptive, and qualitative one. The participants were asked the question: "What top ten ethical challenges are Saudis likely to face in health care?" The participants were asked to rank the top ten ethical challenges throughout a modified Delphi process, using a ranking Scale. A consensus was reached after three rounds of questions and an experts′ meeting. Results: The major 10 ethical issues, as perceived by the participants in order of their importance, were: (1 Patients′ Rights, (2 Equity of resources, (3 Confidentiality of the patients, (4 Patient Safety, (5 Conflict of Interests, (6 Ethics of privatization, (7 Informed Consent, (8 Dealing with the opposite sex, (9 Beginning and end of life, and (10 Healthcare team ethics. Conclusion: Although many of the challenges listed by the participants have received significant public and specialized attention worldwide, scant attention has been paid to these top challenges in Saudi Arabia. We propose several possible steps to help address these key challenges.

  16. Age-related differences in attentional bias for emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszczyk, Jennifer C; Fernandes, Myra A

    2014-01-01

    Past research suggests an aging-related positivity effect in orienting to faces. However, these studies have eschewed direct comparison of orienting when positive and negative faces are presented simultaneously, thereby potentially underestimating the degree to which emotional valence influences such effects. In the current study younger and older adults viewed face pairs for 1000 ms, and upon face-pair offset indicated the location of a dot that appeared in the former location of one of the faces, to assess attentional orienting. When shown negative-neutral pairs, both age groups were biased to attend to negative faces, but when shown positive-negative pairs only younger adults showed a bias toward negative; older adults showed a lack of orienting toward either emotional face. Results suggest younger adults have a negativity bias in attention orienting regardless of the valence of nearby stimuli, whereas older adults show an absence of this bias when positive information is present.

  17. Sustainable Digital Environments: What Major Challenges Is Humankind Facing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland W. Scholz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies and discusses the benefits, threats, and vulnerabilities related to the digital revolution. It aims to motivate research and its funding regarding digital threats and vulnerabilities related, in particular, to anticipating unintended, undesirable rebound effects, tipping points, critically fast evolutionary change rates, trade-offs, etc. A brief analysis of the history of the mind and technology reveals slow technological development over tens of thousands of years (including the invention of a place-value digital number system. Then, a small series of groundbreaking ideas (e.g., binary logic, Shannon’s symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits, architectures of computing enabled the industry-driven invention of programmable computing machines. Ultimately, the mastery of electron and semiconductor physics allowed for economical and seemingly unlimited storage capacity that made digital tools available to all domains of society. Based on the historical analysis, a coupled human-environment systems perspective (that includes a hierarchy assumption ranging from the human cell to the human species enables the identification of several potential challenges to society and science. First, digital nano-engineering promotes genetic modifications (i.e., directed evolution, and synthetic biology enables a new level of the appropriation of nature. The understanding of cell-based biocomputers may call for new forms of logic. These and other challenges require thorough sustainability research in order to anticipate major changes on all levels of human systems. Second, the human individual is exposed to new forms of vulnerability. In particular, the potential epigenetic effects resulting from the excessive use of digital information of historically unknown speed, density, and contents and the loss of (the Western common-law right to privacy resulting from big data (whose ownership is often unknown should become subjects of

  18. Towards Lead-Free Piezoceramics: Facing a Synthesis Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Villafuerte-Castrejón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for electroceramic materials with enhanced ferro-pyro-piezoelectric properties and revealing the perovskite type structure has been the objective of a significant number of manuscripts reported in the literature. This has been usually carried out by proposing the synthesis and processing of new compounds and solid solution series. In this work, several methods to obtain ferro-pyro-piezoelectric families of materials featuring the well-known ABO3 perovskite structure (or related such as BaTiO3, Ba1–xCaxTi1–yZryO3, (Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3, (K0.5Na0.5NbO3 and their solid solutions with different cations either in the A or B positions, are presented. For this kind of materials, the challenge for obtaining a single phase compound with a specific grain size and morphology and, most importantly, with the adequate stoichiometry, will also be discussed. The results reviewed herein will be discussed in terms of the tendency of working with softer conditions, i.e., lower temperature and shorter reaction times, also referred to as soft-chemistry.

  19. Inflammatory bowel disease and anxiety: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannaga AS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ayman S Bannaga,1 Christian P Selinger2 1Department of Gastroenterology, Doncaster Royal Infirmary, Doncaster, UK; 2Department of Gastroenterology, St James University Hospital, Leeds, UK Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD causes severe physical symptoms and is also associated with psychological comorbidities. Abnormal anxiety levels are found in up to 40% of patients with IBD. Anxiety symptoms are often related to flares of IBD but may persist in times of remission. Detection of anxiety disorder (AD in patients with IBD can be challenging. Patients with anxiety may also exhibit symptoms in keeping with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID. Evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological therapies for anxiety stems from patients without IBD. Studies in patients with IBD have either been small or shown negative results. In light of this, a combined approach involving IBD physicians to improve disease control and psychologists or psychiatrists to treat anxiety is advised. This review examines the evidence of anxiety issues in IBD with a focus on extent of the problem, risk factors for anxiety, and the effectiveness of interventions. Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, anxiety

  20. Facing and Overcoming Sensitivity Challenges in Biomolecular NMR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Boebinger, Gregory S.; Comment, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    enhance the sensitivity of solid‐ and liquid‐state experiments. While substantial advances have been made in all these areas, numerous challenges remain in the quest of endowing NMR spectroscopy with the sensitivity that has characterized forms of spectroscopies based on electrical or optical measurements....... These challenges, and the ways by which scientists and engineers are striving to solve them, are also addressed....

  1. Standing by Their Principles: Two Librarians Who Faced Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen; Leu, DaNae; Venuto, Dee Ann

    2015-01-01

    What do school librarians fear most? Hands down, their biggest fear is a formal challenge to a resource in the school library. There are no accurate statistics about the number of challenges to school library resources. The staff of ALA's Office for Intellectual Freedom estimates that only about 20 percent are reported to ALA annually. For the…

  2. Principal Challenges Facing Electronic Records Management in Federal Agencies Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Giovanna; Sprehe, J. Timothy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses electronic records management in the federal government. Highlights include managing electronic mail; information technology planning, systems design, and architecture; updating conventional records management; integrating electronic records management with other information technology systems; challenges of end-user training; business…

  3. A Challenging Giant Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans on the Face

    OpenAIRE

    Gimena Castro Pérez; Cintia Arias; Paula Luna; Irene Sorín; Luis Daniel Mazzuoccolo

    2016-01-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a malignant fibrohistiocytic tumor that appears exclusively on the skin. It is a low-grade malignant soft tissue tumor of subcutaneous tissues that has a propensity for local recurrence but seldom metastasizes. It may rarely occur on the head and neck accounting for less than one percent of total head and neck malignancies. We present a man with a giant DFSP on the face. Oncological, functional, and aesthetic aspects are set forth.

  4. A Challenging Giant Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans on the Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimena Castro Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP is a malignant fibrohistiocytic tumor that appears exclusively on the skin. It is a low-grade malignant soft tissue tumor of subcutaneous tissues that has a propensity for local recurrence but seldom metastasizes. It may rarely occur on the head and neck accounting for less than one percent of total head and neck malignancies. We present a man with a giant DFSP on the face. Oncological, functional, and aesthetic aspects are set forth.

  5. Challenges facing the development of the Arabic chatbot

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHagbani, Eman Saad; Khan, Muhammad Badruddin

    2016-07-01

    The future information systems are expected to be more intelligent and will take human queries in natural language as input and answer them promptly. To develop a chatbot or a computer program that can chat with humans in realistic manner to extent that human get impressions that he/she is talking with other human is a challenging task. To make such chatbots, different technologies will work together ranging from artificial intelligence to development of semantic resources. Sophisticated chatbots are developed to perform conversation in number of languages. Arabic chatbots can be helpful in automating many operations and serve people who only know Arabic language. However, the technology for Arabic language is still in its infancy stage due to some challenges surrounding the Arabic language. This paper offers an overview of the chatbot application and the several obstacles and challenges that need to be resolved to develop an effective Arabic chatbot.

  6. UK community health visiting: challenges faced during lean implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr SM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Susan M Carr1,2, Pauline Pearson1, Lesley Young-Murphy3, Barbara Cleghorn41Centre for Community Health & Education Studies Research & Enterprise, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 2School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia; 3NHS North of Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 4Newcastle PCT, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKAbstract: This paper presents an overview of the challenges and potential of lean implementation for the health visiting service in England and examines the rhetoric and the reality of the situation. It is coauthored by academic researchers and senior service providers so as to embrace the multidimensional issues impacting on this subject. If lean thinking is to be implemented in relation to health visiting, it is important to understand how it is likely to be viewed by practitioners and line managers in settings where it is used. In order to contextualize the discussion, an introduction to the roles, systems, and structures of health visiting are provided. The literature on what lean implementation is, what it means, and in particular the application and potential of the approach to primary care and public health services is reviewed. The process and findings from a focus group convened within a large primary care organization in the National Health Service during their lean implementation is reported. The paper concludes that it is important for staff at all levels to see a clear link between strategic aims and objectives and the planning processes operated by providers and commissioners. It appears that the successful introduction of lean thinking should focus more on productive working and thereby reducing waste. This has the potential to refresh workforce models to ensure that health visiting and other practitioners liberate the use of their specialist knowledge and skills. In a context of enhanced partnership working, the stage is then set for providers to add value to the whole

  7. China Facing Five Major Challenges for Energy Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Cuijie

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's energy development will be confronted with five major challenges in the coming decades, experts said at the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy (IPHE)Steering Committee in Beijing in late May. The five major challenges include high oil import dependency which threatens the nation's energy security, using coal as the main energy generator, which leads to severe pollution, gigantic energy demands due to growing economic development,global climate change resulting from greenhouse gas emissions, and energy supply and consumption problems in rural areas.

  8. Challenges Facing the Arab American Community from a Legal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Quaisi Audi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on contemporary issues facing the Arab population vis-à-vis the American legal system. While Arab Americans enjoy the same basic rights enshrined in the federal and various state Constitutions, some of them have been subjected to various forms of discrimination that have infringed upon these basic rights. I will survey these areas as follows: racial discrimination, hate crimes, civil rights (including racial profiling and immigration, and employment. The paper concludes with a discussion on various means to prevent discriminatory practices with specific recommendations for the classroom.

  9. Romanian spatial planning research facing the challenges of globalizing sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Ionuţ Petrişor

    2018-03-01

    competitiveness, measured in terms of scientific yield and citations, primarily affects fields where articles and citations are not the traditional outputs, such as the humanities and social sciences in general and planning-related disciplines in particular. When discussing planning, it has to be stressed out that research has a merely societal value and is not aimed at developing products that can foster economic growth or delivering scientific articles that profoundly change the theoretical perspectives. Simply put, research in planning aims at increasing the safety and welfare of people. As a consequence, planning research topics have shifted from providing scientific grounds to regional development policies, to addressing research quality and social responsibility or producing research guidelines. This article looks at the particular case of Romanian planning research based on SCImago data, in an attempt to assess whether this field is able to meet these global challenges, especially after the consistent, albeit uneven, in terms of goal and pace, application of new research policies designed after joining the European Union, which were aimed at increasing its article output and its international visibility. The findings indicate that the numerical growth of articles and publications is spectacular in Romania for most fields, and even more so within the humanities, the social sciences and planning. However, the question remains whether this impressive growth is supported by an increase in quality. We have therefore left aside matters such as the globalization of authors, topics or citations. These aspects require a more in-depth research effort.

  10. Facing the Issues: Challenges, Censorship, and Reflection through Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, ReLeah Cossett

    2008-01-01

    ReLeah Cossett Lent provides practical advice for ensuring that books are kept on shelves and in classrooms for students to read. She outlines steps for creating professional learning communities that engage with censorship issues and prepare schools to deal with book challenges in thoughtful, supportive ways. (Contains 4 figures.)

  11. Wise reasoning in the face of everyday life challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossmann, Igor; Gerlach, Tanja M.; Denissen, J.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    How stable vs. dynamic is wisdom in daily life? We conducted a daily diary study of wise reasoning (WR) by recording people's reflections on daily challenges in terms of three facets: intellectual humility, self-transcendence, and consideration of others' perspectives/compromise. We observed

  12. Challenges Facing Chinese International Students Studying in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Yuerong; Renes, Susan L.; McMurrow, Samantha; Simpson, Joni; Strange, Anthony T.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese international students often find it challenging to adjust to attending college in the United States (US). There is limited research addressing Chinese international college students' adjustment in the US. Drawing on what literature exists combined with research addressing Chinese immigrants' transition and international students'…

  13. Challenges Faced by Korean Transnational Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Adrian; Nam, Sang; Han, Shini

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help parents, educators, and policymakers understand how to help transnational children adjust to their psychological challenges at school in the United States. A total of 109 Korean transnational adolescents aged 11 to 19 participated in this study. They had been staying in the country alone or with one of their…

  14. Facing the Issues: Challenges, Censorship, and Reflection through Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, ReLeah Cossett

    2008-01-01

    ReLeah Cossett Lent provides practical advice for ensuring that books are kept on shelves and in classrooms for students to read. She outlines steps for creating professional learning communities that engage with censorship issues and prepare schools to deal with book challenges in thoughtful, supportive ways. (Contains 4 figures.)

  15. China's Oil Industry Facing Challenge & Opportunity from WTO Entry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ With ups and downs in the past 15 years, China was officially admitted into World Trade Organization in November 2001. China's entry into WTO inevitably poses a severe challenge to the country's domestic petroleum and petrochemical industry, which has been protected by means of tariff hurdles and other administrative measures for a long time.

  16. Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells; Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal Rao, MRS Web-Editor; Yury Gogotsi, Drexel University; Karen Swider-Lyons, Naval Research Laboratory

    2010-08-05

    Symposium T: Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are under intense investigation worldwide for applications ranging from transportation to portable power. The purpose of this seminar is to focus on the nanomaterials and nanostructures inherent to polymer fuel cells. Symposium topics will range from high-activity cathode and anode catalysts, to theory and new analytical methods. Symposium U: Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage Electricity, which can be generated in a variety of ways, offers a great potential for meeting future energy demands as a clean and efficient energy source. However, the use of electricity generated from renewable sources, such as wind or sunlight, requires efficient electrical energy storage. This symposium will cover the latest material developments for batteries, advanced capacitors, and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging materials science challenges.

  17. Challenges faced by young persons living with HIV: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges faced by young persons living with HIV: The case of children on the ... improvement in the supply of pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens, ... Keywords: HIV and AIDS, orphaned child, antiretroviral therapy, stigma, ...

  18. IT Project Portfolio Management; Challenges faced by Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars; Pedersen, Keld

    2010-01-01

    Abstract. Increasing the organizational benefits from IT projects is a key concern in most organizations. The use of Project Portfolio Management (PPM) is generally recommended by consultants (e.g. Kaplan 2005) and researchers (e.g. De Reyck et al 2005) as one way of increasing the organizational...... benefits from IT investments. This article reports from an action research project aiming at understanding and improving IT PPM practices in Danish municipalities, thereby contributing to the general body of knowledge concerning PPM of IT projects. Our findings suggest that the participating organizations...... might benefit from a structured approach as suggested by the literature (e.g. Kaplan 2005), but also that the prescriptive PPM literature in some areas is too simplistic when compared to the reality faced by the participating practitioners. Especially, our research suggests that different PPM elements...

  19. Facing the educational challenges in South Africa: an educophilosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T. Viljoen

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The educational challenge in South Africa is currently demonstrated by the fact that education is seen as a priority on all agendas, be they national, provincial or local. Developments in society compel educational thinkers to rethink the role and status of education in a democratic society. In this article an educo-philosophical perspective is applied in an attempt to analyse some of the developments that might have an influence on educational thought and practice.

  20. Defense Weather Satellites: DOD Faces Acquisition Challenges for Addressing Capability Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-07

    design . Our work on the NPOESS program has shown that without clear lines of authority, conflicts between satellite users hampered decisions, such as for...DEFENSE WEATHER SATELLITES DOD Faces Acquisition Challenges for Addressing Capability Needs Statement of Cristina T...Environment, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, House of Representatives July 2016 DEFENSE WEATHER SATELLITES DOD Faces Acquisition

  1. Myth 15: High-Ability Students Don't Face Problems and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sidney M.

    2009-01-01

    One rationale for failure to address the needs of high-ability students in schools is that high-ability students do not need special services because they do not face any special problems or challenges. A more extreme corollary of this attitude is the notion that high ability is so protective that students with high ability do not face problems or…

  2. Organ shortage: the greatest challenge facing transplant medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafran, David; Kodish, Eric; Tzakis, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    The success of organ transplantation as a treatment for end-stage organ disease has yielded a series of ethical quandaries originating from the issue of organ shortage. Scarcity of organs for transplantation necessitates formulation of just and fair allocation policies as well as ethically viable solutions to bridging the vast gap between organ supply and demand. The concept of "triage" provides a useful paradigm in which to contextualize the organ shortage issue. This entails subjugating the welfare of the individual patient for the benefit of the wider community as an ethically justified response to the challenge of scarcity.

  3. Nurses and challenges faced as clinical educators: a survey of a group of nurses in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian E A Eta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical teaching is an important component of clinical education. In nursing, clinical teaching is ensured by clinical nurse educators (CNEs. This study aimed at describing the major challenges faced by CNEs in Cameroon. METHODS: In a qualitative study, supplemented with quantitative methods, CNEs were enrolled from three health districts to represent their frequency in Cameroon’s health delivery system. RESULTS: A total of 56 CNEs participated in the study, of whom, as many as 58.9% acknowledged always facing challenges in clinical teaching and supervision. The major challenges identified were the lack of opportunities to update knowledge and skills, students’ lack of preparedness and the CNEs not being prepared for clinical teaching. CNEs attributed these challenges in major part to the lack of incentives and poor health policies. CONCLUSION: CNEs in Cameroon do indeed face major challenges which are of diverse origins and could adversely affect teaching in clinical settings

  4. THE EUROPEAN UNION FACING THE CHALLENGES OF MIGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Simona Vrânceanu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The project of the European construction has been subject to constant contradictions since the time of its first steps of implementation. Beyond the ideal of economic and political unification, the European Union has to manage more and more cultural, social, and economic challenges, which aren’t at all negligible, and all the more pressing in the context of recent years marked by the global financial crisis and the assault of asylum seekers from Africa and Middle East. Therefore we can launch a series of interrogations: What is the citizens’ level of trust in the European construction project? How does the European Union proceed in order to integrate immigrants? What is the link between good immigrant integration and consolidation of the European construction project? These three interrogations represent the axes of analysis of this article, which aims to highlight some theoretical aspects of the effects of current migration on the structuring or restructuration of the European Union. As a conclusion, we may say that the current challenges of migration have opened the path to a new phase of the European construction project, and the consensus of state actors and the direct involvement of the Community institutions can be decisive in shaping the medium and long term evolution of the European Union.

  5. Generation Y facing the challenge of employability: facts against stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vallejo Peña

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Young people Spain classed as belonging Generation Y are facing the transition to employment under even more adverse conditions than the previous generation (X, as a result of the economic crisis (2008-2015 prevailing as they reach working age. This paper aims to address the generational traits that are attributed to these young people in Spain, and contrast them with the data offered (Labour Force Survey, LFS, and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD, mainly. This aims to achieve a better understanding of the phenomenon to distinguish their true features and generational experiences from the testimony of somewhat unreliable sources. To this end, we analyse the main social types attributed to this generation (Not in Education, Employment, or Training, NEETs, mileuristas and boomerangs, technological changes that determine their profile (digital society, new migration trends, the influence of social stratification and the contribution of the family. The conclusions look in particular at the influence of certain factors (education, social class to improve their employability, and the prevalence of the family as a key institution in supporting these young people, given the lack of other social actors.

  6. Challenges Faced in Engaging American Indian Mothers in an Early Childhood Caries Preventive Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Tamanna; Albino, Judith; Batliner, Terrence S

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study explores the challenges faced by the research implementation team in engaging new mothers in a community oral health prevention intervention in an American Indian (AI) reservation community. Methods. Qualitative methods in the form of in-depth interviews were used in the study. Qualitative data were collected from research staff workers at a field site, who were involved in the implementation of a culturally tailored, randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention utilizing Motivational Interviewing (MI). Results. Several challenges were described by the field staff in engaging new mothers, including low priority placed on oral health, lack of knowledge, and distractions that reduced their ability to engage in learning about oral health of their child. Other difficulties faced in engaging the mothers and the AI community at large were distrust related to racial differences and physical and environmental barriers including poor road conditions, lack of transportation and communication, and remoteness of data collection sites. The field staff developed and applied many strategies, including conducting home visits, applying new communication strategies, and interacting with the community at various venues. Conclusion. Prevention interventions for ECC need to target AI mothers. Strategies developed by the field staff were successful for engaging mothers in the study.

  7. [China faces a challenge of breast cancer prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B N; Chen, W Q; Zhang, X; Qiao, Y L

    2016-10-23

    The incidence and mortality of breast cancer is in an increasing trend. In contrast to the global breast cancer situation, the prevention and control is challenging in China. Some suggestions are presented to the project of breast cancer prevention and control in China. Combining the global screening experiences with the epidemiological features of Chinese female breast cancer, aims to improve the population screening and early detection rate. Standardizing clinical diagnosis and treatment practice, aims to increase the efficacy and decrease the mortality. Intervening lifestyle and dietary behaviors, and intends to reduce risk exposure and incidence. Building national breast cancer registry provides preventive strategies. Great efforts should be made to carry out large sample multicenter clinical trails and translational research on the prevention and cotrol of breast cancer coordiated by health care service and science and technology administrations. Breast cancer prevention and control has a long way to go in China.

  8. Challenges to ethics and professionalism facing the contemporary neurologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, James L

    2014-09-30

    Challenges to ethics and professionalism that can harm neurologists and their patients include the commercialization of medicine, poorly designed Medicare regulations, conflicts of interest, physician employment by hospitals, faulty measurement of medical quality care, electronic health records, electronic communications with patients, and the demotion of the role of physician beneficence. These threats can lead to inaccurate medical record-keeping, unnecessary medical care, a decline in the primacy of patients' interests, and damage to the sanctity of the patient-physician relationship. The increasing frequency of physician burnout can be attributed at least partially to unmitigated stresses on practicing physicians, particularly the growing time pressures for patient visits, the mounting daily requirements of documentation, and the increasing burden of time-consuming but unproductive tasks. Recommended correctives include reforming billing documentation regulations, improving electronic health records, designing proper quality indicators integrating physician wellness, and incorporating reasonable physician workflows in the design of accountable care organizations.

  9. Facing technological challenges of Solar Updraft Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, F.; Borri, C.; Harte, R.; Krätzig, W. B.; Niemann, H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Updraft Power Plant technology addresses a very challenging idea of combining two kinds of renewable energy: wind and solar. The working principle is simple: a Solar Updraft Power Plant (SUPP) consists of a collector area to heat the air due to the wide-banded ultra-violet solar radiation, the high-rise solar tower to updraft the heated air to the atmosphere, and in between the power conversion unit, where a system of coupled turbines and generators transforms the stream of heated air into electric power. A good efficiency of the power plant can only be reached with extra-large dimensions of the tower and/or the collector area. The paper presents an up-to-date review of the SUPP technology, focusing on the multi-physics modeling of the power plant, on the structural behavior of the tower and, last but not least, on the modeling of the stochastic wind loading process.

  10. Facing the challenges in human resources for humanitarian health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani; Nowak, Kristin; Hein, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The human resources crisis in humanitarian health care parallels that seen in the broader area of health care. This crisis is exacerbated by the lack of resources in areas in which humanitarian action is needed--difficult environments that often are remote and insecure--and the requirement of specific skill sets is not routinely gained during traditional medical training. While there is ample data to suggest that health outcomes improve when worker density is increased, this remains an area of critical under-investment in humanitarian health care. In addition to under-investment, other factors limit the availability of human resources for health (HRH) in humanitarian work including: (1) over-reliance on degrees as surrogates for specific competencies; (2) under-development and under-utilization of national staff and beneficiaries as humanitarian health workers; (3) lack of standardized training modules to ensure adequate preparation for work in complex emergencies; (4) and the draining of limited available HRH from countries with low prevalence and high need to wealthier, developed nations also facing HRH shortages. A working group of humanitarian health experts from implementing agencies, United Nations agencies, private and governmental financiers, and members of academia gathered at Hanover, New Hampshire for a conference to discuss elements of the HRH problem in humanitarian health care and how to solve them. Several key elements of successful solutions were highlighted, including: (1) the need to develop a set of standards of what would constitute "adequate training" for humanitarian health work; (2) increasing the utilization and professional development of national staff; (3) "training with a purpose" specific to humanitarian health work (not simply relying on professional degrees as surrogates); (4) and developing specific health task-based competencies thereby increasing the pool of potential workers. Such steps would accomplish several key goals, such as

  11. Challenges for Novice School Leaders: Facing Today's Issues in School Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Andrea P.; Claxton, Russell L.; Smith, Samuel J.

    2016-01-01

    Challenges for novice school leaders evolve as information is managed differently and as societal and regulatory expectations change. This study addresses unique challenges faced by practicing school administrators (n = 159) during their first three years in a school leadership position. It focuses on their perceptions, how perceptions of present…

  12. Cyber Bullying: Challenges and Strategies Faced by Juvenile Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Thaxter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges of teaching pre-teens about the internet is their varying degrees and levels of involvement. The juvenile police officer brings a solid understanding of the laws as well as a strong knowledge of safety issues to the classroom, making them an excellent educational resource. Officers can utilize an educational approach with parents and students in which they define what cyber bullying is and, importantly, demonstrate that definition by describing real cases that I and other officers have addressed. This approach focused both on the effect that cyber bullying has on the victims and the impact of the online behavior on the atmosphere and climate at the school. Students and parents also need to learn about the potential consequences for the perpetrator. Finally, an important method for bridging varying degrees of involvement in bullying is to emphasize that all students play a role in cyber bullying prevention-not merely those who perpetrate it or are victimized by it. That lesson is accomplished through discussions about strategies that bystanders can use to intervene."

  13. Representative Delay Measurements (RDM: Facing the Challenge of Modern Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Fabini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Network access technologies have evolved significantly in the last years. They deploy novel mechanisms like reactive capacity allocation and time-slotted operation to optimize overall network capacity. From a single node's perspective, such optimizations decrease network determinism and measurement repeatability. Evolving application fields like machine to machine (M2M communications or real-time gaming often have strict real-time requirements to operate correctly. Highly accurate delay measurements are necessary to monitor network compliance with application demands or to detect deviations of normal network behavior, which may be caused by network failures, misconfigurations or attacks. This paper analyzes factors that challenge active delay measurements in modern networks. It introduces the Representative Delay Measurement tool (RDM that addresses these factors and proposes solutions that conform to requirements of the recently published RFC7312. Delay measurement results acquired using RDM in live networks confirm that advanced measurement methods can significantly improve the quality of measurement samples by isolating systematic network behavior. The resulting high-quality samples are one prerequisite for accurate statistics that support proper operation of subsequent algorithms and applications.

  14. The changing face of emotion: age-related patterns of amygdala activation to salient faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, R.M.; Evans, J.W.; Morris, D.; Lewis, M.D.; Taylor, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated age-related differences in the amygdala and other nodes of face-processing networks in response to facial expression and familiarity. fMRI data were analyzed from 31 children (3.5–8.5 years) and 14 young adults (18–33 years) who viewed pictures of familiar (mothers) an

  15. Local Relation Map: A Novel Illumination Invariant Face Recognition Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Zhichao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel illumination invariant face recognition approach is proposed. Different from most existing methods, an additive term as noise is considered in the face model under varying illuminations in addition to a multiplicative illumination term. High frequency coefficients of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT are discarded to eliminate the effect caused by noise. Based on the local characteristics of the human face, a simple but effective illumination invariant feature local relation map is proposed. Experimental results on the Yale B, Extended Yale B and CMU PIE demonstrate the outperformance and lower computational burden of the proposed method compared to other existing methods. The results also demonstrate the validity of the proposed face model and the assumption on noise.

  16. CPMEC FACING CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES UNDER NEW SITUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinghe

    2001-01-01

    @@ China Petroleum Materials & Equipment Corporation (CPMEC) is the procurement center of China National Petroleum Corporation, which is responsible for supplies of materials and equipment for CNPC including PetroChina. As a large-scale enterprise with integration of internal and external trade and integration of production and marketing,CPMEC has owned 11 independent subsidiaries and opened offices in the United States and Canada. It has established trade relations with more than 3600 companies worldwide.

  17. After the Election: Fundamental Security Challenges Nigeria Must Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    other words, mobilizing catalysts for organized violence are often based on a sense of relative deprivation . If, instead, the government is seen as...unity. Nigeria’s viability as a nation-state depends upon this. This will en- tail measures that directly mitigate violence as well as realize...region has experienced internecine violence resulting in the loss of at least 7,000 lives in interreligious violence since 2001. Other faultlines

  18. Challenges and Opportunities Faced by China's Energy Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guobao

    2005-01-01

    @@ The sustainable and rapid development of Chinese economy entails fast growth of energy demand. In recent years, power is in short supply; supply and transportation of coal is tense, causing a price rise;crude oil import increases, and oil price lingers on high end. These phenomena reflecting energy shortage have become people's hot-debated issues in economic life, and public economic regulators and economists have shown unprecedented concerns about the energy-, environment-,and resources-related issues from the sustainable development point of view.

  19. Challenges newly-arrived migrant women in Montreal face when needing maternity care: Health care professionals' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Sandra; Hendricks, Kristin N; Merry, Lisa A; Gagnon, Anita J

    2017-01-25

    People who leave their country of origin, or the country of habitual residence, to establish themselves permanently in another country are usually referred to as migrants. Over half of all births in Montreal, Canada are to migrant women. To understand healthcare professionals' attitudes towards migrants that could influence their delivery of care, our objective was to explore their perspectives of challenges newly-arrived migrant women from non-Western countries face when needing maternity care. In this qualitative multiple case study, we conducted face-to-face interviews with 63 health care professionals from four teaching hospitals in Montreal, known for providing maternity care to a high volume of migrant women. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed. Physicians, nurses, social workers, and therapists participated; 90% were female; and 17% were themselves migrants from non-Western countries. According to participants, newly-arrived migrant women face challenges at two levels: (a) direct care (e.g., understanding Canadian health care professionals' expectations, communicating effectively with health care professionals), and (b) organizational (e.g., access to appropriate health care). Challenges women face are strongly influenced by the migrant woman's background as well as social position (e.g., general education, health literacy, socio-cultural integration) and by how health care professionals balance women's needs with perceived requirement to adhere to standard procedures and regulations. Health care professionals across institutions agreed that maternity care-related challenges faced by newly-arrived migrant women often are complex in that they are simultaneously driven by conflicting values: those based on migrant women's sociocultural backgrounds versus those related to the implementation of Canadian guidelines for maternity care in which consideration of migrant women's particular needs are not priority.

  20. PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION FACING THE TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Cristiana Lucretia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This essay aims to signal up the detrimental effects of sedentary behaviours determined by extensive use of technology. Material: The paper is a survey of the most relevant data related to physical inactivity consequences with a specific reference to the Eastern Europe countries. Results . There is no doubt that children and young people will prefer the technology and its commodities, but they need to be encouraged to practice exercise, to control their posture and weight. Physical activity favorably influences on mental health and reduces the incidence and severity of diseases and pathological conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis and obesity. Conclusions . Promoting physical activity as a healthy life style component in schools and in universities targets the enhancement of vigour, resilience, employement and social outcomes for graduates and comunities.

  1. TURKISH STUDENTS’ ERASMUS EXPERIENCES: CHALLENGE OF FACING THE UNKNOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defne ERDEM METE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the commencement of the Erasmus student exchange programme, opportunities of studying abroad have been offered by universities in Turkey. While students apply to this programme mainly for increasing their language proficiency, gaining a global perspective and getting the chance to travel Europe, a significant outcome is learning about and being able to live in a different culture. There is consensus on the fact that higher education institutions can maximize such benefits of the study abroad experience by designing pre-departure training. By preparing students about culture-specific facts, problems that are likely to be encountered can be minimized. On the other hand, it can be claimed that difficulties related to the ‘surface-culture’ are easier to deal with, whereas issues of ‘deep-culture’ can cause more serious problems for the students if they are not prepared beforehand. In this paper, it is argued that Turkish students’ experiences of intercultural encounters in the host country provide a rich resource for preparation to the ‘deep culture’ and minimizing the problems related to them. However, student reflections show that these experiences are often ignored by higher education institutions and educators. The study was carried out with Turkish students who study English Language and Literature at a state university in Turkey and who returned from the Erasmus exchange programme. An interview was conducted to let students reflect on the most problematic intercultural encounters they had, which was the focus of the study. The collection of their narratives was analyzed and the emerging themes were identified. It is suggested that pre-departure training should give more emphasis on developing the necessary coping strategies by referring to the specific incidents experienced by the returned students.

  2. Challenges and Needs Faced by Female Combat Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski-Jaime, Elvia R; Whitehead, Markus; Kellman-Fritz, Jennifer

    This article presents findings of a study conducted to identify stressors that may contribute to mental health issues of military female veterans. Female members in the U.S. Armed Forces currently occupy more non-traditional roles; therefore deployment to combat zones, commonly reserved for males, is being taken on by females. While at the present time females serving in the military are not allowed to serve in combat occupations, the reality is that many are being placed in combat roles or environments. Consequently, many are now confronted with stressors related to combat and multiple deployments. This study was based on a descriptive, non-probability, snowball design. In cases where participants displayed a reluctance to share some information in front of counterparts who may have been at a higher or lower rank level; subsequent semi-structured, one-to-one interviews were conducted. The latter approach proved more effective in gathering important information, such as issues of military sexual trauma (MST) and issues of intimacy upon re-entering the home environment. This study was conducted before January 2013, when Defense Secretary Leon Panetta announced the lift of the ban on women serving in combat. Therefore, future studies will need to be conducted to discern how these stressors will affect them in their new role as active combatants.

  3. Facing the grand challenges through heuristics and mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powietrzynska, Malgorzata; Tobin, Kenneth; Alexakos, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    We address the nature of mindfulness and its salience to education generally and to science education specifically. In a context of the historical embeddedness of mindfulness in Buddhism we discuss research in social neuroscience, presenting evidence for neuronal plasticity of the brain and six emotional styles, which are not biologically predetermined, but are responsive to adaptation through life experiences. We raise questions about the role of science education in mediating the structure and function of the brain. Also, we discuss interventions to increase Mindfulness in Education, including meditation and heuristics, that act as reflexive objects to heighten awareness of characteristics of mindfulness and increase the likelihood of changes in the conduct of social life—increasing the mindfulness of those who engage the characteristics included in the heuristic. We present mindfulness and the development of a toolkit for ameliorating emotions when and as necessary as a component of a science curriculum that orientates toward wellness and sustainability. We advocate for changes in the nature of science education to reflect the priorities of the twenty first century that relate to sustainability of the living and nonliving universe and wellness of sentient beings.

  4. Rural teachers' views: What are gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pholoho Morojele

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' accounts of gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho. It draws on feminist interpretations of social constructionism to discuss factors within the Basotho communities that affect gender equality in the schools. The inductive analysis offered makes use of the data generated from semi-structured interviews with 12 teachers in three primary schools. Basotho culture, superstitious symbolism, and family dynamics are found to be some of the factors that reinforce inequitable gender relations. The findings indicate how teachers exploited these factors to promote the polarisation of gender qualities, and to exalt masculinities at the expense of femininities. The paper argues for the promotion of counter-hegemonic discourses of gender, with an emphasis on conceptions of gender as multiple and fluid human qualities. It explains how paying attention to the cultural architecture of gender formations in localised contexts could become an effective strategy in promoting gender equality in schools.

  5. Challenges facing the North American iron ore industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    During the 20th century, the iron ore mining industries of Canada and the United States passed through several periods of transformation. The beginning of the 21st century has seen yet another period of transformation, with the economic failure of a number of steel companies, the acquisition of their facilities by more viable steelmakers, and the consolidation of control within the North American iron ore industry. Changes in Canadian and United States iron ore production and the market control structure involved are analysed. The consolidation of ownership, formation of foreign joint ventures within Nordi America, planned divestitures of upstream activities by steelmakers, and industry changes made to ensure availability of feedstocks will be reviewed. The ttaditional isolation of the Canadian and United States iron ore operations and their strong linkage to downstream steel production will be discussed in the context of a changing global economy. Management-labour conflicts that have taken place and agreements made during 2000 through 2004 will be discussed in the context of the economic environment leading up to these agreements. Cooperative agreements between competing Canadian and United States companies to resolve client needs in processing and blending will be examined. A joint industry-government project designed to use new technology to produce direct reduced iron nuggets of 96 - 98 per cent iron content using non-coking coals will also be assessed. Changes in iron ore transportation methods, ownership and infrastructure will be reviewed for both rail and inland waterway transport between Canadian and United States companies. A brief analysis of social and environmental issues relating to sustainable development of the Canadian-United States iron ore industry will be included.

  6. Extracted facial feature of racial closely related faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liewchavalit, Chalothorn; Akiba, Masakazu; Kanno, Tsuneo; Nagao, Tomoharu

    2010-02-01

    Human faces contain a lot of demographic information such as identity, gender, age, race and emotion. Human being can perceive these pieces of information and use it as an important clue in social interaction with other people. Race perception is considered the most delicacy and sensitive parts of face perception. There are many research concerning image-base race recognition, but most of them are focus on major race group such as Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid. This paper focuses on how people classify race of the racial closely related group. As a sample of racial closely related group, we choose Japanese and Thai face to represents difference between Northern and Southern Mongoloid. Three psychological experiment was performed to study the strategies of face perception on race classification. As a result of psychological experiment, it can be suggested that race perception is an ability that can be learn. Eyes and eyebrows are the most attention point and eyes is a significant factor in race perception. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to extract facial features of sample race group. Extracted race features of texture and shape were used to synthesize faces. As the result, it can be suggested that racial feature is rely on detailed texture rather than shape feature. This research is a indispensable important fundamental research on the race perception which are essential in the establishment of human-like race recognition system.

  7. Local basic food producer facing the challenge of working with multinational supermarket chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lóránt BUCS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article wants to outline the challenges faced by a local basic food producer in his battle to stay on the market. We will reveal the challenges he’s facing in his own production lines and also the way he has to adapt to the changing world of the multinational companies. We will present a short history of the founding and evolution of the company on the Romanian pastry food market pointing out the relevant events which have marked the company life during the years. We will also make a short review of the competition on the market of the pastry food products and we will present the marketing strategy and policies the company is using to be able to face the new challenges.

  8. Detailed exploration of face-related processing in congenital prosopagnosia: 2. Functional neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Galia; Hasson, Uri; Malach, Rafael; Behrmann, Marlene

    2005-07-01

    Specific regions of the human occipito-temporal cortex are consistently activated in functional imaging studies of face processing. To understand the contribution of these regions to face processing, we examined the pattern of fMRI activation in four congenital prosopagnosic (CP) individuals who are markedly impaired at face processing despite normal vision and intelligence, and with no evidence of brain damage. These individuals evinced a normal pattern of fMRI activation in the fusiform gyrus (FFA) and in other ventral occipito-temporal areas, in response to faces, buildings, and other objects, shown both as line drawings in detection and discrimination tasks and under more naturalistic testing conditions when no task was required. CP individuals also showed normal adaptation levels in a block-design adaptation experiment and, like control subjects, exhibited evidence of global face representation in the FFA. The absence of a BOLD-behavioral correlation (profound behavioral deficit, normal face-related activation in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex) challenges existing accounts of face representation, and suggests that activation in these cortical regions per se is not sufficient to ensure intact face processing.

  9. Top 10 health care ethics challenges facing the public: views of Toronto bioethicists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Jennifer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous ethical challenges that can impact patients and families in the health care setting. This paper reports on the results of a study conducted with a panel of clinical bioethicists in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the purpose of which was to identify the top ethical challenges facing patients and their families in health care. A modified Delphi study was conducted with twelve clinical bioethicist members of the Clinical Ethics Group of the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics. The panel was asked the question, what do you think are the top ten ethical challenges that Canadians may face in health care? The panel was asked to rank the top ten ethical challenges throughout the Delphi process and consensus was reached after three rounds. Discussion The top challenge ranked by the group was disagreement between patients/families and health care professionals about treatment decisions. The second highest ranked challenge was waiting lists. The third ranked challenge was access to needed resources for the aged, chronically ill, and mentally ill. Summary Although many of the challenges listed by the panel have received significant public attention, there has been very little attention paid to the top ranked challenge. We propose several steps that can be taken to help address this key challenge.

  10. AMPA workshop on challenges faced by investigators conducting Alzheimer's disease clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellas, Bruno; Pesce, Alain; Robert, Philippe H; Aisen, Paul S; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Andrieu, Sandrine; Cedarbaum, Jesse; Dubois, Bruno; Siemers, Eric; Spire, Jean-Paul; Weiner, Michael W; May, Thomas S

    2011-07-01

    The recruitment and retention of patients are among the greatest challenges currently being faced by researchers who conduct Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. To discuss these challenges and other major issues associated with clinical research in AD, an international workshop was organized by the Association Monégasque pour la recherche sur la Maladie d'Alzheimer at Monte Carlo, Monaco, in February 2010, with the participation of leading research experts in the field of Alzheimer's. Key topics discussed were as follows: (1) the selection, recruitment, and retention of clinical trial subjects; (2) international co-operation among researchers; and (3) patient rights and informed consent for participants in clinical trials. This article highlights some of the challenges faced by investigators when conducting clinical trials in AD, and it also offers some recommendations aimed at overcoming these challenges.

  11. Challenges that face Kiswahili Usage in ICT in NEPAD Secondary Schools in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagero Juliet Akinyi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the various efforts to enable Kiswahili usage in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, users of Kiswahili language in ICT have continued to face various challenges. This paper discusses the various challenges that face Kiswahili usage in ICT in two New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD sponsored schools in Kenya that use Microsoft software’s: Chavakali and Maranda Boy’s secondary schools. This study is guided by a model developed from a combination of two theories: Use and Gratification theory and Symbolic Interaction theory. Data from the two schools are analyzed using qualitative and quantitative analysis. The Data for this work came from 120 students selected through random sampling and 8 teachers of Kiswahili selected through saturated sampling technique. From the analysis of the responses from the study it is evident that Kiswahili usage in ICT is faced by various challenges. Major challenges included negative attitude towards Kiswahili language, difficult technological terms, limited number of those using Kiswahili in ICT, wrong usage of Kiswahili in ICT, English preference and limited research work written in Kiswahili in the internet. Others were limited Kiswahili programs, being forced to use correct Kiswahili, and Kiswahili not being accepted by English programs. The study notes that these challenges need to be addressed. Therefore, recommendations are made on how to overcome the challenges.

  12. Examining the Challenging Hindrances facing in the Construction Projects: South India’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, K.; Haridharan, M. K.

    2017-07-01

    Developing countries like India require a huge infrastructure to facilitate needs of the people. Construction industry provides several opportunities to the individuals. Construction manager work is to supervise and organize the construction activities in construction projects. Now a day construction manager facing challenges. This paper aimed to study the challenges facing by the construction manager in the perception of construction professionals. 39 variables were taken from the literature review which found to be severe impact on construction managers’ performance. Construction manager, project manager and site engineers are the respondents for this survey. Using SPSS, regression analysis was done and recognized significant challenges. These challenges were classified into 5 domains. In management challenges, resource availability and allocation, risks and uncertainties existing in the project onsite, top management support and cost constraints are the most significant variables. In skills requirement of a construction manager challenges, technical skills required to learn and adapt new technology in the project, decision making and planning according to the situation in site are the most significant variables. In performance challenges, implementation of tasks according to the plan is the important variable whereas in onsite challenges, manage project risks, develop project policies and procedures are the most important.

  13. Ethical challenges facing veterinary professionals in Ireland: results from Policy Delphi with vignette methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M; More, S J; Morton, D B; Hanlon, A

    2016-10-29

    Ethics is key to the integrity of the veterinary profession. Despite its importance, there is a lack of applied research on the range of ethical challenges faced by veterinarians. A three round Policy Delphi with vignette methodology was used to record the diversity of views on ethical challenges faced by veterinary professionals in Ireland. Forty experts, comprising veterinary practitioners, inspectors and nurses, accepted to participate. In round 1, twenty vignettes describing a variety of ethically challenging veterinary scenarios were ranked in terms of ethical acceptability, reputational risk and perceived standards of practice. Round 2 aimed at characterising challenges where future policy development or professional guidance was deemed to be needed. In round 3, possible solutions to key challenges were explored. Results suggest that current rules and regulations are insufficient to ensure best veterinary practices and that a collective approach is needed to harness workable solutions for the identified ethical challenges. Challenges pertaining mostly to the food chain seem to require enforcement measures whereas softer measures that promote professional discretion were preferred to address challenges dealing with veterinary clinical services. These findings can support veterinary representative bodies, advisory committees and regulatory authorities in their decision making, policy and regulation. British Veterinary Association.

  14. Challenges Faced by Teachers Implementing Socio-Scientific Issues as Core Elements in Their Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossér, Ulrika; Lundin, Mattias; Lindahl, Mats; Linder, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Teachers may face considerable challenges when implementing socio-scientific issues (SSI) in their classroom practices, such as incorporating student-centred teaching practices and exploring knowledge and values in the context of socioscientific issues. This year-long study explores teachers' reflections on the process of developing their…

  15. "Accounting Education at a Crossroad in 2010" and "Challenges Facing Accounting Education in Australia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Paul; Watty, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Of the various reports released in 2010, two purport to examine the state of accounting education in Australia. These are "Accounting Education at a Crossroad in 2010" and "Challenges Facing Accounting Education in Australia". Both were released as collaborations of the leading academic organisation, the Accounting and Finance…

  16. Quality Assurance Challenges and Opportunities Faced by Private Universities in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwe, Evelyn Chiyevo

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to provide an understanding of the quality assurance challenges and opportunities faced by private universities in Zimbabwe. The study analyzed the factors determining provision of quality higher education in private universities and the resultant effects of failing to achieve the minimum acceptable standards. The author employed…

  17. Oral Academic Discourse Socialisation: Challenges Faced by International Undergraduate Students in a Malaysian Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoodh, Omer Hassan Ali

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a qualitative study which examines the challenges faced by six international undergraduate students in their socialisation of oral academic discourse in a Malaysian public university. Data were collected employing interviews. Students' presentations were also collected. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and…

  18. Challenges Facing Women Academic Leadership in Secondary Schools of Irbid Educational Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaradat, Mahmoud Khaled Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the challenges facing women academic leadership in secondary schools of Irbid Educational Area. A random sample of 187 female leaders were chosen. They responded to a 49-item questionnaire prepared by the researcher. The items were distributed into four domains: organizational, personal, social and physical…

  19. New Challenges Facing Universities in the Internet-Driven Global Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasingham, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores some new challenges facing universities in a global multimediated Internet-based environment, as they seek alternative paradigms and options to remain true to their core business. At a time of rapid technological change, and contested, complex concepts associated with globalisation, knowledge is becoming a primary factor of…

  20. "Accounting Education at a Crossroad in 2010" and "Challenges Facing Accounting Education in Australia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Paul; Watty, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Of the various reports released in 2010, two purport to examine the state of accounting education in Australia. These are "Accounting Education at a Crossroad in 2010" and "Challenges Facing Accounting Education in Australia". Both were released as collaborations of the leading academic organisation, the Accounting and Finance…

  1. Challenges Facing the 2007-08 California State Budget. Commission Report 06-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses the State of California's fiscal condition and guides the reader through numerous factors that will influence State spending on higher education in the coming fiscal year. It also offers insight and observations on challenging policy decisions the Governor, the Legislature, and higher education leaders face in the coming…

  2. [Brazilian Army nurses and transportation of the wounded: a challenge faced during World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Margarida Maria Rocha; Lopes, Gertrudes Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    This historic-sociologic study aims to analyse the challenges faced by the Brazilian Expeditionary Force's Air Transportation Nurses of the Army with the Theatre of Operations on the course of World War II. The primary source was comprised of a photograph from this time period and oral testimonies of those who participated in the conflict. Ideas by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu support the discussion. Results suggest that Brazilian nurses were challenged to transport the wounded without medical advice. We conclude that the challenge to fulfill the task imposed, which led to independent decision-making, gave confidence and autonomy to the ones already responsible for the transportation of the wounded.

  3. United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updike, Randall G.; Ellis, Eugene G.; Page, William R.; Parker, Melanie J.; Hestbeck, Jay B.; Horak, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Along the nearly 3,200 kilometers (almost 2,000 miles) of the United States–Mexican border, in an area known as the Borderlands, we are witnessing the expression of the challenges of the 21st century. This circular identifies several challenge themes and issues associated with life and the environment in the Borderlands, listed below. The challenges are not one-sided; they do not originate in one country only to become problems for the other. The issues and concerns of each challenge theme flow in both directions across the border, and both nations feel their effects throughout the Borderlands and beyond. The clear message is that our two nations, the United States and Mexico, face the issues in these challenge themes together, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) understands it must work with its counterparts, partners, and customers in both countries.Though the mission of the USGS is not to serve as land manager, law enforcer, or code regulator, its innovation and creativity and the scientific and technical depth of its capabilities can be directly applied to monitoring the conditions of the landscape. The ability of USGS scientists to critically analyze the monitored data in search of signals and trends, whether they lead to negative or positive results, allows us to reach significant conclusions—from providing factual conclusions to decisionmakers, to estimating how much of a natural resource exists in a particular locale, to predicting how a natural hazard phenomenon will unfold, to forecasting on a scale from hours to millennia how ecosystems will behave.None of these challenge themes can be addressed strictly by one or two science disciplines; all require well-integrated, cross-discipline thinking, data collection, and analyses. The multidisciplinary science themes that have become the focus of the USGS mission parallel the major challenges in the border region between Mexico and the United States. Because of this multidisciplinary approach, the USGS

  4. United States-Mexican Borderlands: facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updike, Randall G.; Ellis, Eugene G.; Page, William R.; Parker, Melanie J.; Hestbeck, Jay B.; Horak, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Along the nearly 3,200 kilometers (almost 2,000 miles) of the United States–Mexican border, in an area known as the Borderlands, we are witnessing the expression of the challenges of the 21st century. This circular identifies several challenge themes and issues associated with life and the environment in the Borderlands, listed below. The challenges are not one-sided; they do not originate in one country only to become problems for the other. The issues and concerns of each challenge theme flow in both directions across the border, and both nations feel their effects throughout the Borderlands and beyond. The clear message is that our two nations, the United States and Mexico, face the issues in these challenge themes together, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) understands it must work with its counterparts, partners, and customers in both countries. Though the mission of the USGS is not to serve as land manager, law enforcer, or code regulator, its innovation and creativity and the scientific and technical depth of its capabilities can be directly applied to monitoring the conditions of the landscape. The ability of USGS scientists to critically analyze the monitored data in search of signals and trends, whether they lead to negative or positive results, allows us to reach significant conclusions—from providing factual conclusions to decisionmakers, to estimating how much of a natural resource exists in a particular locale, to predicting how a natural hazard phenomenon will unfold, to forecasting on a scale from hours to millennia how ecosystems will behave. None of these challenge themes can be addressed strictly by one or two science disciplines; all require well-integrated, cross-discipline thinking, data collection, and analyses. The multidisciplinary science themes that have become the focus of the USGS mission parallel the major challenges in the border region between Mexico and the United States. Because of this multidisciplinary approach, the USGS

  5. Challenges faced by caregivers of children on antiretroviral therapy at Mutale Municipality selected healthcare facilities, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhudzani V Mafune; Rachel T Lebese; Livhuwani H Nemathaga

    2017-01-01

    ...), which might pose any number of challenges. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the challenges faced by caregivers of children on ART at Mutale Municipality, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province...

  6. From print to screen: changes and challenges facing the Brazilian publishing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Souza Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The publishing industry is at a turning point. Facing the first major disruptive innovation in five centuries, its long-established structure and business model are at stake. Building on literature based on the pitfalls for incumbents, we interviewed key executives from the major publishers in Brazil to understand their perspective. We find that not only are they facing those pitfalls, but we also propose a new one, The Industry View Trap, concerning challenges created by convergence, the difficulty to deal with changes in the ecosystem and the fact that the very definition of the industry you're part of might have changed.

  7. Challenges and Specifications for Robust Face and Gait Recognition Systems for Surveillance Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUCIU Ioan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Automated person recognition (APR based on biometric signals addresses the process of automatically recognize a person according to his physiological traits (face, voice, iris, fingerprint, ear shape, body odor, electroencephalogram – EEG, electrocardiogram, or hand geometry, or behavioural patterns (gait, signature, hand-grip, lip movement. The paper aims at briefly presenting the current challenges for two specific non-cooperative biometric approaches, namely face and gait biometrics as well as approaches that consider combination of the two in the attempt of a more robust system for accurate APR, in the context of surveillance application. Open problems from both sides are also pointed out.

  8. The Nigerian Economy in the Face of Socio-Political Challenges: A Retrospective View and Ways Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomola M Obamuyi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Nigerian economy and the tendency for its growth in the face of several socio-political challenges facing the country, which have hampered the rate of economic development in spite of the tremendous human and material resources inherent. The paper identifies the socio-political challenges to include corruption, poverty, unemployment, insecurity, politics and governance, among others. The central argument of the paper is that steady economic growth can be achieved and financial crisis mitigated in Nigeria, if the effects of socio-political challenges, which are the key factors that have contributed to the high poverty, unemployment and economic instability in the country, are minimised. To ensure economic growth and move the country forward politically and economically, government must be more accountable in managing the nation’s resources in order to avoid wastage, poverty and unemployment. Close attention should be given to those socio-political challenges in the formulation of policies that aimed at maintaining economic growth at a level commensurate with the country’s growth rate. This study put forward that government must be proactive in all issues relating to the socio-political challenges to prevent resource mismanagement, poverty, unemployment, insecurity and slow economic growth in future.

  9. Challenges facing procurement professionals in developing economies: Unlocking value through professional international purchasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Tukuta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until recently, procurement was seen as a necessity only. In fact, in many developing economies the profession is still being treated as a ‘back-office’ function. However, not much has been done to explore and address challenges facing procurement professionals in developing economies.Objectives: The purpose of this article was to examine the critical role played by the procurement function in business and to reveal the challenges faced by procurement professionals in developing economies as well as to suggest solutions to these challenges.Method: A sequential literary analysis was used, complemented by cross-country qualitative data gathered from one hundred diverse procurement practitioners from Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe. These were primarily participants in a series of procurement workshops run by the researchers from January to June 2014.Results: Findings suggested that limited recognition, increasing unethical behaviour, poor supplier service delivery, poor regulatory environment, varying supplier standards and poor corporate governance are the main challenges faced by the procurement profession in these countries.Conclusion: The study’s findings imply that there is limited understanding regarding the role procurement plays in both government and non-government institutions in developing economies. The article suggests solutions which procurement professionals and organisations can implement in order to unlock the potential value in the procurement function.

  10. But I Don't Understand You: One Faculty's Observations of the Challenges Facing International Healthcare Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Cheryl O.

    2017-01-01

    International students face many challenges when pursuing a degree in higher education. Communication and cultural differences are typically cited as the most challenging aspects of any study abroad program. Students attempting to complete a healthcare program face sometimes insurmountable issues, as communication, cultural differences, and…

  11. Addressing mental health challenges facing the "Next America": A call for culture change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeigh, Jill D; Melton, Gary B

    2015-09-01

    Provides an editorial addressing future mental health challenges. The articles in this issue highlight the need to create environments conducive to promoting the well-being of future generations. The articles build on symposia held by the American Orthopsychiatric Association in 2015, which focused on the effects on well-being of changing sociodemographics and labor market trends. Included in these pages are articles that lay out some of the challenges young people today face and strategies for helping them transition to adulthood successfully. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Federal Government Funding Reforms: Issues and Challenges Facing Malaysian Public Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Rahman Ahmad; Alan Farley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the shift in funding reforms currently facing at Malaysian public universities focusing on issues and challenges experienced by the Focused Universities in particular. Previous research has shown that shifts in funding mechanisms to public universities are more likely to result in behavioural changes at such institutions. Under the National Higher Education Strategic Plan beyond 2020, the Federal Government has launched a strategic plan of government ob...

  13. Sustainable agriculture: a review of challenges facing the South African agricultural sector

    OpenAIRE

    Middelberg, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    This review paper considers the various challenges facing the South African agricultural sector against the background that agricultural sectors globally are pressurised to provide food security for the estimated nine billion people in 2050, while simultaneously addressing climate change. The use of agricultural land to produce crops for the production of biofuels and the impact of land redistribution in South Africa on food security are contemplated. It is recommended that the So...

  14. Challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing the Expanded Programme on Immunisation at rural clinics in Capricorn District, Limpopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebogo M. Mothiba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunisation is the cornerstone of primary healthcare. Apart from the provision of safe water, immunisation remains the most cost-effective public health intervention currently available. Immunisation prevents infectious conditions that are debilitating, fatal and have the potential to cause huge public health burdens, both financially and socially, in South Africa.Aim: To determine the challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI at rural clinics in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Setting: The study was conducted in selected primary healthcare clinics of Capricorn District, Limpopo Province.Methods: A qualitative explorative descriptive contextual research design was used to gather data related to the challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing EPI at rural clinics in Capricorn District.Results: The findings revealed that professional nurses had knowledge of the programme, but that they experienced several challenges during implementation of EPI that included staff shortages and problems related to maintenance of the vaccines’ potency.Conclusions: The Department of Health as well as the nursing administration should monitor policies and guidelines, and especially maintenance of a cold chain for vaccines, to ensure that they are practised throughout Limpopo Province. The problem of staff shortages also needs to be addressed so that the EPI can achieve its targeted objectives.Keywords: Professional nurse, knowledge, EPI-SA, immunisation

  15. Comparison of Power Relations within Electronic and Face-to-Face Classroom Discussions: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeris, Laurel

    2002-01-01

    Online discussions and transcriptions of face-to-face discussions by graduate students (14 online, 14 on campus) were analyzed. Technical support was not available 24 hours a day to online students who were predominantly women. Online discussions were more student-to-student, classroom discussions student-to-teacher. The analysis suggests how…

  16. Recruiting family dyads facing thoracic cancer surgery: Challenges and lessons learned from a smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Karen Kane; Hollen, Patricia J; Heath, Janie; Andrews, Jeannette O

    2016-02-01

    Persistent smoking after a cancer diagnosis has adverse effects. Most smoking cessation interventions focus on individual behaviors; however, family members who smoke are major barriers to success. This article describes challenges and lessons learned related to recruitment and retention to a longitudinal, dyadic-centered smoking cessation intervention study for individuals confronting a new diagnosis of thoracic cancer and their family members who smoke. A prospective, one-group repeated measures, mixed-method feasibility study measured recruitment, retention, adherence, and acceptability over a 6-month period in a thoracic surgery clinic at a university cancer center. A multidisciplinary, multi-component decision aid-"Tobacco Free Family"-was used to intervene with the dyads. Study recruitment occurred preoperatively with a thoracic surgery team member assessing smoking status. During the 6-month recruitment period, 50 patients who smoked were screened, and 18 eligible families were approached to participate. Sixteen participants (8 dyads) enrolled. Patients were all male, and participating family members were all female-either spouses or long-term girlfriends. Others types of family members declined participation. Recruitment was lower than anticipated (44%), retention was high (100%), and maximizing convenience was the most important retention strategy. Oncology nurses can assess the smoking status of patients and family members, facilitate understanding about the benefits of cessation, refer those willing to stop to expert resources, and help motivate those unwilling to quit. Research is needed to continue developing strategies to help patients with thoracic cancer and their families facing surgery as an impetus for stopping smoking. Novel intervention delivery and communication need further exploration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Applying the Rasch Model to Measure Acculturation Challenges Faced by Saudi Female Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakami, Samah Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the major acculturation challenges faced by Saudi female students who study in the U.S. and to develop a scale to measure potential acculturation challenges. The construction of the scale was based on a table of specification that included nine domains of possible acculturation challenges: (a)…

  18. Enhancing Teacher Efficacy for Urban STEM Teachers Facing Challenges to Their Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Christopher; Mehta, Swati; Berzina-Pitcher, Inese; Graves-Wolf, Leigh

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores challenges of teaching in relation to teachers' efficacy for 49 teachers who were part of a year-long teacher development program (PD) called the UrbanSTEM program. This program took place in an urban school district that serves over 300,000 students. This research asked if there are common challenges that urban teachers face…

  19. An event-related brain potential study of explicit face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Angela; Eimer, Martin

    2011-07-01

    To determine the time course of face recognition and its links to face-sensitive event-related potential (ERP) components, ERPs elicited by faces of famous individuals and ERPs to non-famous control faces were compared in a task that required explicit judgements of facial identity. As expected, the face-selective N170 component was unaffected by the difference between famous and non-famous faces. In contrast, the occipito-temporal N250 component was linked to face recognition, as it was selectively triggered by famous faces. Importantly, this component was present for famous faces that were judged to be definitely known relative to famous faces that just appeared familiar, demonstrating that it is associated with the explicit identification of a particular face. The N250 is likely to reflect early perceptual stages of face recognition where long-term memory traces of familiar faces in ventral visual cortex are activated by matching on-line face representations. Famous faces also triggered a broadly distributed longer-latency positivity (P600f) that showed a left-hemisphere bias and was larger for definitely known faces, suggesting links between this component and name generation. These results show that successful face recognition is predicted by ERP components over face-specific visual areas that emerge within 230 ms after stimulus onset.

  20. MIGRATION AND VULNERABILITY: CHALLENGES, IMPLICATIONS AND DIFFICULTIES FACED BY THE SAHRAWI MIGRANT POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María López Belloso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses transnational communities through the case study of the Sahrawi migrant community in Spain. After reviewing the most important theoretical contributions on transnational migration and determining the characteristics of these communities, this article will examine potential difficulties that derive from regulations and from the process of acquiring citizenship, which in turn affect the inclusion of this group of migrants within the host society. The article studies whether these regulations and processes may become determinants of this group’s vulnerability, and provides the main conclusions deriving from the challenges that this community faces.

  1. Differential age-related changes in N170 responses to upright faces, inverted faces, and eyes in Japanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to investigate the development of face perception in Japanese children, focusing on the changes in face processing strategies (holistic and/or configural vs. feature-based that occur during childhood. To achieve this, we analyzed the face-related N170 component, evoked by upright face, inverted face, and eyes stimuli in 82 Japanese children aged between 8- and 13-years-old. During the experiment, the children were asked to perform a target detection task in which they were told to press a button when they saw images of faces or kettles with moustaches, glasses, and fake noses; i.e., an implicit face perception task. The N170 signals observed after the presentation of the upright face stimuli were longer in duration and/or had at least two peaks in the 8-11-year-old children, whereas those seen in the 12-13-year-old children were sharp and only had a single peak. N170 latency was significantly longer after the presentation of the eyes stimuli than after the presentation of the upright face stimuli in the 10- and 12-year-old children. In addition, significant differences in N170 latency were observed among all three stimulus types in the 13-year-old children. N170 amplitude was significantly greater after the presentation of the eyes stimuli than after the presentation of the upright face stimuli in the 8-10- and 12-year-old children. The results of the present study indicate that the upright face stimuli were processed using holistic and/or configural processing by the 13-year-old children.

  2. Facing new safety-challenges in a large particle accelerator experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Reiner

    1999-01-01

    An upgraded safety concept for CMS has been adapted to the size of the project and its organisational challenges under today's budgetary constraints, as well as to the increasing levels of risk. Strong magnetic fields and high radiation levels, including neutrons, pose additional hazards to materials, to operators, to maintenance and to ultimate deposit of activated materials. CMS also fits the insurer's risk-description for modern facilities, i.e. characterised by "higher energy density, more combustible materials and unattended operation". The regulatory environment, consisting essentially of CERN's autonomous regulations as well as of those of its host countries, also need to be satisfied with much attention. To face this challenge, seven distinct safety management tools have been identified, which are described in some detail, namely clear safety objectives, documented safety requirements, open items list, safety ( and design)reviews, safety risk analysis, enforcement of compliance and quality management....

  3. OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR MICRO-SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS IN INDONESIA FACING ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Aswin Rahadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is a part of a continuous study to analyze the opportunities and challenges for micro-small and medium business in Indonesia when facing ASEAN Economic Community (AEC in 2016. It has its own uniqueness, as it will combine the point of view between current business owners and current literature study synthesis on business perception towards AEC. Ten business owners have been interviewed. The results suggested AEC provides challenges for the business owners, particularly in terms of capital; competitiveness; sales system; innovation; finance, bureaucracy; and government preparedness. AEC also provides opportunities, in terms of market potential; creativity; export opportunities; business owners’ resistances and sustainability; and knowledge of local market. From all of the keywords mentioned by the respondents, there are four main attributes considered as important: human resources; creativities; market share; and capital. Finally, most of the respondents suggested that AEC will bring more positive influences for the development of micro-small and medium business in Indonesia.

  4. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools Comprensión y tratamiento de los retos asociados a la disciplina en el aula de lengua extranjera en escuelas públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Quintero Corzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality of education.Responder a las normas escolares y a las instrucciones de los profesores es un principio básico de una clase excelente. Tanto los profesores novatos como los experimentados enfrentan situaciones problemáticas en las aulas de clase reales, especialmente en relación con la disciplina. Hay varias razones que explican la indisciplina en los colegios públicos y también estrategias variadas que los profesores principiantes crean y ensayan para superar tal reto. Este artículo reporta un estudio de investigación acción que ayudó a un grupo de profesores principiantes a superar la indisciplina en el aula de inglés en colegios públicos y a responder a iniciativas de desarrollo profesional con base en procesos de reflexión y toma de decisiones que las nuevas políticas educativas colombianas demandan de las nuevas generaciones de profesores para mejorar la calidad de la educación.

  5. Mondialisation et exploitation des ressources linguistiques: les defis des communautes francophones de l'Ontario (Globalization and Use of Linguistic Resources: The Challenges Facing Francophone Communities in Ontario).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Normand; Belanger, Nathalie; Lozon, Roger; Roy, Sylvie

    2000-01-01

    Examines challenges faced by two Canadian francophone communities, one in Niagra Peninsula, and the other in the Simcoe region. Investigates how communities are affected by changes related to globalization and how the members of these two communities use their linguistic resources to adapt socially and professionally. (Author/VWL)

  6. Physiotherapy in the management of non-communicable diseases: facing the challenge

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    J. M. Frantz

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence of the rising incidence and prevalence of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. Governments are facing serious challenges in health care due to the rising trends in non-communicable diseases as a result of demographic and epidemiological changes, as well as economic globalization. Cardiovascular disease, cancers, diabetes, respiratory disease, obesity andother non-communicable conditions now account for 59 percent of the 56.5 million global deaths annually, and almost half, or 46 percent, of the global burden of disease. It is estimated that by 2020, non-communicable diseases will account for 60% of the global burden of disease. The burden of non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa is already substantial, and patients with these conditions make significant demands on health resources. How do these changes affect physiotherapists? This paper aims to highlight the need for physiotherapists to shift their focus from curative to preventive care in order to face the challenge of non-communicable diseases.

  7. Indigenous mothers face more than three delays: The challenges of multiculturalism in health

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    Roosta-G., Manigeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the maternal mortality ratio has descended in Bolivia from 416 (1989 to 229 deaths (DHS 2003 per one hundred thousand live births, it is one of the highest in the region. As a national average, the ratio conceals the rural-urban, socio-economics differences and the reality of the indigenous population. Maternal mortality is one of the major challenges at national level. Reduction of maternal mortality, in addition of technical-medical measures offering health services, requires to focus on socio-cultural aspects that hamper the access to health services. This article examines challenges faced by indigenous mothers accessing the health services. In addition to the geographic, economic and administrative barriers that generate delays in access to the health services, there are others that are presented in the context of multiculturalism resulting from discriminatory attitudes exercised in health centers. The testimonies of indigenous mothers show delays faced in health centers because of prejudice and discrimination suffered, threatening the lives of mothers and their babies. The study also suggests the need to deepen the concept of multiculturalism as a successful strategy in health, in order to promote equity and social justice on the horizon of more inclusive societies.

  8. When health systems are barriers to health care: challenges faced by uninsured Mexican kidney patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierans, Ciara; Padilla-Altamira, Cesar; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Ibarra-Hernandez, Margarita; Mercado, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease disproportionately affects the poor in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). Mexico exemplifies the difficulties faced in supporting Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) and providing equitable patient care, despite recent attempts at health reform. The objective of this study is to document the challenges faced by uninsured, poor Mexican families when attempting to access RRT. The article takes an ethnographic approach, using interviewing and observation to generate detailed accounts of the problems that accompany attempts to secure care. The study, based in the state of Jalisco, comprised interviews with patients, their caregivers, health and social care professionals, among others. Observations were carried out in both clinical and social settings. In the absence of organised health information and stable pathways to renal care, patients and their families work extraordinarily hard and at great expense to secure care in a mixed public-private healthcare system. As part of this work, they must navigate challenging health and social care environments, negotiate treatments and costs, resource and finance healthcare and manage a wide range of formal and informal health information. Examining commonalities across pathways to adequate healthcare reveals major failings in the Mexican system. These systemic problems serve to reproduce and deepen health inequalities. A system, in which the costs of renal care are disproportionately borne by those who can least afford them, faces major difficulties around the sustainability and resourcing of RRTs. Attempts to increase access to renal therapies, therefore, need to take into account the complex social and economic demands this places on those who need access most. This paper further shows that ethnographic studies of the concrete ways in which healthcare is accessed in practice provide important insights into the plight of CKD patients and so constitute an important source of evidence in that effort.

  9. When health systems are barriers to health care: challenges faced by uninsured Mexican kidney patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara Kierans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease disproportionately affects the poor in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs. Mexico exemplifies the difficulties faced in supporting Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT and providing equitable patient care, despite recent attempts at health reform. The objective of this study is to document the challenges faced by uninsured, poor Mexican families when attempting to access RRT. METHODS: The article takes an ethnographic approach, using interviewing and observation to generate detailed accounts of the problems that accompany attempts to secure care. The study, based in the state of Jalisco, comprised interviews with patients, their caregivers, health and social care professionals, among others. Observations were carried out in both clinical and social settings. RESULTS: In the absence of organised health information and stable pathways to renal care, patients and their families work extraordinarily hard and at great expense to secure care in a mixed public-private healthcare system. As part of this work, they must navigate challenging health and social care environments, negotiate treatments and costs, resource and finance healthcare and manage a wide range of formal and informal health information. CONCLUSIONS: Examining commonalities across pathways to adequate healthcare reveals major failings in the Mexican system. These systemic problems serve to reproduce and deepen health inequalities. A system, in which the costs of renal care are disproportionately borne by those who can least afford them, faces major difficulties around the sustainability and resourcing of RRTs. Attempts to increase access to renal therapies, therefore, need to take into account the complex social and economic demands this places on those who need access most. This paper further shows that ethnographic studies of the concrete ways in which healthcare is accessed in practice provide important insights into the plight of CKD patients and so

  10. Challenges and Opportunities Faced by Biofield Practitioners in Global Health and Medicine: A White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Erminia; King, Rauni Prittinen

    2015-11-01

    Biofield therapies (BTs) are increasingly employed in contemporary healthcare. In this white paper, we review specific challenges faced by biofield practitioners resulting from a lack of (1) a common scientific definition of BT; (2) common educational standards for BT training (including core competencies for clinical care); (3) collaborative team care education in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and in integrative health and medicine (IHM); (4) a focused agenda in BT research; and (5) standardized devices and scientifically validated mechanisms in biofield research. We present a description of BT and discuss its current status and challenges as an integrative healthcare discipline. To address the challenges cited and to enhance collaboration across disciplines, we propose (1) standardized biofield education that leads to professional licensure and (2) interprofessional education (IPE) competencies in BT training required for licensed healthcare practitioners and encouraged for other practitioners using these therapies. Lastly, we discuss opportunities for growth and a potential strategic agenda to achieve these goals. The Academy of Integrative Health and Medicine (AIHM) provides a unique forum to facilitate development of this emerging discipline, to facilitate IPE, and to further increase the availability of BT to patients.

  11. Facing Challenges in Differential Classical Conditioning Research: Benefits of a Hybrid Design for Simultaneous Electrodermal and Electroencephalographic Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, M Carmen; Rehbein, Maimu Alissa; Junghöfer, Markus; Poy, Rosario; López, Raul; Moltó, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Several challenges make it difficult to simultaneously investigate central and autonomous nervous system correlates of conditioned stimulus (CS) processing in classical conditioning paradigms. Such challenges include, for example, the discrepant requirements of electroencephalography (EEG) and electrodermal activity (EDA) recordings with regard to multiple repetitions of conditions and sufficient trial duration. Here, we propose a MultiCS conditioning set-up, in which we increased the number of CSs, decreased the number of learning trials, and used trials of short and long durations for meeting requirements of simultaneous EEG-EDA recording in a differential aversive conditioning task. Forty-eight participants underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which four neutral faces (CS+) were paired four times each with aversive electric stimulation (unconditioned stimulus) during acquisition, while four different neutral faces (CS-) remained unpaired. When comparing after relative to before learning measurements, EEG revealed an enhanced centro-posterior positivity to CS+ vs. CS- during 368-600 ms, and subjective ratings indicated CS+ to be less pleasant and more arousing than CS-. Furthermore, changes in CS valence and arousal were strong enough to bias subjective ratings when faces of CS+/CS- identity were displayed with different emotional expression (happy, angry) in a post-experimental behavioral task. In contrast to a persistent neural and evaluative CS+/CS- differentiation that sustained multiple unreinforced CS presentations, electrodermal differentiation was rapidly extinguished. Current results suggest that MultiCS conditioning provides a promising paradigm for investigating pre-post-learning changes under minimal influences of extinction and overlearning of simple stimulus features. Our data also revealed methodological pitfalls, such as the possibility of occurring artifacts when combining different acquisition systems for central and peripheral

  12. Why Learning Common Fractions Is Uncommonly Difficult: Unique Challenges Faced by Students With Mathematical Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berch, Daniel B

    2016-07-18

    In this commentary, I examine some of the distinctive, foundational difficulties in learning fractions and other types of rational numbers encountered by students with a mathematical learning disability and how these differ from the struggles experienced by students classified as low achieving in math. I discuss evidence indicating that students with math disabilities exhibit a significant delay or deficit in the numerical transcoding of decimal fractions, and I further maintain that they may face unique challenges in developing the ability to effectively translate between different types of fractions and other rational number notational formats-what I call conceptual transcoding I also argue that characterizing this level of comprehensive understanding of rational numbers as rational number sense is irrational, as it misrepresents this flexible and adaptive collection of skills as a biologically based percept rather than a convergence of higher-order competencies that require intensive, formal instruction.

  13. Fostering the Asian Bond Market:Challenges and Options Faced by China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongChen

    2004-01-01

    Underdevelopment of bond markets is one of the factors contributing to the vulnerability of financial systems in Asian countries. Due to over-reliance on bank loans, it has not been possible for savings in Asia to be invested directly in enterprises rather than being funneled to international financial centers in theU.S, and Europe and then back to Asia. When there is a crisis, enterprises and financial institutions are faced with both “mismatch in maturity of loans” and “mismatch in currency denomination” in their funding positions. The risks inherent in the dual mismatches are sources offinancial instability in Asia. Therefore there has been a consensus among major Asian countries to foster Asian bond markets in order to reduce these risks. For China, developing its domestic bond market has become an important part of effort to participate in fostering Asian bond markets. Based on proposals and recent development of Asian bond markets, this paper discusses the problems and challenges faced by China in developing domestic bond markets.

  14. Supply constraints : Australia and Canada coal industry face logistics and capacity challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsato, J.

    2010-09-15

    Australia and Canada are benefiting from a global increase in coal consumption, but face challenges regarding coal and coal export capacity. Coal is Australia's biggest export commodity, accounting for over 50 percent of world coking coal exports, with almost 75 percent of those exports destined for Asian markets, primarily Japan. However, the number of ships delayed at Australian ports hit a record of 223 bulk carriers in early 2010. Compared to Canada, Australia faces greater logistical issues getting coal into port and onto ships at its 9 loading terminals. Two of Canada's 3 major shipping terminals, Westshore and Neptune, have some additional capacity. Its third terminal, Ridley Island, has considerable potential to carry more coal. With 98 percent of all coal moved by rail in Australia, rail issues also hinder growth. A national approach to planning freight transport on both roads and rail is being developed. While infrastructure issues remain the single greatest barrier to export growth for Australia's coal sector, Canada's most immediate issues pertain to mine permitting and mine-site expansion. In 2009, Canada exported 28 million tonnes of coal, 90 percent of it metallurgical. With approximately 70 million tonnes of annual production, mostly in British Columbia and Alberta, coal remains the number one commodity in Canada carried by rails and shipped from ports. 1 fig.

  15. Challenges of microtome-based serial block-face scanning electron microscopy in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, A A; Kirschmann, M A; Genoud, C

    2015-08-01

    Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) is becoming increasingly popular for a wide range of applications in many disciplines from biology to material sciences. This review focuses on applications for circuit reconstruction in neuroscience, which is one of the major driving forces advancing SBEM. Neuronal circuit reconstruction poses exceptional challenges to volume EM in terms of resolution, field of view, acquisition time and sample preparation. Mapping the connections between neurons in the brain is crucial for understanding information flow and information processing in the brain. However, information on the connectivity between hundreds or even thousands of neurons densely packed in neuronal microcircuits is still largely missing. Volume EM techniques such as serial section TEM, automated tape-collecting ultramicrotome, focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy and SBEM (microtome serial block-face scanning electron microscopy) are the techniques that provide sufficient resolution to resolve ultrastructural details such as synapses and provides sufficient field of view for dense reconstruction of neuronal circuits. While volume EM techniques are advancing, they are generating large data sets on the terabyte scale that require new image processing workflows and analysis tools. In this review, we present the recent advances in SBEM for circuit reconstruction in neuroscience and an overview of existing image processing and analysis pipelines.

  16. Cultural Challenges Faced by American Mission Control Personnel Working with International Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. Both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the cultural challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to identify and evaluate the major cultural challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which the identified approaches and needs are consistent across the two samples. METHODS: Participants included a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior controllers. All participants were mission operations specialists chosen on the basis of having worked extensively with international partners. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. RESULTS: The senior respondents had substantial consensus on several cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. DISCUSSION: Although specific to American ISS personnel, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research on other populations. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future mission control personnel working in international or multicultural mission operations teams.

  17. Students' Reasons for Studying Special Needs Education: Challenges Facing Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausstatter, Rune Sarromaa

    2007-01-01

    This article attempts to clarify some of the problems and challenges currently met by the teaching profession in special education, in particular those relating to why students choose to study special needs education and what they expect to learn. There are two major reasons why students choose to become a "special needs" teacher: to…

  18. THE CHALLENGES FACED BY THE MALE GENDER EXECUTIVE SECRETARY PROFESSIONAL IN CONTEMPORARY ORGANIZATIONS

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    Conceição de Maria Pinheiro Barros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Professional Executive Secretary has been occupying space increasingly evident in the labor market and organizational structure, both because of market demand, the needs of dynamism in the modern administration that demonstrates the growth of the reference to it. It has sought in his field vision and attitude of performance excellence with fulfilling its role with its own characteristics. This study aims to investigate the general challenges for the Executive Secretariat professional male in contemporary organizations. We defined the following objectives: to analyze the insertion of the male in the profession of Executive Secretary and identify the challenges faced by the Executive Secretary of the males to their development and professional growth. To this end, we performed a literature search, followed by a field survey. It is a qualitative research because data collected, and then make a qualitative analysis of results from selected literature. The survey was conducted in organizations from the public and private, state of Ceará. The sample was represented by professional male graduates in the executive secretariat at the Federal University of Ceará and working in the area. After analyzing the data it was concluded that despite the obstacles to be overcome, the tendency is that these opportunities work for the professional male grow, requiring that all actors in the field to seek gender equity in the profession.

  19. From Toques to Tokes: Two challenges facing nationwide legalization of cannabis in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    In 2015, a new Liberal Government came to power in Canada, elected on a platform that included legalization and regulation of cannabis for recreational purposes. Their legislation, based on recommendations from a Federal Task Force on Marijuana Legalization and Regulation, is due in early April 2017. This commentary utilizes Canadian Federal policy papers, previous literature, and internal and international agreements to examine two key areas critical to the development of a nationwide regulated market for cannabis in Canada; the need to overcome restrictions to legalizing cannabis in United Nations' drug control treaties, and the unique challenges that non-medical cannabis creates for navigating interprovincial trade policies in Canada. Irrespective of UN conventions that appear to prohibit legalization of cannabis the Government is preparing to bring forward legislation as this article goes to print. At the same time significant squabbles impede the selling of even beer and wine inter-provincially in Canada. This paper identifies the challenges facing Canadian legalization efforts, but also shows how the legalization legislation may provide opportunities to engender significant change beyond the simple legalization of a specific drug. This commentary does not argue for any specific course of action for Canada, but rather explores the nuance of legalization absent from the declaration in the Liberal party platform. The paper argues that Canada's efforts may hasten the dismantling of the UN drug control structure, and provide renewed opportunities for intern-provincial trade in Canada. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Event-Related Brain Potentials Reveal Anomalies in Temporal Processing of Faces in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.; Panagiotides, Heracles; Carver, Leslie J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Individuals with autism exhibit impairments in face recognition, and neuroimaging studies have shown that individuals with autism exhibit abnormal patterns of brain activity during face processing. The current study examined the temporal characteristics of face processing in autism and their relation to behavior. Method: High-density…

  1. Structural invariance and age-related performance differences in face cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Andrea; Sommer, Werner; Herzmann, Grit; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2010-12-01

    Perceiving and memorizing faces swiftly and correctly are important social competencies. The organization of these interpersonal abilities and how they change across the life span are still poorly understood. We investigated changes in the mean and covariance structure of face cognition abilities across the adult life span. A sample of 448 participants, with age ranging from 18 to 88 years, completed a battery of 15 face cognition tasks. After establishing a measurement model of face cognition that distinguishes between face perception, face memory, and the speed of face cognition, we used multiple group models and age-weighted measurement models to explore age-related changes. The modeling showed that the loadings and intercepts of all measures are age invariant. The factor means showed substantial decrements with increasing age. Age-related decrements in performance were strongest for the speed of face cognition but were also salient for face perception and face memory. The onset of age decrements is apparent in the 60s for face perception, in the late 40s for face memory, and in the early 30s for speed of face cognition. Implications of these findings on a theoretical and methodological level are discussed, and potential consequences for applied settings are considered.

  2. Are we facing new health challenges and diseases in reindeer in Fennoscandia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tryland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of semi-domesticated reindeer is lost every year. Predators are the single most important factor for these losses, whereas restrictions on food availability some years also may cause high mortality. In the past, reindeer herding was challenged by severe infectious diseases, killing hundreds and thousands of animals, and having huge economic and social impact on reindeer herding in Fennoscandia. The general zoo-sanitary situation in Fennoscandia is very favourable for the time being, but reindeer herding is sometimes challenged by disease outbreaks, and diseases play an important role for survival and fitness of reindeer. Reindeer herding is also facing changes and challenges, which also may impact reindeer health and the disease status. Introduction of infectious agents not commonly present in the reindeer population may take place through import of animals, as well as by contact between reindeer, livestock and wildlife. Further, changes in the herding, such as increased feeding, transport, size of herds, animal density and stress load on the animals, may affect the animals ability to cope with infectious diseases. Also changes in weather conditions and climate, such as increased precipitation and mean temperature, may over time lead to restricted availability of pastures, changes in vegetation and changed conditions for parasites and insect vectors. These changes might be especially important for the reproductive success, including fitness of the calves during their first winter. To be able to cope with these changes and their potential impact on reindeer health, increased efforts should be made to gather reference data on health and disease parameters from the different reindeer herding districts, along with epidemiological risk factor analysis. This would increase the ability for the reindeer herding to cope with changes and to continue to produce quality meat products for the market.

  3. STaRRS in Yellowstone: Addressing Challenges Facing Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseal, A.; Gallagher, R.; Fuhrmann, B.; Sanford, R.

    2010-12-01

    The literature outlines many challenges faced by Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships (STSPs) including cultural differences between the scientific research and education communities. For example, shared vocabulary terms with dissimilar definitions can create communication problems. Other issues include accuracy in data collection, meeting the needs of a very diverse group of partners, connecting students with research science in a meaningful way, and maintaining the infrastructure necessary to develop and maintain these partnerships. Additionally, evidence, other than anecdotal, of the success of these partnerships is limited, especially as school year and research cycles are often on different schedules or have very different goals. Students, Teachers, and Rangers & Research Scientists: Investigating Systems at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park (STaRRS) was an STSP developed to address some of these challenges, model some solutions within an STSP, and identify some possible outcomes for participating teachers and their students. Three strategies used to address some of these challenges that will be discussed briefly in this presentation include: (a) embedding the STSP in an already existing National Park Service environmental education program; (b) development of three types of research activities connecting teachers, students, and scientists to the research, and (c) a professional development (PD) model that included all partners in an on-going year-long process. Results from an accompanying research study will also be presented. Using a pretest-intervention-posttest design, this study revealed significant changes in attitude regarding science and scientists of participating STaRRS teachers. Student data gathered using a quasi-experimental pretest-intervention-posttest treatment and comparison group design also demonstrated significant changes in their attitudes and gains in earth science content knowledge.

  4. Sex-related preferences for real and doll faces versus real and toy objects in young infants and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Robbins, Rachel A; Johnson, Scott P

    2013-10-01

    Findings of previous studies demonstrate sex-related preferences for toys in 6-month-old infants; boys prefer nonsocial or mechanical toys such as cars, whereas girls prefer social toys such as dolls. Here, we explored the innate versus learned nature of this sex-related preferences using multiple pictures of doll and real faces (of men and women) as well as pictures of toy and real objects (cars and stoves). In total, 48 4- and 5-month-old infants (24 girls and 24 boys) and 48 young adults (24 women and 24 men) saw six trials of all relevant pairs of faces and objects, with each trial containing a different exemplar of a stimulus type. The infant results showed no sex-related preferences; infants preferred faces of men and women regardless of whether they were real or doll faces. Similarly, adults did not show sex-related preferences for social versus nonsocial stimuli, but unlike infants they preferred faces of the opposite sex over objects. These results challenge claims of an innate basis for sex-related preferences for toy real stimuli and suggest that sex-related preferences result from maturational and social development that continues into adulthood.

  5. Challenges facing the farm animal veterinary profession in England: A qualitative study of veterinarians' perceptions and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruston, Annmarie; Shortall, Orla; Green, Martin; Brennan, Marnie; Wapenaar, Wendela; Kaler, Jasmeet

    2016-05-01

    The farm animal veterinary profession in the UK has faced a number of challenges in recent decades related to the withdrawal of government funding and a contraction of the agricultural sector. They have come under pressure to respond by developing skills and focusing on disease prevention advisory services. However, this puts veterinarians in competition with other providers of these services, and moves in this direction have only been partial. Failure to respond to these challenges puts the veterinary profession at risk of de-professionalisation-a loss of their monopoly over knowledge, an erosion of client beliefs in their service ethos and a loss of work autonomy. This paper explores how farm animal veterinarians in England perceive these challenges and are responding to them. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with 28 veterinarians from Royal College of Veterinary Surgeon farm accredited practices. Veterinarians were chosen from high, medium and low density cattle farming regions. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and themes identified through the constant comparison method. The majority of respondents recognised the challenges facing the veterinary profession. Most believed their role had changed, moving towards that of a disease prevention adviser who was part of the farm management team. In terms of maintaining and redefining their professional status, farm animal veterinarians do have a defined body of knowledge and the ability to develop trusting relationships with clients, which enhances their competitiveness. However, while they recognise the changes and challenges, moves towards a disease prevention advisory model have only been partial. There seem to be little effort towards using Farm accreditation status or other strategies to promote their services. They do not appear to be finding effective strategies for putting their knowledge on disease prevention into practice. Disease prevention appears to be delivered on farm on an ad

  6. Convergence in France facing Big Data era and Exascale challenges for Climate Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denvil, Sébastien; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Salas, David; Meurdesoif, Yann; Valcke, Sophie; Caubel, Arnaud; Foujols, Marie-Alice; Servonnat, Jérôme; Sénési, Stéphane; Derouillat, Julien; Voury, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    The presentation will introduce a french national project : CONVERGENCE that has been funded for four years. This project will tackle big data and computational challenges faced by climate modeling community in HPC context. Model simulations are central to the study of complex mechanisms and feedbacks in the climate system and to provide estimates of future and past climate changes. Recent trends in climate modelling are to add more physical components in the modelled system, increasing the resolution of each individual component and the more systematic use of large suites of simulations to address many scientific questions. Climate simulations may therefore differ in their initial state, parameter values, representation of physical processes, spatial resolution, model complexity, and degree of realism or degree of idealisation. In addition, there is a strong need for evaluating, improving and monitoring the performance of climate models using a large ensemble of diagnostics and better integration of model outputs and observational data. High performance computing is currently reaching the exascale and has the potential to produce this exponential increase of size and numbers of simulations. However, post-processing, analysis, and exploration of the generated data have stalled and there is a strong need for new tools to cope with the growing size and complexity of the underlying simulations and datasets. Exascale simulations require new scalable software tools to generate, manage and mine those simulations ,and data to extract the relevant information and to take the correct decision. The primary purpose of this project is to develop a platform capable of running large ensembles of simulations with a suite of models, to handle the complex and voluminous datasets generated, to facilitate the evaluation and validation of the models and the use of higher resolution models. We propose to gather interdisciplinary skills to design, using a component-based approach, a

  7. Challenge clusters facing LCA in environmental decision-making-what we can learn from biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Marcelle C; Taylor, Caroline M; Mohr, Alison; Whittaker, Carly; Scown, Corinne D; Borrion, Aiduan Li; Glithero, Neryssa J; Yin, Yao

    Bioenergy is increasingly used to help meet greenhouse gas (GHG) and renewable energy targets. However, bioenergy's sustainability has been questioned, resulting in increasing use of life cycle assessment (LCA). Bioenergy systems are global and complex, and market forces can result in significant changes, relevant to LCA and policy. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the complexities associated with LCA, with particular focus on bioenergy and associated policy development, so that its use can more effectively inform policymakers. The review is based on the results from a series of workshops focused on bioenergy life cycle assessment. Expert submissions were compiled and categorized within the first two workshops. Over 100 issues emerged. Accounting for redundancies and close similarities in the list, this reduced to around 60 challenges, many of which are deeply interrelated. Some of these issues were then explored further at a policy-facing workshop in London, UK. The authors applied a rigorous approach to categorize the challenges identified to be at the intersection of biofuels/bioenergy LCA and policy. The credibility of LCA is core to its use in policy. Even LCAs that comply with ISO standards and policy and regulatory instruments leave a great deal of scope for interpretation and flexibility. Within the bioenergy sector, this has led to frustration and at times a lack of obvious direction. This paper identifies the main challenge clusters: overarching issues, application and practice and value and ethical judgments. Many of these are reflective of the transition from application of LCA to assess individual products or systems to the wider approach that is becoming more common. Uncertainty in impact assessment strongly influences planning and compliance due to challenges in assigning accountability, and communicating the inherent complexity and uncertainty within bioenergy is becoming of greater importance. The emergence of LCA in bioenergy governance is

  8. Nuclear medicine department activity facing major public health challenges in France; Activite des services de medecine nucleaire face aux grands enjeux de sante publique en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baulieu, J.L. [Hopital Bretonneau, CHU de Tours, Unite de Medecine Nucleaire, 37 - Tours (France); Mundler, O. [CHU la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2007-12-15

    A national survey was made at the 2008 la Baule Symposium 'nuclear medicine facing major public health challenges'. The aim was to evaluate the activity in the fields of clinical specialities involved in these challenges : cancerology, cardiology and neurology. The response rate was 62%. The total number of PET scans performed in France during the year 2007 was about 100,000 including 97.5% of cancer indications. The mean number of PET scans per center was 1285, with a maximum of 3500 scans. The first indications were lung cancer (27%), lymphoma (20%) and colorectal cancer (14%). The registered number of cardiac examinations was 170,387 extrapolated to a total number of about 250,000 examinations in one year. The number of registered brain SPECT was 11,215 corresponding to about 100 examinations per center in one year. The survey pointed out large variations of PET activity between centers and suggested potentialities in extending and diversifying the field of PET. Brain scintigraphy appeared as a minor sector out of proportion with the challenge of degenerative brain pathology. Performing again these evaluations in the next years should allow to better describe the capabilities of nuclear medicine to face the major challenges and the evolution of public health.

  9. Effects of attractiveness on face memory separated from distinctiveness: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Holger; Altmann, Carolin S; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined effects of attractiveness on behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of face memory. Extending previous reports, we controlled for potential moderating effects of distinctiveness, a variable known to affect memory. Attractive and unattractive faces were selected on the basis of a rating study, and were matched for distinctiveness. In a subsequent recognition memory experiment, we found more accurate memory for unattractive relative to attractive faces. Additionally, an attractiveness effect in the early posterior negativity (EPN) during learning, with larger amplitudes for attractive than unattractive faces, correlated significantly with the magnitude of the memory advantage for unattractive faces at test. These findings establish a contribution of attractiveness to face memory over and above the well-known effect of distinctiveness. Additionally, as the EPN is typically enhanced for affective stimuli, our ERP results imply that the processing of emotionally relevant attractive faces during learning may hamper their encoding into memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Developmental improvement and age-related decline in unfamiliar face matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M; Bindemann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes have been documented widely in studies of face recognition and eyewitness identification. However, it is not clear whether these changes arise from general developmental differences in memory or occur specifically during the perceptual processing of faces. We report two experiments to track such perceptual changes using a 1-in- 10 (experiment 1) and 1-in-1 (experiment 2) matching task for unfamiliar faces. Both experiments showed improvements in face matching during childhood and adult-like accuracy levels by adolescence. In addition, face-matching performance declined in adults of the age of 65 years. These findings indicate that developmental improvements and aging-related differences in face processing arise from changes in the perceptual encoding of faces. A clear face inversion effect was also present in all age groups. This indicates that those age-related changes in face matching reflect a quantitative effect, whereby typical face processes are engaged but do not operate at the best-possible level. These data suggest that part of the problem of eyewitness identification in children and elderly persons might reflect impairments in the perceptual processing of unfamiliar faces.

  11. New Challenges Facing Small Undergraduate Departments And The Role Of Faculty And Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shazly, A. K.

    2003-12-01

    Small geoscience departments with 5 faculty members or less in undergraduate institutions are facing serious challenges that will have a profound impact on their future, as well as the future of geoscience education. In addition to past and future budget cuts that affect all departments, small departments are more vulnerable to such problems as (i) decreased enrollments in introductory level classes, (ii) small number of geology majors, (iii) small number of graduates per year (iv) lack or paucity of equipment necessary for faculty and student research, (v) limited opportunities for external funding, (vi) need to offer upper division classes on an alternate year basis, (vii) difficulty in recruiting and retaining students, (viii) high teaching loads for faculty, and (ix) designing rigorous curricula based on 120 credit hours with a significant component of liberal art classes. These problems pose new challenges for faculty, department chairs and administrators. Faculty need to design curricula tailored to the need of the job market, without compromising rigor or the quality of the program. New classes/ concentrations in environmental science, hydrogeology and geographical information systems should be offered, and traditional classes in petrology, geophysics and tectonics should be maintained. Classes in Physics, Chemistry and Math should be core requirements. Student involvement in research should be encouraged at an early stage (sophomore/ junior levels). Department chairs need to assign duties in their department carefully to capitalize on the strengths of their faculty: faculty with strong research backgrounds should be helped in their efforts to pursue external funding opportunities, whereas those with strong teaching abilities should be evaluated primarily on their performance in the classroom. Student credit hour production should not be used as a criterion for evaluating faculty. Administrators should evaluate programs and departments based on the success

  12. Challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland: 1. clinical veterinary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; More, Simon J; Morton, David B; Hanlon, Alison J

    2017-01-01

    The provision of veterinary clinical services is known to elicit a range of challenges which require an ethical appraisal. In a recent Policy Delphi study, referrals/second opinions and 24 h emergency care were identified as matters of key concern by veterinary professionals in Ireland. In this case study (the first in a series of three resulting from a research workshop exploring challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland; the other two case studies investigate the on-farm use of veterinary antimicrobials and emergency/casualty slaughter certification) we aim to provide a value-based reflection on the constraints and possible opportunities for two prominent veterinary clinical services in Ireland: referrals/second opinions and 24 h emergency care. Using a qualitative focus group approach, this study gathered evidence from relevant stakeholders, namely referral and referring veterinarians, clients, animal charities, and the regulatory body. Six overarching, interrelated constraints emerged from the thematic analysis: the need to improve current guidance, managing clients' expectations, concerns with veterinarian well-being, financial issues, timeliness of referral, and conflicts between veterinary practices. Possible solutions to improve veterinary referral and out-of-hours clinical services included clarifying the terms used in current norms and regulations (namely 'referral', 'second opinion', '24 h emergency care' and '24 h cover'), improved communication (making the client aware of the different levels of veterinary care that are being offered, and transparent and full disclosure of clinical records), and the promotion of Continuing Veterinary Education in communication, business management and ethical decision-making. These findings may help inform the Veterinary Council of Ireland about future recommendations and regulatory measures.

  13. Challenges Faced by Sudanese Banks in Implementing Online Banking: Bankers’ Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafis Alam

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Innovations in Information technology have changed the way financial transactions are done in banking industry globally. Online banking uses today’s computer technology to give user the ability to manage their finances more quickly and efficiently, from anywhere around the world, and with just a click of the mouse. Banks perceive online banking as a powerful ‘value-added’ tool to attract and retain new customers while helping to eliminate costly paper handling and teller interactions. Online banking has managed to provide customers the convenience, efficiency, effe ctiveness, and most importantly, the speed needed in today’s dynamic world. As more banks around the world are offering online banking to its customers, it is becoming a rather popular trend. Online banking is an asset both to the bank and the customer. However, countries like Sudan are yet to join the frenzy of this new innovation in an effective manner. This paper will investigate what are the challenges faced by Sudanese banks in implementing online banking.

  14. Challenges facing post-war tourism development: the case of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an empirical investigation to study the post-war tourism in sought west region of Iran. This region is the host of many Iranian who wish remember the events of War between Iran and Iraq. Many high school or university students travel to the region through cultural as well as religious communities. This paper tries to analyze the challenges facing these people when they travel to province of Khozestan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some randomly selected people who visited the region. The implementation of Pearson correlation test has determined that “Weakness of tourism infrastructure facilities and services” is to be blamed the most followed by “Underdevelopment of decision making centers”. Moreover, path analysis has been implemented to detect direct and indirect effects of different factors on development of tourism in the region. In our survey, marketing, culture and weakness in infrastructures have been determined the most important factors influencing on development of the region.

  15. Challenges faced in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levine SR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Selena R Levine,1 Jennifer L McNeer,2 Michael S Isakoff1 1Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Connecticut Children’s Medical Center and University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Hartford, CT, 2Section of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago Comer Children's Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The survival rate for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL has dramatically improved over the last 50 years. However, for those in the adolescent and young adult (AYA age-group of 15–30 years with ALL, there has not been the same degree of improvement. Historically, pediatric and adult providers have utilized different treatment approaches based on clinical trials. However, studies that have compared the outcome of AYA patients with ALL treated on pediatric or adult clinical trials have generally shown substantially better outcomes for this patient population treated with the pediatric trials. Additionally, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been considered as part of intensified therapy for AYA patients with ALL. Herein, we review the outcomes with chemotherapy alone and with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and explore the challenges faced in determining the ideal therapy for the AYA population of patients. Keywords: adolescent young adult oncology, leukemia, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  16. The Challenges faced by teachers in teaching of children with psychosocial needs due to war trauma in Northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Obot, Robinson

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT The study focus was to explore: the major challenges faced by teachers in the teaching: the teachers experiences in overcoming the challenges and then ways in which the teachers capacity can be improved in teaching and psychosocial needs support towards formerly abducted children (FAC). Qualitative approach was chosen with special reference to case study design. Three schools were the cases. The head-teachers and the classroom teachers were the main interviewees in the study...

  17. Challenges Women with Disability Face in Accessing and Using Maternal Healthcare Services in Ghana: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kuumuori Ganle

    Full Text Available While a number of studies have examined the factors affecting accessibility to and utilisation of healthcare services by persons with disability in general, there is little evidence about disabled women's access to maternal health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and the challenges they face in accessing skilled maternal health services. The objective of this paper is to explore the challenges women with disabilities encounter in accessing and using institutional maternal healthcare services in Ghana.A qualitative study was conducted in 27 rural and urban communities in the Bosomtwe and Central Gonja districts of Ghana with a total of 72 purposively sampled women with different physical, visual, and hearing impairments who were either lactating or pregnant at the time of this research. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used to gather data. Attride-Stirling's thematic network framework was used to analyse the data. Findings suggest that although women with disability do want to receive institutional maternal healthcare, their disability often made it difficult for such women to travel to access skilled care, as well as gain access to unfriendly physical health infrastructure. Other related access challenges include: healthcare providers' insensitivity and lack of knowledge about the maternity care needs of women with disability, negative attitudes of service providers, the perception from able-bodied persons that women with disability should be asexual, and health information that lacks specificity in terms of addressing the special maternity care needs of women with disability.Maternal healthcare services that are designed to address the needs of able-bodied women might lack the flexibility and responsiveness to meet the special maternity care needs of women with disability. More disability-related cultural competence and patient-centred training for

  18. Strabismic amblyopia affects relational but not featural and Gestalt processing of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Monegato, Maura; Pece, Alfredo; Merabet, Lotfi B; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-03-22

    The ability to identify faces is of critical importance for normal social interactions. Previous evidence suggests that early visual deprivation may impair certain aspects of face recognition. The effects of strabismic amblyopia on face processing have not been investigated previously. In this study, a group of individuals with amblyopia were administered two tasks known to selectively measure face detection based on a Gestalt representation of a face (Mooney faces task) and featural and relational processing of faces (Jane faces task). Our data show that--when relying on their amblyopic eye only - strabismic amblyopes perform as well as normally sighted individuals in face detection and recognition on the basis of their single features. However, they are significantly impaired in discriminating among different faces on the basis of the spacing of their single features (i.e., configural processing of relational information). Our findings are the first to demonstrate that strabismic amblyopia may cause specific deficits in face recognition, and add to previous reports characterizing visual perceptual deficits associated in amblyopia as high-level and not only as low-level processing.

  19. Overview of the critical disaster management challenges faced during Van 2011 earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolon, Mert; Yazgan, Ufuk; Ural, Derin N; Goss, Kay C

    2014-01-01

    On October 23, 2011, a M7.2 earthquake caused damage in a widespread area in the Van province located in eastern Turkey. This strong earthquake was followed by a M5.7 earthquake on November 9, 2011. This sequence of damaging earthquakes led to 644 fatalities. The management during and after these earthquake disaster imposed many critical challenges. In this article, an overview of these challenges is presented based on the observations by the authors in the aftermath of this disaster. This article presents the characteristics of 2011 Van earthquakes. Afterward, the key information related to the four main phases (ie, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery) of the disaster in Van is presented. The potential strategies that can be taken to improve the disaster management practice are identified, and a set of recommendations are proposed to improve the existing situation.

  20. Inappropriate attitudes, fitness to practise and the challenges facing medical educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Demian

    2007-01-01

    The author outlines a number of reasons why morally inappropriate attitudes may give rise to concerns about fitness to practise. He argues that inappropriate attitudes may raise such concerns because they can lead to harmful behaviours (such as a failure to give proper care or treatment), and because they are often themselves harmful (both because of the offence that they can cause and because of the unhealthy pall that they may cast over relations between healthcare practitioners and patients). He also outlines some of the challenges that the cultivation and assessment of attitudes in students raise for medical educators and some of the ways in which those challenges may be approached and possibly overcome. PMID:17971472

  1. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization.

  2. Using an Iterative Mixed-Methods Research Design to Investigate Schools Facing Exceptionally Challenging Circumstances within Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisle, Jerome; Seunarinesingh, Krishna; Mohammed, Rhoda; Lee-Piggott, Rinnelle

    2017-01-01

    In this study, methodology and theory were linked to explicate the nature of education practice within schools facing exceptionally challenging circumstances (SFECC) in Trinidad and Tobago. The research design was an iterative quan>QUAL-quan>qual multi-method research programme, consisting of 3 independent projects linked together by overall…

  3. Developing a Test for Exploring Student Performance in a Complex Domain: Challenges Faced, Decisions Made, and Implications Drawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Charalambos Y.; Kyriakides, Leonidas; Philippou, George N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the application of existing guidelines to develop a test grounded in theoretical perspectives and empirical findings in the area of problem solving. By documenting this process, the paper outlines the challenges test developers face when seeking to construct a theory/research-driven test, discusses the decisions made at…

  4. A Reflective Perspective on the Challenges Facing Research-Led Teaching in the Performing and Creative Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Ben

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a reflective perspective on the role that research-led teaching plays in the development of future arts workers in higher education. It explores the challenges faced by lecturers developing curricula in the performing and creative arts and argues that the increasing focus on employability can conflict with universities'…

  5. Knowledge Production and Transmission in a Changing Society: Challenges Facing Law Lecturers in a Distance Education Environment in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Susan

    2006-01-01

    In this article I highlight the challenges facing a law lecturer in a multicultural society in transformation where the student is being prepared to serve society in different occupational fields as a professional person. I indicate that the law itself cannot effect change. For this we need properly trained lawyers. For an effective transformation…

  6. Challenges Faced by Development Partners in Supporting the Growth and Development of Commercial Enterprises in Lira District, Northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eton, Marus; Mwirumubi, Richard; Edaku, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is defined as the process where an individual discovers, evaluates and exploit opportunities independently. Most countries have embraced entrepreneurship development as ways of creating employment and economic growth and development. The objective of the study was to examine the challenges faced by commercial enterprises in Lira…

  7. Knowledge Production and Transmission in a Changing Society: Challenges Facing Law Lecturers in a Distance Education Environment in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Susan

    2006-01-01

    In this article I highlight the challenges facing a law lecturer in a multicultural society in transformation where the student is being prepared to serve society in different occupational fields as a professional person. I indicate that the law itself cannot effect change. For this we need properly trained lawyers. For an effective transformation…

  8. Challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland: 3. emergency and casualty slaughter certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; More, Simon J; Morton, David B; Hanlon, Alison J

    2017-01-01

    Veterinarians are faced with significant conflicts of interest when issuing certificates for the transport and slaughter of acutely injured and casualty livestock. In a recent Policy Delphi study, emergency and casualty slaughter certification was a key concern identified by veterinary professionals in Ireland. In this case study (the third in a series of three resulting from a research workshop exploring challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland; the other two case studies investigate clinical veterinary services and the on-farm use of veterinary antimicrobials), we aim to provide a value-based reflection on the constraints and opportunities for best practice in emergency and casualty slaughter certification in Ireland. Using a qualitative focus group approach, this study gathered evidence from relevant stakeholders, namely a representative from the regulatory body, local authority veterinarians with research experience in emergency slaughter, an animal welfare research scientist, official veterinarians from the competent authority, a private veterinary practitioner, and a member of a farming organisation. Results revealed a conflict between the responsibility of private veterinary practitioners (PVPs) to safeguard the welfare of acutely injured bovines on-farm and the client's commercial concerns. As a consequence, some PVPs may feel under pressure to certify, for example, an acutely injured animal for casualty slaughter instead of recommending either on-farm emergency slaughter or disposal by the knackery service. Among Official Veterinarians, there are concerns about the pressure within processing plants to accept acutely injured livestock as casualty animals. Confusion pertaining to legislation and definition of fitness to travel also contribute to these dilemmas. Conflicts of interest arise due to the gap between governance and provision to facilitate on-farm emergency slaughter of livestock. Increased availability and acceptance of on

  9. Pleasant and unpleasant odors influence hedonic evaluations of human faces: an event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Jane Cook

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs. Healthy, young participants (N = 20 rated neutral faces presented after a three second pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine, unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan, or no-odor control (clean air. Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600−950 ms. In the 620−640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (> 600 and ultra-late (> 900 ms latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations.

  10. Pleasant and Unpleasant Odors Influence Hedonic Evaluations of Human Faces: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie; Fallon, Nicholas; Wright, Hazel; Thomas, Anna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Field, Matt; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Healthy, young participants (N = 20) rated neutral faces presented after a 3 s pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine), unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan), or no-odor control (clean air). Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600−950 ms). In the 620−640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (>600) and ultra-late (>900 ms) latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations. PMID:26733843

  11. The 'PEARL' Data Warehouse: Initial Challenges Faced with Semantic and Syntactic Interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Samhar; Boyd, Andy; Curcin, Vasa; Bache, Richard; Ali, Asad; Miles, Simon; Taweel, Adel; Delaney, Brendan; Macleod, John

    2017-01-01

    Data about patients are available from diverse sources, including those routinely collected as individuals interact with service providers, and those provided directly by individuals through surveys. Linking these data can lead to a more complete picture about the individual, to inform either care decision making or research investigations. However, post-linkage, differences in data recording systems and formats present barriers to achieving these aims. This paper describes an approach to combine linked GP records with study observations, and reports initial challenges related to semantic and syntactic interoperability issues.

  12. A review and clarification of the terms holistic, configural and relational in the face perception literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ePiepers

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely agreed that the human face is processed differently from other objects. However there is a lack of consensus on what is meant by a wide array of terms used to describe this special face processing (e.g. holistic and configural and the perceptually relevant information within a face (e.g. relational properties and configuration. This paper will review existing models of holistic/configural processing, discuss how they differ from one another conceptually and review the wide variety of measures used to tap into these concepts. In general we favour a model where holistic processing of a face includes some or all of the inter-relations between features and has separate coding for features. However, some aspects of the model remain unclear. We propose the use of moving faces as a way of clarifying what types of information are included in the holistic representation of a face.

  13. Challenges Faced by Health Care Reform%医保改革面临挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑吉·古普塔; 本尼迪克特·克莱门茨; 戴维·科迪; 王宇(译)

    2015-01-01

    At present, poor medical service availability, high health care costs and inefficient of public health spending are exsiting in many countries, and health care reform still faces big challenges. To improve people's health and to make a control of the costs are dilemma of health-care reform, and thus improving the efficiency of public health expenditure is the optimal choice to improve social health. The forms of government intervention and the level of public health expenditure are different due to different countries and period. Emerging economies should expand basic health care coverage on the premise of fiscal sustainable development while developed economies should pay attention to improve the public health spending efficiency and limit the spending growth.%当前,许多国家仍存在医疗服务可得性差、医疗成本高昂、公共卫生支出效率低下等问题,医保改革面临重大挑战。医保改革目标存在两难—既要改善人们的健康状况,又要控制支出成本,因而提高公共卫生支出效率是改善社会健康状况的最优选择。各国政府的干预形式和公共卫生支出水平因国别、时间等的不同而变化。财政状况较好的新兴经济体需在保证财政可持续的前提下扩大基本医保覆盖面;发达经济体则应注重提升公共卫生支出的效率并限制支出增长速度。

  14. Challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland: 2. On-farm use of veterinary antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; More, Simon J; Morton, David B; Hanlon, Alison J

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance has emerged in recent years as a significant public health threat, which requires both an ethical and a scientific approach. In a recent Policy Delphi study, on-farm use of antimicrobials was a key concern identified by veterinary professionals in Ireland. In this case study (the second in a series of three resulting from a research workshop exploring the challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland; the other two case studies investigate clinical veterinary services and emergency/casualty slaughter certification) we aim to provide a value-based reflection on the constraints and possible opportunities for responsible use of veterinary antimicrobials in Ireland. Using a qualitative focus group approach, this study gathered evidence from relevant stakeholders, namely veterinarians working in public and private organisations, a representative from the veterinary regulatory body, a dairy farmer and a general medical practitioner. Three overarching constraints to prudent on-farm use of veterinary antimicrobials emerged from the thematic analysis: 'Defective regulations', 'Lack of knowledge and values' regarding farmers and vets and 'Farm-centred concerns', including economic and husbandry concerns. Conversely, three main themes which reflect possible opportunities to the barriers were identified: 'Improved regulations', 'Education' and 'Herd health management'. Five main recommendations arose from this study based on the perspectives of the study participants including: a) the potential for regulatory change to facilitate an increase in the number of yearly visits of veterinarians to farms and to implement electronic prescribing and shorter validity of prescriptions; b) a 'One Health' education plan; c) improved professional guidance on responsible use of veterinary antimicrobials; d) improved on-farm herd health management practices; and e) the promotion of a 'One Farm-One Vet' policy. These findings may assist Veterinary Council of

  15. How Do EFL Student Teachers Face the Challenge of Using L2 in Public School Classrooms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viáfara John Jairo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    As an EFL Student teachers’ advisor, I had constantly perceived that they regarded using the target language with their pupils inside their classroom as a challenge. That is why I became interested in investigating how thirteen student teachers in Tunja public schools faced this issue. While participants were involved in a reflective teaching preparation model, I used field notes, interviews and their portfolios to explore their attitudes and strategies. Findings revealed that their history as learners, their teaching context and preparation influenced their decisions. Moreover, it was possible to identify the strategies they implemented to interact in English with their students.

    En mi labor como tutor de estudiantes practicantes del inglés como lengua extranjera, he percibido constantemente que, para ellos, la utilización del inglés como medio de comunicación con sus estudiantes dentro de la clase es un reto. Por esta razón, me interesé por investigar cómo trece estudiantes practicantes en colegios públicos de Tunja afrontaban esta circunstancia. Mientras los participantes se involucraban en un modelo reflexivo de preparación docente, utilicé notas de campo, entrevistas y sus portafolios para explorar sus actitudes y estrategias. Los hallazgos revelan que sus decisiones fueron influenciadas por su trayectoria como estudiantes, su contexto de enseñanza y su preparación. Además, se pudieron identificar las estrategias que utilizaron para interactuar por medio del inglés con sus estudiantes.

  16. A review and clarification of the terms holistic, configural and relational in the face perception literature

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel ePiepers; Rachel eRobbins

    2012-01-01

    It is widely agreed that the human face is processed differently from other objects. However there is a lack of consensus on what is meant by a wide array of terms used to describe this special face processing (e.g. holistic and configural) and the perceptually relevant information within a face (e.g. relational properties and configuration). This paper will review existing models of holistic/configural processing, discuss how they differ from one another conceptually and review the wide vari...

  17. Reduced Face Identity Aftereffects in Relatives of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Gray, Laura; Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental condition with complex aetiology. To aid the discovery of genetic mechanisms, researchers have turned towards identifying potential endophenotypes--subtle neurobiological or neurocognitive traits present in individuals with autism and their "unaffected" relatives. Previous research has shown that relatives of…

  18. The Energy-Related Inventions Program: Evaluation challenges and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes results of evaluation of the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP), focusing on the methodological challenges faced by the evaluators and solutions implemented. Operated jointly by US DOE and NIST, ERIP is one of the longest running commercialization assistance programs in US. The evaluation suggest that ERIP is a cost-effective federal investment. By the end of 1994, 24% of ERIP technologies had entered the market, producing total cumulative sales of $961 million (1994 dollars). With $124 million in program appropriations 1975-94, ERIP has an 8:1 return. At least 757 job-years were directly supported by ERIP technologies in 1994, and 6, 646 job-years of employment have been created over the past decade. The sales and employment supported by ERIP technologies are associated with $4.4 million in 1994 federal tax returns. Many issues must be addressed to fairly appraise public investments in technology commercialization programs, such as the need to track the program participants for extended periods, complexities in accounting for spinoff technologies, determining the validity of program evaluations, and dealing with performance data that are dominated by a small number of highly successful technologies.

  19. Challenges Faced by Graduate Business Education in Southern Africa: Perceptions of MBA Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temtime, Zelealem T.; Mmereki, Rebana N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the degree of satisfaction and perceived relevance of the Graduate Business Education (GBE) programme at the University of Botswana. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered questionnaire and face to face interviews were used to collect data from Master of Business Administration (MBA)…

  20. Age-related dedifferentiation and compensatory changes in the functional network underlying face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burianová, Hana; Lee, Yunjo; Grady, Cheryl L; Moscovitch, Morris

    2013-12-01

    Recent evidence has shown that older adults fail to show adaptation in the right fusiform gyrus (FG) to the same face presented repeatedly, despite accurate detection of the previously presented face. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether this phenomenon is associated with age-related reductions in face specificity in brain activity and whether older adults compensate for these face-processing deficiencies by increasing activity in other areas within the face-processing network, or outside this network. A comparison of brain activity across multiple stimulus categories showed that, unlike young adults who engaged a number of brain regions specific to face processing, older adults generalized these patterns of activity to objects and houses. Also, young adults showed functional connectivity between the right FG and its homologous region during face processing, whereas older adults did not engage the left FG but showed a functional connection between the right FG and left orbitofrontal cortex. Finally, this frontotemporal functional connection was activated more strongly in older adults who performed better on a face-matching task (done outside of the scanner), suggesting increased involvement of this functional link for successful face recognition with increasing age. These findings suggest that 2 neural mechanisms, dedifferentiation and compensatory neural recruitment, underlie age differences in face processing.

  1. Event-related potentials reveal the development of stable face representations from natural variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sally; Burton, A Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Wiese, Holger

    2017-08-01

    Natural variability between instances of unfamiliar faces can make it difficult to reconcile two images as the same person. Yet for familiar faces, effortless recognition occurs even with considerable variability between images. To explore how stable face representations develop, we employed incidental learning in the form of a face sorting task. In each trial, multiple images of two facial identities were sorted into two corresponding piles. Following the sort, participants showed evidence of having learnt the faces performing more accurately on a matching task with seen than with unseen identities. Furthermore, ventral temporal event-related potentials were more negative in the N250 time range for previously seen than for previously unseen identities. These effects appear to demonstrate some degree of abstraction, rather than simple picture learning, as the neurophysiological and behavioural effects were observed with novel images of the previously seen identities. The results provide evidence of the development of facial representations, allowing a window onto natural mechanisms of face learning.

  2. Seismic hazard related to rate of face advance in Lubin copper ore mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gogolewska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Seismic hazard was depicted by means of seismic activity. The rate of face advance was defined as the output-energy ratio (J/kg and as the distance in meters, which the face overcomes in a given time (for example six months. Seismic activity was analyzed in relation to such the rates of face advance. The analyses were performed for two mining districts (G-7 and G-8 of Lubin copper ore mine. The period of 2008-2009 years was taken into account. In both mining districts the outputenergy ratio did not show any strict connection between the rate of face advance and seismic activity. Whilst seismic hazard increased with increasing rate of face advance defined as the distance between two sequential positions of face in most panels of the two mining districts.

  3. Challenges faced by women with disabilities in accessing sexual and reproductive health in Zimbabwe: The case of Chitungwiza town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafadzwa Rugoho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women with disabilities in Zimbabwe face numerous challenges in accessing sexual and reproductive health. Cultural belief still regards them as not sexually active. The government has also failed to promote policies that facilitate access to sexual and reproductive services by women with disabilities.Objectives: The reseach objectives were to explore the challenges faced by women with disabilities in accessing sexual and reproductive health in Zimbabwe.Method: The data were gathered using in-depth interviews with 23 purposively selected respondents. Thirteen women had physical disabilities, five were visually impaired, three were deaf and two were stammering. The respondents with physical disabilities were using wheelchairs, walking frames, prosthesis, crutches and caliper shoes. The participants’ ages ranged from 18 to 45 years. All interviews were transcribed and translated verbatim into English, and passages were extracted from the transcripts. Key themes and concepts were identified and coded to offer a rich framework for analysis, comparisons and presentation of the data.Results: Negative perceptions of health personnel towards people with disabilities, disability-unfriendly infrastructure at health facilities and absence of trained personnel for people with disabilities (sign language are some of the challenges involved.Conclusion: The government, in partnership with other stakeholders, should address challenges faced by women with disabilities when accessing sexual and reproductive health services. Non-government, private hospitals and profit-making organisations should join hands with government in funding health requirements for women with disabilities.

  4. National metric challenges facing the Costa Rican goal of achieving carbon - neutrality by 2021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fonseca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes weaknesses faced by the carbon neutrality initiative proposed by the Costa Rican government due to metrics and highlights some of the technical improvements that will be required in order to achieve greater comparability, applicability and confidence from the results obtained. Technical gaps are found not only in the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions but when accounting for biogenic carbon capture and storage, where global reference values, usually those reported by the IPCC, are commonly used. We then make reference to problems associated with their use, mainly related to the uncertainty (accuracy and precision that results from any estimate. At the national level there is a lack of information for biomass and carbon for some ecosystems as well as few complete studies that consider all carbon pools at the ecosystem level. We give examples for some of the most studied species. Finally, we compare results using global reference values against those developed from local studies a the national level.

  5. Challenges faced when using radiocarbon measurements to estimate fossil fuel emissions in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, A.; O'Doherty, S.; Rigby, M. L.; Ganesan, A.; Manning, A.; Allen, G.

    2015-12-01

    Estimating the anthropogenic component of carbon dioxide emissions from direct atmospheric measurements is difficult, due to the large natural carbon dioxide fluxes. One way of determining the fossil fuel component of atmospheric carbon dioxide is the use of radiocarbon measurements. Whilst carbon reservoirs with a reasonably fast carbon exchange rate all have a similar radiocarbon content, fossil fuels are completely devoid of radiocarbon due to their age. Previous studies have 14CO2 (UK) this approach is compromised by the high density of 14CO2 emitting nuclear power plants. Of the 16 nuclear reactors in the UK, 14 are advanced gas cooled reactors, which have one of the highest 14CO2 emission rates of all reactor types. These radiocarbon emissions not only lead to a serious underestimation of the recently added fossil fuel CO2, by masking the depletion of 14C in CO2, but can in fact overshadow the depletion by a factor of 2 or more. While a correction for this enhancement can be applied, the emissions from the nuclear power plants are highly variable, and an accurate correction is therefore not straightforward. We present the first attempt to quantify UK fossil fuel CO2 emissions through the use of 14CO2. We employ a sampling strategy that makes use of a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, in combination with nuclear industry emission estimates, to forecast "good" sampling times, in an attempt to minimize the correction due to emissions from the nuclear industry. As part of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) project, 14CO2measurements are performed at two measurement sites in the UK and Ireland, as well as during science flights around the UK. The measurement locations have been chosen with a focus on high emitting regions such as London and the Midlands. We discuss the unique challenges that face the determination of fossil fuel emissions through radiocarbon measurements in the UK and our sampling strategy to deal with them. In addition we

  6. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by A Mature esl Student and Her Instructors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa Doris

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to helping students develop academic literacy might not be very effective. However, to be able to take a different approach, such as the one suggested by genre scholars, both faculty teaching content subjects and writing tutors would need appropriate training. Key words: ESL writing, academic writing, academic voice, disciplinary writing Con base en teorías críticas, socioculturales y sociolingüísticas sobre escritura académica, texto y voz, este estudio etnográfico explora los retos que enfrentan una estudiante hablante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores de un curso de Medios de Comunicación en Lengua Española al construir conjuntamente los conceptos de literacias académicas y de voz en un curso de pregrado en estudios generales ofrecido por una universidad en Massachusetts. El análisis intertextual de los datos recogidos muestra que algunos métodos tradicionales dirigidos a la elaboración de productos pueden resultar poco efectivos para apoyar el desarrollo de la escritura académica. Sin embargo, se concluye que para usar metodologías más efectivas, como las propuestas por las teorías de género, es indispensable que tanto los profesores de las diferentes materias como los tutores reciban el entrenamiento adecuado. Palabras clave: escritura de inglés como segunda lengua, escritura académica, voz académica, escritura disciplinaria

  7. HIV and infant feeding counselling: challenges faced by nurse-counsellors in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blystad Astrid

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding is a subject of worry in prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT programmes in settings where breastfeeding is normative. Nurse-counsellors, expected to counsel HIV-positive women on safer infant feeding methods as defined in national/international guidelines, are faced with a number of challenges. This study aims to explore the experiences and situated concerns of nurses working as infant feeding counsellors to HIV-positive mothers enrolled in pMTCT programmes in the Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 25 nurse-counsellors at four pMTCT sites. Interviews were handwritten and FGDs were tape-recorded and transcribed, and the programme Open Code assisted in sorting and structuring the data. Analysis was performed using 'content analysis.' Results The findings revealed a high level of stress and frustration among the nurse-counsellors. They found themselves unable to give qualified and relevant advice to HIV-positive women on how best to feed their infants. They were confused regarding the appropriateness of the feeding options they were expected to advise HIV-positive women to employ, and perceived both exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive replacement feeding as culturally and socially unsuitable. However, most counsellors believed that formula feeding was the right way for an HIV-positive woman to feed her infant. They expressed a lack of confidence in their own knowledge of HIV and infant feeding, as well as in their own skills in assessing a woman's possibilities of adhering to a particular method of feeding. Moreover, the nurses were in general not comfortable in their newly gained role as counsellors and felt that it undermined the authority and trust traditionally vested in nursing as a knowledgeable and caring profession. Conclusion The findings illuminate the immense burden placed on

  8. International relations: challenge of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, R R

    1989-01-01

    The AHRA has made considerable progress in the past few years in expanding its liaison activities to an international level. Mr. Osborn, the association's Coordinator for International Relations, traces the development of this effort and looks at goals and objectives for the future.

  9. The Practices and Challenges of Public Relations within Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    descriptive data analysis of the practices and challenges of the public relations was .... The very important term and concept of the modern public relation is that it is viewed ... communication policy decisions and oversees their implementation.

  10. The changing face of asthma and its relation with microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Chris S; An, Shi-qi; Ryan, Robert P

    2015-07-01

    During the past 50 years, the prevalence of asthma has increased and this has coincided with our changing relation with microorganisms. Asthma is a complex disease associated with local tissue inflammation of the airway that is determined by environmental, immunological, and host genetic factors. In a subgroup of sufferers, respiratory infections are associated with the development of chronic disease and more frequent inflammatory exacerbations. Recent studies suggest that these infections are polymicrobial in nature. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that the recently discovered asthma airway microbiota may play a critical role in pathophysiological processes associated with the disease. Here, we discuss the current data regarding a possible role for infection in chronic asthma with a particular focus on the role bacteria may play. We discuss recent advances that are beginning to elucidate the complex relations between the microbiota and the immune response in asthma patients. We also highlight the clinical implications of these recent findings in regards to the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  11. Face recognition in age related macular degeneration: perceived disability, measured disability, and performance with a bioptic device

    OpenAIRE

    Tejeria, L; Harper, R. A.; Artes, P H; Dickinson, C M

    2002-01-01

    Aims: (1) To explore the relation between performance on tasks of familiar face recognition (FFR) and face expression difference discrimination (FED) with both perceived disability in face recognition and clinical measures of visual function in subjects with age related macular degeneration (AMD). (2) To quantify the gain in performance for face recognition tasks when subjects use a bioptic telescopic low vision device.

  12. Sex differences in adults' relative visual interest in female and male faces, toys, and play styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Charles, Nora

    2009-06-01

    An individual's reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women would show greater interest in male faces whereas most men would show greater interest in female faces. Further, evidence from individuals with preferences for same-sex sexual partners suggests that response to attractive male and female faces may be influenced by gender-linked play preferences. To test these hypotheses, visual attention directed to sex-linked stimuli (faces, toys, play styles) was measured in 39 men and 44 women using eye tracking technology. Consistent with our predictions, men directed greater visual attention to all male-typical stimuli and visual attention to male and female faces was associated with visual attention to gender conforming or nonconforming stimuli in a manner consistent with previous research on sexual orientation. In contrast, women showed a visual preference for female-typical toys, but no visual preference for male faces or female-typical play styles. These findings indicate that sex differences in visual processing extend beyond stimuli associated with adult sexual behavior. We speculate that sex differences in visual processing are a component of the expression of gender phenotypes across the lifespan that may reflect sex differences in the motivational properties of gender-linked stimuli.

  13. Local authorities facing flood related networks failures in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallet Violette

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Network critical infrastructures have become vital to keep our societies running in every-day situations, but also during crisis and recovery. Involving many stakeholders at different scales, they form a complex system that can be easily disturbed by internal or external events, because then all the dependencies that allow to optimizing their working become flaws that help failures to spread beyond the flooded area and from one network to another. Thus every flood reminds us how vulnerable infrastructures are and how much it costs when they fail. But whereas it isn’t so difficult to adapt new urban development, what about all the existing and exposed infrastructures? CEPRI carried out research on encountered difficulties and good practices to understand the situation and consider improvement opportunities. We worked out three steps to a better territory resilience to flood. First, get a better knowledge of networks. Then, as far as possible, reduce networks vulnerability. Finally, as risks of network failures always remain, get prepared to cope with disruptions! CEPRI gathered many experiences to illustrate and strengthen its work, which aims at helping local authorities to reduce their vulnerability to flood and related networks failures.

  14. Perceptual and Social Attributes Underlining Age-Related Preferences for Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiski, Hanni S M; Cullen, Brendan; Clavin, Sarah L; Newell, Fiona N

    2016-01-01

    Although aesthetic preferences are known to be important in person perception and can play a significant role in everyday social decisions, the effect of the age of the observer on aesthetic preferences for faces of different ages has not yet been fully investigated. In the present study we investigated whether aesthetic preferences change with aging, with an age-related bias in favoring faces from one's own age group. In addition, we examined the role of age on both the perceptual qualities and the social attributes of faces that may influence these aesthetic judgements. Both younger and older adult observers provided ratings to images of younger, middle-aged and older unfamiliar faces. As well as attractiveness, the rating dimensions included other perceptual (distinctiveness, familiarity) and social (competence, trustworthiness and dominance) factors. The results suggested a consistent aesthetic preference for youthful faces across all ages of the observers but, surprisingly, no evidence for an age-related bias in attractiveness ratings. Older adults tended to provide higher ratings of attractiveness, competence and trustworthiness to the unfamiliar faces, consistent with the positivity effect previously reported. We also tested whether perceptual factors such as face familiarity or distinctiveness affected aesthetic ratings. Only ratings of familiarity, but not distinctiveness, were positively associated with the attractiveness of the faces. Moreover, ratings of familiarity decreased with increasing age of the face. With regard to the social characteristics of the faces, we found that the age of the face negatively correlated with ratings of trustworthiness provided by all observers, but with the competence ratings of older observers only. Interestingly, older adults provided higher ratings of perceived competence and trustworthiness to younger than older faces. However, our results also suggest that higher attractiveness ratings, together with older aged faces

  15. Perceptual and social attributes underlining age-related preferences for faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni SM Kiiski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although aesthetic preferences are known to be important in person perception and can play a significant role in everyday social decisions, the effect of the age of the observer on aesthetic preferences for faces of different ages has not yet been fully investigated. In the present study we investigated whether aesthetic preferences change with ageing, with an age-related bias in favouring faces from one’s own age group. In addition, we examined the role of age on both the perceptual qualities and the social attributes of faces that may influence these aesthetic judgements. Both younger and older adult observers provided ratings to images of younger, middle-aged and older unfamiliar faces. As well as attractiveness, the rating dimensions included other perceptual (distinctiveness, familiarity and social (competence, trustworthiness and dominance factors. The results suggested a consistent aesthetic preference for youthful faces across all ages of the observers but, surprisingly, no evidence for an age-related bias in attractiveness ratings. Older adults tended to provide higher ratings of attractiveness, competence and trustworthiness to the unfamiliar faces, consistent with the positivity effect previously reported. We also tested whether perceptual factors such as face familiarity or distinctiveness affected aesthetic ratings. Only ratings of familiarity, but not distinctiveness, were positively associated with the attractiveness of the faces. Moreover, ratings of familiarity decreased with increasing age of the face. With regard to the social characteristics of the faces, we found that the age of the face negatively correlated with ratings of trustworthiness provided by all observers, but with the competence ratings of older observers only. Interestingly, older adults provided higher ratings of perceived competence and trustworthiness to younger than older faces. However, our results also suggest that higher attractiveness ratings, together

  16. Face learning and the emergence of view-independent face recognition: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Friederike G S; Eimer, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Recognizing unfamiliar faces is more difficult than familiar face recognition, and this has been attributed to qualitative differences in the processing of familiar and unfamiliar faces. Familiar faces are assumed to be represented by view-independent codes, whereas unfamiliar face recognition depends mainly on view-dependent low-level pictorial representations. We employed an electrophysiological marker of visual face recognition processes in order to track the emergence of view-independence during the learning of previously unfamiliar faces. Two face images showing either the same or two different individuals in the same or two different views were presented in rapid succession, and participants had to perform an identity-matching task. On trials where both faces showed the same view, repeating the face of the same individual triggered an N250r component at occipito-temporal electrodes, reflecting the rapid activation of visual face memory. A reliable N250r component was also observed on view-change trials. Crucially, this view-independence emerged as a result of face learning. In the first half of the experiment, N250r components were present only on view-repetition trials but were absent on view-change trials, demonstrating that matching unfamiliar faces was initially based on strictly view-dependent codes. In the second half, the N250r was triggered not only on view-repetition trials but also on view-change trials, indicating that face recognition had now become more view-independent. This transition may be due to the acquisition of abstract structural codes of individual faces during face learning, but could also reflect the formation of associative links between sets of view-specific pictorial representations of individual faces.

  17. Face challenges with confidence when we review the great achievements at the 60th birthday of the people's republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAORI Ge-tu

    2009-01-01

    @@ The millions of medical and health care professionals in China celebrate with great pleasure and confidence the 60th birthday of the people's republic. In this issue of the journal, our readers will see a part of what fruitful achievements have been obtained by the government, health and medical professionals and researchers in various fields of health and medical care and research as well as what challenges the Chinese medical professionals face.

  18. Concurrent Relations between Face Scanning and Language: A Cross-Syndrome Infant Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Dean; D'Souza, Hana; Johnson, Mark H; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) infants enhance their learning of spoken language by observing speakers' mouth movements. Given the fact that word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we hypothesized that this delay partly results from differences in visual face scanning, e.g., focusing attention away from the mouth. To test this hypothesis, we used an eye tracker to measure visual attention in 95 infants and toddlers with Down syndrome (DS), fragile X syndrome (FXS), and Williams syndrome (WS), and compared their data to 25 chronological- and mental-age matched 16-month-old TD controls. We presented participants with two talking faces (one on each side of the screen) and a sound (/ga/). One face (the congruent face) mouthed the syllable that the participants could hear (i.e., /ga/), while the other face (the incongruent face) mouthed a different syllable (/ba/) from the one they could hear. As expected, we found that TD children with a relatively large vocabulary made more fixations to the mouth region of the incongruent face than elsewhere. However, toddlers with FXS or WS who had a relatively large receptive vocabulary made more fixations to the eyes (rather than the mouth) of the incongruent face. In DS, by contrast, fixations to the speaker's overall face (rather than to her eyes or mouth) predicted vocabulary size. These findings suggest that, at some point in development, different processes or strategies relating to visual attention are involved in language acquisition in DS, FXS, and WS. This knowledge may help further explain why language is delayed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. It also raises the possibility that syndrome-specific interventions should include an early focus on efficient face-scanning behaviour.

  19. Concurrent Relations between Face Scanning and Language: A Cross-Syndrome Infant Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean D'Souza

    Full Text Available Typically developing (TD infants enhance their learning of spoken language by observing speakers' mouth movements. Given the fact that word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we hypothesized that this delay partly results from differences in visual face scanning, e.g., focusing attention away from the mouth. To test this hypothesis, we used an eye tracker to measure visual attention in 95 infants and toddlers with Down syndrome (DS, fragile X syndrome (FXS, and Williams syndrome (WS, and compared their data to 25 chronological- and mental-age matched 16-month-old TD controls. We presented participants with two talking faces (one on each side of the screen and a sound (/ga/. One face (the congruent face mouthed the syllable that the participants could hear (i.e., /ga/, while the other face (the incongruent face mouthed a different syllable (/ba/ from the one they could hear. As expected, we found that TD children with a relatively large vocabulary made more fixations to the mouth region of the incongruent face than elsewhere. However, toddlers with FXS or WS who had a relatively large receptive vocabulary made more fixations to the eyes (rather than the mouth of the incongruent face. In DS, by contrast, fixations to the speaker's overall face (rather than to her eyes or mouth predicted vocabulary size. These findings suggest that, at some point in development, different processes or strategies relating to visual attention are involved in language acquisition in DS, FXS, and WS. This knowledge may help further explain why language is delayed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. It also raises the possibility that syndrome-specific interventions should include an early focus on efficient face-scanning behaviour.

  20. 'It's intense, to an extent': a qualitative study of the emotional challenges faced by staff working on a treatment programme for intellectually disabled sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Daljit K; Rose, John; Rostill-Brookes, Helen J; Thrift, Su

    2012-07-01

    This study explores the emotional challenges faced by staff working on a sex offender treatment programme for people with an intellectual disability. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with eight participants working on a treatment programme for sex offenders with an intellectual disability. Interviews were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Staff experienced a range of negative emotions that they dealt with in a variety of ways including through the use of humour and various emotional defences. Empathy was a challenging and complex issue with individuals taking a variety of positions. Staff awareness and understanding of the role of emotions in relation to their own well-being and in relation to therapeutic processes varied. Emotional intelligence was associated with greater therapeutic understanding. Recommendations are made in relation to personal and professional characteristics and need for clinical supervision to support staff well-being and the development of therapeutic competence and effectiveness. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Maritime Education and Research to Face the XXI-st Century Challenges in Gdynia Maritime University’s Experience Part I – Maritime Universities Facing Today and Tomorrow’s Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mindykowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, divided into two parts, a problem of advancements in maritime education and research facing the 21st century challenges, based on the case study of the Gdynia Maritime University (GMU experience is discussed. Part I is devoted to the main directions of advances in the maritime education and research towards the challenges in a global meaning. In this context, the education and research potential of the Gdynia Maritime University, as one of the world-leading maritime universities, is shortly presented. Part II is dedicated to the Gdynia Maritime University experiencing the 21st century challenges. The GMU’s contribution and good practices concerning the participation in modification of the processes of the IMO STCW 78/2010 convention, adoption of programmes into the international and national qualification frameworks’ standards and procedures, as well as the development of research addressed to a new technological and organizational solution are described and analyzed.

  2. On the relation between face and object recognition in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Klargaard, Solja; Starrfelt, Randi

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether face recognition and object recognition constitute separate cognitive domains. Clarification of this issue can have important theoretical consequences as face recognition is often used as a prime example of domain-specificity in mind and brain. An important...... of visual object processing involving both regular and degraded drawings. None of the individuals exhibited a dissociation between face and object recognition, and as a group they were significantly more affected by degradation of objects than control participants. Importantly, we also find positive...... correlations between the severity of the face recognition impairment and the degree of impaired performance with degraded objects. This suggests that the face and object deficits are systematically related rather than coincidental. We conclude that at present, there is no strong evidence in the literature...

  3. Facing policy challenges with inter- and transdisciplinary soil research focused on the UN Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan; Montanarella, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Our current information society, populated by increasingly well-informed and critical stakeholders, presents a challenge to both the policy and science arenas. The introduction of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) offers a unique and welcome opportunity to direct joint activities towards these goals. Soil science, even though it is not mentioned as such, plays an important role in realizing a number of SDGs focusing on food, water, climate, health, biodiversity, and sustainable land use. A plea is made for a systems approach to land use studies, to be initiated by soil scientists, in which these land-related SDGs are considered in an integrated manner. To connect with policy makers and stakeholders, two approaches are functional. The first of these is the policy cycle when planning and executing research, which includes signaling, design, decision making, implementation, and evaluation. Many current research projects spend little time on signaling, which may lead to disengagement of stakeholders. Also, implementation is often seen as the responsibility of others, while it is crucial to demonstrate - if successful - the relevance of soil science. The second approach is the DPSIR approach when following the policy cycle in land-related research, distinguishing external drivers, pressures, impact, and responses to land use change that affect the state of the land in the past, present, and future. Soil science cannot by itself realize SDGs, and interdisciplinary studies on ecosystem services (ESs) provide an appropriate channel to define contributions of soil science in terms of the seven soil functions. ESs, in turn, can contribute to addressing the six SDGs (2, 3, 6, 12, 13, and 15) with an environmental, land-related character. SDGs have a societal focus and future soil science research can only be successful if stakeholders are part of the research effort in transdisciplinary projects, based on the principle of time-consuming "joint learning". The

  4. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: a systematic review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients’ lifestyle behavior. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL a

  5. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients' lifestyle behavior. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL a

  6. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: a systematic review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients’ lifestyle behavior. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL a

  7. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients' lifestyle behavior. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL a

  8. Challenges faced by China compared with the US in developing wind power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; McElroy, Michael B.; Peng, Wei; Liu, Shiyang; Nielsen, Chris P.; Wang, Haikun

    2016-06-01

    In the 21st Conference of the Parties held in Paris in December 2015, China pledged to peak its carbon emissions and increase non-fossil energy to 20% by 2030 or earlier. Expanding renewable capacity, especially wind power, is a central strategy to achieve these climate goals. Despite greater capacity for wind installation in China compared to the US (145.1 versus 75.0 GW), less wind electricity is generated in China (186.3 versus 190.9 TWh). Here, we quantify the relative importance of the key factors accounting for the unsatisfactory performance of Chinese wind farms. Different from the results in earlier qualitative studies, we find that the difference in wind resources explains only a small fraction of the present China-US difference in wind power output (-17.9% in 2012); the curtailment of wind power, differences in turbine quality, and delayed connection to the grid are identified as the three primary factors (respectively -49.3%, -50.2%, and -50.3% in 2012). Improvements in both technology choices and the policy environment are critical in addressing these challenges.

  9. The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

  10. Strategies to Address English Language Writing Challenges Faced by International Graduate Students in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Swathi; Kretovics, Mark; Kirby, Kara; Ghosh, Ankita

    2017-01-01

    Since 2000, there has been a 72% increase in the number of international students attending US institutions of higher education. The increase, specifically of international graduate students, has brought to light the writing challenges experienced by this population of students. This study explored specific writing challenges experienced by…

  11. Challenges Facing Chinese Academic Staff in a UK University in Terms of Language, Relationships and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-hua

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment of international academic staff is viewed as one of the strategies to internationalise the universities. International academic staff, however, usually encounter many challenges when in a foreign context. This study aims to investigate the challenges of Chinese academic staff teaching in the UK in terms of language, relationships…

  12. From Theory to Practice: Facing Ethical Challenges as a Clinical Intern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, James P.; Pimentel, Sandra; Albano, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Although formal ethics classes provide a basic foundation in managing ethical dilemmas, professionals often point to their experiences on internship as an important training ground for consolidation of their ethical development. Clinical interns face many personal and professional transitions that can lead to a number of ethical dilemmas.…

  13. Challenges Face Arab Students in Writing Well-Developed Paragraphs in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rass, Ruwaida Abu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate problems facing Palestinian Arab students from Israel who are majoring in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in developing well-written paragraphs in English. They usually transfer the stylistic features of their first language, Arabic to the target language, English. For example, they tend to write long…

  14. Language and Cultural Challenges Facing Business Faculty in the Ever-Expanding Global Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Glen M.

    2013-01-01

    More than 690,000 foreign students studied in the United States during the 2009-10 academic year. As non-native English-speaking students continue to pour into American educational institutions, one question many educators have is: are these international students adequately prepared for the language and cultural demands they will face when they…

  15. Event-related potentials reflect impaired face recognition in patients with congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Thomas; Daum, Irene

    2003-12-04

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to faces have been shown to be altered in patients suffering from prosopagnosia. In this report we present ERP findings from two patients suffering from a congenital form of prosopagnosia, with other visual and cognitive functions being spared and without any structural abnormalities as assessed by anatomical brain imaging. Subjects were presented with photographs of faces and houses, and they had to respond to photographs of hands. Both patients did not show a difference in N170 amplitude to faces compared to houses, whereas there was a significant N170 difference of these two stimulus classes in healthy control subjects.

  16. Systems approach to waste governance: unpacking the challenges facing local government

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available ; no or poor levels of service delivery; and potential environmental and human health impacts. However, these broad challenges were found to contain further primary, secondary, etc. root causes, both internal and external to the municipality. This analysis...

  17. Facing the Future: Time for the EU to meet Global Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    BODEN John Mark; CAGNIN CRISTIANO; CARABIAS BARCELO VICENTE; HAEGEMAN Karel; KÖNNÖLÄ Timo-Topias Totti

    2010-01-01

    What will the world look like in 2025? What are the possible future disruptive global challenges? And how can the EU position itself to take an active role in shaping a response to them? This publication offers possible answers to these questions through the identification of three main challenges and potential responses to these, and concludes that the main policy issues to be considered at EU level are: policy alignment towards sustainability; social diversity and the use of ICT for citizen...

  18. Challenges facing the food industry: Examples from the baked goods sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability.......This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability....

  19. Attachment Avoidance Is Significantly Related to Attentional Preference for Infant Faces: Evidence from Eye Movement Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuncheng; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Dajun; Ta, Na; Xia, Mu; Ding, Fangyuan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of adult attachment orientations on infant preference. Methods: We adopted eye-tracking technology to monitor childless college women’s eye movements when looking at pairs of faces, including one adult face (man or woman) and one infant face, with three different expressions (happy, sadness, and neutral). The participants (N = 150; 84% Han ethnicity) were aged 18–29 years (M = 19.22, SD = 1.72). A random intercepts multilevel linear regression analysis was used to assess the unique contribution of attachment avoidance, determined using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale, to preference for infant faces. Results: Women with higher attachment avoidance showed less infant preference, as shown by less sustained overt attentional bias to the infant face than the adult face based on fixation time and count. Conclusion: Adult attachment might be related to infant preference according to eye movement indices. Women with higher attachment avoidance may lack attentional preference for infant faces. The findings may aid the treatment and remediation of the interactions between children and mothers with insecure attachment. PMID:28184210

  20. A Method for En Face OCT Imaging of Subretinal Fluid in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the study is to report a method for en face imaging of subretinal fluid (SRF due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT. Methods. High density SDOCT imaging was performed at two visits in 4 subjects with neovascular AMD and one healthy subject. En face OCT images of a retinal layer anterior to the retinal pigment epithelium were generated. Validity, repeatability, and utility of the method were established. Results. En face OCT images generated by manual and automatic segmentation were nearly indistinguishable and displayed similar regions of SRF. En face OCT images displayed uniform intensities and similar retinal vascular patterns in a healthy subject, while the size and appearance of a hypopigmented fibrotic scar in an AMD subject were similar at 2 visits. In AMD subjects, dark regions on en face OCT images corresponded to reduced or absent light reflectance due to SRF. On en face OCT images, a decrease in SRF areas with treatment was demonstrated and this corresponded with a reduction in the central subfield retinal thickness. Conclusion. En face OCT imaging is a promising tool for visualization and monitoring of SRF area due to disease progression and treatment.

  1. A Method for En Face OCT Imaging of Subretinal Fluid in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Fatimah; Wanek, Justin; Zelkha, Ruth; Lim, Jennifer I; Chen, Judy; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of the study is to report a method for en face imaging of subretinal fluid (SRF) due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). Methods. High density SDOCT imaging was performed at two visits in 4 subjects with neovascular AMD and one healthy subject. En face OCT images of a retinal layer anterior to the retinal pigment epithelium were generated. Validity, repeatability, and utility of the method were established. Results. En face OCT images generated by manual and automatic segmentation were nearly indistinguishable and displayed similar regions of SRF. En face OCT images displayed uniform intensities and similar retinal vascular patterns in a healthy subject, while the size and appearance of a hypopigmented fibrotic scar in an AMD subject were similar at 2 visits. In AMD subjects, dark regions on en face OCT images corresponded to reduced or absent light reflectance due to SRF. On en face OCT images, a decrease in SRF areas with treatment was demonstrated and this corresponded with a reduction in the central subfield retinal thickness. Conclusion. En face OCT imaging is a promising tool for visualization and monitoring of SRF area due to disease progression and treatment.

  2. Face-to-face and electronic communications in maintaining social networks : the influence of geographical and relational distance and of information content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, Taede; Dijst, Martin; Schwanen, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Using data collected among 742 respondents, this article aims at gaining greater insight into (i) the interaction between face-to-face (F2F) and electronic contacts, (ii) the influence of information content and relational distance on the communication mode/service choice and (iii) the influence of

  3. Symmetry is related to sexual dimorphism in faces: data across culture and species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C Little

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animals both display and assess multiple signals. Two prominently studied traits are symmetry and sexual dimorphism, which, for many animals, are proposed cues to heritable fitness benefits. These traits are associated with other potential benefits, such as fertility. In humans, the face has been extensively studied in terms of attractiveness. Faces have the potential to be advertisements of mate quality and both symmetry and sexual dimorphism have been linked to the attractiveness of human face shape. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that measurements of symmetry and sexual dimorphism from faces are related in humans, both in Europeans and African hunter-gatherers, and in a non-human primate. Using human judges, symmetry measurements were also related to perceived sexual dimorphism. In all samples, symmetric males had more masculine facial proportions and symmetric females had more feminine facial proportions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support the claim that sexual dimorphism and symmetry in faces are signals advertising quality by providing evidence that there must be a biological mechanism linking the two traits during development. Such data also suggests that the signalling properties of faces are universal across human populations and are potentially phylogenetically old in primates.

  4. MBTI Personality Type and Other Factors that Relate to Preference for Online versus Face-to-Face Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rick; Loffredo, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Online college classes are being offered at a rate that far exceeds the growth of overall higher education classes. However, much can still be learned about how to create a better online classroom environment by determining why a large percentage of students continue to prefer face-to-face classes. One factor among many that may have an influence…

  5. Challenges for Ecosystem Services Provided by Coral Reefs In the Face of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, R. K.; Elliff, C. I.

    2014-12-01

    Coral reefs provide many ecosystem services of which coastal populations are especially dependent upon, both in cases of extreme events and in daily life. However, adaptation to climate change is still relatively unknown territory regarding the ecosystem services provided by coastal environments, such as coral reefs. Management strategies usually consider climate change as a distant issue and rarely include ecosystem services in decision-making. Coral reefs are among the most vulnerable environments to climate change, considering the impact that increased ocean temperature and acidity have on the organisms that compose this ecosystem. If no actions are taken, the most likely scenario to occur will be of extreme decline in the ecosystem services provided by coral reefs. Loss of biodiversity due to the pressures of ocean warming and acidification will lead to increased price of seafood products, negative impact on food security, and ecological imbalances. Also, sea-level rise and fragile structures due to carbonate dissolution will increase vulnerability to storms, which can lead to shoreline erosion and ultimately threaten coastal communities. Both these conditions will undoubtedly affect recreation and tourism, which are often the most important use values in the case of coral reef systems. Adaptation strategies to climate change must take on an ecosystem-based approach with continuous monitoring programs, so that multiple ecosystem services are considered and not only retrospective trends are analyzed. Brazilian coral reefs have been monitored on a regular basis since 2000 and, considering that these marginal coral reefs of the eastern Atlantic are naturally under stressful conditions (e.g. high sedimentation rates), inshore reefs of Brazil, such as those in Tinharé-Boipeba, have shown lower vitality rates due to greater impacts from the proximity to the coastal area (e.g. pollution, overfishing, sediment run-off). This chronic negative impact must be addressed

  6. How to overcome some of the challenges that African scholars are facing in conducting informetrics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isola Ajiferuke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides evidence to show that the contributions of African researchers to the informetrics literature are minimal. The three main challenges identified as limiting the contributions of African scholars to the informetrics literature are lack of appropriate skills, inadequate data collection sources, and unaffordable analytical tools. To overcome these challenges, it is suggested that regular pre-conference workshops on informetrics should be organized, an African Citation Index should be developed, and the use of free analytical tools should be encouraged.

  7. [Political challenges facing the consolidation of the Sistema Único de Saúde: a historical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the circumstances in which Brazil’s sanitation reform was conceived and the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) was constructed. A brief analysis is conducted of Brazil’s political transition to democracy, focusing on three political challenges facing the consolidation of SUS: its weak support base amongst workers, competition with the private sector, and the fragmentation of its administration caused by its municipalization. Finally, the changes in the scenario caused by the weakening of neoliberalism since the 2008 crisis, the reemergence of a multipolar political scenario internationally, and the financing conditions of the Brazilian State are described.

  8. A Qualitative Study of Challenges Faced by International Doctoral Students in Counselor Education Supervision Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yoo Jin; Woo, Hongryun; Henfield, Malik S.

    2014-01-01

    Using consensual qualitative research methodology, this study examines the challenges doctoral-level international students encountered in counselor education programs, during supervisor training, specifically. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight participants and revealed a variety of difficulties. Despite the wide variability in…

  9. How Zoos Are Meeting the Challenges Facing Biodiversity: Bristol Zoo Gardens as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Simon

    2010-01-01

    As ideas about effective conservation of biodiversity develop, zoos are adapting their roles to meet the new challenges. This article considers these changes, using the work of Bristol and other UK zoos as a case study. The significance of zoos in both global and local conservation of biodiversity, their role in promoting public engagement and…

  10. The Delicate Balancing Act: Challenges and Successes Facing College Student Women in Formal Leadership Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber-Curran, Paige

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the successes and challenges experienced by four undergraduate college women while holding top leadership roles in student organizations. Interpretive and descriptive qualitative research methods were employed with aspects of case study and phenomenological approaches of inquiry. Data were collected through…

  11. Vic: The Challenges Facing Schools in a Small, Newly Diverse, Catalan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo, Nuria; Telford, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The arrival over the last 15 years of a substantial number of pupils of immigrant origin has presented Catalan schools with significant challenges. The schools in Vic (70 km north of Barcelona) have been at the forefront of attempts to adjust to this new multicultural reality. This article describes the results of three studies carried out by the…

  12. Facing the Globalisation Challenge in the Realm of English Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifakis, Nicos C.; Sougari, Areti-Maria

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the challenge of globalization with respect to English language teaching and particularly teaching English to speakers of foreign languages. Argues that some of the primary issues involved concern the increasing role of technology and communication in modern societies and the looming conflict between local communities and the…

  13. A Qualitative Study of Challenges Faced by International Doctoral Students in Counselor Education Supervision Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yoo Jin; Woo, Hongryun; Henfield, Malik S.

    2014-01-01

    Using consensual qualitative research methodology, this study examines the challenges doctoral-level international students encountered in counselor education programs, during supervisor training, specifically. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight participants and revealed a variety of difficulties. Despite the wide variability in…

  14. How Zoos Are Meeting the Challenges Facing Biodiversity: Bristol Zoo Gardens as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Simon

    2010-01-01

    As ideas about effective conservation of biodiversity develop, zoos are adapting their roles to meet the new challenges. This article considers these changes, using the work of Bristol and other UK zoos as a case study. The significance of zoos in both global and local conservation of biodiversity, their role in promoting public engagement and…

  15. The Delicate Balancing Act: Challenges and Successes Facing College Student Women in Formal Leadership Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber-Curran, Paige

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the successes and challenges experienced by four undergraduate college women while holding top leadership roles in student organizations. Interpretive and descriptive qualitative research methods were employed with aspects of case study and phenomenological approaches of inquiry. Data were collected through…

  16. Challenges Faced by Key Stakeholders Using Educational Online Technologies in Blended Tertiary Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuapawa, Kimberley

    2016-01-01

    Traditional learning spaces have evolved into dynamic blended tertiary environments (BTEs), providing a modern means through which tertiary education institutes (TEIs) can augment delivery to meet stakeholder needs. Despite the significant demand for web-enabled learning, there are obstacles concerning the use of EOTs, which challenge the…

  17. Challenges Faced by Military Families: Perceptions of United States Marine Corps School Liaisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Keith R.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    The global war on terror has placed a number of stressful demands on service members and their families. Although the military offers a wide range of services and supports to military families, not all families are willing or able to use them. For example, geographically dispersed families can find it challenging to connect with military support…

  18. Challenges Faced by Military Families: Perceptions of United States Marine Corps School Liaisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Keith R.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    The global war on terror has placed a number of stressful demands on service members and their families. Although the military offers a wide range of services and supports to military families, not all families are willing or able to use them. For example, geographically dispersed families can find it challenging to connect with military support…

  19. Design and Development of Virtual Reality: Analysis of Challenges Faced by Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kami; Shelton, Brett E.

    2008-01-01

    There exists an increasingly attractive lure of using virtual reality applications for teaching in all areas of education, but perhaps the largest detriment to its use is the intimidating nature of VR technology for non-technical instructors. What are the challenges to using VR technology for the design and development of VR-based instructional…

  20. Teaching Culture: The Challenges and Opportunities of International Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amiso M.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the challenges and opportunities for international public relations practice. Looks at current United States-Arab relations issues in international crisis communication. Discusses those issues, especially the role of culture and media. Proposes strategies including a case study that teachers can use to help students become effective…

  1. Socio-economic and cultural vulnerabilities to cervical cancer and challenges faced by patients attending care at Tikur Anbessa Hospital: a cross sectional and qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Sara Kebede

    2015-09-16

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death among women in Ethiopia, affecting them at a time of their life when they are critical to social and economic stability. This study was mainly focused on assessing different socioeconomic and cultural related factors that make women vulnerable to cervical cancer and challenges women face in the process of diagnosis and treatment. To achieve the objective of the study both qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized.198 participants were enrolled in a cross- sectional survey and 10 in-depth interviews were conducted with patients in Tikur Anbessa Hospital. A consecutive sampling method was used to select participants in the survey while purposive sampling was employed to select participants in the qualitative design. For the population covered in the study, poverty along with other socio-cultural practices such as early marriage, high parity and to certain extent polygamy were identified as factors that increased the vulnerability of women to cervical cancer. In addition, the study has uncovered several challenges faced by cervical cancer patients in the diagnosis and treatment process. Three types of challenges that include, health care based, psychological and economic were identified. System and practitioner delay were found as the main hurdles within the variable of health care related challenges. What's more, the psychological challenges identified included, fear of recurrence, negative social attitude and distress associated with the side effects from treatments such as fecal & urinary leakage. Furthermore, inability of bearing costs related to treatment and accommodation were cited as the main economic challenges. The study showed various socio-economic and cultural vulnerabilities that expose women to cervical cancer and the challenges encountered by cervical cancer patients after their diagnosis. Addressing this issue largely lies in strengthening primary and secondary preventive mechanisms, providing

  2. Meeting the relational challenge of ecological engineering within ecological sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Barot, Sébastien; Lata, J. C.; Lacroix, G.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the current environmental problems human societies have to face and the lack of sustainability of most of their activities, the time of Ecological Engineering (EE) has surely come. To assess the development of EE within the academic world we conducted a literature survey based on an exhaustive count of all articles mentioning EE and related terms since the 1980s, and a classification of all articles published in 2008 and 2009 in the journal Ecological Engineering. This survey reveals t...

  3. 21st century challenges faced by nursing faculty in educating for compassionate practice: embodied interpretation of phenomenological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine

    2013-07-01

    Nursing faculty are facing challenges in facilitating student learning of complex concepts such as compassionate practice. Compassion is a stated expectation of Registered Nurse (RN) and student nurse practice, and yet how it is enabled and learned within the challenging environments of university and health service provider organisations are not yet understood. There is currently an international concern that student nurses are not being adequately prepared for compassion to flourish and for compassionate practice to be sustained upon professional qualification. In order to investigate the experiences of nursing faculty in their preparation of student nurses for compassionate practice, an exploratory aesthetic phenomenological research study was undertaken using in depth interviews with five nurse teachers in the North of England. Findings from this study were analysed and presented using embodied interpretation, and indicate that nurse teachers recognise the importance of the professional ideal of compassionate practice alongside specific challenges this expectation presents. They have concerns about how the economically constrained and target driven practice reality faced by RNs promotes compassionate practice, and that students are left feeling vulnerable to dissonance between learned professional ideals and the RNs' practice reality they witness. Nurse teachers also experience dissonance within the university setting, between the pressures of managing large student groups and the time and opportunity required for small group discussion with students that enables compassion to develop in a meaningful and emotionally sustainable way. Teachers also express discomfort due to a perceived promotion of an 'unachievable utopia' within practice, identifying how the constraints within practice could be better managed to support professional ideals. The nurse teachers within this exploratory study identify the need for strong nurse leadership in practice to challenge

  4. The changing face of nanomaterials: Risk assessment challenges along the value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Mats-Olof; Simkó, Myrtill

    2017-03-01

    Risk assessment (RA) of manufactured nanomaterials (MNM) is essential for regulatory purposes and risk management activities. Similar to RA of "classical" chemicals, MNM RA requires knowledge about exposure as well as of hazard potential and dose response relationships. What makes MNM RA especially challenging is the multitude of materials (which is expected to increase substantially in the future), the complexity of MNM value chains and life cycles, the accompanying possible changes in material properties over time and in contact with various environmental and organismal milieus, and the difficulties to obtain proper exposure data and to consider the proper dose metric. This article discusses these challenges and also critically overviews the current state of the art regarding MNM RA approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Asian Security Challenges-Planning the Face of Strategic Uncertainties. Volume 1. Main Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    body of cold-war analytic and planning techniques to be unseated; methodologically, the region is tabula rasa . We found that net assessments have their...countries. The result was substantially enhanced comprehension of the roles played by the U.S. and Soviet research, deVelopment, and acquisition processes...address these challenges. Technology will no doubt have an important role in the military power of many Asian nations, although not necessarily in

  6. Facing the challenges of the One-Tablet-Per-Child policy in Thai primary school education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchada Viriyapong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Education in Thailand is currently distributing tablets to all first year primary (Prathom 1 school children across the country as part of the government’s “One Tablet Per Child” (OTPC project to improve education. Early indications suggest that there are many unexplored issues in designing and implementing tablet activities for such a large and varied group of students and so far there is a lack of evaluation on the effectiveness of the tablet activities. In this article, the authors propose four challenges for the improving Thailand’s OTPC project, consisting of: developing contextualised content, ensuring usability, providing teacher support, and assessing learning outcomes. A case study on developing science activities for first year primary school children on the OTPC devices is the basis for presenting possible solutions to the four challenges. In presenting a solution to the challenge of providing teacher support, an architecture is described for collecting data from student interactions with the tablet in order to analysis the current progress of students while in a live classroom setting. From tests in three local Thai schools, the authors evaluate the case study from both student and teacher perspectives. In concluding the paper, a framework for guiding mobile learning innovation is utilised to review the qualities and shortcomings of the case study.

  7. Familiar smiling faces in Alzheimer's disease: understanding the positivity-related recognition bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheid, Katja; McDonald, Rebecca S; Simmons-Stern, Nicholas; Ally, Brandon A; Budson, Andrew E

    2011-08-01

    Recent research has revealed a recognition bias favoring positive faces and other stimuli in older compared to younger adults. However, it is yet unclear whether this bias reflects an age-related preference for positive emotional stimuli, or an affirmatory bias used to compensate for episodic memory deficits. To follow up this point, the present study examined recognition of emotional faces and current mood state in patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy controls. Expecting lower overall memory performance, more negative and less positive mood in AD patients, the critical question was whether the positivity-related recognition bias would be increased compared to cognitively unimpaired controls. Eighteen AD patients and 18 healthy controls studied happy, neutral, and angry faces, which in a subsequent recognition task were intermixed with 50% distracter faces. As expected, the patient group showed reduced memory performance, along with a less positive and more negative mood. The recognition bias for positive faces persisted. This pattern supports the view that the positivity-induced recognition bias represents a compensatory, gist-based memory process that is applied when item-based recognition fails.

  8. Child Health and Nutrition: Getting better and facing new challenges in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shougang Wei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundChild healthcare practices in China over the last 60 yearshave extensively improved children’s health and growth, yetnew challenges lie ahead. This review aims to summarisethe successful experiences and the newly identifiedproblems in child healthcare in China.MethodInformation, available to the public, was obtained fromChinese databases and Chinese Government websites,chiefly the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructuredatabase, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, theMinistry of Health website and the National WorkingCommittee on Children and Women website.ResultsDuring its poverty-stricken 1950s–1970s, China protectedchildren’s health mainly through prevention and control ofcommon infectious diseases and severe malnutrition withina comprehensive healthcare system. After the subsequent30 years of rapid socio-economic development, China hasachieved great success in reducing childhood mortality ratesand promoting child growth, meeting the MillenniumDevelopment Goal 4 targets and the WHO child growthstandards. Meanwhile, new challenges for children’shealthcare emerged, including: large disparities in thehealth, growth and nutritional status of children, and in theaccessibility and quality of child healthcare, between urbanand rural areas and across different regions of China; thenutritional and healthcare concerns of the fast-expandingpopulation of migrant children and rural left-behindchildren; the burgeoning epidemic of childhood obesity inurban and economically developed areas; micronutrientdeficiencies such as calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin A; andincreasing prevalence of mental and behavioural disorders.ConclusionUnder poor economic conditions, healthcare plays a keyrole in protecting children against diseases. With thedevelopment of social economy, new challenges present tohealthcare services, specifically, to comprehensivelypromote and optimise childrens’ health and nutrition.

  9. Crisis Management: Challenge or Opportunity for Public and Private Managers Face Economic Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucean MIHALCEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful managers find ways to overcome situations of uncertainty. The strategies adopted are based on a series of simplistic reasoning such as analogy, taking into account the ideas of experts, rigorous debate and experimentation. Napoleon Bonaparte said that "there is nothing more important and more valuable than being able to make decisions." Business leaders today must deal with an avalanche of ambiguity, it must decide on the future of the company. I intend to expose some successful methods by which top managers were able to transform into opportunities, challenges of economic crisis.

  10. E-LEARNING AND THE GLOBAL DIVIDE: The Challenges Facing Distance Education in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele A. OJO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the question of distance education and its pivotal role in promoting social change and development in Africa. It also discussed within the context of the global digital divide and the ongoing need for collaborative effort at global education, the limitation imposed by the socio-economic and political environment on the continent. The paper in its findings conclude that the crisis within African societies constitutes a serious challenge to the implementation of and the effectiveness of distance education in Africa and therefore contributes to the widening of the digital divide rather than reducing it.

  11. Current challenges facing the determination of product bioequivalence in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M N; Hunter, R P

    2010-10-01

    Despite the pharmacological and statistical advances that have occurred since the early days of bioequivalence assessments, there remain many unresolved issues associated with the bioequivalence evaluation of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals. While many of these issues are common to both human and veterinary medicine, there are also challenges specific to veterinary drug products. Examples of complex problems that remain to be resolved include the assessment of drugs associated with complex kinetics (e.g., sustained release formulations that produce multiple peaks), the evaluation of intramammary formulations, uncertainty associated with conditions under which specific enantiomers of metabolites need to be factored into the bioequivalence evaluation, the study design for products and active pharmaceutical ingredients that exhibit highly variable kinetics, equivalence of biomass products, methods for evaluating topical formulations or formulations with very long duration of release, the evaluation of products where destructive sampling is necessary (e.g., aquaculture products), and the evaluation of bioequivalence for Type A medicated articles. This manuscript highlights many of the unresolved challenges currently impacting the evaluation of product bioequivalence in veterinary medicine, and provides a summary of the associated scientific complexities with each of these issues. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Challenges faced in managing dementia in Alzheimer’s disease in patients with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasher VP

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vee P Prasher, Hassan Mahmood, Madhumanti Mitra Birmingham Learning Disability Service, Birmingham Community Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Dementia in Alzheimer’s disease (DAD is more common in adults with Down syndrome (DS, with characteristically an earlier onset. The treatment of DAD is not too dissimilar in the general population and in people with intellectual disabilities. However, the underlying intellectual disability can make the management of DAD more challenging in older adults with DS. This literature review aimed to look at the management of DAD in people with DS. The management of dementia is holistic. This includes treating reversible factors, aiming to slow the cognitive decline, psychological therapies, ensuring that the environment is appropriate, and use of psychotropic medication when necessary to manage behavioral problems, psychotic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulty. Antidementia medications have a role to play but remain limited. The management of DAD in the DS population can be at times challenging, but good clinical practice should involve accurate diagnosis of dementia, treating any reversible additional factors, consideration of psychological and behavioral management, use of antidementia medication, and a multidisciplinary team approach. Keywords: Down syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, management

  13. A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Challenges Facing Comparative Cancer Survivorship Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Syse

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer survivorship research includes the study of physical, psychosocial, and economic consequences of cancer diagnosis and treatment among pediatric and adult cancer survivors. Historically, the majority of cancer survivorship studies were from the United States, but survivorship issues are increasingly being addressed in other developed countries. Cross-cultural studies remain, however, scarce. The degree to which knowledge attained may or may not be transferred across cultures, countries, or regions is not known. Some important challenges for comparative research are therefore discussed in a cross-cultural perspective. Several substantive and methodological challenges that complicate the execution of cross-cultural cancer survivorship research are presented with examples and discussed to facilitate comparative research efforts in the establishment of new survivorship cohorts and in the planning and implementation of survivorship studies. Comparative research is one key to understanding the nature of cancer survivorship, distinguishing modifiable from nonmodifiable factors at individual, hospital, societal, and system levels and may thus guide appropriate interventions. Lastly, suggested future courses of action within the field of comparative cancer survivorship research are provided.

  14. Economic and Market Challenges Facing the U.S. Nuclear Commercial Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sharpe, Phil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kee, Edward [Nuclear Economics Consulting Group, Washington, DC (United States); Davis, Edward [Nuclear Economics Consulting Group, Washington, DC (United States); Grecheck, Eugene [Grecheck Consulting LLC, Midlothian, VA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report identifies underlying economic and electricity market factors that have led to early retirements of U.S. operating nuclear power plants, assesses the Gap between operating revenues and operating costs for selected nuclear power plants, and discusses a range of actions that might be taken to stop early retirement of operating nuclear power plants. The Kewaunee and Vermont Yankee nuclear power plants were retired early for economic and financial reasons. Early retirement has been announced or proposed for Clinton and Quad Cities in Illinois, Fitzpatrick and Ginna in New York, Fort Calhoun in Nebraska. Other nuclear power plants, including Palisades, Davis-Besse, Prairie Island, and Three Mile Island Unit 1, have been identified as facing financial stress that might lead to early retirement. The early retirement of operating nuclear power plants will mean the loss of a large amount of zero-emission electricity, inconsistent with the goal of reducing carbon emissions in the electricity sector. This report provides a high-level view of the major factors driving early retirement: • The U.S. market and private ownership approach to the electricity sector; • Low electricity market prices resulting from low natural gas prices, low demand growth, increased penetration of renewable generation, and negative electricity market prices; and • No compensation to nuclear power plants for public benefits including zero-emission electricity.

  15. Technical and engineering challenges faced in design of the Gelugor Mainline, Penang, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khairiri, A.; Ghani, A. [PETRONAS GAS BERHAD, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2000-07-01

    The design of the Gelugor Mainline pipeline in Malaysia faced several obstacles of major importance. The Gelugor Mainline is part of the Peninsular Gas Utilization Project - Stage III. This NPS 24 gas pipeline is approximately 7 km in length and runs from Tenaga National Berhad (TNB) Prai Power Plant of the main line to TNB Gelugor Power Plant on Penang Island. Operating at high pressure, the route runs through complex terrain with varied seabed lithology with depth up to 16 m. It will cross active shipping lanes, zones of live electrical cables, an extensive system of submarine pipeline, mudbank and areas susceptible to mass gravity flows. The development of a Light Rapid Transportation system and the proposed development of a Vision City are both within a few meters of the route of the pipeline. In addition, the pipeline traverses an environmentally sensitive region which includes the rearing of caged fishing activities. A risk assessment study was performed to determine the mitigation actions required and appropriate evasion procedures. The busy shipping strait became the site of a detailed survey of its activities. The different phases of the design process were explained in the presentation as well as an outline of the techniques employed in the design of the pipeline. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. A Fuzzy Preference Relation Based Method for Face Recognition by Gabor Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumak Biswas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have applied Gabor filter for fiducial point localization. After obtaining the fiducial points the number of fiducial points are reduced using a distance formula. The distance of each of this fiducial point is then calculated by the distance formula and stored in the database of the system. The same methodology is also applied on the input face which is to be matched with the faces available in the database. Then a fuzzy preference relation matrix is obtained . the largest eigen value of this matrix is then determined by algebraic method or numerical method depending on the order of the matrix. To apply the numerical method which is more easier for large order matrices we have used the C programming of this method . Once the largest eigen value is determined the corresponding priority vector can easily be obtained from which we can easily match the input face with the database.

  17. Research with families facing cancer: the challenges of accrual and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northouse, Laurel L; Rosset, Tansey; Phillips, Laurel; Mood, Darlene; Schafenacker, Ann; Kershaw, Trace

    2006-06-01

    The purposes of this article are: (a) to describe and analyze the accrual and retention patterns in a longitudinal randomized clinical trial with prostate cancer patients and their partners, and (b) to discuss strategies that were used to overcome challenges in conducting this family-based study. Initially, 429 dyads were referred to the study. Of these, 166 were not enrolled due to refusal (n = 120) or ineligibility (n = 46), 21 of whom did not meet one or more of the inclusion criteria, and 25 of whom could not be reached within the 2-month window of eligibility. Of the 383 eligible dyads, 263 dyads were enrolled (enrollment rate of 68.7%). Accrual and retention patterns differed by research site, referral procedures, and phase of prostate cancer. The retention rate was very good with the majority of dyads (n = 218) completing all three follow-up assessments at 4, 8, and 12 months (82.9%).

  18. Cyber crime: can a standard risk analysis help in the challenges facing business continuity managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Putte, Danny; Verhelst, Marc

    Risk management has never been easy. Finding efficient mitigating measures is not always straightforward. Finding measures for cyber crime, however, is a really huge challenge because cyber threats are changing all the time. As the sophistication of these threats is growing, their impact increases. Moreover, society and its economy have become increasingly dependent on information and communication technologies. Standard risk analysis methodologies will help to score the cyber risk and to place it in the risk tolerance matrix. This will allow business continuity managers to figure out if there is still a gap with the maximum tolerable outage for time-critical business processes and if extra business continuity measures are necessary to fill the gap.

  19. Managing parental groups during early childhood: New challenges faced by Swedish child health-care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Åsa; Pia, Lundqvist; Eva, Drevenhorn; Inger, Hallström

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe child health centre (CHC) nurses' views of managing parental groups during early childhood. All 311 CHC nurses working within the Swedish CHC system in one county were asked to complete a web-based questionnaire. Findings showed that although the CHC nurses were experienced, several found group leadership challenging and difficult. The need for specialized groups for young parents, single parents and parents whose first language was not Swedish was identified by 57% of the nurses. The CHC nurses found the participation of fathers in their parental groups to be low (an estimate of 10-20%), and 30% of the nurses made special efforts to make the fathers participate. Education in group dynamics and group leadership can strengthen CHC nurses in managing parental groups. It is recommended that specialized parental groups are organized by a few family centres so CHC nurses can develop their skill in managing such groups.

  20. Perception Challenges Faced by Al-Qaeda on the Battlefield of Influence Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J.F. Forest

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many kinds of entities—including terrorists and insurgents—seek to influence perceptions and behavior among various target audiences, and have become increasingly reliant on the Internet in their efforts, incorporating social media, blogging, public video sharing and other online tools. This article is focused on the ideological messages that terrorist groups use to convey with these tools. Drawing from a study of Al-Qaeda, this discussion illustrates how ideologies of violence have certain vulnerabilities that can be exploited in order to degrade a terrorist group’s ability to achieve its objectives. While crafting and disseminating counter-narratives can be a critical part of a counterterrorism strategy, it is also important to identify ways in which terrorists undermine their own central narratives and exacerbate pre-existing “influence warfare” challenges

  1. Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

    2010-11-01

    The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

  2. Challenge theme 2: assuring water availability and quality in the 21st century: Chapter 4 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegary, James; Langeman, Jeff; Leenhouts, Jim; Martin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Along the United States–Mexican border, the health of communities, economies, and ecosystems is inextricably intertwined with the availability and quality of water, but effective water management in the Borderlands is complicated. Water users compete for resources, and their needs are increasing. Managers are faced with issues such as finding a balance between agriculture and rapidly growing cities or maintaining public supplies while ensuring sufficient resources for aquatic ecosystems. In addition to human factors, the dry climate of the Borderlands, as compared to more temperate regions, also increases the challenge of balancing water supplies between humans and ecosystems. Warmer, drier, and more variable conditions across the southwestern United States—the projected results of climate change (Seager and others, 2007)—would further stress water supplies.

  3. An opportunity and an imperative: Chapter 11 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updike, Randall G.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Along the nearly 3,200 kilometers (almost 2,000 miles) of the United States–Mexican border, we are witnessing the expression of the challenges of the 21st century. The Borderlands have become a microcosm for the entire United States and Mexico; the issues faced in that region are felt throughout both nations—water availability and quality, ecosystem health, natural resource needs, safety from natural hazards, and human socioeconomic well-being. If these issues were not challenging enough, we now recognize that the difficulties of addressing them are exacerbated by the onset of climate change, and as we come to better understand the complexities of the components of these challenge themes, we discover that each part is inextricably intertwined with other overarching issues. Further, because we are a creative and progressive society, we all seek to understand and appreciate the natural environments associated with the Borderlands while at the same time benefitting from the region’s many social and economic values. It is little wonder that we as a society find it increasingly difficult to ask the right questions, much less find suitable answers to the questions we do ask. For the many scientists who have worked in the Borderlands and contributed to the preceding chapters, this circular is a way to describe to the two nations of the region the capabilities the U.S. Geological Survey can provide to assist in that quest for knowledge and understanding in preparation for the future.

  4. Age-related changes in emotional face processing across childhood and into young adulthood: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Vergés, Alvaro; Kujawa, Autumn; Fitzgerald, Kate D; Monk, Christopher S; Phan, K Luan

    2016-01-01

    Socio-emotional processing is an essential part of development, and age-related changes in its neural correlates can be observed. The late positive potential (LPP) is a measure of motivated attention that can be used to assess emotional processing; however, changes in the LPP elicited by emotional faces have not been assessed across a wide age range in childhood and young adulthood. We used an emotional face matching task to examine behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) in 33 youth aged 7-19 years old. Younger children were slower when performing the matching task. The LPP elicited by emotional faces but not control stimuli (geometric shapes) decreased with age; by contrast, an earlier ERP (the P1) decreased with age for both faces and shapes, suggesting increased efficiency of early visual processing. Results indicate age-related attenuation in emotional processing that may stem from greater efficiency and regulatory control when performing a socio-emotional task. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Facing tomorrow's challenges: U.S. Geological Survey science in the decade 2007-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    In order for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to respond to evolving national and global priorities, it must periodically reflect on, and optimize, its strategic directions. This report is the first comprehensive science strategy since the early 1990s to examine critically major USGS science goals and priorities. The development of this science strategy comes at a time of global trends and rapidly evolving societal needs that pose important natural-science challenges. The emergence of a global economy affects the demand for all resources. The last decade has witnessed the emergence of a new model for managing Federal lands-ecosystem-based management. The U.S. Climate Change Science Program predicts that the next few decades will see rapid changes in the Nation's and the Earth's environment. Finally, the natural environment continues to pose risks to society in the form of volcanoes, earthquakes, wildland fires, floods, droughts, invasive species, variable and changing climate, and natural and anthropogenic toxins, as well as animal-borne diseases that affect humans. The use of, and competition for, natural resources on the global scale, and natural threats to those resources, has the potential to impact the Nation's ability to sustain its economy, national security, quality of life, and natural environment. Responding to these national priorities and global trends requires a science strategy that not only builds on existing USGS strengths and partnerships but also demands the innovation made possible by integrating the full breadth and depth of USGS capabilities. The USGS chooses to go forward in the science directions proposed here because the societal issues addressed by these science directions represent major challenges for the Nation's future and for the stewards of Federal lands, both onshore and offshore. The six science directions proposed in this science strategy are listed as follows. The ecosystems strategy is listed first because it has a dual nature

  6. Northern Eurasia Future Initiative: Facing the Challenges of Global Change in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Gutman, Garik; Gulev, Sergey; Maksyutov, Shamil; Qi, Jiaguo

    2016-04-01

    foci emerged in discussions within the NEESPI community during the past 20 months. Presentation will provide justification of these foci and approach examples addressing them. The societal challenges, particularly the socio-economic challenges are the top priority in most of them. Throughout the NEESP Initiative duration, support for it studies has been provided by different national and international Agencies of the United States (in particular, the NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change Program), the Russian Federation (in particular, the Ministry of Education and Science, e.g., mega-grant 14.B25.31.0026), European Union, Japan, and China. After the NEFI White Paper release, we anticipate a similar kind of support for this new Initiative.

  7. Facing the challenges of multiscale modelling of bacterial and fungal pathogen-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Jana; Conrad, Theresia; Gustafsson, Mika; Cedersund, Gunnar; Guthke, Reinhard; Linde, Jörg

    2017-03-01

    Recent and rapidly evolving progress on high-throughput measurement techniques and computational performance has led to the emergence of new disciplines, such as systems medicine and translational systems biology. At the core of these disciplines lies the desire to produce multiscale models: mathematical models that integrate multiple scales of biological organization, ranging from molecular, cellular and tissue models to organ, whole-organism and population scale models. Using such models, hypotheses can systematically be tested. In this review, we present state-of-the-art multiscale modelling of bacterial and fungal infections, considering both the pathogen and host as well as their interaction. Multiscale modelling of the interactions of bacteria, especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the human host is quite advanced. In contrast, models for fungal infections are still in their infancy, in particular regarding infections with the most important human pathogenic fungi, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. We reflect on the current availability of computational approaches for multiscale modelling of host-pathogen interactions and point out current challenges. Finally, we provide an outlook for future requirements of multiscale modelling. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Facing the challenges of multiscale modelling of bacterial and fungal pathogen–host interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Jana; Conrad, Theresia; Gustafsson, Mika; Cedersund, Gunnar; Guthke, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recent and rapidly evolving progress on high-throughput measurement techniques and computational performance has led to the emergence of new disciplines, such as systems medicine and translational systems biology. At the core of these disciplines lies the desire to produce multiscale models: mathematical models that integrate multiple scales of biological organization, ranging from molecular, cellular and tissue models to organ, whole-organism and population scale models. Using such models, hypotheses can systematically be tested. In this review, we present state-of-the-art multiscale modelling of bacterial and fungal infections, considering both the pathogen and host as well as their interaction. Multiscale modelling of the interactions of bacteria, especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the human host is quite advanced. In contrast, models for fungal infections are still in their infancy, in particular regarding infections with the most important human pathogenic fungi, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. We reflect on the current availability of computational approaches for multiscale modelling of host–pathogen interactions and point out current challenges. Finally, we provide an outlook for future requirements of multiscale modelling. PMID:26857943

  9. Frontier of therapeutic antibody discovery:The challenges and how to face them

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Jian; Lu; Su-Jun; Deng; Da-Gang; Huang; Yun; He; Ming; Lei; Li; Zhou; Pei; Jin

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have become an important class of modern medicines.The established technologies for therapeutic antibody discovery such as humanization of mouse antibodies,phage display of human antibody libraries and transgenic animals harboring human IgG genes have been practiced successfully so far,and many incremental improvements are being made constantly.These methodologies are responsible for currently marketed therapeutic antibodies and for the biopharma industry pipeline which are concentrated on only a few dozen targets.A key challenge for wider application of biotherapeutic approaches is the paucity of truly validated targets for biotherapeutic intervention.The efforts to expand the target space include taking the pathway approach to study the disease correlation.Since many new targets are multi-spanning and multimeric membrane proteins there is a need to develop more effective methods to generate antibodies against these difficult targets.The pharmaceutical properties of therapeutic antibodies are an active area for study concentrating on biophysical characteristics such as thermal stability and aggregation propensity.The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics in humans is a very complex issue and there are no truly predictive animal models to rely on.The in silico and T-cell response approaches identify the potential for immunogenicity;however,one needs contingency plans for emergence of antiproduct antibody response for clinical trials.

  10. Potential challenges facing distributed leadership in health care: evidence from the UK National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graeme; Beech, Nic; MacIntosh, Robert; Bushfield, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The discourse of leaderism in health care has been a subject of much academic and practical debate. Recently, distributed leadership (DL) has been adopted as a key strand of policy in the UK National Health Service (NHS). However, there is some confusion over the meaning of DL and uncertainty over its application to clinical and non-clinical staff. This article examines the potential for DL in the NHS by drawing on qualitative data from three co-located health-care organisations that embraced DL as part of their organisational strategy. Recent theorising positions DL as a hybrid model combining focused and dispersed leadership; however, our data raise important challenges for policymakers and senior managers who are implementing such a leadership policy. We show that there are three distinct forms of disconnect and that these pose a significant problem for DL. However, we argue that instead of these disconnects posing a significant problem for the discourse of leaderism, they enable a fantasy of leadership that draws on and supports the discourse.

  11. Aging: the triumph of humanity-are we prepared to face the challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Zile

    2012-01-01

    Advances in medicine have increased the life expectancy resulting in an increase in the geriatric population all over the world, and their proportion will only continue to rise in the coming years. It is known that the elderly bear a significant burden of morbidity, which is why health systems globally spearheaded by the WHO are waking up to the need for better geriatric health services. This includes India, whose health system continues to grapple with the health challenges of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. This article enumerates the various government policies and programs, constitutional and legal provisions available for the care of the elderly, and concludes that they are grossly inadequate to deal with the various physical, psychological, and emotional needs of the aging population. Mainstreaming of geriatric health to address the health needs of the elderly at all levels of health care, both in the public and the private sectors, giving due importance to multidimensional rehabilitative services and terminal care, involving NGOs and voluntary organizations, and stepping up social security in old age are the recommended measures for improving geriatric health in India.

  12. Networked Social Enterprises: A New Model of Community Schooling for Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Facing Challenging Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Kerr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Community schools have long been accepted as an institutional mechanism for intervening in the relationship between poverty, poor educational outcomes, and limited life chances. At a time when public services are being retracted, and disadvantaged places are being increasingly left to struggle, community schools are poised to become more important in offering a response to the needs of children, families, and communities in these places. Yet, despite their apparent promise, community schools remain badly under-conceptualized. As an international field, research on community schooling has rarely articulated or questioned how—by providing additional learning and leisure opportunities and personal and social supports—community schools might create a viable intervention in the relationship between poverty and poor outcomes. This paper explicitly addresses this significant challenge. Conceptualizing empirical findings emerging from a research-practice partnership, it identifies the core features of a new institutional design for community schools which can help to clarify their potential contribution to addressing disadvantage. Marking a considerable shift from a traditional design of simply adding new services to the school day, it argues that community schools will need to operate as social enterprises with networked governance arrangements, and to develop strategies which engage with children’s social ecologies, and are risk-reducing and resilience-building within these. This, in turn, sets a new agenda for significantly advancing the field of community schooling by further defining—conceptually and empirically—the core elements of a new institutional design as identified here.

  13. Transcultural nursing: facing the challenges of advocacy and diversity/universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, K H

    1993-01-01

    This paper is in response to an invitation to address the topic of advocacy and diversity from the perspective of past and present transcultural nursing. With origins in nursing, with its philosophy of active intervention, and in anthropology, where relativism proposes merit in diverse (including non-interventive) approaches to health and illness, transcultural nursing grapples with potential epistemological conflict as it helps shape health care in highly industrialized, multicultural societies and even more varied global contexts. As a developing subdiscipline, transcultural nursing continuously reexamines dialectical relationships between change and preservation and between health care needs and the risk of imposition. Whereas advocacy is viewed as a moral imperative in nursing, diversity (which can be used to argue against acknowledgement of differences and to promote the pretense that everything is the same for everyone) remains better developed conceptually than operationally, while universality too often falls prey to misuse as an argument against acknowledgement of diversity. Within a framework constructed from the juxtaposition of advocacy with diversity/universality (Leininger, 1988c, 1991), this article appraises the accomplishments and challenges of transcultural nursing as it moves into its second quarter century. It is proposed that the future of transcultural nursing should emphasize development of realistic nursing roles that include a confluence of advocacy and diversity/universality and negotiation of responsible social conceptualizations of cultural issues such as "race" and diversity.

  14. Eculizumab for atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome in India: First report from India and the challenges faced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, S. K.; Rohatgi, S.; Dragon-Durey, M. A.; Raghunathan, V.; Dhaliwal, M.; Rawat, A.; Jha, P.; Bansal, S. B.; Raina, R.; Kher, V.

    2017-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). Plasma therapy is the mainstay of treatment for aHUS. The availability of the first effective anti-complement therapeutic agent, eculizumab, has dramatically changed the outlook of this disease. However, its use in clinical practice raises important questions, such as who should receive the drug, when to start such therapy, and is it safe to stop treatment once the disease is controlled. We describe here for the 1st time in India, use of eculizumab in a 12-year-old boy with aHUS. We also describe in this report challenges faced in procuring the drug, and an ideal, evidence-based method of treating aHUS in children. PMID:28182046

  15. 医院信息化面临的安全挑战%The Information Security Challenges Faced by Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈韬

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the information security challenges faced by hospitals in the process of healthcare reform. The solutions and implementation approaches for financial security, business continuity management, internet security and leakage of sensitive information were proposed. A brief analysis about significant barriers to promoting hospital information security governance was also in this article.%概述了医改形势下医院信息化所面临的安全挑战,针对财务安全、业务连续性管理、互联网安全和敏感信息泄漏问题提出了应对方案和实施策略,并对推进医院信息安全治理的主要障碍进行了简要分析.

  16. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined.

  17. Investigating Challenges Facing Self-Management Empowerment Education in Adolescents and Youths with Major Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzazan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Thalassemia is considered an important public health problem worldwide, especially in developing and poor countries. Although several advanced techniques have been developed for prevention of thalassemia in the recent years, many adolescents and youths are still living with this disease. Independence from parents, decisions about high-risk behaviors, uncovering the identity, and adapting to mental and physical effects of the disease occur together in adolescents. Objectives This study was conducted to explore challenges of self-management empowerment in adolescents and youths with major thalassemia. Materials and Methods This was a descriptive-exploratory study. The study population consisted of adolescents and youths with major thalassemia who had medical records in the Bushehr Thalassemia Center, affiliated with Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. The study samples were purposively selected. Demographic information questionnaire and empowerment questionnaire were used to collect data from the semistructured interview. We analyzed qualitative data by content analysis method and quantitative data by descriptive (mean, standard deviation and analytical (Student's t-test, ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation coefficient statistical methods, using the statistical software SPSS 18. Results In qualitative part of the study, data from semistructured in-depth interviews with 15 participants were coded and summarized in five themes including: 1 awareness of personal changes; 2 need for adaptation; 3 maintaining independence and self-management; 4 uncovering the identity and role playing; and 5 sense of control and satisfaction. Results of the quantitative part showed that the overall score of participants on empowerment was 92.46 of 149 scores, which showed a moderate situation in the empowerment of these individuals. In addition, the empowerment score showed no statistically significant correlation with demographic characteristics

  18. Synergistic patterns of threat and the challenges facing global anguillid eel conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M.P. Jacoby

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With broad distributions, diadromous fishes can be exposed to multiple threats at different stages of development. For the primarily catadromous eels of the family Anguillidae, there is growing international concern for the population abundance and escapement trends of some of these species and yet incomplete knowledge of their remarkable life-histories hampers management and conservation. Anguillids experience a suite of pressures that include habitat loss/modification, migration barriers, pollution, parasitism, exploitation, and fluctuating oceanic conditions that likely have synergistic and regionally variable impacts, even within species. In beginning to redress this rather fragmented picture, we evaluated the extinction risk of these species using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Categories and Criteria to infer population-wide trends from catch and monitoring data. Here we consolidate and build upon these species assessments by presenting an overview of the current state of global eel data and conservation, categorising the knowledge gaps and geographic regions where resources are needed and discussing future recommendations to improve our understanding of anguillids. We find stark disparity between the quality and length of data available to assess population trends and conservation priorities in temperate and tropical anguillids. Of the 13 species assessed, four were listed as ‘Threatened’ (Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered; four were Near Threatened, three were Data Deficient and two were deemed Least Concern. Comparing with other diadromous species, we examine the multiple threats that impact eels during their different life-history stages, highlighting the challenges of applying the Red List Categories and Criteria to geographically-expansive, catadromous and panmictic groups of species.

  19. Organized Crime as a Dynamic and Complex Challenge Faced by the Modern Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Halilagic

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Organized crime is a complex and in many ways specific criminal phenomenon, now considered to be the most dangerous form of crime. It appeared relatively recently in both Bosnia and Herzegovina and the other republics of the former Yugoslavia. This work reviews the level of danger organized crime has presented to society through history. The author of the paper also refers to the characteristics of organized crime and highlights the presence of diferent both international and domestic opinions on the definition of the concept of organized crime, and the fact that today there is still no universal definition of the content of this concept. Also mentioned are criminal of­fenses related to organized crime.

  20. Age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile sensitivity of hand and face in neurotypical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Lalit; Barlow, Steven M; Kieweg, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Sensory perception decreases with age, and is altered as a function of sex. Very little is known about the age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile detection thresholds (VDTs) of the face relative to the glabrous hand. This study utilized a single-interval up/down (SIUD) adaptive procedure to estimate the VDT for mechanical stimuli presented at 5, 10, 50, 150, 250, and 300 Hz at two sites on the face, including the right non-glabrous surface of the oral angle and the right lower lip vermilion; and on the hand on the glabrous surface of the distal phalanx of the right dominant index finger. Eighteen right-handed healthy younger adults and 18 right-handed healthy older adults participated in this study. VDTs were significantly different between the three stimulus sites (p face and hand. Age-related differences in finger skin sensitivity are likely due to changes in the physical structure of skin, changes in the number and morphology of the mechanoreceptors, differences in the functional use of the hand, and its central representation. Sex-related differences in the VDTs may be due to the differences in tissue conformation and thickness, mechanoreceptor densities, skin hydration, or temperature characteristics.

  1. Challenges facing minority women in achieving good health: voices of Arab women in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya

    2008-01-01

    Arab women citizens of Israel bear a heavier burden of health problems compared with Jewish women. These inequalities were examined by conducting 6 focus groups that explored obstacles to achieving good health and strategies for maintaining good health as articulated by 86 Arab-Moslem women from the Triangle area in central Israel. Perceived obstacles ranged from personal to socio-political: unhealthy lifestyles, obedience to patriarchal norms, rapid lifestyle transitions, the political situation, poverty and lower socioeconomic status, and limited access to specific health care services. These multi-layered obstacles appeared to operate synergistically to limit women's access to social support and health care systems, intensify feelings of powerlessness, and further promote unhealthy behaviors. Moreover, these perceptions differed by the socioeconomic status of the group. The relatively more advantaged groups did not address issues related to poverty or access to health care services. Most health maintenance strategies discussed were personal and conservative, and considerate of traditional Arab cultural norms. The findings provide a basis for developing more culturally competent and adequate health care services for Arab women in Israel and for further research concerning Arab women's health in the region.

  2. How experience shapes memory for faces: an event-related potential study on the own-age bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Holger; Wolff, Nicole; Steffens, Melanie C; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2013-10-01

    Young adults more accurately remember own-age than older faces. We tested whether this own-age bias (OAB) is reduced by increased experience. Young experts (geriatric nurses) and controls performed a recognition experiment with young and old faces. Critically, while control participants demonstrated better memory for young faces, no OAB was observed in the experts. Event-related potentials revealed larger N170 and P2 amplitudes for young than old faces in both groups, suggesting no group differences during early perceptual processing. At test, N250 repetition effects were more anteriorily distributed for own- than other-age faces in control participants, whereas experts showed no corresponding effects. A larger late positive component (LPC) for old than young faces was observed in controls, but not in experts. Larger LPCs may reflect prolonged stimulus processing compromising memory retrieval. In sum, experience with other-age faces does not affect early perceptual processing, but modulates later stages related to memory retrieval.

  3. Neural broadening or neural attenuation? Investigating age-related dedifferentiation in the face network in a large lifespan sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonkoo; Carp, Joshua; Kennedy, Kristen M; Rodrigue, Karen M; Bischof, Gerard N; Huang, Chih-Mao; Rieck, Jennifer R; Polk, Thad A; Park, Denise C

    2012-02-08

    Previous studies have found that cortical responses to different stimuli become less distinctive as people get older. This age-related dedifferentiation may reflect the broadening of the tuning curves of category-selective neurons (broadening hypothesis) or it may be due to decreased activation of category-selective neurons (attenuation hypothesis). In this study, we evaluated these hypotheses in the context of the face-selective neural network. Over 300 participants, ranging in age from 20 to 89 years, viewed images of faces, houses, and control stimuli in a functional magnetic resonance imaging session. Regions within the core face network and extended face network were identified in individual subjects. Activation in many of these regions became significantly less face-selective with age, confirming previous reports of age-related dedifferentiation. Consistent with the broadening hypothesis, this dedifferentiation in the fusiform face area (FFA) was driven by increased activation to houses. In contrast, dedifferentiation in the extended face network was driven by decreased activation to faces, consistent with the attenuation hypothesis. These results suggest that age-related dedifferentiation reflects distinct processes in different brain areas. More specifically, dedifferentiation in FFA activity may be due to broadening of the tuning curves for face-selective neurons, while dedifferentiation in the extended face network reflects reduced face- or emotion-selective activity.

  4. Lack of reliable alternatives means France faces challenges finding a replacement for nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-03-15

    The lack of alternative low-carbon energy sources that are as reliable as nuclear means France's ''ambitious'' plans to reduce its share of nuclear from 78 % in 2015 to 50 % by 2025 might not be achievable, the International Energy Agency (IEA) said in its January 2017 report. The Paris-based agency said France - which has the world's highest share of nuclear in its electricity mix - must assess possible changes in energy demand and supply and to guarantee ''continuous security of electricity supply'' as it pushes ahead with its plans for an ''energy transition'' up to 2050. The Energy Transition for Green Growth Act (Loi relative a la transition energetique pour la croissance verte, LTECV) was the result of consultations that ran from January to July 2013.

  5. Diplomacy, foreign intelligence and diplomatic secrecy in face of the challenges posed by the global age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Murillo Zamora

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, especially after the end of the Cold War, profound changes occurred in the international system, which today is characterized by its new architecture and the construction of a novel international order; also some special events and revelations about the tasks of diplomats and intelligence agents have led to variations in two key institutions of international relations: diplomacy and intelligence, in addition to the revolution in information and communication technologies, which raises serious questions about the diplomatic secrecy. This is a fundamental resource in diplomacy management, both in the way of information for decision making and for transmitting messages to the population of the country where the diplomat is credited. The article used the example of Costa Rica.

  6. Ethical Challenges Facing Greenland in the Present Era of Globalization: Towards Global Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the developments of ethics and politics in the Arctic region have again become an issue for international discussion. One main issue is the problem of climate change and sustainability of the Arctic region. This problem is linked to the issue of exploitation of natural resources in the Arctic region, not at least in Greenland. Indeed, the general issue is how we should define ethics of the environment and sustainability as a general principle for the Arctic region. It is important to discuss what is at stake and how we define the problem in relation to the different participating stakeholders. This paper deals with these problems as a case for global ethics and it proposes a vision of ethical and political responsibility for sustainable development in order to deal with such problems.

  7. Facing The Challenges Of Tracking Tropical Phenology At Several Scales In Time And Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T. S. F.; Morellato, P.; Streher, A. S.; Alberton, B.; Almeida, J.; dos Santos, J.; Cancian, L.; Borges, B.; Mariano, G.; Camargo, M. G.; Torres, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    Detect plant responses to environmental changes across tropical systems, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, is an important question in the global agenda, since few studies have addressed trends related to global warming. Traditional on-the-ground direct, manned phenological observations preclude large areas of study, are laborious and time consuming and restricts frequency of observations to large time-intervals (usually monthly). Near-surface remote phenology using digital cameras or phenocams set up at the top of towers have reduced the temporal and labor constraints of on-the-ground human observations, and eliminates the uncertainty of cloud cover, enhancing the resolution of information at individual tree, species, and community scales. Phenocams have reduced considerably manpower, since images are taken sequentially at reduced time-scales. Furthermore, Phenocams have proven to be an important tool for monitoring several species and ecosystems, accurately accessing leaf changes daily or several times a day and the relation to climate drivers but it is still area-limited. Here we propose to apply new technologies to enhance the capabilities near-surface remote phenological observations by integrating at time and space to detect changes on vegetation phenology at various scales, from leaves to ecosystems. Our studies have been carried out in the rupestrian grassland (campos rupestres) a rare, unique Brazilian mountain ecosystem, distinguished by a highly species rich, heterogeneous herbaceous/shrub vegetation and high number of endemic species. We discuss how the combination of cutting-edge technologies collected and framed within a e-science research project has been used to increase our observational capabilities in space by integrating phenology to cutting-edge technologies of environmental and phenology monitoring systems, based on the combination of two near-surface remote phenology monitoring systems: digital and hyperspectral sensors at three scales

  8. Response bias-related impairment of early subjective face discrimination in social anxiety disorders: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanyan; Gu, Ruolei; Cao, Jianqin; Bi, Xuejing; Wu, Haiyan; Liu, Xun

    2017-02-05

    Considerable research has shown that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is accompanied by various negative cognitive biases, such as social feedback expectancy bias, memory bias, and interpretation bias. However, whether the memory bias in individuals with SAD is actually a manifestation of response bias, and whether such response bias is associated with deficits in face discrimination, remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated response bias (i.e., a tendency to recognize more negative evaluations) to faces with positive (social acceptance) or negative (social rejection) social evaluations in individuals with SAD and healthy controls (HCs) using event-related potentials (ERPs). Behavioral results revealed significant group differences in response bias in the forced-choice recall task, but no difference in overall memory accuracy. ERP results demonstrated that HCs showed a larger N170 to faces that had rejected them as compared to those that had accepted them, but this effect was not evident in the SAD group. Further analysis showed that response bias was correlated with the ΔN170 (rejected - accepted) amplitude. We concluded that the response bias in individuals with SAD is resulted from impairments in early discrimination of social faces, as reflected by the absent early N170 differentiation effect, which was associated with their combined negative biases.

  9. Intracranial stenting in atherosclerotic disease - recent results and challenges to face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurre, Wiebke; Chapot, Rene [Alfried-Krupp-Krankenhaus, Department of Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Mesnil de Rochemont, Richard du; Berkefeld, Joachim [Goethe Universitaet, Department of Neuroradiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Intracranial stenting is increasingly used as an add-on to medical therapy despite the fact that the overall clinical benefit remains a matter of debate, since we lack results of randomized trials. Decision making on interventional treatment is made on the grounds of the anticipated risk of stroke with antiplatelet medication on one hand and on the experience with stent treatment based on data from case series and registries on the other hand. This review will summarize the current knowledge on both topics serving as the fundament of patient selection for intracranial stenting. A second objective is to highlight some specific problems that are encountered when treating patients interventionally. Procedure-related complication rates and rates of in stent stenoses are still too high to be confident that endovascular treatment is superior to medical therapy of symptomatic stenoses. Optimization of patient selection criteria, stent technology, and periprocedural management are necessary to become undoubtedly competitive with antiplatelet therapy. With the current stage of development, interventional treatment of intracranial stenoses should be confined to specialized centers with a high expertise in neurovascular procedures. (orig.)

  10. The challenges facing initial teacher education: Irish prospective elementary teachers' mathematics subject matter knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourigan, Mairéad; O'Donoghue, John

    2013-01-01

    Given the acknowledged relationship between teachers' knowledge, their teaching and pupil learning, teachers' mathematics subject matter knowledge (MSMK) has received increased attention internationally. As children's early mathematics experiences have been recognized as a critical stage, elementary teachers' MSMK has become a focal point among researchers and policy makers alike. International research findings have uncovered that in many cases, there is a mismatch between what is perceived to be an appropriate MSMK for teaching elementary mathematics and that demonstrated by many qualified and prospective elementary teachers. Following repeated incidences of weak MSMK during interactions with prospective elementary teachers in one Irish College of Education (provider of initial teacher education programme for elementary teachers), this study sought to examine and address the issue purposefully through two cycles of action research. This article focuses on the data collected prospective teachers' MSMK in the initial stage (reconnaissance) of these cycles, i.e. pre-test findings. While considerable differences were evident among the pre-test population, the findings suggest that prior to the intervention stage many participating prospective teachers; regardless of previous mathematics achievements or the level of mathematics study; demonstrate weaknesses and gaps in their 'common' MSMK. Particular difficulties were evident in relation to pre-test items requiring knowledge of rational numbers, conceptual understanding or problem solving. These findings highlight the inadequacy of previous mathematics achievements and indeed minimum entry requirements as predictors of MSMK for teaching. As well as its contribution at a local and national level, the findings provide an Irish perspective on this international issue.

  11. Social, Cultural, and Environmental Challenges Faced by Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe: a Mixed Method Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Macherera, MSc

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART, many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe.Methods:A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest.Results:A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for

  12. Neural correlates of perceiving emotional faces and bodies in developmental prosopagnosia: an event-related fMRI-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Van den Stock

    Full Text Available Many people experience transient difficulties in recognizing faces but only a small number of them cannot recognize their family members when meeting them unexpectedly. Such face blindness is associated with serious problems in everyday life. A better understanding of the neuro-functional basis of impaired face recognition may be achieved by a careful comparison with an equally unique object category and by a adding a more realistic setting involving neutral faces as well facial expressions. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate the neuro-functional basis of perceiving faces and bodies in three developmental prosopagnosics (DP and matched healthy controls. Our approach involved materials consisting of neutral faces and bodies as well as faces and bodies expressing fear or happiness. The first main result is that the presence of emotional information has a different effect in the patient vs. the control group in the fusiform face area (FFA. Neutral faces trigger lower activation in the DP group, compared to the control group, while activation for facial expressions is the same in both groups. The second main result is that compared to controls, DPs have increased activation for bodies in the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG and for neutral faces in the extrastriate body area (EBA, indicating that body and face sensitive processes are less categorically segregated in DP. Taken together our study shows the importance of using naturalistic emotional stimuli for a better understanding of developmental face deficits.

  13. Relations internationales et cooperation face a l'evolution des societes et aux enjeux du vivant : strategies ouvertes d'action et apport de l'approche patrimoniale

    OpenAIRE

    De HARTINGH, François-Vadim

    2008-01-01

    Facing challenges of a planetary dimension especially regarding the living systems and the man in the biosphere, the system of international relations and cooperation is being put in question. The international organizations and their mode of cooperation are being questioned as far as their methods and their fundamentals are concerned. If the universal values are recognized by all, the complexity of the problems in the biosphere and the urgency they reach now do not appear to be dealt with in...

  14. Face-name Associative Memory Performance is Related To Amyloid Burden in Normal Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentz, Dorene M.; Amariglio, Rebecca. E.; Becker, J. Alex; Frey, Meghan; Olson, Lauren E.; Frishe, Katherine; Carmasin, Jeremy; Maye, Jacqueline E.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition occurs in a substantial fraction of cognitively normal (CN) older individuals. However, it has been difficult to reliably detect evidence of amyloid-related cognitive alterations in CN using standard neuropsychological measures. We sought to determine whether a highly demanding face-name associative memory exam (FNAME) could detect evidence of Aβ-related memory impairment in CN. We studied 45 CN subjects (mean age = 71.7 ± 8.8) with Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scores = 0 and MMSE ≥ 28, using Positron Emission Tomography with Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB PET). Memory factor scores were derived from a principal components analysis for FNAME name retrieval (FN-N), FNAME occupation retrieval (FN-O) and the 6-Trial Selective Reminding Test (SRT). Using multiple linear and logistic regression analyses, we related the memory factor scores to PiB distribution volume ratios (DVR, cerebellar reference) as either a continuous or a dichotomous variable in frontal cortex and a posterior cortical region representing the precuneus, posterior cingulate and lateral parietal cortices (PPCLP), co-varying for age and AMNART IQ (a proxy of cognitive reserve (CR)). A significant inverse relationship for FN-N was found with Aβ deposition in frontal (R2 = .29, β = −2.2, p = 0.02) and PPCLP cortices (R2 = .26, β = −2.4, p = 0.05). In contrast, neither FN-O nor the SRT were significantly related to Aβ deposition. Performance on a demanding test of face-name associative memory was related to Aβ burden in brain regions associated with memory systems. Associative memory for faces and names, a common complaint among older adults, may be a sensitive marker of early Aβ-related impairment. PMID:21689670

  15. Face-name associative memory performance is related to amyloid burden in normal elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentz, Dorene M; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Becker, J Alex; Frey, Meghan; Olson, Lauren E; Frishe, Katherine; Carmasin, Jeremy; Maye, Jacqueline E; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A

    2011-07-01

    Cerebral amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition occurs in a substantial fraction of cognitively normal (CN) older individuals. However, it has been difficult to reliably detect evidence of amyloid-related cognitive alterations in CN using standard neuropsychological measures. We sought to determine whether a highly demanding face-name associative memory exam (FNAME) could detect evidence of Aβ-related memory impairment in CN. We studied 45 CN subjects (mean age=71.7 ± 8.8) with Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scores=0 and MMSE ≥ 28, using Positron Emission Tomography with Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB PET). Memory factor scores were derived from a principal components analysis for FNAME name retrieval (FN-N), FNAME occupation retrieval (FN-O) and the 6-Trial Selective Reminding Test (SRT). Using multiple linear and logistic regression analyses, we related the memory factor scores to PiB distribution volume ratios (DVR, cerebellar reference) as either a continuous or a dichotomous variable in frontal cortex and a posterior cortical region representing the precuneus, posterior cingulate and lateral parietal cortices (PPCLP), co-varying for age and AMNART IQ (a proxy of cognitive reserve (CR)). A significant inverse relationship for FN-N was found with Aβ deposition in frontal (R(2)=0.29, β=-2.2, p=0.02) and PPCLP cortices (R(2)=0.26, β=-2.4, p=0.05). In contrast, neither FN-O nor the SRT were significantly related to Aβ deposition. Performance on a demanding test of face-name associative memory was related to Aβ burden in brain regions associated with memory systems. Associative memory for faces and names, a common complaint among older adults, may be a sensitive marker of early Aβ-related impairment.

  16. Processing of emotional faces in congenital amusia: An emotional music priming event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhishuai, Jin; Hong, Liu; Daxing, Wu; Pin, Zhang; Xuejing, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Congenital amusia is characterized by lifelong impairments in music perception and processing. It is unclear whether pitch detection deficits impact amusic individuals' perception of musical emotion. In the current work, 19 amusics and 21 healthy controls were subjected to electroencephalography (EEG) while being exposed to music excerpts and emotional faces. We assessed each individual's ability to discriminate positive- and negative-valenced emotional faces and analyzed electrophysiological indices, in the form of event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded at 32 sites, following exposure to emotionally positive or negative music excerpts. We observed smaller N2 amplitudes in response to facial expressions in the amusia group than in the control group, suggesting that amusics were less affected by the musical stimuli. The late-positive component (LPC) in amusics was similar to that in controls. Our results suggest that the neurocognitive deficit characteristic of congenital amusia is fundamentally an impairment in musical information processing rather than an impairment in emotional processing.

  17. Rapid prefrontal cortex activation towards aversively paired faces and enhanced contingency detection are observed in highly trait-anxious women under challenging conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimu Alissa Rehbein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Relative to healthy controls, anxiety-disorder patients show anomalies in classical conditioning that may either result from, or provide a risk factor for, clinically relevant anxiety. Here, we investigated whether healthy participants with enhanced anxiety vulnerability show abnormalities in a challenging affective-conditioning paradigm, in which many stimulus-reinforcer associations had to be acquired with only few learning trials. Forty-seven high and low trait-anxious females underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which 52 different neutral faces (CS+ were paired with an aversive noise (US, while further 52 faces (CS- remained unpaired. Emotional learning was assessed by evaluative (rating, behavioral (dot-probe, contingency report, and neurophysiological (magnetoencephalography measures before, during, and after learning. High and low trait-anxious groups did not differ in evaluative ratings or response priming before or after conditioning. High trait-anxious women, however, were better than low trait-anxious women at reporting CS+/US contingencies after conditioning, and showed an enhanced prefrontal cortex activation towards CS+ in the M1 (i.e., 80 to 117 ms and M170 time intervals (i.e., 140 to 160 ms during acquisition. These effects in MultiCS conditioning observed in individuals with elevated trait anxiety are consistent with theories of enhanced conditionability in anxiety vulnerability. Furthermore, they point towards increased threat monitoring and detection in highly trait-anxious females, possibly mediated by alterations in visual working memory.

  18. Facing the Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Summit (EAS), the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and the ASEAN Community, to constrain and shape China's behaviour in the region in the post-Cold War era. It argues that due to globalization and economic interdependence, the power transition in the 21st century is different from...... ASEAN and China has amplified the economic cost for the ASEAN states to use traditional military means to deal with China s rise. Applying institutional balancing theory, this paper examines how ASEAN has adopted various institutional instruments, such as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the East Asia...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES FACING INDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DR.J.P.Semwal

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION India is among one of the ten most industrialized nations in the world. Increase in population has raised the urbar industrial, transport and agriculture demands which are major reasons for the degradation of the environmel condition. For India besides land and soil degradation, deforestation, low accessibility of water, ,industrial pollution and urban congestion are the major environmental issues of priority. The industries that generate huge quantities of waste are thermal power station, Iron and Steel Plants, Sugar, Paper and Fertilizer Industries.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES FACING INDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DR.J.P.Semwal

    2004-01-01

    India is among one of the ten most industrialized nations in the world. Increase in population has raisedthe urbar industrial, transport and agriculture demands which are major reasons for the degradationof the environmel condition. For India besides landand soil degradation, deforestation, low accessibilityof water, ,industrial pollution and urban congestionare the major environmental issues of priority. Theindustries that generate huge quantities ofwaste are thermal power station, Iron and SteelPlants, Sugar, Paper and Fertilizer Industries.

  1. Training needs of general library workers:Part I (challenges facing educators in South African institutions of higher learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester W.J. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent survey by Meyer (2009 on the need for the training of general library workers revealed that employers in library services are often not aware of the conditions affecting the ability of library and information science (LIS educators at South African tertiary institutions to deliver ‘work ready’ general workers to the LIS industry. Simultaneously, LIS educators are not aware of the extent to which changes to learning programmes can affect the appointment and promotions of library staff in practice. The objectives of the study were to determine the need for a formal learning programme for general library workers and how existing study material can be adapted to develop a formal learning programme suitable for general library workers countrywide. Data was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire directed at supervisory staff of provincial and municipal libraries in South Africa, interviews with supervisors, and consultation of relevant internal documentation on job descriptions and legislation. The findings revealed that there is a definite need for training general library workers, whether formally or informally. This article, the first of two parts, considers the challenges facing LIS educators of which employers in the LIS industry are seldom aware of. The discussion is based on a literature study regarding training of general library workers in South Africa, as well as personal experience of the impact of various conditions on the relevant learning programmes of the Department of Information Science, University of South Africa before and after merging with the former Technikon SA. It considers the implementation of legislation and policies with regard to LIS training and how LIS educators, involved in open distance learning (ODL cope with the specific challenges for delivering ‘work ready’ general library workers. Part two will deal with aspects concerning the types of task general workers perform, and the

  2. Safety-Related Contractor Activities at Nuclear Power Plants. New Challenges for Regulatory Oversight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chockie, Alan [Chockie Group International, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2005-09-15

    The use of contractors has been an integral and important part of the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of nuclear power plants. To ensure the safe and efficient completion of contracted tasks, each nuclear plant licensee has developed and refined formal contract management processes to meet their specific needs and plant requirements. Although these contract management processes have proven to be effective tools for the procurement of support and components tailored to the needs of nuclear power plants, contractor-related incidents and accidents have revealed some serious weaknesses with the implementation of these processes. Identifying and addressing implementation problems are becoming more complicated due to organizational and personnel changes affecting the nuclear power industry. The ability of regulators and licensees to effectively monitor and manage the safety-related performance of contractors will likely be affected by forthcoming organization and personnel changes due to: the aging of the workforce; the decline of the nuclear industry; and the deregulation of nuclear power. The objective of this report is to provide a review of current and potential future challenges facing safety-related contractor activities at nuclear power plants. The purpose is to assist SKI in establishing a strategy for the proactive oversight of contractor safety-related activities at Swedish nuclear power plants and facilities. The nature and role of contractors at nuclear plants is briefly reviewed in the first section of the report. The second section describes the essential elements of the contract management process. Although organizations have had decades of experience with the a contract management process, there remain a number of common implantation weaknesses that have lead to serious contractor-related incidents and accidents. These implementation weaknesses are summarized in the third section. The fourth section of the report highlights the

  3. Current challenges facing the translation of brain computer interfaces from preclinical trials to use in human patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell D. Murphy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research in brain computer interface (BCI technology is advancing beyond preclinical studies, with trials beginning in human patients. To date, these trials have been carried out with several different types of recording interfaces. The success of these devices has varied widely, but different factors such as the level of invasiveness, timescale of recorded information, and ability to maintain stable functionality of the device over a long period of time all must be considered in addition to accuracy in decoding intent when assessing the most practical type of device moving forward. Here, we discuss various approaches to BCIs, distinguishing between devices focusing on control of operations extrinsic to the subject (e.g., prosthetic limbs, computer cursors and those focusing on control of operations intrinsic to the brain (e.g. using stimulation or external feedback, including closed-loop or adaptive devices. In this discussion, we consider the current challenges facing the translation of various types of BCI technology to eventual human application.

  4. Current Challenges Facing the Translation of Brain Computer Interfaces from Preclinical Trials to Use in Human Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Maxwell D; Guggenmos, David J; Bundy, David T; Nudo, Randolph J

    2015-01-01

    Current research in brain computer interface (BCI) technology is advancing beyond preclinical studies, with trials beginning in human patients. To date, these trials have been carried out with several different types of recording interfaces. The success of these devices has varied widely, but different factors such as the level of invasiveness, timescale of recorded information, and ability to maintain stable functionality of the device over a long period of time all must be considered in addition to accuracy in decoding intent when assessing the most practical type of device moving forward. Here, we discuss various approaches to BCIs, distinguishing between devices focusing on control of operations extrinsic to the subject (e.g., prosthetic limbs, computer cursors) and those focusing on control of operations intrinsic to the brain (e.g., using stimulation or external feedback), including closed-loop or adaptive devices. In this discussion, we consider the current challenges facing the translation of various types of BCI technology to eventual human application.

  5. Beyond face validity - A comment on Nicholls, Licht, and Pearl. [gender-related personality traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    In their discussion of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem, 1974) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; Spence and Helmrich, 1978), Nicholls, et al. (1982) blur two issues. The first concerns the legitimacy of equating the clusters of gender-related personality traits tapped by these instruments with the global constructs of masculinity and feminity. The second concerns item similarity between the PAQ and BSRI M scales and measures of self-esteem and the question of whether the several instruments measure the same or separable constructs. Decisions about each of these issues involve complex considerations that do not directly involve face validity.

  6. Functional connectivity differences in autism during face and car recognition: underconnectivity and atypical age-related changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Andrew C; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Simmonds, Daniel; Foran, William; Hallquist, Michael N; Luna, Beatriz; O'Hearn, Kirsten

    2016-10-16

    Face recognition abilities improve between adolescence and adulthood over typical development (TD), but plateau in autism, leading to increasing face recognition deficits in autism later in life. Developmental differences between autism and TD may reflect changes between neural systems involved in the development of face encoding and recognition. Here, we focused on whole-brain connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA), a well-established face-preferential brain region. Older children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, and a matched car memory test, during fMRI scanning. We then examined task-based functional connectivity between the FFA and the rest of the brain, comparing autism and TD groups during encoding and recognition of face and car stimuli. The autism group exhibited underconnectivity, relative to the TD group, between the FFA and frontal and primary visual cortices, independent of age. Underconnectivity with the medial and rostral lateral prefrontal cortex was face-specific during encoding and recognition, respectively. Conversely, underconnectivity with the L orbitofrontal cortex was evident for both face and car encoding. Atypical age-related changes in connectivity emerged between the FFA and the R temporoparietal junction, and R dorsal striatum for face stimuli only. Similar differences in age-related changes in autism emerged for FFA connectivity with the amygdala across both face and car recognition. Thus, underconnectivity and atypical development of functional connectivity may lead to a less optimal face-processing network in the context of increasing general and social cognitive deficits in autism.

  7. A prisoner's dilemma with asymmetrical payoffs: revealing the challenges faced by performing arts health and wellness practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Gongbing; Visentin, Peter

    2010-03-01

    In a prisoner's dilemma, constructed narratives are used to demonstrate problems within individual rationality and decision-making. Performing artists can be seen as facing a type of prisoner's dilemma in their careers: they must practice repeated movements for long periods in order to improve, yet despite the short-term perception of gained artistic benefit, the long-term consequences may be playing-related musculoskeletal disorders and injury. To help avoid such an outcome, educators and health and wellness practitioners must function as negotiators, engaging in discussions of artistry as part of establishing credibility and encouraging behaviors that keep artists in efficient, healthy behaviors. By setting practice time limits that are considerate of the intensity of each specific task, performers can improve their performance on a daily basis and become more skilled at planning their future training.

  8. Science Education and the Challenges Facing Its Integration into the 21st Century School System in a Globalized World: A Case of Igbo Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeudu, F. O.; Nkokelonye, C. U.; Ezeudu, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a study of historical foundations of science education in Igboland, its nature and scope as well as the challenges facing its integration into the 21st century school system in a globalized world. The authors found that there were many scientific activities in Igbo culture, but many problems hinder their integration into the basic…

  9. Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,…

  10. Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,…

  11. An Investigation into Challenges Faced by Secondary School Teachers and Pupils in Algebraic Linear Equations: A Case of Mufulira District, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Koji; Mulenga, H. M.; Angel, Mukuka

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges faced by secondary school teachers and pupils in the teaching and learning of algebraic linear equations. The study involved 80 grade 11 pupils and 15 teachers of mathematics, drawn from 4 selected secondary schools in Mufulira district, Zambia in Central Africa. A descriptive survey method was employed to…

  12. Neuroanatomic localization of priming effects for famous faces with latency-corrected event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Rajan; Ouyang, Guang; Sommer, Werner; Zhou, Changsong

    2016-02-01

    The late components of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) pose a difficult problem in source localization. One of the reasons is the smearing of these components in conventional averaging because of trial-to-trial latency-variability. The smearing problem may be addressed by reconstructing the ERPs after latency synchronization with the Residue Iteration Decomposition (RIDE) method. Here we assessed whether the benefits of RIDE at the surface level also improve source localization of RIDE-reconstructed ERPs (RERPs) measured in a face priming paradigm. Separate source models for conventionally averaged ERPs and RERPs were derived and sources were localized for both early and late components. Jackknife averaging on the data was used to reduce the residual variance during source localization compared to conventional source model fitting on individual subject data. Distances between corresponding sources of both ERP and RERP models were measured to check consistency in both source models. Sources for activity around P100, N170, early repetition effect (ERE/N250r) and late repetition effect (LRE/N400) were reported and priming effects in these sources were evaluated for six time windows. Significant improvement in priming effect of the late sources was found from the RERP source model, especially in the Medio-Temporal Lobe, Prefrontal Cortex, and Anterior Temporal Lobe. Consistent with previous studies, we found early priming effects in the right hemisphere and late priming effects in the left hemisphere. Also, the priming effects in right hemisphere outnumbered the left hemisphere, signifying dominance of right hemisphere in face recognition. In conclusion, RIDE reconstructed ERPs promise a comprehensive understanding of the time-resolved dynamics the late sources play during face recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Issues and Challenges Facing Rice Production and Food Security in the Granary Areas in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamhuri Siwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an effort to explore and investigate the issues and challenging are facing rice production and food security in Malaysia. It is also to identify the contribution of the granary areas in East Coast Economic Region (ECER to the national food security. The important of rice as a staple food crop of Malaysia and is grown on 673,745 ha of land, producing annually 2.6 million tons of paddy grain valued at RM 2 billion, which is contribute with average growth rate of 3.7% of year, in the last five years. However, the current country’s self-sufficiency level for rice production is about 71.4% and the balance imported from countries abroad. Efforts are being undertaken by government to increase the productivity, cropping intensity prediction and crop acreage to cope with the growing demand for the produce. This study examines the various issues of rice production for food security and analyses the challenging of rice production in Malaysia. Various policies, strategies and programmes for rice production will be thoroughly analysed for attaining the study objectives. In the ECER, Kemubu Agricultural Development Authority (KADA, Kemasin Semerak and North Terengganu (KETARA Integrated Agriculture Development Area (IADA is among the granary areas, which emphasised on paddy cultivation to the country. The role of the area is important to enhance the self-sufficiency level of rice in Malaysia. Issues and challenges related to rice production, food security and self-sufficiency are discussed. Various efforts and government intervention have been implemented to ensure that these areas will remain as the important granary area. Several approaches to improve the productivity and stability of food production as well as outlining the agenda to ensure the country food supply are discussed.

  14. Modulation of face-sensitive event-related potentials by canonical and distorted human faces: the role of vertical symmetry and up-down featural arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Kuefner, Dana; Westerlund, Alissa; Nelson, Charles A

    2006-08-01

    This study examined the sensitivity of early face-sensitive event-related potential (ERP) components to the disruption of two structural properties embedded in faces, namely, "updown featural arrangement" and "vertical symmetry." Behavioral measures and ERPs were recorded as adults made an orientation judgment for canonical faces and distorted faces that had been manipulated for either or both of the mentioned properties. The P1, the N170, and the vertex positive potential (VPP) exhibited a similar gradient in sensitivity to the two investigated properties, in that they all showed a linear increase in amplitude or latency as the properties were selectively disrupted in the order of (1) up-down featural arrangement, (2) vertical symmetry, and (3) both up-down featural arrangement and vertical symmetry. Exceptions to this finding were seen for the amplitudes of the N170 and VPP, which were largest for the stimulus in which solely vertical symmetry was disrupted. Interestingly, the enhanced amplitudes of the N170 and VPP are consistent with a drop in behavioral performance on the orientation judgment for this stimulus.

  15. Meeting Cathala-Letort named: the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy; Journee Cathala-Letort intitulee: les defis du genie des procedes face a l'hydrogene-energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document provides the presentations proposed during the day Cathala-Letort on the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy. In the context of the greenhouse effect increase and the fossil energies resources decrease, it brings information on researches on hydrogen technologies, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrogen supply, production, storage and distribution and the thermo-chemical cycles. (A.L.B.)

  16. 血液透析面临的问题与挑战%The problem and challenge faced by hemodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪峰

    2015-01-01

    虽然血液透析应用于临床治疗已经90余年,成为急、慢性肾衰竭的最主要治疗手段,但仍然存在许多问题与挑战。在我国,伴随血液透析患者的快速增加,将给我国医疗保障体系带来严重挑战,亟待加快社会资金参入和培养合格的血液透析医护人员。从血液透析的基本技术层面看,血液透析开始的最佳时机?血管通路是否一定要优先选择血管内瘘?血液透析患者的适宜透析液钙浓度?目前尚存争议。从血液透析并发症防治层面看,透析患者血压控制靶目标?甲状旁腺激素控制的靶目标?目前也无定论。本文将结合现有文献证据进行评述,为临床医生的临床实践提供借鉴。%Although hemodialysis has been applied to clinical treatment for more than 90 years and become the main treatment for patients with acute and chronic renal failures,nephrologists are still faced with many problems and challenges.The rapid increase of hemodialysis patients in our country will bring serious challenges to China′s health care,which is in urgent need of being supported by more social capital participation and cultivation of qualified hemodialysis medical workers.There are still controversies.From the basic technical level of hemodialysis:when is the best time for hemodialysis initiation?Is intravascular fistula definitely the first choice of vascular access?What is the suitable calcium concentration of dialysate for hemodialysis patients?Besides,from the aspect of prevention and treatment of hemodialysis complications in dialysis patients:what is the target of blood pressure control?How about the target for parathyroid hormone control?In this article,the existing literature evidence was reviewed in order to provide reference for clinical doctors in clinical practice.

  17. Asymmetric Correlation between Experienced Parental Attachment and Event-Related Potentials Evoked in Response to Parental Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Junqiang; Zhai, Hongchang; Zhou, Anbang; Gong, Yongyuan; Luo, Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the modulation effects of attachment relationships with parents on the neural correlates that are associated with parental faces. The event-related potentials elicited in 31 college students while viewing facial stimuli of their parents in two single oddball paradigms (father vs. unfamiliar male and mother vs. unfamiliar female) were measured. We found that enhanced P3a and P3b and attenuated N2b were elicited by parental faces; however, the N170 component failed to discriminate parental faces from unfamiliar faces. An experienced attachment relationship with the father was positively correlated to the P3a response associated with the father’s face, whereas no correlation was found in the case of mothers. Further exploration in dipole source localization showed that, within the time window of the P300, distinctive brain regions were involved in the processing of parental faces; the father’s face was located in the medial frontal gyrus, which might be involved in self effect, and the anterior cingulate gyrus was activated in response to the mother’s face. This research is the first to demonstrate that neural mechanisms involved with parents can be modulated differentially by the qualities of the attachments to the parents. In addition, parental faces share a highly similar temporal pattern, but the origins of these neural responses are distinct, which could merit further investigation. PMID:23844240

  18. Ethical Challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence respect for human rights and respect for autonomy...... through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative researchs interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological...... interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must...

  19. Ethical challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth Oc

    2014-02-01

    Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforeseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for human rights and respect for autonomy through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative research interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must be enhanced, and there is a need for an increased focus on the researchers' ethical preparation and to continually address and discuss cases from their own interviews.

  20. Challenges in relation to assessment of prior learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    2013-01-01

    unskilled workers’) prior learning, i.e. their work experiences and informal learning. In the paper we will describe and point to some challenges in relation to assessing the students’ prior learning. The assessment is accomplished by teachers and supervisors in VET colleges. The assessment includes 1......The paper deals about preliminary results from an on-going project: “From unskilled worker to skilled worker in record time”. The aim of the project is to qualify unskilled workers for skilled positions in record time by drafting up a plan for the training based on assessment of the students’ (the....... Observations and or with the students about the students’ workplace based experiences and learning and 2. Drafting up an individual study plan based on the individual student’s prior learning....

  1. Empathy for pain-related dorsolateral prefrontal activity is modulated by angry face perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzi, Björn; Amirie, Scharbanu; Brüne, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Empathy, i.e., the ability to perceive and share another person's affective state, is associated with activity in a complex neural network, including the anterior insula, the anterior and mid-cingulate cortex, and the lateral prefrontal cortex. Here, we were interested in the question how facial emotions influence the activation of the 'pain network'. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neuronal correlates of empathy for pain and its interaction with emotional face recognition in 20 healthy subjects. We identified various brain regions commonly associated with empathy for pain, including the right mid-cingulate cortex, the left anterior insula (AI), and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), with an increased neuronal response in the left dlPFC after the presentation of angry faces. Furthermore, a negative correlation between psychological measures of alexithymia and empathy for pain-related brain activity was observed in the left AI. The dlPFC is an important brain region involved in cognitive reappraisal or in 'top-down' control of the limbic system. Our findings could therefore reflect a regulatory response associated with distancing from negatively valenced stimuli. Moreover, our results underline the involvement of the AI in empathy for pain responses and their relationship to alexithymia.

  2. Factors Influencing Company Relations with Market Stakeholders, in the Face of Crises in Company Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olszewska Barbara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Crises in company development are a particular subset of management crises. They emerge on various stages of company development, as a result of gradual depletion of effective management solutions. Crisis situations in companies have varied impact on company stakeholders. The paper presents results of empirical studies of factors influencing company relations with market stakeholders and those that facilitate the process of restoring and maintaining any relations that suffered in the course of crises in company development. The authors’ intention was to identify such factors and evaluate their importance, in relation to various stages of company development and the associated types of crisis situations faced by companies. Empirical studies suggest that certain factors may facilitate conflict resolution in matters concerning company relations with market stakeholders, and that the impact of these factors varies depending on the phase of organizational development and the type of the associated crisis situation. It must be noted, that one of the most important factors to influence problem resolution is the perceived honesty of the exchange participants. Moreover, research suggests that opinions on the significance of organizational dependence of exchange participants in the resolution of problems in relations with market stakeholders are varied.

  3. Detailed exploration of face-related processing in congenital prosopagnosia: 1. Behavioral findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Marlene; Avidan, Galia; Marotta, Jonathan J; Kimchi, Rutie

    2005-07-01

    We show that five individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) are impaired at face recognition and discrimination and do not exhibit the normal superiority for upright over inverted faces despite intact visual acuity, low-level vision and intelligence, and in the absence of any obvious neural concomitant. Interestingly, the deficit is not limited to faces: The CP individuals were also impaired at discriminating common objects and novel objects although to a lesser extent than discriminating faces. The perceptual deficit may be attributable to a more fundamental visual processing disorder; the CP individuals exhibited difficulty in deriving global configurations from simple visual stimuli, even with extended exposure duration and considerable perceptual support in the image. Deriving a global configuration from local components is more critical for faces than for other objects, perhaps accounting for the exaggerated deficit in face processing. These findings elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying CP and support the link between configural and face processing.

  4. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement: Current Challenges Facing Research and Therapeutic Advances in Airway Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Y S; Halayko, Andrew J; Gosens, Reinoud; Panettieri, Reynold A; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Penn, Raymond B

    2017-01-15

    Airway remodeling (AR) is a prominent feature of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases that is minimally affected by current treatments. The goals of this Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) Research Statement are to discuss the scientific, technological, economic, and regulatory issues that deter progress of AR research and development of therapeutics targeting AR and to propose approaches and solutions to these specific problems. This Statement is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on any disease in which AR is observed and/or plays a role. An international multidisciplinary group from within academia, industry, and the National Institutes of Health, with expertise in multimodal approaches to the study of airway structure and function, pulmonary research and clinical practice in obstructive lung disease, and drug discovery platforms was invited to participate in one internet-based and one face-to-face meeting to address the above-stated goals. Although the majority of the analysis related to AR was in asthma, AR in other diseases was also discussed and considered in the recommendations. A literature search of PubMed was performed to support conclusions. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Multiple conceptual, logistical, economic, and regulatory deterrents were identified that limit the performance of AR research and impede accelerated, intensive development of AR-focused therapeutics. Complementary solutions that leverage expertise of academia and industry were proposed to address them. To date, numerous factors related to the intrinsic difficulty in performing AR research, and economic forces that are disincentives for the pursuit of AR treatments, have thwarted the ability to understand AR pathology and mechanisms and to address it clinically. This ATS Research Statement identifies potential solutions for each of these factors and emphasizes the importance of educating the global research community as to the

  5. Simple Method for Converting Conventional Face-bow to Postural Face-bow for Recording the Relationship of Maxilla Relative to the Temporomandibular Joint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gooya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental assumption in prosthetic dentistry is that the axis-orbital plane will usually be parallel to the horizontal reference plane. Most articulator systems have incorporated this concept into their designs and use orbitale as the anterior reference point for transferring the vertical position of the maxilla to the articulator. Clinical observations of Cantonese patients suggest that in some individuals the Frankfort plane may not be horizontal, thus the orientation of the casts in the articulator is incorrect with respect to the horizontal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce a simple method for converting the conventional face-bow to postural face-bow to reproduce the orientation of the occlusal plane relative to the true horizontal plane with the patient in Natural Head Posture (NHP.

  6. On the Relation between Face and Object Recognition in Developmental Prosopagnosia: No Dissociation but a Systematic Association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Klargaard, Solja K.; Starrfelt, Randi

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether face recognition and object recognition constitute separate domains. Clarification of this issue can have important theoretical implications as face recognition is often used as a prime example of domain-specificity in mind and brain. An important source...... object processing involving both regular and degraded drawings. None of the individuals exhibited a clear dissociation between face and object recognition, and as a group they were significantly more affected by degradation of objects than control participants. Importantly, we also find positive...... correlations between the severity of the face recognition impairment and the degree of impaired performance with degraded objects. This suggests that the face and object deficits are systematically related rather than coincidental. We conclude that at present, there is no strong evidence in the literature...

  7. Age-related differences in brain electrical activity during extended continuous face recognition in younger children, older children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Glimmerveen, Johanna C; Franken, Ingmar H A; Martens, Vanessa E G; de Bruin, Eveline A

    2011-09-01

    To examine the development of recognition memory in primary-school children, 36 healthy younger children (8-9 years old) and 36 healthy older children (11-12 years old) participated in an ERP study with an extended continuous face recognition task (Study 1). Each face of a series of 30 faces was shown randomly six times interspersed with distracter faces. The children were required to make old vs. new decisions. Older children responded faster than younger children, but younger children exhibited a steeper decrease in latencies across the five repetitions. Older children exhibited better accuracy for new faces, but there were no age differences in recognition accuracy for repeated faces. For the N2, N400 and late positive complex (LPC), we analyzed the old/new effects (repetition 1 vs. new presentation) and the extended repetition effects (repetitions 1 through 5). Compared to older children, younger children exhibited larger frontocentral N2 and N400 old/new effects. For extended face repetitions, negativity of the N2 and N400 decreased in a linear fashion in both age groups. For the LPC, an ERP component thought to reflect recollection, no significant old/new or extended repetition effects were found. Employing the same face recognition paradigm in 20 adults (Study 2), we found a significant N400 old/new effect at lateral frontal sites and a significant LPC repetition effect at parietal sites, with LPC amplitudes increasing linearly with the number of repetitions. This study clearly demonstrates differential developmental courses for the N400 and LPC pertaining to recognition memory for faces. It is concluded that face recognition in children is mediated by early and probably more automatic than conscious recognition processes. In adults, the LPC extended repetition effect indicates that adult face recognition memory is related to a conscious and graded recollection process rather than to an automatic recognition process.

  8. Face inversion disrupts the perception of vertical relations between features in the right human occipito-temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffaux, Valerie; Rossion, Bruno; Sorger, Bettina; Schiltz, Christine; Goebel, Rainer

    2009-03-01

    The impact of inversion on the extraction of relational and featural face information was investigated in two fMRI experiments. Unlike previous studies, the contribution of horizontal and vertical spatial relations were considered separately since they have been shown to be differentially vulnerable to face inversion (Goffaux & Rossion, 2007). Hence, inversion largely affects the perception of vertical relations (e.g. eye or mouth height) while the processing of features (e.g. eye shape and surface) and of horizontal relations (e.g. inter-ocular distance) is affected to a far lesser extent. Participants viewed pairs of faces that differed either at the level of one local feature (i.e. the eyes) or of the spatial relations of this feature with adjacent features. Changes of spatial relations were divided into two conditions, depending on the vertical or horizontal axis of the modifications. These stimulus conditions were presented in separate blocks in the first (block) experiment while they were presented in a random order in the second event-related (ER) experiment. Face-preferring voxels located in the right-lateralized middle fusiform gyrus (rMFG) largely decreased their activity with inversion. Inversion-related decreases were more moderate in left-lateralized middle fusiform gyrus (lMFG). ER experiment revealed that inversion affected rMFG and lMFG activity in distinct stimulus conditions. Whereas inversion affected lMFG processing only in featural condition, inversion selectively affected the processing of vertical relations in rMFG. Correlation analyses further indicated that the inversion effect (IE) observed in rMFG and right inferior occipital gyrus (rIOG) reliably predicted the large behavioural IE observed for the processing of vertical relations. In contrast, lMFG IE correlated with the weak behavioural IE observed for the processing of horizontal relations. Our findings suggest that face configuration is mostly encoded in rMFG, whereas more local

  9. Relating Psychology and Neuroscience: Taking Up the Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Advances in brain research have invigorated an ongoing debate about the relations between psychology and neuroscience. Cognitive science has historically neglected the study of neuroscience, although the influential subfield of cognitive neuroscience has since attempted to combine information processing approaches with an awareness of brain functioning. Although cognitive neuroscience does not necessarily support a reductionist approach, certain philosophers of mind have suggested that psychological constructs will eventually be replaced with descriptions of neurobiological processes. One implicitly popular response to this proposal is that neuroscience represents a level of implementation that is separate from a level of cognition. Although recent work in the philosophy of mind has gone some way to explicating the concept of psychological and neuroscience approaches as different levels, it is suggested here that a tidy framework of levels is somewhat tenuous. A particular challenge comes from the metatheoretical position of embodiment, which places the mind within the body and brain of an active organism which is deeply embedded in the world. In providing an integration of brain, body, mind, and culture, embodiment exemplifies an important line of defense against claims of the possible reduction of psychology by neuroscience.

  10. Warriors and peacekeepers: testing a biosocial implicit leadership hypothesis of intergroup relations using masculine and feminine faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Spisak

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued that a biologically based hormonal connection between behavior and corresponding facial characteristics interacts with evolutionarily consistent social dynamics to influence leadership emergence. We predict that masculine-looking leaders are selected during intergroup conflict (war and feminine-looking leaders during intergroup cooperation (peace. Across two experiments we show that a general categorization of leader versus nonleader is an initial implicit requirement for emergence, and at a context-specific level facial cues of masculinity and femininity contingently affect war versus peace leadership emergence in the predicted direction. In addition, we replicate our findings in Experiment 1 across culture using Western and East Asian samples. In Experiment 2, we also show that masculine-feminine facial cues are better predictors of leadership than male-female cues. Collectively, our results indicate a multi-level classification of context-specific leadership based on visual cues imbedded in the human face and challenge traditional distinctions of male and female leadership.

  11. Consumers or Citizens? Whose Voice Will Healthwatch Represent and Will It Matter? Comment on "Challenges Facing Healthwatch, a New Consumer Champion in England".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Brad

    2016-06-22

    Efforts to achieve effective and meaningful patient and public involvement (PPI) in healthcare have existed for nearly a century, albeit with limited success. This brief commentary discusses a recent paper by Carter and Martin exploring the "Challenges Facing Healthwatch, a New Consumer Champion in England," and places these challenges in the context of the broader struggle to give a voice to healthcare consumers and citizens. With an overview of what can go right and-perhaps more importantly-what can go wrong, the question remains: will Healthwatch-and other PPI efforts in healthcare-represent the voice of consumers or citizens and will it matter?

  12. Intimate partner violence and challenges facing women living with HIV/AIDS in accessing antiretroviral treatment at Singida Regional Hospital, central Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosia, Agnes; Kakoko, Deodatus; Semakafu, Ave Maria Emilius; Nyamhanga, Tumaini; Frumence, Gasto

    2016-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a global public health problem. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region most affected by HIV/AIDS in the world. Globally, and in Tanzania in particular, women are more affected by HIV/AIDS than men. Tanzania has been reported to be among the countries with the highest burden of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study explored the challenges facing women living with HIV/AIDS (LWHA) attending the care and treatment clinic (CTC) in Singida Regional Hospital in Tanzania. Design A qualitative study was performed in which data were collected through in-depth interviews with 35 women LWHA who also experienced IPV. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results The study findings showed that women LWHA experienced challenges from their male partners in the form of lack of fare to attend CTC, delayed attendance to CTC, verbal threats and intimidation, mistrust partner resulting in changed antiretroviral (ARV) dosing time. Also, systemic challenges such as malfunction of CD4 count testing apparatus contributed to mistrust from their male partners which led to IPV. Conclusion In this study, women LWHA experienced IPV challenges that resulted in poor adherence to ARV medication and CTC attendance, as well as insufficient time to collect ARV medication. It is recommended that the government address systemic challenges faced by women LWHA, introduce multiple approaches to address the needs of women LWHA experiencing IPV, and develop strong policies to prevent IPV against women in Tanzania, regardless of their HIV status. PMID:27987296

  13. The contribution of youth work to address the challenges young people are facing, in particular the transition from education to employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louw, Arnt Vestergaard

    The findings of the expert group detail the role of youth work and its specific contribution to addressing the challenges young people face, in particular the transition from education to employment. In this context, youth work is defined as 'actions directed towards young people regarding activi...... activities where they take part voluntarily, designed for supporting their personal and social development through non-formal and informal learning'....

  14. Event-related potential responses to beloved and familiar faces in different marriage styles: evidence from Mosuo subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan eWu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on familiar face recognition has largely focused on the neural correlates of recognizing a beloved partner or family member. However, no research has explored the effect of marriage style on the recognition of a beloved partner’s face, especially in matriarchal societies. Here, we examined the time course of event-related potentials (ERP in response to the face of a beloved partner, sibling, or unknown person in a sample of individuals from the matriarchal Mosuo tribe. Two groups were assessed: intermarriage and walking marriage groups (i.e., couples in a committed relationship who do not cohabitate during the daytime. In agreement with previous reports, ERP results revealed more positive VPP, N250, and P300 waveforms for beloved faces than sibling faces in both groups. Moreover, P300 was more positive for beloved partner versus sibling faces; however, this difference emerged at fronto-central sites for the walking marriage group and at posterior sites for the intermarriage group. Overall, we observed that marriage style affects the later stage processing of a beloved partner’s face, and this may be associated with greater affective arousal and familiarity.

  15. On the Relation between Face and Object Recognition in Developmental Prosopagnosia: No Dissociation but a Systematic Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Christian; Klargaard, Solja K; Starrfelt, Randi

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether face recognition and object recognition constitute separate domains. Clarification of this issue can have important theoretical implications as face recognition is often used as a prime example of domain-specificity in mind and brain. An important source of input to this debate comes from studies of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia, suggesting that face recognition can be selectively impaired. We put the selectivity hypothesis to test by assessing the performance of 10 individuals with developmental prosopagnosia on demanding tests of visual object processing involving both regular and degraded drawings. None of the individuals exhibited a clear dissociation between face and object recognition, and as a group they were significantly more affected by degradation of objects than control participants. Importantly, we also find positive correlations between the severity of the face recognition impairment and the degree of impaired performance with degraded objects. This suggests that the face and object deficits are systematically related rather than coincidental. We conclude that at present, there is no strong evidence in the literature on developmental prosopagnosia supporting domain-specific accounts of face recognition.

  16. Emotional expectations influence neural sensitivity to fearful faces in humans:An event-related potential study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested whether neural sensitivity to salient emotional facial expressions was influenced by emotional expectations induced by a cue that validly predicted the expression of a subsequently presented target face. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by fearful and neutral faces were recorded while participants performed a gender discrimination task under cued (‘expected’) and uncued (‘unexpected’) conditions. The behavioral results revealed that accuracy was lower for fearful compared with neutral faces in the unexpected condition, while accuracy was similar for fearful and neutral faces in the expected condition. ERP data revealed increased amplitudes in the P2 component and 200–250 ms interval for unexpected fearful versus neutral faces. By contrast, ERP responses were similar for fearful and neutral faces in the expected condition. These findings indicate that human neural sensitivity to fearful faces is modulated by emotional expectations. Although the neural system is sensitive to unpredictable emotionally salient stimuli, sensitivity to salient stimuli is reduced when these stimuli are predictable.

  17. Face recognition memory across the adult life span: event-related potential evidence from the own-age bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Nicole; Wiese, Holger; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2012-12-01

    Young adult participants are more accurate at remembering young as compared with old faces (own-age bias). This study investigated behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of recognition memory in 4 consecutive age categories (ranging from 19-29, 30-44, 45-59, and 60-80 years), both with respect to face and participant age. Young and young middle-aged participants yielded more accurate recognition memory for both young and young middle-aged as compared to old middle-aged and old faces, suggesting that the own-age bias in adults is not exclusively directed toward age-congruent "in-group" faces. No own-age bias was observed in old middle-aged and elderly participants. Analysis of ERPs revealed significant positive correlations of both N170 latency and amplitude with participant age, thus, suggesting an age-related delay of processing speed and an increase in processing demands at early perceptual stages of face processing. Furthermore, an ERP old-new effect (400-700 ms), with more positive amplitudes for hits as compared with correct rejections, was detected in young and young middle-aged participants but not in the 2 older groups. Because these older groups did not demonstrate enhanced memory performance for own-age faces, we suggest that detailed recollection of study-episode information, as reflected in the ERP old-new effect, may be a necessary prerequisite for the own-age bias.

  18. Relation between facial affect recognition and configural face processing in antipsychotic-free schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, Eric; Jouve, Elisabeth; Guillaume, Fabrice; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Blin, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Deficit in facial affect recognition is a well-documented impairment in schizophrenia, closely connected to social outcome. This deficit could be related to psychopathology, but also to a broader dysfunction in processing facial information. In addition, patients with schizophrenia inadequately use configural information-a type of processing that relies on spatial relationships between facial features. To date, no study has specifically examined the link between symptoms and misuse of configural information in the deficit in facial affect recognition. Unmedicated schizophrenia patients (n = 30) and matched healthy controls (n = 30) performed a facial affect recognition task and a face inversion task, which tests aptitude to rely on configural information. In patients, regressions were carried out between facial affect recognition, symptom dimensions and inversion effect. Patients, compared with controls, showed a deficit in facial affect recognition and a lower inversion effect. Negative symptoms and lower inversion effect could account for 41.2% of the variance in facial affect recognition. This study confirms the presence of a deficit in facial affect recognition, and also of dysfunctional manipulation in configural information in antipsychotic-free patients. Negative symptoms and poor processing of configural information explained a substantial part of the deficient recognition of facial affect. We speculate that this deficit may be caused by several factors, among which independently stand psychopathology and failure in correctly manipulating configural information. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Struggling to survive: early life challenges in relation to the backtest in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camerlink, I.; Ursinus, W.W.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Intensively reared piglets may face many early life challenges and these may affect behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between piglets’ early life circumstances and their behavioral response in a backtest. Hereto, 992 piglets of 14 d of age were subjected to a back

  20. Relational Challenges and Recovery Processes in Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia-Keating, Maryam; Sorsoli, Lynn; Grossman, Frances K.

    2010-01-01

    Male survivors of childhood sexual abuse face challenges resolving sexual victimization experiences with the ideals of masculinity, often experiencing intimacy problems, emotional discomfort, alienation, and anger. Little attention has been paid to how male survivors learn to develop long-term connections, disclose emotions in relationship…

  1. [Team work and interdiciplinarity: challenges facing the implementation of comprehensive outpatient care for people with HIV/Aids in Pernambuco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Maria Jucineide Lopes; Sampaio, Aletheia Soares; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of providing healthcare to people with HIV/Aids requires investment in comprehensive action and care, constituting a challenge for the multidisciplinary work teams to build an interdisciplinary practice. This study sought to analyze comprehensive healthcare in the Specialized Assistance Services for HIV/Aids (SAE-HIV/Aids) in Recife, in the State of Pernambuco, starting with the process and organization of team work. This is a case study developed in three SAE-HIV/Aids units, based on a qualitative approach using different research techniques. The results show that SAE-HIV/Aids have complied with most of the Brazilian Health Ministry recommendations in terms of basic infrastructure, though none of them had a team of appropriate size. These services have shown signs of fragmentation and difficulty in establishing a systematic intersectorial and interdisciplinary practice, with failings in ensuring the reference and counter-reference flow. It was seen that there was little appreciation of the role of the manager as team leader. The need to perceive the user as a whole was identified, as well as for the team to work in a coordinated manner in order to ensure communicative and relational activities.

  2. The Challenges Faced by Eastern European Students within a 16-19 Education Setting in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Shade

    2015-01-01

    To examine the challenges encountered by Eastern European students within a sixth form college in the United Kingdom. This paper aims to consider the difficulties encountered by this particular ethnic group examining the impact the challenges may have on their performance, success and achievement. This paper will also highlight equality and…

  3. Emergent Teacher-Researchers: A Reflection on the Challenges Faced when Conducting Research in the English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The following narrative reflects on the dilemmas and problems faced by inexperienced researchers working within the field of education. Focusing on a research project completed in fulfilment of an MA in Teaching and Learning, the article recounts the decisions made by one emergent researcher and evaluates how far the chosen methods may have helped…

  4. European cinema: face to face with Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Elsaesser

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different debate

  5. Beyond mean-field dynamics of ultra-cold bosonic atoms in higher dimensions: facing the challenges with a multi-configurational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bolsinger, V; Schmelcher, P

    2016-01-01

    Exploring the impact of dimensionality on the quantum dynamics of interacting bosons in traps including particle correlations is an interesting but challenging task. Due to the different participating length scales the modelling of the short-range interactions in three dimensions plays a special role. We review different approaches for the latter and elaborate that for multi-configurational computational strategies finite range potentials are adequate resulting in the need of large grids to resolve the relevant length scales. This results in computational challenges which include also the exponential scaling of complexity with the number of atoms. We show that the recently developed ab-initio Multi-Layer Multi-Configurational Time- Dependent Hartee method for Bosons (ML-MCTDHB) [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 134103 (2013)] can face both numerical challenges and present an efficient numerical implementation of ML-MCTDHB in three spatial dimensions, particularly suited to describe the quantum dynamics for elongated traps...

  6. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G. van den Bulk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N = 25, adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N = 19 and healthy controls (N = 26. Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala.

  7. Target-context unitization effect on the familiarity-related FN400: a face recognition exclusion task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Fabrice; Etienne, Yann

    2015-03-01

    Using two exclusion tasks, the present study examined how the ERP correlates of face recognition are affected by the nature of the information to be retrieved. Intrinsic (facial expression) and extrinsic (background scene) visual information were paired with face identity and constituted the exclusion criterion at test time. Although perceptual information had to be taken into account in both situations, the FN400 old-new effect was observed only for old target faces on the expression-exclusion task, whereas it was found for both old target and old non-target faces in the background-exclusion situation. These results reveal that the FN400, which is generally interpreted as a correlate of familiarity, was modulated by the retrieval of intra-item and intrinsic face information, but not by the retrieval of extrinsic information. The observed effects on the FN400 depended on the nature of the information to be retrieved and its relationship (unitization) to the recognition target. On the other hand, the parietal old-new effect (generally described as an ERP correlate of recollection) reflected the retrieval of both types of contextual features equivalently. The current findings are discussed in relation to recent controversies about the nature of the recognition processes reflected by the ERP correlates of face recognition.

  8. Comparison between Face and Object Processing in Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An event related potentials study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khorrami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Incapability in face perception and recognition is one of the main issues in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Event related potential (ERP studies have revealed controversial insights on autistic brain responses to faces and objects. The current investigation examined the ERP components of young children with ASD compared to a typically developing (TD group when looking at the upright and inverted images of faces and cars.Fourteen children and adolescents aged between 9 and 17 diagnosed as having ASD were compared with 18 age- gender matched normally developing individuals. All participants' ERPs were recorded while they were seeing the images of human faces and objects in both upright and inverted positions. The ERP components including N170 (latency and amplitude were compared between the two groups in two conditions of upright and inverted using the repeated measure analysis method.The processing speed for upright faces was faster than the inverted faces in the TD group; however, the difference was not significant. A significant difference was observed in terms of N170 latency between the two groups for different stimulus categories such as objects and faces(p<0.05. Moreover, inverted vs. upright stimuli in both groups elicited a greater response in terms of N170 amplitude in both groups, and this effect was significantly prominent in the right hemisphere (p<0.05. The N170 amplitude turned out to be greater for the inverted vs. upright stimuli irrespective of the stimuli type and group.These data suggest youths with ASD have difficulty processing information, particularly in face perception regardless of the stimuli orientation.

  9. Towards an inclusive society in Ghana: An analysis of challenges persons with disabilities face in participating in tourism in Ashanti region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sussan Aggrey Mensah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Participation in tourism brings individuals, families and communities together, making it an important social inclusion strategy. Negative perceptions about persons with disabilities could make it difficult for them to access public places. Therefore, this study served to examine tourism challenges for persons with disabilities (PwDs in the Ashanti region of Ghana. A cross sectional study with quantitative data collection was conducted with PwDs. Structured questionnaires were administered to 120 PwDs using a convenience sampling technique. Descriptive statistics were explored using SPSS version 20. The study found that PwDs faced barriers to facilities and structures at tourist destinations. The barriers to tourism included lack of income, negative attitudes of the public and physical barriers such as a lack of adapted toilet facilities, tables and chairs, inaccessible routes for wheel chair users, inability to climb walkways and an absence of canopy walk-ways. The study supports the evidence of challenges faced by PwDs at tourism destinations. Redesigning and resourcing tourism facilities to be more PwD friendly could remove barriers faced by PwDs in tourism, creating greater social inclusion for this population. Keywords: tourism, persons with disabilities, participation, accessibility, inclusion

  10. 我国石化产业面临的挑战及对策建议%Challenges Facing China's Petrochemical Industry and Their Countermeasure Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王基铭

    2015-01-01

    阐述了当前我国石化产业面临着原油低价格、市场化进程加快、科技革命兴起等新形势,同时也面临着市场竞争加剧、环保要求日益严格等严峻挑战,指出我国石化工业面对新的机遇和挑战,必须走创新驱动、转型升级、绿色发展之路.%The article expounds on the new situation facing China's petrochemical industry such as low oil price, continuously accelerated commercialization process and accelerated advances in science & technological revolution, as well as severe challenges facing it such as aggravated market competition and increasingly strict environmental protection requirements. It points out that, being faced with new chances and challenges, China's petrochemical industry must walk along the road of innovation drive, transformation and upgrading as well as green development.

  11. Factors Relating to Staff Attributions of Control over Challenging Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Jennifer A.; Phillips, Neil; Rose, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research has suggested that severity of intellectual disability (ID) and topography of behaviour may influence staff causal attributions regarding challenging behaviour. Subsequently, these causal attributions may influence helping behaviours. This study investigated the relationship between attributions of control over…

  12. Challenge and Error: Critical Events and Attention-Related Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, James Allan; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Solman, Grayden J. F.; Smilek, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Attention lapses resulting from reactivity to task challenges and their consequences constitute a pervasive factor affecting everyday performance errors and accidents. A bidirectional model of attention lapses (error [image omitted] attention-lapse: Cheyne, Solman, Carriere, & Smilek, 2009) argues that errors beget errors by generating attention…

  13. Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) Facing the Twenty-First Century: Challenges and Contributions. Presidential Address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnove, Robert F.

    2001-01-01

    Examines challenges to comparative and international education in the areas of epistemological approaches, research methodology, philosophical considerations, and dissemination of findings; the field's contributions in questioning assumptions about school-society relationships, identifying the benefits and dangers of "borrowing" educational…

  14. Face sensorimotor cortex and its neuroplasticity related to orofacial sensorimotor functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avivi-Arber, Limor; Martin, Ruth; Lee, Jye-Chang; Sessle, Barry J

    2011-12-01

    This review describes evidence in subprimates and primates that the face primary somatosensory cortex (face SI) and primary motor cortex (face MI) are involved in sensorimotor integration and control of orofacial motor functions that include semiautomatic movements (e.g., chewing, swallowing) and voluntary movements (e.g., jaw-opening). The review also notes that the neuroplastic capabilities of the face SI and face MI have recently been documented, and may reflect or allow for functional adaptation (or maladaptation) of the orofacial sensorimotor system to an altered oral state or oral motor behaviour. They may contribute to the processes whereby patients undergoing oral rehabilitation can (or cannot) restore the lost orofacial sensorimotor functions. Such understanding is important since pain, injuries to the oral tissues, and alterations to the dental occlusion induced by tooth loss or attrition are common occurrences in humans that may sometimes be accompanied by impaired oral sensorimotor functions. Furthermore, impaired oral sensorimotor functions are common in many neurological disorders, sometimes making the most vital functions of eating, swallowing and speaking difficult and thereby reducing the patient's quality of life. It has also been well documented that such negative consequences can be improved following oral rehabilitation as patients adapt, for example, to a new dental prosthesis aimed at restoring function. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms and cortical neuroplastic processes underlying orofacial sensorimotor functions and adaptation is also important for the development of new therapeutic strategies to facilitate recovery of patients suffering from orofacial pain and sensorimotor disorders and improve their quality of life.

  15. The role of relational binding in item memory: evidence from face recognition in a case of developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Rosanna K; Lee, Yunjo; Kube, Jana; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Grady, Cheryl L; Moscovitch, Morris; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2015-04-01

    Current theories state that the hippocampus is responsible for the formation of memory representations regarding relations, whereas extrahippocampal cortical regions support representations for single items. However, findings of impaired item memory in hippocampal amnesics suggest a more nuanced role for the hippocampus in item memory. The hippocampus may be necessary when the item elements need to be bound within and across episodes to form a lasting representation that can be used flexibly. The current investigation was designed to test this hypothesis in face recognition. H.C., an individual who developed with a compromised hippocampal system, and control participants incidentally studied individual faces that either varied in presentation viewpoint across study repetitions or remained in a fixed viewpoint across the study repetitions. Eye movements were recorded during encoding and participants then completed a surprise recognition memory test. H.C. demonstrated altered face viewing during encoding. Although the overall number of fixations made by H.C. was not significantly different from that of controls, the distribution of her viewing was primarily directed to the eye region. Critically, H.C. was significantly impaired in her ability to subsequently recognize faces studied from variable viewpoints, but demonstrated spared performance in recognizing faces she encoded from a fixed viewpoint, implicating a relationship between eye movement behavior in the service of a hippocampal binding function. These findings suggest that a compromised hippocampal system disrupts the ability to bind item features within and across study repetitions, ultimately disrupting recognition when it requires access to flexible relational representations.

  16. The Human Face of Digital Preservation: Organizational and Staff Challenges, and Initiatives at the Bibliothèque nationale de France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Bermès

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of setting up a digital preservation repository in compliance with the OAIS model is not only a technical challenge: libraries also need to develop and maintain appropriate skills and organizations. Digital activities, including digital preservation, are nowadays moving into the mainstream activity of the Library and are integrated in its workflows.The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF has been working on the definition of digital preservation activities since 2003. This paper aims at presenting the organizational and human resources challenges that have been faced by the library in this context, and those that are still awaiting us.The library has been facing these challenges through a variety of actions at different levels: organizational changes, training sessions, dedicated working group and task forces, analysis of skills and processes, etc. The results of these actions provide insights on how a national library is going digital, and what is needed to reach this longstanding goal.

  17. Challenges faced by health-care providers offering infant-feeding counseling to HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Emily L; Chan, Jessica; Butler, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has been identified as the optimal nutrition and critical behavior in attaining human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-free infant survival in resource-limited settings. Health-care providers (HCPs) in clinic- and community-settings throughout sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) provide infant-feeding counseling. However, rates of EBF at 6 months of age are suboptimal. HCPs are uniquely positioned to educate HIV-positive mothers and provide support by addressing known barriers to EBF. However, limited evidence exists on the experiences faced by HCPs in providing counseling on infant feeding to HIV-positive women. Our objective is to describe experiences faced by HCPs when delivering infant-feeding counseling in the context of HIV in program settings in sSA. We searched a range of electronic databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from January 1990 to February 2013, in addition to hand-searching, cross-reference searching, and personal communications. The search was limited to publications in English. Empirical studies of HCP experiences providing infant-feeding counseling in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programs in sSA were selected. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles reporting HCP challenges in infant-feeding counseling that met inclusion criteria. Articles included qualitative, cross-sectional and mixed-method studies, and cumulatively reported 31 challenges faced by HCPs. Among the challenges identified, the most commonly reported were personal beliefs held by the HCPs toward infant feeding in the context of HIV, contradictory messages, staff workload, directive counseling styles, and a lack of practical strategies to offer mothers, often leading to improvised counseling approaches. Counseling strategies need to be developed that are relevant, meaningful, and responsive to the needs of both HCPs and mothers.

  18. PUBLIC RELATIONS AND ADVERTISING: TRENDS, CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrovici Amalia

    2015-01-01

      The multitude of the definitions associated with the concept of public relations, the semantic ambiguity of the term of advertising have generated, in the Romanian space, confusions related to public...

  19. The changing faces of IgG4-related disease: Clinical manifestations and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Arshia Duza; Selmi, Carlo; Datta-Mitra, Ananya; Sonu, Rebecca; Chen, Mingyi; Gershwin, M Eric; Raychaudhuri, Siba P

    2015-10-01

    Since the earliest reports in 2001, immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease has been defined as an autoimmune systemic disease characterized by the lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of affected tissues leading to fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis along with elevated serum IgG4 levels. Prior to this unifying hypothesis, a plethora of clinical manifestations were considered as separate entities despite the similar laboratory profile. The pathology can be observed in virtually all organs and may thus be a challenging diagnosis, especially when the adequate clinical suspicion is not present or when obtaining a tissue biopsy is not feasible. Nonetheless, the most frequently involved organs are the pancreas and exocrine glands but these may be spared. Immunosuppressants lead to a prompt clinical response in virtually all cases and prevent histological sequelae and, as a consequence, an early differential diagnosis from other conditions, particularly infections and cancer, as well as an early treatment should be pursued. We describe herein two cases in which atypical disease manifestations were observed, i.e., one with recurrent neck lymph node enlargement and proptosis, and one with jaundice. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease is largely incomplete but data support a significant role for Th2 cytokines with the contribution of innate immunity factors such as Toll-like receptors, macrophages and basophils. Further, macrophages activated by IL4 overexpress B cell activating factors and contribute to chronic inflammation and the development of fibrosis. We cannot rule out the possibility that the largely variable disease phenotypes reflect different pathogenetic mechanisms and the tissue microenvironment may then contribute to the organ involvement.

  20. Proceedings of a USGS Workshop on Facing Tomorrow's Challenges Along the U.S.-Mexico Border - Monitoring, Modeling, and Forecasting Change Within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Hirsch, Derrick D.; Ward, A. Wesley

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO THE WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS Competition for water resources, habitats, and urban areas in the Borderlands has become an international concern. In the United States, Department of Interior Bureaus, Native American Tribes, and other State and Federal partners rely on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide unbiased science and leadership in the Borderlands region. Consequently, the USGS hosted a workshop, ?Facing Tomorrow?s Challenges along the U.S.-Mexico Border,? on March 20?22, 2007, in Tucson, Ariz., focused specifically on monitoring, modeling, and forecasting change within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

  1. Issues and Challenges Facing Rice Production and Food Security in the Granary Areas in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER), Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chamhuri Siwar; Nor Diana Mohd Idris; Muhammad Yasar; Golam Morshed

    2014-01-01

    This study is an effort to explore and investigate the issues and challenging are facing rice production and food security in Malaysia. It is also to identify the contribution of the granary areas in East Coast Economic Region (ECER) to the national food security. The important of rice as a staple food crop of Malaysia and is grown on 673,745 ha of land, producing annually 2.6 million tons of paddy grain valued at RM 2 billion, which is contribute with average growth rate of 3.7% of year, in ...

  2. New Challenges Faced by Senior High School Mathematics Teachers%高中数学教师所面临的新挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉

    2011-01-01

    After attending trainings at senior high school mathematics curriculum standards and textbooks and curriculum reforms, the author feels that mathematics teachers are being faced with new challenges. And this paper throws some light on this issue.%经过参加高中数学课程标准和试用教材的培训学习,以及参与正在进行的课程改革实验。笔者深感数学教师面临很多新的挑战。

  3. Mid-face location of primary basal cell carcinoma related to cancer aggressivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetyadi Mawardi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the aggressiveness of basal cell carcinoma (BCC on the mid-face location. Methods: A total of 30 patients were diagnosed using specimen biopsy with hematoxylineosin stain at Moewardi Public Hospital in Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia. The age, gender distribution, site of the lesion, as well as clinic-pathological appearance were analyzed. Results: There were 30 patients consisting of 46.7% males and 53.3% females with ages ranging from 33 to 91 years old and with the most common occupation, such as farmers (53.6% and housewives (26.7%. Morpheaform subtypes BCC were more frequent than other types. Based on the predilection, most of the BCC were found to be in the mid-face (76.7% and using determined criteria of histopathological examination, the aggressive appearance was 77% and non-aggressive BCC was 23%. The BCC on the mid-face location was more aggressive than the other sites (P < 0.05. Conclusions: BCC is the most common skin tumor in humans with rare metastases, which might cause significant damage due to its local recurrences and aggressiveness. BCC on the mid-face is significantly more aggressive than that on the other predilection sites.

  4. Big data related technologies, challenges and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Min; Zhang, Yin; Leung, Victor CM

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief provides a comprehensive overview of the background and recent developments of big data. The value chain of big data is divided into four phases: data generation, data acquisition, data storage and data analysis. For each phase, the book introduces the general background, discusses technical challenges and reviews the latest advances. Technologies under discussion include cloud computing, Internet of Things, data centers, Hadoop and more. The authors also explore several representative applications of big data such as enterprise management, online social networks, healthcar

  5. Relating Follicly-Challenged Compact Stars to Bald Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Compact stars satisfy certain no-hair relations through which their multipole moments are given by their mass, spin and quadrupole moment. These relations are approximately independent of their equation of state, relating pressure to density. Such relations are similar to the black hole no-hair theorems, but these possess event horizons inside which information that led to their formation can hide. Compact stars do not possess horizons, so whether their no-hair relations are related to the black hole ones is unclear. We here show numerically that the compact star no-hair relations approach the black hole ones as the compactness approaches that of a black hole. We moreover show that compact stars become progressively oblate in this limit, even if prolate at low compactness due to strong anisotropies.

  6. Learning to Teach English Language in the Practicum: What Challenges do Non-Native ESL Student Teachers Face?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhengdong

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the challenges sixteen non-native preservice ESL teachers in a Bachelor of Education (English Language) (BEdEL) programme from Hong Kong experienced in an eight-week teaching practicum. Qualitative data from semi-structured interviews and reflective journals were collected from all 16 participants to obtain a detailed…

  7. Application of Vague Analytical Hierarchy Process to Prioritize the Challenges Facing Public Transportation in Dar Es Salaam City-Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick P. Massami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is a key to the economy and social welfare; it makes mobility more accessible and enhances the social and economic interactions. On the other hand, the increase of urban population, pollution and other negative impacts has directly affected the existing transportation system in Dar es Salaam City - Tanzania. As the transportation challenges cannot be overcome simultaneously due to the scarcity of financial resources, a decision support tool is needed to prioritize these challenges. In this study, a composite model of Vague Set Theory (VST and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is applied to appraise the challenges. The Vague Analytical Hierarchy Process (VAHP uses opinions of experts collected from a survey questionnaire. The computational results reveal the ranking in descending order of the urban transportation challenges as poor traffic management, inadequacy of proper public transit service and inadequacy of road transport infrastructure. The results also depict that the VAHP model is a useful decision support tool for transport planners, transport policy makers and other industry stakeholders.

  8. Facing the Challenge--Developing an Instructional Plan for Portuguese as Foreign Language in Brazil Based on Multiliteracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlindwein, Ana Flora

    2013-01-01

    Adopting the multiliteracy concept and embracing the challenge of developing meaningful and captivating classes for Portuguese as Foreign Language in Brazil, this paper proposes an approach which includes the use of different technologies to learn and teach Portuguese, the reading of graphic novel adaptations of Brazilian literature classics and…

  9. Sino­Pakistan Relations and the Challenges of Post-­Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutahir Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available China has emerged as the world’s second largest economy, and the largest exporter of goods with 9.6 per cent of the global share. Moreover, the last two decades have seen China emerging as an international and regional power of the 21st century. Thus, in order to continue with the economic benefits, China wants peace and stability as well as to play an active role on international and regional fronts. On the other hand, Pakistan, the world’s sixth most populous country, is a major power of South Asia. While having a developed infrastructure and vibrant political and security institutions, Pakistan is nevertheless currently facing many challenges on the economic front, including political instability and religious extremism. This paper is an attempt to analyze the challenges faced by both China and Pakistan in the post-Cold War era.

  10. 技术进步挑战电信监管%Administration Facing New Challenges with Technology Advancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟雪梅

    2005-01-01

    The history of telecom industry development can be said to be the history of communications technology development and advance in a sense. Especially in the new century, information technology develops and changes quickly out of our imagination. Innovation in new services makes the limit among all services becoming not clear any more. Also the integration of telecom network, internet and TV net becomes a trend. All those bring new challenges for telecom administration.

  11. DNS and the Internet of Things : Outlining the challenges faced by DNS in the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzic, Almira; Olofsson, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This thesis work consists of a literature study where different aspects of DNS and the Internet of Things have been researched. A functional naming and service identification method is an essential part in making the IoT global, and DNS is the current method of naming devices on the Internet. The study looks into some challenges DNS will encounter, namely functionality, security and availability. This report concludes that a multicast DNS (mDNS) based solution designed for constrained network...

  12. A Comparative Study of Factors Related to Student Performance in Online and Traditional Face-to-Face MBA Courses That Are Quantitative and Qualitative in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Carenado V.

    2013-01-01

    Online learning environments have been embraced by many institutions, faculty, and students as a viable adult learning option to the traditional face-to-face learning environment. As this mode of delivery for instruction continues to grow in acceptance, it is important to understand the characteristics of adult learners, the historical progression…

  13. Problems that Class Teachers Faced in the Classroom Related to Undesired Behaviors and Their Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ÇETİN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study is to determine the undesired behaviors of students that class teachers faced in the classroom and their solutions. The sample of the study consists of 37 class teachers working in the provinces of Gumushane, Canakkale, Erzurum, Istanbul, Tekirdag, Kocaeli, Kutahya, Bursa, Samsun, Eskisehir, and Mus in Turkey in the fall term of 2011-2012 academic year. As a result, the undesired behaviors of students that teachers faced in the classroom have been determined as not obeying the class rules, swearing, talking without permission, shyness, hyperactivity and lack of attention, and problems caused by watching violent TV programs (such as threatening. Solutions to these problems have been stated as: punishments and awards, warning, ignoring, behaving more sincerely towards students, including students by means of activities, guidance service, giving assignment, making students sit in front of the class, and playing games.

  14. Temporal dynamics of the face familiarity effect: bootstrap analysis of single-subject event-related potential data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Prieto, Esther; Pancaroglu, Raika; Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Handy, Todd; Barton, Jason J S; Oruc, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Prior event-related potential studies using group statistics within a priori selected time windows have yielded conflicting results about familiarity effects in face processing. Our goal was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of the familiarity effect at all time points at the single-subject level. Ten subjects were shown faces of anonymous people or celebrities. Individual results were analysed using a point-by-point bootstrap analysis. While familiarity effects were less consistent at later epochs, all subjects showed them between 130 and 195 ms in occipitotemporal electrodes. However, the relation between the time course of familiarity effects and the peak latency of the N170 was variable. We concluded that familiarity effects between 130 and 195 ms are robust and can be shown in single subjects. The variability of their relation to the timing of the N170 potential may lead to underestimation of familiarity effects in studies that use group-based statistics.

  15. 运动生理学面临的挑战及适应发展%Challenges Faced by Athletic Physiology and Its'Adaptation of Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 刘锡洋

    2011-01-01

    和体育学的其他子学科相类似的是,运动生理学作为一个科学领域在研究(新知识的创新和消化)和教育(课堂教学和学生指导)方面也面临着巨大的挑战.我们可以通过分析运动生理学的过去和现在,解析这一学科面对的挑战,根据我们的知识和工作经验为运动生理学的发展提出自己的建议,希望能够更好的促进运动生理学的发展.%Similar to physical education and other sub-disciplincs, athlethic physiology as a scientific area is also facing huge challenge both in its study (new knowledge's innovation and digestion) and education (classroom teaching and student guidance). We could analyze the challenge faced by athlethie physiology through analyzing of its past and the present situation. Our suggestion is proposed according to our knowledge and work experience in hope of promoting athletic physiology's development.

  16. Adult age-differences in subjective impression of emotional faces are reflected in emotion-related attention and memory tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim eSvard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although younger and older adults appear to attend to and remember emotional faces differently, less is known about age-related differences in the subjective emotional impression (arousal, potency, and valence of emotional faces and how these differences, in turn, are reflected in age differences in various emotional tasks. In the current study, we used the same facial emotional stimuli (angry and happy faces in four tasks: emotional rating, attention, categorical perception, and visual short-term memory (VSTM. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of age on the subjective emotional impression of angry and happy faces and to examine whether any age differences were mirrored in measures of emotional behavior (attention, categorical perception, and memory.In addition, regression analyses were used to further study impression-behavior associations. Forty younger adults (range 20-30 years and thirty-nine older adults (range 65-75 years participated in the experiment. The emotional rating task showed that older adults perceived less arousal, potency, and valence than younger adults and that the difference was more pronounced for angry than happy faces. Similarly, the results of the attention and memory tasks demonstrated interaction effects between emotion and age, and age differences on these measures were larger for angry than for happy faces. Regression analyses confirmed that in both age groups, higher potency ratings predicted both visual search and visual short-term memory efficiency. Future studies should consider the possibility that age differences in the subjective emotional impression of facial emotional stimuli may explain age differences in attention to and memory of such stimuli.

  17. India-EU relations in health services: prospects and challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chanda, Rupa

    2011-01-01

    .... This paper examines the opportunities for and constraints to India-EU relations in health services in the context of this agreement, focusing on the EU as a market for India's health services exports and collaboration...

  18. Phenotypic plasticity in the common garden snail: big guts and heavier mucus glands compete in snails faced with the dual challenge of poor diet and coarse substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Adam J; Treloar, Marguerite

    2016-12-26

    Phenotypic plasticity allows animals to manage environmental challenges. Studies aimed at quantifying plasticity often focus on one challenge, such as diet, and one organ system, such the gastrointestinal tract, but this approach may not adequately reflect how plasticity could buffer multiple challenges. Thus, we investigated the outcomes of a dual challenge experiment that fed land snails either a high-fibre (low quality) or a low-fibre (high quality) diet, and simultaneously exercised them daily over 1.2 m on either a smooth surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or a rough sandpaper. By the end of 20 days, snails fed the poor quality diet had a longer crop and oesophagus and a heavier intestine and rectum than those offered a low-fibre diet. Additionally, high-fibre fed snails had a smaller spermoviduct and oviduct. When also exercised on sandpaper, high-fibre fed snails had a smaller digestive gland, a main energy store, than those exercised on PVC. All snails exercised on sandpaper had a heavier pedal mucus gland, used a loping gait and used less mucus than those on PVC plastic, but there was no difference in the average speed of snails on either surface, supporting the conclusion that loping is a mucus conserving gait. Notably, snails faced with both a diet and substrate challenge had a smaller kidney, which could directly effect fecundity. This demonstrates that our dual challenge approach has potential for evaluating the costs and limits of the plasticity necessary to fully appreciate the evolutionary significance of plasticity in snails and other species.

  19. Determining the efficacy of national strategies aimed at addressing the challenges facing health personnel working in rural areas in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Mburu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shortages of Human Resources for Health (HRH in rural areas are often driven by poor working and living conditions, inadequate salaries and benefits, lack of training and career development opportunities amongst others. The South African government has adopted a human resource strategy for the health sector in 2011 aimed at addressing these challenges.Aim: This study reviews the challenges faced by health personnel against government strategies aimed at attracting and retaining health personnel in these underserved areas.Setting: The study was conducted in six primary health care service sites in the Hlabisa sub-district of Umkhanyakude, located in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.Methods: The study population comprised 25 health workers including 11 professional nurses, 4 staff nurses and 10 doctors (4 medical doctors, 3 foreign medical doctors and 3 doctors undertaking community service. Qualitative data were collected from semi-structured interviews and analysed using thematic analysis.Results: Government initiatives including the rural allowance, deployment of foreign medical doctors and the presence of health personnel undertaking their community service in rural areas are positively viewed by health personnel working in rural health facilities. However, poor living and working conditions, together with inadequate personal development opportunities, remain unresolved challenges. It is these challenges that will continue to dissuade experienced health personnel from remaining in these underserved areas.Conclusion: South Africa’s HRH strategy for the Health Sector 2012/13–2015/16 had highlighted the key challenges raised by respondents and identified strategies aimed at addressing these challenges. Implementation of these strategies is key to improving both living and working conditions, and providing health personnel with opportunities for further development will require inter-ministerial collaboration if the HRH 2030

  20. Age- and fatigue-related markers of human faces: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Tu; Isaacowitz, Derek M; Rubin, Peter A D

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the facial cues that are used when making judgments about how old or tired a face appears. Experimental study. Forty-seven subjects: 15 male and 32 female participants, ranging from age 18 to 30 years. Forty-eight full-face digital images of "normal-appearing" patients were collected and uploaded to an eye-tracking system. We used an Applied Science Laboratories (Bedford, MA) Eye Tracker device associated with gaze-tracking software to record and calculate the gaze and fixation of the participants' left eye as they viewed images on a computer screen. After seeing each picture, participants were asked to assess the age of the face in the picture by making a selection on a rating scale divided into 5-year intervals; for fatigue judgments we used a rating scale from 1 (not tired) to 7 (most tired). The main outcome measure was gaze fixation, as assessed by tracking the eye movements of participants as they viewed full-face digital pictures. For fatigue judgments, participants spent the most time looking at the eye region (31.81%), then the forehead and the nose regions (14.99% and 14.12%, respectively); in the eye region, participants looked most at the brows (13.1%) and lower lids (9.4%). Participants spent more time looking at the cheeks on faces they rated as least tired than they did on those they rated as most tired (t = 2.079, Peye region (27.22%) and then the forehead (15.71%) and the nose (14.30%) had the highest frequencies of interest; in the eye region, the brows and lower lids also had the highest frequencies of interest (11.40% and 8.90%, respectively). Participants looked more at the brows (t = -2.63, Peye region. Consequently, these results suggest that aesthetic or functional surgery to the eye region may be one of the most effective interventions in enhancing the appearance of an individual. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

  1. Challenge theme 6: Natural hazard risks in the Borderlands: Chapter 8 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Parcher, Jean W.; Stefanov, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides and debris flows, wildfires, hurricanes, and intense storm-induced flash floods threaten communities to varying degrees all along the United States–Mexican border. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborates with Federal, State, and local agencies to minimize the effects of natural hazards by providing timely, unbiased science information to emergency response officials, resource managers, and the public to help reduce property damage, injury, and loss of life. The USGS often mobilizes response efforts during and after a natural hazard event to provide technical and scientific counsel on recovery and response, and it has a long history of deploying emergency response teams to major disasters in both domestic and international locations. This chapter describes the challenges of natural hazards in the United States–Mexican border region and the capabilities of the USGS in the fields of hazard research, monitoring, and assessment, as well as preventative mitigation and post-disaster response.

  2. Promoting Positive Youth Development in the Face of Contextual Changes and Challenges: The Roles of Individual Strengths and Ecological Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.; Bowers, Edmond P.; Geldhof, G. John; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; DeSouza, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary developmental theory is framed by relational developmental systems models that emphasize that change across life occurs through mutually regulative relations between individuals and their contexts (represented as individual [left arrow][right arrow] context relations). Within these models, all contextual levels are involved in these…

  3. Exercise persistence in the face of varying exercise challenges: a test of self-efficacy theory in working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mary E; Brawley, Lawrence R

    2011-07-01

    Self-regulatory efficacy (SRE) should influence persistence towards goals. Mothers attempting to exercise while managing work and young children (N = 49, M(age) = 35.69, M(children) = 1.88) were stratified into high or low concurrent SRE groups, then randomized to read a hypothetical scenario detailing numerous or minimal exercise barrier conditions. Consistent with self-efficacy theory, when exercise barriers were numerous, mothers with higher concurrent SRE demonstrated greater persistence towards exercise goals, and perceived concurrent management of exercise with their other valued goals as more positively challenging, than mothers with lower concurrent SRE.

  4. Differential effects of face-realism and emotion on event-related brain potentials and their implications for the uncanny valley theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Sebastian; Zell, Eduard; Botsch, Mario; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-03-01

    Cartoon characters are omnipresent in popular media. While few studies have scientifically investigated their processing, in computer graphics, efforts are made to increase realism. Yet, close approximations of reality have been suggested to evoke sometimes a feeling of eeriness, the “uncanny valley” effect. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to investigate brain responses to professionally stylized happy, angry, and neutral character faces. We employed six face-stylization levels varying from abstract to realistic and investigated the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) event-related components. The face-specific N170 showed a u-shaped modulation, with stronger reactions towards both most abstract and most realistic compared to medium-stylized faces. For abstract faces, N170 was generated more occipitally than for real faces, implying stronger reliance on structural processing. Although emotional faces elicited highest amplitudes on both N170 and EPN, on the N170 realism and expression interacted. Finally, LPP increased linearly with face realism, reflecting activity increase in visual and parietal cortex for more realistic faces. Results reveal differential effects of face stylization on distinct face processing stages and suggest a perceptual basis to the uncanny valley hypothesis. They are discussed in relation to face perception, media design, and computer graphics.

  5. Differential effects of face-realism and emotion on event-related brain potentials and their implications for the uncanny valley theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Sebastian; Zell, Eduard; Botsch, Mario; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Cartoon characters are omnipresent in popular media. While few studies have scientifically investigated their processing, in computer graphics, efforts are made to increase realism. Yet, close approximations of reality have been suggested to evoke sometimes a feeling of eeriness, the “uncanny valley” effect. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to investigate brain responses to professionally stylized happy, angry, and neutral character faces. We employed six face-stylization levels varying from abstract to realistic and investigated the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) event-related components. The face-specific N170 showed a u-shaped modulation, with stronger reactions towards both most abstract and most realistic compared to medium-stylized faces. For abstract faces, N170 was generated more occipitally than for real faces, implying stronger reliance on structural processing. Although emotional faces elicited highest amplitudes on both N170 and EPN, on the N170 realism and expression interacted. Finally, LPP increased linearly with face realism, reflecting activity increase in visual and parietal cortex for more realistic faces. Results reveal differential effects of face stylization on distinct face processing stages and suggest a perceptual basis to the uncanny valley hypothesis. They are discussed in relation to face perception, media design, and computer graphics. PMID:28332557

  6. Differential effects of face-realism and emotion on event-related brain potentials and their implications for the uncanny valley theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Sebastian; Zell, Eduard; Botsch, Mario; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-03-23

    Cartoon characters are omnipresent in popular media. While few studies have scientifically investigated their processing, in computer graphics, efforts are made to increase realism. Yet, close approximations of reality have been suggested to evoke sometimes a feeling of eeriness, the "uncanny valley" effect. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to investigate brain responses to professionally stylized happy, angry, and neutral character faces. We employed six face-stylization levels varying from abstract to realistic and investigated the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) event-related components. The face-specific N170 showed a u-shaped modulation, with stronger reactions towards both most abstract and most realistic compared to medium-stylized faces. For abstract faces, N170 was generated more occipitally than for real faces, implying stronger reliance on structural processing. Although emotional faces elicited highest amplitudes on both N170 and EPN, on the N170 realism and expression interacted. Finally, LPP increased linearly with face realism, reflecting activity increase in visual and parietal cortex for more realistic faces. Results reveal differential effects of face stylization on distinct face processing stages and suggest a perceptual basis to the uncanny valley hypothesis. They are discussed in relation to face perception, media design, and computer graphics.

  7. The Borderlands and climate change: Chapter 10 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Joan; Gray, Floyd; Dubiel, Russell; Langman, Jeff; Moring, J. Bruce; Norman, Laura M.; Page, William R.; Parcher, Jean W.

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of global climate change in response to both natural forces and human activity is one of the defining issues of our times. The unprecedented observational capacity of modern earth-orbiting satellites coupled with the development of robust computational representations (models) of the Earth’s weather and climate systems afford us the opportunity to observe and investigate how these systems work now, how they have worked in the past, and how they will work in the future when forced in specific ways. In the most recent report on global climate change by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; Solomon and others, 2007), analyses using multiple climate models support recent observations that the Earth’s climate is changing in response to a combination of natural and human-induced causes. These changes will be significant in the United States–Mexican border region, where the process of climate change affects all of the Borderlands challenge themes discussed in the preceding chapters. The dual possibilities of both significantly-changed climate and increasing variability in climate make it challenging to take full measure of the potential effects because the Borderlands already experience a high degree of interannual variability and climatological extremes.

  8. How do temperate bryophytes face the challenge of a changing environment? Lessons from the past and predictions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désamoré, Aurélie; Laenen, Benjamin; Stech, Michael; Papp, Beata; Hedenäs, Lars; Mateo, Ruben G; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2012-09-01

    Bryophytes are a group of early land plants, whose specific ecophysiological and biological features, including poikilohydry, sensitivity to moderately high temperature and high dispersal ability, make them ideal candidates for investigating the impact of climate changes. Employing a combined approach of species distribution modelling (SDM) and molecular phylogeography in the temperate moss Homalothecium sericeum, we explore the significance of the Mediterranean refugia, contrasting the southern and northern refugia hypotheses, determine the extent to which recolonization of previously glaciated areas has been facilitated by the high dispersal ability of the species and make predictions on the extent to which it will be impacted by ongoing climate change. The Mediterranean areas exhibit the highest nucleotidic diversities and host a mixture of ancestral, endemic and more recently derived haplotypes. Extra-Mediterranean areas exhibit low genetic diversities and Euro-Siberian populations display a significant signal of expansion that is identified to be of Euro-Siberian origin, pointing to the northern refugia hypothesis. The SDMs predict a global net increase in range size owing to ongoing climate change, but substantial range reductions in southern areas. Presence of a significant phylogeographical signal at different spatial scales suggests, however, that dispersal limitations might constitute, as opposed to the traditional view of spore-producing plants as efficient dispersers, a constraint for migration. This casts doubts about the ability of the species to face the massive extinctions predicted in the southern areas, threatening their status of reservoir of genetic diversity.

  9. Sleep spindle-related reactivation of category-specific cortical regions after learning face-scene associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til O; Mölle, Matthias; Diedrichs, Jens

    2012-01-01

    ) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings in humans, we show that sleep spindles play a key role in the reactivation of memory-related neocortical representations. On separate days, participants either learned face-scene associations or performed a visuomotor control task. Spindle-coupled......, reactivation did not only occur in temporal synchrony with spindle events but was tuned by ongoing variations in spindle amplitude. These learning-related increases in spindle-coupled neocortical activity were topographically specific because reactivation was restricted to the face- and scene-selective visual...... cortical areas previously activated during pre-sleep learning. Spindle-coupled hippocampal activation was stronger the better the participant had performed at prior learning. These results are in agreement with the notion that sleep spindles orchestrate the reactivation of new hippocampal...

  10. [Immunoglobulin-G4-related disease: a challenging diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banc, Ana; Stan, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Immunglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease was recently described and represents a systemic lymphoproliferative disorder. The orbital form of the disease manifests as chronic lid swelling and proptosis. Visual disturbances may occur due to apical orbital lesions. A 65-year old pacient presents with the impossibility of maintaining his right eye open due to a progressive swelling of the upper lid. The general clinical examination shows adenopathy at 3 lymph node stations of the head. On ophthalmologic examination, a large tumor of the upper lid is observed in the right eye and proptosis and central retinal vein occlusion are noted in the left eye. The serum levels of the IgG are very high. A lymph node biopsy was performed. The differential diagnosis between the IgG4-related orbital disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma is discussed. CONCLUSION The diagnosis criteria for IgG4-related disease are both the high serum levels of IgG4 and the specific immunohistochemistry stains.

  11. Face-to-face: Perceived personal relevance amplifies face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublatzky, Florian; Pittig, Andre; Schupp, Harald T; Alpers, Georg W

    2017-05-01

    The human face conveys emotional and social information, but it is not well understood how these two aspects influence face perception. In order to model a group situation, two faces displaying happy, neutral or angry expressions were presented. Importantly, faces were either facing the observer, or they were presented in profile view directed towards, or looking away from each other. In Experiment 1 (n = 64), face pairs were rated regarding perceived relevance, wish-to-interact, and displayed interactivity, as well as valence and arousal. All variables revealed main effects of facial expression (emotional > neutral), face orientation (facing observer > towards > away) and interactions showed that evaluation of emotional faces strongly varies with their orientation. Experiment 2 (n = 33) examined the temporal dynamics of perceptual-attentional processing of these face constellations with event-related potentials. Processing of emotional and neutral faces differed significantly in N170 amplitudes, early posterior negativity (EPN), and sustained positive potentials. Importantly, selective emotional face processing varied as a function of face orientation, indicating early emotion-specific (N170, EPN) and late threat-specific effects (LPP, sustained positivity). Taken together, perceived personal relevance to the observer-conveyed by facial expression and face direction-amplifies emotional face processing within triadic group situations. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Challenge theme 7: Information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

  13. India-EU relations in health services: prospects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Rupa

    2011-02-10

    India and the EU are currently negotiating a Trade and Investment Agreement which also covers services. This paper examines the opportunities for and constraints to India-EU relations in health services in the context of this agreement, focusing on the EU as a market for India's health services exports and collaboration. The paper provides an overview of key features of health services in the EU and India and their bearing on bilateral relations in this sector. Twenty six semi-structured, in-person, and telephonic interviews were conducted in 2007-2008 in four Indian cities. The respondents included management and practitioners in a variety of healthcare establishments, health sector representatives in Indian industry associations, health sector officials in the Indian government, and official representatives of selected EU countries and the European Commission based in New Delhi. Secondary sources were used to supplement and corroborate these findings. The interviews revealed that India-EU relations in health services are currently very limited. However, several opportunity segments exist, namely: (i) Telemedicine; (ii) Clinical trials and research in India for EU-based pharmaceutical companies; (iii) Medical transcriptions and back office support; (iv) Medical value travel; and (v) Collaborative ventures in medical education, research, training, staff deployment, and product development. However, various factors constrain India's exports to the EU. These include data protection regulations; recognition requirements; insurance portability restrictions; discriminatory conditions; and cultural, social, and perception-related barriers. The interviews also revealed several constraints in the Indian health care sector, including disparity in domestic standards and training, absence of clear guidelines and procedures, and inadequate infrastructure. The paper concludes that although there are several promising areas for India-EU relations in health services, it will be

  14. India-EU relations in health services: prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanda Rupa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India and the EU are currently negotiating a Trade and Investment Agreement which also covers services. This paper examines the opportunities for and constraints to India-EU relations in health services in the context of this agreement, focusing on the EU as a market for India's health services exports and collaboration. The paper provides an overview of key features of health services in the EU and India and their bearing on bilateral relations in this sector. Methods Twenty six semi-structured, in-person, and telephonic interviews were conducted in 2007-2008 in four Indian cities. The respondents included management and practitioners in a variety of healthcare establishments, health sector representatives in Indian industry associations, health sector officials in the Indian government, and official representatives of selected EU countries and the European Commission based in New Delhi. Secondary sources were used to supplement and corroborate these findings. Results The interviews revealed that India-EU relations in health services are currently very limited. However, several opportunity segments exist, namely: (i Telemedicine; (ii Clinical trials and research in India for EU-based pharmaceutical companies; (iii Medical transcriptions and back office support; (iv Medical value travel; and (v Collaborative ventures in medical education, research, training, staff deployment, and product development. However, various factors constrain India's exports to the EU. These include data protection regulations; recognition requirements; insurance portability restrictions; discriminatory conditions; and cultural, social, and perception-related barriers. The interviews also revealed several constraints in the Indian health care sector, including disparity in domestic standards and training, absence of clear guidelines and procedures, and inadequate infrastructure. Conclusions The paper concludes that although there are several

  15. Looking for a face in the crowd: fixation-related potentials in an eye-movement visual search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaunitz, Lisandro N; Kamienkowski, Juan E; Varatharajah, Alexander; Sigman, Mariano; Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Ison, Matias J

    2014-04-01

    Despite the compelling contribution of the study of event related potentials (ERPs) and eye movements to cognitive neuroscience, these two approaches have largely evolved independently. We designed an eye-movement visual search paradigm that allowed us to concurrently record EEG and eye movements while subjects were asked to find a hidden target face in a crowded scene with distractor faces. Fixation event-related potentials (fERPs) to target and distractor stimuli showed the emergence of robust sensory components associated with the perception of stimuli and cognitive components associated with the detection of target faces. We compared those components with the ones obtained in a control task at fixation: qualitative similarities as well as differences in terms of scalp topography and latency emerged between the two. By using single trial analyses, fixations to target and distractors could be decoded from the EEG signals above chance level in 11 out of 12 subjects. Our results show that EEG signatures related to cognitive behavior develop across spatially unconstrained exploration of natural scenes and provide a first step towards understanding the mechanisms of target detection during natural search.

  16. Meeting the challenges related to material issues in chemical industries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baldev Raj; U Kamachi Mudali; T Jayakumar; K V Kasiviswanathn; K Natarajan

    2000-12-01

    Reliable performance and profitability are two important requirements for any chemical industry. In order to achieve high level of reliability and excellent performance, several issues related to design, materials selection, fabrication, quality assurance, transport, storage, inputs from condition monitoring, failure analysis etc. have to be adequately addressed and implemented. Technology related to nondestructive testing and monitoring of the plant is also essential for precise identification of defect sites and to take appropriate remedial decision regarding repair, replacement or modification of process conditions. The interdisciplinary holistic approach enhances the life of critical engineering components in chemical plants. Further, understanding the failure modes of the components through the analysis of failed components throws light on the choice of appropriate preventive measures to be taken well in advance, to have a control over the overall health of the plant. The failure analysis also leads to better design modification and condition monitoring methodologies, for the next generation components and plants. At the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, a unique combination of the expertise in design, materials selection, fabrication, NDT development, condition monitoring, life prediction and failure analysis exists to obtain desired results for achieving high levels of reliability and performance assessment of critical engineering components in chemical industries. Case studies related to design, materials selection and fabrication aspects of critical components in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, NDT development and condition monitoring of various components of nuclear power plants, and important failure investigations on critical engineering components in chemical and allied industries are discussed in this paper. Future directions are identified and planned approaches are briefly described.

  17. An opportunity and an imperative: Chapter 11 in United States--Mexican Borderlands--facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updike, Randall G.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Along the nearly 3,200 kilometers (almost 2,000 miles) of the United States–Mexican border, we are witnessing the expression of the challenges of the 21st century. The Borderlands have become a microcosm for the entire United States and Mexico; the issues faced in that region are felt throughout both nations—water availability and quality, ecosystem health, natural resource needs, safety from natural hazards, and human socioeconomic well-being. If these issues were not challenging enough, we now recognize that the difficulties of addressing them are exacerbated by the onset of climate change, and as we come to better understand the complexities of the components of these challenge themes, we discover that each part is inextricably intertwined with other overarching issues. Further, because we are a creative and progressive society, we all seek to understand and appreciate the natural environments associated with the Borderlands while at the same time benefitting from the region’s many social and economic values. It is little wonder that we as a society find it increasingly difficult to ask the right questions, much less find suitable answers to the questions we do ask. For the many scientists who have worked in the Borderlands and contributed to the preceding chapters, this circular is a way to describe to the two nations of the region the capabilities the U.S. Geological Survey can provide to assist in that quest for knowledge and understanding in preparation for the future.

  18. Beyond mean-field dynamics of ultra-cold bosonic atoms in higher dimensions: facing the challenges with a multi-configurational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsinger, V. J.; Krönke, S.; Schmelcher, P.

    2017-02-01

    Exploring the impact of dimensionality on the quantum dynamics of interacting bosons in traps including particle correlations is an interesting but challenging task. Due to the different participating length scales, the modelling of the short-range interactions in three dimensions plays a special role. We review different approaches for the latter and elaborate that for multi-configurational computational strategies, finite-range potentials are adequate resulting in the need for large grids to resolve the relevant length scales. This results in computational challenges, which include the exponential scaling of complexity with the number of atoms. We show that the recently developed ab initio multi-layer multi-configurational time-dependent Hartee method for bosons (ML-MCTDHB) (2013 J. Chem. Phys. 139 134103) can face both numerical challenges and present an efficient numerical implementation of ML-MCTDHB in three spatial dimensions, particularly suited to describe the quantum dynamics for elongated traps. The beneficial scaling of our approach is demonstrated by studying the tunnelling dynamics of bosonic ensembles in a double well. Comparing three-dimensional with quasi-one dimensional simulations, we find dimensionality-induced effects in the density. Furthermore, we study the crossover from weak transversal confinement, where a mean-field description of the system is sufficient, towards tight transversal confinement, where particle correlations and beyond mean-field effects are pronounced.

  19. Opportunities and challenges in Latin America-Asia relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Kacef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the impact of the deepening economic relations China and other Asian countries have with the economies of Latin America. It looks at the main benefits and costs of this greater interaction with particular reference to Latin America’s capacity for growth in the short and medium term. To this end, after a brief review of Latin America’s economic history since the last century, an evaluation is made, on the one hand, of the influence of the growth of Asian developing economies on the terms of trade and Latin America’s export income and, on the other, the changes in the latter continent’s productive structure and trade patterns that may have resulted from the increase of trade with Asia. Finally, some conclusions are offered along with prospects for the future.

  20. Maritime Education and Research to Face the XXI-st Century Challenges in Gdynia Maritime University’s Experience Part II – Gdynia Maritime University of Experience the 21st Century Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mindykowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, divided into two parts, a problem of advancements in maritime education and research facing the 21st century challenges, based on the case study of the Gdynia Maritime University (GMU experience is discussed. Part I is devoted to the advances in the maritime education and research towards the challenges in a global meaning. The maritime education challenges are focused on contribution of the University’s representatives in full implementation of the STCW 1978 as amended in 2010 convention, and on the flexible adoption of the academic specializations and programmes to the European and National Qualifications Frameworks, as well as to the needs of a global and local labour market. The research advancements in the maritime universities are basically oriented to marine transport problems, and their main focus is concentrated on the implementation of new technologies, effective and reliable technical and organizational solutions, friendly for users and environment. Part II is dedicated to the Gdynia Maritime University experiencing the 21st century challenges. In this part, firstly the education and research potential of the Gdynia Maritime University, as the one of the world-leading maritime universities, is shortly presented. And next, the GMU’s contribution and good practices concerning the participation in modification of the processes of the IMO STCW 78/2010 convention, adoption of programmes into the international and national qualification frameworks’ standards and procedures, as well as the development of research addressed to a new technological and organizational solution are described and analyzed.

  1. [Cancer-related Cognitive Impairment: Current Knowledge and Future Challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimukai, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients often suffer from various distresses, including cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment during and after cancer diagnosis and treatment are collectively called "Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI)". The number of publications about cognitive impairment due to cancer therapy, especially chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy, has been growing. Patients often worry not only about their disease condition and therapies, but also experience concerns regarding their memory, attention, and ability to concentrate. Even subtle CRCI can have a significant impact on social relationships, the ability to work, undergo treatment, accomplish meaningful goals, and the quality of life. Longitudinal studies of cancer patients indicated that up to 75% experience CRCI during treatment. Furthermore, CRCI may persist for many years following treatment. However, it is not well understood by most physicians and medical staff. CRCI can be mediated through increased inflammatory cytokines and hormonal changes. In addition, the biology of the cancer, stress, and attentional fatigue can also contribute to CRCI. Genetic factors and co-occurring symptoms may explain some of the inter-individual variability in CRCI. Researchers and patients are actively trying to identify effective interventional methods and useful coping strategies. Many patients are willing to discuss their disease condition and future treatment with medical staff and/or their families. Some patients also hope to discuss their end-of-life care. However, it is difficult to express their will after developing cognitive impairment. Advance care planning (ACP) can help in such situations. This process involves discussion between a patient, their family, and clinicians to clarify and reflect on values, treatment preferences, and goals to develop a shared understanding of how end-of-life care should proceed. The number of cancer patients with cognitive impairment has been increasing owing to the

  2. Effective Recruitment Challenges Faced by the Hospitality Industry in Bangladesh: A Study on Selected Star Rated Residential Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi HUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Human Resource Management (HRM, Recruitment is the first and foremost issue to be considered with full of sincerity, because its role is to create a positive impression about the employer in the job market by ensuring effective stimuli for the job seekers. At the beginning, the study sets a picture that focuses on the importance of effective recruitment in the hospitality sector of Bangladesh and then the study details obligatory determinants of attracting efficient human resource for the development of this sector. The main objective of the paper is to study the status and the scopes of recruitment function in hospitality industry with focus towards star rated residential hotels. This study is based on primary data collection through a formal questionnaire. The questionnaire was of mixed mode with most questions in likert-type scale and few were dichotomous in nature. The key finding of the study is that recruitment is a highly challenging task in hospitality and it is quite evident that attractive compensation package is the key factor to attract potential employees. The need and scope to modernize the recruitment practices along with the line of company and employer branding ideas are also recommended in details. There is a long way to go on the way of conceptualizing and actualizing recruitment functions and practices. A paper like this can help to discuss and debate on the necessity of developing better recruitment cultural and conceptual change in these sectors.

  3. Standards for Radiation Effects Testing: Ensuring Scientific Rigor in the Face of Budget Realities and Modern Device Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, J M.

    2015-01-01

    An overview is presented of the space radiation environment and its effects on electrical, electronic, and electromechanical parts. Relevant test standards and guidelines are listed. Test standards and guidelines are necessary to ensure best practices, minimize and bound systematic and random errors, and to ensure comparable results from different testers and vendors. Test standards are by their nature static but exist in a dynamic environment of advancing technology and radiation effects research. New technologies, failure mechanisms, and advancement in our understanding of known failure mechanisms drive the revision or development of test standards. Changes to standards must be weighed against their impact on cost and existing part qualifications. There must be consensus on new best practices. The complexity of some new technologies exceeds the scope of existing test standards and may require development of a guideline specific to the technology. Examples are given to illuminate the value and limitations of key radiation test standards as well as the challenges in keeping these standards up to date.

  4. NON-ADHERENCE TO THE OLDER ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY: A CHALLENGE TO BE FACED BY THE PROFESSIONAL STAFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rodrigues Alencar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify and discuss the factors related to nonadherence to antihypertensive therapy. It is a literature search that was to switch the chronological period from 1975 to 2009. We used primary source of data available in databases Bireme, sites of the Brazilian Society of Hypertension and the Brazilian Society of Cardiology. The results show that many factors may predispose for non-compliance should be analyzed and addressed by patients, health professionals and institutions. Among these may be highlighted factors related to disease and treatment, such as absence of symptoms and side effects, difficulties in access to medicines and services, socio-demographic characteristics, such as illiteracy and low level of knowledge about health-related functional disability as cognitive deficits, visual and auditory, psychological profile of the patient and locus of control, factors related to the belief, lifestyle and culture, relational factors as inadequate social support, family and institutional and professional relationship of health-ill patient. Studies of adherence may contribute significantly to both the planning and organization of health and to reorient care practices from the perspective of rational use of medicines by the elderly.

  5. Non-adherence to the older antihypertensive therapy: a challenge to be faced by the professional staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inalva Valadares Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify and discuss the factors related to non-adherence to antihypertensive therapy. It is a literature search that was to switch the chronological period from 1975 to2009. We used primary source of data available in databases Bireme, sites of the Brazilian Society of Hypertension and the Brazilian Society of Cardiology. The results show that many factors may predispose for non-compliance should be analyzed and addressed by patients, health professionals and institutions. Among these may be highlighted factors related to disease and treatment, such as absence of symptoms and side effects, difficulties in access to medicines and services, socio-demographic characteristics, such as illiteracy and low level of knowledge about health-related functional disability as cognitive deficits, visual and auditory, psychological profile of the patient and locus of control, factors related to the belief, lifestyle and culture, relational factors as inadequate social support, family and institutional and professional relationship of health-ill patient. Studies of adherence may contribute significantly to both the planning and organization of health and to reorient care practices from the perspective of rational use of medicines by the elderly.

  6. Are Mindfulness and Self-Compassion Related to Psychological Distress and Communication in Couples Facing Lung Cancer? A Dyadic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Melanie P J; Karremans, Johan C; van der Drift, Miep A; Molema, Johan; van den Hurk, Desiree G M; Prins, Judith B; Speckens, Anne E M

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer patients and their spouses report high rates of distress. Due to the increasing popularity of and evidence for mindfulness-based interventions in cancer, mindfulness and self-compassion have been identified as potentially helpful skills when coping with cancer. This dyadic study examined how mindfulness and self-compassion are related to psychological distress and communication about cancer in couples facing lung cancer. Using the actor-partner interdependence model, self-reported mindfulness, self-compassion, psychological distress and communication about cancer were analyzed in a cross-sectional sample of 88 couples facing lung cancer. Regarding psychological distress, no difference was found between patients and spouses. In both partners, own levels of mindfulness (B = -0.19, p = .002) and self-compassion (B = -0.45, p mindfulness was not. A trend showed that mindfulness of the partner was related to more open communication in the individual (B = 0.01, p = .080). These findings give a first indication that mindfulness and self-compassion skills may go beyond the individual and could impact couple functioning. Future research should examine whether couples facing (lung) cancer may benefit from programs in which mindfulness and self-compassion are cultivated.

  7. Challenge theme 4: People in the Borderlands: Chapter 6 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Shuster, Rudy M.; Parcher, Jean W.

    2013-01-01

    The management of shared resources in the United States–Mexican border region requires cooperation from the people of both countries to assess and understand their relation to the environment. Society is dependent on the long-term healthy functioning of ecosystems and their ability to supply food and raw materials. Likewise, resources and services obtained from nature could be used efficiently within the society. A more equitable distribution of costs and benefits related to goods and services can lead to fewer tensions and a higher quality of life for all the people in the Borderlands. Urban development, background contamination from mineral ore deposits, irrigation, sewage effluent, and even global climate change all have the potential to alter the stability of the fragile systems in the Borderlands (Brady and others, 2001, 2002; Norman, 2007, 2010; Gu and others, 2008; Norman, Gray, and others, 2008; Norman, Hirsch, and Ward, 2008; Norman, Callegary, and others, 2010; Norman, Huth, and others, 2010; Norman, Levick, and others, 2010; Norman, Tallent-Halsell, and others, 2010; Norman, Villarreal, and others 2012). Social efficiency means that because resources should be used where they are needed most, they should be distributed proportionally among human societies and individuals (Azar and others, 1996). Despite the critical role natural resources play in maintaining human and environmental health, current knowledge of the manner in which natural and human-caused forces interact to limit these resources—including their quality and quantity (such as through spatiotemporal changes in precipitation, evapotranspiration, pumping of groundwater, and release of contaminants)—is inadequate. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is trying to understand the relation between changing landscapes, changing demographics, and a changing climate in the Borderlands while the environmental, economic, and societal issues continue to be intertwined between the two nations.

  8. Challenge theme 4: people in the Borderlands: Chapter 6 in United States--Mexican Borderlands--facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Shuster, Rudy M.; Parcher, Jean W.

    2013-01-01

    The management of shared resources in the United States–Mexican border region requires cooperation from the people of both countries to assess and understand their relation to the environment. Society is dependent on the long-term healthy functioning of ecosystems and their ability to supply food and raw materials. Likewise, resources and services obtained from nature could be used efficiently within the society. A more equitable distribution of costs and benefits related to goods and services can lead to fewer tensions and a higher quality of life for all the people in the Borderlands. Urban development, background contamination from mineral ore deposits, irrigation, sewage effluent, and even global climate change all have the potential to alter the stability of the fragile systems in the Borderlands (Brady and others, 2001, 2002; Norman, 2007, 2010; Gu and others, 2008; Norman, Gray, and others, 2008; Norman, Hirsch, and Ward, 2008; Norman, Callegary, and others, 2010; Norman, Huth, and others, 2010; Norman, Levick, and others, 2010; Norman, Tallent-Halsell, and others, 2010; Norman, Villarreal, and others 2012). Social efficiency means that because resources should be used where they are needed most, they should be distributed proportionally among human societies and individuals (Azar and others, 1996). Despite the critical role natural resources play in maintaining human and environmental health, current knowledge of the manner in which natural and human-caused forces interact to limit these resources—including their quality and quantity (such as through spatiotemporal changes in precipitation, evapotranspiration, pumping of groundwater, and release of contaminants)—is inadequate. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is trying to understand the relation between changing landscapes, changing demographics, and a changing climate in the Borderlands while the environmental, economic, and societal issues continue to be intertwined between the two nations.

  9. Alterations in neural processing of emotional faces in adolescent anorexia nervosa patients - an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfärlea, Anca; Greimel, Ellen; Platt, Belinda; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Dieler, Alica C

    2016-09-01

    The present study explored the neurophysiological correlates of perception and recognition of emotional facial expressions in adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) patients using event-related potentials (ERPs). We included 20 adolescent girls with AN and 24 healthy girls and recorded ERPs during a passive viewing task and three active tasks requiring processing of emotional faces in varying processing depths; one of the tasks also assessed emotion recognition abilities behaviourally. Despite the absence of behavioural differences, we found that across all tasks AN patients exhibited a less pronounced early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to all facial expressions compared to controls. The EPN is an ERP component reflecting an automatic, perceptual processing stage which is modulated by the intrinsic salience of a stimulus. Hence, the less pronounced EPN in anorexic girls suggests that they might perceive other people's faces as less intrinsically relevant, i.e. as less "important" than do healthy girls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-06-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training ('better' trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics' everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits.

  11. Challenges facing use of energy in the tourism and hospitality industry in Zimbabwe and policies that can promote the sustainable use of renewable energy and tourism development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marunda, E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the various challenges facing use of energy for sustainable tourism development in Zimbabwe on the backdrop of Zimbabwe’s reliance mainly on non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels and wood whilst very little use is being made of the abundant renewable sources of energy for instance the sun and wind technologies. It is based on the research carried out with the objective of establishing policies that can promote the sustainable use of renewable energy sources in the country. The findings reveal that stakeholders in the tourism and hospitality industry are largely in favour of formulating and expanding policies that encourage use of solar and wind technologies, at the same time mitigating environmental degradation. The article summarises the findings and duly recommends policies than can be used in Zimbabwe to promote the sustainable use of renewable energy employing solar and wind among others for tourism development.

  12. Infants’ experience-dependent processing of male and female faces: Insights from eye tracking and event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Righi

    2014-04-01

    The results of the present study suggest that 7-month olds with a large amount of female face experience show a processing advantage for forming a neural representation of female faces, compared to male faces. However, the enhanced neural sensitivity to the repetition of female faces is not due to the infants’ inability to discriminate male faces. Instead, the combination of results from the two tasks suggests that the differential processing for female faces may be a signature of expert-level processing.

  13. The humble in a context of "greatness": challenges facing the regeneration of Barrio Antiguo in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon

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    Prieto Gonzalez, Jose Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current “Barrio Antiguo” (Old Quarter of Monterrey (Mexico, formerly known as "Cathedral Quarter", is a postmodern product arising from the intervention between 1988 and 1994 in a sector called First Square, shortly after the construction of the “Macroplaza” (1979-1985 destroyed a significant part of that same sector. Thus, “Barrio Antiguo” became an example of consciousness cleansing experience. The area is a part of what would become the center of Monterrey, whose physical and conceptual boundaries are still undefined. After a harsh period of degradation in the quarter, especially profound in the context of organized crime and its resulting violence in recent years, the Municipal Institute for Planning and Coexistence of Monterrey (IMPLANC has undertaken the task of regenerating the area. The aim of this lecture is to reveal the difficulties faced by the previously mentioned regeneration, starting with the "inferiority complex" that stirs up among the Monterrey population –traditionally-identified with the official discourse of "greatness"– due to the humility of both the architecture and the vernacular northeastern atmosphere of the quarter, especially when comparisons are made with national historic centers which are World Heritage Sites. El actual Barrio Antiguo de Monterrey, antaño conocido como “Barrio de Catedral”, es un producto posmoderno que surge de la intervención realizada entre 1988 y 1994 en un sector del llamado Primer Cuadro de la ciudad, poco después de que las obras de la Macroplaza (1979-85 destruyeran una parte importante de ese mismo sector. Barrio Antiguo vino a ser así una especie de lavado de conciencia. La zona es una parte de lo que sería el centro histórico de Monterrey, cuyos límites físicos y conceptuales aún están sin definir. Después de una dura etapa de degradación del Barrio, especialmente intensa en el contexto de la ola de violencia de los últimos años, el Instituto

  14. The ties to unbind: Age-related differences in feature (unbinding in working memory for emotional faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem ePehlivanoglu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated age-related differences in the processing of emotional stimuli. Specifically, we were interested in whether older adults would show deficits in unbinding emotional expression (i.e., either no emotion, happiness, anger, or disgust from bound stimuli (i.e., photographs of faces expressing these emotions, as a hyperbinding account of age-related differences in working memory would predict. Younger and older adults completed different N-Back tasks (side-by-side 0-Back, 1-Back, 2-Back under three conditions: match/mismatch judgments based on either the identity of the face (identity condition, the face’s emotional expression (expression condition, or both identity and expression of the face (binding condition. Both age groups performed more slowly and with lower accuracy in the expression condition than in the binding condition, indicating the presence of an unbinding process. This unbinding effect was more pronounced in older adults than in younger adults, but only in the 2-Back task. Thus, older adults seemed to have a specific deficit in unbinding in working memory, over and beyond age-related differences observed in perceptual processing (0-Back and attention/short-term memory (1-Back. Additionally, no age-related differences were found in accuracy in the 0-Back task, but such differences emerged in the 1-Back task, and were further magnified in the 2-Back task, indicating independent age-related differences in attention/short-term memory and working memory. Pupil dilation data confirmed that the attention/short-term memory version of the task (1-Back is more effortful in older adults than younger adults.

  15. Challenges Facing New North Atlantic Treaty Organization Member States: An Analysis of the Alliance’s Ongoing Enlargement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    Civil-Military Relations Theory in the Postcommunist World ,” Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces Geneva, July 2002, 1. 27Samuel P...and the District of Columbia maintain active partnerships with fifty emerging democracies around the world . State partnerships with new alliance...assistance to emerging democracies . Given the already substantial contributions to military operations in the Balkans, Afghanistan, and Iraq, it appears

  16. Inflammatory bowel disease in young patients: challenges faced by black and minority ethnic communities in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Christopher; Nash, Avril; Lloyd, Michele; Brooks, Fiona; Lindsay, James O; Poullis, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing among black and minority ethnic (BME) communities. Despite this rise in prevalence, there is a paucity of research relating to ethnicity and IBD outside the USA. Furthermore, the symptoms of IBD are reported to start during childhood or adolescence in 20-25% of people with the condition. It is therefore important that young people's experiences of diagnosis, treatment and living with IBD are fully understood to ensure effective services and information provision. The study reported on in this paper was commissioned by a UK charity (Crohn's and Colitis UK) with the aim of increasing understanding of the specific issues and service needs of young people with IBD from BME communities. Empirical research entailed in-depth semi-structured interviews with 20 young people from BME groups accessed through gastroenterology departments at three collaborating NHS hospitals in England serving ethnically diverse populations. Interviews were carried out from June to December 2010 and sought to capture young people's views with IBD. A thematic analysis of their experiences identified many commonalities with other young people with IBD, such as the problematic route to formal diagnosis and the impact of IBD on education. The young people also experienced tensions between effective self-management strategies and cultural norms and practices relating to food. Moreover, the ability of parents to provide support was hampered for some young people by the absence of culturally competent services that were responsive to the families' communication needs. The findings highlight the need for more culturally appropriate information concerning IBD, and improved responsiveness to young people with IBD within primary care and the education system, as well as culturally competent messaging relating to the specific nature of the condition among the wider South Asian and black communities.

  17. The duration of disgusted and fearful faces is judged longer and shorter than that of neutral faces: the attention-related time distortions as revealed by behavioral and electrophysiological measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan eZhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Time perception has been shown to be altered by emotions. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the effects of two threat-related emotions on the judgment of time intervals in the range of 490-910 ms. We demonstrated that disgust and fear have distinct influences on time perception. At the behavioral level, disgusted faces were estimated longer and fearful faces were estimated shorter (i.e., the generalization gradient for the disgusted faces was shifted left while the generalization gradient for the fearful faces was shifted right when compared with neutral faces. Accordingly, the contingent negative variation, an online ERP index of timing, displayed larger area in disgust and smaller area in fear conditions when compared with neutral condition (disgust = 1.94 ± 2.35 μV•s, neutral = 1.40 ± 2.5 μV•s, and fear = 1.00 ± 2.26 μV•s. These findings indicated that specific neural mechanisms may underlie the attention effects of different subtypes of threat-related emotions on timing; compared with neutral faces, fearful faces are likely to attract more attentional resources while disgusted faces may attract less attentional resources for emotional processing. The major contribution of the current study is to provide neural correlates of fear vs. disgust divergence in the aspect of time perception and to demonstrate beyond the behavioral level that the categorization of threat-related emotions should be refined so to highlight the adaptability of the human defense system.

  18. Transforming round pegs to fill square holes:Facing the challenge of forest inventories as tools of environmental policy for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor A. Rudis

    1993-01-01

    Todays forest inventory specialist is challenged to combine inventories and analysis of timber with range recreation, soil, water, and wildlife resources, related human uses, and social and economic concerns.Lessons learned in adapting timber-oriented forest inventories toward holistic forest resources assessment are provided.Discussed are ways to maintain dialogue...

  19. Neuropolitics: EEG spectral maps related to a political vote based on the first impression of the candidate's face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, G; Toppi, J; Cincotti, F; Astolfi, L; De Vico Fallani, F; Aloise, F; Mattia, D; Bocale, S; Vernucci, F; Babiloni, F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to investigate the EEG activity elicited by a fast observation of face of real politicians during a simulated political election. Politician's face are taken from real local election performed in Italy in the 2004 and 2008. We recorded the EEG activity of eight healthy subjects while they are asked to give a judgment on dominance, trustworthiness traits and a preference of vote on faces shown. Statistical differences of spectral EEG scalp activity have been mapped onto a realistic head model. For each experimental condition, we employed the t-test to compare the PSD values and adopted the False Discovery Rate correction for multiple comparisons. The scalp statistical maps revealed a desynchronization in the alpha band related to the politicians who lost the simulated elections and have been judged less trustworthy. Although these results might be congruent with the recent literature, the present is the first EEG study about and there is the need to extend the paradigm and the analysis on a larger number of subjects to validate these results.

  20. Policy Challenges Related to Biofuel Development in Tanzania Politische Herausforderungen in Bezug auf Biokraftstoffe in Tansania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sosovele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels have recently emerged as a major issue in energy policy, agricultural development and natural resource management. The growing demand for biofuels is being driven by high oil prices, energy security concerns and global climate change. In Tanzania there is growing interest on the part of foreign private investors in establishing biofuel projects, although globally there are concerns related to biofuel investments. Tanzania has approved a number of such projects, but the biofuel subsector faces several policy challenges that could clearly hamper its development. These include the lack of a holistic and comprehensive energy policy that addresses the broad spectrum of energy options and issues, and weak or absent institutional and legal frameworks. This article highlights some key policy issues critical to the development of biofuels and argues that if these challenges are not addressed at the national policy level, biofuel development may not result in the expected benefits to Tanzania and the majority of its local communities. Biokraftstoffe sind in jüngster Zeit in den Bereichen Energiepolitik, Landwirtschaftsentwicklung und nationales Ressourcenmanagement zu einem wichtigen Thema geworden. Die wachsende Nachfrage nach Biokraftstoffen wird durch die hohen Ölpreise, Befürchtungen in Bezug auf Energiesicherheit und den globalen Klimawandel vorangetrieben. In Tansania ist wachsendes Interesse ausländischer Privatinvestoren an Biokraftstoffprojekten zu beobachten, obwohl es weltweit Bedenken gegenüber solchen Investitionen gibt. Die tansanische Regierung hat einer ganzen Reihe entsprechender Projekte zugestimmt, doch mit dem Biokraftstoffsektor sind politische Herausforderungen verbunden, die diese Entwicklung behindern könnten. Dazu gehören das Fehlen einer ganzheitlichen und umfassenden Energiepolitik, die das ganze Spektrum energiepolitischer Fragestellungen und Optionen einschließt, wie auch schwache oder fehlende institutionelle

  1. Current and future threats and opportunities facing European crop wild relatives and landrace diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxted, N.; Akparov, Z.I.; Aronsson, M.; Kik, C.

    2012-01-01

    The approach of this priority crop wild relatives (CWR) and landraces (LR) conservation exercise was to use the skills and knowledge of 52 ECPGR in situ and on-farm conservation network members and other conference delegates, representing a broad European range of PGR-related academic, research and

  2. Embroidery and Related Manufacturing Techniques for Wearable Antennas: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Tsolis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will review the evolution of wearable textile antennas over the last couple of decades. Particular emphasis will be given to the process of embroidery. This technique is advantageous for the following reasons: (i bespoke or mass produced designs can be manufactured using digitized embroidery machines; (ii glue is not required and (iii the designs are aesthetic and are integrated into clothing rather than being attached to it. The embroidery technique will be compared to alternative manufacturing processes. The challenges facing the industrial and public acceptance of this technology will be assessed. Hence, the key opportunities will be highlighted.

  3. Voices from the front lines. Four leaders on the cross-border challeng they've faced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Luc; Caride, Eduardo; Yamaguchi, Takeo; Tedjarati, Shane

    2014-09-01

    Executives on the front lines of managing across borders share their insights: Luc Minguet, of France's Michelin, talks about the importance of cultural training not just for managers taking on assignments abroad but also for local employees who work with colleagues from around the world. He describes how his own experience learning to communicate across cultures reflects the tire-maker's broader practices. Eduardo Caride, of Madrid-based Telefónica, explains how the relatively young multinational is investing in a diverse talent mix as it strives to become a truly global company. Whereas early on, leaders relied on exporting Spanish managers abroad, he notes, the street now runs both ways. Takeo Yamaguchi, of Japan's Hitachi, details his efforts to create standardized global HR systems and processes across the conglomerate's 948 separate companies. "Three years ago, we had no systematic way of tracking employees, evaluating performance, or identifying future leaders," Yamaguchi says. "Today we do." And Shane Tedjarati, from the United States' Honeywell, talks about how the industrial powerhouse is shifting its strategy toward new regions, such as China, India, vietnam, and Indonesia. "We call these markets 'high-growth regions' instead of emerging markets," says Tedjarati, "because they now account for more than half of Honeywell's total growth."

  4. Challenge theme 2: assuring water availability and quality in the 21st century: Chapter 4 in United States--Mexican Borderlands--facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegary, James; Langeman, Jeff; Leenhouts, Jim; Martin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Along the United States–Mexican border, the health of communities, economies, and ecosystems is inextricably intertwined with the availability and quality of water, but effective water management in the Borderlands is complicated. Water users compete for resources, and their needs are increasing. Managers are faced with issues such as finding a balance between agriculture and rapidly growing cities or maintaining public supplies while ensuring sufficient resources for aquatic ecosystems. In addition to human factors, the dry climate of the Borderlands, as compared to more temperate regions, also increases the challenge of balancing water supplies between humans and ecosystems. Warmer, drier, and more variable conditions across the southwestern United States—the projected results of climate change (Seager and others, 2007)—would further stress water supplies.

  5. Implementation of public management of social relations in the face of social changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Leonidovych Prokopenko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems of regulation of social relations in Ukraine, particularly in the economic, political and humanitarian sphere. Based on the analysis of works of Western social theorists, as well as international experience, defines the basic directions of modernization of public management of social relations in the conditions of social changes. Deals with the historical background of review governance model and consider it as a system that creates and develops the potential of self-government of private and public, individual and collective social actors. Highlights the role of the implementation of public management approaches that stimulate engagement of public institutions, individual and organized public services users to develop policy initiatives for better public management of social relations.

  6. Culture- and Immigration-Related Stress Faced by Chinese American Families with a Patient Having Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Winnie W

    2016-07-01

    The impact of culture and immigration on the experience of Chinese American families with a member having schizophrenia is explored within the frameworks of family systems and stress and coping. This qualitative study was conducted within an intervention study of family psychoeducation using therapists' session notes from 103 family sessions and 13 relatives' group sessions from nine patients and 19 relatives. The high stigma attached to mental illness leading to social isolation, and families' devotion to caregiving exacerbated caregiver burden. Taboo against discussing dating and sexuality and the consideration of arranged marriages caused unique stress. The insecurity as immigrants and shortage of bilingual services were related to greater enmeshment within these families. Implications on research methodology and practice are discussed.

  7. Immunoglobulin G4-related Lung Disease: A Disease with Many Different Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Hui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin (Ig G4-related lung disease is a fibroinflammatory entity that presents in protean ways. Diagnostically, IgG4-related lung disease requires a high clinical index of suspicion complemented by elevated serum IgG4 levels and/or biopsy that shows the characteristic pathological features. The disease is almost always responsive to systemic corticosteroids. However, relapse is common following their discontinuation. The authors present three cases to highlight the diverse clinical features, and to illustrate the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this disease.

  8. A Network Meta-Analysis of the Relative Efficacy of Treatments for Actinic Keratosis of the Face or Scalp in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, Stefan; Tolley, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several treatments are available for actinic keratosis (AK) on the face and scalp. Most treatment modalities were compared to placebo and therefore little is known on their relative efficacy. Objectives: To compare the different treatments for mild to moderate AK on the face and scalp

  9. Christian-Muslim Relations in Indonesia: Five Challenges of the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abu Rabi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper - inspired by the "International Conference on Muslim-Christian Relations: Past, Present, and Future Dialogue and Cooperation", in Jakarta, August 1997 - discussed the challenges of Indonesia in relation to Christian-Muslim relations into the century 21.In August 1997, a major conference on Christian-Muslim relations and the challenges of religious plulalism in contemporary Indonesia was convenced at the Horison Hotel in Jakarta, Indonesia. Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v5i1.758

  10. Neural correlates of face and object perception in an awake chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes examined by scalp-surface event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokata Fukushima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neural system of our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, is a topic of increasing research interest. However, electrophysiological examinations of neural activity during visual processing in awake chimpanzees are currently lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present report, skin-surface event-related brain potentials (ERPs were measured while a fully awake chimpanzee observed photographs of faces and objects in two experiments. In Experiment 1, human faces and stimuli composed of scrambled face images were displayed. In Experiment 2, three types of pictures (faces, flowers, and cars were presented. The waveforms evoked by face stimuli were distinguished from other stimulus types, as reflected by an enhanced early positivity appearing before 200 ms post stimulus, and an enhanced late negativity after 200 ms, around posterior and occipito-temporal sites. Face-sensitive activity was clearly observed in both experiments. However, in contrast to the robustly observed face-evoked N170 component in humans, we found that faces did not elicit a peak in the latency range of 150-200 ms in either experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although this pilot study examined a single subject and requires further examination, the observed scalp voltage patterns suggest that selective processing of faces in the chimpanzee brain can be detected by recording surface ERPs. In addition, this non-invasive method for examining an awake chimpanzee can be used to extend our knowledge of the characteristics of visual cognition in other primate species.

  11. An inflammatory condition with different faces : Immunoglobulin G4-Related disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim, A. F.; Verdijk, R. M.; Guenoun, J.; van Hagen, P. M.; van Laar, J. A M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic fibro-inflammatory condition with involvement of different organs. The pathophysiological mechanism is unclear, but fibrosis is the hallmark of this disease. Early recognition is critical to avoid irreversible organ damage. Recent

  12. challenges facing child headed households

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    This research employed qualitative methods to establish the daily experiences ... family support systems that view children as society's future and as an .... children's decision-making in 30 child-headed .... fetching water from nearby boreholes.

  13. RRR for NNN-a rapid research response for the Neglected Tropical Disease NGDO Network: a novel framework to challenges faced by the global programs targeting neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Chelsea E; Jacobson, Julie; Wainwright, Emily C; Ottesen, Eric A; Lammie, Patrick J

    2016-03-01

    While global programs targeting the control or elimination of five of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)-lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, schistosomiasis and trachoma-are well underway, they still face many operational challenges. Because of the urgency of 2020 program targets, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the U.S. Agency for International Development devised a novel rapid research response (RRR) framework to engage national programs, researchers, implementers and WHO in a Coalition for Operational Research on NTDs. After 2 years, this effort has succeeded as an important basis for the research response to programmatic challenges facing NTD programs.

  14. A level-set method for pathology segmentation in fluorescein angiograms and en face retinal images of patients with age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Fatimah; Ansari, Rashid; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2013-03-01

    The visibility and continuity of the inner segment outer segment (ISOS) junction layer of the photoreceptors on spectral domain optical coherence tomography images is known to be related to visual acuity in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Automatic detection and segmentation of lesions and pathologies in retinal images is crucial for the screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of patients with retinal diseases. One of the challenges of using the classical level-set algorithms for segmentation involves the placement of the initial contour. Manually defining the contour or randomly placing it in the image may lead to segmentation of erroneous structures. It is important to be able to automatically define the contour by using information provided by image features. We explored a level-set method which is based on the classical Chan-Vese model and which utilizes image feature information for automatic contour placement for the segmentation of pathologies in fluorescein angiograms and en face retinal images of the ISOS layer. This was accomplished by exploiting a priori knowledge of the shape and intensity distribution allowing the use of projection profiles to detect the presence of pathologies that are characterized by intensity differences with surrounding areas in retinal images. We first tested our method by applying it to fluorescein angiograms. We then applied our method to en face retinal images of patients with AMD. The experimental results included demonstrate that the proposed method provided a quick and improved outcome as compared to the classical Chan-Vese method in which the initial contour is randomly placed, thus indicating the potential to provide a more accurate and detailed view of changes in pathologies due to disease progression and treatment.

  15. Public Relations and Its Education: 21st Century Challenges in Definition, Role and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    This paper asserts that the greatest challenge for 21st century public relations practitioners will be the identification of organizational values and their reconciliation with societal values within the context of a quickly and seemingly chaotic syncretizing popular culture. This function of public relations requires considerable practitioner…

  16. Age-Related Differences in Brain Electrical Activity during Extended Continuous Face Recognition in Younger Children, Older Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Glimmerveen, Johanna C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Martens, Vanessa E. G.; de Bruin, Eveline A.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the development of recognition memory in primary-school children, 36 healthy younger children (8-9 years old) and 36 healthy older children (11-12 years old) participated in an ERP study with an extended continuous face recognition task (Study 1). Each face of a series of 30 faces was shown randomly six times interspersed with…

  17. Event-related repetitive TMS reveals distinct, critical roles for right OFA and bilateral posterior STS in judging the sex and trustworthiness of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhelyova, Milena P; Ellison, Amanda; Atkinson, Anthony P

    2011-10-01

    Judging the sex of faces relies on cues related to facial morphology and spatial relations between features, whereas judging the trustworthiness of faces relies on both structural and expressive cues that signal affective valence. The right occipital face area (OFA) processes structural cues and has been associated with sex judgments, whereas the posterior STS processes changeable facial cues related to muscle movements and is activated when observers judge trustworthiness. It is commonly supposed that the STS receives inputs from the OFA, yet it is unknown whether these regions have functionally dissociable, critical roles in sex and trustworthiness judgments. We addressed this issue using event-related, fMRI-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Twelve healthy volunteers judged the sex of individually presented faces and, in a separate session, whether those same faces were trustworthy or not. Relative to sham stimulation, RTs were significantly longer for sex judgments when rTMS was delivered over the right OFA but not the right or left STS, and for trustworthiness judgments on male but not female faces when rTMS was delivered over the right STS or left STS but not the right OFA. Nonetheless, an analysis of the RT distributions revealed a possible critical role also for the right OFA in trustworthiness judgments, limited to faces with longer RTs, perhaps reflecting the later, ancillary use of structural cues related to the sex of the face. On the whole, our findings provide evidence that evaluations of the trustworthiness and sex of faces rely on functionally dissociable cortical regions.

  18. Effects of aromatherapy massage on face-down posture-related pain after vitrectomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Naho; Munesada, Minako; Yamada, Noriko; Suzuki, Haruka; Futohashi, Ayano; Shigeeda, Takashi; Kato, Satoshi; Nishigaki, Masakazu

    2014-06-01

    Postoperative face-down posturing (FDP) is recommended to optimize the effects of intraocular gas tamponade after vitrectomy. However, patients undergoing FDP usually experience physical and psychological burdens. This 3-armed, randomized, single-center trial investigated the effects of aromatherapy on FDP-related physical pain. Sixty-three patients under FDP were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups: aromatherapy massage with essential oil (AT), oil massage without essential oil (OT), and a control group. The AT and OT groups received 10 minutes of massage by ward nurses trained by an aromatherapist, while the control group received usual care. Outcomes were assessed as short-term (pre- to post-intervention) and long-term (first to third postoperative day) changes in physical pain in five body regions using face-scale. The AT and OT groups both revealed similar short-term pain reductions after intervention, compared with the control group. Regarding long-term effects, neither group experienced significant effects until the second day. Significantly more pain reduction compared with usual care occurred on the third day, mainly in the AT group, though there were few significant differences between the AT and OT groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that simple oil massage is an effective strategy for immediate pain reduction in patients undergoing FDP, while aromatherapy may have a long-term effect on pain reduction.

  19. Event-related brain responses to emotional words, pictures, and faces - a cross-domain comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Mareike; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2014-01-01

    Emotion effects in event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have previously been reported for a range of visual stimuli, including emotional words, pictures, and facial expressions. Still, little is known about the actual comparability of emotion effects across these stimulus classes. The present study aimed to fill this gap by investigating emotion effects in response to words, pictures, and facial expressions using a blocked within-subject design. Furthermore, ratings of stimulus arousal and valence were collected from an independent sample of participants. Modulations of early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive complex (LPC) were visible for all stimulus domains, but showed clear differences, particularly in valence processing. While emotion effects were limited to positive stimuli for words, they were predominant for negative stimuli in pictures and facial expressions. These findings corroborate the notion of a positivity offset for words and a negativity bias for pictures and facial expressions, which was assumed to be caused by generally lower arousal levels of written language. Interestingly, however, these assumed differences were not confirmed by arousal ratings. Instead, words were rated as overall more positive than pictures and facial expressions. Taken together, the present results point toward systematic differences in the processing of written words and pictorial stimuli of emotional content, not only in terms of a valence bias evident in ERPs, but also concerning their emotional evaluation captured by ratings of stimulus valence and arousal.

  20. Analysing Italian Regional Patterns in Green Economy and Climate Change. Can Italy Leverage on Europe 2020 Strategy to Face Sustainable Growth Challenges ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco BONSINETTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available European cities and regions are facing the crucial challenge of greening their economy towards more sustainable patterns. Politicians and policy-makers should promote new policies for sustainable growth including renewables, greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency and biodiversity. All of these aspects can be considered as a boost for local and regional economy. In this regard, European countries and regions can benefit from the Europe 2020 Strategy which is defined as Europe’s blueprint for a smart, sustainable and inclusive future, providing a ten year roadmap for growth and jobs. EU2020S was designed as a European exit strategy from the global economic and financial crisis in view of new European economic governance. This study discusses the above issues regarding Italy and intends to provide some answers on the perspectives of the new EU2020S. It draws from a research project supported by ESPON, the S.I.E.S.T.A. Project, focused on the territorial dimension of the EU2020S. Therefore, this paper aims at analyzing Italian regional patterns on climate change, green economy and energy within the context of EU2020S and at providing policy recommendations for better achieving the goals of the Strategy.