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Sample records for fabrication improved cycle

  1. Fabrication of Porous ZnO/Co₃O₄ Composites for Improving Cycling Stability of Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dongqing; Zhang, Longmei; Tang, Zehua; Yu, Tingting; Liu, Huili; Zhang, Junhao; Liu, Yuanjun; Yuan, Aihua; Kong, Qinghong

    2018-07-01

    To tackle the issue of poor cycling stability for metal oxide nanoparticles as supercapacitor electrode, porous ZnO/Co3O4 composites were fabricated via solid-state thermolysis of [CoZn(BTC)(NO3)](2H2O)(0.5DMF) under air atmosphere. The results demonstrate that the products are mesoporous polyhedron structure with the diameter of about 10 μm, which are constructed by many interconnected nanocrystals with the sizes of around 20 nm. ZnO/Co3O4 composites as supercapacitor electrode exhibited excellent cyclic stability capacity, showing a maximum specific capacitance of 106.7 F g-1 and a capacity retention of 102.7 F · g-1 after 1000 cycles at 0.5 A · g-1. The superior electrochemical performance was contributed to ZnO/Co3O4 composites with porous structures and small size, which shortened the route of electronic transmission as well as ions insertion and desertion processes. Additionally, the synergetic effect of bimetallic oxides improved the electrochemical stability.

  2. Improvements in the fabrication of metallic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, D.B.; Henslee, S.P.; Dodds, N.E.; Longua, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is currently developing a new liquid-metal-cooled breeder reactor known as the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). The IFR represents the state of the art in metal-fueled reactor technology. Improvements in the fabrication of metal fuel, discussed in this paper, will support ANL-West's (ANL-W) fully remote fuel cycle facility, which is an integral part of the IFR concept

  3. Improvements in fabrication of metallic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, D.B.; Henslee, S.P.; Dodds, N.E.; Longua, K.J.

    1989-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is currently developing a new liquid- metal cooled breeder reactor known as the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). IFR fuels represent the state-of-the-art in metal-fueled reactor technology. Improvements in the fabrication of metal fuel, to be discussed below, will support the fully remote fuel cycle facility that as an integral part of the IFR concept will be demonstrated at the EBR-II site. 3 refs

  4. Study on the nitride fuel fabrication for FBR cycle (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinkai, Yasuo; Ono, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Kenya

    2002-07-01

    In the phase-II of JNC's 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fuel Reactor Cycle System (the F/S)', the nitride fuels are selected as candidate for fuels for heavy metal cooled reactor, gas cooled reactor, and small scale reactor. In particular, the coated fuel particles are a promising concept for gas cooled reactor. In addition, it is necessary to study in detail the application possibility of pellet nitride fuel and vibration compaction nitride fuel for heavy metal cooled reactor and small scale reactor in the phase-II. In 2001, we studied more about additional equipments for the nitride fuel fabrication in processes from gelation to carbothermic reduction in the vibration compaction method. The result of reevaluation of off-gas mass flow around carbothermic reduction equipment in the palletizing method, showed that quantity of off-gas flow reduced and its reduction led the operation cost to decrease. We studied the possibility of fabrication of large size particles in the coated fuel particles for helium gas cooled reactor and we made basic technical issues clear. (author)

  5. Cryogenic Dark Matter Search detector fabrication process and recent improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jastram, A., E-mail: akjastram@tamu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Harris, H.R.; Mahapatra, R.; Phillips, J.; Platt, M.; Prasad, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Sander, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Department of Physics, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States); Upadhyayula, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A dedicated facility has been commissioned for Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) detector fabrication at Texas A and M University (TAMU). The fabrication process has been carefully tuned using this facility and its equipment. Production of successfully tested detectors has been demonstrated. Significant improvements in detector performance have been made using new fabrication methods/equipment and tuning of process parameters.

  6. An improved fabrication process for Si-detector-compatible JFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piemonte, Claudio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Boscardin, Maurizio; Gregori, Paolo; Zorzi, Nicola; Ratti, Lodovico

    2006-01-01

    We report on JFET devices fabricated on high-resistivity silicon with a radiation detector technology. The problems affecting previous versions of these devices have been thoroughly investigated and solved by developing an improved fabrication process, which allows for a sizeable enhancement in the JFET performance. In this paper, the main features of the fabrication technology are presented and selected results from the electrical and noise characterization of transistors are discussed

  7. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) fabricated part behavior under tensile stress, thermal cycling, and fluid pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shojib

    Material extrusion based additive manufacturing (AM) technology, such as fused deposition modeling (FDM), is gaining popularity with the numerous 3D printers available worldwide. FDM technology is advancing from exclusively prototype construction to achieving production-grade quality. Today, FDM-fabricated parts are widely used in the aerospace industries, biomedical applications, and other industries that may require custom fabricated, low volume parts. These applications are and were possible because of the different production grade material options (e.g., acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polycarbonate (PC), polyphenylsulfone (PPSF), etc.) available to use in FDM systems. Recent researchers are exploring other material options including polycaprolactone (PCL), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), composites containing ceramic, glass and metal fillers, and even metals which depict the diversified materials and possibility of new material options using FDM technology. The understanding of the behavior and mechanical properties of the finished FDM-fabricated parts is of utmost importance in the advancement of this technology. The processing parameters, e.g., build orientation, raster width (RW), contour width (CW), raster angle (RA), and raster to raster air gap (RRAG) are important factors in determining the mechanical properties of FDM fabricated parts. The work presented here focused on the mechanical properties improvement by modifying those build parameters. The main concentration is on how modifying those parameters can improve ultimate tensile stress (UTS), Young's modulus, and tensile strain of the final product. In this research, PC parts were fabricated using three build methods: 1) default method, 2) Insight revision method, and 3) visual feedback method. By modifying build parameters, the highest average UTS obtained for PC was 63.96 MPa which was 7% higher than that of 59.73 MPa obtained using the default build parameters. The parameter modification

  8. Estimates of Canadian fuel fabrication costs for alternative fuel cycles and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahnik, C.

    1979-04-01

    Unit fuel fabrication costs are estimated for alternate fuel cycles and systems that may be of interest in Ontario Hydro's strategy analyses. A method is proposed for deriving the unit fuel fabrication price to be paid by a Canadian utility as a function of time (i.e. the price that reflects the changing demand/supply situation in the particular scenario considered). (auth)

  9. Improving Teaching through Collaborative Reflective Teaching Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Reflection and collaboration are two activities teachers can use to change and improve their practice. However, finding the time and space to do so can be challenging. The collaborative reflective teaching cycle is a structured activity teachers can use to engage in reflection and collaboration. This article describes how a seventh grade teaching…

  10. Improvements during fabrication of the Spanish steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Miranda, A.

    1994-01-01

    The ENSA company is manufacturing the tubes of the steam generator in NP Asco 1. The improvements of fabrication and production are broken down into 3 chapters: - Mechanizing process - Welding process - Clean area activities

  11. Improved Sound Absorption Performance of Nonwoven Fabric using Fabric Facing and Air Back Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmad Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the improvement methods to increase sound absorption performance of polyethylene based nonwoven fabric (PNF. The methods are placing a woven fabric in front of the sample as well as providing air cavity behind the sample. The samples were experimentally tested in an impedance tube based on ISO 10354-2:2001 whereby two microphones are used and the transfer matrix methods are employed. From the results, it can be seen that placing front woven fabric effectively increases sound absorption performance. Moreover, introducing air cavity gap behind the sample is also found to be more significant to increase sound absorption.

  12. Probabilistic safety analysis for nuclear fuel cycle facilities, an exemplary application for a fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmal, B.; Gaenssmantel, G.; Mayer, G.; Moser, E.F.

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the risk of complex technical systems, the application of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in addition to the Deterministic Safety Analysis becomes of increasing interest. Besides nuclear installations this applies to e. g. chemical plants. A PSA is capable of expanding the basis for the risk assessment and of complementing the conventional deterministic analysis, by which means the existing safety standards of that facility can be improved if necessary. In the available paper, the differences between a PSA for a nuclear power plant and a nuclear fuel cycle facility (NFCF) are discussed in shortness and a basic concept for a PSA for a nuclear fuel cycle facility is described. Furthermore, an exemplary PSA for a partial process in a fuel assembly fabrication facility is described. The underlying data are partially taken from an older German facility, other parts are generic. Moreover, a selected set of reported events corresponding to this partial process is taken as auxiliary data. The investigation of this partial process from the fuel fabrication as an example application shows that PSA methods are in principle applicable to nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Here, the focus is on preventing an initiating event, so that the system analysis is directed to the modeling of fault trees for initiating events. The quantitative results of this exemplary study are given as point values for the average occurrence frequencies. They include large uncertainties because of the limited documentation and data basis available, and thus have only methodological character. While quantitative results are given, further detailed information on process components and process flow is strongly required for robust conclusions with respect to the real process. (authors)

  13. Fabrication of cellulose/graphene paper as a stable-cycling anode materials without collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunliang; Cha, Ruitao; Yang, Luming; Mou, Kaiwen; Jiang, Xingyu

    2018-03-15

    Flexible and foldable devices attract substantial attention in low-cost electronics. Among the flexible substrate materials, paper has several attractive advantages. In our study, we fabricate cellulose/graphene paper by wet end formation (papermaking). The cationic polyacrylamide remarkably improve the retention ratio of graphene of cellulose/graphene slurry. Besides, cellulose/graphene paper exhibits well mechanical properties such as its flexibility and folding endurance. And we replace copper foil collector with cellulose/graphene paper in lithium-ion batteries without collector, and investigate its electrochemical properties. The obtained results show that cellulose/graphene paper presents excellent charge-discharge stability after 1600th cycles as the anode of lithium-ion batteries. These advantages highlight the potential applications of cellulose/graphene paper as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality Improvement Cycles that Reduced Waiting Times at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was decided to undertake quality improvement (QI) cycles to analyse and improve the situation, using waiting time as a measure of improvement. Methods: A QI team was chosen to conduct two QI cycles. The allocated time for QI cycle 1 was from May to August 2006 and for QI cycle 2 from September to December 2006.

  15. MOX fuel fabrication, in reactor performance and improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, J. van; Deramaix, P.; Nigon, J.L.; Fournier, W.

    1998-01-01

    In Europe, MOX fuel for light water reactors (LWRs) has first been manufactured in Belgium and Germany. Belgonucleaire (BN) loaded the first MOX assembly in the BR3 Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) in 1963. In June 1998, more than 750 tHM LWR MOX fuel assemblies were manufactured on a industrial scale in Europe without any particular difficulty relating to fuel fabrication, reactor operation or fuel behaviour. So, today plutonium recycling through MOX fuel is a mature industry, with successful operational experience and large-scale fabrication plants. In this field, COGEMA and BELGONUCLEAIRE are the main actors by operating simultaneously three complete multidesign fuel production plants: MELOX plant (in Marcoule), CADARACHE plant and P0 plant (in Dessel, Belgium). Present MOX production capacity available to COGEMA and BN fits 175 tHM per year and is to be extended to reach about 325 tHM in the year 2000. This will represent 75% of the total MOX fabrication capacity in Europe. The industrial mastery and the high production level in MOX fabrication assured by high technology processes confer to these companies a large expertise for Pu recycling. This allows COGEMA and BN to be major actors in Pu-based fuels in the coming second nuclear era with advanced fuel cycles. (author)

  16. Fabrication approaches for plasmon-improved photovoltaic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gritti, Claudia; Malureanu, Radu; Kardynal, B.

    During this talk we will present various fabrication approaches to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) cells by using metallic nanoparticles in order to generate photocurrent below the bandgap. This effect is possible due to the generation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in optimized...

  17. Energy efficiency improvement target for SIC 34 - fabricated metal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrer, T. G.; Billhardt, C. F.; Farkas, M. S.

    1977-03-15

    A March 15, 1977 revision of a February 15, 1977 document on the energy improvement target for the Fabricated Metal Products industry (SIC 34) is presented. A net energy savings in 1980 of 24% as compared with 1972 energy consumption in SIC 34 is considered a realistic goal. (ERA citation 04:045008)

  18. Deposition Time and Thermal Cycles of Fabricating Thin-wall Steel Parts by Double Electrode GMAW Based Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Dongqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deposition time for fabricating the thin-wall part as well as the peak temperature of the substrate during the process was analyzed in the double electrode gas metal arc welding (DE-GMAW based additive manufacturing (AM. The total deposition time and the interlayer idle time of the manufacturing process decreased with the increasing of the bypass current under the same interlayer temperature and the same deposition rate. The thermal cycling curves illustrated that the peak temperature of the substrate was lower in the DE-GMAW base AM under the same conditions. When depositing the thin-wall parts, the DE-GMAW based AM can reduce the heat input to the substrate and improve the fabrication efficiency, compared with the GMAW based AM.

  19. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog: FY16 Improvements and Additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barela, Amanda Crystal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walkow, Walter M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Program sponsors nuclear fuel cycle research and development. As part of its Fuel Cycle Options campaign, the DOE has established the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog. The catalog is intended for use by the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program in planning its research and development activities and disseminating information regarding nuclear energy to interested parties. The purpose of this report is to document the improvements and additions that have been made to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog in the 2016 fiscal year.

  20. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog FY15 Improvements and Additions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barela, Amanda Crystal [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walkow, Walter M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Program sponsors nuclear fuel cycle research and development. As part of its Fuel Cycle Options campaign, the DOE has established the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog. The catalog is intended for use by the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program in planning its research and development activities and disseminating information regarding nuclear energy to interested parties. The purpose of this report is to document the improvements and additions that have been made to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog in the 2015 fiscal year.

  1. Course Development Cycle Time: A Framework for Continuous Process Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Erinn

    2003-01-01

    Details Edinboro University's efforts to reduce the extended cycle time required to develop new courses and programs. Describes a collaborative process improvement framework, illustrated data findings, the team's recommendations for improvement, and the outcomes of those recommendations. (EV)

  2. Updated Life-Cycle Assessment of Aluminum Production and Semi-fabrication for the GREET Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Qiang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kelly, Jarod C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Burnham, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report serves as an update for the life-cycle analysis (LCA) of aluminum production based on the most recent data representing the state-of-the-art of the industry in North America. The 2013 Aluminum Association (AA) LCA report on the environmental footprint of semifinished aluminum products in North America provides the basis for the update (The Aluminum Association, 2013). The scope of this study covers primary aluminum production, secondary aluminum production, as well as aluminum semi-fabrication processes including hot rolling, cold rolling, extrusion and shape casting. This report focuses on energy consumptions, material inputs and criteria air pollutant emissions for each process from the cradle-to-gate of aluminum, which starts from bauxite extraction, and ends with manufacturing of semi-fabricated aluminum products. The life-cycle inventory (LCI) tables compiled are to be incorporated into the vehicle cycle model of Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model for the release of its 2015 version.

  3. Development of challengeable reprocessing and fuel fabrication technologies for advanced fast reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, S.; Aoshima, T.; Myochin, M.

    2001-01-01

    R and D in the next five years in Feasibility Study Phase-2 are focused on selected key technologies for the advanced fuel cycle. These are the reference technology of simplified aqueous extraction and fuel pellet short process based on the oxide fuel and the innovative technology of oxide-electrowinning and metal- electrorefining process and their direct particle/metal fuel fabrication methods in a hot cell. Automatic and remote handling system operation in both reprocessing and fuel manufacturing can handle MA and LLFP concurrently with Pu and U attaining the highest recovery and an accurate accountability of these materials. (author)

  4. Study on the improvement of hydrophilic character on polyvinylalcohol treated polyester fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pitchai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyester fabric was treated with polyvinyl alcohol in alkaline medium. The moisture regain, water retention and wettability of the PVA treated polyester fabric were tested. The PVA treated PET fabric was dyed with disperse dye. The presence of PVA in the treated PET fabric was assessed by spot test. The treated fabric was also characterized by scanning electron microscope, FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry. The PVA treated polyester fabric showed improved hydrophilic character over intact and sodium hydroxide treated PET fabrics.

  5. Facile fabrication of cobalt oxalate nanostructures with superior specific capacitance and super-long cycling stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanhua; Si, Conghui; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ying; Yang, Wanfeng; Dong, Chaoqun; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2016-04-01

    Transition metal oxalate materials have shown huge competitive advantages for applications in supercapacitors. Herein, nanostructured cobalt oxalate supported on cobalt foils has been facilely fabricated by anodization, and could directly serve as additive/binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors. The as-prepared cobalt oxalate electrodes present superior specific capacitance of 1269 F g-1 at the current density of 6 A g-1 in the galvanostatic charge/discharge test. Moreover, the retained capacitance is as high as 87.2% as the current density increases from 6 A g-1 to 30 A g-1. More importantly, the specific capacitance of cobalt oxalate retains 91.9% even after super-long cycling of 100,000 cycles. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor assembled with cobalt oxalate (positive electrode) and activated carbon (negative electrode) demonstrates excellent capacitive performance with high energy density and power density.

  6. Improved Fibroblast Functionalities by Microporous Pattern Fabricated by Microelectromechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongbo; Zhao, Lingzhou; Chen, Bangdao; Bai, Shizhu; Zhao, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblasts, which play an important role in biological seal formation and maintenance, determine the long-term success of percutaneous implants. In this study, well-defined microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems and their influence on the fibroblast functionalities was observed. The results show that the microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm did not influence the initial adherent fibroblast number; however, those with diameters of 40 and 50 µm improved the spread, actin stress fiber organization, proliferation and fibronectin secretion of the fibroblasts. The microporous structures with micropore diameters of 40–50 µm may be promising for application in the percutaneous part of an implant. PMID:25054322

  7. Improved Fibroblast Functionalities by Microporous Pattern Fabricated by Microelectromechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Wei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts, which play an important role in biological seal formation and maintenance, determine the long-term success of percutaneous implants. In this study, well-defined microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems and their influence on the fibroblast functionalities was observed. The results show that the microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm did not influence the initial adherent fibroblast number; however, those with diameters of 40 and 50 µm improved the spread, actin stress fiber organization, proliferation and fibronectin secretion of the fibroblasts. The microporous structures with micropore diameters of 40–50 µm may be promising for application in the percutaneous part of an implant.

  8. Electrochromic Windows: Process and Fabrication Improvements for Lower Total Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2007-03-31

    The overall goal with respect to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to achieve significant national energy savings through maximized penetration of EC windows into existing markets so that the largest cumulative energy reduction can be realized. The speed with which EC windows can be introduced and replace current IGU's (and current glazings) is clearly a strong function of cost. Therefore, the aim of this project was to investigate possible improvements to the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazing products to facilitate both process and fabrication improvements resulting in lower overall costs. The project was split into four major areas dealing with improvements to the electrochromic layer, the capping layer, defect elimination and general product improvements. Significant advancements have been made in each of the four areas. These can be summarized as follows: (1) Plasma assisted deposition for the electrochromic layer was pursued, and several improvements made to the technology for producing a plasma beam were made. Functional EC devices were produced using the new technology, but there are still questions to be answered regarding the intrinsic properties of the electrochromic films produced by this method. (2) The capping layer work was successfully implemented into the existing SageGlass{reg_sign} product, thereby providing a higher level of transparency and somewhat lower reflectivity than the 'standard' product. (3) Defect elimination is an ongoing effort, but this project spurred some major defect reduction programs, which led to significant improvements in yield, with all the implicit benefits afforded. In particular, major advances were made in the development of a new bus bar application process aimed at reducing the numbers of 'shorts' developed in the finished product, as well as making dramatic improvements in the methods used for tempering the glass, which had previously been seen to produce a defect which appeared as a

  9. Improved Design and Fabrication of Hydrated-Salt Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance design, and fabrication and growth processes to implement the design, have been devised for encapsulating a hydrated salt in a container that both protects the salt and provides thermal conductance between the salt and the environment surrounding the container. The unitary salt/container structure is known in the art as a salt pill. In the original application of the present design and processes, the salt is, more specifically, a hydrated paramagnetic salt, for use as a refrigerant in a very-low-temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The design and process can also be applied, with modifications, to other hydrated salts. Hydrated paramagnetic salts have long been used in ADRs because they have the desired magnetic properties at low temperatures. They also have some properties, disadvantageous for ADRs, that dictate the kind of enclosures in which they must be housed: Being hydrated, they lose water if exposed to less than 100-percent relative humidity. Because any dehydration compromises their magnetic properties, salts used in ADRs must be sealed in hermetic containers. Because they have relatively poor thermal conductivities in the temperature range of interest (<0.1 K), integral thermal buses are needed as means of efficiently transferring heat to and from the salts during refrigeration cycles. A thermal bus is typically made from a high-thermal-conductivity met al (such as copper or gold), and the salt is configured to make intimate thermal contact with the metal. Commonly in current practice (and in the present design), the thermal bus includes a matrix of wires or rods, and the salt is grown onto this matrix. The density and spacing of the conductors depend on the heat fluxes that must be accommodated during operation.

  10. Non toxic additives for improved fabric filter performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustard, C.J.; Baldrey, K.E.; Ebner, T.G. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this three-phase Small Business innovative Research (SBIR) program funded by the Department of Energy pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is to commercialize a technology based upon the use of non-toxic, novel flue gas conditioning agents to improve particulate air toxic control and overall fabric filter performance. The ultimate objective of the Phase II program currently in progress is to demonstrate that the candidate additives are successful at full-scale on flue gas from a coal-fired utility boiler. This paper covers bench-scale field tests conducted during the period February through May, 1995. The bench-scale additives testing was conducted on a flue gas slipstream taken upstream of the existing particulate control device at a utility power plant firing a Texas lignite coal. These tests were preceded by extensive testing with additives in the laboratory using a simulated flue gas stream and re-dispersed flyash from the same power plant. The bench-scale field testing was undertaken to demonstrate the performance with actual flue gas of the bet candidate additives previously identified in the laboratory. Results from the bench-scale tests will be used to establish operating parameters for a larger-scale demonstration on either a single baghouse compartment or a full baghouse at the same site.

  11. Time effectiveness of capillary effect improvement of ramie fabrics processed by RF glow discharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiwen; Wei Weixing; He Yanhe; Zhao Yuanqing; Pan Liyiji; Li Xuemei; Shi Shaodui; Li Guangxin

    2010-01-01

    The time effectiveness of capillary effect improvement of ramie fabrics processed by RF glow discharging was studied. The ramie fabrics were processed in fulfilling with different gas (O 2 , N 2 , Ar) by different parameters (such as pressure,power and time) plasma. The capillary effect of the ramie fabrics processed by RF glow discharging was tested at different time. The results indicate that the capillary effect of ramie fabrics processed by RF glow discharging has been improved, the improvement of the capillary effect firstly decrease rapidly, then slowly, and become stable after 15 day, it indicate that improvement of the ramie fabrics capillary has good time effectiveness, and the plasma parameter for the best capillary effect improvement of ramie fabric is 100 W and 40 Pa processed 20 min by oxygen plasma. (authors)

  12. Quality improvement cycles that reduced waiting times at Tshwane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    improvement. QI in medical practices is a method for continuously finding better ways to provide better care and service.11 The QI cycle is a recognised tool for analysing and improving the efficiency and quality of healthcare services.12 QI is a team effort, requiring knowledge, skills, experience and perspective of each team ...

  13. Design study and evaluation of fuel fabrication systems for FR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namekawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Kenya; Kawaguchi, Koichi; Koike, Kazuhiro; Shimuta, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yoshihiro

    2004-01-01

    The plant concept for each FBR fuel fabrication system has been constructed and evaluated, which achieves economical improvement, decrease in the environmental burden, better resource utilization, and proliferation resistance by the various innovative techniques employed. The results are as follows: (1) For oxide fuels, the simplified pelletizing method has a high technical feasibility, and it is possible to apply this method to practical process at early stage, because this method is based on wealth results of a conventional method. (2) For oxide fuels, the sphere packing fuel fabrication system by gelation and vibro-compaction processes has the advantage of lesser dispersion of the fine powder due to the use of solution and granule in the process. However this system shoulders additional cost for the liquid waste treatment process to dispose a large bulk of process liquid waste. (3) For the metal fuel, the casting system is generally expected to have high economical efficiency even for small-scale facilities, although verification for fabrication of the TRU alloy slug is required. (author)

  14. A New, Highly Improved Two-Cycle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesen, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    The figure presents a cross-sectional view of a supercharged, variable-compression, two-cycle, internal-combustion engine that offers significant advantages over prior such engines. The improvements are embodied in a combination of design changes that contribute synergistically to improvements in performance and economy. Although the combination of design changes and the principles underlying them are complex, one of the main effects of the changes on the overall engine design is reduced (relative to prior two-cycle designs) mechanical complexity, which translates directly to reduced manufacturing cost and increased reliability. Other benefits include increases in the efficiency of both scavenging and supercharging. The improvements retain the simplicity and other advantages of two-cycle engines while affording increases in volumetric efficiency and performance across a wide range of operating conditions that, heretofore have been accessible to four-cycle engines but not to conventionally scavenged two-cycle ones, thereby increasing the range of usefulness of the two-cycle engine into all areas now dominated by the four-cycle engine. The design changes and benefits are too numerous to describe here in detail, but it is possible to summarize the major improvements: Reciprocating Shuttle Inlet Valve The entire reciprocating shuttle inlet valve and its operating gear is constructed as a single member. The shuttle valve is actuated in a lost-motion arrangement in which, at the ends of its stroke, projections on the shuttle valve come to rest against abutments at the ends of grooves in a piston skirt. This shuttle-valve design obviates the customary complex valve mechanism, actuated from an engine crankshaft or camshaft, yet it is effective with every type of two-cycle engine, from small high-speed single cylinder model engines, to large low-speed multiple cylinder engines.

  15. Hybrid pellets: an improved concept for fabrication of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.B.; Hart, P.E.

    1979-09-01

    The feasibility of fabricating fuel pellets using gel-derived microspheres as press feed was evaluated. By using gel-derived microspheres as press feed, the potential exists for eliminating dusty operations like milling, slugging, and granulation, from the pelleting process. The free-flowing character of the spheres should also result in limited dust generation during powder transport and pressing operations. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that fuel pellets can be successfully fabricated on a laboratory scale using UO 2 gel microspheres as press feed. Under moderate sintering conditions, 1,500 0 C for 4 h in Ar-4% H 2 , UO 2 pellets with densities up to 96% TD were fabricated. A range of pellet microstructures and densities were achieved depending on sphere forming and calcining conditions. Based on these results, a set of necessary sphere properties are suggested: O/U less than 2.20, crystallite size less than 500 A, specific surface area greater than 8 m 2 /g, and sphere size 200 and 400 μm. Preliminary attempts to fabricate ThO 2 and ThO 2 -UO 2 pellets using microspheres were unsuccessful because the requisite sphere properties were not achieved. Areas requiring additional development include: demonstration of the process on scaled-up equipment suitable for use in a remote fuel fabrication facility and evaluation of the irradiation performance of pellet fuels from gel-spheres

  16. High-intensity cycle interval training improves cycling and running performance in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B; Ferguson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Effective cycle training for triathlon is a challenge for coaches. We compared the effects of two variants of cycle high-intensity interval training (HIT) on triathlon-specific cycling and running. Fourteen moderately-trained male triathletes ([Formula: see text]O2peak 58.7 ± 8.1 mL kg(-1) min(-1); mean ± SD) completed on separate occasions a maximal incremental test ([Formula: see text]O2peak and maximal aerobic power), 16 × 20 s cycle sprints and a 1-h triathlon-specific cycle followed immediately by a 5 km run time trial. Participants were then pair-matched and assigned randomly to either a long high-intensity interval training (LONG) (6-8 × 5 min efforts) or short high-intensity interval training (SHORT) (9-11 × 10, 20 and 40 s efforts) HIT cycle training intervention. Six training sessions were completed over 3 weeks before participants repeated the baseline testing. Both groups had an ∼7% increase in [Formula: see text]O2peak (SHORT 7.3%, ±4.6%; mean, ±90% confidence limits; LONG 7.5%, ±1.7%). There was a moderate improvement in mean power for both the SHORT (10.3%, ±4.4%) and LONG (10.7%, ±6.8%) groups during the last eight 20-s sprints. There was a small to moderate decrease in heart rate, blood lactate and perceived exertion in both groups during the 1-h triathlon-specific cycling but only the LONG group had a substantial decrease in the subsequent 5-km run time (64, ±59 s). Moderately-trained triathletes should use both short and long high-intensity intervals to improve cycling physiology and performance. Longer 5-min intervals on the bike are more likely to benefit 5 km running performance.

  17. Wash fastness improvement of malachite green-dyed cotton fabrics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Nano-size features of both silica and titania nanosols are predicted to enhance the wash fastness of ... The cotton fabric was obtained from traditional market and was previously tested to contain fully cellulose ..... The authors acknowledge financial support of DP2M,. Directorate General of Higher Education, Indonesia,.

  18. Exploring Wind Power: Improving Mathematical Thinking through Digital Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Daniel A.; An, Song A.; Cohen, Jonathan D.; Kjellstrom, William; Boren, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the impacts of digital fabrication activities that were integrated into contextualized mathematics education. The study investigated the students' mathematics content knowledge and attitudes. Data analysis yielded two key findings regarding our intervention combined with the other mathematics activities resulted…

  19. Investigators share improved understanding of the North American carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Birdsey; Robert Cook; Scott Denning; Peter Griffith; Beverly Law; Jeffrey Masek; Anna Michalak; Stephen Ogle; Dennis Ojima; Yude Pan; Christopher Sabine; Edwin Sheffner; Eric Sundquist

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. North American Carbon Program (NACP) sponsored an "all-scientist" meeting to review progress in understanding the dynamics of the carbon cycle of North American and adjacent oceans, and to chart a course for improved integration across scientifi c disciplines, scales, and Earth system boundaries. The meeting participants also addressed the need for...

  20. Innovative predictive maintenance concepts to improve life cycle management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinga, Tiedo

    2014-01-01

    For naval systems with typically long service lives, high sustainment costs and strict availability requirements, an effective and efficient life cycle management process is very important. In this paper four approaches are discussed to improve that process: physics of failure based predictive

  1. Improved Fibroblast Functionalities by Microporous Pattern Fabricated by Microelectromechanical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Hongbo; Zhao, Lingzhou; Chen, Bangdao; Bai, Shizhu; Zhao, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblasts, which play an important role in biological seal formation and maintenance, determine the long-term success of percutaneous implants. In this study, well-defined microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems and their influence on the fibroblast functionalities was observed. The results show that the microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm did not influence the initial adherent fibroblast number; ...

  2. A treatment of thermal efficiency improvement in the Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Terushige; Akagawa, Koji; Nakanishi, Shigeyasu; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Ishigai, Seikan.

    1982-01-01

    So far, as the working fluid for power-generating plants, mainly water and air (combustion gas) have been used. In this study, in regeneration and isothermal compression processes being considered as the means for the efficiency improvement in Brayton cycle, the investigation of equivalent graphical presentation method with T-S diagrams, the introduction of the new characteristic number expressing the possibility of thermal efficiency improvement by regeneration, and the investigation of the effect of the difference of working fluid on thermal efficiency were carried out. Next, as the cycle approximately realizing isothermal compression process with condensation process, the super-critical pressure cycle with liquid phase compression was rated, and four working fluids, NH 3 , SO 2 , CO 2 and H 2 O were examined as perfect gas and real gas. The advantage of CO 2 regeneration for the thermal efficiency improvement was clarified by using the dimensionless characteristic number. The graphical presentation of effective work, the thermal efficiency improvement by regeneration, the thermal efficiency improvement by making compression process isothermal, the effect on thermal efficiency due to various factors and working fluids, the characteristic number by regeneration, and the application to real working fluids are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. Improvements in steam cycle electric power generating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienvenu, Claude.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a steam cycle electric energy generating plants of the type comprising a fossil or nuclear fuel boiler for generating steam and a turbo alternator group, the turbine of which is fed by the boiler steam. The improvement is characterized in that use is made of a second energy generating group in which a fluid (e.g. ammoniac) undergoes a condensation cycle the heat source of said cycle being obtained through a direct or indirect heat exchange with a portion of the boiler generated steam whereby it is possible without overloading the turbo-alternator group, to accomodate any increase of the boiler power resulting from the use of another fuel while maintaining a maximum energy output. This can be applied to electric power stations [fr

  4. Impact of uranium-233/thorium cycle on advanced accountability concepts and fabrication facilities. Addendum 2 to application of advanced accountability concepts in mixed oxide fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, J.J.; Jump, M.J.; Lange, R.A.; Crandall, C.C.

    1977-11-01

    The Phase I study of the application of advanced accountability methods (DYMAC) in a uranium/plutonium mixed oxide facility was extended to cover the possible fabrication of uranium-233/thorium fuels. Revisions to Phase II of the DYMAC plan which would be necessitated by such a process are specified. These revisions include shielding requirements, measurement systems, licensing conditions, and safeguards considerations. The impact of the uranium/thorium cycle on a large-scale fuel fabrication facility was also reviewed; it was concluded that the essentially higher radioactivity of uranium/thorium feeds would lead to increased difficulties which tend to preclude early commercial application of the process. An amended schedule for Phase II is included

  5. Improving Life-Cycle Cost Management of Spacecraft Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will explore the results of a recent NASA Life-Cycle Cost study and how project managers can use the findings and recommendations to improve planning and coordination early in the formulation cycle and avoid common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns. The typical NASA space science mission will exceed both the initial estimated and the confirmed life-cycle costs by the end of the mission. In a fixed-budget environment, these overruns translate to delays in starting or launching future missions, or in the worst case can lead to cancelled missions. Some of these overruns are due to issues outside the control of the project; others are due to the unpredictable problems (unknown unknowns) that can affect any development project. However, a recent study of life-cycle cost growth by the Discovery and New Frontiers Program Office identified a number of areas that are within the scope of project management to address. The study also found that the majority of the underlying causes for cost overruns are embedded in the project approach during the formulation and early design phases, but the actual impacts typically are not experienced until late in the project life cycle. Thus, project management focus in key areas such as integrated schedule development, management structure and contractor communications processes, heritage and technology assumptions, and operations planning, can be used to validate initial cost assumptions and set in place management processes to avoid the common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns.

  6. Improving early cycle economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, Lotte M G; Ramsey, Scott D

    2014-08-01

    The rapidly increasing range and expense of new diagnostics, compels consideration of a different, more proactive approach to health economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies. Early cycle economic evaluation is a decision analytic approach to evaluate technologies in development so as to increase the return on investment as well as patient and societal impact. This paper describes examples of 'early cycle economic evaluations' as applied to diagnostic technologies and highlights challenges in its real-time application. It shows that especially in the field of diagnostics, with rapid technological developments and a changing regulatory climate, early cycle economic evaluation can have a guiding role to improve the efficiency of the diagnostics innovation process. In the next five years the attention will move beyond the methodological and analytic challenges of early cycle economic evaluation towards the challenge of effectively applying it to improve diagnostic research and development and patient value. Future work in this area should therefore be 'strong on principles and soft on metrics', that is, the metrics that resonate most clearly with the various decision makers in this field.

  7. Cleanability Improvement of Cotton Fabrics Through Their Topographical Changes Due to the Conditioning with Cellulase Enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvimontes, A.; Lant, N.J.; Dutschk, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    In this study, topographical changes of woven cotton fabrics conditioned with a cellulase enzyme during several wash–dry cycles are systematically studied. A recent study of cellulase enzyme effect on cellulose films has proven that this substance selectively attacks amorphous regions of cellulose,

  8. Improving Mechanical Properties of Molded Silicone Rubber for Soft Robotics Through Fabric Compositing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Gregory, Cherry; Minor, Mark A

    2018-06-01

    Molded silicone rubbers are common in manufacturing of soft robotic parts, but they are often prone to tears, punctures, and tensile failures when strained. In this article, we present a fabric compositing method for improving the mechanical properties of soft robotic parts by creating a fabric/rubber composite that increases the strength and durability of the molded rubber. Comprehensive ASTM material tests evaluating the strength, tear resistance, and puncture resistance are conducted on multiple composites embedded with different fabrics, including polyester, nylon, silk, cotton, rayon, and several blended fabrics. Results show that strong fabrics increase the strength and durability of the composite, valuable in pneumatic soft robotic applications, while elastic fabrics maintain elasticity and enhance tear strength, suitable for robotic skins or soft strain sensors. Two case studies then validate the proposed benefits of the fabric compositing for soft robotic pressure vessel applications and soft strain sensor applications. Evaluations of the fabric/rubber composite samples and devices indicate that such methods are effective for improving mechanical properties of soft robotic parts, resulting in parts that can have customized stiffness, strength, and vastly improved durability.

  9. Energetic and exergetic Improvement of geothermal single flash cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Nazari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed analysis of a new method for improving energetic and exergetic efficiencies of single flash cycle. The thermodynamic process of the new method consists of extracting a fraction of hot wellhead geothermal brine for the purpose of superheating saturated steam entering the turbine. Computer programming scripts were developed and optimized based on mathematical proposed models for the different components of the systems. The operating parameters such as separator temperature, geofluid wellhead enthalpy and geothermal source temperature are varied to investigate their effects on both net power output and turbine exhaust quality of the systems. Also, full exergy assessment was performed for the new design. The results of separator temperature optimization revealed that specific net power output of the new design can be boosted up to 8% and turbine exhaust quality can be diminished up to 50% as compared to common single flash cycle. In addition, for wells with higher discharge enthalpy, superheating process improve specific net power output even up to 10%. Finally, it was observed that the overall system exergy efficiency was approximately raised 3%. Article History: Received January 5th 2016; Received in revised form June 25th 2016; Accepted July 3rd 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Nazari, N. and Porkhial, S. (2016. Energetic and Exergetic Improvement of Geothermal Single Flash Cycle. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2,129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.129-138 

  10. WWER-440 fuel cycles possibilities using improved fuel assemblies design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolas, P.; Svarny, J.

    2008-01-01

    Practically five years cycle has been achieved in the last years at NPP Dukovany. There are two principal means how it could be achieved. First, it is necessary to use fuel assemblies with higher fuel enrichment and second, to use fuel loading with very low leakage. Both these conditions are fulfilled at NPP Dukovany at this time. It is known, that the fuel cycle economy can be improved by increasing the fuel residence time in the core up to six years. There are at least two ways how this goal could be achieved. The simplest way is to increase enrichment in fuel. There exists a limit, which is 5.0 w % of 235 U. Taking into account some uncertainty, the calculation maximum is 4.95 w % of 235 U. The second way is to change fuel assembly design. There are several possibilities, which seem to be suitable from the neutron - physical point of view. The first one is higher mass content of uranium in a fuel assembly. The next possibility is to enlarge pin pitch. The last possibility is to 'omit' FA shroud. This is practically unrealistic; anyway, some other structural parts must be introduced. The basic neutron physical characteristics of these cycles for up-rated power are presented showing that the possibilities of fuel assemblies with this improved design in enlargement of fuel cycles are very promising. In the end, on the basis of neutron physical characteristics and necessary economical input parameters, a preliminary evaluation of economic contribution of proposals of advanced fuel assemblies on fuel cycle economy is presented (Authors)

  11. Concept Evaluation Using the PDSA Cycle for Continuous Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverentz, Delois Meyer; Kumm, Sharon

    As concept-based nursing education gains popularity, there is little literature on how to sustain quality after initiation of the curriculum. Critical appraisal of concepts in a university program revealed varying definitions, attributes, and exemplars resulting in student confusion. The Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) cycle for continuous quality improvement was used for concept evaluation. The goals of the evaluation project were: 1) to develop common definition and attributes for concepts and 2) to develop horizontal and vertical leveling of exemplars to build on prior student learning. The continuous quality improvement process can be used to prevent "concept creep" and ensure internal consistency of concept definitions, attributes, and exemplars.

  12. IMPROVING KNITTED FABRICS BY A STATISTICAL CONTROL OF DIMENSIONAL CHANGES AFTER THE DYEING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LLINARES-BERENGUER Jorge

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems that cotton knitted fabrics present during the manufacturing process is their dimensional instability, which needs to be minimised. Some of the variables that intervene in fabric shrinkage are related with its structural characteristics, use of fiber when producing yarn, the yarn count used or the dyeing process employed. Conducted under real factory conditions, the present study attempted to model the behaviour of a fabric structure after a dyeing process by contributing several algorithms that calculate dyed fabric stability after the first wash cycle. Small-diameter circular machines are used to produce garments with no side seams. This is the reason why a list of machines that produce the same fabrics for different widths needs to be made available to produce all the sizes of a given garment. Two relaxation states were distingued for interlock fabric: dyed and dry relaxation, and dyed and wash relaxation. The linear density of the yarn employed to produce sample fabric was combed cotton Ne 30. The machines used for optic bleaching were Overflow. To obtain knitting structures with optimum dimensional stability, different statistical tools were used to help us to evaluate all the production process variables (raw material, machines and process responsible for this variation. This allowed to guarantee product quality without creating costs and losses.

  13. Tune-control improvements on the rapid-cycling synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, C.; Faber, M.; Gunderson, G.; Knott, M.; Voss, D.

    1981-01-01

    The as-built lattice of the Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) had two sets of correction sextupoles and two sets of quadrupoles energized by dc power supplies to control the tune and the tune tilt. With this method of powering these magnets, adjustment of tune conditions during the accelerating cycle as needed was not possible. A set of dynamically programmable power supplies has been built and operated to provide the required chromaticity adjustment. The short accelerating time (16.7 ms) of the RCS and the inductance of the magnets dictated large transistor amplifier power supplies. The required time resolution and waveform flexibility indicated the desirability of computer control. Both the amplifiers and controls are described, along with resulting improvements in the beam performance. A set of octupole magnets and programmable power supplies with similar dynamic qualities have been constructed and installed to control the anticipated high-intensity transverse instability. This system will be operational in the spring of 1981

  14. Improved criteria for the repair of fabrication flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, S.R.; Schuster, G.J.; Simonen, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for nuclear power plant components requires radiographic examinations (RT) of welds and requires repairs for RT indications that exceed code acceptable sizes. This paper describes research that has generated data on welding flaws, which indicated that the largest flaws occur in repaired welds. The fabrication flaws were detected in material removed from cancelled nuclear power plants using high sensitivity Nondestructive Examination (NDE) and validated by complementary NDE and destructive testing. Evidence suggests that repairs are often for small and benign RT indications at locations buried within the vessel or pipe wall. Probabilistic fracture mechanics calculations are described in this paper to predict the increases in vessel failure probabilities caused by the repair-induced flaws. Calculations address failures of embrittled vessel welds for pressurized thermal shock (PTS) transients. In this case small flaws, which are relatively common, can cause brittle fracture, such that the rarely encountered repair flaws of large sizes gave only modestly increased failure probabilities. The paper recommends the use of more discriminating ultrasonic examinations in place of RT examinations along with repair criteria based on a fitness-for-purpose approach that minimize the number of unjustified repairs. (author)

  15. Improved Mechanical Properties of Various Fabric-Reinforced Geocomposite at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Sneha; Phan Thanh, Nhan; Petríková, Iva; Marvalová, Bohadana

    2015-07-01

    This article signifies the improved performance of the various types of fabric reinforcement of geopolymer as a function of physical, thermal, mechanical, and heat-resistant properties at elevated temperatures. Geopolymer mixed with designed Si:Al ratios of 15.6 were synthesized using three different types of fabric reinforcement such as carbon, E-glass, and basalt fibers. Heat testing was conducted on 3-mm-thick panels with 15 × 90 mm surface exposure region. The strength of carbon-based geocomposite increased toward a higher temperature. The basalt-reinforced geocomposite strength decreased due to the catastrophic failure in matrix region. The poor bridging effect and dissolution of fabric was observed in the E-glass-reinforced geocomposite. At an elevated temperature, fiber bridging was observed in carbon fabric-reinforced geopolymer matrix. Among all the fabrics, carbon proved to be suitable candidate for the high-temperature applications in thermal barrier coatings and fire-resistant panels.

  16. Modelling, fabrication, and characterization for improved piezoelectric energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomari, Almuatasim Ali

    The ambitious goal of this dissertation is to contribute its share to the scientific researchers and academic community by demonstrate a versatile study on energy harvesting via smart materials. Smart materials are amongst the current production modes which generate clean and green energy. The advantages of smart materials include ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric ceramics and composites in materials science and technology of the 21 st century are inconceivable. Their most current applications include conventional sensors, actuators, batteries replacement, and switch. Further, Piezoelectricity is the accumulation of electrical charges as a result of applying mechanical stress on certain type of materials such as crystals, DNA, and protein, where pyro-electricity is the accumulation of electrical charges from ambient environment from temperature gauges or fluctuations. In an incessant effort to increase the performance of smart materials devices researchers in both academic and industrial communities in field of green energy have suggested many techniques and procedures to increase the power generation capability and enhance the bandwidth of thermal and vibration energy harvesters. In this study, the EulerBernoulli beam Theory, lumped parameter model (LPM), and chain matrix method were applied on various design and structure shape of smart materials to find the output electrical parameters. The modeling and simulation investigations are accomplished using MATLAB program and COMSOL Multiphysics software. A low-cost fabrication technique, of polyvinyl-dine difluoride (PVDF) with different amount of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT), Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate (PMN-PT), and Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) are introduced in this study as well. Later, the (Paint/ PZT) fabricated nanocomposites was tested for dielectric constants over a wide frequency range at different temperatures. It was observed that the composites with higher concentrations

  17. Improved ceramic slip casting technique. [application to aircraft model fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gregory M. (Inventor); Vasquez, Peter (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A primary concern in modern fluid dynamics research is the experimental verification of computational aerothermodynamic codes. This research requires high precision and detail in the test model employed. Ceramic materials are used for these models because of their low heat conductivity and their survivability at high temperatures. To fabricate such models, slip casting techniques were developed to provide net-form, precision casting capability for high-purity ceramic materials in aqueous solutions. In previous slip casting techniques, block, or flask molds made of plaster-of-paris were used to draw liquid from the slip material. Upon setting, parts were removed from the flask mold and cured in a kiln at high temperatures. Casting detail was usually limited with this technique -- detailed parts were frequently damaged upon separation from the flask mold, as the molded parts are extremely delicate in the uncured state, and the flask mold is inflexible. Ceramic surfaces were also marred by 'parting lines' caused by mold separation. This adversely affected the aerodynamic surface quality of the model as well. (Parting lines are invariably necessary on or near the leading edges of wings, nosetips, and fins for mold separation. These areas are also critical for flow boundary layer control.) Parting agents used in the casting process also affected surface quality. These agents eventually soaked into the mold, the model, or flaked off when releasing the case model. Different materials were tried, such as oils, paraffin, and even an algae. The algae released best, but some of it remained on the model and imparted an uneven texture and discoloration on the model surface when cured. According to the present invention, a wax pattern for a shell mold is provided, and an aqueous mixture of a calcium sulfate-bonded investment material is applied as a coating to the wax pattern. The coated wax pattern is then dried, followed by curing to vaporize the wax pattern and leave a shell

  18. Neural Implants, Packaging for Biocompatible Implants, and Improving Fabricated Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Elizabeth Rose

    We have completed the circuit design and packaging procedure for an NIH-funded neural implant, called a MOTE (Microscale Optoelectronically Transduced Electrode). Neural recording implants for mice have greatly advanced neuroscience, but they are often damaging and limited in their recording location. This project will result in free-floating implants that cause less damage, provide rapid electronic recording, and increase range of recording across the cortex. A low-power silicon IC containing amplification and digitization sub-circuits is powered by a dual-function gallium arsenide photovoltaic and LED. Through thin film deposition, photolithography, and chemical and physical etching, the Molnar Group and the McEuen Group (Applied and Engineering Physics department) will package the IC and LED into a biocompatible implant approximately 100microm3. The IC and LED are complete and we have begun refining this packaging procedure in the Cornell NanoScale Science & Technology Facility. ICs with 3D time-resolved imaging capabilities can image microorganisms and other biological samples given proper packaging. A portable, flat, easily manufactured package would enable scientists to place biological samples on slides directly above the Molnar group's imaging chip. We have developed a packaging procedure using laser cutting, photolithography, epoxies, and metal deposition. Using a flip-chip method, we verified the process by aligning and adhering a sample chip to a holder wafer. In the CNF, we have worked on a long-term metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor characterization project. Former Fellow and continuing CNF user Kwame Amponsah developed the original procedure for the capacitor fabrication, and another former fellow, Jonilyn Longenecker, revised the procedure and began the arduous process of characterization. MIM caps are useful to clean room users as testing devices to verify electronic characteristics of their active circuitry. This project's objective is to

  19. Designed fabrication of fluorine-doped carbon coated mesoporous TiO2 hollow spheres for improved lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Hongbo; Ming, Hai; Ge, Danhua; Zheng, Junwei; Gu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hollow TiO 2 with mesoporous shell (MHTO) was successfully fabricated by a novel and controllable route, followed by fluorine-doped carbon coating the MHTO (MHTO-C/F), with the aim of enhancing the conductivity and stability of structures. - Highlights: • Anatase TiO 2 hollow spheres with mesoporous shells (MHTO) was fabricated via a facile and controllable route, to improve the lithium ion mobility as well as the stability of the architecture. • Fluorine-doped carbon derived from polyvinylidene difluoride was further encapsulated onto TiO 2 hollow spheres to improve the conductivity. • The composites could provide excellent electrochemical performance, which was desirable for the application of TiO 2 as an anode material in lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: In this manuscript, we demonstrated a facile route for the controllable design of “Fluorine (F)-doped carbon” (C/F)-treated TiO 2 hollow spheres with mesoporous shells (MHTO-C/F). The fabrication of this distinct mesoporous hollow structures and the C/F coating could effectively improve the electrolyte permeability and architectural stability, as well as electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility. As anticipated, MHTO-C/F has several remarkable electrochemical properties, such as a high specific reversible capacity of 252 mA h g −1 , outstanding cycling stability of more than 210 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 C, and good rate performance of around 123 mA h g −1 at 5 C (1 C = 168 mA g −1 ). These properties are highly beneficial for lithium storage

  20. Improvements in the consistency of fabrication and the reliability of nuclear fuels through quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifferlen, R.

    1976-01-01

    By establishing correlations between rejection level and fabrication parameters, quality assurance can guide corrective action for improving the consistency of fabrication and the reliability of fuel elements. The author cites examples relating to the quality of the uranium in metallic fuels, the influence of the parent metal on the welding of zirconium alloys, the behaviour of the springs inside the cladding during the welding of plugs and the behaviour of uranium oxide pellets. (author)

  1. Evaluation of fuel fabrication and the back end of the fuel cycle for light-water- and heavy-water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, W.L.; Olsen, A.R.

    1979-06-01

    The classification of water-cooled nuclear reactors offers a number of fuel cycles that present inherently low risk of weapons proliferation while making power available to the international community. Eight fuel cycles in light water reactor (LWR), heavy water reactor (HWR), and the spectral shift controlled reactor (SSCR) systems have been proposed to promote these objectives in the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) program. Each was examined in an effort to provide technical and economic data to INFCE on fuel fabrication, refabrication, and reprocessing for an initial comparison of alternate cycles. The fuel cycles include three once-through cycles that require only fresh fuel fabrication, shipping, and spent fuel storage; four cycles that utilize denatured uranium--thorium and require all recycle operations; and one cycle that considers the LWR--HWR tandem operation requiring refabrication but no reprocessing

  2. Evaluation of fuel fabrication and the back end of the fuel cycle for light-water- and heavy-water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, W.L.; Olsen, A.R.

    1979-06-01

    The classification of water-cooled nuclear reactors offers a number of fuel cycles that present inherently low risk of weapons proliferation while making power available to the international community. Eight fuel cycles in light water reactor (LWR), heavy water reactor (HWR), and the spectral shift controlled reactor (SSCR) systems have been proposed to promote these objectives in the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) program. Each was examined in an effort to provide technical and economic data to INFCE on fuel fabrication, refabrication, and reprocessing for an initial comparison of alternate cycles. The fuel cycles include three once-through cycles that require only fresh fuel fabrication, shipping, and spent fuel storage; four cycles that utilize denatured uranium--thorium and require all recycle operations; and one cycle that considers the LWR--HWR tandem operation requiring refabrication but no reprocessing.

  3. Process improvement by cycle time reduction through Lean Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva, R.; patan, Mahamed naveed khan; lakshmi pavan kumar, Mane; Purusothaman, M.; pitchai, S. Antony; Jegathish, Y.

    2017-05-01

    In present world, every customer needs their products to get on time with good quality. Presently every industry is striving to satisfy their customer requirements. An aviation concern trying to accomplish continuous improvement in all its projects. In this project the maintenance service for the customer is analyzed. The maintenance part service is split up into four levels. Out of it, three levels are done in service shops and the fourth level falls under customer’s privilege to change the parts in their aircraft engines at their location. An enhancement for electronics initial provisioning (eIP) is done for fourth level. Customers request service shops to get their requirements through Recommended Spare Parts List (RSPL) by eIP. To complete this RSPL for one customer, it takes 61.5 hours as a cycle time which is very high. By mapping current state VSM and takt time, future state improvement can be done in order to reduce cycle time using Lean tools such as Poke-Yoke, Jidoka, 5S, Muda etc.,

  4. Enhanced cycle stability of micro-sized Si/C anode material with low carbon content fabricated via spray drying and in situ carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dingsheng; Gao, Mingxia, E-mail: gaomx@zju.edu.cn; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Wang, Junhua; Li, Shouquan; Ge, Hongwei

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Micro-sized Si/C composites were fabricated via. spray drying and carbonization. • Multi-morphology carbon was formed in the Si/C composites. • Si/C composite with 5.6 wt.% C provides significant improved cycling stability. • Multi-morphology carbon plays effective role in improving the electrochemical property. • The method provides potential for mass production of superior Si-based anode materials. - Abstract: Micro-sized Si/C composites with in situ introduced carbon of multi-morphology were fabricated via spray drying a suspension of commercial micro-sized Si and citric acid followed by a carbonization. Different ratios of Si to citric acid were used to optimize the composition and structure of the composites and thus the electrochemical performance. Carbon flakes including crooked and flat ones were well dispersed in between the Si particles, forming Si/C composites. Floc-like carbon layers and carbon fragments were also found to cover partially the Si particles. The Si/C composite with a low carbon content of 5.6 wt.% provides an initial reversible capacity of 2700 mA h/g and a capacity of 1860 mA h/g after 60 cycles at a current density of 100 mA/g as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), which are much higher than those of pristine Si and the Si/C composites with higher carbon content. The mechanism of the enhancement of electrochemical performance of the micro-sized Si/C composite is discussed. The fabrication method and the structure design of the composites offer valuable potential in developing adaptable Si-based anode materials for industrial applications.

  5. Fabrication of ultrahigh density metal-cell-metal crossbar memory devices with only two cycles of lithography and dry-etch procedures

    KAUST Repository

    Zong, Baoyu; Goh, J. Y.; Guo, Zaibing; Luo, Ping; Wang, Chenchen; Qiu, Jinjun; Ho, Pin; Chen, Yunjie; Zhang, Mingsheng; Han, Guchang

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach to the fabrication of metal-cell-metal trilayer memory devices was demonstrated by using only two cycles of lithography and dry-etch procedures. The fabricated ultrahigh density crossbar devices can be scaled down to ≤70 nm in half

  6. Can cycling safety be improved by opening all unidirectional cycle paths for cycle traffic in both directions? A theoretical examination of available literature and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methorst, Rob; Schepers, Paul; Kamminga, Jaap; Zeegers, Theo; Fishman, Elliot

    2017-08-01

    Many studies have found bicycle-motor vehicle crashes to be more likely on bidirectional cycle paths than on unidirectional cycle paths because drivers do not expect cyclists riding at the right side of the road. In this paper we discuss the hypothesis that opening all unidirectional cycle paths for cycle traffic in both directions prevent this lack of expectancy and accordingly improves cycling safety. A new national standard requires careful consideration because a reversal is difficult once cyclists are used to their new freedom of route choice. We therefore explored the hypothesis using available data, research, and theories. The results show that of the length of cycle paths along distributor roads in the Netherlands, 72% is bidirectional. If drivers would become used to cyclists riding at the left side of the road, this result raises the question of why bidirectional cycle paths in the Netherlands still have a poor safety record compared to unidirectional cycle paths. Moreover, our exploration suggested that bidirectional cycle paths have additional safety problems. It increases the complexity of unsignalized intersections because drivers have to scan more directions in a short period of time. Moreover, there are some indications that the likelihood of frontal crashes between cyclists increases. We reject the hypothesis that opening all unidirectional cycle paths for cycle traffic in both directions will improve cycle safety. We recommend more attention for mitigating measures given the widespread application of bidirectional cycle paths in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface modification of polyester fabric with plasma pretreatment and carbon nanotube coating for antistatic property improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.X., E-mail: cxwang@mail.dhu.edu.cn [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Ecological Building Materials and Environmental Protection Equipments, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Technology in Environmental Protection, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Lv, J.C. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Ren, Y. [School of Textile and Clothing, Nantong University, Jiangsu 226019 (China); Zhi, T.; Chen, J.Y.; Zhou, Q.Q. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Lu, Z.Q.; Gao, D.W. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Ecological Building Materials and Environmental Protection Equipments, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Technology in Environmental Protection, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Jin, L.M. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PET was finished by plasma treatment and SWCNT coating to improve antistatic property. • Plasma modification had a positive effect on SWCNT coating on PET fiber surface. • O{sub 2} plasma was more effective in SWCNT coating than Ar plasma in the shorter time. • Antistatic enhanced and then declined with enhancing treatment time and output power. • Antistatic increased with increasing concentration, curing time, curing temperature. - Abstract: This study introduced a green method to prepare antistatic polyester (PET) fabrics by plasma pretreatment and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) coating. The influences of plasma conditions and SWCNT coating parameters on antistatic property of PET fabrics were investigated. PET fabrics were pretreated under various plasma conditions such as different treatment times, output powers and working gases, and then SWCNT coating on the plasma treated PET fabrics was carried out by coating-dry-cure using various coating parameters including different SWCNT concentrations, curing times and curing temperatures. PET fabrics were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and volume resistivity. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated PET fabrics revealed the increase in surface roughness and oxygen/nitrogen containing groups on the PET fiber surface. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics indicated the SWCNT coating on PET fiber surface. The plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics exhibited a good antistatic property, which increased and then decreased with the increasing plasma treatment time and output power. The antistatic property of the O{sub 2} plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric was better and worse than that of N{sub 2} or Ar plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric in the shorter treatment time and the longer treatment time, respectively. In addition, the antistatic property of the

  8. Surface modification of polyester fabric with plasma pretreatment and carbon nanotube coating for antistatic property improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.X.; Lv, J.C.; Ren, Y.; Zhi, T.; Chen, J.Y.; Zhou, Q.Q.; Lu, Z.Q.; Gao, D.W.; Jin, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PET was finished by plasma treatment and SWCNT coating to improve antistatic property. • Plasma modification had a positive effect on SWCNT coating on PET fiber surface. • O 2 plasma was more effective in SWCNT coating than Ar plasma in the shorter time. • Antistatic enhanced and then declined with enhancing treatment time and output power. • Antistatic increased with increasing concentration, curing time, curing temperature. - Abstract: This study introduced a green method to prepare antistatic polyester (PET) fabrics by plasma pretreatment and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) coating. The influences of plasma conditions and SWCNT coating parameters on antistatic property of PET fabrics were investigated. PET fabrics were pretreated under various plasma conditions such as different treatment times, output powers and working gases, and then SWCNT coating on the plasma treated PET fabrics was carried out by coating-dry-cure using various coating parameters including different SWCNT concentrations, curing times and curing temperatures. PET fabrics were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and volume resistivity. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated PET fabrics revealed the increase in surface roughness and oxygen/nitrogen containing groups on the PET fiber surface. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics indicated the SWCNT coating on PET fiber surface. The plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics exhibited a good antistatic property, which increased and then decreased with the increasing plasma treatment time and output power. The antistatic property of the O 2 plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric was better and worse than that of N 2 or Ar plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric in the shorter treatment time and the longer treatment time, respectively. In addition, the antistatic property of the plasma treated

  9. Fabrication of Bi2O3||AC asymmetric supercapacitor with redox additive aqueous electrolyte and its improved electrochemical performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, S.T.; Selvan, R. Kalai; Ulaganathan, M.; Melo, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) has been fabricated using α-Bi 2 O 3 and bio-waste derived activated carbon (AC) as negative and positive electrodes respectively with Li 2 SO 4 as electrolyte. Interestingly, the addition of KI into the Li 2 SO 4 electrolyte can significantly enhances the ASC performance through the redox reaction between iodine/iodide ions. -- Highlights: •Flower like α-Bi 2 O 3 is prepared. •An asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using α-Bi 2 O 3 as negative electrode and bio-waste derived activated carbon as positive electrode. •Energy density is enhanced from 10.2 Wh kg −1 to 35.4 Wh kg −1 by using KI as redox additive in Li 2 SO 4 electrolyte. -- Abstract: A new asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) was fabricated using flower like α-Bi2O3as negative and bio-waste derived activated carbon (AC) as positive electrodes with Li2SO4as electrolyte. Here, the fabricated ASC was operated over the potential range of 0-1.6 V and evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvano static charge-discharge (GCD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cycle life. Further to improve the performance of ASC, KI was used as electrolyte redox additive with pristine (Li2SO4) electrolyte due to their possible redox reactions of iodine ions. Remarkably, a nearly threefold improved specific capacitance and energy density of 99.5 F g −1 and 35.4 Wh kg −1 respectively was achieved by adding of KI into Li 2 SO 4 electrolyte, while it was only 29 F g −1 and 10.2 Wh kg −1 for pristine (Li2SO4) electrolyte used ASC at 1.5 mA cm −2

  10. Process Cycle Efficiency Improvement Through Lean: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Mohanram

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is an applied methodology of scientific, objective techniques that cause work tasks in a process to be performed with a minimum of non-value adding activities resulting in greatly reduced wait time, queue time, move time, administrative time, and other delays. This work addresses the implementation of lean principles in a construction equipment company. The prime objective is to evolve and test several strategies to eliminate waste on the shop floor. This paper describes an application of value stream mapping (VSM. Consequently, the present and future states of value stream maps are constructed to improve the production process by identifying waste and its sources. A noticeable reduction in cycle time and increase in cycle efficiency is confirmed. The production flow was optimized thus minimizing several non-value added activities/times such as bottlenecking time, waiting time, material handling time, etc. This case study can be useful in developing a more generic approach to design lean environment.

  11. Improved Structure and Fabrication of Large, High-Power KHPS Rotors - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corren, Dean [Verdant Power, Inc.; Colby, Jonathan [Verdant Power, Inc.; Adonizio, Mary Ann [Verdant Power, Inc.

    2013-01-29

    Verdant Power, Inc, working in partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Minnesota St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), among other partners, used evolving Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models and techniques to improve the structure and fabrication of large, high-power composite Kinetic Hydropower System (KHPS) rotor blades. The objectives of the project were to: design; analyze; develop for manufacture and fabricate; and thoroughly test, in the lab and at full scale in the water, the improved KHPS rotor blade.

  12. Assessment of erbium as candidate burnable absorber for future PWR operaning cycles: A neutronic and fabrication study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asou, M.; Dehaudt, P.; Porta, J.

    1995-01-01

    Erbium begins to play a role in the control of PWR core reactivity. Generally speaking, burnable absorbers were only used to establish fresh core equilibrium. In France, since the possibility of extending irradiation cycles by 12 to 18 months, then up to 24 and 30 months, has been envisaged, there is renewed interest in burnable absorbers. The fabrication of PWR pellets has been investigated, providing high density and a good erbium homogeneity. The pellets characteristics were consistent with the specifications of PWR fuel. However, with the present process, the grain size remains small. Studies in progress now shows that erbium is not only a valuable alternative to gadolinium, for long fuel cycles (≥18 months) but also a new fuel concept. (orig.)

  13. New 'monolithic' templates and improved protocols for soft lithography and microchip fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallandre, Antoine; Pal, Debjani; Lambert, Bertrand de; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Fuetterer, Claus

    2006-01-01

    We report a new method for fast prototyping and fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and plastic microfluidic chips. These methods share in common the preparation of monolithic masters which includes the fabrication of the planar support, the 'negative pattern' of the microchannels and the fluidic connectors. The monolithic templates are extremely robust compared to conventional ones made of silicon and SU-8, and easier to produce and cheaper than all-silicon or electroplated templates. In contrast to the above-mentioned methods, our process allows one to cast both micrometre- (e.g. the microchannel) and millimetre-sized structures (e.g. the fluidic connection to the outer world) in a single fabrication step. The 'monolithic template' strategy can be used to fabricate both elastomeric (e.g. poly(dimethyl siloxane (PDMS)) polyester thermoset masters and glassy polymeric (e.g. cyclic olefin copolymer (COC)) devices. In this study we also report on one step fabrication of elastomer chips and on surface modifications of the above mentioned monolithically fabricated masters in order to improve separation of the chip from the template

  14. Fuel fabrication and reprocessing for nuclear fuel cycle with inherent safety demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadrin, Andrey Yurevich; Dvoeglazov, Konstantin Nikolaevich; Ivanov, Valentine Borisovich; Volk, Vladimir Ivanovich; Skupov, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Glushenkov, Alexey Evgenevich [Joint Stock Company ' ' The High Technological Research Institute of Inorganic Materials' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Troyanov, Vladimir Mihaylovich; Zherebtsov, Alexander Anatolievich [Innovation and Technology Center of Project ' ' PRORYV' ' , State Atomic Energy Corporation ' ' Rosatom' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    The strategies adopted in Russia for a closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactors (FR), selection of fuel type and recycling technologies of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are discussed. It is shown that one of the possible technological solutions for the closing of a fuel cycle could be the combination of pyroelectrochemical and hydrometallurgical methods of recycling of SNF. This combined scheme allows: recycling of SNF from FR with high burn-up and short cooling time; decreasing the volume of stored SNF and the amount of plutonium in a closed fuel cycle in FR; recycling of any type of SNF from FR; obtaining the high pure end uranium-plutonium-neptunium end-product for fuel refabrication using pellet technology.

  15. Modeling of an improved chemical vapor infiltration process for ceramic composites fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, N.H.; Chou, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    A quasi-steady-state approach is applied to model the pressure-driven, temperature-gradient chemical vapor infiltration (improved CVI process) for ceramic matrix composites fabrication. The deposited matrix in this study is SiC which is converted from the thermal decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane gas under excess hydrogen. A three-dimensional unit cell is adopted to simulate the spatial arrangements of reinforcements in discontinuous fiber mats and three-dimensionally woven fabrics. The objectives of this paper are to predict the temperature and density distributions in a fibrous preform during processing, the advancement of the solidified front, the total fabrication period, and the vapor inlet pressure variation for maintaining a constant flow rate

  16. Improving the environment for weaned piglets using polypropylene fabrics above the animals in cold periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, Noé; Babot, Daniel; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Javier; Forcada, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of polypropylene fabrics in weaned pig facilities (5-10 weeks of age) during the winter period to improve thermal environment and energy saving for heating. Two experiments were conducted to validate the effects of fabrics (F) compared to control (C) in three 2-week periods using natural ventilation (assay 1, 2013) and forced ventilation (assay 2, 2014). Air temperature was greater in F than in C compartments in both years, particularly during the first 2-week periods (2 °C of mean difference). Natural ventilation was not enough to maintain relative humidity levels below 70 % at the end of the postweaning period (9-10 weeks of age) in both groups (F and C), whereas forced ventilation allowed controlling daily mean relative humidity levels <60 %. About 12-26 % of the radiant heat was transmitted through the fabrics cover, depending on the wavelength. There were no differences on growth performance of piglets in the two compartments in both years. The use of polypropylene fabrics was associated with a significant electric energy saving for heating during the first (data available only in 2014) and second 2-week period in both years. In conclusion, polypropylene fabrics may be an interesting tool to provide optimal environmental conditions for weaned piglets in winter, especially during the two first weeks after weaning. Their transmittance properties allow trapping infrared emission produced by the piglets and heating, avoiding heat losses through the roof, and therefore saving heating energy.

  17. Identifying improvement potentials in cement production with life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Michael Elias; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2010-12-01

    Cement production is an environmentally relevant process responsible for 5% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and 7% of industrial fuel use. In this study, life cycle assessment is used to evaluate improvement potentials in the cement production process in Europe and the USA. With a current fuel substitution rate of 18% in Europe and 11% in the USA, both regions have a substantial potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save virgin resources by further increasing the coprocessing of waste fuels. Upgrading production technology would be particularly effective in the USA where many kiln systems with very low energy efficiency are still in operation. Using best available technology and a thermal substitution rate of 50% for fuels, greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by 9% for Europe and 18% for the USA per tonne of cement. Since clinker production is the dominant pollution producing step in cement production, the substitution of clinker with mineral components such as ground granulated blast furnace slag or fly ash is an efficient measure to reduce the environmental impact. Blended cements exhibit substantially lower environmental footprints than Portland cement, even if the substitutes feature lower grindability and require additional drying and large transport distances. The highest savings in CO(2) emissions and resource consumption are achieved with a combination of measures in clinker production and cement blending.

  18. Improving geothermal power plants with a binary cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The recent development of binary geothermal technology is analyzed. General trends in the introduction of low-temperature geothermal sources are summarized. The use of single-phase low-temperature geothermal fluids in binary power plants proves possible and expedient. The benefits of power plants with a binary cycle in comparison with traditional systems are shown. The selection of the working fluid is considered, and the influence of the fluid's physicochemical properties on the design of the binary power plant is discussed. The design of binary power plants is based on the chemical composition and energy potential of the geothermal fluids and on the landscape and climatic conditions at the intended location. Experience in developing a prototype 2.5 MW Russian binary power unit at Pauzhetka geothermal power plant (Kamchatka) is outlined. Most binary systems are designed individually for a specific location. Means of improving the technology and equipment at binary geothermal power plants are identified. One option is the development of modular systems based on several binary systems that employ the heat from the working fluid at different temperatures.

  19. The Improvement of the Resistance to Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale of Some Woven Fabrics Based on Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelescu, Maria Daniela; Manaila, Elena; Nicula, Gheorghe; Iordache, Ovidiu; Dinca, Laurentiu Christian; Berechet, Mariana-Daniela; Vamesu, Mariana; Gurau, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the improvement of the antimicrobial character of woven fabrics based on cotton. The woven fabrics were cleaned in oxygen plasma and treated by padding with silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles. The existence of silver and titanium on woven fabrics was evidenced by electronic microscope images (SEM, EDAX) and by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial tests were performed with two fungi: Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale. The obtained antimicrobial effect was considerably higher compared to the raw fabrics. Treatment of dyed fabrics with a colloidal solution based on silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles does not considerably influence colour resistance of dyes. PMID:25276112

  20. Corona Glow Discharge Plasma Treatment for Hidrophylicity Improvement of Polyester and Cotton Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan, A. I.; Widodo, M.; Nur, M.

    2017-07-01

    The effects of irradiation by a corona glow discharge plasma on hidrophylicity properties of polyester and cotton fabrics were investigated. We used a corona glow discharge plasma reactor with multiple points to plane electrodes, which was generated by a high voltage DC. Factors that affect the hidrophylicity properties were identified and evaluated as functions of irradiation parameters, which include duration of treatment, distance between electrodes, and bias voltage. It was readily observed from SEM examinations that plasma changed the surface morphology of both polyester and cotton fibers, giving result to an increased roughness to both of them. Results also showed that the hidrophylicityof polyester and cotton fabrics improved by the treatment, which is proportional to the time of treatment and voltage, but inversely proportional to the distance between electrodes. Time of treatment that provided the optimum enhancement of hidrophylicity for cotton is 15 minutes which improved the wetting time from 8.16 seconds to 1.26 seconds. For polyester, it took 15 minutes of irradiation time to improve the wetting time from 7340 seconds to 2905 seconds. The optimum distance between electrodes for both fabrics in this study was found to be 2 cm. Further analysis showed that the improved hidrophylicity properties is due to the creation of surface radicals by free radicals in the plasma leading to the formation of new water-attracting functional groups on the fiber surface.

  1. Improving the cycling stability of silicon nanowire anodes with conducting polymer coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yan; Liu, Nian; McDowell, Matthew T.; Pasta, Mauro; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    For silicon nanowires (Si NWs) to be used as a successful high capacity lithium-ion battery anode material, improvements in cycling stability are required. Here we show that a conductive polymer surface coating on the Si NWs improves cycling stability; coating with PEDOT causes the capacity retention after 100 charge-discharge cycles to increase from 30% to 80% over bare NWs. The improvement in cycling stability is attributed to the conductive coating maintaining the mechanical integrity of the cycled Si material, along with preserving electrical connections between NWs that would otherwise have become electrically isolated during volume changes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Materials safeguards and accountability in the low enriched uranium conversion-fabrication sector of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.; Nilson, R.; Jaech, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Today materials accounting in the low enriched conversion-fabrication sector of the LWR fuel cycle is of increased importance. Low enriched uranium is rapidly becoming a precious metal with current dollar values in the range of one dollar per gram comparing with gold and platinum at 7-8 dollars per gram. In fact, people argue that its dollar value exceeds its safeguards value. Along with this increased financial incentive for better material control, the nuclear industry is faced with the impending implementation of international safeguards and increased public attention over its ability to control nuclear materials. Although no quantity of low enriched uranium (LEU) constitutes a practical nuclear explosive, its control is important to international safeguards because of plutonium production or further enrichment to an explosive grade material. The purpose of the paper is to examine and discuss some factors in the area of materials safeguards and accountability as they apply to the low enriched uranium conversion-fabrication sector. The paper treats four main topics: basis for materials accounting; our assessment of the proposed new IAEA requirements; adequacy of current practices; and timing and direction of future modifications

  3. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Combined cycle performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    The part-load performance of combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry gas turbines on the part-load efficiency for combined...... cycles used for ship propulsion. Moreover, the paper is aimed at developing methodologies and deriving models for part-load simulations suitable for energy system analysis of various components within combined cycle power plants. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero......-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. The results suggest that by the use of variable geometry gas turbines, the combined cycle part-load performance can be improved. In order to minimise the voyage fuel consumption, a combined cycle featuring two-shaft gas turbines with VAN control...

  4. Combined cycle power plants: technological prospects for improving the efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauri, R.

    2009-01-01

    The combined cycle power plants characteristics are better than one course open to a closed loop presenting an electrical efficiency close to 60% do not reach for gas turbine engines for power plants and conventional steam engines. [it

  5. Design and fabrication of gas bearings for Brayton cycle rotating unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, A.; Tessarzik, J. M.; Arwas, E. B.; Waldron, W. D. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Analysis, design, and testing of two types of pivoted pad journal bearings and a spiral-grooved thrust bearing suitable for direct installation into the NASA 2 to 15 KW Brayton Cycle Rotating Unit (BRU) have been accomplished. Both types of tilting pad bearing assemblies are of the preloaded type, consisting of three pads with one pad flexibly mounted. One type utilizes a non-conforming pivot, while the other replaces the conventional spherical pivot with a cruciform flexible member. The thrust bearing is flexure mounted to accommodate static machine mislinement. Test results indicate that both types of journal bearings should satisfy the requirements imposed by the BRU. Hydrostatic tests of the spiral-grooved thrust bearing showed it to be free of pneumatic hammer with as many as 24 orifices over the BRU pressure and load range.

  6. Y-12 product improvements expected to reduce metal production costs and decrease fabrication losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Elaine; Hassler, Morris

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Y-12 National Security Complex supplies uranium metal and uranium oxide feed material that is then fabricated into fuel for research reactors around the world. Over the past two to three years, Y-12 has learned a great deal about its Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) product. The LEU is produced by taking U.S. surplus Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and blending it with depleted or natural uranium. The surplus HEU comes from dismantled U.S. weapons parts that have been declared as surplus. Those research reactors that use LEU from Y-12 are making important contributions to international nuclear non-proliferation by using LEU rather than HEU, and by helping to disposition former weapons material. We clearly understand that our customers want to keep fuel costs as low as possible. We at Y-12 are making every effort to improve efficiencies in producing the uranium through standardizing the chemical specifications as well as the product mass and dimensional qualities. This paper will discuss the new standard specification that we have proposed to existing LEU metal customers and fuel fabricators. It will also cover Y-12's progress on a new mold-design that will result in a more uniform, higher quality product that is less expensive to produce. This new product is expected to decrease overall fabrication losses by 5-10%, depending on the fabricator's process. The paper will include planned activities and the schedule associated with implementation of the new specification and product form. (author)

  7. Laser surface modification of electrically conductive fabrics: Material performance improvement and design effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunakova, Veronika; Hrubosova, Zuzana; Tunak, Maros; Kasparova, Marie; Mullerova, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Development of lightweight flexible materials for electromagnetic interference shielding has obtained increased attention in recent years particularly for clothing, textiles in-house use and technical applications especially in areas of aircraft, aerospace, automobiles and flexible electronics such as portable electronics and wearable devices. There are many references in the literature concerning development and investigation of electromagnetic shielding lightweight flexible materials especially textile based with different electrically conductive additives. However, only little attention is paid to designing and enhancing the properties of these special fabrics by textile finishing processes. Laser technology applied as a physical treatment method is becoming very popular and can be used in different applications to make improvement and even overcome drawbacks of some of the traditional processes. The main purpose of this study is firstly to analyze the possibilities of transferring design onto the surface of electrically conductive fabrics by laser beam and secondly to study of effect of surface modification degree on performance of conductive fabric including electromagnetic shielding ability and mechanical properties. Woven fabric made of yarns containing 10% of extremely thin stainless steel fiber was used as a conductive substrate.

  8. High Cycling Performance Cathode Material: Interconnected LiFePO4/Carbon Nanoparticles Fabricated by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interconnected LiFePO4/carbon nanoparticles for Li-ion battery cathode have been fabricated by sol-gel method followed by a carbon coating process involving redox reactions. The carbon layers coated on the LiFePO4 nanoparticles not only served as a protection layer but also supplied fast electrons by building a 3D conductive network. As a cooperation, LiFePO4 nanoparticles encapsulated in interconnected conductive carbon layers provided the electrode reactions with fast lithium ions by offering the lithium ions shortening and unobstructed pathways. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD tests showed optimized morphology. Electrochemical characterizations including galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry (CV, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS tests, together with impedance parameters calculated, all indicated better electrochemical performance and excellent cycling performance at high rate (with less than 9.5% discharge capacity loss over 2000 cycles, the coulombic efficiency maintained about 100%.

  9. Fabrication of Sn–Ni/MWCNT composite coating for Li-ion batteries by pulse electrodeposition: Effects of duty cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmetu@sakarya.edu.tr; Cetinkaya, Tugrul; Alp, Ahmet; Akbulut, Hatem

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Sn–Ni/MWCNT composite electrodes prepared by pulse electrodeposition at different duty cycle. • The effect of duty cycle studied on electrochemical properties of composite electrodes. • A high reversible capacity, and good cyclability were achieved for Sn–Ni/MWNT (75% duty cycle). - Abstract: Nanocrystalline Sn–Ni/MWCNT composite was prepared by ultrasonic-pulse electrodeposition on a copper substrate in a pyrophosphate bath at different duty cycles. Surface morphology of produced Sn–Ni/MWCNT composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was conducted to understand the elemental surface composition of composites. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was carried out to investigate structure of Sn–Ni/MWCNT composites. The electrochemical performance of Sn–Ni/MWCNT composite electrodes were investigated by charge/discharge tests and cyclic voltammetric experiments. The cells discharge capacities were determined by cyclic testing by a battery tester at a constant current in voltage range between 0.02 V and 1.5 V. The duty cycle was shown to be a crucial factor to improve Sn–Ni/MWCNT composite anodes for cyclability and reversible capacity.

  10. Improving the quality of care for patients with hypertension in Moshupa District, Botswana: Quality improvement cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Kande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are no prevalence studies on hypertension in Botswana, this condition is thought to be common and the quality of care to be poor.Aim: The aim of this project was to assess and improve the quality of primary care forhypertension.Setting: Moshupa clinic and catchment area, Botswana.Methods: Quality improvement cycle.Results: Two hundred participants were included in the audit. Sixty-eight per cent were women with a mean age of 55 years. In the baseline audit none of the target standards were met. During the re-audit six months later, six out of nine structural target standards, five out of 11 process target standards and one out of two outcome target standards were achieved. Statistically-significant improvement in performance (p < 0.05 was shown in 10 criteria although the target standard was not always met. In the re-audit, the target of achieving blood pressure control (< 140/90 in 70% of patients was achieved.Conclusion: The quality of care for hypertension was suboptimal in our setting. Simple interventions were designed and implemented to improve the quality of care. These interventions led to significant improvement in structural and process criteria. A corresponding significant improvement in the control of blood pressure was also seen.

  11. PDCA cycle as a part of continuous improvement in the production company - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Jagusiak-Kocik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case study of the practical use of Deming cycle in a manufacturing company, from the plastics processing industry, from the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises. The paper is a study of literature in the field of continuous improvement and characterized by a cycle of continuous improvement, called the Deming cycle, or PDCA cycle. This cycle was used as a solution to quality problems which occurred during production of photo frames: discolorations and scorches on the surface of the frame. When measures were introduced to reduce the number of nonconformities, a decrease by more than 60% was observed.

  12. Improved fabrication of HgI2 nuclear radiation detectors by machine-cleaving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, A.; Burger, A.; Schieber, M.; Vandenberg, L.; Yellon, W.B.; Alkire, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The perfection of machine-cleaved sections from HgI 2 bulk crystals was examined. The perfection of the machine-cleaved sections as established by gamma diffraction rocking curves was found to be much better than the perfection of hand-cleaved sections or as grown thin platelets, reaching a perfection similar to that of the wire-sawn sections of HgI 2 . A correlation between the perfection and the thickness of the machine-cleaved section was also found, i.e., the thicker the cleaved-section the more perfect it is. The reproducibility of the fabrication was significantly improved by using machine cleaving in the process of fabrication. Large single crystals of HgI 2 weighing 20 to 200 g, can be grown from the vapor phase using the TOM Technique. In order to fabricate nuclear radiation detectors from these single crystals, thin sections of about 0.4 to 0.8 mm thickness have to be prepared. Up till now, the state-of-the-art of fabricating HgI 2 nuclear radiation detectors involved two methods to get thin sections from the large single crystals: (1) hand-cleaving using a razor-blade and (2) solution wire sawing. The chemical wire sawing method involves a loss of about 50% of the crystal volume and is usually followed by a chemical polishing process which involves a significant loss of volume of the original volume. This procedure is complicated and wasteful. The traditional fabrication method, i.e., hand-cleaving followed by rapid nonselective chemical etching, is simpler and less wasteful

  13. Nanosatellite Architectures for Improved Study of the Hydrologic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, W. J.; Osaretin, I.; Cahoy, K.

    2012-12-01

    The need for low-cost, mission-flexible, and rapidly deployable spaceborne sensors that meet stringent performance requirements pervades the NASA Earth Science measurement programs, including especially the recommended NRC Decadal Survey missions. To address these challenges, we present nanosatellite constellation architectures that would profoundly improve both the performance and cost/risk/schedule profiles of NASA Earth and Space Science missions by leveraging recent technology advancements. As a key enabling element, we describe a scalable and mission-flexible 6U CubeSat-based self-organizing constellation architecture (the Distributed Observatory for Monitoring of Earth, henceforth "DOME") that will achieve state-of-the-art performance (and beyond) relative to current systems with respect to spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution. A focus of this presentation is an assessment of the viability of a cross-linked CubeSat constellation with onboard propulsion systems for high-fidelity Earth and Space Science research. Such architecture could provide game-changing advances by reducing costs by at least an order of magnitude while increasing robustness to launch and sensor failures, allowing fast-track insertion of new technologies, and improving science performance. High-resolution passive microwave atmospheric sounding is an ideal sensing modality for nanosatellite implementation due to rapidly advancing microwave and millimeterwave receiver technology. The DOME constellation would nominally comprise 6U CubeSat Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (CMAS) satellites. Each CMAS satellite would host a complete 6U CubeSat atmospheric sounder, including a radiometer payload module with passive microwave receivers operating near atmospheric absorption lines near 60 and 183.31 GHz, and a spacecraft bus with attitude determination and control, avionics, power, cross-linked communications (spacecraft-to-spacecraft and spacecraft-to-ground), and propulsion systems. A

  14. Improvement of the process for immobilization of silver nanoparticles onto cotton and peco fabrics to prepare antibacterial fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong Thi Hanh; Nguyen Thi Thu; Dang Van Phu; Le Anh Quoc; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with diameter about 11.6 ± 0.7 nm in chitosan solution were synthesized by γ-irradiation at the dose of 17.6 kGy, and then immobilized onto fabrics. The Ag-NPs contents onto cotton and peco fabrics were about 1700 and 140 mg/kg for the initial AgNPs concentrations of 1000 and 100 ppm, respectively. The AgNPs colloidal solution was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and TEM image. The AgNPs size has been estimated by using Debye-Scherrer formula from X ray diffraction pattern. The presence of AgNPs on fabrics was confirmed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs cotton and peco fabrics after 60 washings against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia was found to be > 99.40%. Effects of AgNPs on multidrug-resistant pathogens from the clinical specimens were also tested. In addition, the AgNPs fabrics were innoxious to the skin (k=0) by skin-irritation testing to animal (rabbit). (author)

  15. The study about the improvement of the quality for the fabrics made of chenille yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristian, L.; Ostafe, M. M.; Manea, L. R.; Leon, A. L.

    2016-08-01

    The work is a study about the decrease of the serious defects from the fabrics such as: the deviations from quality or the high costs, discovered and seized by customers. The analyzed fabrics have in their structures three types of different chenille yarns, such as: the Article A1 (viscose fiber with cotton, Nm 3500 dyed coil), the Article A2 (textured polyester, Nm 8000 dyed coil), the Article A3 (Trevira CS polyester, Nm 3000 the pre-dyed raw materials). The technology of chenille yarn, regardless of composition and properties is the same and is performed on the twisting machines. This study has found that the most of the flaws in the fabric, noticed by customers, are caused by the production technology of the chenille yarns. In any organization which makes goods, there are concerns about the improvement of the quality through the elimination of the nonquality. It is extremely difficult to get to “zero defects” but the first step is a systematic action plan to reduce drastically the nonconformities and the defects. The continuous improvement of the effectiveness of the integrated quality and environmental management is achieved by applying the PDCA methodology: planning, development, control, action.

  16. Transmutation, Burn-Up and Fuel Fabrication Trade-Offs in Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor Thorium Fuel Cycles - 13502

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, Benjamin A.; Parks, Geoffrey T.; Franceschini, Fausto

    2013-01-01

    Multiple recycle of long-lived actinides has the potential to greatly reduce the required storage time for spent nuclear fuel or high level nuclear waste. This is generally thought to require fast reactors as most transuranic (TRU) isotopes have low fission probabilities in thermal reactors. Reduced-moderation LWRs are a potential alternative to fast reactors with reduced time to deployment as they are based on commercially mature LWR technology. Thorium (Th) fuel is neutronically advantageous for TRU multiple recycle in LWRs due to a large improvement in the void coefficient. If Th fuel is used in reduced-moderation LWRs, it appears neutronically feasible to achieve full actinide recycle while burning an external supply of TRU, with related potential improvements in waste management and fuel utilization. In this paper, the fuel cycle of TRU-bearing Th fuel is analysed for reduced-moderation PWRs and BWRs (RMPWRs and RBWRs). RMPWRs have the advantage of relatively rapid implementation and intrinsically low conversion ratios. However, it is challenging to simultaneously satisfy operational and fuel cycle constraints. An RBWR may potentially take longer to implement than an RMPWR due to more extensive changes from current BWR technology. However, the harder neutron spectrum can lead to favourable fuel cycle performance. A two-stage fuel cycle, where the first pass is Th-Pu MOX, is a technically reasonable implementation of either concept. The first stage of the fuel cycle can therefore be implemented at relatively low cost as a Pu disposal option, with a further policy option of full recycle in the medium term. (authors)

  17. Transmutation, Burn-Up and Fuel Fabrication Trade-Offs in Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor Thorium Fuel Cycles - 13502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, Benjamin A.; Parks, Geoffrey T. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Franceschini, Fausto [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Multiple recycle of long-lived actinides has the potential to greatly reduce the required storage time for spent nuclear fuel or high level nuclear waste. This is generally thought to require fast reactors as most transuranic (TRU) isotopes have low fission probabilities in thermal reactors. Reduced-moderation LWRs are a potential alternative to fast reactors with reduced time to deployment as they are based on commercially mature LWR technology. Thorium (Th) fuel is neutronically advantageous for TRU multiple recycle in LWRs due to a large improvement in the void coefficient. If Th fuel is used in reduced-moderation LWRs, it appears neutronically feasible to achieve full actinide recycle while burning an external supply of TRU, with related potential improvements in waste management and fuel utilization. In this paper, the fuel cycle of TRU-bearing Th fuel is analysed for reduced-moderation PWRs and BWRs (RMPWRs and RBWRs). RMPWRs have the advantage of relatively rapid implementation and intrinsically low conversion ratios. However, it is challenging to simultaneously satisfy operational and fuel cycle constraints. An RBWR may potentially take longer to implement than an RMPWR due to more extensive changes from current BWR technology. However, the harder neutron spectrum can lead to favourable fuel cycle performance. A two-stage fuel cycle, where the first pass is Th-Pu MOX, is a technically reasonable implementation of either concept. The first stage of the fuel cycle can therefore be implemented at relatively low cost as a Pu disposal option, with a further policy option of full recycle in the medium term. (authors)

  18. Improving early cycle economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly increasing range and expense of new diagnostics, compels consideration of a different, more proactive approach to health economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies. Early cycle economic evaluation is a decision analytic approach to evaluate technologies in development so as to

  19. Dynamic high-cadence cycling improves motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eRidgel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD often have deficits in kinesthesia. There is a need for rehabilitation interventions that improve these kinesthetic deficits. Forced (tandem cycling at a high cadence improves motor function. However, tandem cycling is difficult to implement in a rehabilitation setting. Objective: To construct an instrumented, motored cycle and to examine if high cadence dynamic cycling promotes improvements in motor function. Method: This motored cycle had two different modes: dynamic and static cycling. In dynamic mode, the motor maintained 75-85 rpm. In static mode, the rider determined the pedaling cadence. UPDRS Motor III and Timed Up and Go (TUG were used to assess changes in motor function after three cycling sessions. Results: Individuals in the static group showed a lower cadence but a higher power, torque and heart rate than the dynamic group. UPDRS score showed a significant 13.9% improvement in the dynamic group and only a 0.9% improvement in the static group. There was also a 16.5% improvement in TUG time in the dynamic group but only an 8% improvement in the static group. Conclusion: These findings show that dynamic cycling can improve PD motor function and that activation of proprioceptors with a high cadence but variable pattern may be important for motor improvements in PD.

  20. Y-12 product improvements expected to reduce metal production costs and decrease fabrication losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassler, Morris E.

    2005-01-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) supplies uranium metal and uranium oxide feed material for fabrication into fuel for research reactors around the world. Over the past few years, Y-12 has continued to improve its Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) product. The LEU is produced by taking U.S. surplus Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and blending it with depleted or natural uranium. The surplus HEU comes from dismantled U.S. weapons parts. Those research reactors that use LEU from Y-12 are making important contributions to international nuclear nonproliferation by using LEU rather than HEU, and helping to disposition former U.S. weapons material. It is clearly understood that the research reactor community must keep fuel costs as low as possible and Y-12 is making every effort to improve efficiencies in producing the uranium through standardizing the chemical specifications as well as the product mass and dimensional qualities. These production cost reductions allows for the U.S. to keep the LEU product price low even with the dramatic increase in the uranium enrichment and feed component market prices in the last few years. This paper will discuss a new standard specification that has been proposed to existing LEU metal customers and fuel fabricators. It will also cover Y-12's progress on a new mold-design that will result in a more uniform, higher quality product and eliminates two steps of the production process. This new product is expected to decrease fabrication losses by 5-10%, depending on the fabricator's process. The paper will include planned activities and the schedule associated with implementation of the new specification and product form. (author)

  1. Fabrication of an improved tube-to-pipe header heat exchanger for the Fuel Failure Mockup (FFM) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prislinger, J.J.; Jones, R.H.

    1977-05-01

    The procedure used in fabricating an improved tube-to-pipe header heat exchanger for the Fuel Failure Mockup (FFM) Facility is described. Superior performance is accomplished at reduced cost with adherence to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The techniques used and the method of fabrication are described in detail

  2. Improving patient handover between teams using a business improvement model: PDSA cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Vishal; Hammersley, Daniel; Chekairi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Medical admission units are continuously under pressure to move patients off the unit to outlying medical wards and allow for new admissions. In a typical district general hospital, doctors working in these medical wards reported that, on average, three patients each week arrived from the medical admission unit before any handover was received, and a further two patients arrived without any handover at all. A quality improvement project was therefore conducted using a 'Plan, Do, Study, Act' cycle model for improvement to address this issue. P - Plan: as there was no framework to support doctors with handover, a series of standard handover procedures were designed. D - Do: the procedures were disseminated to all staff, and championed by key stakeholders, including the clinical director and matron of the medical admission unit. S - STUDY: Measurements were repeated 3 months later and showed no change in the primary end points. A - ACT: The post take ward round sheet was redesigned, creating a checkbox for a medical admission unit doctor to document that handover had occurred. Nursing staff were prohibited from moving the patient off the ward until this had been completed. This later evolved into a separate handover sheet. Six months later, a repeat study revealed that only one patient each week was arriving before or without a verbal handover. Using a 'Plan, Do, Study, Act' business improvement tool helped to improve patient care.

  3. Performance improvement: an active life cycle product management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiella, Federica; Gastaldi, Massimo; Lenny Koh, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    The management of the supply chain has gained importance in many manufacturing firms. Operational flexibility can be considered a crucial weapon to increase competitiveness in a turbulent marketplace. It reflects the ability of a firm to properly and rapidly respond to a variable and dynamic environment. For the firm operating in a fashion sector, the management of the supply chain is even more complex because the product life cycle is shorter than that of the firm operating in a non-fashion sector. The increase of firm flexibility level can be reached through the application of the real option theory inside the firm network. In fact, real option may increase the project value by allowing managers to more efficiently direct the production. The real option application usually analysed in literature does not take into account that the demands of products are well-defined by the product life cycle. Working on a fashion sector, the life cycle pattern is even more relevant because of an expected demand that grows according to a constant rate that does not capture the demand dynamics of the underlying fashion goods. Thus, the primary research objective of this article is to develop a model useful for the management of investments in a supply chain operating in a fashion sector where the system complexity is increased by the low level of unpredictability and stability that is proper of the mood phenomenon. Moreover, unlike the traditional model, a real option framework is presented here that considers fashion product characterised by uncertain stages of the production cycle.

  4. Improvement of Cycle Dependent Core Model for NPP Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J. S.; Koo, B. S.; Kim, H. Y. and others

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish automatic core model generation system and to develop 4 cycle real time core analysis methodology with 5% power distribution and 500 pcm reactivity difference criteria for nuclear power plant simulator. The standardized procedure to generate database from ROCS and ANC, which are used for domestic PWR core design, was established for the cycle specific simulator core model generation. An automatic data interface system to generate core model also established. The system includes ARCADIS which edits group constant and DHCGEN which generates interface coupling coefficient correction database. The interface coupling coefficient correction method developed in this study has 4 cycle real time capability and accuracies of which the maximum differences between core design results are within 103 pcm reactivity, 1% relative power distribution and 6% control rod worth. A nuclear power plant core simulation program R-MASTER was developed using the methodology and applied by the concept of distributed client system in simulator. The performance was verified by site acceptance test in Simulator no. 2 in Kori Training Center for 30 initial condition generation and 27 steady state, transient and postulated accident situations

  5. Improvement of Cycle Dependent Core Model for NPP Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J. S.; Koo, B. S.; Kim, H. Y. and others

    2003-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to establish automatic core model generation system and to develop 4 cycle real time core analysis methodology with 5% power distribution and 500 pcm reactivity difference criteria for nuclear power plant simulator. The standardized procedure to generate database from ROCS and ANC, which are used for domestic PWR core design, was established for the cycle specific simulator core model generation. An automatic data interface system to generate core model also established. The system includes ARCADIS which edits group constant and DHCGEN which generates interface coupling coefficient correction database. The interface coupling coefficient correction method developed in this study has 4 cycle real time capability and accuracies of which the maximum differences between core design results are within 103 pcm reactivity, 1% relative power distribution and 6% control rod worth. A nuclear power plant core simulation program R-MASTER was developed using the methodology and applied by the concept of distributed client system in simulator. The performance was verified by site acceptance test in Simulator no. 2 in Kori Training Center for 30 initial condition generation and 27 steady state, transient and postulated accident situations.

  6. Improved Strength and Toughness of Carbon Woven Fabric Composites with Functionalized MWCNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslam Soliman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examines the role of carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs in the on- and off-axis flexure and the shear responses of thin carbon woven fabric composite plates. The chemically functionalized COOH-MWCNTs were used to fabricate epoxy nanocomposites and, subsequently, carbon woven fabric plates to be tested on flexure and shear. In addition to the neat epoxy, three loadings of COOH-MWCNTs were examined: 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt% and 1.5 wt% of epoxy. While no significant statistical difference in the flexure response of the on-axis specimens was observed, significant increases in the flexure strength, modulus and toughness of the off-axis specimens were observed. The average increase in flexure strength and flexure modulus with the addition of 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs improved by 28% and 19%, respectively. Finite element modeling is used to demonstrate fiber domination in on-axis flexure behavior and matrix domination in off-axis flexure behavior. Furthermore, the 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs increased the toughness of carbon woven composites tested on shear by 33%. Microstructural investigation using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR proves the existence of chemical bonds between the COOH-MWCNTs and the epoxy matrix.

  7. CDMS Detector Fabrication Improvements and Low Energy Nuclear Recoil Measurements in Germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jastram, Andrew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-12-01

    As the CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search) experiment is scaled up to tackle new dark matter parameter spaces (lower masses and cross-sections), detector production efficiency and repeatability becomes ever more important. A dedicated facility has been commissioned for SuperCDMS detector fabrication at Texas A&M University (TAMU). The fabrication process has been carefully tuned using this facility and its equipment. Production of successfully tested detectors has been demonstrated. Significant improvements in detector performance have been made using new fabrication methods, equipment, and tuning of process parameters. This work has demonstrated the capability for production of next generation CDMS SNOLAB detectors. Additionally, as the dark matter parameter space is probed further, careful calibrations of detector response to nuclear recoil interactions must be performed in order to extract useful information (in relation to dark matter particle characterzations) from experimental results. A neutron beam of tunable energy is used in conjunction with a commercial radiation detector to characterize ionization energy losses in germanium during nuclear recoil events. Data indicates agreement with values predicted by the Lindhard equation, providing a best-t k-value of 0.146.

  8. Facile Fabrication of Ordered Anodized Aluminum Oxide Membranes with Controlled Pore Size by Improved Hard Anodization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiangxia; Zhu, Xinxin; Wang, Kunzhou; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Xinqing; Yan, Minhao; Ren, Yong

    2018-05-01

    We have fabricated highly ordered anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with different diameter through improved hard anodization (HA) at high temperature. This process can generate thick AAO membranes (30 μm) in a short anodizing time with high growth rate 20-60 μm h-1 which is much faster than that in traditional mild two-step anodization. We enlarged the AAO pore diameter by adjusting the voltage rise rate at the same time, which has a great influence on current density and temperature. The AAO pore diameter varies from 60-110 nm to 160-190 nm. The pore diameter (Dp) of the AAO prepared by this improved process is much larger than that prepared by HA (40-60 nm) when H2C2O4 as electrolyte. It can expand potential use of the AAO membranes such as for the template-based synthesis of nanowires or nanotubes with modulated diameters and also for practical separation technology. We also has used the AAO with different diameters prepared by this improved HA to fabricate Co nanowires and γ-Fe2O3 superparamagnetic nanorods.

  9. Exergy Analysis of a Subcritical Refrigeration Cycle with an Improved Impulse Turbo Expander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenying Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The impulse turbo expander (ITE is employed to replace the throttling valve in the vapor compression refrigeration cycle to improve the system performance. An improved ITE and the corresponding cycle are presented. In the new cycle, the ITE not only acts as an expansion device with work extraction, but also serves as an economizer with vapor injection. An increase of 20% in the isentropic efficiency can be attained for the improved ITE compared with the conventional ITE owing to the reduction of the friction losses of the rotor. The performance of the novel cycle is investigated based on energy and exergy analysis. A correlation of the optimum intermediate pressure in terms of ITE efficiency is developed. The improved ITE cycle increases the exergy efficiency by 1.4%–6.1% over the conventional ITE cycle, 4.6%–8.3% over the economizer cycle and 7.2%–21.6% over the base cycle. Furthermore, the improved ITE cycle is also preferred due to its lower exergy loss.

  10. Energy efficiency improvement target for SIC 34 - fabricated metal products. Revised target support document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrer, T. G.; Billhardt, C. F.; Farkas, M. S.

    1977-02-15

    In accordance with section 374 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), Pub. L. 94-163, the Federal Energy Administration (FEA) proposed industrial energy efficiency improvement targets for the ten most energy-consumptive manufacturing industries in the U.S. Following public hearings and a review of the comments made, the final targets for Fabricated Metal Products (SIC 34) were established and are described. Using 1972 data on the energy consumed to produce specific metal products, it was concluded that a 24% reduction in energy consumption for SIC 34 is a viable goal for achievement by 1980. (ERA citation 04:045006)

  11. 'Virtual' central business office: how UMMS improved revenue cycle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henciak, Bill; Fontaine, Christine; Fields, Keith; Parks, Stacy

    2010-06-01

    Based on its experience with implementing a virtual central business office, UMMS recommends the following steps to ensure the success of such an initiative: Define the process flow for the organization's day-today revenue cycle operations prior to implementation. Then select best practices and milestones for managing accounts. Identify any possible technology issues that could arise during implementation prior to go live. Hold a midproject debriefing with staff. Develop an organizational chart that details who is responsible for handling issues that arise during implementation and afterward.

  12. Rapid-fire improvement with short-cycle kaizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, E

    1999-05-01

    Continuous improvement is an attractive idea, but it is typically more myth than reality. SCK is no myth. It delivers dramatic improvements in traditional measures quickly. SCK accomplishes this via kaizens: rapid, repeated, time-compressed changes for the better in bite-sized chunks of the business.

  13. Creating a Cycle of Continuous Improvement through Instructional Rounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Looze, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional Rounds is a continuous improvement strategy that focuses on the technical core of educational systems as well as educators collaborating side-by-side. Concentrating on collective learning, this process only makes sense within an overall strategy of improvement. This case study examined the Instructional Rounds process in a northern…

  14. High cycle fatigue behavior of the IN718/M247 hybrid element fabricated by friction welding at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Hung Tra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid element has been fabricated by friction welding, joining two superalloys Inconel 718 and Mar-M247. The high cycle fatigue behavior of this welded element was investigated at 500 °C and 700 °C. The fabrication could obtain excellent fatigue strength in which the fracture is located in the base metal Mar-M247 side and takes place outside the welded zone. The behavior of the joint under loadings is discussed through a simulation by the numerical finite element method.

  15. Improving Light Outcoupling Efficiency for OLEDs with Microlens Array Fabricated on Transparent Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low light outcoupling efficiency restricts the wide application of organic light-emitting diodes in solid state light market although the internal quantum efficiency of the device could reach near to 100%. In order to improve the output efficiency, different kinds of microlens array on the substrate emission surface were designed and simulated using light tracing method. Simulation results indicate that the microlens array on the substrate could efficiently improve the light output efficiency and an enhancement of 1.8 could be obtained with optimized microlens structure design. The microlens array with semicircle shape using polymer material was fabricated on glass substrate by a facile approach. Finally, the organic device with microlens array substrate was manufactured and the light output of the device with surface microlens structure could increase to 1.64 times comparing with the device without microlens.

  16. Recent developments in thermally-driven seawater desalination: Energy efficiency improvement by hybridization of the MED and AD cycles

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw; Oh, Seungjin; Ang, Li; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ismail, Azhar Bin

    2015-01-01

    -driven to adsorption desalination (AD) cycles where significant thermodynamic synergy can be attained when cycles are combined. For these hybrid cycles, a quantum improvement in energy efficiency as well as in increase in water production can be expected. The advent

  17. Crop improvement using life cycle datasets acquired under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi eMochida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crops are exposed to various environmental stresses in the field throughout their life cycle. Modern plant science has provided remarkable insights into the molecular networks of plant stress responses in laboratory conditions, but the responses of different crops to environmental stresses in the field need to be elucidated. Recent advances in omics analytical techniques and information technology have enabled us to integrate data from a spectrum of physiological metrics of field crops. The interdisciplinary efforts of plant science and data science enable us to explore factors that affect crop productivity and identify stress tolerance-related genes and alleles. Here, we describe recent advances in technologies that are key components for data driven crop design, such as population genomics, chronological omics analyses, and computer-aided molecular network prediction. Integration of the outcomes from these technologies will accelerate our understanding of crop phenology under practical field situations and identify key characteristics to represent crop stress status. These elements would help us to genetically engineer designed crops to prevent yield shortfalls because of environmental fluctuations due to future climate change.

  18. Crop improvement using life cycle datasets acquired under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Keiichi; Saisho, Daisuke; Hirayama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Crops are exposed to various environmental stresses in the field throughout their life cycle. Modern plant science has provided remarkable insights into the molecular networks of plant stress responses in laboratory conditions, but the responses of different crops to environmental stresses in the field need to be elucidated. Recent advances in omics analytical techniques and information technology have enabled us to integrate data from a spectrum of physiological metrics of field crops. The interdisciplinary efforts of plant science and data science enable us to explore factors that affect crop productivity and identify stress tolerance-related genes and alleles. Here, we describe recent advances in technologies that are key components for data driven crop design, such as population genomics, chronological omics analyses, and computer-aided molecular network prediction. Integration of the outcomes from these technologies will accelerate our understanding of crop phenology under practical field situations and identify key characteristics to represent crop stress status. These elements would help us to genetically engineer "designed crops" to prevent yield shortfalls because of environmental fluctuations due to future climate change.

  19. Advanced codes and methods supporting improved fuel cycle economics - 5493

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curca-Tivig, F.; Maupin, K.; Thareau, S.

    2015-01-01

    AREVA's code development program was practically completed in 2014. The basic codes supporting a new generation of advanced methods are the followings. GALILEO is a state-of-the-art fuel rod performance code for PWR and BWR applications. Development is completed, implementation started in France and the U.S.A. ARCADIA-1 is a state-of-the-art neutronics/ thermal-hydraulics/ thermal-mechanics code system for PWR applications. Development is completed, implementation started in Europe and in the U.S.A. The system thermal-hydraulic codes S-RELAP5 and CATHARE-2 are not really new but still state-of-the-art in the domain. S-RELAP5 was completely restructured and re-coded such that its life cycle increases by further decades. CATHARE-2 will be replaced in the future by the new CATHARE-3. The new AREVA codes and methods are largely based on first principles modeling with an extremely broad international verification and validation data base. This enables AREVA and its customers to access more predictable licensing processes in a fast evolving regulatory environment (new safety criteria, requests for enlarged qualification databases, statistical applications, uncertainty propagation...). In this context, the advanced codes and methods and the associated verification and validation represent the key to avoiding penalties on products, on operational limits, or on methodologies themselves

  20. A fabrication method for field emitter array of carbon nanotubes with improved carbon nanotube rooting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouhan, V., E-mail: vchouhan@post.kek.jp [School of High Energy Accelerator, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Noguchi, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Kato, S. [School of High Energy Accelerator, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-11-30

    We have developed a technique for fabrication of a field emitter array (FEA) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to obtain a high emission current along with a high current density. The FEA was prepared with many small equidistant circular emitters of randomly oriented multiwall carbon nanotubes. The fabrication of a FEA substrate followed with deposition of titanium nitride (TiN) film on a tantalum (Ta) substrate and circular titanium (Ti) islands on the TiN coated Ta substrate in a DC magnetron sputtering coater. CNTs were dispersed on the substrate and rooted into the circular Ti islands at a high temperature to prepare an array of circular emitters of CNTs. The TiN film was applied on a Ta substrate to make a reaction barrier between the Ta substrate and CNTs in order to root CNTs only into the Ti islands without a reaction with the Ta substrate at the high temperature. A high emission current of 31.7 mA with an effective current density of 34.5 A/cm{sup 2} was drawn at 6.5 V/μm from a FEA having 130 circular emitters in a diameter of 50 μm and with a pitch of 200 μm. The high emission current was ascribed to the good quality rooting of CNTs into the Ti islands and an edge effect, in which a high emission current was expected from the peripheries of the circular emitters. - Highlights: • We developed a method to fabricate a field emitter array of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). • CNT rooting into array of titanium islands was improved at a high temperature. • Titanium nitride film was used to stop reaction between CNT and tantalum substrate. • Strong edge effect was achieved from an array of small circular emitters of CNTs. • The good quality CNT rooting and the edge effect enhanced an emission current.

  1. Improving ethanol productivity through self-cycling fermentation of yeast: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Chae, Michael; Sauvageau, Dominic; Bressler, David C

    2017-01-01

    The cellulosic ethanol industry has developed efficient strategies for converting sugars obtained from various cellulosic feedstocks to bioethanol. However, any further major improvements in ethanol productivity will require development of novel and innovative fermentation strategies that enhance incumbent technologies in a cost-effective manner. The present study investigates the feasibility of applying self-cycling fermentation (SCF) to cellulosic ethanol production to elevate productivity. SCF is a semi-continuous cycling process that employs the following strategy: once the onset of stationary phase is detected, half of the broth volume is automatically harvested and replaced with fresh medium to initiate the next cycle. SCF has been shown to increase product yield and/or productivity in many types of microbial cultivation. To test whether this cycling process could increase productivity during ethanol fermentations, we mimicked the process by manually cycling the fermentation for five cycles in shake flasks, and then compared the results to batch operation. Mimicking SCF for five cycles resulted in regular patterns with regards to glucose consumption, ethanol titer, pH, and biomass production. Compared to batch fermentation, our cycling strategy displayed improved ethanol volumetric productivity (the titer of ethanol produced in a given cycle per corresponding cycle time) and specific productivity (the amount of ethanol produced per cellular biomass) by 43.1 ± 11.6 and 42.7 ± 9.8%, respectively. Five successive cycles contributed to an improvement of overall productivity (the aggregate amount of ethanol produced at the end of a given cycle per total processing time) and the estimated annual ethanol productivity (the amount of ethanol produced per year) by 64.4 ± 3.3 and 33.1 ± 7.2%, respectively. This study provides proof of concept that applying SCF to ethanol production could significantly increase productivities, which will help strengthen the

  2. A Metal Matrix CNTS Modified Electrode Fabricated Using Micromachining-Based Implantation Method for Improving Sensitivity and Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal matrix carbon nanotubes modified electrode (MCME has been fabricated by a novel process involving preparation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs/polyimide (PI composite film, wet, etching, sputtering, electroplating, and wet-etch releasing. Pretreated CNTs are dispersed in PI by mechanical ball milling and then CNTs solution is spin-coated on the substrate. The CNTs/PI composite film is etched away a layer of PI to expose tips of CNTs using buffering solution. These exposed tips of CNTs are covered by metal particles in sputtering process as metal seed layer, followed by metal supporting film formed by electroplating. The MCME is obtained after releasing PI film from the metal supporting film. The MCME shows well morphology of uniform distributional protruding tips of CNTs and increased electron transfer efficiency with strong bonding connection between CNTs and metal matrix, which greatly improves sensitivity and stability of the MCME. The oxidation peak of the MCME in cyclic voltammeter (CV test is 1.7 times more than that of CNTs suspension spin-coated metal electrode (SCME. The decline of peak current of the MCME after fifty cycles is only 1.8% much less than 67% of the SCME. Better sensitivity and stability may be helpful for CNTs modified electrodes wide application for trace test of many special materials.

  3. Redox Cycling Realized in Paper-Based Biochemical Sensor for Selective Detection of Reversible Redox Molecules Without Micro/Nano Fabrication Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, So; Uno, Shigeyasu

    2018-02-28

    This paper describes a paper-based biochemical sensor that realizes redox cycling with close interelectrode distance. Two electrodes, the generator and collector electrodes, can detect steady-state oxidation and reduction currents when suitable potential is held at each electrode. The sensor has two gold plates on both sides of a piece of chromatography paper and defines the interelectrode distance by the thickness of the paper (180 μm) without any micro-fabrication processes. Our proposed sensor geometry has successfully exhibited signatures of redox cycling. As a result, the concentration of ferrocyanide as reversible redox molecules was successfully quantified under the interference by ascorbic acid as a strong irreversible reducing agent. This was possible because the ascorbic acids are completely consumed by the irreversible reaction, while maintaining redox cycling of reversible ferrocyanide. This suggests that a sensor based on the redox cycling method will be suitable for detecting target molecules at low concentration.

  4. Improvement of formability for fabricating thin continuously corrugated structures in sheet metal forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Woo; Park, Sang Hu; Park, Seong Hun; Ha, Man Yeong; Jeong, Ho Seung; Cho, Jong Rae

    2012-01-01

    A stamping process is widely used for fabricating various sheet metal parts for vehicles, airplanes, and electronic devices by the merit of low processing cost and high productivity. Recently, the use of thin sheets with a corrugated structure for sheet metal parts has rapidly increased for use in energy management devices, such as heat exchangers, separators in fuel cells, and many others. However, it is not easy to make thin corrugated structures directly using a single step stamping process due to their geometrical complexity and very thin thickness. To solve this problem, a multi step stamping (MSS) process that includes a heat treatment process to improve formability is proposed in this work: the sequential process is the initial stamping, heat treatment, and final shaping. By the proposed method, we achieved successful results in fabricating thin corrugated structures with an average thickness of 75μm and increased formability of about 31% compared to the single step stamping process. Such structures can be used in a plate-type heat exchanger requiring low weight and a compact shape

  5. Fabrication process optimization for improved mechanical properties of Al 7075/SiCp metal matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Kanta Das

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two sets of nine different silicon carbide particulate (SiCp reinforced Al 7075 Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs were fabricated using liquid metallurgy stir casting process. Mean particle size and weight percentage of the reinforcement were varied according to Taguchi L9 Design of Experiments (DOE. One set of the cast composites were then heat treated to T6 condition. Optical micrographs of the MMCs reveal consistent dispersion of reinforcements in the matrix phase. Mechanical properties were determined for both as-cast and heat treated MMCs for comparison of the experimental results. Linear regression models were developed for mechanical properties of the heat treated MMCs using list square method of regression analysis. The fabrication process parameters were then optimized using Taguchi based grey relational analysis for the multiple mechanical properties of the heat treated MMCs. The largest value of mean grey relational grade was obtained for the composite with mean particle size 6.18 µm and 25 weight % of reinforcement. The optimal combination of process parameters were then verified through confirmation experiments, which resulted 42% of improvement in the grey relational grade. Finally, the percentage of contribution of each process parameter on the multiple performance characteristics was calculated through Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.

  6. Frameworks for improvement: clinical audit, the plan-do-study-act cycle and significant event audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, Steve; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2013-01-01

    This is the first in a series of articles about quality improvement tools and techniques. We explore common frameworks for improvement, including the model for improvement and its application to clinical audit, plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles and significant event analysis (SEA), examining the similarities and differences between these and providing examples of each.

  7. Model improvements for tritium transport in DEMO fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santucci, Alessia, E-mail: alessia.santucci@enea.it [Unità Tecnica Fusione – ENEA C. R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Tosti, Silvano [Unità Tecnica Fusione – ENEA C. R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Franza, Fabrizio [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • T inventory and permeation of DEMO blankets have been assessed under pulsed operation. • 1-D model for T transport has been developed for the HCLL DEMO blanket. • The 1-D model evaluated T partial pressure and T permeation rate radial profiles. - Abstract: DEMO operation requires a large amount of tritium, which is directly produced inside the reactor by means of Li-based breeders. During its production, recovering and purification, tritium comes in contact with large surfaces of hot metallic walls, therefore it can permeate through the blanket cooling structure, reach the steam generator and finally the environment. The development of dedicated simulation tools able to predict tritium losses and inventories is necessary to verify the accomplishment of the accepted tritium environmental releases as well as to guarantee a correct machine operation. In this work, the FUS-TPC code is improved by including the possibility to operate in pulsed regime: results in terms of tritium inventory and losses for three pulsed scenarios are shown. Moreover, the development of a 1-D model considering the radial profile of the tritium generation is described. By referring to the inboard segment on the equatorial axis of the helium-cooled lithium–lead (HCLL) blanket, preliminary results of the 1-D model are illustrated: tritium partial pressure in Li–Pb and tritium permeation in the cooling and stiffening plates by assuming several permeation reduction factor (PRF) values. Future improvements will consider the application of the model to all segments of different blanket concepts.

  8. ZIF-8 Membranes with Improved Reproducibility Fabricated from Sputter-Coated ZnO/Alumina Supports

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Jian

    2015-11-10

    Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) membrane has shown great potential for propylene/propane separation based on molecular sieving mechanism. Although diverse synthesis strategies were applied to prepare ZIF-8 membranes, it is still a challenge for reproducible fabrication of high-quality membranes. In this study, high-quality ZIF-8 membranes were prepared through hydrothermal synthesis under the partial self-conversion of sputter-coated ZnO layer on porous α-alumina supports. The reproducibility was significantly improved, compared with that from sol-gel coated ZnO layer, due to the highly controllable sputtering deposition of ZnO precursor. The relationship between the quality of as-synthesized membrane and amount of deposited ZnO was also determined. The effect of pressure drop in C3H6/C3H8 separation on separating performance was also examined.

  9. Activation of corn cellulose with alcohols to improve its dissolvability in fabricating ultrafine fibers via electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haizhen; Ni, Jinping; Chen, Jing; Xue, Wenwen; Wang, Jinggang; Na, Haining; Zhu, Jin

    2015-06-05

    Water and four small molecular alcohols are respectively used to activate corn cellulose (CN cellulose) with the aim to improve the dissolvability in DMAc/LiCl. Among all these activated agents, monohydric alcohols are found to produce the optimal effect of activation in the whole process including of activating, dissolving, and electrospinning of CN cellulose. Meanwhile, well distributed fibers with the diameter of 500nm-2μm are fabricated in electrospinning. Understanding the activation effect of monohydric alcohols with water and polyhydric alcohols, the most effective activated agent is ascertained with the characteristics of small molecular size, low viscosity, and single functionality. This work is definitely initiated to understand the critical principle of CN cellulose in dissolving. Accordingly, a feasible methodology is also established to prepare ultrafine cellulose fibers with good morphology in electrospinning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Primary care for diabetic patients: a quality improvement cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Martínez, A; Suárez-Beke, M P; Sánchez-Nicolás, J A; Lázaro-Aragues, P; de Jesús Jiménez-Vázquez, E; Huertas-de Mora, O

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and improve the quality of medical care provided to diabetic patients following the standards proposed by the American Diabetes Association. The study was conducted in three phases by analyzing data from the computerized clinical history of a sample of 340 patients. First phase (2010): cross-sectional, descriptive study which assessed the proportion of patients who met the standards related to the screening of diabetes, and goals of control and treatment. Subsequently, health professionals reviewed the results in order to promote the implementation of corrective action. Finally (2012), a new assessment with the same standards was performed. An increase in the number of patients treated with insulin (12.7% in 2010 and 20.2% in 2012) was observed (P < .01). There were also percentage increases in the number of patients who met the screening standards as regards analytical determinations: glycosylated hemoglobin (from 44.4% to 68.2%), lipid profile (47.6%-73.8%), creatinine (32.5% - 73.5%), and albumin-creatinine ratio (9.2%-24.4%) (P < .001). Only 6.4% (CI: 3.2- 9.8) of diabetic patients attained the composite target of glycosylated hemoglobin < 7%, blood pressure < 130/80 mmHg and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 100 mg/dl in 2012. This study shows that medical care has improved the goals related to analytical determinations and the number of insulin-treated diabetic type 2 patients. An optimal level was also maintained in metabolic control of diabetes, but there was still poor control of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Model training across multiple breeding cycles significantly improves genomic prediction accuracy in rye (Secale cereale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auinger, Hans-Jürgen; Schönleben, Manfred; Lehermeier, Christina; Schmidt, Malthe; Korzun, Viktor; Geiger, Hartwig H; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Gordillo, Andres; Wilde, Peer; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2016-11-01

    Genomic prediction accuracy can be significantly increased by model calibration across multiple breeding cycles as long as selection cycles are connected by common ancestors. In hybrid rye breeding, application of genome-based prediction is expected to increase selection gain because of long selection cycles in population improvement and development of hybrid components. Essentially two prediction scenarios arise: (1) prediction of the genetic value of lines from the same breeding cycle in which model training is performed and (2) prediction of lines from subsequent cycles. It is the latter from which a reduction in cycle length and consequently the strongest impact on selection gain is expected. We empirically investigated genome-based prediction of grain yield, plant height and thousand kernel weight within and across four selection cycles of a hybrid rye breeding program. Prediction performance was assessed using genomic and pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP and PBLUP). A total of 1040 S 2 lines were genotyped with 16 k SNPs and each year testcrosses of 260 S 2 lines were phenotyped in seven or eight locations. The performance gap between GBLUP and PBLUP increased significantly for all traits when model calibration was performed on aggregated data from several cycles. Prediction accuracies obtained from cross-validation were in the order of 0.70 for all traits when data from all cycles (N CS  = 832) were used for model training and exceeded within-cycle accuracies in all cases. As long as selection cycles are connected by a sufficient number of common ancestors and prediction accuracy has not reached a plateau when increasing sample size, aggregating data from several preceding cycles is recommended for predicting genetic values in subsequent cycles despite decreasing relatedness over time.

  12. Improved Laser Scribing of Transparent Conductive Oxide for Fabrication of Thin-Film Solar Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, F. S.; Kukin, A. V.; Terukov, E. I.; Titov, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Nonuniform thickness of the front transparent conductive oxide (TCO) used for fabrication of thin-film solar module (TFSM) based on micromorphic technology affects P1 laser scribing (P1 scribing on the TCO front layer). A method for improvement of the thickness uniformity of the front TCO using modification of the existing system for gas supply of the LPCVD (TCO1200) vacuum setup with the aid of gasdistributing tubes is proposed. The thickness nonuniformity of the deposition procedure is decreased from 15.2 to 11.4% to improve uniformity of the resistance of the front TCO and light-scattering factor of TFSM. In addition, the number of P1 laser scribes with inadmissible resistance of insulation (less than 2 MΩ) is decreased by a factor of 7. A decrease in the amount of melt at the P1 scribe edges leads to an increase in the TFSM shunting resistance by 56 Ω. The TFSM output power is increased by 0.4 W due to improvement of parameters of the front TCO related to application of gas-distributing tubes.

  13. Improved Laser Manipulation for On-chip Fabricated Microstructures Based on Solution Replacement and Its Application in Single Cell Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yue

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the fabrication and assembly of microstructures inside a microfluidic device based on a photocrosslinkable resin and optical tweezers. We also report a method of solution replacement inside the microfluidic channel in order to improve the manipulation performance and apply the assembled microstructures for single cell cultivation. By the illumination of patterned ultraviolet (UV through a microscope, microstructures of arbitrary shape were fabricated by the photocrosslinkable resin inside a microfluidic channel. Based on the microfluidic channel with both glass and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS surfaces, immovable and movable microstructures were fabricated and manipulated. The microstructures were fabricated at the desired places and manipulated by the optical tweezers. A rotational microstructure including a microgear and a rotation axis was assembled and rotated in demonstrating this technique. The improved laser manipulation of microstructures was achieved based on the on-chip solution replacement method. The manipulation speed of the microstructures increased when the viscosity of the solvent decreased. The movement efficiency of the fabricated microstructures inside the lower viscosity solvent was evaluated and compared with those microstructures inside the former high viscosity solvent. A novel cell cage was fabricated and the cultivation of a single yeast cell (w303 was demonstrated in the cell cage, inside the microfluidic device.

  14. Facile Fabrication of BiOI/BiOCl Immobilized Films With Improved Visible Light Photocatalytic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxian Zhong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTSA facial method was used to fabricate BiOI/BiOCl film at room temperature.30% BiOI/BiOCl showed an excellent photocatalytic activity and stability.Improvement of photocatalytic activity was owed to expanded visible light absorption and high separation efficiency of charge.Photocatalysis has been considered to be one of the most promising ways to photodegrade organic pollutants. Herein, a series of BiOI/BiOCl films coating on FTO were fabricated through a simple method at room temperature. The photocatalytic efficiency of 30%BiOI/BiOCl could reach more than 99% aiming to degrading RhB and MB after 90 and 120 min, respectively. Compared with BiOCl, 30%BiOI/BiOCl showed 12 times higher efficiency when degrading RhB. In comparison with BiOI, 30%BiOI/BiOCl showed 5 and 6 times higher efficiency when degrading RhB and MB, respectively. These obvious enhancements were attributed to expanded visible light absorption and high separation performance of photoinduced charge. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of 30%BiOI/BiOCl had no obvious decrease after five recycles, suggesting that it was a promising photocatalyst for the removal of MB and RhB pollutants. Finally, the possible growth process for the BiOI/BiOCl thin films and photocatalysis mechanism were investigated in details. This work would provide insight to the reasonable construction of BiOX heterojunction and the photocatalytic mechanism in degrading organic pollutants.

  15. A comparison of improved power plant technologies on lignite with (PFBC) and (IGCC) cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnalkovski, Ilija

    1997-01-01

    Technologies and process diagrams descriptions for PFBC (Pressurised Fluidized Bed Combustion) and IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) are presented as for improved cycles with modern clean coal technologies, the most popular currently. A special attention is paid to the possibilities for Macedonian lignites use on the power plants with PFBC and IGCC cycles. The comparison of the above mention technologies has been done particularly on the desulfurization, NO x reduction, ash elimination and its use in the building and construction industries. A comparison between the power plants with PFBC and IGCC cycles is made by the following criteria: cycle efficiency, desulfurization and nitrogen oxides reduction, power plant complexity and their cost, as well as plant reliability. (Author)

  16. Improved lithium-ion battery anode capacity with a network of easily fabricated spindle-like carbon nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengting; Xie, Wenhe; Gu, Lili; Qin, Tianfeng; Hou, Xiaoyi; He, Deyan

    2016-01-01

    A novel network of spindle-like carbon nanofibers was fabricated via a simplified synthesis involving electrospinning followed by preoxidation in air and postcarbonization in Ar. Not only was the as-obtained carbon network comprised of beads of spindle-like nanofibers but the cubic MnO phase and N elements were successfully anchored into the amorphous carbon matrix. When directly used as a binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries, the network showed excellent electrochemical performance with high capacity, good rate capacity and reliable cycling stability. Under a current density of 0.2 A g -1 , it delivered a high reversible capacity of 875.5 mAh g -1 after 200 cycles and 1005.5 mAh g -1 after 250 cycles with a significant coulombic efficiency of 99.5%.

  17. An Improved Multi-Evaporator Adsorption Desalination Cycle for GCC Countries

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-03-29

    In Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, cogeneration based desalination processes consume almost 25% of the total annual energy and it is increasing at 2.2% annually. The high fresh water demand is attributed to high gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate, 24%, and the high water languishes, more than 10%. Over the past two decades, GCC countries have spent tens of billion dollars to expand their present and planned desalination capacities. It is foreseeable that with business-as-usual scenario, the domestic oil consumption of Saudi Arabia may exceed its production capacity by 2040. Innovative and sustainable water production solutions are needed urgently for future water supplies without environment impact. In this paper, a hybrid desalination cycle is proposed by integrating multi cascaded-evaporators (CE) with an adsorption cycle (AD). In this new innovative cycle, AD desorbed vapors are supplied to the CE to exploit the latent condensation energy within the evaporators arranged in both pressures-temperatures cascaded manner to improves the performance ratio (PR) of the cycle. Hybrid cycle shows more than 10 folds water production improvement as compared to conventional AD cycle due to synergetic effect. This concept is demonstrated in a laboratory pilot plant using a 3 cascaded evaporators pilot and simulation of 8 evaporators hybrid cycle.

  18. Using Iterative Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycles to Improve Teaching Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth J

    2018-01-15

    Most students entering nursing programs today are members of Generation Y or the Millennial generation, and they learn differently than previous generations. Nurse educators must consider implementing innovative teaching strategies that appeal to the newest generation of learners. The Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle is a framework that can be helpful when planning, assessing, and continually improving teaching pedagogy. This article describes the use of iterative Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles to implement a change in teaching pedagogy.

  19. Design and optimization of a novel organic Rankine cycle with improved boiling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Larsen, U.; Knudsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    to improve the boiling process. Optimizations are carried out for eight hydrocarbon mixtures for hot fluid inlet temperatures at 120 °C and 90 °C, using a genetic algorithm to determine the cycle conditions for which the net power output is maximized. The most promising mixture is an isobutane....../pentane mixture which, for the 90 °C hot fluid inlet temperature case, achieves a 14.5% higher net power output than an optimized organic Rankine cycle using the same mixture. Two parameter studies suggest that optimum conditions for the organic split-cycle are when the temperature profile allows the minimum...

  20. Eco-friendly finishing agent for cotton fabrics to improve flame retardant and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shafei, A; ElShemy, M; Abou-Okeil, A

    2015-03-15

    This research work deals with flame retardant and antibacterial finishing agent for cellulosic fabrics using TiO2 nanoparticles and chitosan phosphate. TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel method using titanium tetraisopropoxide. The size of TiO2 nanoparticles was characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM). The application of nano TiO2 onto cellulosic fabrics (cotton 100%) was achieved in presence of polycarboxylic acid [1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA)] with sodium hypophosphite (SHP) as catalyst and chitosan phosphate through conventional pad-dry-cure method. The effect of the finishing on the physical properties, flammability and antibacterial properties of cross-linked fabrics are investigated. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to investigate the thermal decomposition behaviour of the treated samples. Limited oxygen indexes (LOI) of the treated cotton fabrics were investigated. The treated cotton fabric also reveals excellent antibacterial properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improved microwave shielding behavior of carbon nanotube-coated PET fabric using plasma technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haji, Aminoddin, E-mail: Ahaji@iaubir.ac.ir [Department of Textile Engineering, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Semnani Rahbar, Ruhollah [Department of Textile and Leather, Faculty of Chemistry and Petrochemical Engineering, Standard Research Institute, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi Shoushtari, Ahmad [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-08-30

    Four different procedures were conducted to load amine functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (NH{sub 2}-MWCNT) onto poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric surface to obtain a microwave shielding sample. Plasma treated fabric which was subsequently coated with NH{sub 2}-MWCNT in the presence of acrylic acid was chosen as the best sample. Surface changes in the PET fabrics were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Wide-angle X-ray diffraction was used to study the crystalline structure of the PET fabric. The microwave shielding performance of the PET fabrics in term of reflection loss was determined using a network analyzer at X-band (8.2–12.4 GHz). The XPS results revealed that the carbon atomic percentage decreased while the oxygen atomic percentage increased when the fabric was plasma treated and coated with NH{sub 2}-MWCNT. The SEM images showed that the NH{sub 2}-MWCNTs were homogenously dispersed and individually separated in the surface of fabric. Moreover, the structural studies showed that the crystalline region of the fabrics was not affected by NH{sub 2}-MWCNT and plasma treatment. The best microwave absorbing properties were obtained from the plasma treated fabric which was then coated with 10% NH{sub 2}-MWCNT in the presence of acrylic acid. It showed a minimum reflection loss of ∼−18.2 dB about 11 GHz. Proper attachments of NH{sub 2}-MWCNT on the PET fabric surface was explained in the suggested mechanism in which hydrogen bonding and amide linkage are responsible for the achievement of microwave shielding properties with high durability.

  2. Improved microwave shielding behavior of carbon nanotube-coated PET fabric using plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji, Aminoddin; Semnani Rahbar, Ruhollah; Mousavi Shoushtari, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Four different procedures were conducted to load amine functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (NH 2 -MWCNT) onto poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric surface to obtain a microwave shielding sample. Plasma treated fabric which was subsequently coated with NH 2 -MWCNT in the presence of acrylic acid was chosen as the best sample. Surface changes in the PET fabrics were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Wide-angle X-ray diffraction was used to study the crystalline structure of the PET fabric. The microwave shielding performance of the PET fabrics in term of reflection loss was determined using a network analyzer at X-band (8.2–12.4 GHz). The XPS results revealed that the carbon atomic percentage decreased while the oxygen atomic percentage increased when the fabric was plasma treated and coated with NH 2 -MWCNT. The SEM images showed that the NH 2 -MWCNTs were homogenously dispersed and individually separated in the surface of fabric. Moreover, the structural studies showed that the crystalline region of the fabrics was not affected by NH 2 -MWCNT and plasma treatment. The best microwave absorbing properties were obtained from the plasma treated fabric which was then coated with 10% NH 2 -MWCNT in the presence of acrylic acid. It showed a minimum reflection loss of ∼−18.2 dB about 11 GHz. Proper attachments of NH 2 -MWCNT on the PET fabric surface was explained in the suggested mechanism in which hydrogen bonding and amide linkage are responsible for the achievement of microwave shielding properties with high durability

  3. Fabrication and improvement of nanopillar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes using nanosphere lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Yiyu; Zhan, Teng

    2015-01-01

    Surface-patterning technologies have enabled the improvement of currently existinglight-emitting diodes (LEDs) and can be used to overcome the issue of low quantum efficiency ofgreen GaN-based LEDs. We have applied nanosphere lithography to fabricate nanopillars onInGaN∕GaN quantum-well LEDs. By ...

  4. NASA Contributions to Improve Understanding of Extreme Events in the Global Energy and Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, William M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) has established the water cycle goals of the Nation's climate change program. Accomplishing these goals will require, in part, an accurate accounting of the key reservoirs and fluxes associated with the global water and energy cycle, including their spatial and temporal variability. through integration of all necessary observations and research tools, To this end, in conjunction with NASA's Earth science research strategy, the overarching long-term NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) grand challenge can he summarized as documenting and enabling improved, observationally based, predictions of water and energy cycle consequences of Earth system variability and change. This challenge requires documenting and predicting trends in the rate of the Earth's water and energy cycling that corresponds to climate change and changes in the frequency and intensity of naturally occurring related meteorological and hydrologic events, which may vary as climate may vary in the future. The cycling of water and energy has obvious and significant implications for the health and prosperity of our society. The importance of documenting and predicting water and energy cycle variations and extremes is necessary to accomplish this benefit to society.

  5. Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the meeting were: - To identify the main issues and technical features that affect capital and energy production costs of fast reactors and related fuel cycle facilities; - To present fast reactor concepts and designs with enhanced economic characteristics, as well as innovative technical solutions (components, subsystems, etc.) that have the potential to reduce the capital costs of fast reactors and related fuel cycle facilities; - To present energy models and advanced tools for the cost assessment of innovative fast reactors and associated nuclear fuel cycles; - To discuss the results of studies and on-going R&D activities that address cost reduction and the future economic competitiveness of fast reactors; and - To identify research and technology development needs in the field, also in view of new IAEA initiatives to help and support Member States in improving the economic competitiveness of fast reactors and associated nuclear fuel cycles

  6. Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the meeting were: • To identify the main issues and technical features that affect capital and energy production costs of fast reactors and related fuel cycle facilities; • To present fast reactor concepts and designs with enhanced economic characteristics, as well as innovative technical solutions (components, subsystems, etc.) that have the potential to reduce the capital costs of fast reactors and related fuel cycle facilities; • To present energy models and advanced tools for the cost assessment of innovative fast reactors and associated nuclear fuel cycles; • To discuss the results of studies and ongoing R&D activities that address cost reduction and the future economic competitiveness of fast reactors; • To identify research and technology development needs in the field, also in view of new IAEA initiatives to help and support Member States in improving the economic competitiveness of fast reactors and associated nuclear fuel cycles

  7. Fabrication of Microfiber Patterns with Ivy Shoot-Like Geometries Using Improved Electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young Hun; Lee, Jongwan

    2016-04-01

    Fibers and fibrous structures are used extensively in various fields due to their many advantages. Microfibers, as well as nanofibers, are considered to be some of the most valuable forms of advanced materials. Accordingly, various methods for fabricating microfibers have been developed. Electrospinning is a useful fabrication method for continuous polymeric nano- and microfibers with attractive merits. However, this technique has limitations in its ability to control the geometry of fibrous structures. Herein, advanced electrospinning with direct-writing functionality was used to fabricate microfiber patterns with ivy shoot-like geometries after experimentally investigating the effects of the process conditions on the fiber formation. The surface properties of the fibers were also modified by introducing nanoscale pores through the use of higher levels of humidity during the fabrication process.

  8. Improvement of supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle using binary gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Woo Seok

    2011-02-01

    A Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is one of the strongest candidates for the next generation nuclear reactor. However, the conventional design of a SFR concept with an indirect Rankine cycle is inevitably subjected to a sodium-water reaction. To prevent hazardous situation caused by sodium-water reaction, the SFR with Brayton cycle using Supercritical Carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 cycle) as a working fluid can be an alternative approach. The S-CO 2 Brayton cycle is more sensitive to the critical point of working fluids than other Brayton cycles. This is because compressor work significantly decreases at slightly above the critical point due to high density near the boundary between the supercritical state and the subcritical state. For this reason, the minimum temperature and pressure of cycle are just above the CO 2 critical point. The critical point acts as a limitation of the lowest operating condition of the cycle. In general, lowering the rejection temperature of a thermodynamic cycle increases the efficiency and thus, changing the critical point of CO 2 can result in an improvement of the total cycle efficiency with the same cycle layout. Modifying the critical point of the working fluid can be done by adding other gases to CO 2 . The direction and range of the CO 2 critical point variation depends on the mixed component and its amount. In particular, chemical reactivity of the gas mixture itself and the gas mixture with sodium at high temperatures are of interest. To modify the critical point of the working fluid, several gases were chosen as candidates by which chemical stability with sodium within the interested range of cycle operating condition was assured: CO 2 was mixed with N 2 , O 2 , He, Ar and Xe. To evaluate the effect of shifting the critical point and changes in the properties of the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle, a supercritical Brayton cycle analysis code connected with the REFPROP program from the NIST was developed. The developed code is for evaluating

  9. Improvements in purification of silver nanowires by decantation and fabrication of flexible transparent electrodes. Application to capacitive touch sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayousse, Céline; Celle, Caroline; Moreau, Eléonore; Carella, Alexandre; Simonato, Jean-Pierre; Mainguet, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Transparent flexible electrodes made of metallic nanowires, and in particular silver nanowires (AgNWs), appear as an extremely promising alternative to transparent conductive oxides for future optoelectronic devices. Though significant progresses have been made the last few years, there is still some room for improvement regarding the synthesis of high quality silver nanowire solutions and fabrication process of high performance electrodes. We show that the commonly used purification process can be greatly simplified through decantation. Using this process it is possible to fabricate flexible electrodes by spray coating with sheet resistance lower than 25 Ω sq −1 at 90% transparency in the visible spectrum. These electrodes were used to fabricate an operative transparent flexible touch screen. To our knowledge this is the first reported AgNW based touch sensor relying on capacitive technology. (paper)

  10. Improvements in Cycling but Not Handcycling 10 km Time Trial Performance in Habitual Caffeine Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham-Paulson, Terri; Perret, Claudio; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

    2016-06-25

    Caffeine supplementation during whole-/lower-body exercise is well-researched, yet evidence of its effect during upper-body exercise is equivocal. The current study explored the effects of caffeine on cycling/handcycling 10 km time trial (TT) performance in habitual caffeine users. Eleven recreationally trained males (mean (SD) age 24 (4) years, body mass 85.1 (14.6) kg, cycling/handcycling peak oxygen uptake ( V · peak) 42.9 (7.3)/27.6 (5.1) mL∙kg∙min(-1), 160 (168) mg/day caffeine consumption) completed two maximal incremental tests and two familiarization sessions. During four subsequent visits, participants cycled/handcycled for 30 min at 65% mode-specific V · peak (preload) followed by a 10 km TT following the ingestion of 4 mg∙kg(-1) caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA). Caffeine significantly improved cycling (2.0 (2.0)%; 16:35 vs. 16:56 min; p = 0.033) but not handcycling (1.8 (3.0)%; 24:10 vs. 24:36 min; p = 0.153) TT performance compared to PLA. The improvement during cycling can be attributed to the increased power output during the first and last 2 km during CAF. Higher blood lactate concentration (Bla) was reported during CAF compared to PLA (p Caffeine improved cycling but not handcycling TT performance. The lack of improvement during handcycling may be due to the smaller active muscle mass, elevated (Bla) and/or participants' training status.

  11. Influence of thermo-mechanical cycling on porcelain bonding to cobalt-chromium and titanium dental alloys fabricated by casting, milling, and selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antanasova, Maja; Kocjan, Andraž; Kovač, Janez; Žužek, Borut; Jevnikar, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The aim has been to determine the effect of thermo-mechanical cycling on shear-bond-strength (SBS) of dental porcelain to Co-Cr and Ti-based alloys fabricated by casting, computer-numerical-controlled milling, and selective-laser-melting (SLM). Seven groups (n=22/group) of metal cylinders were fabricated by casting (Co-Cr and commercially pure-cpTi), milling (Co-Cr, cpTi, Ti-6Al-4V) or by SLM (Co-Cr and Ti-6Al-4V) and abraded with airborne-particles. The average surface roughness (R a ) was determined for each group. Dental porcelain was applied and each metal-ceramic combination was divided into two subgroups - stored in deionized water (24-h, 37°C), or subjected to both thermal (6000-cycles, between 5 and 60°C) and mechanical cycling (10 5 -cycles, 60N-load). SBS test-values and failure modes were recorded. Metal-ceramic interfaces were analyzed with a focused-ion-beam/scanning-electron-microscope (FIB/SEM) and energy-dispersive-spectroscopy (EDS). The elastic properties of the respective metal and ceramic materials were evaluated by instrumented-indentation-testing. The oxide thickness on intact Ti-based substrates was measured with Auger-electron-spectroscopy (AES). Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Tukey's HSD and t-tests (α=0.05). The SBS-means differed according to the metal-ceramic combination (p<0.0005) and to the fatigue conditions (p<0.0005). The failure modes and interface analyses suggest better porcelain adherence to Co-Cr than to Ti-based alloys. Values of R a were dependent on the metal substrate (p<0.0005). Ti-based substrates were not covered with thick oxide layers following digital fabrication. Ti-based alloys are more susceptible than Co-Cr to reduction of porcelain bond strength following thermo-mechanical cycling. The porcelain bond strength to Ti-based alloys is affected by the applied metal processing technology. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Low-cost fabrication and performance testing of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micromixers using an improved print-and-Peel (PAP) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abagon, Ma. Victoria; Buendia, Neil Daniel; Jasper Caracas, Corine; July Yap, Kristian

    2018-03-01

    The research presents different configurations of microfluidic mixers made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fabricated using an improved, low-cost print-and-peel (PAP) method. Processes, such as mixing, operated in the micro scale allow decreased equipment size-to-production capacity ratio and decreased energy consumption per unit product. In the study, saturated solutions of blue and yellow food dyes were introduced inside the channels using a LEGO® improvised microsyringe pump. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the average depth of the fabricated micromixers which was found to be around 14 ¼m. The flows were observed and images were taken using a light microscope. The color intensities of the images were then measured using MATLAB®. From the relationship between color intensity and concentration, the mixing indices were calculated and found to be 0.9435 to 0.9941, which falls within the standard mixing index range (0.8 - 1.0) regardless of the flow rate and the configuration of the micromixer as verified through the two-way ANOVA. From the cost analysis, the cost of the device fabricated in this study is a hundred-fold less than expenses from standard fabrication procedures. Hence, the fabricated device provides an alternative for micromixers produced from expensive and conventional lithographic methods.

  13. Cure Cycle Design Methodology for Fabricating Reactive Resin Matrix Fiber Reinforced Composites: A Protocol for Producing Void-free Quality Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tan-Hung

    2014-01-01

    For the fabrication of resin matrix fiber reinforced composite laminates, a workable cure cycle (i.e., temperature and pressure profiles as a function of processing time) is needed and is critical for achieving void-free laminate consolidation. Design of such a cure cycle is not trivial, especially when dealing with reactive matrix resins. An empirical "trial and error" approach has been used as common practice in the composite industry. Such an approach is not only costly, but also ineffective at establishing the optimal processing conditions for a specific resin/fiber composite system. In this report, a rational "processing science" based approach is established, and a universal cure cycle design protocol is proposed. Following this protocol, a workable and optimal cure cycle can be readily and rationally designed for most reactive resin systems in a cost effective way. This design protocol has been validated through experimental studies of several reactive polyimide composites for a wide spectrum of usage that has been documented in the previous publications.

  14. Improving the low temperature dyeability of polyethylene terephthalate fabric with dispersive dyes by atmospheric pressure plasma discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elabid, Amel E.A.; Zhang, Jie; Shi, Jianjun; Guo, Ying; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atmospheric pressure glow-like plasma with fine and uniform filament discharge has been successfully applied to the low temperature dyeing (95 °C) of PET fabric. • Simultaneously the dye uptake was increased as twice as much and the color strength rate was increased by about 20% for less than 3 min plasma treated PET. • Dyeing mechanism research showed the significance of surface roughing and functional group introduction by this kind of discharge. • Results highlight a novel environmentally friendly dyeing process for one of the largest commodity in polymer fabric. - Abstract: Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber and textile is one of the largest synthetic polymer commodity in the world. The great energy consumption and pollution caused by the high temperature and pressure dyeing of PET fibers and fabrics with disperse dyes has been caused concern these years. In this study, an atmospheric pressure plasma with fine and uniform filament discharge operated at 20 kHz has been used to improve the low temperature dyeability of PET fabric at 95 °C with three cation disperse dyes: Red 73, Blue 183 and Yellow 211. The dyes uptake percentage of the treated PET fabrics was observed to increase as twice as much of untreated fabric. The color strength rate was increased more than 20%. The reducing of the water contact angle and the raising of the capillary height of treated PET fabric strip indicate its hydrophilicity improvement. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results display nano to micro size of etching pits appeared uniformly on the fiber surface of the treated PET. Simultaneously, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates an increase of the oxygen content in the surface caused by the introduction of polar groups such as C=O and COOH. The rough surface with improved polar oxygen groups showed hydrophilicity and affinity to C.I. dispersive dyes and is believed to be caused by the strong and very fine

  15. Fabrication of ultrahigh density metal-cell-metal crossbar memory devices with only two cycles of lithography and dry-etch procedures

    KAUST Repository

    Zong, Baoyu

    2013-05-20

    A novel approach to the fabrication of metal-cell-metal trilayer memory devices was demonstrated by using only two cycles of lithography and dry-etch procedures. The fabricated ultrahigh density crossbar devices can be scaled down to ≤70 nm in half-pitch without alignment issues. Depending on the different dry-etch mechanisms in transferring high and low density nanopatterns, suitable dry-etch angles and methods are studied for the transfer of high density nanopatterns. Some novel process methods have also been developed to eliminate the sidewall and other conversion obstacles for obtaining high density of uniform metallic nanopatterns. With these methods, ultrahigh density trilayer crossbar devices (∼2 × 1010 bit cm-2-kilobit electronic memory), which are composed of built-in practical magnetoresistive nanocells, have been achieved. This scalable process that we have developed provides the relevant industries with a cheap means to commercially fabricate three-dimensional high density metal-cell-metal nanodevices. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. The model for the strategic management of technology. The improvement cycle and matrixes deployment QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides Velasco, C. A.; Quintana Garcia, C.

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the importance of innovative firms, few contributions study in depth the strategic management of their technological resources. After describing the process of strategic management of technology, we propose a model that enables the application of that process and guarantees organizational flexibility in technological companies. For it, such a process has been adapted to She wart cycle (Deeming wheel) and combined with the quality function deployment (QFD). As a result, we propose the improvement cycle of technology. It contains two matrixes that allow identifying and prioritizing with greater clarity the activities related to the management of technological resources. (Authors)

  17. Improvement of performance operation and cycle efficiency of Al Anbar combined power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbar, Mohammed Q.

    2014-01-01

    The present work will be focusing on available solution which can serve to increase total efficiency of Al Anbar combined cycle power plant - CCPP, and thus to improve the operation performance as much as possible in order to decrease hydrocarbon, CO2, NOx emissions to environment.The simulation and calculations were performed by program software cycle-tempo software. The results were compared with basic design of Alanbar power plant after making modernization with solar tower receiver system-STRS, which represented a heat source in preheat process for a compressor air. Key Words: CCPP, STRS, Solar potential energy, fuel consumption, hydrocarbon emission

  18. Modelling and Improvement of Thermal Cycling in Power Electronics for Motor Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernica, Ionut; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the dynamical change of the thermal stress in the power devices is one of the major factors that have influences on the overall efficiency and reliability of power electronics. The main objective of this paper consists of identifying the main parameters that affect the thermal...... are identified during the acceleration and deceleration periods of the motor. The main causes for these adverse thermal cycles have been presented and, consequently, the influence of the deceleration slope, modulation technique and reactive current on the thermal cycles has been analyzed. Finally, the improved...

  19. Variability in Cadence During Forced Cycling Predicts Motor Improvement in Individuals With Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgel, Angela L.; Abdar, Hassan Mohammadi; Alberts, Jay L.; Discenzo, Fred M.; Loparo, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in severity and progression of Parkinson’s disease symptoms makes it challenging to design therapy interventions that provide maximal benefit. Previous studies showed that forced cycling, at greater pedaling rates, results in greater improvements in motor function than voluntary cycling. The precise mechanism for differences in function following exercise is unknown. We examined the complexity of biomechanical and physiological features of forced and voluntary cycling and correlated these features to improvements in motor function as measured by the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Heart rate, cadence, and power were analyzed using entropy signal processing techniques. Pattern variability in heart rate and power were greater in the voluntary group when compared to forced group. In contrast, variability in cadence was higher during forced cycling. UPDRS Motor III scores predicted from the pattern variability data were highly correlated to measured scores in the forced group. This study shows how time series analysis methods of biomechanical and physiological parameters of exercise can be used to predict improvements in motor function. This knowledge will be important in the development of optimal exercise-based rehabilitation programs for Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23144045

  20. Design, simulation and fabrication of a flexible bond pad with a hollow annular protuberance to improve the thermal fatigue lifetime for through-silicon vias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guilian; Ding, Guifu; Luo, Jiangbo; Niu, Di; Zhao, Junhong; Zhao, Xiaolin; Wang, Yan; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible bond pad (FBP) with a hollow annular protuberance to improve the thermal fatigue lifetime for its application to through-silicon vias (TSVs). The hollow annular protuberance structure across the interface between the filled copper in TSV and silicon substrate not only isolates the FBP from stress/strain concentration regions (the corners of the TSV) but also disperses TSV-induced deformation. The plastic strain distributions of the FBP and conventional plate-type bond pad (CPBP) were simulated by finite element method (FEM) under the temperature cycles. Based on the simulation results, the thermal fatigue lifetimes of the CPBP and the FBP with different TSV diameters were predicted by the Coffin–Manson equation. The results indicate that thermal fatigue lifetimes of the FBP are significantly greater than those of the CPBP and their fatigue lifetimes both decrease with the increase of TSV diameter. To examine the reliability of the predicted results, the CPBP and the FBP with TSV diameter of 100 µm were fabricated by MEMS technology and temperature cycling tests (TCTs) were performed to obtain their thermal fatigue lifetimes. The test results are in good agreement with the numerical simulation results, and it shows that the proposed FBP can effectively improve the thermal fatigue lifetime for TSVs. (paper)

  1. Health technology assessment to improve the medical equipment life cycle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margotti, Ana E; Ferreira, Filipa B; Santos, Francisco A; Garcia, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a tool to support decision making that is intended to assist healthcare managers in their strategic decisions. The use of HTA as a tool for clinical engineering is especially relevant in the domain of the medical equipment once it could improve the performance of the medical equipment. It would be done by their systematically evaluation in several aspects, in their life cycle. In Brazil, the Institute of Biomedical Engineering (IEB-UFSC) through the clinical engineering area has been working on the development of methodologies and improvements on HTA for medical equipment. Therefore, this paper presents the effort to create specific methodologies that will improve the dissemination of HTA, focusing on incorporation and utilization phase of the medical equipment life cycle. This will give a better support to the decision makers in the management of the health care system.

  2. Can FES-augmented active cycling training improve locomotion in post-acute elderly stroke patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Peri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies advocated the use of active cycling coupled with functional electrical stimulation to induce neuroplasticity and enhance functional improvements in stroke adult patients. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the benefits induced by such a treatment are superior to standard physiotherapy. A single-blinded randomized controlled trial has been performed on post-acute elderly stroke patients. Patients underwent FES-augmented cycling training combined with voluntary pedaling or standard physiotherapy. The intervention consisted of fifteen 30-minutes sessions carried out within 3 weeks. Patients were evaluated before and after training, through functional scales, gait analysis and a voluntary pedaling test. Results were compared with an age-matched healthy group. Sixteen patients completed the training. After treatment, a general improvement of all clinical scales was obtained for both groups. Only the mechanical efficiency highlighted a group effect in favor of the experimental group. Although a group effect was not found for any other cycling or gait parameters, the experimental group showed a higher percentage of change with respect to the control group (e.g. the gait velocity was improved of 35.4% and 25.4% respectively, and its variation over time was higher than minimal clinical difference for the experimental group only. This trend suggests that differences in terms of motor recovery between the two groups may be achieved increasing the training dose. In conclusion, this study, although preliminary, showed that FES-augmented active cycling training seems to be effective in improving cycling and walking ability in post-acute elderly stroke patients. A higher sample size is required to confirm results.

  3. Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, engineering oriented work, rather than basic research and development (R&D), has led to significant progress in improving the economics of innovative fast reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities, while maintaining and even enhancing the safety features of these systems. Optimization of plant size and layout, more compact designs, reduction of the amount of plant materials and the building volumes, higher operating temperatures to attain higher generating efficiencies, improvement of load factor, extended core lifetimes, high fuel burnup, etc. are good examples of achievements to date that have improved the economics of fast neutron systems. The IAEA, through its Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) and Technical Working Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options and Spent Fuel Management (TWG-NFCO), devotes many of its initiatives to encouraging technical cooperation and promoting common research and technology development projects among Member States with fast reactor and advanced fuel cycle development programmes, with the general aim of catalysing and accelerating technology advances in these fields. In particular the theme of fast reactor deployment, scenarios and economics has been largely debated during the recent IAEA International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios, held in Paris in March 2013. Several papers presented at this conference discussed the economics of fast reactors from different national and regional perspectives, including business cases, investment scenarios, funding mechanisms and design options that offer significant capital and energy production cost reductions. This Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics addresses Member States’ expressed need for information exchange in the field, with the aim of identifying the main open issues and launching possible initiatives to help and

  4. The urban harvest approach as framework and planning tool for improved water and resource cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leusbrock, I; Nanninga, T A; Lieberg, K; Agudelo-Vera, C M; Keesman, K J; Zeeman, G; Rijnaarts, H H M

    2015-01-01

    Water and resource availability in sufficient quantity and quality for anthropogenic needs represents one of the main challenges in the coming decades. To prepare for upcoming challenges such as increased urbanization and climate change related consequences, innovative and improved resource management concepts are indispensable. In recent years we have developed and applied the urban harvest approach (UHA). The UHA aims to model and quantify the urban water cycle on different temporal and spatial scales. This approach allowed us to quantify the impact of the implementation of water saving measures and new water treatment concepts in cities. In this paper we will introduce the UHA and its application for urban water cycles. Furthermore, we will show first results for an extension to energy cycles and highlight future research items (e.g. nutrients, water-energy-nexus).

  5. Fabrication of CoZn alloy nanowire arrays: Significant improvement in magnetic properties by annealing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koohbor, M.; Soltanian, S.; Najafi, M.; Servati, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Increasing the Zn concentration changes the structure of NWs from hcp to amorphous. ► Increasing the Zn concentration significantly reduces the Hc value of NWs. ► Magnetic properties of CoZn NWs can be significantly enhanced by appropriate annealing. ► The pH of electrolyte has no significant effect on the properties of the NW arrays. ► Deposition frequency has considerable effects on the magnetic properties of NWs. - Abstract: Highly ordered arrays of Co 1−x Zn x (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.74) nanowires (NWs) with diameters of ∼35 nm and high length-to-diameter ratios (up to 150) were fabricated by co-electrodeposition of Co and Zn into pores of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The Co and Zn contents of the NWs were adjusted by varying the ratio of Zn and Co ion concentrations in the electrolyte. The effect of the Zn content, electrodeposition conditions (frequency and pH) and annealing on the structural and magnetic properties (e.g., coercivity (Hc) and squareness (Sq)) of NW arrays were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and alternating gradient force magnetometer (AGFM). XRD patterns reveal that an increase in the concentration of Zn ions of the electrolyte forces the hcp crystal structure of Co NWs to change into an amorphous phase, resulting in a significant reduction in Hc. It was found that the magnetic properties of NWs can be significantly improved by appropriate annealing process. The highest values for Hc (2050 Oe) and Sq (0.98) were obtained for NWs electrodeposited using 0.95/0.05 Co:Zn concentrations at 200 Hz and annealed at 575 °C. While the pH of electrolyte is found to have no significant effect on the structural and magnetic properties of the NW arrays, the electrodeposition frequency has considerable effects on the magnetic properties of the NW arrays. The changes in magnetic property of NWs are rooted in a competition between shape anisotropy and

  6. Fabrication of CoZn alloy nanowire arrays: Significant improvement in magnetic properties by annealing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koohbor, M. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltanian, S., E-mail: s.soltanian@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Najafi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Hamadan University of Technology, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Servati, P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2012-01-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing the Zn concentration changes the structure of NWs from hcp to amorphous. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing the Zn concentration significantly reduces the Hc value of NWs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties of CoZn NWs can be significantly enhanced by appropriate annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pH of electrolyte has no significant effect on the properties of the NW arrays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deposition frequency has considerable effects on the magnetic properties of NWs. - Abstract: Highly ordered arrays of Co{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x} (0 {<=} x {<=} 0.74) nanowires (NWs) with diameters of {approx}35 nm and high length-to-diameter ratios (up to 150) were fabricated by co-electrodeposition of Co and Zn into pores of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The Co and Zn contents of the NWs were adjusted by varying the ratio of Zn and Co ion concentrations in the electrolyte. The effect of the Zn content, electrodeposition conditions (frequency and pH) and annealing on the structural and magnetic properties (e.g., coercivity (Hc) and squareness (Sq)) of NW arrays were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and alternating gradient force magnetometer (AGFM). XRD patterns reveal that an increase in the concentration of Zn ions of the electrolyte forces the hcp crystal structure of Co NWs to change into an amorphous phase, resulting in a significant reduction in Hc. It was found that the magnetic properties of NWs can be significantly improved by appropriate annealing process. The highest values for Hc (2050 Oe) and Sq (0.98) were obtained for NWs electrodeposited using 0.95/0.05 Co:Zn concentrations at 200 Hz and annealed at 575 Degree-Sign C. While the pH of electrolyte is found to have no significant effect on the structural and magnetic properties of the NW arrays, the electrodeposition frequency has considerable effects on

  7. A Virtual Reality-Cycling Training System for Lower Limb Balance Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chieh; Hsueh, Ya-Hsin; Yeh, Chun-Yu; Lo, Hsin-Chang; Lan, Yi-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Stroke survivors might lose their walking and balancing abilities, but many studies pointed out that cycling is an effective means for lower limb rehabilitation. However, during cycle training, the unaffected limb tends to compensate for the affected one, which resulted in suboptimal rehabilitation. To address this issue, we present a Virtual Reality-Cycling Training System (VRCTS), which senses the cycling force and speed in real-time, analyzes the acquired data to produce feedback to patients with a controllable VR car in a VR rehabilitation program, and thus specifically trains the affected side. The aim of the study was to verify the functionality of the VRCTS and to verify the results from the ten stroke patients participants and to compare the result of Asymmetry Ratio Index (ARI) between the experimental group and the control group, after their training, by using the bilateral pedal force and force plate to determine any training effect. The results showed that after the VRCTS training in bilateral pedal force it had improved by 0.22 (p = 0.046) and in force plate the stand balance has also improved by 0.29 (p = 0.031); thus both methods show the significant difference.

  8. A Virtual Reality-Cycling Training System for Lower Limb Balance Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke survivors might lose their walking and balancing abilities, but many studies pointed out that cycling is an effective means for lower limb rehabilitation. However, during cycle training, the unaffected limb tends to compensate for the affected one, which resulted in suboptimal rehabilitation. To address this issue, we present a Virtual Reality-Cycling Training System (VRCTS, which senses the cycling force and speed in real-time, analyzes the acquired data to produce feedback to patients with a controllable VR car in a VR rehabilitation program, and thus specifically trains the affected side. The aim of the study was to verify the functionality of the VRCTS and to verify the results from the ten stroke patients participants and to compare the result of Asymmetry Ratio Index (ARI between the experimental group and the control group, after their training, by using the bilateral pedal force and force plate to determine any training effect. The results showed that after the VRCTS training in bilateral pedal force it had improved by 0.22 (p=0.046 and in force plate the stand balance has also improved by 0.29 (p=0.031; thus both methods show the significant difference.

  9. Resveratrol Improves Cell Cycle Arrest in Chronic Prostatitis Rats, by C-kit/SCF Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Zeng, Huizhi; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Jiashu; Zeng, Xiaona; Gong, Fengtao; Liu, Qi; Yang, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Chronic prostatitis (CP) with complex pathogenesis is difficult for treatment. c-kit has been associated with the control of cell proliferation of prostate cells. This study aims to evaluate the role of resveratrol, an activator of Sirt1, in regulating the expression of c-kit in CP and investigate the consequent effects on cell cycle. Rat model of CP was established through subcutaneous injections of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine and subsequently treated with resveratrol. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to identify the histopathological changes in prostates. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining examined the expression level of c-kit, stem cell factor (SCF), Sirt1, and cell cycle-associated proteins. The model group exhibited severe diffuse chronic inflammation, characterized by leukocyte infiltration and papillary frond protrusion into the gland cavities, and a notable increase in prostatic epithelial height. Gland lumen diameter was also significantly smaller; the activity of c-kit/SCF in the CP rats was increased significantly compared to the control group. Meanwhile, the cell cycle proteins are dysregulated significantly in CP rats. Resveratrol treatment significantly improved these factors by Sirt1 activation. Dysregulation of cell cycle was involved in the pathological processes of CP, which was improved after resveratrol treatment by the downregulation of c-kit/SCF by activating Sirt1.

  10. ZIF-8 Membranes with Improved Reproducibility Fabricated from Sputter-Coated ZnO/Alumina Supports

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Jian; Pan, Yichang; Wang, Chongqing; Lai, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    for reproducible fabrication of high-quality membranes. In this study, high-quality ZIF-8 membranes were prepared through hydrothermal synthesis under the partial self-conversion of sputter-coated ZnO layer on porous α-alumina supports. The reproducibility

  11. Dielectric Coating Thermal Stabilization During GaAs-Based Laser Fabrication for Improved Device Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-25

    forced outgassing of LT-PECVD SiO2 has been employed to reduce contact-metal blister formation in the fabrication of SiO2/Pt/ PZT /Pt capacitors. 10...modest thermal-stress-induced swing and minimal permanent change in coating stress. Differences in thermal-expansion coefficient between the

  12. Using the Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform for Improved Fabric Defect Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanus Vermaak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT solves the problems of shift variance and low directional selectivity in two and higher dimensions found with the commonly used discrete wavelet transform (DWT. It has been proposed for applications such as texture classification and content-based image retrieval. In this paper, the performance of the dual-tree complex wavelet transform for fabric defect detection is evaluated. As experimental samples, the fabric images from TILDA, a textile texture database from the Workgroup on Texture Analysis of the German Research Council (DFG, are used. The mean energies of real and imaginary parts of complex wavelet coefficients taken separately are identified as effective features for the purpose of fabric defect detection. Then it is shown that the use of the dual-tree complex wavelet transform yields greater performance as compared to the undecimated wavelet transform (UDWT with a detection rate of 4.5% to 15.8% higher depending on the fabric type.

  13. Liquid air cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  14. Hypothesis driven drug design: improving quality and effectiveness of the design-make-test-analyse cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowright, Alleyn T; Johnstone, Craig; Kihlberg, Jan; Pettersson, Jonas; Robb, Graeme; Thompson, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    In drug discovery, the central process of constructing and testing hypotheses, carefully conducting experiments and analysing the associated data for new findings and information is known as the design-make-test-analyse cycle. Each step relies heavily on the inputs and outputs of the other three components. In this article we report our efforts to improve and integrate all parts to enable smooth and rapid flow of high quality ideas. Key improvements include enhancing multi-disciplinary input into 'Design', increasing the use of knowledge and reducing cycle times in 'Make', providing parallel sets of relevant data within ten working days in 'Test' and maximising the learning in 'Analyse'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Uranium resource utilization improvements in the once-through PWR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.

    1980-04-01

    In support of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), Combustion Engineering, Inc. performed a comprehensive analytical study of potential uranium utilization improvement options that can be backfit into existing PWRs operating on the once-through uranium fuel cycle. A large number of potential improvement options were examined as part of a preliminary survey of candidate options. The most attractive of these, from the standpoint of uranium utilization improvement, economic viability, and ease of implementation, were then selected for detailed analysis and were included in a single composite improvement case. This composite case represents an estimate of the total savings in U 3 O 8 consumption that can be achieved in current-design PWRs by implementing improvements which can be developed and demonstrated in the near term. The improvement options which were evaluated in detail and included in the composite case were a new five-batch, extended-burnup fuel management scheme, low-leakage fuel management, modified lattice designs, axial blankets, reinsertion of initial core batches, and end-of-cycle stretchout

  16. An improved technology for decontaminating ruthenium in uranium purification cycle by hydroxylamine pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Zhanshun; Zhu Zhixuan; Zhang Pilu

    1996-01-01

    The Influences of hydroxylamine concentration, pretreatment time, acidity and the concentration of stabilizer have been studied, and the best pretreatment condition for the improvement of Ru decontamination in uranium purification cycle by hydroxylamine pretreatment has been obtained. The results show that no satisfactory result can be obtained by solely using hydroxylamine as pretreatment agent unless a small amount of hydrazine is added into the pretreatment system as stabilizer

  17. Project Management Life Cycle Models to Improve Management in High-rise Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrov, Andrey; Siniavina, Maria; Iliashenko, Oksana

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes a possibility to improve project management in high-rise buildings construction through the use of various Project Management Life Cycle Models (PMLC models) based on traditional and agile project management approaches. Moreover, the paper describes, how the split the whole large-scale project to the "project chain" will create the factor for better manageability of the large-scale buildings project and increase the efficiency of the activities of all participants in such projects.

  18. Project Management Life Cycle Models to Improve Management in High-rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burmistrov Andrey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a possibility to improve project management in high-rise buildings construction through the use of various Project Management Life Cycle Models (PMLC models based on traditional and agile project management approaches. Moreover, the paper describes, how the split the whole large-scale project to the "project chain" will create the factor for better manageability of the large-scale buildings project and increase the efficiency of the activities of all participants in such projects.

  19. Fuel performance and operation experience of WWER-440 fuel in improved fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinski, A.; Proselkov, V.; Semchenkov, Yu.

    2007-01-01

    The paper summarizes WWER-440 second-generation fuel operation experience in improved fuel cycles using the example of Kola NPP units 3 and 4. Basic parameters of fuel assemblies, fuel rods and uranium-gadolinium fuel rods, as well as the principal neutronic parameters and burn-up achieved in fuel assemblies are presented. The paper also contains some data concerning the activity of coolant during operation (Authors)

  20. FES-assisted Cycling Improves Aerobic Capacity and Locomotor Function Postcerebrovascular Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Stacey E; Vanderwerker, Catherine J; Embry, Aaron E; Newton, Jennifer H; Lee, Samuel C K; Gregory, Chris M

    2018-03-01

    After a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) aerobic deconditioning contributes to diminished physical function. Functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted cycling is a promising exercise paradigm designed to target both aerobic capacity and locomotor function. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of an FES-assisted cycling intervention on aerobic capacity and locomotor function in individuals post-CVA. Eleven individuals with chronic (>6 months) post-CVA hemiparesis completed an 8-wk (three times per week; 24 sessions) progressive FES-assisted cycling intervention. V˙O2peak, self-selected, and fastest comfortable walking speeds, gait, and pedaling symmetry, 6-min walk test (6MWT), balance, dynamic gait movements, and health status were measured at baseline and posttraining. Functional electrical stimulation-assisted cycling significantly improved V˙O2peak (12%, P = 0.006), self-selected walking speed (SSWS, 0.05 ± 0.1 m·s, P = 0.04), Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale score (12.75 ± 17.4, P = 0.04), Berg Balance Scale score (3.91 ± 4.2, P = 0.016), Dynamic Gait Index score (1.64 ± 1.4, P = 0.016), and Stroke Impact Scale participation/role domain score (12.74 ± 16.7, P = 0.027). Additionally, pedal symmetry, represented by the paretic limb contribution to pedaling (paretic pedaling ratio [PPR]) significantly improved (10.09% ± 9.0%, P = 0.016). Although step length symmetry (paretic step ratio [PSR]) did improve, these changes were not statistically significant (-0.05% ± 0.1%, P = 0.09). Exploratory correlations showed moderate association between change in SSWS and 6-min walk test (r = 0.74), and moderate/strong negative association between change in PPR and PSR. These results support FES-assisted cycling as a means to improve both aerobic capacity and locomotor function. Improvements in SSWS, balance, dynamic walking movements, and participation in familial and societal roles are important targets for rehabilitation of individuals

  1. Fuel utilization improvements in a once-through PWR fuel cycle. Final report on Task 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabby, D.

    1979-06-01

    In studying the position of the United States Department of Energy, Non-proliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program, this report determines the uranium saving associated with various improvement concepts applicable to a once-through fuel cycle of a standard four-loop Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor. Increased discharged fuel burnup from 33,000 to 45,000 MWD/MTM could achieve a 12% U 3 O 8 saving by 1990. Improved fuel management schemes combined with coastdown to 60% power, could result in U 3 O 8 savings of 6%

  2. Biaxial Testing of High-Strength Fabric Improves Design of Inflatable Radar Domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Large radar installations around the globe continuously watch the skies, unobtrusively providing security to the United States; these systems have been in active use for the past 50 years. Often situated in extreme environments, the radar dishes require shielding from the harsh elements. Air-inflated domes (over 100 ft in diameter) are one structure of choice for providing this essential protection. The radomes are constructed from highstrength fabric that is strong enough to withstand the inflation pressure, high winds, and other environmental loads, yet transparent to the microwave signal to allow precise radar mapping. This fabric is woven from glass fibers for high strength and embedded in a polytetrafluoroethylene resin matrix, akin to the nonstick coatings used on cookware.

  3. Plasma treatment of polypropylene fabric for improved dyeability with soluble textile dyestuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaman, Necla; Ozdogan, Esen; Seventekin, Necdet; Ayhan, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    The impact of plasma treatment parameters on the surface morphology, physical-chemical, and dyeing properties of polypropylene (PP) using anionic and cationic dyestuffs were investigated in this study. Argon plasma treatment was used to activate PP fabric surfaces. Activated surfaces were grafted different compounds: 6-aminohexanoic acid (6-AHA), acrylic acid (AA), ethylendiamine (EDA), acryl amide (AAMID) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS). Compounds were applied after the plasma treatment and the acid and basic dyeing result that was then observed, were quite encouraging in certain conditions. The possible formed oxidizing groups were emphasized by FTIR and ATR and the surface morphology of plasma treated PP fibers was also investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PP fabric could be dyed with acid and basic dyestuffs after only plasma treatment and plasma induced grafting, and fastnesses of the dyed samples were satisfactory.

  4. Designing of epoxy composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes grown carbon fiber fabric for improved electromagnetic interference shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we report preparation of strongly anchored multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs carbon fiber (CF fabric preforms. These preforms were reinforced in epoxy resin to make multi scale composites for microwave absorption in the X-band (8.2-12.4GHz. The incorporation of MWCNTs on the carbon fabric produced a significant enhancement in the electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI-SE from −29.4 dB for CF/epoxy-composite to −51.1 dB for CF-MWCNT/epoxy multiscale composites of 2 mm thickness. In addition to enhanced EMI-SE, interlaminar shear strength improved from 23 MPa for CF/epoxy-composites to 50 MPa for multiscale composites indicating their usefulness for making structurally strong microwave shields.

  5. Improved thermal cycling durability and PCR compatibility of polymer coated quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xun Zhe; Guan Yifu; Zhao Xiaoyun

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dots have experienced rapid development in imaging, labeling and sensing in medicine and life science. To be suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, we have tested QD thermal cycling durability and compatibility, which have not been addressed in previous reports. In this study, we synthesized CdSe/ZnS QDs with a surface modification with high-MW amphiphilic copolymers and observed that Mg 2+ ions in the PCR reaction could induce the QDs to precipitate and reduce their fluorescence signal significantly after thermal cycling. To overcome this problem, we used mPEG2000 to conjugate the QD surface for further protection, and found that this modification enables QDs to endure 40 thermal cycles in the presence of other components essential for PCR reactions. We have also identified that QDs have different effects on rTaq and Ex Taq polymerization systems. A high QD concentration could apparently reduce the PCR efficiency, but this inhibition was relieved significantly in the Ex PCR system as the concentration of Ex Taq polymerase was increased. Real-time PCR amplification results showed that QDs could provide a sufficiently measurable fluorescence signal without excessively inhibiting the DNA amplification. Based on this improved thermal cycling durability and compatibility with the PCR system, QDs have the potential to be developed as stable fluorescent sensors in PCR and real-time PCR amplification. (paper)

  6. Fabrication of recyclable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Wook; Park, Eun Ji; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-04-01

    Commercial cotton fabric was coated with SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and the resulting material surface showed a water contact angle greater than 160°. The superhydrophobic fabric showed resistance to water-soluble contaminants and maintained its original superhydrophobic properties with almost no alteration even after many times of absorption-washing cycles of oil. Moreover, superhydrophobic fabric can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. We demonstrated a simple method of fabrication of superhydrophobic fabric with potential interest for use in a variety of applications.

  7. Improved Fabrication of Ceramic Matrix Composite/Foam Core Integrated Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    2009-01-01

    The use of hybridized carbon/silicon carbide (C/SiC) fabric to reinforce ceramic matrix composite face sheets and the integration of such face sheets with a foam core creates a sandwich structure capable of withstanding high-heatflux environments (150 W/cm2) in which the core provides a temperature drop of 1,000 C between the surface and the back face without cracking or delamination of the structure. The composite face sheet exhibits a bilinear response, which results from the SiC matrix not being cracked on fabrication. In addition, the structure exhibits damage tolerance under impact with projectiles, showing no penetration to the back face sheet. These attributes make the composite ideal for leading edge structures and control surfaces in aerospace vehicles, as well as for acreage thermal protection systems and in high-temperature, lightweight stiffened structures. By tailoring the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of a carbon fiber containing ceramic matrix composite (CMC) face sheet to match that of a ceramic foam core, the face sheet and the core can be integrally fabricated without any delamination. Carbon and SiC are woven together in the reinforcing fabric. Integral densification of the CMC and the foam core is accomplished with chemical vapor deposition, eliminating the need for bond-line adhesive. This means there is no need to separately fabricate the core and the face sheet, or to bond the two elements together, risking edge delamination during use. Fibers of two or more types are woven together on a loom. The carbon and ceramic fibers are pulled into the same pick location during the weaving process. Tow spacing may be varied to accommodate the increased volume of the combined fiber tows while maintaining a target fiber volume fraction in the composite. Foam pore size, strut thickness, and ratio of face sheet to core thickness can be used to tailor thermal and mechanical properties. The anticipated CTE for the hybridized composite is managed by

  8. Blastocyst transfer does not improve cycle outcome as compared to D3 transfer in antagonist cycles with an elevated progesterone level on the day of hCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Cem; Aydoğdu, Serkan; Özdemir, Arzu İlknur; Keskin, Gülşah; Baştu, Ercan; Buyru, Faruk

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the association between progesterone elevation on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration and clinical pregnancy rates of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles with the transfer of embryos at different developmental stages (day-3 versus day-5 ETs). This is a retrospective analysis of fresh IVF/ICSI; 194 cycles out of 2676 conducted in a single center. A total of 2676 cycles were analyzed, of which 386 had no progesterone measurements available. Two hundred eighteen cycles had progesterone elevation (p>1.5 ng/mL) giving an overall incidence of 9.5%. Twenty-four cycles were excluded from further analysis. Of the remaining 194 cycles, 151 had day-3 transfers and 43 had blastocyst transfers. There was no statistically significant difference in pregnancy and clinical pregnancy rates per transfer between the D3-ET and D5-ET groups (46% vs. 49%, and 39% vs. 35%, respectively). The results of this study suggest that blastocyst transfer does not improve cycle outcomes compared with D3 transfer in GnRH antagonist cycles with an elevated progesterone level on the day of hCG.

  9. Assisted Hatching and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection are not Associated with Improved Outcomes in ART Cycles for Diminished Ovarian Reserve: An Analysis of US Cycles from 2004–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Samantha F.; Owen, Carter; Mainigi, Monica; Senapati, Suneeta; Seifer, David B.; Dokras, Anuja

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and assisted hatching (AH) on ART outcomes in cycles with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) as the primary diagnosis. Design Retrospective cohort study of cycles from the SART-CORS database. Setting NA. Patient(s) A total of 422,949 fresh, non-donor, initial ART cycles of which 8,597 were diagnosed with only elevated FSH and 38,926 were diagnosed with only DOR according to the SART DOR categorization. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Live birth and clinical pregnancy rates. Result(s) ICSI and AH were associated with diminished odds of live birth in SART DOR only cycles (AOR, 95% CI 0.88, 0.81–0.96 for ICSI; AOR, 95% CI 0.77 0.71–0.84 for AH). No association between either ICSI or AH in Elevated FSH only cycles was observed. The combination of ICSI and AH resulted in significantly lower odds of live birth in SART DOR only cycles but not in Elevated FSH only cycles. Conclusion(s) In initial ART cycles for which the only indication relates to a diagnosis of diminished ovarian reserve, assisted hatching and ICSI are not associated with improved live birth rates. PMID:25086790

  10. Competitor presence reduces internal attentional focus and improves 16.1km cycling time trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emily L; Jones, Hollie S; Andy Sparks, S; Marchant, David C; Midgley, Adrian W; Mc Naughton, Lars R

    2015-07-01

    Whilst the presence of a competitor has been found to improve performance, the mechanisms influencing the change in selected work rates during direct competition have been suggested but not specifically assessed. The aim was to investigate the physiological and psychological influences of a visual avatar competitor during a 16.1-km cycling time trial performance, using trained, competitive cyclists. Randomised cross-over design. Fifteen male cyclists completed four 16.1km cycling time trials on a cycle ergometer, performing two with a visual display of themselves as a simulated avatar (FAM and SELF), one with no visual display (DO), and one with themselves and an opponent as simulated avatars (COMP). Participants were informed the competitive avatar was a similar ability cyclist but it was actually a representation of their fastest previous performance. Increased performance times were evident during COMP (27.8±2.0min) compared to SELF (28.7±1.9min) and DO (28.4±2.3min). Greater power output, speed and heart rate were apparent during COMP trial than SELF (pperformance. Competitive cyclists performed significantly faster during a 16.1-km competitive trial than when performing maximally, without a competitor. The improvement in performance was elicited due to a greater external distraction, deterring perceived exertion. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analyze and Improve Lifetime in 3L-NPC Inverter from Power Cycle and Thermal Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Quan; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Qunjing

    2014-01-01

    Three-level Neutral-point-clamped (3L-NPC) topology is becoming a realistic alternative to the conventional one in high-voltage and high-power application. Studies show that the power cycling mean time to failure (MTTF) of the semiconductor bond wire in 3L-NPC inverter system may be very short...... under some common conditions. Firstly, this paper shows the impact of some key parameters on power electronic system lifetime according the analysis of semiconductor failure mechanism. Secondly, a switching frequency reduction method based on the position relationship between the flowing current...... and load voltage is applied to reduce power cycle and switching losses. And then, three-level active neutral point-clamped topology is taken into account to wake the most thermo stressed device. In order to validate the improve lifetime method in this paper, a 2MW 3L-NPC converter used in wind energy has...

  12. An implementation of 7E Learning Cycle Model to Improve Student Self-esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, F.; Priatna, N.; Suhendra, S.

    2017-09-01

    One of the affective factors that affect student learning outcomes is student self-esteem in mathematics, learning achievement and self-esteem influence each other. The purpose of this research is to know whether self-esteem students who get 7E learning cycle model is better than students who get conventional learning. This research method is a non-control group design. Based on the results obtained that the normal and homogeneous data so that the t test and from the test results showed there are significant differences in self-esteem students learning with 7E learning cycle model compared with students who get conventional learning. The implications of the results of this study are that students should be required to conduct many discussions, presentations and evaluations on classroom activities as these learning stages can improve students’ self-esteem especially pride in the results achieved.

  13. Design and Fabrication of DebriSat - A Representative LEO Satellite for Improvements to Standard Satellite Breakup Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.; Dietrich, A.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Weremeyer, M.; Liou, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and fabrication of DebriSat, a 50 kg satellite developed to be representative of a modern low Earth orbit satellite in terms of its components, materials used, and fabrication procedures. DebriSat will be the target of a future hypervelocity impact experiment to determine the physical characteristics of debris generated after an on-orbit collision of a modern LEO satellite. The major ground-based satellite impact experiment used by DoD and NASA in their development of satellite breakup models was SOCIT, conducted in 1992. The target used for that experiment was a Navy transit satellite (40 cm, 35 kg) fabricated in the 1960's. Modern satellites are very different in materials and construction techniques than those built 40 years ago. Therefore, there is a need to conduct a similar experiment using a modern target satellite to improve the fidelity of the satellite breakup models. To ensure that DebriSat is truly representative of typical LEO missions, a comprehensive study of historical LEO satellite designs and missions within the past 15 years for satellites ranging from 1 kg to 5000 kg was conducted. This study identified modern trends in hardware, material, and construction practices utilized in recent LEO missions. Although DebriSat is an engineering model, specific attention is placed on the quality, type, and quantity of the materials used in its fabrication to ensure the integrity of the outcome. With the exception of software, all other aspects of the satellite s design, fabrication, and assembly integration and testing will be as rigorous as that of an actual flight vehicle. For example, to simulate survivability of launch loads, DebriSat will be subjected to a vibration test. As well, the satellite will undergo thermal vacuum tests to verify that the components and overall systems meet typical environmental standards. Proper assembly and integration techniques will involve comprehensive joint analysis, including the precise

  14. Density improvement of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles fabricated by wet process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, K; Kawamura, H [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Fuchinoue, K; Sawada, H; Watarumi, K

    1998-03-01

    Lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) has attracted the attention of many researchers from a point of tritium recovery at low temperature, chemical stability, etc.. The application of small Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} sphere has been proposed in some designs of fusion blanket. On the other hand, the wet process is most advantageous as the fabrication method of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles from a point of mass production, and of reprocessing necessary for effective use of resources and reduction of radioactive wastes. In the preliminary fabrication test, density of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles was about 40%T.D.. Therefore, in this study, density improvement tests and preliminary characterization of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles by wet process were performed, noting the aging condition and sintering condition in the fabrication process of the gel-spheres. This study yielded Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles in target range of 80-85%T.D.. (author)

  15. Metrics Feedback Cycle: measuring and improving user engagement in gamified eLearning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Atkins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the identification, design and implementation of a set of metrics of user engagement in a gamified eLearning application. The 'Metrics Feedback Cycle' (MFC is introduced as a formal process prescribing the iterative evaluation and improvement of application-wide engagement, using data collected from metrics as input to improve related engagement features. This framework was showcased using a gamified eLearning application as a case study. In this paper, we designed a prototype and tested it with thirty-six (N=36 students to validate the effectiveness of the MFC. The analysis and interpretation of metrics data shows that the gamification features had a positive effect on user engagement, and helped identify areas in which this could be improved. We conclude that the MFC has applications in gamified systems that seek to maximise engagement by iteratively evaluating implemented features against a set of evolving metrics.

  16. Improving evaluation of climate change impacts on the water cycle by remote sensing ET-retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. García Galiano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and intense consumptive water uses are generating pressures on water resources in the southeast of Spain. Improving the knowledge of the climate change impacts on water cycle processes at the basin scale is a step to building adaptive capacity. In this work, regional climate model (RCM ensembles are considered as an input to the hydrological model, for improving the reliability of hydroclimatic projections. To build the RCMs ensembles, the work focuses on probability density function (PDF-based evaluation of the ability of RCMs to simulate of rainfall and temperature at the basin scale. To improve the spatial calibration of the continuous hydrological model used, an algorithm for remote sensing actual evapotranspiration (AET retrieval was applied. From the results, a clear decrease in runoff is expected for 2050 in the headwater basin studied. The plausible future scenario of water shortage will produce negative impacts on the regional economy, where the main activity is irrigated agriculture.

  17. Radioactive material releases in the nuclear fuel cycle - Recent experience and improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Allsop, P.J.; Anderson, R.W.; Boss, C.R.; Frost, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle involves a wide range of activities and technologies from the mining of uranium, to the production of electricity and radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications, to the reprocessing and recycling of used fuel, to decommissioning and waste disposal. Worker exposures and releases to the environment are carefully controlled in: (a) all stages of uranium mining, refining and fuel fabrication, where occupational exposures and releases have decreased while production has increased; (b) the operation of nuclear power plants, where occupational exposures and releases have decreased as reactor vendors evolve their products and reactor operators optimize their procedures; (c) fuel reprocessing facilities in the U.K. and France, where occupational exposures and releases have decreased while the amount of fuel processed has increased; and in (d) decommissioning nuclear facilities and waste management activities. The nuclear industry's recent record of achievement in controlling its releases and ensuring the radiological protection of its employees has been excellent. It is clear that releases and occupational exposures from modem nuclear facilities of all types contribute negligibly to the radiation environment to which all biota are exposed. But the general public seems not to appreciate the low environmental impact of nuclear activities. The future of nuclear power and of other applications of nuclear technology applications in medicine, in agriculture and in industry will depend on maintaining a high standard of performance so that the public and decision makers can be assured that the industry is safe. (author)

  18. Experimental study of UC polycrystals in the prospect of improving the as-fabricated sample purity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raveu, Gaëlle, E-mail: gaelle.raveu@cea.fr [CEA, DEC, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Martin, Guillaume; Fiquet, Olivier; Garcia, Philippe; Carlot, Gaëlle; Palancher, Hervé [CEA, DEC, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bonnin, Anne [ESRF, 6, rue J. Horowitz, 38500 Grenoble Cedex (France); Khodja, Hicham [CEA, DEC, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Raepsaet, Caroline [CEA, IRAMIS, LEEL, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Sauvage, Thierry; Barthe, Marie-France [CNRS – CEMHTI, 3a Rue de la Férolerie, 45071 Orleans (France)

    2014-12-15

    Uranium and plutonium carbides are candidate fuels for Generation IV nuclear reactors. This study is focused on the characterization of uranium monocarbide samples. The successive fabrication steps were carried out under atmospheres containing low oxygen and moisture concentrations (typically less than 100 ppm) but sample transfers occurred in air. Six samples were sliced from four pellets elaborated by carbothermic reaction under vacuum. Little presence of UC{sub 2} is expected in these samples. The α-UC{sub 2} phase was indeed detected within one of these UC samples during an XRD experiment performed with synchrotron radiation. Moreover, oxygen content at the surface of these samples was depth profiled using a recently developed nuclear reaction analysis method. Large oxygen concentrations were measured in the first micron below the sample surface and particularly in the first 100–150 nm. UC{sub 2} inclusions were found to be more oxidized than the surrounding matrix. This work points out to the fact that more care must be given at each step of UC fabrication since the material readily reacts with oxygen and moisture. A new glovebox facility using a highly purified atmosphere is currently being built in order to obtain single phase UC samples of better purity.

  19. Fabrication of Ba-K-Bi-O thick film artefacts with improved critical currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.C.; Salter, C.J.; Jenkins, R.J.; Grovenor, C.R.M.; Jones, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Ba-K-Bi-O system has a maximum T c of around 30K for a composition of Ba 0.6 K 0.4 BiO 3 . Fabrication of good quality single phase samples is extremely difficult and requires careful control of the fabrication conditions. Successful synthesis procedures for Ba-K-Bi-O powder and melt cast material which allow some control of the potassium content of the product were established by Hinks et al. The process is based on a melt and sinter step in an inert atmosphere which creates oxygen vacancies and allows potassium to enter the lattice. The oxygen vacancies are then filled by a subsequent oxygen anneal to obtain superconductivity. Ba-K-Bi-O is, therefore, metastable and consequently difficult to synthesise. There have been few reports of transport measurements and even fewer reports of transport critical currents for bulk material. It is often accepted that Ba-K-Bi-O has an intrinsically low critical current, and extremely poor critical current densities of 0.05 Acm -2 have been quoted for melt cast material. It has been suggested that the presence of weak links is the cause. However, there has been little research into the relationship between process conditions and superconducting properties for melt processed Ba-K-Bi-O to confirm this. (orig.)

  20. Caffeinated nitric oxide-releasing lozenge improves cycling time trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kim, H T; Solares, G J; Kim, K; Ding, Z; Ivy, J L

    2015-02-01

    Boosting nitric oxide production during exercise by various means has been found to improve exercise performance. We investigated the effects of a nitric oxide releasing lozenge with added caffeine (70 mg) on oxygen consumption during steady-state exercise and cycling time trial performance using a double-blinded randomized, crossover experimental design. 15 moderately trained cyclists (7 females and 8 males) were randomly assigned to ingest the caffeinated nitric oxide lozenge or placebo 5 min before exercise. Oxygen consumption and blood lactate were assessed at rest and at 50%, 65% and 75% maximal oxygen consumption. Exercise performance was assessed by time to complete a simulated 20.15 km cycling time-trial course. No significant treatment effects for oxygen consumption or blood lactate at rest or during steady-state exercise were observed. However, time-trial performance was improved by 2.1% (p<0.01) when participants consumed the nitric oxide lozenge (2,424±69 s) compared to placebo (2,476±78 s) and without a significant difference in rating of perceived exertion. These results suggest that acute supplementation with a caffeinated nitric oxide releasing lozenge may be a practical and effective means of improving aerobic exercise performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Improvement to the gas cycle energy generating installations with heat recuperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Zephyr.

    1977-01-01

    Improvement to the gas cycle energy generating installations with heat recuperation, comprising a heat source, supplying a fluid at high temperature and pressure, an expansion turbine, at least one recuperator fitted to the turbine outlet, a cooler and compressor in series, the compressor returning the high pressure fluid to the source after heat exchange in the recuperator with the low pressure fluid from the turbine. It is characterised in that at least one steam generator is connected to the low pressure end of the recuperator [fr

  2. POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITS OF THE CYCLE OF CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT -PDCA AS AN ELEMENT OF LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Machado Junior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the possibilities and limits of the use of continuous improvement cycle, PDCA, as a tool that contributes to the development of individual learning in the organization. It is a qualitative, descriptive end uses the case study as a method. It was observed that the practice proposed by PDCA, can be used in the process of knowledge creation in line with the authors in the field, constituting a form of knowledge management within the organization, enabling the creation of tacit knowledge and its explicit transformation were not observed limits for their use.

  3. Improved Electrochemical Cycling Durability in a Nickel Oxide Double-Layered Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shuai; Zhang, Xiang; Tian, Yanlong; Zhao, Jiupeng; Geng, Hongbin; Qu, Huiying; Zhang, Hangchuan; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Binsheng; Gavrilyuk, Alexander; Li, Yao

    2017-11-16

    For the first time, a crystalline-amorphous double-layered NiO x film has been prepared by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering. This film has exhibited improved electrochemical cycling durability, whereas other electrochromic parameters have been maintained at the required level, namely, a short coloration/bleaching time (0.8 s/1.1 s) and an enhanced transmittance modulation range (62.2 %) at λ=550 nm. Additionally, the double-layered film has shown better reversibility than that of amorphous and crystalline single-layered films. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Improved Function and Reduced Pain after Swimming and Cycling Training in Patients with Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkatan, Mohammed; Baker, Jeffrey R; Machin, Daniel R; Park, Wonil; Akkari, Amanda S; Pasha, Evan P; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2016-03-01

    Arthritis and its associated joint pain act as significant barriers for adults attempting to perform land-based physical activity. Swimming can be an ideal form of exercise for patients with arthritis. Yet there is no information on the efficacy of regular swimming exercise involving patients with arthritis. The effect of a swimming exercise intervention on joint pain, stiffness, and physical function was evaluated in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Using a randomized study design, 48 sedentary middle-aged and older adults with OA underwent 3 months of either swimming or cycling exercise training. Supervised exercise training was performed for 45 min/day, 3 days/week at 60-70% heart rate reserve for 12 weeks. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index was used to measure joint pain, stiffness, and physical limitation. After the exercise interventions, there were significant reductions in joint pain, stiffness, and physical limitation accompanied by increases in quality of life in both groups (all p swimming and cycling training. Regular swimming exercise reduced joint pain and stiffness associated with OA and improved muscle strength and functional capacity in middle-aged and older adults with OA. Additionally, the benefits of swimming exercise were similar to the more frequently prescribed land-based cycling training. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01836380.

  5. Design, simulation and modelling of auxiliary exoskeleton to improve human gait cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkani, O; Maleki, A; Jamshidi, N

    2017-03-01

    Exoskeleton is a walking assistance device that improves human gait cycle through providing auxiliary force and transferring physical load to the stronger muscles. This device takes the natural state of organ and follows its natural movement. Exoskeleton functions as an auxiliary device to help those with disabilities in hip and knee such as devotees, elderly farmers and agricultural machinery operators who suffer from knee complications. In this research, an exoskeleton designed with two screw jacks at knee and hip joints. To simulate extension and flexion movements of the leg joints, bearings were used at the end of hip and knee joints. The generated torque and motion angles of these joints obtained as well as the displacement curves of screw jacks in the gait cycle. Then, the human gait cycle was simulated in stance and swing phases and the obtained torque curves were compared. The results indicated that they followed the natural circle of the generated torque in joints with a little difference from each other. The maximum displacement obtained 4 and 6 cm in hip and knee joints jack respectively. The maximum torques in hip and knee joints were generated in foot contact phase. Also the minimum torques in hip and knee joints were generated in toe off and heel off phases respectively.

  6. Improving Fire Resistance of Cotton Fabric through Layer-by-Layer Assembled Graphene Multilayer Nanocoating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Wonjun; Chung, Il Jun; Kim, Junwoo; Seo, Seongmin; Park, Yong Tae; Choi, Kyungwho

    2018-05-01

    In this study, thin films containing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), stabilized with poly(4-styrene-sulfonic acid) (PSS), were assembled by a simple and cost-effective layer-by-layer (LbL) technique in order to introduce the anti-flammability to cotton. These antiflammable layers were characterized by using UV-vis spectrometry and quartz crystal microbalance as a function of the number of bilayers deposited. Scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize the morphology of the thin film coatings on the cotton fabric. The graphene-polymer thin films introduced anti-flammable properties through thermally stable carbonaceous layers at a high temperature. The thermal stability and flame retardant property of graphene-coated cotton was demonstrated by thermogravimetric analysis, cone calorimetry, and vertical flame test. The results indicate that LbL-assembled graphene-polymer thin films can be applied largely in the field of flame retardant.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of uranium-6--niobium alloy plate with improved homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, W.B.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical inhomogeneities produced during arc melting of uranium--6 weight percent niobium alloy normally persist during fabrication of the ingot to a finished product. An investigation was directed toward producing a more homogeneous product (approx. 13.0-mm plate) by a combination of mechanical working and homogenization. Ingots were cast, forged to various reductions, homogenized under different conditions, and finally rolled to 13.0-mm-thick plate. It was concluded that increased forging reductions prior to homogenization resulted in a more homogeneous plate. Comparison of calculated and experimentally measured niobium concentration profiles indicated that the activation energy for the diffusion of niobium in uranium--niobium alloys may be lower than previously observed

  8. Zilpaterol improves feeding performance and fabrication yield of concentrate-finished cull cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, T E; Gasch, C A; Hutcheson, J P; Hodgen, J M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feeding performance and fabrication yield of concentrate-finished cull cows. Three hundred twenty commercial cull cows (2 to 10 yr old) were obtained from ranches in Missouri and South Dakota and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) a control diet containing no ZH and 2) a diet that contained ZH. Cows were fed for 75, 88, or 110 d, and all received the control ration until ZH treatments were initiated. Twenty-four days before slaughter, ZH feeding began for the designated treatment pens; cows were fed ZH [8.33 mg/kg (100% DM basis)] for 20 d with a 4-d withdrawal period before slaughter. No differences (P>0.05) were detected between the 2 treatment groups for initial BW or DMI. Final BW (640.5 vs. 619.1 kg), ADG for the last 24 d (2.75 vs. 2.17 kg), and G:F for the last 24 d (0.160 vs. 0.126) were greater (P 0.05) were found for lean or skeletal maturity score, fat thickness, LM area, HCW, or calculated yield grade among the 2 treatment groups. Feeding ZH increased (P0.07) were found for the remaining fabrication yield attributes. The ZH-treated cows had greater (Pfeeding of ZH to concentrate-finished cull cows enhances production efficiencies and can add new value to the cull cow market. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  9. Cycle time improvement for plastic injection moulding process by sub groove modification in conformal cooling channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, K.; Wahab, M. S.; Batcha, M. F. M.; Shayfull, Z.; Raus, A. A.; Ahmed, Aqeel

    2017-09-01

    Mould designers have been struggling for the improvement of the cooling system performance, despite the fact that the cooling system complexity is physically limited by the fabrication capability of the conventional tooling methods. However, the growth of Solid Free Form Technology (SFF) allow the mould designer to develop more than just a regular conformal cooling channel. Numerous researchers demonstrate that conformal cooling channel was tremendously given significant result in the improvement of productivity and quality in the plastic injection moulding process. This paper presents the research work that applies the passive enhancement method in square shape cooling channel to enhance the efficiency of cooling performance by adding the sub groove to the cooling channel itself. Previous design that uses square shape cooling channel was improved by adding various numbers of sub groove to meet the best sub groove design that able reduced the cooling time. The effect of sub groove design on cooling time was investigated by Autodesk Modlflow Insight software. The simulation results showed that the various sub groove designs give different values to ejection time. The Design 7 showed the lowest value of ejection time with 24.3% increment. The addition of sub groove significantly increased a coolant velocity and a rate of heat transfer from molten plastic to coolant.

  10. Back-end fuel cycle efficiencies with respect to improved uranium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczera, B.; Hennies, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    The world-wide nuclear power plant (NPP) capacity is at present 160 GW(e). If one adds the power stations under construction and ordered, a plant capacity of approximately 480 GW(e) is obtained for 1990, with the share of LWRs making up more than 80%. A modern LWR consumes in the open fuel cycle about 4400 metric tonnes of natural uranium per GW(e), assuming a lifetime of 30 years and a load factor of 70%. Considering the natural uranium reserves known at present and exploitable under economic conditions, it can be conveniently estimated that, with the present NPP capacity extension perspective, the natural uranium resources may be exhausted in a few decades. This trend can be counteracted in a flexible manner by various approaches in fuel cycle technology and strategy: (i) by steady further development of the established LWR technology the uranium consumption can be reduced by about 15%; (ii) closing the nuclear fuel cycle on the basis of LWRs (i.e. thermal uranium and plutonium recycling) implies up to 40% savings in natural uranium consumption; (iii) more recent considerations include the advanced pressurized water reactor (APWR). The APWR combines the proven PWR technology with a newly developed tight lattice core with greatly improved conversion characteristics (conversion ratio = 0.90 to 0.95). In terms of uranium utilization, the APWR has an efficiency three to five times higher than a PWR; (iv) Commercial introduction of FBR systems results in an optimal utilization of uranium which, at the same time, guarantees the supply of nuclear fuel well beyond the present century. For a corresponding transition period an energy supply system can be conceived which relies essentially on extended back-end fuel cycle capacities. These would facilitate a symbiosis of PWR, APWR and FBR, characterized by high flexibility with respect to long-term developments on the energy market. (author)

  11. Improvement of the optical and morphological properties of microlens arrays fabricated by laser using a sol–gel coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, Daniel; Gómez-Varela, Ana Isabel; Martín, Yolanda Castro; O’Connor, Gerard M.; Flores-Arias, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Microlens arrays were fabricated on soda-lime glass using a Ti:Sapphire laser. • A SiO 2 coating prepared via sol–gel route was used to improve the microlens quality. • The sol–gel coating was deposited at the microlens top surface using a dip coating. • Optical properties of the microlenses were improved by the coating. - Abstract: We present a simple, repeatable and non-contaminant method to improve the optical and morphological properties of microlens arrays. It consists on depositing hybrid SiO 2 (TEOS, MTES) coatings via sol–gel route onto microlens arrays fabricated using a Ti:Sapphire Femtosecond Amplitude Systems S-pulse HP laser operating at 1030 nm. The deposited silica sol–gel layer reduces the surface roughness (quantified as the root mean square) and increases the quality of the interstices between the microlenses generated by the ablation process, thus improving the contrast and homogeneity of the foci of the microlens array. The proposed technique allows us to obtain microlenses with a diameter in the range of 15–20 μm and a depth of 1.5–15 μm. For the characterization of the micro-optical structures, the UV–visible spectroscopy, spectral ellipsometry, confocal microscopy and beam profilometry were used. The proof-of-principle presented in this paper can be used to improve the optical and morphological properties of micro-optical systems of different nature by tailoring the parameters involved in both the laser ablation and sol–gel processes comprising the starting materials, solvent and catalysts nature and concentration, hydrolysis ratio, aging time and/or deposition conditions

  12. Improvement of the optical and morphological properties of microlens arrays fabricated by laser using a sol–gel coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.nieto@usc.es [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela E15782 (Spain); Gómez-Varela, Ana Isabel [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela E15782 (Spain); Martín, Yolanda Castro [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); O’Connor, Gerard M. [School of Physics, National Centre for Laser Applications, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Flores-Arias, María Teresa, E-mail: maite.flores@usc.es [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela E15782 (Spain)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Microlens arrays were fabricated on soda-lime glass using a Ti:Sapphire laser. • A SiO{sub 2} coating prepared via sol–gel route was used to improve the microlens quality. • The sol–gel coating was deposited at the microlens top surface using a dip coating. • Optical properties of the microlenses were improved by the coating. - Abstract: We present a simple, repeatable and non-contaminant method to improve the optical and morphological properties of microlens arrays. It consists on depositing hybrid SiO{sub 2} (TEOS, MTES) coatings via sol–gel route onto microlens arrays fabricated using a Ti:Sapphire Femtosecond Amplitude Systems S-pulse HP laser operating at 1030 nm. The deposited silica sol–gel layer reduces the surface roughness (quantified as the root mean square) and increases the quality of the interstices between the microlenses generated by the ablation process, thus improving the contrast and homogeneity of the foci of the microlens array. The proposed technique allows us to obtain microlenses with a diameter in the range of 15–20 μm and a depth of 1.5–15 μm. For the characterization of the micro-optical structures, the UV–visible spectroscopy, spectral ellipsometry, confocal microscopy and beam profilometry were used. The proof-of-principle presented in this paper can be used to improve the optical and morphological properties of micro-optical systems of different nature by tailoring the parameters involved in both the laser ablation and sol–gel processes comprising the starting materials, solvent and catalysts nature and concentration, hydrolysis ratio, aging time and/or deposition conditions.

  13. Potential Improvements of Supercritical Recompression CO2 Brayton Cycle Coupled with KALIMER-600 by Modifying Critical Point of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Woo Seok; Lee, Jeong Ik; Jeong, Yong Hoon; No, Hee Cheon

    2010-01-01

    Most of the existing designs of a Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) have a Rankine cycle as an electric power generation cycle. This has the risk of a sodium water reaction. To prevent any hazards from a sodium water reaction, an indirect Brayton cycle using Supercritical Carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) as the working fluids for a SFR is an alternative approach to improve the current SFR design. The supercritical Brayton cycle is defined as a cycle with operating conditions above the critical point and the main compressor inlet condition located slightly above the critical point of working fluid. This is because the main advantage of the cycle comes from significantly decreased compressor work just above the critical point due to high density near boundary between supercritical state and subcritical state. For this reason, the minimum temperature and pressure of cycle are just above the CO 2 critical point. In other words, the critical point acts as a limitation of the lowest operating condition of the cycle. In general, lowering the minimum temperature of a thermodynamic cycle can increase the efficiency and the minimum temperature can be decreased by shifting the critical point of CO 2 as mixed with other gases. In this paper, potential enhancement of S-CO 2 cycle coupled with KALIMER-600, which has been developed at KAERI, was investigated using a developed cycle code with a gas mixture property program

  14. Improving the Amazonian Hydrologic Cycle in a Coupled Land-Atmosphere, Single Column Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, A. B.; Denning, S.; Baker, I.; Prihodko, L.; Branson, M.

    2006-12-01

    We have coupled a land-surface model, the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB3), to a single column of the Colorado State University General Circulation Model (CSU-GCM) in the Amazon River Basin. This is a preliminary step in the broader goal of improved simulation of Basin-wide hydrology. A previous version of the coupled model (SiB2) showed drought and catastrophic dieback of the Amazon rain forest. SiB3 includes updated soil hydrology and root physiology. Our test area for the coupled single column model is near Santarem, Brazil, where measurements from the km 83 flux tower in the Tapajos National Forest can be used to evaluate model output. The model was run for 2001 using NCEP2 Reanalysis as driver data. Preliminary results show that the updated biosphere model coupled to the GCM produces improved simulations of the seasonal cycle of surface water balance and precipitation. Comparisons of the diurnal and seasonal cycles of surface fluxes are also being made.

  15. Anticipated Improvements in Precipitation Physics and Understanding of Water Cycle from GPM Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2003-01-01

    The GPM mission is currently planned for start in the late-2007 to early-2008 time frame. Its main scientific goal is to help answer pressing scientific problems arising within the context of global and regional water cycles. These problems cut across a hierarchy of scales and include climate-water cycle interactions, techniques for improving weather and climate predictions, and better methods for combining observed precipitation with hydrometeorological prediction models for applications to hazardous flood-producing storms, seasonal flood/draught conditions, and fresh water resource assessments. The GPM mission will expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of some 9 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like core satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band precipitation radar and an advanced, multifrequency passive microwave radiometer with vertical-horizontal polarization discrimination. The other constellation members will include new dedicated satellites and co-existing operational/research satellites carrying similar (but not identical) passive microwave radiometers. The goal of the constellation is to achieve approximately 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe -- continuously. The constellation s orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-sun-synchronous satellites with the core satellite providing measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus calibration-quality rainrate retrievals to be used with the other retrieval information to ensure bias-free constellation coverage. GPM is organized internationally, involving existing, pending, projected, and under-study partnerships which will link NASA and NOAA in the US, NASDA in Japan, ESA in Europe, ISRO in India, CNES in France, and possibly AS1 in Italy, KARI in South Korea, CSA in Canada, and AEB in Brazil. Additionally, the program is actively pursuing agreements with other international collaborators and

  16. How can LCA approaches contribute to improve geo-cycles management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiras, M.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Delgado, F.; Andrade, F.; Franco, J.; Pereira, C. D.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change and land use have become a major challenge for mankind and the natural environment. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions released into the atmosphere in ever rapidly growing volumes are most likely to be responsible for this change. Carbon dioxide gas (CO2) is suggested to be the main cause of global warming. Carbon reduction is the key to preventing this, for example, by enhancing energy efficiency and mitigating carbon emissions by means of green energy and adjusting the use of natural resources. Different activities produce distinguish impacts, and each product generates specific impacts on nature. The impact of man activities in the geo-cycles is of paramount importance in what concerns long term sustainability. Nevertheless, the environmental and sustainability impacts of different approaches and techniques of ecosystem management is a difficult question that can be assessed using LCA techniques LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from-cradle-to-grave. Based on that, LCA can be effective in supporting the assessment of decision making on complex sustainability issues because it can integrate the diversity of impacts categories guise and it can be adapted to a large variety of contexts. By incorporating quantitative data LCA allows decision makers to include a full range of economic, environmental, social and technical criteria. The integrated framework is configured such that the pros and cons of alternative environmental and energy strategies can be measured in terms of their ability to achieve the overall goals and objectives of the sustainable development, while satisfying the pollution control requirements. Because it is holistic, integrate and dynamic, this approach represents a state of the art tool for enhance the sustainable development of a sector, allowing a more transparent and participated management, a basic instrument for improved competitiveness. This approach may serve

  17. Fabrication of fine spongy nanoporous Ag-Au alloys with improved catalysis properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiting Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fine NP-AgAu (nanoporous AgAu alloys with spongy structure was fabricated by chemical dealloying from rapidly solidified amorphous precursors Ag38.75−xCu38.75Si22.5Aux (x=0, 0.5, 1 and 5. The results indicate that the addition of small content Au in precursor can refine both the ligaments and pores obviously. Among the present components of the precursors, NP-AgAu alloys dealloying from Ag37.75Cu38.75Si22.5Au1 had the finest spongy structure. The size of pores was 5–10 nm and the grain size of ligaments was 10–20 nm. It also had the highest surface area of 106.83 m2g−1 and the best catalytic activity towards electro-oxidation of formaldehyde with the peak current of 665 mA mg−1.

  18. Bottom-up fabrication of zwitterionic polymer brushes on intraocular lens for improved biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Y

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yuemei Han,1,* Xu Xu,1,* Junmei Tang,1,* Chenghui Shen,2 Quankui Lin,1,2 Hao Chen1,2 1School of Ophthalmology & Optometry, Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, 2Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Intraocular lens (IOL is an efficient implantable device commonly used for treating cataracts. However, bioadhesion of bacteria or residual lens epithelial cells on the IOL surface after surgery causes postoperative complications, such as endophthalmitis or posterior capsular opacification, and leads to loss of sight again. In the present study, zwitterionic polymer brushes were fabricated on the IOL surface via bottom-up grafting procedure. The attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared and contact angle measurements indicated successful surface modification, as well as excellent hydrophilicity. The coating of hydrophilic zwitterionic polymer effectively decreased the bioadhesion of lens epithelial cells or bacteria. In vivo intraocular implantation results showed good in vivo biocompatibility of zwitterionic IOL and its effectiveness against postoperative complications. Keywords: RAFT, surface modification, endophthalmitis, PCO, in vivo

  19. Facile Fabrication of BiOI/BiOCl Immobilized Films with Improved Visible Light Photocatalytic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yingxian; Liu, Yuehua; Wu, Shuang; Zhu, Yi; Chen, Hongbin; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Yuanming

    2018-03-01

    Photocatalysis has been considered to be one of the most promising ways to photodegrade organic pollutants. Herein, a series of BiOI/BiOCl films coating on FTO were fabricated through a simple method at room temperature. The photocatalytic efficiency of 30%BiOI/BiOCl could reach more than 99% aiming to degrading RhB and MB after 90 and 120 min, respectively. Compared with BiOCl, 30%BiOI/BiOCl showed 12 times higher efficiency when degrading RhB. In comparison with BiOI, 30%BiOI/BiOCl showed 5 and 6 times higher efficiency when degrading RhB and MB, respectively. These obvious enhancements were attributed to expanded visible light absorption and high separation performance of photoinduced charge. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of 30%BiOI/BiOCl had no obvious decrease after 5 recycles, suggesting that it was a promising photocatalyst for the removal of MB and RhB pollutants. Finally, the possible growth process for the BiOI/BiOCl thin films and photocatalysis mechanism were investigated in details. This work would provide insight to the reasonable construction of BiOX heterojunction and the photocatalytic mechanism in degrading organic pollutants.

  20. In-situ grown CNTs modified SiO2/C composites as anode with improved cycling stability and rate capability for lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siqi; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; He, Chunnian; He, Fang; Ma, Liying

    2018-03-01

    Silica (SiO2) is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries owing to its high theoretical specific capacity, relatively low operation potentials, abundance, environmental benignity and low cost. However, the low intrinsic electrical conductivity and large volume change of SiO2 during the discharge/charge cycles usually results in poor electrochemical performance. In this work, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified SiO2/C composites have been fabricated through an in-situ chemical vapor deposition method. The results show that the electrical conductivity of the SiO2/C/CNTs is visibly enhanced through a robust connection between the CNTs and SiO2/C particles. Compared with the pristine SiO2 and SiO2/C composites, the SiO2/C/CNTs composites display a high initial capacity of 1267.2 mA h g-1. Besides, an excellent cycling stability with the capacity of 315.7 mA h g-1 is achieved after 1000th cycles at a rate of 1 A g-1. The significantly improved electrochemical properties of the SiO2/C/CNTs composites are mainly attributed to the formation of three dimensional CNT networks in the SiO2/C substrate, which can not only shorten the Li-ion diffusion path but also relieve the volume change during the lithium-ion insertion/extraction processes.

  1. An audit cycle of consent form completion: A useful tool to improve junior doctor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Catherine; Sharma, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    Consent for surgical procedures is an essential part of the patient's pathway. Junior doctors are often expected to do this, especially in the emergency setting. As a result, the aim of our audit was to assess our practice in consenting and institute changes within our department to maintain best medical practice. An audit of consent form completion was conducted in March 2013. Standards were taken from Good Surgical Practice (2008) and General Medical Council guidelines. Inclusion of consent teaching at a formal consultant delivered orientation programme was then instituted. A re-audit was completed to reassess compliance. Thirty-seven consent forms were analysed. The re-audit demonstrated an improvement in documentation of benefits (91-100%) and additional procedures (0-7.5%). Additional areas for improvement such as offering a copy of the consent form to the patient and confirmation of consent if a delay occurred between consenting and the procedure were identified. The re-audit demonstrated an improvement in the consent process. It also identified new areas of emphasis that were addressed in formal teaching sessions. The audit cycle can be a useful tool in monitoring, assessing and improving clinical practice to ensure the provision of best patient care.

  2. An Effort to Improve U Foil Fabrication Technology of Roll-casting for Fission Mo Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Woo, Yun Myeong; Kim, Ki Hwan; Oh, Jong Myeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Moon Soo [Chungnam University, Green Energy Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Mo-99 isotope has been produced mainly by extracting fission products of {sup 235}U. The targets for irradiating in reactor have used as stainless tube coated with highly enriched UO{sub 2} at the inside surface and highly enriched UAlx plate cladded with aluminum. In connection with non-proliferation policy the RERTR program developed a new process of Mo-99 using low enriched uranium (LEU) instead of highly enriched uranium (HEU). LEU should be put about five times more quantity than HEU because the {sup 235}U contents of LEU and HEU are 20% and higher than 90%, respectively. Accordingly pure uranium metal foil target was adopted as a promising target material due to high uranium density. ANL and BATAN developed a Cintichem process using uranium metal foil target of 130 {mu}m in thickness jointly and the RERTR program is trying to disseminate the new process world-widely. However, uranium foil is made by lots of times rolling work on uranium plate, which is laborious and tedious. In order to avoid this difficulty KAERI developed a new process of making foil directly from uranium melt by roll casting. This process is very much simple, productive, and cost-effective. But the outside surface of foil is generally very rough. A typical transverse cross section had a minimum thickness of 65 {mu}m and a maximum thickness of 205 {mu}m. This roughness could affect (1) target fabrication, where the U foil, or the Ni foil might be damaged during drawing, and (2) irradiation behavior, where gaps between the target walls and the U metal might affect cooling of the target

  3. A technique for recording polycrystalline structure and orientation during in situ deformation cycles of rock analogues using an automated fabric analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternell, M; Russell-Head, D S; Wilson, C J L

    2011-05-01

    Two in situ plane-strain deformation experiments on norcamphor and natural ice using synchronous recording of crystal c-axis orientations have been performed with an automated fabric analyser and a newly developed sample press and deformation stage. Without interrupting the deformation experiment, c-axis orientations are determined for each pixel in a 5 × 5 mm sample area at a spatial resolution of 5 μm/pixel. In the case of norcamphor, changes in microstructures and associated crystallographic information, at a strain rate of ∼2 × 10(-5) s(-1), were recorded for the first time during a complete in situ deformation-cycle experiment that consisted of an annealing, deformation and post-deformation annealing path. In the case of natural ice, slower external strain rates (∼1 × 10(-6) s(-1)) enabled the investigation of small changes in the polycrystal aggregate's crystallography and microstructure for small amounts of strain. The technical setup and first results from the experiments are presented. © 2010 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2010 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. A New Superalloy Enabling Heavy Duty Gas Turbine Wheels for Improved Combined Cycle Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detor, Andrew [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States). GE Global Research; DiDomizio, Richard [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States). GE Global Research; McAllister, Don [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Sampson, Erica [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States). GE Global Research; Shi, Rongpei [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Zhou, Ning [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States). GE Global Research

    2017-01-03

    The drive to increase combined cycle turbine efficiency from 62% to 65% for the next-generation advanced cycle requires a new heavy duty gas turbine wheel material capable of operating at 1200°F and above. Current wheel materials are limited by the stability of their major strengthening phase (gamma double prime), which coarsens at temperatures approaching 1200°F, resulting in a substantial reduction in strength. More advanced gamma prime superalloys, such as those used in jet engine turbine disks, are also not suitable due to size constraints; the gamma prime phase overages during the slow cooling rates inherent in processing thick-section turbine wheels. The current program addresses this need by screening two new alloy design concepts. The first concept exploits a gamma prime/gamma double prime coprecipitation reaction. Through manipulation of alloy chemistry, coprecipitation is controlled such that gamma double prime is used only to slow the growth of gamma prime during slow cooling, preventing over-aging, and allowing for subsequent heat treatment to maximize strength. In parallel, phase field modeling provides fundamental understanding of the coprecipitation reaction. The second concept uses oxide dispersion strengthening to improve on two existing alloys that exhibit excellent hold time fatigue crack growth resistance, but have insufficient strength to be considered for gas turbine wheels. Mechanical milling forces the dissolution of starting oxide powders into a metal matrix allowing for solid state precipitation of new, nanometer scale oxides that are effective at dispersion strengthening.

  5. Life cycle considerations for improving sustainability assessments in seafood awareness campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Nathan; Tyedmers, Peter

    2008-11-01

    It is widely accepted that improving the sustainability of seafood production requires efforts to reverse declines in global fisheries due to overfishing and to reduce the impacts to host ecosystems from fishing and aquaculture production technologies. Reflective of on-going dialogue amongst participants in an international research project applying Life Cycle Assessment to better understand and manage global salmon production systems, we argue here that such efforts must also address the wider range of biophysical, ecological, and socioeconomic impacts stemming from the material and energetic throughput associated with these industries. This is of particular relevance given the interconnectivity of global environmental change, ocean health, and the viability of seafood production in both fisheries and aquaculture. Although the growing popularity of numerous ecolabeling, certification, and consumer education programs may be making headway in influencing Western consumer perceptions of the relative sustainability of alternative seafood products, we also posit that the efficacy of these initiatives in furthering sustainability objectives is compromised by the use of incomplete criteria. An emerging body of Life Cycle Assessment research of fisheries and aquaculture provides valuable insights into the biophysical dimensions of environmental performance in alternative seafood production and consumption systems, and should be used to inform a more holistic approach to labeling, certifying, and educating for sustainability in seafood production. More research, however, must be undertaken to develop novel techniques for incorporating other critical dimensions, in particular, socioeconomic considerations, into our sustainability decision-making.

  6. Fabrication of flexible silver nanowire conductive films and transmittance improvement based on moth-eye nanostructure array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengpeng; Zhu, Yuwen; Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin

    2017-07-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) are widely used in optoelectronic devices, such as touch screens, liquid-crystal displays and light-emitting diodes. To date, the material of the most commonly used TCEs was indium-tin oxide (ITO), which had several intrinsic drawbacks that limited its applications in the long term, including relatively high material cost and brittleness. Silver nanowire (AgNW), as one of the alternative materials for ITO TCEs, has already gained much attention all over the world. In this paper, we reported a facile method to greatly enhance the transmittance of the AgNW TCEs without reducing the electrical conductivity based on moth-eye nanostructures, and the moth-eye nanostructures were fabricated by using a roll-to-roll ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography process. Besides, the effects of mechanical pressure and bending on the moth-eye nanostructure layer were also investigated. In the research, the optical transmittance of the flexible AgNW TCEs was enhanced from 81.3% to 86.0% by attaching moth-eye nanostructures onto the other side of the flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate while the electrical conductivity of the AgNW TCEs was not sacrificed. This research can provide a direction for the cost-effective fabrication of moth-eye nanostructures and the transmittance improvement of the flexible transparent electrodes.

  7. Fabrication of flexible silver nanowire conductive films and transmittance improvement based on moth-eye nanostructure array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chengpeng; Zhu, Yuwen; Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin

    2017-01-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) are widely used in optoelectronic devices, such as touch screens, liquid-crystal displays and light-emitting diodes. To date, the material of the most commonly used TCEs was indium-tin oxide (ITO), which had several intrinsic drawbacks that limited its applications in the long term, including relatively high material cost and brittleness. Silver nanowire (AgNW), as one of the alternative materials for ITO TCEs, has already gained much attention all over the world. In this paper, we reported a facile method to greatly enhance the transmittance of the AgNW TCEs without reducing the electrical conductivity based on moth-eye nanostructures, and the moth-eye nanostructures were fabricated by using a roll-to-roll ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography process. Besides, the effects of mechanical pressure and bending on the moth-eye nanostructure layer were also investigated. In the research, the optical transmittance of the flexible AgNW TCEs was enhanced from 81.3% to 86.0% by attaching moth-eye nanostructures onto the other side of the flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate while the electrical conductivity of the AgNW TCEs was not sacrificed. This research can provide a direction for the cost-effective fabrication of moth-eye nanostructures and the transmittance improvement of the flexible transparent electrodes. (paper)

  8. A facile fabrication of nitrogen-doped electrospun In2O3 nanofibers with improved visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Na; Shao, Changlu; Li, Xinghua; Miao, Fujun; Wang, Kexin; Liu, Yichun

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysis demonstrates to be an effective approach for eliminating most types of environment contaminants and for producing hydrogen. Herein, a facile synthesis route combining electrospinning technique and thermal treatment method under NH3 atmosphere has been presented as a straightforward protocol for the fabrication of nitrogen-doped In2O3 (N-In2O3) nanofibers, the nitrogen content of which can be well controlled by adjusting the annealing temperature. Photocatalytic tests show that the N-In2O3 nanofibers demonstrate an improved degradation rate of Rhodamine B (RB) compared with pure In2O3 nanofibers under visible-light irradiation. This can be attributed to the nitrogen atom introducing at interstitial sites as well as the generation of oxygen vacancy on the surface of In2O3 nanofibers, resulting in the enhanced utilization of visible light for the N-In2O3 nanofibers. Furthermore, the obtained N-In2O3 nanofibers with the advantage of ultra-long one-dimensional nanostructures can be recycled several times by facile sedimentation and hence present almost no decrease in photocatalytic activity indicative of a well regeneration capability. Therefore, the as-fabricated nitrogen-doped In2O3 nanofibers as a promising photocatalyst present good photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutant in waste water for practical application.

  9. Improvement of tritium accountancy technology for the ITER fuel cycle safety enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'hira, Shigeru; Hayashi, T.; Nakamura, H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the safe handling and control of tritium for ITER fuel cycle, effective 'in-situ' tritium accounting methods have been developed at Tritium Process Laboratory in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute under one of the ITER-EDA R and D Tasks. A remote and multi-location analysis of process gases by an application of laser Raman spectroscopy developed and tested could provide a measurement of hydrogen isotope gases with a detection limit of 0.3 kPa for 120 seconds analytical periods. An 'in-situ' tritium inventory measurement by application of a 'self assaying' storage bed with 25 g tritium capacity could provide a measurement with a required detection limit less than 1% and a design proof of a bed with 100 g tritium capacity. (author)

  10. Improvement of tritium accountancy technology for the ITER fuel cycle safety enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hira, S.; Hayashi, T.; Nakamura, H.

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve the safe handling and control of tritium for ITER fuel cycle, effective ''in-situ'' tritium accounting methods have been developed at Tritium Process Laboratory in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute under one of the ITER-EDA R and D Tasks. A remote and multi-location analysis of process gases by an application of laser Raman spectroscopy developed and tested could provide a measurement of hydrogen isotope gases with a detection limit of 0.3 kPa for 120 seconds analytical periods. An ''in-situ'' tritium inventory measurement by application of a ''self assaying'' storage bed with 25 g tritium capacity could provide a measurement with a required detection limit less than 1 % and a design proof of a bed with 100 g tritium capacity. (author)

  11. Trapping truffle production in holes: a promising technique for improving production and unravelling truffle life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Murat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Périgord black truffle, Tuber melanosporum Vittad., is an ectomycorrhizal fungus that forms edible hypogeous ascomata. It is now harvested in plantations and is recognized as an agricultural product by European policy. Empirical techniques without scientific demonstration of their efficiency are often used to improve the production of truffles in plantations. One of these techniques is “truffle trapping” which consists in practicing holes inside the potential productive area and to fill them with a substrate containing ascospores. We report an experiment in a truffle orchard where 784 holes were set under 196 trees. Two years after the installation of the holes, 95% of the truffles were found inside the holes corresponding to only 5% of the productive area. This study confirms the efficiency of this empirical technique and demonstrates new ways for in situ studies of the truffle life cycle.

  12. Cooling tower performance improvements for a cycling PC-fired unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keckritz, M.; Thelen, A.

    1997-01-01

    The inevitable deregulation of the electric utility industry has caused many electric utility companies to look closely at their existing assets and predict what role these units will play in the future. Reducing a unit's production cost is the best way to prepare for the deregulated market but this benefit often comes with an associated capital expenditure. Spending capital dollars today can pose a quandary for an investor-owned utility committed to maintaining low consumer rates. The dilemma is: How does a utility improve its competitiveness position today while ensuring that the shareholders are getting a fair return on their investment when any fuel savings are passed through to the consumer? Illinois Power (IP) has been aggressively looking to improve their current competitive position while facing the current regulatory challenges. Studies have been commissioned to identify the most attractive cost reduction opportunities available. One study identified that improving the performance of the Unit 6 cooling tower at the Havana Station would be a very economically attractive option. This paper addresses the economics of refurbishing a cooling tower for a cycling pulverized-coal (PC) unit to provide a competitive advantage leading into the deregulated electricity market

  13. Energy use and climate change improvements of Li/S batteries based on life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Rickard; Janssen, Matty; Svanström, Magdalena; Johansson, Patrik; Sandén, Björn A.

    2018-04-01

    We present a life cycle assessment (LCA) study of a lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cell regarding its energy use (in electricity equivalents, kWhel) and climate change (in kg carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2 eq) with the aim of identifying improvement potentials. Possible improvements are illustrated by departing from a base case of Li/S battery design, electricity from coal power, and heat from natural gas. In the base case, energy use is calculated at 580 kWhel kWh-1 and climate change impact at 230 kg CO2 eq kWh-1 of storage capacity. The main contribution to energy use comes from the LiTFSI electrolyte salt production and the main contribution to climate change is electricity use during the cell production stage. By (i) reducing cell production electricity requirement, (ii) sourcing electricity and heat from renewable sources, (iii) improving the specific energy of the Li/S cell, and (iv) switching to carbon black for the cathode, energy use and climate change impact can be reduced by 54 and 93%, respectively. For climate change, our best-case result of 17 kg CO2 eq kWh-1 is of similar magnitude as the best-case literature results for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The lithium metal requirement of Li/S batteries and LIBs are also of similar magnitude.

  14. Improving Fuel Cycle Design and Safety Characteristics of a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooijen, W.F.G. van

    2006-01-01

    gradients within the fuel assemblies would be too high, and fuel economy is poor. Two improved fuel concepts are proposed: (1) a redesign of the classic TRISO coated particle fuel, and (2) an innovative hollow sphere design. Both fuel elements are used in a core design based on direct cooling of the coated particle fuel. To increase the neutronic margins and obtain adequate self-breeding capabilities, the proposed reactor has 2400 MWth power output and a power density of 50 MW/m 3 . With both types of fuel, it is possible to obtain a closed fuel cycle. Long irradiation intervals (several years) are possible with a low burnup reactivity swing, which reduces the required over-reactivity of the fresh core and reduces control rod requirements during operation. In the closed fuel cycle it is important to be able to predict whether a certain initial fuel composition will in fact yield a new fuel, after irradiation, cool down and reprocessing, with which the reactor can be restarted. A theoretical framework is presented in this thesis which allows calculation of the ‘Breeding Gain’ (BG) of the reactor. The BG quantifies the performance of the fuel for batch i + 1 as a function of the composition of the initial fuel of batch i. If this BG can be made equal to zero, both fuel compositions give the same nuclear performance. To be able to calculate the fuel performance, the reactivity weight, i.e. the contribution of each isotope to the overall reactivity of the reactor, needs to be estimated. It is proposed in this thesis to calculate these reactivity weights using a first-order eigenvalue perturbation calculation. It is shown that this approach yields an expression which reduces to a well-established formula for reactivity weights. All steps in the fuel cycle, i.e. irradiation, cool down and reprocessing, have to be taken into account to calculate the Breeding Gain for the closed fuel cycle. First order nuclide perturbation theory provides an efficient method to calculate the

  15. Lowering data retention voltage in static random access memory array by post fabrication self-improvement of cell stability by multiple stress application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Kiyoshi; Saraya, Takuya; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Hiramoto, Toshiro

    2018-04-01

    We propose a new version of the post fabrication static random access memory (SRAM) self-improvement technique, which utilizes multiple stress application. It is demonstrated that, using a device matrix array (DMA) test element group (TEG) with intrinsic channel fully depleted (FD) silicon-on-thin-buried-oxide (SOTB) six-transistor (6T) SRAM cells fabricated by the 65 nm technology, the lowering of data retention voltage (DRV) is more effectively achieved than using the previously proposed single stress technique.

  16. ECONOMICS AND FEASIBILITY OF RANKINE CYCLE IMPROVEMENTS FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard E. Waryasz; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2004-09-08

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), American Electric Company (AEP) and Parsons Energy and Chemical Group to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating coal fired steam power plants, known as Rankine Cycles, equipped with three different combustion systems: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}). Five steam cycles utilizing a wide range of steam conditions were used with these combustion systems. The motivation for this study was to establish through engineering analysis, the most cost-effective performance potential available through improvement in the Rankine Cycle steam conditions and combustion systems while at the same time ensuring that the most stringent emission performance based on CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) 2010 targets are met: > 98% sulfur removal; < 0.05 lbm/MM-Btu NO{sub x}; < 0.01 lbm/MM-Btu Particulate Matter; and > 90% Hg removal. The final report discusses the results of a coal fired steam power plant project, which is comprised of two parts. The main part of the study is the analysis of ten (10) Greenfield steam power plants employing three different coal combustion technologies: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}) integrated with five different steam cycles. The study explores the technical feasibility, thermal performance, environmental performance, and economic viability of ten power plants that could be deployed currently, in the near, intermediate, and long-term time frame. For the five steam cycles, main steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,292 F and pressures from 2,400 psi to 5,075 psi. Reheat steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,328 F. The number of feedwater heaters varies from 7 to 9 and the associated feedwater temperature varies from 500 F to 626 F. The main part of the

  17. Potential improvements of supercritical recompression CO2 Brayton cycle by mixing other gases for power conversion system of a SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Woo Seok; Lee, Jeong Ik; Jeong, Yong Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → S-CO 2 cycle could be enhanced by shifting the critical point of working fluids using gas mixture. → In-house cycle code was developed to analyze supercritical Brayton cycles with gas mixture. → Gas mixture candidates were selected through a screening process: CO 2 mixing with N 2 , O 2 , He, and Ar. → CO 2 -He binary mixture shows the highest cycle efficiency increase. → Lowering the critical temperature and critical pressure of the coolant has a positive effect on the total cycle efficiency. - Abstract: A sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is one of the strongest candidates for the next generation nuclear reactor. However, the conventional design of a SFR concept with an indirect Rankine cycle is subjected to a possible sodium-water reaction. To prevent any hazards from sodium-water reaction, a SFR with the Brayton cycle using Supercritical Carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) as the working fluid can be an alternative approach to improve the current SFR design. However, the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle is more sensitive to the critical point of working fluids than other Brayton cycles. This is because compressor work is significantly decreased slightly above the critical point due to high density of CO 2 near the boundary between the supercritical state and the subcritical state. For this reason, the minimum temperature and pressure of cycle are just above the CO 2 critical point. In other words, the critical point acts as a limitation of the lowest operating condition of the cycle. In general, lowering the rejection temperature of a thermodynamic cycle can increase the efficiency. Therefore, changing the critical point of CO 2 can result in an improvement of the total cycle efficiency with the same cycle layout. A small amount of other gases can be added in order to change the critical point of CO 2 . The direction and range of the critical point variation of CO 2 depends on the mixed component and its amount. Several gases that show chemical stability with

  18. Polymer additives for improving performance properties of cotton fabric crosslinked with 1,2,3,4 butanetetracarboxylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refaie, R.

    2005-01-01

    1,2,3,4 butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) represents an environmental safe alternative for commercial formaldehyde containing resins that acquire cotton textile easy care properties. However, several draw-back are encountered with BTCA finishing treatment, like excessive fabric tendering, yellowing as well as lower dye affinity. The feasibility of adding different polymers, viz-polyethylene glycol 600 (PEG), polyvinyl alcohol, and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), alone or in admixture with chitosan to the finishing bath containing BTCA was investigated. Moreover, cationized forms of these polymers were also used as additives in the finishing formulation containing BTCA. Results obtained of CMC alone or with chitosan (0.5 %), with BTCA finishing formulation improves Cease Recovery Angle, Tensile strength, as well as basic dye ability compared with or without additives

  19. Improved continuity of reduced graphene oxide on polyester fabric by use of polypyrrole to achieve a highly electro-conductive and flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berendjchi, Amirhosein; Khajavi, Ramin; Yousefi, Ali Akbar; Yazdanshenas, Mohammad Esmail

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Discontinuity of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) coated polyester fabric (PET) substrate was overcome by filling the gaps by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of polypyrrole (PPy). • The RGO–PPy coated samples exhibited 53% and 263% lower surface resistivity values (5 Ω/sq) than samples coated only with PPy (12 Ω/sq) and RGO (1300 Ω/sq), respectively. • The RGO–PPy coated fabric displayed other properties, such as excellent UV blocking (UPF = 73), antibacterial activity, improved electrochemical behavior and thermal stability which make it a multifunctional fabric. - Abstract: A flexible and highly conductive fabric can be applied for wearable electronics and as a pliable counter electrode for photovoltaics. Methods such as surface coating of fabrics with conductive polymers and materials have been developed, but the roughness of fabric is a challenge because it creates discontinuity in the coated layer. The present study first coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric with reduced graphene oxide sheets; RGO and then filled the gaps with polypyrrole (PPy). The samples were first dipped in graphene oxide (GO) and then reduced to RGO. They were next coated with PPy by in situ polymerization. The results showed that the presence of oxidative agent during synthesis of PPy oxidized the RGO to some extent on the previously RGO-coated samples. PPy was more uniform on samples pre-coated with RGO in comparison those coated with raw PET. The RGO–PPy coated samples exhibited 53% and 263% lower surface resistivity values than samples coated only with PPy and RGO, respectively. There was no significant difference between the tenacity of samples but the bending rigidity of samples increased. The RGO–PPy coated fabric displayed properties, such as excellent UV blocking (UPF = 73), antibacterial activity, improved electrochemical behavior and thermal stability which make it a multifunctional fabric.

  20. Improved continuity of reduced graphene oxide on polyester fabric by use of polypyrrole to achieve a highly electro-conductive and flexible substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berendjchi, Amirhosein [Department of Textile Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajavi, Ramin, E-mail: khajavi@azad.ac.ir [Nano Technology Research Center, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yousefi, Ali Akbar [Faculty of Polymer Processing, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdanshenas, Mohammad Esmail [Department of Textile Engineering, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Discontinuity of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) coated polyester fabric (PET) substrate was overcome by filling the gaps by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of polypyrrole (PPy). • The RGO–PPy coated samples exhibited 53% and 263% lower surface resistivity values (5 Ω/sq) than samples coated only with PPy (12 Ω/sq) and RGO (1300 Ω/sq), respectively. • The RGO–PPy coated fabric displayed other properties, such as excellent UV blocking (UPF = 73), antibacterial activity, improved electrochemical behavior and thermal stability which make it a multifunctional fabric. - Abstract: A flexible and highly conductive fabric can be applied for wearable electronics and as a pliable counter electrode for photovoltaics. Methods such as surface coating of fabrics with conductive polymers and materials have been developed, but the roughness of fabric is a challenge because it creates discontinuity in the coated layer. The present study first coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric with reduced graphene oxide sheets; RGO and then filled the gaps with polypyrrole (PPy). The samples were first dipped in graphene oxide (GO) and then reduced to RGO. They were next coated with PPy by in situ polymerization. The results showed that the presence of oxidative agent during synthesis of PPy oxidized the RGO to some extent on the previously RGO-coated samples. PPy was more uniform on samples pre-coated with RGO in comparison those coated with raw PET. The RGO–PPy coated samples exhibited 53% and 263% lower surface resistivity values than samples coated only with PPy and RGO, respectively. There was no significant difference between the tenacity of samples but the bending rigidity of samples increased. The RGO–PPy coated fabric displayed properties, such as excellent UV blocking (UPF = 73), antibacterial activity, improved electrochemical behavior and thermal stability which make it a multifunctional fabric.

  1. Fabric based supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, S; Tudor, M J; Beeby, S P; Owen, J R

    2013-01-01

    Flexible supercapacitors with electrodes coated on inexpensive fabrics by the dipping technique. This paper present details of the design, fabrication and characterisation of fabric supercapacitor. The sandwich structured supercapacitors can achieve specific capacitances of 11.1F/g, area capacitance 105 mF.cm −2 and maintain 95% of the initial capacitance after cycling the device for more than 15000 times

  2. Representing leaf and root physiological traits in CLM improves global carbon and nitrogen cycling predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Bardan; Riley, William J.; Koven, Charles D.; Mu, Mingquan; Randerson, James T.

    2016-06-01

    In many ecosystems, nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient for plant growth and productivity. However, current Earth System Models (ESMs) do not mechanistically represent functional nitrogen allocation for photosynthesis or the linkage between nitrogen uptake and root traits. The current version of CLM (4.5) links nitrogen availability and plant productivity via (1) an instantaneous downregulation of potential photosynthesis rates based on soil mineral nitrogen availability, and (2) apportionment of soil nitrogen between plants and competing nitrogen consumers assumed to be proportional to their relative N demands. However, plants do not photosynthesize at potential rates and then downregulate; instead photosynthesis rates are governed by nitrogen that has been allocated to the physiological processes underpinning photosynthesis. Furthermore, the role of plant roots in nutrient acquisition has also been largely ignored in ESMs. We therefore present a new plant nitrogen model for CLM4.5 with (1) improved representations of linkages between leaf nitrogen and plant productivity based on observed relationships in a global plant trait database and (2) plant nitrogen uptake based on root-scale Michaelis-Menten uptake kinetics. Our model improvements led to a global bias reduction in GPP, LAI, and biomass of 70%, 11%, and 49%, respectively. Furthermore, water use efficiency predictions were improved conceptually, qualitatively, and in magnitude. The new model's GPP responses to nitrogen deposition, CO2 fertilization, and climate also differed from the baseline model. The mechanistic representation of leaf-level nitrogen allocation and a theoretically consistent treatment of competition with belowground consumers led to overall improvements in global carbon cycling predictions.

  3. Improved circadian sleep-wake cycle in infants fed a day/night dissociated formula milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, J; Narciso, D; Aparicio, S; Garau, C; Valero, V; Rivero, M; Esteban, S; Rial, R; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C

    2006-06-01

    On the basis of the circadian nutritional variations present in breast milk, and of the implications for the sleep/wake cycle of the nutrients present in infant formula milks, we designed a formula milk nutritionally dissociated into a Day/Night composition. The goal was to improve the bottle-fed infant's sleep/wake circadian rhythm. A total of 21 infants aged 4-20 weeks with sleeping difficulties were enrolled in the three-week duration study. The sleep analysis was performed using an actimeter (Actiwatch) placed on an ankle of each infant to uninterruptedly record movements during the three weeks. The dissociated Day milk, designed to be administered from 06:00 to 18:00, contained low levels of tryptophan (1.5g/100g protein) and carbohydrates, high levels of proteins, and the nucleotides Cytidine 5 monophosphate, Guanosine 5 monophosphate and Inosine 5 monophosphate. The dissociated Night milk, designed to be administered from 18.00 to 06.00, contained high levels of tryptophan (3.4g/100g protein) and carbohydrates, low levels of protein, and the nucleotides Adenosine 5 monophosphate and Uridine 5 monophosphate. Three different milk-feeding experiments were performed in a double-blind procedure covering three weeks. In week 1 (control), the infants received both by day and by night a standard formula milk; in week 2 (inverse control), they received the dissociated milk inversely (Night/Day instead of Day/Night); and in week 3, they received the Day/Night dissociated formula concordant with the formula design. When the infants were receiving the Day/Night dissociated milk in concordance with their environment, they showed improvement in all the nocturnal sleep parameters analyzed: total hours of sleep, sleep efficiency, minutes of nocturnal immobility, nocturnal awakenings, and sleep latency. In conclusion, the use of a chronobiologically adjusted infant formula milk seems to be effective in improving the consolidation of the circadian sleep/wake cycle in bottle

  4. An improved CO_2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC) used for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Shi, Lingfeng; Tian, Hua; Li, Xiaoya; Huang, Guangdai; Chang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose an improved CTRC system (PR-CTRC) for engine waste heat recovery. • The PR-CTRC achieves a significant increase in thermodynamic performance. • The PR-CTRC possesses a strong coupling capability for high and low grade waste heat. • The PR-CTRC uses smaller turbine design parameters than ORC systems. • Total cooling load analysis of combined engine and recovery system was conducted. - Abstract: CO_2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC) is a promising technology for the waste heat recovery of an engine considering its safety and environment friendly characteristics, which also matchs the high temperature of the exhaust gas and satisfies the miniaturization demand of recovery systems. But the traditional CTRC system with a basic configuration (B-CTRC) has a poor thermodynamic performance. This paper introduces an improved CTRC system containing both a preheater and regenerator (PR-CTRC), for recovering waste heat in exhaust gas and engine coolant of an engine, and compares its performance with that of the B-CTRC system and also with that of the traditional excellent Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems using R123 as a working fluid. The utilization rate of waste heat, total cooling load, net power output, thermal efficiency, exergy loss, exergy efficiency and component size have been investigated. Results show that, the net power output of the PR-CTRC could reach up to 9.0 kW for a 43.8 kW engine, which increases by 150% compared with that of the B-CTRC (3.6 kW). The PR-CTRC also improves the thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the B-CTRC, with increases of 184% and 227%, respectively. Compared with the ORC system, the PR-CTRC shows the significant advantage of highly recycling the exhaust gas and engine coolant simultaneously due to the special property of supercritical CO_2’s specific heat capacity. The supercritical property of CO_2 also generates a better heat transfer and flowing performances. Meanwhile, the PR

  5. Using life cycle assessment to address stakeholders' potential for improving municipal solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Junior, Milton Aurelio Uba; Zanghelini, Guillherme Marcelo; Soares, Sebastião Roberto

    2017-05-01

    Because the consumption of materials is generally higher than their recovery rate, improving municipal solid waste (MSW) management is fundamental for increasing the efficiency of natural resource use and consumption in urban areas. More broadly, the characteristics of a MSW management system influence the end-of-life (EOL) impacts of goods consumed by households. We aim to indicate the extent to which greenhouse gas emissions from a MSW management system can be reduced by increasing waste paper recycling. We also address the stakeholders' contribution for driving transition towards an improved scenario. Life cycle assessment (LCA) addresses the EOL impacts of the paper industry, driven by the characteristics of MSW management in Florianópolis, Brazil, by varying the level of stakeholders' commitment through different recycling scenarios. The results show that 41% of the climate change impacts from waste paper management could be reduced when increasing the waste paper recycling rates and reducing waste paper landfilling. To achieve such emissions reduction, the industry contribution to the MSW management system would have to increase from 17% in the business-as-usual scenario to 74% in the target scenario. We were able to measure the differences in stakeholders' contribution by modelling the MSW management system processes that are under the industry's responsibility separately from the processes that are under the government's responsibility, based on the Brazilian legal framework. The conclusions indicate that LCA can be used to support policy directions on reducing the impacts of MSW management by increasing resource recovery towards a circular economy.

  6. The public health nutrition intervention management bi-cycle: a model for training and practice improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Roger; Margetts, Barrie

    2012-11-01

    The present paper describes a model for public health nutrition practice designed to facilitate practice improvement and provide a step-wise approach to assist with workforce development. The bi-cycle model for public health nutrition practice has been developed based on existing cyclical models for intervention management but modified to integrate discrete capacity-building practices. Education and practice settings. This model will have applications for educators and practitioners. Modifications to existing models have been informed by the authors' observations and experiences as practitioners and educators, and reflect a conceptual framework with applications in workforce development and practice improvement. From a workforce development and educational perspective, the model is designed to reflect adult learning principles, exposing students to experiential, problem-solving and practical learning experiences that reflect the realities of work as a public health nutritionist. In doing so, it assists the development of competency beyond knowing to knowing how, showing how and doing. This progression of learning from knowledge to performance is critical to effective competency development for effective practice. Public health nutrition practice is dynamic and varied, and models need to be adaptable and applicable to practice context to have utility. The paper serves to stimulate debate in the public health nutrition community, to encourage critical feedback about the validity, applicability and utility of this model in different practice contexts.

  7. Improvement of high voltage cycling performance and thermal stability of lithium-ion cells by use of a thiophene additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki-Soo; Sun, Yang-Kook; Kim, Dong-Won [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea); Noh, Jaegeun [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Seungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea); Song, Kwang Soup [Advanced Medical Device Center, Korea Electrotechnology, Research Institute, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 426-170 (Korea)

    2009-10-15

    This study demonstrates that the addition of thiophene improves the cycle life of lithium-ion cells at high voltage. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results suggest that addition of thiophene significantly suppresses the increase of the charge transfer resistance that occurs during cycling up to high voltage. Differential scanning calorimetric studies showed that the thermal stability of fully charged LiCoO{sub 2} cathode was also enhanced in the presence of thiophene. (author)

  8. Improving metabolic efficiency of the reverse beta-oxidation cycle by balancing redox cofactor requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junjun; Zhang, Xia; Zhou, Peng; Huang, Jiaying; Xia, Xiudong; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ziyu; Chen, Yue; Liu, Yinghao; Dong, Mingsheng

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have made many exciting achievements on pushing the functional reversal of beta-oxidation cycle (r-BOX) to more widespread adoption for synthesis of a wide variety of fuels and chemicals. However, the redox cofactor requirement for the efficient operation of r-BOX remains unclear. In this work, the metabolic efficiency of r-BOX for medium-chain fatty acid (C 6 -C 10 , MCFA) production was optimized by redox cofactor engineering. Stoichiometric analysis of the r-BOX pathway and further experimental examination identified NADH as a crucial determinant of r-BOX process yield. Furthermore, the introduction of formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii using fermentative inhibitor byproduct formate as a redox NADH sink improved MCFA titer from initial 1.2g/L to 3.1g/L. Moreover, coupling of increasing the supply of acetyl-CoA with NADH to achieve fermentative redox balance enabled product synthesis at maximum titers. To this end, the acetate re-assimilation pathway was further optimized to increase acetyl-CoA availability associated with the new supply of NADH. It was found that the acetyl-CoA synthetase activity and intracellular ATP levels constrained the activity of acetate re-assimilation pathway, and 4.7g/L of MCFA titer was finally achieved after alleviating these two limiting factors. To the best of our knowledge, this represented the highest titer reported to date. These results demonstrated that the key constraint of r-BOX was redox imbalance and redox engineering could further unleash the lipogenic potential of this cycle. The redox engineering strategies could be applied to acetyl-CoA-derived products or other bio-products requiring multiple redox cofactors for biosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Life cycle assessment of Italian citrus-based products. Sensitivity analysis and improvement scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccali, Marco; Cellura, Maurizio; Iudicello, Maria; Mistretta, Marina

    2010-07-01

    Though many studies concern the agro-food sector in the EU and Italy, and its environmental impacts, literature is quite lacking in works regarding LCA application on citrus products. This paper represents one of the first studies on the environmental impacts of citrus products in order to suggest feasible strategies and actions to improve their environmental performance. In particular, it is part of a research aimed to estimate environmental burdens associated with the production of the following citrus-based products: essential oil, natural juice and concentrated juice from oranges and lemons. The life cycle assessment of these products, published in a previous paper, had highlighted significant environmental issues in terms of energy consumption, associated CO(2) emissions, and water consumption. Starting from such results the authors carry out an improvement analysis of the assessed production system, whereby sustainable scenarios for saving water and energy are proposed to reduce environmental burdens of the examined production system. In addition, a sensitivity analysis to estimate the effects of the chosen methods will be performed, giving data on the outcome of the study. Uncertainty related to allocation methods, secondary data sources, and initial assumptions on cultivation, transport modes, and waste management is analysed. The results of the performed analyses allow stating that every assessed eco-profile is differently influenced by the uncertainty study. Different assumptions on initial data and methods showed very sensible variations in the energy and environmental performances of the final products. Besides, the results show energy and environmental benefits that clearly state the improvement of the products eco-profile, by reusing purified water use for irrigation, using the railway mode for the delivery of final products, when possible, and adopting efficient technologies, as the mechanical vapour recompression, in the pasteurisation and

  10. Real-time patient survey data during routine clinical activities for rapid-cycle quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, James Lucius; Campos, Claudia L; Jones, Robert E; Stevens, Sheila F

    2015-03-12

    Surveying patients is increasingly important for evaluating and improving health care delivery, but practical survey strategies during routine care activities have not been available. We examined the feasibility of conducting routine patient surveys in a primary care clinic using commercially available technology (Web-based survey creation, deployment on tablet computers, cloud-based management of survey data) to expedite and enhance several steps in data collection and management for rapid quality improvement cycles. We used a Web-based data management tool (survey creation, deployment on tablet computers, real-time data accumulation and display of survey results) to conduct four patient surveys during routine clinic sessions over a one-month period. Each survey consisted of three questions and focused on a specific patient care domain (dental care, waiting room experience, care access/continuity, Internet connectivity). Of the 727 available patients during clinic survey days, 316 patients (43.4%) attempted the survey, and 293 (40.3%) completed the survey. For the four 3-question surveys, the average time per survey was overall 40.4 seconds, with a range of 5.4 to 20.3 seconds for individual questions. Yes/No questions took less time than multiple choice questions (average 9.6 seconds versus 14.0). Average response time showed no clear pattern by order of questions or by proctor strategy, but monotonically increased with number of words in the question (30 words)-8.0, 11.8, 16.8, seconds, respectively. This technology-enabled data management system helped capture patient opinions, accelerate turnaround of survey data, with minimal impact on a busy primary care clinic. This new model of patient survey data management is feasible and sustainable in a busy office setting, supports and engages clinicians in the quality improvement process, and harmonizes with the vision of a learning health care system.

  11. MAPLE Fabricated Fe3O4@Cinnamomum verum Antimicrobial Surfaces for Improved Gastrostomy Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgiana Anghel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum verum-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 9.4 nm in size were laser transferred by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE technique onto gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes for antibacterial activity evaluation toward Gram positive and Gram negative microbial colonization. X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticle powder showed a polycrystalline magnetite structure, whereas infrared mapping confirmed the integrity of C. verum (CV functional groups after the laser transfer. The specific topography of the deposited films involved a uniform thin coating together with several aggregates of bio-functionalized magnetite particles covering the G-tubes. Cytotoxicity assays showed an increase of the G-tube surface biocompatibility after Fe3O4@CV treatment, allowing a normal development of endothelial cells up to five days of incubation. Microbiological assays on nanoparticle-modified G-tube surfaces have proved an improvement of anti-adherent properties, significantly reducing both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria colonization.

  12. An improved characterization method for international accountancy measurements of fresh and irradiated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel: helping achieve continual monitoring and safeguards through the fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, S. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, H. O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, M. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worrall, Andrew [U.K. NNL

    2011-01-13

    Nuclear fuel accountancy measurements are conducted at several points through the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure continuity of knowledge (CofK) of special nuclear material (SNM). Non-destructive assay (NDA) measurements are performed on fresh fuel (prior to irradiation in a reactor) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) post-irradiation. We have developed a fuel assembly characterization system, based on the novel concept of 'neutron fingerprinting' with multiplicity signatures to ensure detailed CofK of nuclear fuel through the entire fuel cycle. The neutron fingerprint in this case is determined by the measurement of the various correlated neutron signatures, specific to fuel isotopic composition, and therefore offers greater sensitivity to variations in fissile content among fuel assemblies than other techniques such as gross neutron counting. This neutron fingerprint could be measured at the point of fuel dispatch (e.g. from a fuel fabrication plant prior to irradiation, or from a reactor site post-irradiation), monitored during transportation of the fuel assembly, and measured at a subsequent receiving site (e.g. at the reactor site prior to irradiation, or reprocessing facility post-irradiation); this would confirm that no unexpected changes to the fuel composition or amount have taken place during transportation and/ or reactor operations. Changes may indicate an attempt to divert material for example. Here, we present the current state of the practice of fuel measurements for both fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and SNF (both MOX and uranium dioxide). This is presented in the framework of international safeguards perspectives from the US and UK. We also postulate as to how the neutron fingerprinting concept could lead to improved fuel characterization (both fresh MOX and SNF) resulting in: (a) assured CofK of fuel across the nuclear fuel cycle, (b) improved detection of SNM diversion, and (c) greater confidence in safeguards of SNF transportation.

  13. The development of learning material using learning cycle 5E model based stem to improve students’ learning outcomes in Thermochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    sugiarti, A. C.; suyatno, S.; Sanjaya, I. G. M.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study is describing the feasibility of Learning Cycle 5E STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) based learning material which is appropriate to improve students’ learning achievement in Thermochemistry. The study design used 4-D models and one group pretest-posttest design to obtain the information about the improvement of sudents’ learning outcomes. The subject was learning cycle 5E based STEM learning materials which the data were collected from 30 students of Science class at 11th Grade. The techniques used in this study were validation, observation, test, and questionnaire. Some result attain: (1) all the learning materials contents were valid, (2) the practicality and the effectiveness of all the learning materials contents were classified as good. The conclution of this study based on those three condition, the Learnig Cycle 5E based STEM learning materials is appropriate to improve students’ learning outcomes in studying Thermochemistry.

  14. Improved Cycling Stability of Cobalt-free Li-rich Oxides with a Stable Interface by Dual Doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Dongjiu; Li, Guangshe; Li, Qi; Fu, Chaochao; Fan, Jianming; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cobalt-free Na_xLi_1_._2_-_xMn_0_._6_-_xAl_xNi_0_._2O_2 oxides are prepared by a sol-gel method. • Dual-doping strengthens the covalence of Mn-O bonds and suppresses the side reactions between cathode and electrolyte. • Doped cathode has a capacity retention over 92.2% after 100 cycles at a high temperature of 55 °C. - Abstract: Li-rich cobalt-free oxides, popularly used as a cathode with high capacity in lithium ion battery, always suffer from poor cycling stability between 2.0 and 4.8 V vs Li"+/Li, especially when cycled at high temperatures (>50 °C). To overcome this issue, Na"+ and Al"3"+ dual-doped Na_xLi_1_._2_-_xMn_0_._6_-_xAl_xNi_0_._2O_2 Li-rich cathode is prepared in this study. It is shown that the side reactions between cathode and electrolyte during cycling are suppressed. The improved cycling performance is observed for all of the doped samples, among which the sample with x = 0.03 exhibits the highest capacity retention of 86.1% after 200 cycles between 2.0 and 4.8 V at 2C (1C = 200 mA g"−"1) and shows a remarkable cycling stability, even at a high temperature of 55 °C (a capacity retention of 92.2% after 100 cycles). Moreover, the average voltage of the sample with x = 0.03 after 100 cycles at 0.5C remains at 3.11 V with a retention ratio of 86.6%. This work provides a new strategy to develop Li-rich cobalt-free cathodes with excellent cycling stability for lithium ion batteries at high temperatures.

  15. Improving the actinides recycling in closed fuel cycles, a major step towards nuclear energy sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, C.; Grandjean, S.; Masson, M.; Bouillis, B.; Warin, D.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the sustainability of nuclear energy is a longstanding road that requires a stepwise approach to successively tackle the following 3 objectives. First of all, optimize the consumption of natural resource to preserve them for future generations and hence guarantee the energetic independence of the countries (no uranium ore is needed anymore). The current twice-through cycle of Pu implemented by France, UK, Japan and soon China is a first step in this direction and already allows the development and optimization of the relevant industrial processes. It also allows a major improvement regarding the conditioning of the ultimate waste in a durable and robust nuclear glass. Secondly, the recycling of americium could be an interesting option for the future with the deployment of FR fleet to save the repository resource and optimize its use by allowing a denser disposal. It would limit the burden towards the future generations and the need for additional repositories before several centuries. Thirdly, the recycling of the whole minor actinides inventory could be an interesting option for the far-future for strongly decreasing the waste long-term toxicity, down to a few centuries. It would bring the waste issue back within the human history, which should promote its acceptance by the social opinion

  16. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Diets with Improved Omega-3 Fatty Acid Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R V Coelho

    Full Text Available A high incidence of cardiovascular disease is observed worldwide, and dietary habits are one of the risk factors for these diseases. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet help to prevent cardiovascular disease. We used life cycle assessment to analyse the potential of two strategies to improve the nutritional and environmental characteristics of French diets: 1 modifying diets by changing the quantities and proportions of foods and 2 increasing the omega-3 contents in diets by replacing mainly animal foods with equivalent animal foods having higher omega-3 contents. We also investigated other possibilities for reducing environmental impacts. Our results showed that a diet compliant with nutritional recommendations for macronutrients had fewer environmental impacts than the current average French diet. Moving from an omnivorous to a vegetarian diet further reduced environmental impacts. Increasing the omega-3 contents in animal rations increased Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA in animal food products. Providing these enriched animal foods in human diets increased their EPA and DHA contents without affecting their environmental impacts. However, in diets that did not contain fish, EPA and DHA contents were well below the levels recommended by health authorities, despite the inclusion of animal products enriched in EPA and DHA. Reducing meat consumption and avoidable waste at home are two main avenues for reducing environmental impacts of diets.

  17. Improving The Average Session Evaluation Score Of Supervisory Programby Using PDCA Cycle At PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Jonny

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PT XYZ took People Development tasks as important things in order to provide great leaders for handling its business operations. It had several leadership programs such as basic management program, supervisory program, managerial program, senior management program, general management program, and the executive program. For basic management and supervisory programs, PT XYZ had appointed ABC division to solely handled them, while the rest, ABC division should cooperate with other training providers who were reputable in leadership ones. The aim of this study was to ensure that the appropriate leadership style has been delivered accordingly to the guideline to the employees by ABC division to improve the average session evaluation score of the supervisory program by using PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, and Action cycle. The method of this research was by gathering quantitative and qualitative data by using session and program evaluation format to see current condition. The research finds that the reasons why the program is below target 4,10 score. It is related to the new facilitator, no framework, and teaching aids. 

  18. Sputtering graphite coating to improve the elevated-temperature cycling ability of the LiMn2O4 electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiexi; Zhang, Qiaobao; Li, Xinhai; Wang, Zhixing; Guo, Huajun; Xu, Daguo; Zhang, Kaili

    2014-08-14

    To improve the cycle performance of LiMn2O4 at elevated temperature, a graphite layer is introduced to directly cover the surface of a commercial LiMn2O4-based electrode via room-temperature DC magnetron sputtering. The as-modified cathodes display improved capacity retention as compared to the bare LiMn2O4 cathode (BLMO) at 55 °C. When sputtering graphite for 30 min, the sample shows the best cycling performance at 55 °C, maintaining 96.2% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Reasons with respect to the graphite layer for improving the elevated-temperature performance of LiMn2O4 are systematically investigated via the methods of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The results demonstrate that the graphite coated LiMn2O4 cathode has much less increased electrode polarization and electrochemical impedance than BLMO during the elevated-temperature cycling process. Furthermore, the graphite layer is able to alleviate the severe dissolution of manganese ions into the electrolyte and mitigate the morphological and structural degradation of LiMn2O4 during cycling. A model for the electrochemical kinetics process is also suggested for explaining the roles of the graphite layer in suppressing the Mn dissolution.

  19. The improvement of the fire protections system for nuclear cycle facilities. Formulation of a fire protection guideline for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-04-01

    The private side Fire Protection Guideline was investigated with respect to the fire having taken place at the nuclear reactor site followed by the Chuetsu-Oki earthquake in Niigata Prefecture in 2007. To improve the fire protection system especially applicable to MOX fuel fabrication facilities, JNES (Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization) investigated private guidelines adopted in Japanese Light Water cooled Reactors, the standardized guidelines used in Nuclear Facilities in other countries including USA, and the standards in the chemical plants. The content of the guideline concerns the prevention of the fire breakout, the prevention of fire extension, the reduction of the fire effects, as well as the facility-characteristic protection countermeasures and the fire effect evaluations. (S. Ohno)

  20. Cycle-Based Budgeting and Continuous Improvement at Jefferson County Public Schools: Year 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the first-year of implementing Cycle-based Budgeting at Jefferson County Public Schools (Louisville, KY). To address the limitations of incremental budgeting and zero-based budgeting, a Cycle-based Budgeting model was developed and implemented in JCPS. Specifically, each new program needs to submit an on-line budget request…

  1. Improving Defense Acquisition Management and Policy Through a Life-Cycle Affordability Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-04

    14  Are the PBL Prophets Using Science or Alchemy to Create Life Cycle...or role (engineering, SCM, finance ). Two Select managers for baseline study. Select managers whose self-description and supervisor feedback...networks into value . Are the PBL Prophets Using Science or Alchemy to Create Life Cycle Affordability? Using Theory to Predict the Efficacy of

  2. Improving fuel cycle design and safety characteristics of a gas cooled fast reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, W.F.G.

    2006-01-01

    This research concerns the fuel cycle and safety aspects of a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor, one of the so-called "Generation IV" nuclear reactor designs. The Generation IV Gas Cooled Fast Reactor uses helium as coolant at high temperature. The goal of the GCFR is to obtain a "closed nuclear fuel cycle",

  3. Swing-Leg Retraction for Limit Cycle Walkers Improves Disturbance Rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbelen, D.G.E.; Wisse, M.

    2008-01-01

    Limit cycle walkers are bipeds that exhibit a stable cyclic gaitwithout requiring local controllability at all times during gait. A well-known example of limit cycle walking is McGeer’s “passive dynamic walking,” but the concept expands to actuated bipeds as involved in this study. One of the

  4. Fabrication of a nanofibrous scaffold with improved bioactivity for culture of human dermal fibroblasts for skin regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, Arun Richard; Venugopal, J; Sundarrajan, S; Ramakrishna, S

    2011-01-01

    Engineering dermal substitutes with electrospun nanofibres have lately been of prime importance for skin tissue regeneration. Simple electrospinning technology served to produce nanofibrous scaffolds morphologically and structurally similar to the extracellular matrix of native tissues. The nanofibrous scaffolds of poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PLACL) and PLACL/gelatin complexes were fabricated by the electrospinning process. These nanofibres were characterized for fibre morphology, membrane porosity, wettability and chemical properties by FTIR analysis to culture human foreskin fibroblasts for skin tissue engineering. The nanofibre diameter was obtained between 282 and 761 nm for PLACL and PLACL/gelatin scaffolds; expressions of amino and carboxyl groups and porosity up to 87% were obtained for these fibres, while they also exhibited improved hydrophilic properties after plasma treatment. The results showed that fibroblasts proliferation, morphology, CMFDA dye expression and secretion of collagen were significantly increased in plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin scaffolds compared to PLACL nanofibrous scaffolds. The obtained results prove that the plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold is a potential biocomposite material for skin tissue regeneration.

  5. An automated design and fabrication pipeline for improving the strength of 3D printed artifacts under tensile loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al, Can Mert; Yaman, Ulas

    2018-05-01

    In the scope of this study, an alternative automated method to the conventional design and fabrication pipeline of 3D printers is developed by using an integrated CAD/CAE/CAM approach. It increases the load carrying capacity of the parts by constructing heterogeneous infill structures. Traditional CAM software of Additive Manufacturing machinery starts with a design model in STL file format which only includes data about the outer boundary in the triangular mesh form. Depending on the given infill percentage, the algorithm running behind constructs the interior of the artifact by using homogeneous infill structures. As opposed to the current CAM software, the proposed method provides a way to construct heterogeneous infill structures with respect to the Von Misses stress field results obtained from a finite element analysis. Throughout the work, Rhinoceros3D is used for the design of the parts along with Grasshopper3D, an algorithmic design tool for Rhinoceros3D. In addition, finite element analyses are performed using Karamba3D, a plug-in for Grasshopper3D. According to the results of the tensile tests, the method offers an improvement of load carrying capacity about 50% compared to traditional slicing algorithms of 3D printing.

  6. Facile and scalable fabrication engineering of fullerenol nanoparticles by improved alkaline-oxidation approach and its antioxidant potential in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-yang; Xiong, Feng-xia; Fan, Yi-kang; Li, Juan; Wang, He-zhong; Xing, Geng-mei; Yan, Feng-ming; Tai, Fu-ju; He, Rui

    2016-11-01

    A feasible in operation, labor-saving and low-cost one-step technology to fabricate fullerenol nanoparticles (FNPs) up to 10 g in laboratory was developed by improved alkaline-oxidation approach using moderately concentrated sodium hydroxide solution as the hydroxylation agent and o-dichlorobenzene as the solvent. This strategy paves the avenue for industrial-scale bulk production of FNPs. The resulted product, [C60(OH)22·8H2O]n, were characterized by various measurements including matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectrophotometer, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic light scattering analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and electron spin resonance spectrometer. Radical scavenging assay in vitro confirmed the high efficiency of water-soluble [C60(OH)22·8H2O]n as a novel radical scavenger. Furthermore, [C60(OH)22·8H2O]n as an excellent candidate has the potential to serve as the plant defense stimulation agent in maize.

  7. Facile and scalable fabrication engineering of fullerenol nanoparticles by improved alkaline-oxidation approach and its antioxidant potential in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fu-yang; Xiong, Feng-xia; Fan, Yi-kang; Li, Juan; Wang, He-zhong; Xing, Geng-mei; Yan, Feng-ming; Tai, Fu-ju; He, Rui

    2016-01-01

    A feasible in operation, labor-saving and low-cost one-step technology to fabricate fullerenol nanoparticles (FNPs) up to 10 g in laboratory was developed by improved alkaline-oxidation approach using moderately concentrated sodium hydroxide solution as the hydroxylation agent and o-dichlorobenzene as the solvent. This strategy paves the avenue for industrial-scale bulk production of FNPs. The resulted product, [C_6_0(OH)_2_2·8H_2O]_n, were characterized by various measurements including matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, high-resolution "1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectrophotometer, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic light scattering analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and electron spin resonance spectrometer. Radical scavenging assay in vitro confirmed the high efficiency of water-soluble [C_6_0(OH)_2_2·8H_2O]_n as a novel radical scavenger. Furthermore, [C_6_0(OH)_2_2·8H_2O]_n as an excellent candidate has the potential to serve as the plant defense stimulation agent in maize.

  8. Fabrication of a nanofibrous scaffold with improved bioactivity for culture of human dermal fibroblasts for skin regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekaran, Arun Richard; Venugopal, J; Sundarrajan, S; Ramakrishna, S, E-mail: nnijrv@nus.edu.s [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-02-15

    Engineering dermal substitutes with electrospun nanofibres have lately been of prime importance for skin tissue regeneration. Simple electrospinning technology served to produce nanofibrous scaffolds morphologically and structurally similar to the extracellular matrix of native tissues. The nanofibrous scaffolds of poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PLACL) and PLACL/gelatin complexes were fabricated by the electrospinning process. These nanofibres were characterized for fibre morphology, membrane porosity, wettability and chemical properties by FTIR analysis to culture human foreskin fibroblasts for skin tissue engineering. The nanofibre diameter was obtained between 282 and 761 nm for PLACL and PLACL/gelatin scaffolds; expressions of amino and carboxyl groups and porosity up to 87% were obtained for these fibres, while they also exhibited improved hydrophilic properties after plasma treatment. The results showed that fibroblasts proliferation, morphology, CMFDA dye expression and secretion of collagen were significantly increased in plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin scaffolds compared to PLACL nanofibrous scaffolds. The obtained results prove that the plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold is a potential biocomposite material for skin tissue regeneration.

  9. Facile and scalable fabrication engineering of fullerenol nanoparticles by improved alkaline-oxidation approach and its antioxidant potential in maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fu-yang [Henan Agricultural University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Grain Crops, State Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science, College of Life Science (China); Xiong, Feng-xia; Fan, Yi-kang [Henan Agricultural University, NanoAgro Center, College of Plant Protection (China); Li, Juan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lab. for Bio-Environmental Health Sciences of Nanoscale Materials, Institute of High Energy Physics (China); Wang, He-zhong [Henan Agricultural University, NanoAgro Center, College of Plant Protection (China); Xing, Geng-mei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lab. for Bio-Environmental Health Sciences of Nanoscale Materials, Institute of High Energy Physics (China); Yan, Feng-ming [Henan Agricultural University, NanoAgro Center, College of Plant Protection (China); Tai, Fu-ju, E-mail: taifj2008@163.com [Henan Agricultural University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Grain Crops, State Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science, College of Life Science (China); He, Rui, E-mail: herui@henau.edu.cn [Henan Agricultural University, NanoAgro Center, College of Plant Protection (China)

    2016-11-15

    A feasible in operation, labor-saving and low-cost one-step technology to fabricate fullerenol nanoparticles (FNPs) up to 10 g in laboratory was developed by improved alkaline-oxidation approach using moderately concentrated sodium hydroxide solution as the hydroxylation agent and o-dichlorobenzene as the solvent. This strategy paves the avenue for industrial-scale bulk production of FNPs. The resulted product, [C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22}·8H{sub 2}O]{sub n}, were characterized by various measurements including matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, high-resolution {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectrophotometer, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic light scattering analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and electron spin resonance spectrometer. Radical scavenging assay in vitro confirmed the high efficiency of water-soluble [C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22}·8H{sub 2}O]{sub n} as a novel radical scavenger. Furthermore, [C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22}·8H{sub 2}O]{sub n} as an excellent candidate has the potential to serve as the plant defense stimulation agent in maize.

  10. Measuring and Comparing Descend in Elite Race Cycling with a Perspective on Real-Time Feedback for Improving Individual Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijne, M.M.; Bregman, D.J.J.; Schwab, A.L.; Espinosa, Hugo G.; Rowlands, David R.; Shepherd, Jonathan; Thiel, David V.

    2018-01-01

    Descend technique and performance vary among elite racing cyclists and it is not clear what slower riders should do to improve their performance. An observation study was performed of the descending technique of members of a World Tour cycling team and the technique of each member was compared with

  11. Impact of accreditation on improvement of operational inputs after two cycles of assessments in some Ghanaian universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dattey, Kwame; Westerheijden, Don F.; Hofman, W.H.A.

    2017-01-01

    The study assesses the influence of accreditation, after two cycles of evaluation on some selected Ghanaian universities. This was done by examining the changes that had occurred in specified indicators, mainly because of the implementation of suggestions for improvement made by the previous cycle’s

  12. Measuring and Comparing Descend in Elite Race Cycling with a Perspective on Real-Time Feedback for Improving Individual Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Reijne, M.M.; Bregman, D.J.J.; Schwab, A.L.; Espinosa, Hugo G.; Rowlands, David R.; Shepherd, Jonathan; Thiel, David V.

    2018-01-01

    Descend technique and performance vary among elite racing cyclists and it is not clear what slower riders should do to improve their performance. An observation study was performed of the descending technique of members of a World Tour cycling team and the technique of each member was compared with the fastest descender amongst them. The obtained data gives us guidelines for rider specific feedback in order to improve his performance. The bicycles were equipped with a system that could measur...

  13. Fabrication of divertor mock-up with ODS-Cu and W by the improved brazing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokitani, M.; Hamaji, Y.; Hiraoka, Y.; Masuzaki, S.; Tamura, H.; Noto, H.; Tanaka, T.; Muroga, T.; Sagara, A.; FFHR Design Group

    2017-07-01

    Copper alloy has been considered as a divertor cooling tube or heat sink not only in the helical reactor FFHR-d1 but also in the tokamak DEMO reactor, because it has a high thermal conductivity. This work focused on applying an oxide dispersion strengthened copper alloy (ODS-Cu), GlidCop® (Cu-0.3 wt%Al2O3) as the divertor heat sink material of FFHR-d1. This alloy has superior high temperature yield strength exceeding 300 MPa at room temperature even after annealing up to ~1000 °C. The change in material properties of Pure-Cu, GlidCop® and CuCrZr by neutron irradiation are summarized in this paper. A primary dose limit is the radiation-induced hardening/softening (~0.2 dpa/1-2 dpa) which has a temperature dependence. According to such an evaluation, the GlidCop® can be selected as the current best candidate material in the commercial base of the divertor heat sink, and its temperature should be maintained as close as possible to 300 °C during operation. Bonding between the W armour and the GlidCop® heat sink was successfully performed by using an improved brazing technique with BNi-6 (Ni-11%P) filler material. The bonding strength was measured by a three-point bending test and reached up to approximately 200 MPa. Surprisingly, several specimens showed an obvious yield point. This means that the BNi-6 brazing (bonding) layer caused relaxation of the applied stress. The small-scale divertor mock-up of the W/BNi-6/GlidCop® was successfully fabricated by using the improved brazing technique. The heat loading test was carried out by the electron beam device ACT2 in NIFS. The mock-up showed an excellent heat removal capability for use in the FFHR-d1 divertor.

  14. Monitoring the Carbon Cycle: Improving Our Ability to Proved Policy Relevant Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhwiler, L.

    2017-12-01

    Humans have altered the energy balance of the climate system mainly by producing and consuming fossil fuels, but also by emissions from food production. Manufacture and use of halocarbons, many of which are also strong greenhouse gases (GHGs) have added to anthropogenic radiative forcing. In response, the global atmosphere has warmed over the last half century at a rate of 0.17°C. The largest contribution to radiative forcing is due to CO2, and at present, about half of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions have been taken up by the oceans and terrestrial biosphere. The size of this "carbon emission discount" may change in the future as more carbon accumulates in the oceans, as human alter landscapes, and as climate changes. Efforts to limit global average temperature increases to 2°C and avoid the most catastrophic consequences of climate change depend on keeping track of both human emissions of greenhouse gases and changes in natural fluxes of carbon and nitrogen that occur in response to human activities and changing climate. Global in situ network observations provide information about changes in global GHG abundances over recent decades, as well as changing distributions between hemispheres. This information gives insight into changes in global and hemispheric sources and sinks of GHGs. It is, however, currently difficult to obtain robust information about regional sources and to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic fluxes. Information about regional sources is needed for GHG policymaking, while discrimination of natural sources is necessary for detection of trends in GHG fluxes and evaluation of coupled carbon cycle climate models. Although column average GHG abundances from space-based remote sensing data could provide considerable constraints on GHG budgets, there are still technical challenges to be overcome. Possible strategies for making progress involve greater increased observational coverage and more international collaboration, as well as

  15. Improvement of characteristic statistic algorithm and its application on equilibrium cycle reloading optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Shi, X.; Wang, B.

    2006-01-01

    A brief introduction of characteristic statistic algorithm (CSA) is given in the paper, which is a new global optimization algorithm to solve the problem of PWR in-core fuel management optimization. CSA is modified by the adoption of back propagation neural network and fast local adjustment. Then the modified CSA is applied to PWR Equilibrium Cycle Reloading Optimization, and the corresponding optimization code of CSA-DYW is developed. CSA-DYW is used to optimize the equilibrium cycle of 18 month reloading of Daya bay nuclear plant Unit 1 reactor. The results show that CSA-DYW has high efficiency and good global performance on PWR Equilibrium Cycle Reloading Optimization. (authors)

  16. Environmental life cycle assessment of Italian mozzarella cheese: Hotspots and improvement opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Riva, A; Burek, J; Kim, D; Thoma, G; Cassandro, M; De Marchi, M

    2017-10-01

    The present study investigated a cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment to estimate the environmental impacts associated with Italian mozzarella cheese consumption. The differences between mozzarella produced from raw milk and mozzarella produced from curd were studied, and differences in manufacturing processes have been emphasized in order to provide guidance for targeted improvements at this phase. Specifically, the third-largest Italian mozzarella producer was surveyed to collect site-specific manufacturing data. The Ecoinvent v3.2 database was used for secondary data, whereas SimaPro 8.1 was the modeling software. The inventory included inputs from farm activities to end of life disposal of wasted mozzarella and packaging. Additionally, plant-specific information was used to assign major inputs, such as electricity, natural gas, packaging, and chemicals to specific products; however, where disaggregated information was not provided, milk solids allocation was applied. Notably, loss of milk solids was accounted during the manufacture, moreover mozzarella waste and transport were considered during distribution, retail, and consumption phases. Feed production and animal emissions were the main drivers of raw milk production. Electricity and natural gas usage, packaging (cardboard and plastic), transport, wastewater treatment, and refrigerant loss affected the emissions from a farm gate-to-dairy plant gate perspective. Post-dairy plant gate effects were mainly determined by electricity usage for storage of mozzarella, transport of mozzarella, and waste treatment. The average emissions were 6.66 kg of CO 2 equivalents and 45.1 MJ of cumulative energy demand/kg of consumed mozzarella produced directly from raw milk, whereas mozzarella from purchased curd had larger emissions than mozzarella from raw milk due to added transport of curd from specialty manufacturing plants, as well as electricity usage from additional processes at the mozzarella plant that are required

  17. Technical study report on fuel fabrication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Shusaku; Tanaka, Kenya; Ono, Kiyoshi; Iwasa, Katsuyoshi; Hoshino, Yasushi; Shinkai, Yasuo

    2000-07-01

    The feasibility study of FBR and related fuel cycle is performed for developing the FBR recycle system which ensures safety, economic competitiveness, efficient utilization of resources, reduction of environmental burden and enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation under consistency of FBR reactor and fuel cycle systems. In this study, a conceptual design study and system characteristics evaluation are conducted for fuel fabrication systems of pellet process, vibropack process for oxide and nitride fuel and casting process for metal fuel. Technical issues in each process are also extracted. In 1999 fiscal year, a conceptual design study were conducted for the fuel fabrication plants adopting (1) the short pellet process which simplifies the conventional MOX pellet fabrication processes, (2) vibropack processes of aqueous gelation process, improved RIAR process, improved ANL process and fluoride volatility process, (3) casting processes of injection process, centrifuging process. As a result, attainable perspective was obtained for each fuel fabrication system through the evaluation of apparatuses, layout and facility volume, etc. In each fuel fabrication system, technical issues for practical use were made clear. Hereafter, more detailed study will be performed for each system, and research programs for phase II study will be planned. (author)

  18. BeatMark Software to Reduce the Cost of X-Ray Mirror Fabrication by Optimization of Polishing and Metrology cycle, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For X-Ray optics, polishing the mirrors is one of the most costly steps in the fabrication of the system. BeatMark software will significantly decrease the cost of...

  19. Cycle chemistry monitoring system as means of improving the reliability of the equipment at the power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegoshina, O. V.; Voronov, V. N.; Yarovoy, V. O.; Bolshakova, N. A.

    2017-11-01

    There are many problems in domestic energy at the present that require urgent solutions in the near future. One of these problems - the aging of the main and auxiliary equipment. Wear of equipment is the cause of decrease reliability and efficiency of power plants. Reliability of the equipment are associated with the introduction of cycle chemistry monitoring system. The most damageable equipment’s are boilers (52.2 %), turbines (12.6 %) and heating systems (12.3 %) according to the review of failure rate on the power plants. The most part of the damageability of the boiler is heated surfaces (73.2 %). According to the Russian technical requirements, the monitoring systems are responsible to reduce damageability the boiler heating surfaces and to increase the reliability of the equipment. All power units capacity of over 50 MW are equipped with cycle chemistry monitoring systems in order to maintain water chemistry within operating limits. The main idea of cycle chemistry monitoring systems is to improve water chemistry at power plants. According to the guidelines, cycle chemistry monitoring systems of a single unit depends on its type (drum or once-through boiler) and consists of: 20…50 parameters of on-line chemical analyzers; 20…30 «grab» sample analyses (daily) and about 15…20 on-line monitored operating parameters. The operator of modern power plant uses with many data at different points of steam/water cycle. Operators do not can estimate quality of the cycle chemistry due to the large volume of daily and every shift information and dispersion of data, lack of systematization. In this paper, an algorithm for calculating the quality index developed for improving control the water chemistry of the condensate, feed water and prevent scaling and corrosion in the steam/water cycle.

  20. Recent developments in thermally-driven seawater desalination: Energy efficiency improvement by hybridization of the MED and AD cycles

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2015-01-01

    The energy, water and environment nexus is a crucial factor when considering the future development of desalination plants or industry in the water-stressed economies. New generation of desalination processes or plants has to meet the stringent environment discharge requirements and yet the industry remains highly energy efficient and sustainable when producing good potable water. Water sources, either brackish or seawater, have become more contaminated as feed while the demand for desalination capacities increase around the world. One immediate solution for energy efficiency improvement comes from the hybridization of the proven desalination processes to the newer processes of desalination: For example, the integration of the available thermally-driven to adsorption desalination (AD) cycles where significant thermodynamic synergy can be attained when cycles are combined. For these hybrid cycles, a quantum improvement in energy efficiency as well as in increase in water production can be expected. The advent of MED with AD cycles, or simply called the MEDAD cycles, is one such example where seawater desalination can be pursued and operated in cogeneration with the electricity production plants: The hybrid desalination cycles utilize only the low exergy bled-steam at low temperatures, complemented with waste exhaust or renewable solar thermal heat at temperatures between 60 and 80. °C. In this paper, the authors have reported their pioneered research on aspects of AD and related hybrid MEDAD cycles, both at theoretical models and experimental pilots. Using the cogeneration of electricity and desalination concept, the authors examined the cost apportionment of fuel cost by the quality or exergy of working steam for such cogeneration configurations.

  1. Improvement of Taihu water quality by the technology of immobilized nitrogen cycle bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhengkui; Zhang Weidong; Zhu Jiating; Pu Peimin; Hu Weipin; Hu Chunhua; Chen Baojun; Li Bo; Cheng Xiaoying; Zhang Shengzhao; Fan Yunqi

    2002-01-01

    Experimental studies were carried out on the purification of eutrophic Taihu Lake water by dynamic experiment using immobilized nitrogen cycle bacteria (INCB). The results showed that the eutrophic water of Taihu Lake can be purified effectively as it passes through the experimental reactor into which some immobilized nitrogen cycle bacteria were put. The removal efficiencies for Total N (TN), NH 4 + -N with immobilized nitrogen cycle bacteria were 72.4% and 85.6%, respectively. It was found that the immobilized nitrogen cycle bacteria also have purificatory effect on eutrophic water of Taihu Lake at winter temperature (7 degree C), and that the removal efficiencies for Total N (TN), NH 4 + -N were 55.6%, and 58.9%, respectively. The removal efficiencies for TN and NH 4 + -N depend on the time the water stays in the experimental reactor

  2. Improvement by the Life Cycle Control System of University Production With Use of CALS-Tehnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy I. Dreizis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of management by life cycle of production of university with use of CALS technologies is described. Tasks of service of marketing and the quality management department, connected with university product quality control are defined

  3. An Improved Multi-Evaporator Adsorption Desalination Cycle for GCC Countries

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-01-01

    , the domestic oil consumption of Saudi Arabia may exceed its production capacity by 2040. Innovative and sustainable water production solutions are needed urgently for future water supplies without environment impact. In this paper, a hybrid desalination cycle

  4. Development of an improved two-cycle process for recovering uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.M.; Chen, H.J.; Tsai, Y.M.; Lee, T.W.; Ting, G.

    1987-01-01

    An improved two-cycle separation process for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid by extraction with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) plus dibutyl butylphosphonate (DBBP) in kerosene has been developed and demonstrated successfully in bench-scale, continuous mixer-settler tests. The sulfuric acid and water scrubbing steps for the recycled extraction in the second cycle solve the problems of the contamination and dilution of the phosphoric acid by the ammonium ion and water and also avoid the formation of undesirable phosphatic precipitates during the subsequent extraction of uranium by recycled organic extractant

  5. Use of polyethylene glycol for the improvement of the cycling stability of bischofite as thermal energy storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Andrea; Ushak, Svetlana; Galleguillos, Hector; Fernandez, Angel; Cabeza, Luisa F.; Grágeda, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bischofite as phase change material for TES is studied. • Thermophysical properties of bischofite mixtures with PEG were determined. • The aim was to improve the cycling stability of bischofite. • The heating and cooling during 30 cycles were measured. • The most stable sample was bischofite + 5% PEG 2 000. - Abstract: Bischofite is a by-product of the non-metallic mining industry. It has been evaluated as phase change material in thermal energy storage, but it shows little cycling stability, therefore in this paper the mixture of bischofite with an additive was studied. Since polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a PCM itself, in this paper PEG (with different molecular weights) is used as additive in a PCM (bischofite) to improve its thermal behaviour. Results show that adding 5% PEG 2 000 to bischofite gives a more cycling stable PCM without affecting its melting temperature neither decreasing significantly its heat of fusion. This research shows that mixing an inorganic PCM with an organic additive can be a good option to improve the thermal performance of the PCM

  6. Teflon/SiO2 Bilayer Passivation for Improving the Electrical Reliability of Oxide TFTs Fabricated Using a New Two-Photomask Self-Alignment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Shang, Ming-Chi; Li, Bo-Jyun; Lin, Yu-Zuo; Wang, Shea-Jue; Lee, Win-Der; Hung, Bohr-Ran

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a two-photomask process for fabricating amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) that exhibit a self-aligned structure. The fabricated TFTs, which lack etching-stop (ES) layers, have undamaged a-IGZO active layers that facilitate superior performance. In addition, we demonstrate a bilayer passivation method that uses a polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) and SiO2 combination layer for improving the electrical reliability of the fabricated TFTs. Teflon was deposited as a buffer layer through thermal evaporation. The Teflon layer exhibited favorable compatibility with the underlying IGZO channel layer and effectively protected the a-IGZO TFTs from plasma damage during SiO2 deposition, resulting in a negligible initial performance drop in the a-IGZO TFTs. Compared with passivation-free a-IGZO TFTs, passivated TFTs exhibited superior stability even after 168 h of aging under ambient air at 95% relative humidity. PMID:28788026

  7. Teflon/SiO₂ Bilayer Passivation for Improving the Electrical Reliability of Oxide TFTs Fabricated Using a New Two-Photomask Self-Alignment Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Shang, Ming-Chi; Li, Bo-Jyun; Lin, Yu-Zuo; Wang, Shea-Jue; Lee, Win-Der; Hung, Bohr-Ran

    2015-04-13

    This study proposes a two-photomask process for fabricating amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) that exhibit a self-aligned structure. The fabricated TFTs, which lack etching-stop (ES) layers, have undamaged a-IGZO active layers that facilitate superior performance. In addition, we demonstrate a bilayer passivation method that uses a polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) and SiO₂ combination layer for improving the electrical reliability of the fabricated TFTs. Teflon was deposited as a buffer layer through thermal evaporation. The Teflon layer exhibited favorable compatibility with the underlying IGZO channel layer and effectively protected the a-IGZO TFTs from plasma damage during SiO₂ deposition, resulting in a negligible initial performance drop in the a-IGZO TFTs. Compared with passivation-free a-IGZO TFTs, passivated TFTs exhibited superior stability even after 168 h of aging under ambient air at 95% relative humidity.

  8. Teflon/SiO2 Bilayer Passivation for Improving the Electrical Reliability of Oxide TFTs Fabricated Using a New Two-Photomask Self-Alignment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a two-photomask process for fabricating amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs that exhibit a self-aligned structure. The fabricated TFTs, which lack etching-stop (ES layers, have undamaged a-IGZO active layers that facilitate superior performance. In addition, we demonstrate a bilayer passivation method that uses a polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon and SiO2 combination layer for improving the electrical reliability of the fabricated TFTs. Teflon was deposited as a buffer layer through thermal evaporation. The Teflon layer exhibited favorable compatibility with the underlying IGZO channel layer and effectively protected the a-IGZO TFTs from plasma damage during SiO2 deposition, resulting in a negligible initial performance drop in the a-IGZO TFTs. Compared with passivation-free a-IGZO TFTs, passivated TFTs exhibited superior stability even after 168 h of aging under ambient air at 95% relative humidity.

  9. Use of ICSI in IVF cycles in women with tubal ligation does not improve pregnancy or live birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimstad, F W; Nangia, Ajay K; Luke, B; Stern, J E; Mak, W

    2016-12-01

    Does ICSI improve outcomes in ART cycles without male factor, specifically in couples with a history of tubal ligation as their infertility diagnosis? The use of ICSI showed no significant improvement in fertilization rate and resulted in lower pregnancy and live birth (LB) rates for women with the diagnosis of tubal ligation and no male factor. Prior studies have suggested that ICSI use does not improve fertilization, pregnancy or LB rates in couples with non-male factor infertility. However, it is unknown whether couples with tubal ligation only diagnosis and therefore iatrogenic infertility could benefit from the use of ICSI during their ART cycles. Longitudinal cohort of nationally reported cycles in the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System (SART CORS) of ART cycles performed in the USA between 2004 and 2012. There was a total of 8102 first autologous fresh ART cycles from women with the diagnosis of tubal ligation only and no reported male factor in the SART database. Of these, 957 were canceled cycles and were excluded from the final analysis. The remaining cycles were categorized by the use of conventional IVF (IVF, n = 3956 cycles) or ICSI (n = 3189 cycles). The odds of fertilization, clinical intrauterine gestation (CIG) and LB were calculated by logistic regression modeling, and the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by adjusting for the confounders of year of treatment, maternal age, race and ethnicity, gravidity, number of oocytes retrieved, day of embryo transfer and number of embryos transferred. The main outcome measures of the study were odds of fertilization (2PN/total oocytes), clinical intrauterine gestation (CIG/cycle) and live birth (LB/cycle). The fertilization rate was higher in the ICSI versus IVF group (57.5% vs 49.1%); however, after adjustment this trend was no longer significant (AOR 1.14, 0.97-1.35). Interestingly, both odds of CIG (AOR 0.78, 0

  10. Fuel conversion efficiency improvements in a highly boosted spark-ignition engine with ultra-expansion cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tie; Zheng, Bin; Yin, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultra-expansion cycle SI engine is investigated. • An improvement of 9–26% in BSFC at most frequently operated conditions is obtained. • At high and medium loads, BSFC improvement is attributed to the increased combustion efficiency and reduced exhaust energy. • At low loads, reduction in pumping loss and exhaust energy is the primary contributors to BSFC improvement. • Technical challenge in practical application of this type of engine is discussed. - Abstract: A four-cylinder, intake boosted, port fuel injection (PFI), spark-ignition (SI) engine is modified to a three-cylinder engine with the outer two cylinders working in the conventional four stroke cycle and with the inner cylinder working only with the expansion and exhausting strokes. After calibration and validation of the engine cycle simulation models using the experimental data in the original engine, the performance of the three-cylinder engine with the ultra-expansion cycle is numerically studied. Compared to the original engine, the fuel consumptions under the most-frequently operated conditions are improved by 9–26% and the low fuel consumption area on the operating map are drastically enlarged for the ultra-expansion cycle engine with the proper design. Nonetheless, a higher intake boosting is needed for the ultra-expansion cycle engine to circumvent the significant drop in the wide-open-throttle (WOT) performance, and compression ratio of the combustion cylinder must be reduced to avoid knocking combustion. Despite of the reduced compression ratio, however, the total expansion ratio is increased to 13.8 with the extra expansion of the working gas in the inner cylinder. Compared to the conventional engine, the theoretical thermal efficiency is therefore increased by up to above 4.0% with the ultra-expansion cycle over the most load range. The energy balance analysis shows that the increased combustion efficiency, reduced exhaust energy and the extra expansion work in the

  11. Remotely controlled biking is associated with improved adherence to prescribed cycling speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, In Cheol; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with mobility impairment may benefit from passive exercise mode which can be subsequently enhanced by an active exercise program. However, it is unclear which exercise mode promotes higher adherence to prescribed exercise intensity. The goal of this project was to compare adherence to prescribed speed during passive and active cycling exercise. We used cross-over study design in which subjects followed the same cycling intensity prescription for passive and active exercise modes in a random sequence. Coefficient of variation (CV) and speed differences were used to estimate extent of deviation from the prescribed trajectory. CV varied from 5.2% to 20.4% for the active mode and from 2.8% to 4.5% for the passive mode respectively. Though the CV differences did not reach statistical significance, analysis of cycling speed adherence of 120-second periods showed significantly higher cycling adherence during passive mode for each target cycling speed. Our results indicated that the passive mode may promote exercise safety and efficacy by helping patients who have safety concerns such as the frail elderly, patients with cardiovascular conditions or people with other contraindications for excessive exertion during exercise, in following the optimal intensity trajectory prescribed by their provider.

  12. Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improving carbon dioxide yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2014-12-01

    A direct ethanol fuel cell has been operated under sinusoidal (AC) potential cycling conditions in order to increase the yield of carbon dioxide and thereby increase cell efficiency relative to operation at a fixed potential. At 80 °C, faradaic yields of CO2 as high as 25% have been achieved with a PtRu anode catalyst, while the maximum CO2 production at constant potential was 13%. The increased yields under cycling conditions have been attributed to periodic oxidative stripping of adsorbed CO. These results will be important in the optimization of operating conditions for direct ethanol fuel cells, where the benefits of potential cycling are projected to increase as catalysts that produce CO2 more efficiently are implemented.

  13. Improvement of system code importing evaluation of Life Cycle Analysis of tokamak fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobori, Hikaru; Kasada, Ryuta; Hiwatari, Ryoji; Konishi, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We incorporated the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of tokamak type DEMO reactor and following commercial reactors as an extension of a system code. • We calculated CO_2 emissions from reactor construction, operation and decommissioning that is considered as a major environmental cost. • We found that the objective of conceptual design of the tokamak fusion power reactor is moved by changing evaluation index. • The tokamak fusion reactor can reduce CO_2 emissions in the life cycle effectively by reduction of the amount involved in the replacement of internal components. • The tokamak fusion reactor achieves under 0.174$/kWh electricity cost, the tokamak fusion reactor is contestable with 1500 degrees-class LNG-fired combined cycle power plant. - Abstract: This study incorporate the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of tokamak type DEMO reactor and following commercial reactors as an extension of a system code to calculate CO_2 emissions from reactor construction, operation and decommissioning that is considered as a major environmental cost. Competitiveness of tokamak fusion power reactors is expected to be evaluated by the cost and environmental impact represented by the CO_2 emissions, compared with present and future power generating systems such as fossil, nuclear and renewables. Result indicated that (1) The objective of conceptual design of the tokamak fusion power reactor is moved by changing evaluation index. (2) The tokamak fusion reactor can reduce CO_2 emissions in the life cycle effectively by reduction of the amount involved in the replacement of internal components. (3) The tokamak fusion reactor achieves under 0.174$/kWh electricity cost, the tokamak fusion reactor is contestable with 1500 degrees-class LNG-fired combined cycle power plant.

  14. Improvement of system code importing evaluation of Life Cycle Analysis of tokamak fusion power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobori, Hikaru [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hiwatari, Ryoji [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We incorporated the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of tokamak type DEMO reactor and following commercial reactors as an extension of a system code. • We calculated CO{sub 2} emissions from reactor construction, operation and decommissioning that is considered as a major environmental cost. • We found that the objective of conceptual design of the tokamak fusion power reactor is moved by changing evaluation index. • The tokamak fusion reactor can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the life cycle effectively by reduction of the amount involved in the replacement of internal components. • The tokamak fusion reactor achieves under 0.174$/kWh electricity cost, the tokamak fusion reactor is contestable with 1500 degrees-class LNG-fired combined cycle power plant. - Abstract: This study incorporate the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of tokamak type DEMO reactor and following commercial reactors as an extension of a system code to calculate CO{sub 2} emissions from reactor construction, operation and decommissioning that is considered as a major environmental cost. Competitiveness of tokamak fusion power reactors is expected to be evaluated by the cost and environmental impact represented by the CO{sub 2} emissions, compared with present and future power generating systems such as fossil, nuclear and renewables. Result indicated that (1) The objective of conceptual design of the tokamak fusion power reactor is moved by changing evaluation index. (2) The tokamak fusion reactor can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the life cycle effectively by reduction of the amount involved in the replacement of internal components. (3) The tokamak fusion reactor achieves under 0.174$/kWh electricity cost, the tokamak fusion reactor is contestable with 1500 degrees-class LNG-fired combined cycle power plant.

  15. Intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise alleviates inflammation and improves endothelial progenitor cell count and bone density in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Min-Tser; Liu, Wen-Chih; Lin, Fu-Huang; Huang, Ching-Feng; Chen, Shao-Yuan; Liu, Chuan-Chieh; Lin, Shih-Hua; Lu, Kuo-Cheng; Wu, Chia-Chao

    2016-07-01

    Inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and mineral bone disease are critical factors contributing to morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Physical exercise alleviates inflammation and increases bone density. Here, we investigated the effects of intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise on HD patients. Forty end-stage renal disease patients undergoing HD were randomly assigned to either an exercise or control group. The patients in the exercise group performed a cycling program consisting of a 5-minute warm-up, 20 minutes of cycling at the desired workload, and a 5-minute cool down during 3 HD sessions per week for 3 months. Biochemical markers, inflammatory cytokines, nutritional status, the serum endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) count, bone mineral density, and functional capacity were analyzed. After 3 months of exercise, the patients in the exercise group showed significant improvements in serum albumin levels, the body mass index, inflammatory cytokine levels, and the number of cells positive for CD133, CD34, and kinase insert domain-conjugating receptor. Compared with the exercise group, the patients in the control group showed a loss of bone density at the femoral neck and no increases in EPCs. The patients in the exercise group also had a significantly greater 6-minute walk distance after completing the exercise program. Furthermore, the number of EPCs significantly correlated with the 6-minute walk distance both before and after the 3-month program. Intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise programs can effectively alleviate inflammation and improve nutrition, bone mineral density, and exercise tolerance in HD patients.

  16. Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving VHTR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang H. Oh

    2006-01-01

    Generation IV reactors will need to be intrinsically safe, having a proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and several advantages relative to existing light water reactor (LWR). They, however, must still overcome certain technical issues and the cost barrier before it can be built in the U.S. The establishment of a nuclear power cost goal of 3.3 cents/kWh is desirable in order to compete with fossil combined-cycle, gas turbine power generation. This goal requires approximately a 30 percent reduction in power cost for state-of-the-art nuclear plants. It has been demonstrated that this large cost differential can be overcome only by technology improvements that lead to a combination of better efficiency and more compatible reactor materials. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle in the secondary power conversion side that can be applied to the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR), (2) to improve the plant net efficiency by using the carbon dioxide Brayton cycle, and (3) to test material compatibility at high temperatures and pressures. The reduced volumetric flow rate of carbon dioxide due to higher density compared to helium will reduce compression work, which eventually increase plant net efficiency

  17. Improving broadcast performance of radio duty-cycled Internet-of-Things devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guclu, S.S.; Özcelebi, T.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Asynchronous Radio Duty Cycling (ARDC) protocols can make embedded networked devices more energy efficient by keeping their radio off most of the time without a need for synchronization between devices. Some ARDC protocols can operate under 6LoWPAN adaptation layer in order to enable the vision of

  18. Improvement of chemical control in the water-steam cycle of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajakovic-Ognjanovic, Vladana N.; Zivojinovic, Dragana Z.; Grgur, Branimir N.; Rajakovic, Ljubinka V.

    2011-01-01

    A more effective chemical control in the water-steam cycle (WSC) of thermal power plants (TPP) is proposed in this paper. Minimization of corrosion effects by the production of ultra pure water and its strict control is the basis of all the investigated processes. The research involved the analysis of water samples in the WSC through key water quality parameters and by the most convenient analytical tools. The necessity for the stricter chemical control is demonstrated through a concrete example of the TPP Nikola Tesla, Serbia. After a thorough analysis of the chemical control system of the WSC, diagnostic and control parameters were chosen for continuous systematic measurements. Sodium and chloride ions were recognized as the ions which indicate the corrosion potential of the water and give insight into the proper production and maintenance of water within the WSC. Chemical transformations of crucial corrosion elements, iron and silica, were considered and related to their quantitative values. - Research highlights: → The more effective chemical control in the water-steam cycle of thermal power plant Nikola Tesla, Serbia. → In chemical control the diagnostic and control parameters were optimized and introduced for the systematic measurements in the water-steam cycle. → Sodium and chloride ions were recognized as ions which indicate corrosion potential of water and give insight to proper function of production and maintenance of water within water-team cycle. → Chemical transformations of crucial corrosion elements, iron and silica are considered and related with their quantitative values.

  19. Mouth rinsing improves cycling endurance performance during Ramadan fasting in a hot humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Muhamed, Ahmad Munir; Mohamed, Nazirah Gulam; Ismail, Norjana; Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth rinsing during endurance cycling in a hot humid environment (32 °C and 75% relative humidity) on athletes in the Ramadan fasted state. Nine trained adolescent male cyclists completed 3 trials that consisted of a carbohydrate mouth-rinse (CMR), a placebo mouth-rinse (PMR), and a no-rinse (NOR) trial during the last 2 weeks of Ramadan. Each trial consisted of a preloading cycle at 65% peak rate of oxygen consumption for 30 min followed by a 10-km time trial (TT10 km) under hot humid condition. During the CMR and PMR trials, each cyclist rinsed his mouth with 25 mL of the solution for 5 s before expectorating the solution pre-exercise, after 5, 15, and 25 min of the preloading cycle, and 15 s prior to the start of TT10 km. Time to complete the TT10 km was significantly faster in the CMR and PMR trials compared with the NOR trial (12.9 ± 1.7 and 12.6 ± 1.7 vs. 16.8 ± 1.6 min, respectively; p benefits compared with a no-rinse condition on TT10 km performance in acute Ramadan fasted subjects during endurance cycling in a heat stress environment.

  20. Group studio cycling; an effective intervention to improve cardio-metabolic health in overweight physically inactive individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Faulkner, SH; Pugh, JK; Hood, TM; Menon, K; King, JA; Nimmo, MA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Supervised, laboratory based studies of high intensity interval training (HIIT) is effective at improving health markers in groups at risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Studio cycling, incorporating aerobic and high intensity exercise, may offer a platform for the implementation of HIIT within the wider community. \\ud Methods: Eight, overweight, physically inactive (95%. Mean and peak intensity were equivalent to 83% and 97% of HRmax·VO2max increased from 27.1 ± 4.7 m...

  1. Potential performance improvement using a reacting gas (nitrogin tetroxide) as the working fluid in a closed Brayton cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of an analysis to estimate the performance that could be obtained by using a chemically reacting gas (nitrogen tetroxide) as the working fluid in a closed Brayton cycle are presented. Compared with data for helium as the working fluid, these results indicate efficiency improvements from 4 to 90 percent, depending on turbine inlet temperature, pressures, and gas residence time in heat transfer equipment.

  2. Improvements of fabrication processes and enhancement of critical current densities in (Ba,K)Fe2As2 HIP wires and tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyon, Sunseng; Suwa, Takahiro; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi; Takano, Katsutoshi; Kajitani, Hideki; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Awaji, Satoshi; Zhou, Nan; Shi, Zhixiang

    2018-05-01

    We fabricated (Ba,K)Fe2As2 superconducting wires and tapes using the powder-in-tube method and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). HIP wires and tapes showed a high value of transport critical current density (J c) exceeding 100 kAcm‑2 at T = 4.2 K and the self-field. Transport J c in the HIP wire reached 38 kAcm‑2 in a high magnetic field of 100 kOe. This value is almost twice larger than the previous highest value of J c among round wires using iron-based superconductors. Enhancement of J c in the wires and tapes was caused by improvement of the drawing process, which caused degradation of the core, formation of microcracks, weak links between grains, and random orientation of grains. Details of the effect of the improved fabrication processes on the J c are discussed.

  3. What are the elements required to improve exposure estimates in life cycle assessments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Margni, Manuele

    2016-01-01

    human toxicity and ecosystem toxicity of chemicals posed by different product life cycle stages are characterized in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase. Exposure and effect quantification as part of LCIA toxicity characterization faces numerous challenges related to inventory analysis (e.......g. number and quantity of chemicals emitted), substance-specific modelling (e.g. organics, inorganics, nano-materials) in various environments and time horizons, human and ecosystem exposure quantification (e.g. exposed organisms and exposure pathways), and toxicity end-points (e.g. carcinogenicity...... chemical exposure and harmful effects. Thereby, we structure this study of key elements identified as areas of elevated public, industrial, regulatory, and scientific concerns. We found the majority of missing elements are directly related to the definition of exposed populations (both ecosystems...

  4. A study on improving international political and diplomatic acceptability of advanced nuclear fuel cycle for Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joeng Hoon

    2011-03-01

    In order to establish an advanced nuclear fuel cycle program for Korea, U.S. support and trust are imperative. In the midst of the negotiations for the renewal of the U.S.-South Korea agreement on peaceful nuclear cooperation, the two obvious components of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle - enrichment and reprocessing - have surfaced as major issues. Despite the United States' firm commitment to nonproliferation, South Korea is in dire need to advance its nuclear fuel cycle proportionate to its now significant nuclear energy program. This research project's objective is to put the U.S.-South Korea Nuclear Agreement into proper alliance perspective. The military alliance between the two countries have weathered decades of trials and tribulations. It is one of the most staunch alliances in existence in global politics. As such, the negotiations for the nuclear agreement must be dealt with in the context of the broader alliance relations, not to be lost in the technicalities of the nonproliferation arguments. But even so, South Korea's track record is far better than some of the states the United States has recently granted a most lenient nuclear agreement - India being a case in point. Fairness issue also surfaces when it comes to the agreement the United States has concluded with Japan. As an equally if not more important ally in Asia, South Korea must be permitted to make significant advancements in either enrichment or reprocessing procedures. This project argues that this is the appropriate direction given the history of the two nations' alliance relations. In the final analysis, this research puts forward the argument that the matter that should count the most is not the question of whether South Korea will proliferate or not, but rather whether the United States trusts its battle-tested ally, enough to help develop a peaceful and efficient advanced nuclear fuel cycle program in South Korea

  5. Near Zero Energy House (NZEH) Design Optimization to Improve Life Cycle Cost Performance Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Y.; Berawi, M. A.; Koesalamwardi, A. B.; Supriadi, L. S. R.

    2018-03-01

    Near Zero Energy House (NZEH) is a housing building that provides energy efficiency by using renewable energy technologies and passive house design. Currently, the costs for NZEH are quite expensive due to the high costs of the equipment and materials for solar panel, insulation, fenestration and other renewable energy technology. Therefore, a study to obtain the optimum design of a NZEH is necessary. The aim of the optimum design is achieving an economical life cycle cost performance of the NZEH. One of the optimization methods that could be utilized is Genetic Algorithm. It provides the method to obtain the optimum design based on the combinations of NZEH variable designs. This paper discusses the study to identify the optimum design of a NZEH that provides an optimum life cycle cost performance using Genetic Algorithm. In this study, an experiment through extensive design simulations of a one-level house model was conducted. As a result, the study provide the optimum design from combinations of NZEH variable designs, which are building orientation, window to wall ratio, and glazing types that would maximize the energy generated by photovoltaic panel. Hence, the design would support an optimum life cycle cost performance of the house.

  6. Analysis of different image-based biofeedback models for improving cycling performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbo, D.; Conforto, S.; Bernabucci, I.; Carli, M.; Schmid, M.; D'Alessio, T.

    2012-03-01

    Sport practice can take advantage from the quantitative assessment of task execution, which is strictly connected to the implementation of optimized training procedures. To this aim, it is interesting to explore the effectiveness of biofeedback training techniques. This implies a complete chain for information extraction containing instrumented devices, processing algorithms and graphical user interfaces (GUIs) to extract valuable information (i.e. kinematics, dynamics, and electrophysiology) to be presented in real-time to the athlete. In cycling, performance indexes displayed in a simple and perceivable way can help the cyclist optimize the pedaling. To this purpose, in this study four different GUIs have been designed and used in order to understand if and how a graphical biofeedback can influence the cycling performance. In particular, information related to the mechanical efficiency of pedaling is represented in each of the designed interfaces and then displayed to the user. This index is real-time calculated on the basis of the force signals exerted on the pedals during cycling. Instrumented pedals for bikes, already designed and implemented in our laboratory, have been used to measure those force components. A group of subjects underwent an experimental protocol and pedaled with (the interfaces have been used in a randomized order) and without graphical biofeedback. Preliminary results show how the effective perception of the biofeedback influences the motor performance.

  7. Fuel cycles using adulterated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksbank, R.E.; Bigelow, J.E.; Campbell, D.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Lindauer, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Adjustments in the U-Pu fuel cycle necessitated by decisions made to improve the nonproliferation objectives of the US are examined. The uranium-based fuel cycle, using bred plutonium to provide the fissile enrichment, is the fuel system with the highest degree of commercial development at the present time. However, because purified plutonium can be used in weapons, this fuel cycle is potentially vulnerable to diversion of that plutonium. It does appear that there are technologically sound ways in which the plutonium might be adulterated by admixture with 238 U and/or radioisotopes, and maintained in that state throughout the fuel cycle, so that the likelihood of a successful diversion is small. Adulteration of the plutonium in this manner would have relatively little effect on the operations of existing or planned reactors. Studies now in progress should show within a year or two whether the less expensive coprocessing scheme would provide adequate protection (coupled perhaps with elaborate conventional safeguards procedures) or if the more expensive spiked fuel cycle is needed as in the proposed civex pocess. If the latter is the case, it will be further necessary to determine the optimum spiking level, which could vary as much as a factor of a billion. A very basic question hangs on these determinations: What is to be the nature of the recycle fuel fabrication facilities. If the hot, fully remote fuel fabrication is required, then a great deal of further development work will be required to make the full cycle fully commercial

  8. Improving cycle stability of SnS anode for sodium-ion batteries by limiting Sn agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhui; Shi, Liang; Lan, Danni; Li, Quan

    2018-02-01

    Flower-like SnS nanostructures are obtained by a simple solvothermal method for anode applications in Na-ion batteries. We show experimental evidence of progressive Sn agglomeration and crystalline Na2S enrichment at the end of de-sodiation process of the SnS electrode, both of which contribute to the capacity decay of the electrode upon repeated cycles. By replacing the commonly adopted acetylene black conductive additive with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), the cycle stability of the SnS electrode is largely improved, which correlates well with the observed suppression of both Sn agglomeration and Na2S enrichment at the end of de-sodiation cycle. A full cell is assembled with the SnS/MWCNT anode and the P2-Na2/3Ni1/3Mn1/2Ti1/6O2 cathode. An initial energy density of 262 Wh/kg (normalized to the total mass of cathode and anode) is demonstrated for the full cell, which retains 71% of the first discharge capacity after 40 cycles.

  9. Improvement actions in waste management systems at the provincial scale based on a life cycle assessment evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigamonti, L., E-mail: lucia.rigamonti@polimi.it; Falbo, A.; Grosso, M.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • LCA was used for evaluating the performance of four provincial waste management systems. • Milano, Bergamo, Pavia and Mantova (Italy) are the provinces selected for the analysis. • Most of the data used to model the systems are primary. • Significant differences were found among the provinces located in the same Region. • LCA was used as a decision-supporting tool by Regione Lombardia. - Abstract: This paper reports some of the findings of the ‘GERLA’ project: GEstione Rifiuti in Lombardia – Analisi del ciclo di vita (Waste management in Lombardia – Life cycle assessment). The project was devoted to support Lombardia Region in the drafting of the new waste management plan by applying a life cycle thinking perspective. The present paper mainly focuses on four Provinces in the Region, which were selected based on their peculiarities. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was adopted as the methodology to assess the current performance of the integrated waste management systems, to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each of them and to design their perspective evolution as of year 2020. Results show that despite a usual business approach that is beneficial to all the provinces, the introduction of technological and management improvements to the system provides in general additional energy and environmental benefits for all four provinces. The same improvements can be easily extended to the whole Region, leading to increased environmental benefits from the waste management sector, in line with the targets set by the European Union for 2020.

  10. Thermal efficiency improvement in high output diesel engines a comparison of a Rankine cycle with turbo-compounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerasinghe, W.M.S.R.; Stobart, R.K.; Hounsham, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal management, in particular, heat recovery and utilisation in internal combustion engines result in improved fuel economy, reduced emissions, fast warm up and optimized cylinder head temperatures. turbo-compounding is a heat recovery technique that has been successfully used in medium and large scale engines. Heat recovery to a secondary fluid and expansion is used in large scale engines, such as in power plants in the form of heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) . The present paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of turbo-compounding and heat recovery and utilisation through a fluid power cycle, a technique that is also applicable to medium and small scale engines. In a fluid power cycle, the working fluid is stored in a reservoir and expanded subsequently. The reservoir acts as an energy buffer that improves the overall efficiency, significantly. This paper highlights the relative advantage of exhaust heat secondary power cycles over turbo-compounding with the aid of MATLAB based QSS Toolbox simulation results. Steam has been selected as the working fluid in this work for its superior heat capacity over organic fluids and gases.

  11. Improvement actions in waste management systems at the provincial scale based on a life cycle assessment evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigamonti, L.; Falbo, A.; Grosso, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • LCA was used for evaluating the performance of four provincial waste management systems. • Milano, Bergamo, Pavia and Mantova (Italy) are the provinces selected for the analysis. • Most of the data used to model the systems are primary. • Significant differences were found among the provinces located in the same Region. • LCA was used as a decision-supporting tool by Regione Lombardia. - Abstract: This paper reports some of the findings of the ‘GERLA’ project: GEstione Rifiuti in Lombardia – Analisi del ciclo di vita (Waste management in Lombardia – Life cycle assessment). The project was devoted to support Lombardia Region in the drafting of the new waste management plan by applying a life cycle thinking perspective. The present paper mainly focuses on four Provinces in the Region, which were selected based on their peculiarities. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was adopted as the methodology to assess the current performance of the integrated waste management systems, to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each of them and to design their perspective evolution as of year 2020. Results show that despite a usual business approach that is beneficial to all the provinces, the introduction of technological and management improvements to the system provides in general additional energy and environmental benefits for all four provinces. The same improvements can be easily extended to the whole Region, leading to increased environmental benefits from the waste management sector, in line with the targets set by the European Union for 2020

  12. Improvement actions in waste management systems at the provincial scale based on a life cycle assessment evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, L; Falbo, A; Grosso, M

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports some of the findings of the 'GERLA' project: GEstione Rifiuti in Lombardia - Analisi del ciclo di vita (Waste management in Lombardia - Life cycle assessment). The project was devoted to support Lombardia Region in the drafting of the new waste management plan by applying a life cycle thinking perspective. The present paper mainly focuses on four Provinces in the Region, which were selected based on their peculiarities. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was adopted as the methodology to assess the current performance of the integrated waste management systems, to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each of them and to design their perspective evolution as of year 2020. Results show that despite a usual business approach that is beneficial to all the provinces, the introduction of technological and management improvements to the system provides in general additional energy and environmental benefits for all four provinces. The same improvements can be easily extended to the whole Region, leading to increased environmental benefits from the waste management sector, in line with the targets set by the European Union for 2020. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Life-cycle Approach to Improve the Sustainability of Rural Water Systems in Resource-Limited Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Stacey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A WHO and UNICEF joint report states that in 2008, 884 million people lacked access to potable drinking water. A life-cycle approach to develop potable water systems may improve the sustainability for such systems, however, a review of the literature shows that such an approach has primarily been used for urban systems located in resourced countries. Although urbanization is increasing globally, over 40 percent of the world’s population is currently rural with many considered poor. In this paper, we present a first step towards using life-cycle assessment to develop sustainable rural water systems in resource-limited countries while pointing out the needs. For example, while there are few differences in costs and environmental impacts for many improved rural water system options, a system that uses groundwater with community standpipes is substantially lower in cost that other alternatives with a somewhat lower environmental inventory. However, a LCA approach shows that from institutional as well as community and managerial perspectives, sustainability includes many other factors besides cost and environment that are a function of the interdependent decision process used across the life cycle of a water system by aid organizations, water user committees, and household users. These factors often present the biggest challenge to designing sustainable rural water systems for resource-limited countries.

  14. Using NASA Products of the Water Cycle for Improved Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Engman, E. T.; Lawford, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    NASA Water Resources works within the Earth sciences and GEO community to leverage investments of space-based observation and modeling results including components of the hydrologic cycle into water resources management decision support tools for the goal towards the sustainable use of water. These Earth science hydrologic related observations and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years. Observations of this type enable assessment of numerous water resources management issues including water scarcity, extreme events of drought and floods, and water quality. Examples of water cycle estimates make towards the contributions to the water management community include snow cover and snowpack, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, precipitation, streamflow and ground water. The availability of water is also contingent on the quality of water and hence water quality is an important part of NASA Water Resources. Water quality activities include both nonpoint source (agriculture land use, ecosystem disturbances, impervious surfaces, etc.) and direct remote sensing ( i.e., turbidity, algae, aquatic vegetation, temperature, etc.). . The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its projects under five functional themes: 1) stream-flow and flood forecasting; 2) water consumptive use and irrigation (includes evapotranspiration); 3) drought; 4) water quality; and 5) climate impacts on water resources. Currently NASA Water Resources is supporting 21 funded projects with 11 additional projects being concluded. To maximize the use of NASA water cycle measurements end to projects are supported with strong links with decision support systems. The NASA Water Resources Program works closely with other government agencies NOAA, USDA-FAS, USGS, AFWA, USAID, universities, and non-profit, international, and private sector organizations. International water cycle applications include: 1) Famine Early Warning System Network

  15. A Novel Organic Rankine Cycle System with Improved Thermal Stability and Low Global Warming Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panesar Angad S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system for long haul truck application. Rather than typical tail pipe heat recovery configurations, the proposed setup exploits the gaseous streams that are already a load on the engine cooling module. The system uses dual loops connected only by the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR stream. A water blend study is conducted to identify suitable mixtures for the High Temperature (HT loop, while the Low Temperature (LT loop utilises a Low Global Warming (GWP Hydrofluoroether.

  16. An evaluation of UO2-CNT composites made by SPS as an accident tolerant nuclear fuel pellet and the feasibility of SPS as an economical fabrication process for the nuclear fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartas, Andrew R.

    The innovative and advanced purpose of this study is to understand and establish proper sintering procedures for Spark Plasma Sintering process in order to fabricate high density, high thermal conductivity UO2 -CNT pellets. Mixing quality and chemical reactions have been investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of various types of CNTs on the mixing and sintering quality of UO2-CNT pellets with SPS processing have been examined. The Archimedes Immersion Method, laser flash method, and FE-SEM will be used to investigate the density, thermal conductivity, grain size, pinning effects, and CNT dispersion of fabricated UO2-CNT pellets. Pre-fabricated CNT's were added to UO 2 powder and dispersed via sonication and/or ball milling and then made into composite nuclear pellets. An investigation of the economic impact of SPS on the nuclear fuel cycle for producing pure and composite UO2 fuels was conducted.

  17. Embroidered Copper Microwire Current Collector for Improved Cycling Performance of Silicon Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitung, Ben; Aguiló-Aguayo, Noemí; Bechtold, Thomas; Hahn, Horst; Janek, Jürgen; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2017-10-12

    Si holds great promise as an alloying anode material for Li-ion batteries with improved energy density because of its high theoretical specific capacity and favorable operation voltage range. However, the large volume expansion of Si during electrochemical reaction with Li and the associated adverse effects strongly limit its prospect for application. Here, we report on the use of three-dimensional instead of flat current collectors for high-capacity Si anodes in an attempt to mitigate the loss of electrical contact of active electrode regions as a result of structural disintegration with cycling. The current collectors were produced by technical embroidery and consist of interconnected Cu wires of diameter <150 µm. In comparison to Si/Li cells using a conventional Cu foil current collector, the embroidered microwire network-based cells show much enhanced capacity and reversibility due to a higher degree of tolerance to cycling.

  18. Improvement of CaO-based sorbent performance for CO{sub 2} looping cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilije Manovic; Edward J. Anthony [CANMET Energy Technology Centre-Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents research on CO{sub 2} capture by lime-based looping cycles. This is a new and promising technology that may help in mitigation of global warming and climate change caused primarily by the use of fossil fuels. The intensity of the anticipated changes urgently requires solutions such as the developing technologies for CO{sub 2} capture, especially those based on CaO looping cycles. This technology is at the pilot plant demonstration stage and there are still significant challenges that require solutions. The technology is based on a dual fluidized bed reactor which contains a carbonator - a unit for CO{sub 2} capture, and a calciner - a unit for CaO regeneration. The major technology components are well known from other technologies and easily applicable. However, even though CaO is a very good candidate as a solid CO{sub 2} carrier, its performance in a practical system still has significant limitations. Thus, research on CaO performance is critical and this paper discusses some of the more important problems and potential solutions that are being examined at CETC-O. To date, the most promising methods were reactivation of spent sorbent by steam, thermal pretreatment of sorbent, and doping, most likely with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The combination of these methods, including pelletization, should provide us with enhanced sorbent performance. 75 refs., 19 figs.

  19. Short term economic emission power scheduling of hydrothermal energy systems using improved water cycle algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroon, S.S.; Malik, T.N.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing environmental concerns, the demand of clean and green energy and concern of atmospheric pollution is increasing. Hence, the power utilities are forced to limit their emissions within the prescribed limits. Therefore, the minimization of fuel cost as well as exhaust gas emissions is becoming an important and challenging task in the short-term scheduling of hydro-thermal energy systems. This paper proposes a novel algorithm known as WCA-ER (Water Cycle Algorithm with Evaporation Rate) to inspect the short term EEPSHES (Economic Emission Power Scheduling of Hydrothermal Energy Systems). WCA has its ancestries from the natural hydrologic cycle i.e. the raining process forms streams and these streams start flowing towards the rivers which finally flow towards the sea. The worth of WCA-ER has been tested on the standard economic emission power scheduling of hydrothermal energy test system consisting of four hydropower and three thermal plants. The problem has been investigated for the three case studies (i) ECS (Economic Cost Scheduling), (ii) ES (Economic Emission Scheduling) and (iii) ECES (Economic Cost and Emission Scheduling). The results obtained show that WCA-ER is superior to many other methods in the literature in bringing lower fuel cost and emissions. (author)

  20. Coupling a groundwater model with a land surface model to improve water and energy cycle simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Water and energy cycles interact, making these two processes closely related. Land surface models (LSMs can describe the water and energy cycles on the land surface, but their description of the subsurface water processes is oversimplified, and lateral groundwater flow is ignored. Groundwater models (GWMs describe the dynamic movement of the subsurface water well, but they cannot depict the physical mechanisms of the evapotranspiration (ET process in detail. In this study, a coupled model of groundwater flow with a simple biosphere (GWSiB is developed based on the full coupling of a typical land surface model (SiB2 and a 3-D variably saturated groundwater model (AquiferFlow. In this coupled model, the infiltration, ET and energy transfer are simulated by SiB2 using the soil moisture results from the groundwater flow model. The infiltration and ET results are applied iteratively to drive the groundwater flow model. After the coupled model is built, a sensitivity test is first performed, and the effect of the groundwater depth and the hydraulic conductivity parameters on the ET are analyzed. The coupled model is then validated using measurements from two stations located in shallow and deep groundwater depth zones. Finally, the coupled model is applied to data from the middle reach of the Heihe River basin in the northwest of China to test the regional simulation capabilities of the model.

  1. Application of Data Cubes for Improving Detection of Water Cycle Extreme Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Arif; Teng, William

    2015-01-01

    As part of an ongoing NASA-funded project to remove a longstanding barrier to accessing NASA data (i.e., accessing archived time-step array data as point-time series), for the hydrology and other point-time series-oriented communities, "data cubes" are created from which time series files (aka "data rods") are generated on-the-fly and made available as Web services from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Data cubes are data as archived rearranged into spatio-temporal matrices, which allow for easy access to the data, both spatially and temporally. A data cube is a specific case of the general optimal strategy of reorganizing data to match the desired means of access. The gain from such reorganization is greater the larger the data set. As a use case of our project, we are leveraging existing software to explore the application of the data cubes concept to machine learning, for the purpose of detecting water cycle extreme events, a specific case of anomaly detection, requiring time series data. We investigate the use of support vector machines (SVM) for anomaly classification. We show an example of detection of water cycle extreme events, using data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM).

  2. Integrated Metrics for Improving the Life Cycle Approach to Assessing Product System Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Ingwersen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle approaches are critical for identifying and reducing environmental burdens of products. While these methods can indicate potential environmental impacts of a product, current Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methods fail to integrate the multiple impacts of a system into unified measures of social, economic or environmental performance related to sustainability. Integrated metrics that combine multiple aspects of system performance based on a common scientific or economic principle have proven to be valuable for sustainability evaluation. In this work, we propose methods of adapting four integrated metrics for use with LCAs of product systems: ecological footprint, emergy, green net value added, and Fisher information. These metrics provide information on the full product system in land, energy, monetary equivalents, and as a unitless information index; each bundled with one or more indicators for reporting. When used together and for relative comparison, integrated metrics provide a broader coverage of sustainability aspects from multiple theoretical perspectives that is more likely to illuminate potential issues than individual impact indicators. These integrated metrics are recommended for use in combination with traditional indicators used in LCA. Future work will test and demonstrate the value of using these integrated metrics and combinations to assess product system sustainability.

  3. Measuring and Comparing Descend in Elite Race Cycling with a Perspective on Real-Time Feedback for Improving Individual Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Reijne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Descend technique and performance vary among elite racing cyclists and it is not clear what slower riders should do to improve their performance. An observation study was performed of the descending technique of members of a World Tour cycling team and the technique of each member was compared with the fastest descender amongst them. The obtained data gives us guidelines for rider specific feedback in order to improve his performance. The bicycles were equipped with a system that could measure: velocity, cadence, pedal power, position, steer angle, 3D orientation, rotational speeds and linear accelerations of the rear frame and brake force front and rear. From our observation study, the brake point and apex position turned out to be distinctive indicators of a fast cornering technique in a descent for a tight, hairpin corner. These two indicators can be used as feedback for a slower rider to improve his descend performance.

  4. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  5. The urban harvest approach as framework and planning tool for improved water and resource cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusbrock, I.; Nanninga, T.A.; Lieberg, K.; Agudelo, C.; Keesman, K.J.; Zeeman, G.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2015-01-01

    Water and resource availability in sufficient quantity and quality for anthropogenic needs represents one of the main challenges in the coming decades. To prepare for upcoming challenges such as increased urbanization and climate change related consequences, innovative and improved resource

  6. Does humidification improve the micro Gas Turbine cycle? Thermodynamic assessment based on Sankey and Grassmann diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Carrero, Marina; De Paepe, Ward; Bram, Svend; Parente, Alessandro; Contino, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The Sankey and Grassmann diagrams of an mGT and an mHAT are drawn and presented. •Water injection leads to a 1.4% mGT electrical efficiency increase. •The saturator acts as an aftercooler enabling greater heat recovery in the recuperator. •In the saturator there is an enthalpy gain but a net exergy loss due to evaporation. •The total exergy efficiency of the mGT and mHAT are 35.7% and 30.6% respectively. -- Abstract: Despite appearing as a promising technology for decentralised Combined Heat and Power (CHP), the rather low electrical efficiency of micro Gas Turbines (mGTs) prevents them from being attractive for users with a variable heat demand. Hot water injection in mGTs, achieved by transforming the cycle into a micro Humid Air Turbine (mHAT), allows increasing the electrical efficiency of these units in moments of low heat demand—therefore decoupling heat and electricity production. This paper introduces and compares the Sankey (enthalpy flow) and Grassmann (exergy flow) diagrams of an mGT based on the Turbec T100 and the corresponding mHAT cycle. Results show that the electrical efficiency of the T100 increases by 1.4% absolute points with water injection, while the total exergy efficiency decreases by 5.1%. Although in the saturation tower there is an enthalpy gain, exergy actually decreases in this component due to the increase in entropy related to the evaporation of water. The benefits of water injection mostly rely on the increased heat capacity of the air-vapour mixture, the lower fuel consumption, the larger amount of heat recovered in the recuperator and the reduced power required in the compressor.

  7. Mouth Rinsing with Maltodextrin Solutions Fails to Improve Time Trial Endurance Cycling Performance in Recreational Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Nilay Kulaksız

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The carbohydrate (CHO concentration of a mouth rinsing solution might influence the CHO sensing receptors in the mouth, with consequent activation of brain regions involved in reward, motivation and regulation of motor activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of maltodextrin mouth rinsing with different concentrations (3%, 6% and 12% after an overnight fast on a 20 km cycling time trial performance. Nine recreationally active, healthy males (age: 24 ± 2 years; V ˙ O 2 m a x : 47 ± 5 mL·kg−1·min−1 participated in this study. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted. Participants mouth-rinsed every 2.5 km for 5 s. Maltodextrin mouth rinse with concentrations of 3%, 6% or 12% did not change time to complete the time trial and power output compared to placebo (p > 0.05. Time trial completion times were 40.2 ± 4.0, 40.1 ± 3.9, 40.1 ± 4.4, and 39.3 ± 4.2 min and power output 205 ± 22, 206 ± 25, 210 ± 24, and 205 ± 23 W for placebo, 3%, 6%, and 12% maltodextrin conditions, respectively. Heart rate, lactate, glucose, and rating of perceived exertion did not differ between trials (p > 0.05. In conclusion, mouth rinsing with different maltodextrin concentrations after an overnight fast did not affect the physiological responses and performance during a 20 km cycling time trial in recreationally active males.

  8. Computational efficiency improvement with Wigner rotation technique in studying atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Minghu; Feng, Liqiang; Lü, Rui; Chu, Tianshu

    2014-01-01

    We show that by introducing Wigner rotation technique into the solution of time-dependent Schrödinger equation in length gauge, computational efficiency can be greatly improved in describing atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses. The methodology with Wigner rotation technique underlying our openMP parallel computational code for circularly polarized laser pulses is described. Results of test calculations to investigate the scaling property of the computational code with the number of the electronic angular basis function l as well as the strong field phenomena are presented and discussed for the hydrogen atom

  9. Much improved capacity and cycling performance of LiVMoO6 cathode for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Liqun; Liang Yongguang; Hu Ling; Han Xiaoyan; Yi Zonghui; Sun Jutang; Yang Shuijin

    2008-01-01

    Spherical LiVMoO 6 nanocrystals as cathode for lithium ion batteries were synthesized using a solvothermal reaction method. Powder XRD data indicate that a single phase LiVMoO 6 with brannerite-type structure is obtained at 550 deg. C by the thermal treatment of the precursor for 6 h. SEM image shows that the particles are composed of loosely stacked spheres with a uniform particle size about 40 nm. The electrode properties of LiVMoO 6 have also been studied by galvanostatic cycling and ac impedance spectroscopy. LiVMoO 6 nanospheres delivered 172 mAh g -1 capacity in the initial discharge process with a reversible capacity retention of 94.4% after 100 cycles in the range of 3.6-1.80 V versus metallic Li at a current density of 100 mA g -1 . The microstructure developed in the electrodes give evidence that the particle size and morphological properties play an important role in the much improved capacity and cycling stability at large currents than ordinary samples

  10. Recent Progress on the DUPIC Fuel Fabrication Technology at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung-Won Lee; Ho-Jin Ryu; Geun-Il Park; Kee-Chan Song

    2008-01-01

    Since 1991, KAERI has been developing the DUPIC fuel cycle technology. The concept of a direct use of spent PWR fuel in Candu reactors (DUPIC) is based on a dry processing method to re-fabricate Candu fuel from spent PWR fuel without any intentional separation of the fissile materials and fission products. A DUPIC fuel pellet was successfully fabricated and the DUPIC fuel element fabrication processes were qualified on the basis of a Quality Assurance program. Consequently, the DUPIC fuel fabrication technology was verified and demonstrated on a laboratory-scale. Recently, the fuel discharge burn-up of PWRs has been extended to reduce the amount of spent fuel and the fuel cycle costs. Considering this trend of extending the fuel burn-up in PWRs, the DUPIC fuel fabrication technology should be improved to process high burn-up spent fuels. Particularly the release behavior of cesium from the pellet prepared with a high burn-up spent fuel was assessed. an improved DUPIC fuel fabrication technology was experimentally established with a fuel burn-up of 65,000 MWd/tU. (authors)

  11. Quantification of Improvement in Environmental Quality for Old Residential Buildings Using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mitterpach

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Slovakia, 35% of buildings are older than 50 years but most newer buildings built before 1990 have greater energy consumption. Some other countries also have similar problems. The growing importance of energy saving in buildings can be, in the case of new and old residential buildings (RB, achieved by lowering thermal energy consumption most often by application of polystyrene insulation on the external walls and roof and the exchange of wood window frames for PVC (polyvinyl chloride windows. The novelty of the article for Slovakia and some other central European countries consists in using the life cycle assessment (LCA method for the objective assessment of the environmental benefits of the selected systems of wall insulation, as well as of energy savings in various time intervals of insulation functionality (up to 20 years. LCA software SimaPro (LE Amersfoort, The Netherlands was used with ReCiPe and IMPACT 2002+ assessment methods to quantify the total environmental impact at selected endpoints and midpoints (IMPACT 2002+ of basic structural materials of an RB and its energy demand—heat consumption (hot water heating, central heating before the application of insulation and thermal energy saving (TES after application of insulation to its external walls, roof, and the exchange of windows. The data we obtained confirmed that the environmental impact of the polystyrene insulation of external walls, roof, and exchange of windows of one residential building (RB in the first year after insulation is higher than the reduction caused by achieving a TES of 39%. When taking a lifespan of 20 years into consideration, the impact over the life cycle of the building materials is reduced by 25% (global warming: −4792 kg CO2 eq; production of carcinogens: −2479 kg C2H3Cl eq; acidification: −12,045 kg SO2 eq; and aquatic eutrophication: −257 kg PO4 P-lim. The verified LCA methodology will be used for comparative analysis of different variants

  12. Water Chemistry Control Technology to Improve the Performance of Nuclear Power Plants for Extended Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeng, W. Y.; Na, J. W.; Lee, E. H.

    2010-07-01

    Ο To Develop the technology to manage the problems of AOA and radiation, corrosion as long term PWR operation. Ο To Establish the advanced water chemical operating systems. - Development of the proper water chemistry guidelines for long term PWR operation. AOA(Axial Offest Anomaly) has been reported in many PWR plants in the world, including Korea, especially in the plants of higher burn-up and longer cycle operation or power up-rate. A test loop has been designed and made by KAERI, in order to investigate and mitigate AOA problems in Korea. This project included the study of hydrodynamic simulation and the modeling about AOA. The analysis of radioactive crud was performed to investigate of NPPs primary water chemical effect on AOA and to reduce the radioactive dose rate. The high temperature measurement system was developed to on-line monitor of water chemistry in nuclear power plants. The effects of various environmental factors such as temperature, pressure, and flow rate on YSZ-based pH electrode were evaluated for ensuring the accuracy of high-temperature pH measurement. The inhibition technology for fouling and SCC of SG tube was evaluated to establish the water chemistry technology of corrosion control of nuclear system. The high temperature and high pressure crevice chemistry analysis test loop was manufactured to develop the water chemistry technology of crevice chemistry control

  13. Life cycle assessment of flexibly fed biogas processes for an improved demand-oriented biogas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertem, Funda Cansu; Martínez-Blanco, Julia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Neubauer, Peter; Junne, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    This paper analyses concepts to facilitate a demand oriented biogas supply at an agricultural biogas plant of a capacity of 500kWhel, operated with the co-digestion of maize, grass, rye silage and chicken manure. In contrast to previous studies, environmental impacts of flexible and the traditional baseload operation are compared. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed to detect the environmental impacts of: (i) variety of feedstock co-digestion scenarios by substitution of maize and (ii) loading rate scenarios with a focus on flexible feedstock utilization. Demand-driven biogas production is critical for an overall balanced power supply to the electrical grid. It results in lower amounts of emissions; feedstock loading rate scenarios resulted in 48%, 20%, 11% lower global warming (GWP), acidification (AP) and eutrophication potentials, and a 16% higher cumulative energy demand. Substitution of maize with biogenic-waste regarding to feedstock substitution scenarios could create 10% lower GWP and AP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improvements of characteristics of open cycle Faraday type MHD power generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaharu; Umoto, Juro; Aoki, Sigeo

    1982-01-01

    MHD power generators are classified into two types: Faraday type and diagonal type (including Hall type). It is considered also in Faraday type generators that the characteristics can be improved further by selecting the aspect ratio appropriately, and employing cap electrodes which approach diagonal conducting side-wall type from parallel plate electrodes. First, the three-dimensional analysis using a new equivalent circuit is introduced, in which finite electrode division and working gas boundary layer are considered using the generalized Ohm's law, Maxwell's electromagnetic equations and others. The above described improvement of characteristics is investigated numerically fully applying this analyzing method. If the wall temperature is low, the increase in the aspect ratio of a generating duct cross-section considerably improves the characteristics because plasma non-uniformity decreases. If the cap electrodes having an optimum side-wall length are used, the output increases considerably because the load current is given and received through the side-wall electrodes. Efficiency is a little lower than the case using parallel plate electrodes. Therefore, if the aspect ratio is taken sufficiently large, and the cap electrodes with optimum side-wall electrode length are used, the generator characteristics are greatly improved since the above mentioned effects are multiplied. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. An Improved Dispatching Method (a-HPDB for Automated Material Handling System with Active Rolling Belt for 450 mm Wafer Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The semiconductor industry is facing the transition from 300 mm to 450 mm wafer fabrication. Due to the increased size and weight, 450 mm wafers will pose unprecedented challenges on semiconductor wafer fabrication. To better handle and transport 450 mm wafers, an advanced Automated Material Handling System (AMHS is definitely required. Though conveyor-based AMHS is expected to be suitable for 450 mm wafer fabrication, still it faces two main problems, traffic-jam problem and lot-prioritization. To address the two problems, in this research we have proposed an improved dispatching method, termed Heuristic Preemptive Dispatching Method using Activated Roller Belt (a-HPDB. We have developed some effective rules for the a-HPDB based on Activated Roller Belt (ARB. In addition, we have conducted experiments to investigate its effectiveness. Compared with the HPDB and R-HPD, two dispatching rules proposed in previous studies, our experimental results showed the a-HPDB had a better performance in terms of average lot delivery time (ALDT. For hot lots and normal lots, the a-HPDB had advantages of 4.14% and 8.92% over the HPDB and advantages of 4.89% and 8.52% over R-HPD, respectively.

  16. Ionosonde-based indices for improved representation of solar cycle variation in the International Reference Ionosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven; Bilitza, Dieter; Yiǧit, Erdal

    2018-06-01

    A new monthly ionospheric index, IGNS, is presented to improve the representation of the solar cycle variation of the ionospheric F2 peak plasma frequency, foF2. IGNS is calculated using a methodology similar to the construction of the "global effective sunspot number", IG, given by Liu et al. (1983) but selects ionosonde observations based on hemispheres. We incorporated the updated index into the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model and compared the foF2 model predictions with global ionospheric observations. We also investigated the influence of the underlying foF2 model on the IG index. IRI has two options for foF2 specification, the CCIR-66 and URSI-88 foF2 models. For the first time, we have calculated IG using URSI-88 and assessed the impact on model predictions. Through a retrospective model-data comparison, results show that the inclusion of the new monthly IGNS index in place of the current 12-month smoothed IG index reduce the foF2 model prediction errors by nearly a factor of two. These results apply to both day-time and nightime predictions. This is due to an overall improved prediction of foF2 seasonal and solar cycle variations in the different hemispheres.

  17. Improved Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Crop Production at the Catchment Scale via a Process-Based Nitrogen Simulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenjie; van der Werf, Hayo M G; Salmon-Monviola, Jordy

    2015-09-15

    One of the major challenges in environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of crop production is the nonlinearity between nitrogen (N) fertilizer inputs and on-site N emissions resulting from complex biogeochemical processes. A few studies have addressed this nonlinearity by combining process-based N simulation models with LCA, but none accounted for nitrate (NO3(-)) flows across fields. In this study, we present a new method, TNT2-LCA, that couples the topography-based simulation of nitrogen transfer and transformation (TNT2) model with LCA, and compare the new method with a current LCA method based on a French life cycle inventory database. Application of the two methods to a case study of crop production in a catchment in France showed that, compared to the current method, TNT2-LCA allows delineation of more appropriate temporal limits when developing data for on-site N emissions associated with specific crops in this catchment. It also improves estimates of NO3(-) emissions by better consideration of agricultural practices, soil-climatic conditions, and spatial interactions of NO3(-) flows across fields, and by providing predicted crop yield. The new method presented in this study provides improved LCA of crop production at the catchment scale.

  18. Life cycle assessment as a tool for the environmental improvement of the tannery industry in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivela, B; Moreira, M T; Bornhardt, C; Méndez, R; Feijoo, G

    2004-03-15

    A representative leather tannery industry in a Latin American developing country has been studied from an environmental point of view, including both technical and economic analysis. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) methodology has been used for the quantification and evaluation of the impacts of the chromium tanning process as a basis to propose further improvement actions. Four main subsystems were considered: beamhouse, tanyard, retanning, and wood furnace. Damages to human health, ecosystem quality, and resources are mainly produced by the tanyard subsystem. The control and reduction of chromium and ammonia emissions are the critical points to be considered to improve the environmental performance of the process. Technologies available for improved management of chromium tanning were profoundly studied, and improvement actions related to optimized operational conditions and a high exhaustion chrome-tanning process were selected. These actions related to the implementation of internal procedures affected the economy of the process with savings ranging from US dollars 8.63 to US dollars 22.5 for the processing of 1 ton of wet salt hides, meanwhile the global environmental impact was reduced to 44-50%. Moreover, the treatment of wastewaters was considered in two scenarios. Primary treatment presented the largest reduction of the environmental impact of the tanning process, while no significant improvement for the evaluated impact categories was achieved when combining primary and secondary treatments.

  19. Fuel utilization improvement in PWRs using the denatured 233U-Th cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, H.M.; Schwenk, G.A.; Toops, E.C.; Yotinen, V.O.

    1980-06-01

    A number of changes in PWR core design and/or operating strategy were evaluated to assess the fuel utilization improvement achievable by their implementation in a PWR using thorium-based fuel and operating in a recycle mode. The reference PWR for this study was identical to the B and W Standard Plant except that the fuel pellets were of denatured ( 233 U/ 238 U-Th)O 2 . An initial scoping study identified the three most promising improvement concepts as (1) a very tight lattice, (2) thorium blankets, and (3) ThO 2 rods placed in available guide tubes. A conceptual core design incorporating these changes was then developed, and the fuel utilization of this modified design was compared with that of the reference case

  20. Does local endometrial injury in the nontransfer cycle improve the IVF-ET outcome in the subsequent cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF? A randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Narvekar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of repeated implantation failure despite transfer of good-quality embryos still remains a dilemma for ART specialists. Scrapping of endometrium in the nontransfer cycle has been shown to improve the pregnancy rate in the subsequent IVF/ET cycle in recent studies. Aim: The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT was to determine whether endometrial injury caused by Pipelle sampling in the nontransfer cycle could improve the probability of pregnancy in the subsequent IVF cycle in patients who had previous failed IVF outcome. Setting: Tertiary assisted conception center. Design: Randomized controlled study. Materials and Methods: 100 eligible patients with previous failed IVF despite transfer of good-quality embryos were randomly allocated to the intervention group and control groups. In the intervention group, Pipelle endometrial sampling was done twice: One in the follicular phase and again in the luteal phase in the cycle preceding the embryo transfer cycle. Outcome Measure: The primary outcome measure was live birth rate. The secondary outcome measures were implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. Results: The live birth rate was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to control group (22.4% and 9.8% P = 0.04. The clinical pregnancy rate in the intervention group was 32.7%, while that in the control group was 13.7%, which was also statistically significant ( P = 0.01. The implantation rate was significantly higher in the intervention group as compared to controls (13.07% vs 7.1% P = 0.04. Conclusions: Endometrial injury in nontransfer cycle improves the live birth rate,clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in the subsequent IVF-ET cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF cycles.

  1. Improving life-cycle cost management in the US. Army: analysis of the U.S. Army and Commercial Businesses life-cycle cost management.

    OpenAIRE

    White, Bradley A.

    2001-01-01

    The roles and responsibilities of the Army acquisition and logistics communities, as they pertain to the life-cycle management, are undergoing fundamental change. The early identification and total control of life-cycle cost, in particular operations and sustainment costs which comprises as much as 70-80% of a systems total life-cycle cost, is a high priority for the Army. The basis of this change is adoption of commercial best practices to support the Army's goal to organize. tram. equip, an...

  2. Two cycles of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) intra-articular injections improve stiffness and activities of daily living but not pain compared to one cycle on patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquerizo, Víctor; Padilla, Sabino; Aguirre, José Javier; Begoña, Leire; Orive, Gorka; Anitua, Eduardo

    2017-05-19

    To assess the clinical efficacy and safety of a treatment based on one cycle versus two cycles of intra-articular injections of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) on patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Ninety patients with knee OA were included and evaluated. A total of 48 patients received one cycle (OC group) (3 injections on a weekly basis), while 42 patients received two cycles of PRGF-Endoret (TC group) spaced 6 months between them. Patients were evaluated with LEQUESNE and WOMAC scores before treatment and after 48 weeks. Safety assessment was also performed. A significant reduction of all assessed outcome measures was shown for both groups at 48 weeks compared with baseline values (P PRGF did not show a significantly higher pain reduction compared with one cycle treatment. However, two cycles of PRGF showed a significant improvement in WOMAC stiffness, LEQUESNE MCD, LEQUESNE ADV and LEQUESNE global subscales. Therefore, patients treated with two cycles present an improvement in quality of life. II.

  3. Improvement of wine terroir management according to biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najat, Nassr; Aude, Langenfeld; Mohammed, Benbrahim; Lionel, Ley; Laurent, Deliere; Jean-Pascal, Goutouly; David, Lafond; Marie, Thiollet-Scholtus

    2015-04-01

    Good wine terroir production implies a well-balanced Biogeochemical Cycle of Nitrogen (BCN) at field level i.e. in soil and in plant. Nitrogen is very important for grape quality and soil sustainability. The mineralization of organic nitrogen is the main source of mineral nitrogen for the vine. This mineralization depends mainly on the soil microbial activity. This study is focused on the functional microbial populations implicated in the BCN, in particular nitrifying bacteria. An experimental network with 6 vine sites located in Atlantic coast (Loire valley and Bordeaux) and in North-East (Alsace) of France has been set up since 2012. These vine sites represent a diversity of environmental factors (i.e. soil and climate). The adopted approach is based on the measure of several indicators to assess nitrogen dynamic in soil, i.e. nitrogen mineralization, regarding microbial biomass and activity. Statistical analyses are performed to determine the relationship between biological indicator and nitrogen mineralisation regarding farmer's practices. The variability of the BCN indicators seems to be correlated to the physical and chemical parameters in the soil of the field. For all the sites, the bacterial biomass is correlated to the rate and kinetic of nitrogen in soil, however this bioindicator depend also on others parameters. Moreover, the functional bacterial diversity depends on the soil organic matter content. Differences in the bacterial biomass and kinetic of nitrogen mineralization are observed between the sites with clayey (Loire valley site) and sandy soils (Bordeaux site). In some tested vine systems, effects on bacterial activity and nitrogen dynamic are also observed depending on the farmer's practices: soil tillage, reduction of inputs, i.e. pesticides and fertilizers, and soil cover management between rows. The BCN indicators seem to be strong to assess the dynamics of the nitrogen in various sites underline the functional diversity of the soils. These

  4. Design and fabrication of highly open nickel cobalt sulfide nanosheets on Ni foam for asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy density and long cycle-life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Daosong; Fu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Lili; Zhu, Junwu; Wang, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Nickel cobalt sulfides (NiCo-S) are promising electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors but normally show poor rate capability and unsatisfactory long-term endurance. To overcome these disadvantages, a properly constructed electrode architecture with abundant electron transport channels, excellent electronic conductivity and robust structural stability is required. Herein, considering that in situ transformation can mostly retain the specific structural advantages of the precursors, a two-step strategy is purposefully developed to construct a binder-free electrode composed of interconnected NiCo-S nanosheets on Ni foam (NiCo-S/NF), in which NiCo-S/NF is synthesized via the in situ sulfuration of networked acetate anion-intercalated nickel cobalt layered double hydroxide nanosheets loaded on Ni foam (A-NiCo-LDH/NF). Noticeably, the optimized Ni1Co1-S/NF exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 2553.9 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, excellent rate capability (1898.1 F g-1 at 50 A g-1) and superior cycling stability (nearly 90% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles). Furthermore, the assembled asymmetric supercapacitor based on Ni1Co1-S/NF demonstrates a high energy density of 58.1 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 796 W kg-1 and impressive long-term durability even after a repeated charge/discharge process as long as 70,000 cycles (∼92% capacitance retention). The attractive properties endow the Ni1Co1-S/NF electrode with significant potential for high-performance energy storage devices.

  5. Fabrication of Porous Ceramic-Geopolymer Based Material to Improve Water Absorption and Retention in Construction Materials: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, N. H.; Ibrahim, W. M. A. W.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Sandu, A. V.; Tahir, M. F. M.

    2017-06-01

    Porous ceramic nowadays has been investigated for a variety of its application such as filters, lightweight structural component and others due to their specific properties such as high surface area, stability and permeability. Besides, it has the properties of low thermal conductivity. Various formation techniques making these porous ceramic properties can be tailored or further fine-tuned to obtain the optimum characteristic. Porous materials also one of the good candidate for absorption properties. Conventional construction materials are not design to have good water absorption and retention that lead to the poor performance on these criteria. Temperature is a major driving force for moisture movement and influences sorption characteristics of many constructions materials. The effect of elevated temperatures on the water absorption coefficient and retention remain as critical issue that need to be investigated. Therefore, this paper will review the process parameters in fabricating porous ceramic for absorption properties.

  6. Predictive control strategy of a gas turbine for improvement of combined cycle power plant dynamic performance and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Omar; Wang, Jihong; Khalil, Ashraf; Limhabrash, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel strategy for implementing model predictive control (MPC) to a large gas turbine power plant as a part of our research progress in order to improve plant thermal efficiency and load-frequency control performance. A generalized state space model for a large gas turbine covering the whole steady operational range is designed according to subspace identification method with closed loop data as input to the identification algorithm. Then the model is used in developing a MPC and integrated into the plant existing control strategy. The strategy principle is based on feeding the reference signals of the pilot valve, natural gas valve, and the compressor pressure ratio controller with the optimized decisions given by the MPC instead of direct application of the control signals. If the set points for the compressor controller and turbine valves are sent in a timely manner, there will be more kinetic energy in the plant to release faster responses on the output and the overall system efficiency is improved. Simulation results have illustrated the feasibility of the proposed application that has achieved significant improvement in the frequency variations and load following capability which are also translated to be improvements in the overall combined cycle thermal efficiency of around 1.1 % compared to the existing one.

  7. Improvement to the pattern of control rods of the equilibrium cycle of 18 months for the CLV using bio-inspired algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perusquia, R.; Ortiz, J.J.; Montes, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays in the National Institute of Nuclear Research are carried out studies with some bio-inspired optimization techniques to improve the performance of the fuel cycles of the boiling water reactors of the Laguna Verde power plant (CLV). In the present work two bio-inspired techniques were applied with the purpose of improving the performance of a balance cycle of 18 months developed for the CLV: genetic algorithms (AG) and systems based on ants colonies (SCH). The design of the reference cycle it represents in several aspects an optimal cycle proposed starting from the experience of several operation decades with the boiling water reactors (BWR initials for Boiling Water Reactor) in the world. To try to improve their performance is beforehand a difficult challenge and it puts on test the feasibility of the optimization methods in the reloads design. The study of the bio-inspired techniques was centered exclusively on the obtaining of the control rod patterns (PBC) trying to overcome the capacity factor reached in the design of the reference cycle. It was fixed the cycle length such that the decrease of the coast down period would represent an increase of the capacity factor of the cycle; so that, it diminishes the annual cost associated with the capital cost of the plant. As consequence of the study, was found that the algorithm based on the ants colonies reaches to diminish the coast down period in five and half days respect to the original balance cycle, what represents an annual saving of $US 74,000. Since the original cycle was optimized, the above-mentioned, shows the ability of the SCH for the optimization of the cycle design. With the AG it was reach to approach to the original balance cycle with a coast down period greater in seven days estimating an annual penalization of $US 130,000. (Author)

  8. Coinciding exercise with peak serum caffeine does not improve cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Tina L; Jenkins, David G; Taaffe, Dennis R; Leveritt, Michael D; Coombes, Jeff S

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether coinciding peak serum caffeine concentration with the onset of exercise enhances subsequent endurance performance. Randomised, double-blind, crossover. In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study, 14 male trained cyclists and triathletes (age 31±5year, body mass 75.4±5.7 kg, VO₂max 69.5±6.1 mL kg⁻¹ min⁻¹ and peak power output 417±35W, mean±SD) consumed 6 mg kg(-1) caffeine or a placebo either 1h (C(1h)) prior to completing a 40 km time trial or when the start of exercise coincided with individual peak serum caffeine concentrations (C(peak)). C(peak) was determined from a separate 'caffeine profiling' session that involved monitoring caffeine concentrations in the blood every 30 min over a 4h period. Following caffeine ingestion, peak serum caffeine occurred 120 min in 12 participants and 150 min in 2 participants. Time to complete the 40 km time trial was significantly faster (2.0%; p=0.002) in C(1h) compared to placebo. No statistically significant improvement in performance was noted in the C(peak) trial versus placebo (1.1%; p=0.240). Whilst no differences in metabolic markers were found between C(peak) and placebo conditions, plasma concentrations of glucose (p=0.005), norepinephrine and epinephrine (p≤0.002) were higher in the C(1h) trial 6 min post-exercise versus placebo. In contrast to coinciding peak serum caffeine concentration with exercise onset, caffeine consumed 60 min prior to exercise resulted in significant improvements in 40 km time trial performance. The ergogenic effect of caffeine was not found to be related to peak caffeine concentration in the blood at the onset of endurance exercise. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Alternative Fabrication of Recycling Fast Reactor Metal Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2015-01-01

    Metal fuels such as U-Zr/U-Pu-Zr alloys have been considered as a nuclear fuel for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) related to the closed fuel cycle for managing minor actinides and reducing a high radioactivity levels since the 1980s. In order to develop innovative fabrication method of metal fuel for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am, modified casting under inert atmosphere has been applied for metal fuel slugs for SFR. Alternative fabrication method of fuel slugs has been introduced to develop an improved fabrication process of metal fuel for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements. In this study, metal fuel slugs for SFR have been fabricated by modified casting method, and characterized to evaluate the feasibility of the alternative fabrication method. In order to prevent evaporation of volatile elements such as Am and improve quality of fuel slugs, alternative fabrication methods of metal fuel slugs have been studied in KAERI. U-10Zr-5Mn fuel slug containing volatile surrogate element Mn was soundly cast by modified injection casting under modest pressure. Evaporation of Mn during alternative casting could not be detected by chemical analysis. Mn element was most recovered with prevention of evaporation by alternative casting. Modified injection casting has been selected as an alternative fabrication method in KAERI, considering evaporation prevention, and proven benefits of high productivity, high yield, and good remote control

  10. MOX Fabrication Isolation Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric L. Shaber; Bradley J Schrader

    2005-08-01

    This document provides a technical position on the preferred level of isolation to fabricate demonstration quantities of mixed oxide transmutation fuels. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative should design and construct automated glovebox fabrication lines for this purpose. This level of isolation adequately protects the health and safety of workers and the general public for all mixed oxide (and other transmutation fuel) manufacturing efforts while retaining flexibility, allowing parallel development and setup, and minimizing capital expense. The basis regulations, issues, and advantages/disadvantages of five potential forms of isolation are summarized here as justification for selection of the preferred technical position.

  11. Improvement of methodological and data background for life cycle assessment of nano-metaloxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko

    =0.01) to 3.20E-03 (801-1000 nm, α=1) PAF·m3 ·day/kg for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO ENMs, respectively. In terms of toxicity level the derived CFs show that Ag>ZnO>TiO2. The CFs can be applied, but should be considered interim. A LCA case study was performed on five ENM products, where novel industrial...... model was setup. The fate was based on peri-kinetic aggregation (Brownian motion), ortho-kinetic aggregation (fluid motion), differential settling (sedimentation), resuspension and dissolution of ENMs. The effect part was based on three freshwater trophic levels (algae, daphnia and fish...... measurements from products. Based on the review a central part of the improvement could be done by addressing the functional unit, data inventory and ENM freshwater ecotoxicity CFs. In order to derive freshwater (European continent) ecotoxicity CFs, at midpoint level, of metal (-oxide) ENMs a fate and effect...

  12. Effects on potential once-through improvements on the uranium utilisation in the closed LWR cycle assuming self-generated recycling of uranium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the mode of operation of a reference 1300 MW(e) PWR operating on self-generating U/Pu recycle and then considers the uranium saving which might be achieved by introducing a number of improvements in design and operation which have been suggested for the once-through cycle. These are: Increased burnup, lattice changes, spectrum shift, enrichment zoning including blankets, full use of early batches of start-up core, improved fuel management and control design, end of cycle coastdown, reconstitution and inversion of BWR fuel, more frequent refueling. The paper concludes that if both the once-through cycle and recycle in the SGR mode were improved to the optimum extent recycle would offer 25-30% uranium savings compared to the once-through cycle

  13. Modified Truncated Multiplicity Analysis to Improve Verification of Uranium Fuel Cycle Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFleur, A.; Miller, K.; Swinhoe, M.; Belian, A.; Croft, S.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate verification of 235U enrichment and mass in UF6 storage cylinders and the UO2F2 holdup contained in the process equipment is needed to improve international safeguards and nuclear material accountancy at uranium enrichment plants. Small UF6 cylinders (1.5'' and 5'' diameter) are used to store the full range of enrichments from depleted to highly-enriched UF6. For independent verification of these materials, it is essential that the 235U mass and enrichment measurements do not rely on facility operator declarations. Furthermore, in order to be deployed by IAEA inspectors to detect undeclared activities (e.g., during complementary access), it is also imperative that the measurement technique is quick, portable, and sensitive to a broad range of 235U masses. Truncated multiplicity analysis is a technique that reduces the variance in the measured count rates by only considering moments 1, 2, and 3 of the multiplicity distribution. This is especially important for reducing the uncertainty in the measured doubles and triples rates in environments with a high cosmic ray background relative to the uranium signal strength. However, we believe that the existing truncated multiplicity analysis throws away too much useful data by truncating the distribution after the third moment. This paper describes a modified truncated multiplicity analysis method that determines the optimal moment to truncate the multiplicity distribution based on the measured data. Experimental measurements of small UF6 cylinders and UO2F2 working reference materials were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The data were analyzed using traditional and modified truncated multiplicity analysis to determine the optimal moment to truncate the multiplicity distribution to minimize the uncertainty in the measured count rates. The results from this analysis directly support nuclear safeguards at enrichment plants and provide a more accurate verification method for UF6

  14. Solvothermal preparation of ZnO nanorods as anode material for improved cycle life Zn/AgO batteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiq Ullah

    Full Text Available Nano materials with high surface area increase the kinetics and extent of the redox reactions, thus resulting in high power and energy densities. In this study high surface area zinc oxide nanorods have been synthesized by surfactant free ethylene glycol assisted solvothermal method. The nanorods thus prepared have diameters in the submicron range (300 ~ 500 nm with high aspect ratio. They have uniform geometry and well aligned direction. These nanorods are characterized by XRD, SEM, Specific Surface Area Analysis, solubility in alkaline medium, EDX analysis and galvanostatic charge/discharge studies in Zn/AgO batteries. The prepared zinc oxide nanorods have low solubility in alkaline medium with higher structural stability, which imparts the improved cycle life stability to Zn/AgO cells.

  15. A Novel MgO-CaO-SiO2 System for Fabricating Bone Scaffolds with Improved Overall Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although forsterite (Mg2SiO4 possesses good biocompatibility and suitable mechanical properties, the insufficient bioactivity and degradability hinders its further application. In this study, a novel MgO-CaO-SiO2 system was developed by adding wollastonite (CaSiO3 into Mg2SiO4 to fabricate bone scaffolds via selective laser sintering (SLS. The apatite-forming ability and degradability of the scaffolds were enhanced because the degradation of CaSiO3 could form silanol groups, which could offer nucleation sites for apatite. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of the scaffolds grew with increasing CaSiO3 to 20 wt %. It was explained that the liquid phase of CaSiO3 promoted the densification during sintering due to its low melting point. With the further increase in CaSiO3, the mechanical properties decreased due to the formation of the continuous filling phase. Furthermore, the scaffolds possessed a well-interconnected porous structure and exhibited an ability to support cell adhesion and proliferation.

  16. The improvement of all-solid-state electrochromic devices fabricated with the reactive sputter and cathodic arc technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chuan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD with the one substrate structure fabricated by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS and cathodic vacuum arc plasma (CVAP technology has been developed for smart electrochromic (EC glass application. The EC layer and ion conductor layer were deposited by reactive DCMS and CVAP technology, respectively. The ion conductor layer Ta2O5 deposited by the CVAP technology has provided the better porous material structure for ion transportation and showed 1.76 times ion conductivity than devices with all sputtering process. At the same time, the EC layer WO3 and NiO deposited by the reactive DCMS have also provided the high quality and uniform characteristic to overcome the surface roughness effect of the CVAP ion conductor layer in multilayer device structure. The all-solid-state ECD with the CVAP ion conductor layer has demonstrated a maximum transmittance variation (ΔT of 55% at 550nm and a faster-switching speed. Furthermore, the lower equipment cost and higher deposition rate could be achieved by the application of CVAP technology.

  17. Pilot study: rapidly cycling hypobaric pressure improves pain after 5 days in adiposis dolorosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Herbst

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Karen L Herbst1, Thomas Rutledge21Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, California, USAAbstract: Adiposis dolorosa (AD is a rare disorder of painful nodular subcutaneous fat ­accompanied by fatigue, difficulty with weight loss, inflammation, increased fluid in ­adipose ­tissue (lipedema and lymphedema, and hyperalgesia. Sequential compression relieves ­lymphedema pain; we therefore hypothesized that whole body cyclic pneumatic hypobaric compression may relieve pain in AD. To avoid exacerbating hyperalgesia, we utilized a touch-free method, which is delivered via a high-performance altitude simulator, the Cyclic Variations in Altitude ConditioningTM (CVACTM process. As a pilot study, 10 participants with AD completed pain and quality of life questionnaires before and after 20–40 minutes of CVAC process daily for 5 days. Participants lost weight (195.5 ± 17.6–193.8 ± 17.3 lb; P = 0.03, and bioimpedance significantly decreased (510 ± 36–490 ± 38 ohm; P = 0.01. There was a significant decrease in scores on the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (P = 0.039, in average (P = 0.002, highest (P = 0.029, lowest (P = 0.04, and current pain severity (P = 0.02 on the Visual Analogue Scale, but there was no change in pain quality by the McGill Pain Questionnaire. There were no significant changes in total and physical SF-36 scores, but the mental score improved significantly (P = 0.049. There were no changes in the Pain Disability Index or Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. These data present a potential, new, noninvasive means of treating pain in AD by whole body pneumatic compression as part of the CVAC process. Although randomized, controlled trials are needed to confirm these data, the CVAC process could potentially help in treating AD pain and other chronic pain disorders.Keywords: bioimpedance, chronic pain, lipedema

  18. Control of the estrous cycle to improve fertility for fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, G C; Dahlen, C R; Larson, J E; Marquezini, G; Stevenson, J S

    2010-04-01

    Early estrus-synchronization protocols focused on regressing the corpus luteum (CL) with an injection of PGF(2alpha) followed by detection of estrus or involved the use of exogenous progestins that prevent estrus from occurring. Later, protocols combining the use of PGF(2alpha) and exogenous progestins were developed. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone was utilized to control follicular waves, synchronize ovulation, or to luteinize large dominant follicles. Our research aimed to develop reliable protocols that 1) relied solely on fixed-timed AI (TAI); 2) required a maximum of 3 animal handlings, and 3) were successful in estrous-cycling and noncycling females. In cows, insertion of an intravaginal progesterone insert during the 7-d interval between the initial GnRH and PGF(2alpha) injections enhanced pregnancy rates by 9 to 10%. In a multi-location study, a TAI protocol yielded pregnancy rates similar to a protocol involving detection of estrus plus a fixed-time clean-up AI for females not detected in estrus (54 vs. 58%, respectively, for cows and 53 vs. 57%, respectively, for heifers). Initiation of estrous cycles in noncycling cows is likely the primary manner in which beef producers may improve fertility in response to estrus synchronization and TAI protocols. Treatment of noncycling females with progesterone and GnRH increases the percentage of cycling females and improves fertility to a TAI, but inducing cyclicity with hCG failed to enhance fertility in TAI protocols. Supplementing progesterone after TAI failed to increase pregnancy rates in beef cattle. In contrast, administration of hCG 7 d after TAI induced an accessory CL, increased progesterone, and tended to enhance pregnancy rates. Development of TAI protocols that reduce the hassle factors associated with ovulation synchronization and AI provide cattle producers efficient and effective tools for capturing selective genetic traits of economic consequences. Location variables, however, which may include

  19. Fabrication of α-Fe/Fe3C/Woodceramic Nanocomposite with Its Improved Microwave Absorption and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihong Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Furan resin and fir powder pretreated by FeCl3 and aqueous ammonia solution were used to fabricate α-Fe/Fe3C/woodceramic nanocomposite. The bands of the pretreated wood powder were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The structural characterization of the nanocomposites was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The microwave absorption of the nanocomposites was measured by a vector network analyzer in the range of 2–18 GHz. The mechanical properties of the composites were also investigated. XRD and SEM results show that the α-Fe and Fe3C nanoparticles are in-situ generated and disperse in the matrix of the woodceramic. The diameters of these nanoparticles increase with the increasing of concentration of FeCl3 solution. The experimental results show that both the complex permittivity and the complex permeability of α-Fe/Fe3C/woodceramic nanocomposites increase as the concentration of FeCl3 solution increases. The composites pretreated with 0.60 mol·L−1 FeCl3 have the best absorption properties. The maximum value of reflection loss (RL at 3 mm thickness reaches −25.60 dB at 10.16 GHz and the bandwidth below −10 dB is about 2.5 GHz. Compared to woodceramic, the bending strength and compressive strength of α-Fe/Fe3C/woodceramic nanocomposites increase by 22.5% and 18.7% at most, respectively.

  20. Advanced fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Plant is a multipurpose nuclear facility located on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington state. The facility is part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Department of Energy. The Fuel Cycle Plant is currently being prepared to support the Liquid Metal Reactors Program with fuel fabrication services for the Fast Flux Test Facility and other LMR programs. This report describes the technical innovations to be utilized in the operation of this plant

  1. NERI Quarterly Progress Report -- April 1 - June 30, 2005 -- Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve a helium Brayton cycle and to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) that can also be applied to the Fast Gas-Cooled Reactor (FGR) and the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The proposed supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle will be used to improve the PBR, FGR, and VHTR net plant efficiency. Another objective of this research is to test materials to be used in the power conversion side at supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Generally, the optimized Brayton cycle and balance of plant (BOP) to be developed from this study can be applied to Generation-IV reactor concepts. Particularly, we are interested in VHTR because it has a good chance of being built in the near future

  2. FY-05 Second Quarter Report On Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve a helium Brayton cycle and to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) that can also be applied to the Fast Gas-Cooled Reactor (FGR) and the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The proposed supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle will be used to improve the PBR, FGR, and VHTR net plant efficiency. Another objective of this research is to test materials to be used in the power conversion side at supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Generally, the optimized Brayton cycle and balance of plant (BOP) to be developed from this study can be applied to Generation-IV reactor concepts. Particularly, we are interested in VHTR because it has a good chance of being built in the near future

  3. Improvements in Cycling Time Trial Performance Are Not Sustained Following the Acute Provision of Challenging and Deceptive Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollie S Jones

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available TThe provision of performance-related feedback during exercise is acknowledged as an influential external cue used to inform pacing decisions. The provision of this feedback in a challenging or deceptive context allows research to explore how feedback can be used to improve performance and influence perceptual responses. However, the effects of deception on both acute and residual responses have yet to be explored, despite potential application for performance enhancement. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of challenging and deceptive feedback on perceptual responses and performance in self-paced cycling time trials (TT and explored whether changes in performance are sustained in a subsequent TT following the disclosure of the deception.Seventeen trained male cyclists were assigned to either an accurate or deceptive feedback group and performed four 16.1 km cycling TTs; 1 and 2 ride-alone baseline TTs where a fastest baseline (FBL performance was identified, 3 a TT against a virtual avatar representing 102% of their FBL performance (PACER, and 4 a subsequent ride-alone TT (SUB. The deception group, however, were initially informed that the avatar accurately represented their FBL, but prior to SUB were correctly informed of the nature of the avatar. Affect, self-efficacy and RPE were measured every quartile. Both groups performed PACER faster than FBL and SUB (p < 0.05 and experienced lower affect (p = 0.016, lower self-efficacy (p = 0.011, and higher RPE (p < 0.001 in PACER than FBL. No significant differences were found between FBL and SUB for any variable. The presence of the pacer rather than the manipulation of performance beliefs acutely facilitates TT performance and perceptual responses. Revealing that athletes’ performance beliefs were falsely negative due to deceptive feedback provision has no effect on subsequent perceptions or performance. A single experiential exposure may not be sufficient to produce meaningful

  4. Moth eye-inspired anti-reflective surfaces for improved IR optical systems & visible LEDs fabricated with colloidal lithography and etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lesley W; Morse, Daniel E; Gordon, Michael J

    2018-05-08

    Near- and sub-wavelength photonic structures are used by numerous organisms (e.g. insects, cephalopods, fish, birds) to create vivid and often dynamically-tunable colors, as well as create, manipulate, or capture light for vision, communication, crypsis, photosynthesis, and defense. This review introduces the physics of moth eye (ME)-like, biomimetic nanostructures and discusses their application to reduce optical losses and improve efficiency of various optoelectronic devices, including photodetectors, photovoltaics, imagers, and light emitting diodes. Light-matter interactions at structured and heterogeneous surfaces over different length scales are discussed, as are the various methods used to create ME-inspired surfaces. Special interest is placed on a simple, scalable, and tunable method, namely colloidal lithography with plasma dry etching, to fabricate ME-inspired nanostructures in a vast suite of materials. Anti-reflective surfaces and coatings for IR devices and enhancing light extraction from visible light emitting diodes are highlighted.

  5. Fabrication of CuInS2-sensitized solar cells via an improved SILAR process and its interface electron recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xueqing; Wan, Qingcui; Luan, Chunyan; Mei, Fengjiao; Zhao, Qian; An, Ping; Liang, Zhurong; Xu, Gang; Zapien, Juan Antonio

    2013-11-13

    Tetragonal CuInS2 (CIS) has been successfully deposited onto mesoporous TiO2 films by in-sequence growth of InxS and CuyS via a successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) process and postdeposition annealing in sulfur ambiance. X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements showed that the obtained tetragonal CIS consisted of a chalcopyrite phase and Cu-Au ordering, which related with the antisite defect states. For a fixed Cu-S deposition cycle, an interface layer of β-In2S3 formed at the TiO2/CIS interface with suitable excess deposition of In-S. In the meantime, the content of the Cu-Au ordering phase decreased to a reasonable level. These facts resulted in the retardance of electron recombination in the cells, which is proposed to be dominated by electron transfer from the conduction band of TiO2 to the unoccupied defect states in CIS via exponentially distributed surface states. As a result, a relatively high efficiency of ~0.92% (V(oc) = 0.35 V, J(sc) = 8.49 mA cm(-2), and FF = 0.31) has been obtained. Last, but not least, with an overloading of the sensitizers, a decrease in the interface area between the sensitized TiO2 and electrolytes resulted in deceleration of hole extraction from CIS to the electrolytes, leading to a decrease in the fill factor of the solar cells. It is indicated that the unoccupied states in CIS with energy levels below EF0 of the TiO2 films play an important role in the interface electron recombination at low potentials and has a great influence on the fill factor of the solar cells.

  6. Digital fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  7. Fast breeder fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    Basic elements of the ex-reactor part of the fuel cycle (reprocessing, fabrication, waste handling and transportation) are described. Possible technical and proliferation measures are evaluated, including current methods of accountability, surveillance and protection. The reference oxide based cycle and advanced cycles based on carbide and metallic fuels are considered utilizing conventional processes; advanced nonaqueous reprocessing is also considered. This contribution provides a comprehensive data base for evaluation of proliferation risks

  8. Precooling With Crushed Ice: As Effective as Heat Acclimation at Improving Cycling Time-Trial Performance in the Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Matthew; Landers, Grant; Wallman, Karen; Kent, Georgina

    2018-02-01

    This study compared the effects of precooling (ice ingestion) and heat-acclimation training on cycling time-trial (CTT) performance in the heat. Fifteen male cyclists/triathletes completed two 800-kJ CTTs in the heat, with a 12-d training program in between. Initially, all participants consumed 7 g/kg of water (22°C) in 30 min before completing an 800-kJ CTT in hot, humid conditions (pre-CTT) (35°C, 50% relative humidity [RH]). Participants were then split into 2 groups, with the precooling group (n = 7) training in thermoneutral conditions and then undergoing precooling with ice ingestion (7 g/kg, 1°C) prior to the final CTT (post-CTT) and the heat-acclimation group (n = 8) training in hot conditions (35°C, 50% RH) and consuming water (7 g/kg) prior to post-CTT. After training in both conditions, improvement in CTT time was deemed a likely positive benefit (precooling -166 ± 133 s, heat acclimation -105 ± 62 s), with this result being similar between conditions (d = 0.22, -0.68-1.08 90% confidence interval [CI]). Core temperature for post-CTT was lower in precooling than in heat acclimation from 20 min into the precooling period until the 100-kJ mark of the CTT (d > 0.98). Sweat onset occurred later in precooling (250 ± 100 s) than in heat acclimation (180 ± 80 s) for post-CTT (d = 0.65, -0.30-1.50 90% CI). Thermal sensation was lower at the end of the precooling period prior to post-CTT for the precooling trial than with heat acclimation (d = 1.24, 0.90-1.58 90% CI). Precooling with ice ingestion offers an alternative method of improving endurance-cycling performance in hot conditions if heat acclimation cannot be attained.

  9. Junction and circuit fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Great strides have been made in Josephson junction fabrication in the four years since the first IC SQUID meeting. Advances in lithography have allowed the production of devices with planar dimensions as small as a few hundred angstroms. Improved technology has provided ultra-high sensitivity SQUIDS, high-efficiency low-noise mixers, and complex integrated circuits. This review highlights some of the new fabrication procedures. The review consists of three parts. Part 1 is a short summary of the requirements on junctions for various applications. Part 2 reviews intergrated circuit fabrication, including tunnel junction logic circuits made at IBM and Bell Labs, and microbridge radiation sources made at SUNY at Stony Brook. Part 3 describes new junction fabrication techniques, the major emphasis of this review. This part includes a discussion of small oxide-barrier tunnel junctions, semiconductor barrier junctions, and microbridge junctions. Part 3 concludes by considering very fine lithography and limitations to miniaturization. (orig.)

  10. Improved Reactive Dye-fixation in Pad-Steam Process of Dyeing Cotton Fabric Using Tetrasodium N, NBiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Khatri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pad steam process of dyeing cotton with reactive dyes is known to give lower levels of dye-fixation on the fiber because of excessive dye-hydrolysis. This research presents improved reactive dye-fixation in padsteam process of dyeing cotton found in an effort of using biodegradable organic salts to improve the effluent quality. The CI Reactive Blue 250, a bissulphatoethylsulphone dye and the Tetrasodium N, Nbiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate, a biodegradable organic salt, were used. The new dye-bath formulation using the organic salt gave more than 90% dye-fixation. Traditional pad-steam process of dyeing cotton with reactive dyes requires the use of inorganic electrolyte, sodium-chloride, and alkali, sodium-carbonate, to ensure effective dye consumption and fixation. These inorganic chemicals when drained generate heavy contents of dissolved solids and oxygen demand in the effluent leading to environmental pollution. Thus, Tetrasodium N, N-biscarboxylatomethyl-L-Glutamate was used in place of inorganic electrolyte and alkali to improve effluent quality. A significant increase in dye-fixation and ultimate color-yield was obtained with same colorfastness properties of the dyed fabric comparing to the traditional pad-steam dye-bath formulation.

  11. Improving visit cycle time using patient flow analysis in a high-volume inner-city hospital-based ambulatory clinic serving minority New Yorkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Sanjay; Michel, Raquel; Kanna, Balavenkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Patient waiting time and waiting room congestion are quality indicators that are related to efficiency of ambulatory care systems and patient satisfaction. Our main purpose was to test a program to decrease patient visit cycle time, while maintaining high-quality healthcare in a high-volume inner-city hospital-based clinic in New York City. Use of patient flow analysis and the creation of patient care teams proved useful in identifying areas for improvement, target, and measure effectiveness of interventions. The end result is reduced visit cycle time, improved provider team performance, and sustained patient care outcomes. © 2010 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  12. Valuing Non-market Benefits of Rehabilitation of Hydrologic Cycle Improvements in the Anyangcheon Watershed: Using Mixed Logit Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, J.; Kong, K.

    2010-12-01

    This research the findings from a discrete-choice experiment designed to estimate the economic benefits associated with the Anyangcheon watershed improvements in Rep. of Korea. The Anyangcheon watershed has suffered from streamflow depletion and poor stream quality, which often negatively affect instream and near-stream ecologic integrity, as well as water supply. Such distortions in the hydrologic cycle mainly result from rapid increase of impermeable area due to urbanization, decreases of baseflow runoff due to groundwater pumping, and reduced precipitation inputs driven by climate forcing. As well, combined sewer overflows and increase of non-point source pollution from urban regions decrease water quality. The appeal of choice experiments (CE) in economic analysis is that it is based on random utility theory (McFadden, 1974; Ben-Akiva and Lerman, 1985). In contrast to contingent valuation method (CVM), which asks people to choose between a base case and a specific alternative, CE asks people to choice between cases that are described by attributes. The attributes of this study were selected from hydrologic vulnerability components that represent flood damage possibility, instreamflow depletion, water quality deterioration, form of the watershed and tax. Their levels were divided into three grades include status quo. Two grades represented the ideal conditions. These scenarios were constructed from a 35 orthogonal main effect design. This design resulted in twenty-seven choice sets. The design had nine different choice scenarios presented to each respondent. The most popular choice models in use are the conditional logit (CNL). This model provides closed-form choice probability calculation. The shortcoming of CNL comes from irrelevant alternatives (IIA). In this paper, the mixed logit (ML) is applied to allow the coefficient’s variation for random taste heterogeneity in the population. The mixed logit model(with normal distributions for the attributes) fit the

  13. Enhancing atmospheric mercury research in China to improve the current understanding of the global mercury cycle: the need for urgent and closely coordinated efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei

    2012-06-05

    The current understanding of the global mercury (Hg) cycle remains uncertain because Hg behavior in the environment is very complicated. The special property of Hg causes the atmosphere to be the most important medium for worldwide dispersion and transformation. The source and fate of atmospheric Hg and its interaction with the surface environment are the essential topics in the global Hg cycle. Recent declining measurement trends of Hg in the atmosphere are in apparent conflict with the increasing trends in global anthropogenic Hg emissions. As the single largest country contributor of anthropogenic Hg emission, China's role in the global Hg cycle will become more and more important in the context of the decreasing man-made Hg emission from developed regions. However, much less Hg information in China is available. As a global pollutant which undergoes long-range transport and is persistence in the environment, increasing Hg knowledge in China could not only promote the Hg regulation in this country but also improve the understanding of the fundamental of the global Hg cycle and further push the abatement of this toxin on a global scale. Then the atmospheric Hg research in China may be a breakthrough for improving the current understanding of the global Hg cycle. However, due to the complex behavior of Hg in the atmosphere, a deeper understanding of the atmospheric Hg cycle in China needs greater cooperation across fields.

  14. A facile fabrication of nitrogen-doped electrospun In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofibers with improved visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Na; Shao, Changlu, E-mail: clshao@nenu.edu.cn; Li, Xinghua, E-mail: lixh781@nenu.edu.cn; Miao, Fujun; Wang, Kexin; Liu, Yichun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • N-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofibers are facilely fabricated by gaseous ammonia treatment. • Adjusting the annealing temperature leads to different N-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofibers. • Nitrogen doping was found to be interstitial mode. • N-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibited effective charge carrier separation and photocatalytic activity. • The photocatalysts can be easily separated from the reaction system. - Abstract: Semiconductor photocatalysis demonstrates to be an effective approach for eliminating most types of environment contaminants and for producing hydrogen. Herein, a facile synthesis route combining electrospinning technique and thermal treatment method under NH{sub 3} atmosphere has been presented as a straightforward protocol for the fabrication of nitrogen-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (N-In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanofibers, the nitrogen content of which can be well controlled by adjusting the annealing temperature. Photocatalytic tests show that the N-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofibers demonstrate an improved degradation rate of Rhodamine B (RB) compared with pure In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofibers under visible-light irradiation. This can be attributed to the nitrogen atom introducing at interstitial sites as well as the generation of oxygen vacancy on the surface of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofibers, resulting in the enhanced utilization of visible light for the N-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofibers. Furthermore, the obtained N-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofibers with the advantage of ultra-long one-dimensional nanostructures can be recycled several times by facile sedimentation and hence present almost no decrease in photocatalytic activity indicative of a well regeneration capability. Therefore, the as-fabricated nitrogen-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofibers as a promising photocatalyst present good photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutant in waste water for practical application.

  15. Fabrication of (PPC/NCC)/PVA composites with inner-outer double constrained structure and improved glass transition temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shaoying; Li, Li; Wang, Qi

    2018-07-01

    Improving glass transition temperature (T g ) and mechanical property of the environment-friendly poly(propylene carbonate) via intermacromolecular complexation through hydrogen bonding is attractive and of great importance. A novel and effective strategy to prepare (polypropylene carbonate/nanocrystalline cellulose)/polyvinyl alcohol ((PPC/NCC)/PVA) composites with inner-outer double constrained structure was reported in this work. Outside the PPC phase, PVA, as a strong skeleton at microscale, could constrain the movement of PPC molecular chains by forming hydrogen bonding with PPC at the interface of PPC and PVA phases; inside the PPC phase, the rod-like NCC could restrain the flexible molecular chains of PPC at nanoscale by forming multi-hydrogen bonding with PPC. Under the synergistic effect of this novel inner-outer double constrained structure, T g , mechanical properties and thermal stability of (PPC/NCC)/PVA composite were significantly increased, e.g. T g of the composite researched the maximum value of 49.6 °C, respectively 15.6 °C, 5.7 °C and 4.2 °C higher than that of PPC, PPC/NCC and PPC/PVA composite. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvement of Transdermal Delivery of Exendin-4 Using Novel Tip-Loaded Microneedle Arrays Fabricated from Hyaluronic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu; Wu, Dan; Quan, Ying-Shu; Kamiyama, Fumio; Kusamori, Kosuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-01-04

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of exendin-4 tip-loaded microneedle arrays and to compare their acute efficacy with subcutaneous injections in type 2 diabetic GK/Slc rats. Fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled dextran with an average molecular weight of 4,000 (FD4) was selected as a model drug, and FD4 tip-loaded microneedle arrays were prepared in this study. In addition, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests after application of exendin-4 tip-loaded microneedle arrays were also compared with those after subcutaneous injection in type 2 diabetic GK/Slc rats. The release of FD4 from the tip-loaded microneedle arrays was very rapid, particularly in the initial 30 s, and most of the FD4 was released within 5 min. In addition, glucose tolerance was improved and the insulin secretion was enhanced after application of exendin-4 tip-loaded microneedle arrays, and these effects were comparable to those after subcutaneous injection of exendin-4. Similar plasma concentration profiles were seen after application of exendin-4 tip-loaded microneedle arrays, as was the case with subcutaneous injection in type 2 diabetic GK/Slc rats. These findings indicate that exendin-4 tip-loaded microneedle arrays can be used as an alternative to achieve sufficient delivery of exendin-4 for treatment of type 2 diabetes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transdermal exendin-4 delivery using tip-loaded microneedle arrays.

  17. Improving the economy-of-scale of small organic rankine cycle systems through appropriate working fluid selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Martin; Sayma, Abdulnaser I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel system model coupling turbine and ORC system performance. • Contour plots to characterise working fluid and turbine performance. • Changing working fluid can expand pump and turbine operating envelope. • Possible to improve the economy-of-scale through optimal working fluid selection. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are becoming a major research area within the field of sustainable energy systems. However, a major challenge facing the widespread implementation of small and mini-scale ORC systems is the economy-of-scale. To overcome this challenge requires single components that can be manufactured in large volumes and then implemented into a wide variety of different applications where the heat source conditions may vary. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether working fluid selection can improve the current economy-of-scale by enabling the same system components to be used in multiple ORC systems. This is done through coupling analysis and optimisation of the energy process, with a performance map for a small-scale ORC radial turbine. The performance map, obtained using CFD, is adapted to account for additional loss mechanisms not accounted for in the original CFD simulation before being non-dimensionalised using a modified similitude theory developed for subsonic ORC turbines. The updated performance map is then implemented into a thermodynamic model, enabling the construction of a single performance contour that displays the range of heat source conditions that can be accommodated by the existing turbine whilst using a particular working fluid. Constructing this performance map for a range of working fluids, this paper demonstrates that through selecting a suitable working fluid, the same turbine can efficiently utilise heat sources between 360 and 400 K, with mass flow rates ranging between 0.5 and 2.75 kg/s respectively. This corresponds to using the same turbine in ORC applications where the heat available ranges

  18. Thermomechanical characterization of Ni-rich NiTi fabricated by selective laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saedi, Soheil; Turabi, Ali Sadi; Karaca, Haluk; Andani, Mohsen Taheri; Haberland, Christoph; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the shape memory behavior of as-fabricated and solution annealed Ni 50.8 Ti 49.2 alloys fabricated using the selective laser melting (SLM) technique. Results were compared to the initial ingot that was used to fabricate powders. Optical microscopy was employed to reveal the microstructure. The shape memory effect under constant compressive stress and isothermal compressive stress cycling tests were utilized to investigate the shape memory characteristics of the initial ingot and fabricated alloys. It was revealed that the SLM method and post heat treatments can be used to tailor the microstructure and shape memory response. Partial superelasticity was observed after the SLM process. Solutionizing the fabricated samples increased the strength and improved the superelasticity but slightly decreased the recoverable strain. (paper)

  19. Fabrication and characterization of nuclear localization signal-conjugated glycol chitosan micelles for improving the nuclear delivery of doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jingmou Yu,1 Xin Xie,1 Meirong Zheng,1 Ling Yu,2 Lei Zhang,1 Jianguo Zhao,1 Dengzhao Jiang,1 Xiangxin Che11Key Laboratory of Systems Biology Medicine of Jiangxi Province, College of Basic Medical Science, Jiujiang University, Jiujiang, 2Division of Nursing, 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Yichun University, Yichun, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Supramolecular micelles as drug-delivery vehicles are generally unable to enter the nucleus of nondividing cells. In the work reported here, nuclear localization signal (NLS-modified polymeric micelles were studied with the aim of improving nuclear drug delivery.Methods: In this research, cholesterol-modified glycol chitosan (CHGC was synthesized. NLS-conjugated CHGC (NCHGC was synthesized and characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Doxorubicin (DOX, an anticancer drug with an intracellular site of action in the nucleus, was chosen as a model drug. DOX-loaded micelles were prepared by an emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The cellular uptake of different DOX formulations was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The cytotoxicity of blank micelles, free DOX, and DOX-loaded micelles in vitro was investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay in HeLa and HepG2 cells.Results: The degree of substitution was 5.9 cholesterol and 3.8 NLS groups per 100 sugar residues of the NCHGC conjugate. The critical aggregation concentration of the NCHGC micelles in aqueous solution was 0.0209 mg/mL. The DOX-loaded NCHGC (DNCHGC micelles were observed as being almost spherical in shape under transmission electron microscopy, and the size was determined as 248 nm by dynamic light scattering. The DOX-loading content of the DNCHGC micelles was 10.1%. The DOX-loaded micelles showed slow drug-release behavior within 72 hours in vitro. The DNCHGC micelles exhibited greater

  20. Fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics using crosslinking polymerization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Chen, Zhenxing; Sun, Yongli; Yang, Huawei; Zhang, Hongjie; Dou, Haozhen; Zhang, Luhong

    2018-05-01

    With the aim of removing and recycling oil and organic solvent from water, a facile and low-cost crosslinking polymerization method was first applied on surface modification of cotton fabrics for water/oil separation. Micro-nano hierarchical rough structure was constructed by triethylenetetramine (TETA) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) that formed a polymeric layer on the surface of the fabric and anchored Al2O3 nanoparticles firmly between the fabric surface and the polymer layer. Superhydrophobic property was further obtained through self-assembly grafting of hydrophobic groups on the rough surface. The as-prepared cotton fabric exhibited superoleophilicity in atmosphere and superhydrophobicity both in atmosphere and under oil with the water contact angle of 153° and 152° respectively. Water/oil separation test showed that the as-prepared cotton fabric can handle with various oil-water mixtures with a high separation efficiency over 99%. More importantly, the separation efficiency remained above 98% over 20 cycles of reusing without losing its superhydrophobicity which demonstrated excellent reusability in oil/water separation process. Moreover, the as-prepared cotton fabric possessed good contamination resistance ability and self-cleaning property. Simulation washing process test showed the superhydrophobic cotton fabric maintained high value of water contact angle above 150° after 100 times washing, indicating great stability and durability. In summary, this work provides a brand-new way to surface modification of cotton fabric and makes it a promising candidate material for oil/water separation.

  1. Improving the performances of gas turbines operated on natural gas in combined cycle power plants with application of mathematical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimkovski, Sasho

    2014-01-01

    The greater energy demand by today society sets a number of new challenges in the energy sector. The climate extremes impose new modes of operation of the power plants, with high flexibility in production. Combined cycle co generative power plants are the latest trend in the energy sector. Their high prevalence is due to the great efficiency and the good environmental characteristics. The main work horse in these cogeneration plants is the gas turbine, which power production and efficiency strongly depends on the external climate conditions. In warmer periods when there is increased demand for electricity, the power production from the gas turbines significantly declines. Because of the high electricity demand from the grid and reduced power production from the gas turbines at the same time, the need for application of appropriate technology for preserving the performances and power of the gas turbines arises. This master thesis explores different methods to improve the power in gas turbines by cooling the air on the compressor inlet, analyzing their applicability and effectiveness in order to choose the optimal method for power augmentation for the climatic conditions in the city Skopje. The master thesis gives detailed analysis of the weather in Skopje and the time frame in which the chosen method is applicable. At the end in the master thesis, the economic feasibility of the given method for power augmentation is clearly calculated, using a model of a power plant and calculating the resulting amount of gained energy, the amount of the initial investment, the cost for maintenance and operation of the equipment. By these calculations the period for initial return of investment is obtained. As an added benefit the positive environmental impacts of the applied technology for inlet air cooling is analyzed. (author)

  2. Effects of potential once-through improvements on the uranium utilization in the closed LWR cycle assuming self generated recycling of uranium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    This paper is concerned with potential improvements to the resource utilization of current generation light water reactors operating on a closed U/Pu fuel cycle. Only those modifications to existing systems layout and fuel cycle practise are discussed that have been considered in Working Group 8 A for the once-through cycle. The objective is to give an impression how much the difference in resource utilization between the once-through and the closed U/Pu cycle were changed if both cycles were reoptimized independantly from each other with respect to uranium consumption. No commercial recycling of U/Pu has been taken place to date in 1300 MWe light water reactors. The feasibility of thermal recycling has been demonstrated however on an industrial scale in reactors of the 300 MWe class. (Obrigheim, Gundremmingen). From this experience and from extensive design calculations it has been concluded that for Pu bearing fuel assemblies of 1300 MWe plants it would be favorable to use the same structural layout and similar fuel management procedures as for uranium assemblies. This would result in plant life-time averaged uranium savings on the order of 35 - 40 % relative to the once-through cycle in case of the Self Generated Recycling Mode

  3. Influence of Tencel/cotton blends on knitted fabric performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Arafa Badr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The requirements in terms of wearing comfort with sportswear, underwear and outerwear are widely linked to the use of new fibers. Today, Tencel fiber is one of the most important developments in regenerated cellulosic fiber. However, the relation between Tencel fiber properties and fabric characteristics has not been enough studied in the literature especially the influence of fiber materials on mechanical, Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF and absorption properties. Therefore, in this study, knitted fabric samples were manufactured with eight different yarns with two fabric types (single jersey and single jersey with Lycra. 30/1-Ne yarns from natural and regenerated cellulosic fibers: 50% Tencel-LF/50% cotton, 67% Tencel-LF/33% cotton, 67% Tencel-STD/33% cotton, 70% bamboo/30% cotton, 100% bamboo, 100% Modal, 100% Micro-Modal and 100% cotton were employed. Then, all the produced fabrics were subjected to five cycles laundering and then flat dried. The results show that 67% Tencel-LF/33% cotton has more flexural rigidity and withdrawing handle force than 67% Tencel-STD/33% cotton fabric, while 67% Tencel-STD/33% cotton has a merit of durability during bursting test. Blending Egyptian cotton fibers with bamboo and Tencel as in 70/30% bamboo/cotton and 50/50% Tencel-LF/cotton improve UPF of the produced fabric.

  4. Dual-shell hollow polyaniline/sulfur-core/polyaniline composites improving the capacity and cycle performance of lithium–sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Yanling; Wei, Pan; Fan, Meiqiang, E-mail: fanmeiqiang@126.com; Chen, Da; Chen, Haichao; Ju, QiangJian; Tian, Guanglei; Shu, Kangying

    2016-07-01

    Highlights: • A dual core-shell hPANI/S/PANI composite was prepared in situ synthesis. • Cycle performance of the hPANI/S/PANI composite was enhanced. • The improvement was due to fine sulfur particles wrapped by two PANI films. • Some positive effects were elaborated. - Abstract: In this study, a dual-shell hollow polyaniline/sulfur-core/polyaniline (hPANI/S/PANI) composite was prepared by successively depositing PANI, S, and PANI on the surface of a template silicon sphere. The electrochemical properties of this composite were evaluated using a lithium plate as an anode in lithium/sulfur cells. The hPANI/S/PANI composite showed a discharge capacity of 572.2 mAh g{sup −1} after 214 cycles at 0.1 C, and the Coulombic efficiency was above 87% in the whole charge/discharge cycle. The improved cycle property of the hPANI/S/PANI composite can be ascribed to the fine sulfur particles homogeneously deposited on the PANI surface and sprawled inside the two PANI layers during the charge/discharge cycle. This behavior stabilized the nanostructure of sulfur and enhanced its conductivity.

  5. Electrochemically synthesized stretchable polypyrrole/fabric electrodes for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Binbin; Wang, Caiyun; Ding, Xin; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. Being an indispensable part of these electronics, lightweight, stretchable and wearable power sources are strongly demanded. Here we describe a daily-used cotton fabric coated with polypyrrole as electrode for stretchable supercapacitors. Polypyrrole was synthesized on the Au coated fabric via an electrochemical polymerization process with p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TS) as dopant from acetonitrile solution. This material was characterized with FESEM, tensile stress, and studied as a supercapacitor electrode in 1.0 M NaCl. This conductive textile electrode can sustain up to 140% strain without electric failure. It delivers a high specific capacitance of 254.9 F g −1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s −1 , and keeps almost unchanged at an applied strain (i.e. 30% and 50%) but with an improved cycling stability

  6. Life Cycle Environmental Impact Assessment of Local Wine Production and Consumption in Texas: Using LCA to Inspire Environmental Improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Poupart, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    The future viability of wine production is directly linked to its environmental impacts and conditions in which it is required to operate. The environmental impacts related to the production of a food product are directly influenced by the amount of materials, energy, waste and the emissions the product releases throughout the products life cycle. A life cycle assessment (LCA) provides a framework that can identify a food products relative environmental impacts and provides insights into the ...

  7. Process for fabrication of cermets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L [Livermore, CA

    2011-02-01

    Cermet comprising ceramic and metal components and a molten metal infiltration method and process for fabrication thereof. The light weight cermets having improved porosity, strength, durability, toughness, elasticity fabricated from presintered ceramic powder infiltrated with a molten metal or metal alloy. Alumina titanium cermets biocompatible with the human body suitable for bone and joint replacements.

  8. Improvement in recuperative gas cycles by means of a heat generator partly by-passing the recuperator. Application to open and closed cycles and to various kinds of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.P.; Pierre, B.

    1979-01-01

    A particular arrangement applicable to open or closed recuperative gas cycles and consisting of a heat generator partly by-passing the low pressure side of the recuperator is proven to enhance advantages of gas cycles for energy production. The cogeneration of both power with a high efficiency owing to the recuperator and high temperature process heat becomes possible and economically attractive. Furthermore, additional possibilities appear for power generation by combined gas and steam or ammonia cycles. In any case the overall utilization coefficient of the primary energy is increased and the combined production of low or medium temperature heat can also be improved. The great operation flexibility of the system for combined energy generation is worth being emphasized: the by-pass arrangement involves no significant change in the operation conditions of the main turbocompressor as the heat output varies. Applications of this arrangement are made to: - open and closed gas cycle, power plants; - fossil, nuclear and solar energies. The overall heat conversion efficiency is tentatively estimated in order to appreciate the energy conversion capability of the investigated power plants

  9. Large-scale fuel cycle centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, S.H.; Black, K.M.

    1977-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has considered the nuclear energy centre concept for fuel cycle plants in the Nuclear Energy Centre Site Survey 1975 (NECSS-75) Rep. No. NUREG-0001, an important study mandated by the US Congress in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 which created the NRC. For this study, the NRC defined fuel cycle centres as consisting of fuel reprocessing and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants, and optional high-level waste and transuranic waste management facilities. A range of fuel cycle centre sizes corresponded to the fuel throughput of power plants with a total capacity of 50,000-300,000MW(e). The types of fuel cycle facilities located at the fuel cycle centre permit the assessment of the role of fuel cycle centres in enhancing the safeguard of strategic special nuclear materials - plutonium and mixed oxides. Siting fuel cycle centres presents a smaller problem than siting reactors. A single reprocessing plant of the scale projected for use in the USA (1500-2000t/a) can reprocess fuel from reactors producing 50,000-65,000MW(e). Only two or three fuel cycle centres of the upper limit size considered in the NECSS-75 would be required in the USA by the year 2000. The NECSS-75 fuel cycle centre evaluation showed that large-scale fuel cycle centres present no real technical siting difficulties from a radiological effluent and safety standpoint. Some construction economies may be achievable with fuel cycle centres, which offer opportunities to improve waste-management systems. Combined centres consisting of reactors and fuel reprocessing and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants were also studied in the NECSS. Such centres can eliminate shipment not only of Pu but also mixed-oxide fuel. Increased fuel cycle costs result from implementation of combined centres unless the fuel reprocessing plants are commercial-sized. Development of Pu-burning reactors could reduce any economic penalties of combined centres. The need for effective fissile

  10. New high expansion ratio gasoline engine for the TOYOTA hybrid system. Improving engine efficiency with high expansion ratio cycle; Hybrid system yo kobochohi gasoline engine. Kobochohi cycle ni yoru engine no kokoritsuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, K; Takaoka, T; Ueda, T; Kobayashi, Y [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    50% reduction of CO2 and fuel consumption have been achieved with the newly developed gasoline engine for the Toyota Hybrid System. This is achieved due to the combination of electric motors and the internal combustion engine which is optimized in the size, swept volume and heat cycle. By delaying the intake valve close timing a high expansion ratio (13.5:1) cycle has been realized. Electricmotor assist enable to cut the maximum engine speed, and friction loss. A best fuel consumption figure better than 230 g/kWh has been achieved. Elimination of lightload firing, motor assisted quick start and improvement of catalyst warm up makes to achieve the clean emission level such as 1/10 of Japanese `78 regulation limit. 10 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: global carbon cycle impact from an improved plant nitrogen cycle in the Community Land Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mingjie; Fisher, Joshua B; Brzostek, Edward R; Phillips, Richard P

    2016-03-01

    Plants typically expend a significant portion of their available carbon (C) on nutrient acquisition - C that could otherwise support growth. However, given that most global terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) do not include the C cost of nutrient acquisition, these models fail to represent current and future constraints to the land C sink. Here, we integrated a plant productivity-optimized nutrient acquisition model - the Fixation and Uptake of Nitrogen Model - into one of the most widely used TBMs, the Community Land Model. Global plant nitrogen (N) uptake is dynamically simulated in the coupled model based on the C costs of N acquisition from mycorrhizal roots, nonmycorrhizal roots, N-fixing microbes, and retranslocation (from senescing leaves). We find that at the global scale, plants spend 2.4 Pg C yr(-1) to acquire 1.0 Pg N yr(-1) , and that the C cost of N acquisition leads to a downregulation of global net primary production (NPP) by 13%. Mycorrhizal uptake represented the dominant pathway by which N is acquired, accounting for ~66% of the N uptake by plants. Notably, roots associating with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi - generally considered for their role in phosphorus (P) acquisition - are estimated to be the primary source of global plant N uptake owing to the dominance of AM-associated plants in mid- and low-latitude biomes. Overall, our coupled model improves the representations of NPP downregulation globally and generates spatially explicit patterns of belowground C allocation, soil N uptake, and N retranslocation at the global scale. Such model improvements are critical for predicting how plant responses to altered N availability (owing to N deposition, rising atmospheric CO2 , and warming temperatures) may impact the land C sink. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. IFR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E.; Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase, which includes completion of facility modifications and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the development of the electrorefining pyroprocess, the design and construction of the facility for the hot demonstration, the design and fabrication of the equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation

  13. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder symptom cluster improvement by cycle with the combined oral contraceptive ethinylestradiol 20 mcg plus drospirenone 3 mg administered in a 24/4 regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Joachim; Niknian, Minoo; Shulman, Lee P; Lynen, Richard

    2011-07-01

    A combined oral contraceptive comprising ethinylestradiol (EE) 20 mcg/drospirenone 3 mg in a 24/4 regimen has been clinically shown to alleviate the symptoms associated with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). However, previous studies did not report data according to cycle-by-cycle improvement. This was a subanalysis of a Phase III, double-blind, multicenter, United States-based study. Women with confirmed PMDD were randomized to EE 20 mcg/drospirenone 3 mg 24/4 or placebo for three treatment cycles. Ten of the 21 emotional and physical items on the Daily Record of Severity of Problems scale were grouped to define three symptom clusters: (a) negative emotions, (b) food cravings and (c) water retention-related symptoms. The change from baseline at each treatment cycle was compared between groups using a weighted analysis of covariance model. The full analysis set comprised 449 women. Daily Record of Severity of Problems scores for each symptom cluster were significantly reduced from baseline with both EE 20 mcg/drospirenone 3 mg 24/4 and placebo (pemotions, food cravings and water retention-related symptoms to a significantly greater extent than placebo during all three cycles of treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving Students' Argumentation Skills through a Product Life-Cycle Analysis Project in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, M. K.; Aksela, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study discussed in this paper was to link existing research about the argumentation skills of students to the teaching of life-cycle analysis (LCA) in order to promote an evidence-based approach to the teaching of and learning about materials used in consumer products. This case-study is part of a larger design research project that…

  15. Automatic adjustment of cycle length and aeration time for improved nitrogen removal in an alternating activated sludge process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard

    1997-01-01

    The paper examines the nitrogen dynamics in the alternating BIODENITRO and BIODENIPHO processes with a focus on two control handles influencing now scheduling and aeration: the cycle length and the ammonia concentration at which a nitrifying period is terminated. A steady state analysis examining...

  16. Cycling in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cycling can be an enjoyable way to meet physical activity recommendations and is suitable for older people; however cycling participation by older Australians is low. This qualitative study explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling among older people through an age-targeted cycling promotion program. Methods. Seventeen adults who aged 50–75 years participated in a 12-week cycling promotion program which included a cycling skills course, mentor, and resource pack. Semistructured interviews at the beginning and end of the program explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling. Results. Fitness and recreation were the primary motivators for cycling. The biggest barrier was fear of cars and traffic, and the cycling skills course was the most important enabler for improving participants’ confidence. Reported outcomes from cycling included improved quality of life (better mental health, social benefit, and empowerment and improved physical health. Conclusions. A simple cycling program increased cycling participation among older people. This work confirms the importance of improving confidence in this age group through a skills course, mentors, and maps and highlights additional strategies for promoting cycling, such as ongoing improvement to infrastructure and advertising.

  17. Multifunctional bioactive and improving the performance durability nanocoatings for finishing PET/CO woven fabrics by the sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, Dorota, E-mail: dkowalczyk@iw.lodz.pl; Brzeziński, Stefan; Kamińska, Irena

    2015-11-15

    The paper presents the results of studies on multifunctional thin-coatings of textiles, simultaneously imparting to them bioactive properties in relations to bacteria and fungi as well as an increased abrasion resistance and anti-pilling effect with the use of modified hybrid materials produced by the sol–gel method from two precursors: (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and aluminum isopropoxide (ALIPO). The sol obtained was modified with bioactive particles in the form of nanopowder of metallic silver and copper alloy (Ag/Cu). Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} sol containing nanoparticles of Ag/Cu alloy was deposited on a polyester/cotton blend woven fabric (PET/CO 67/33) by the padding method. After drying and curing process, a thin and elastic bioactive silica coating was obtained on the fabric fibers surfaces. The fabrics with deposited nanocoatings were characterized by very good bioactive properties and increased resistance to abrasion and formation of pilling. - Highlights: • Multifunctional thin coating layer was prepared on the fabric using sol–gel method. • Modification of the hybrid Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} sol by Ag/Cu alloy nanoparticles. • Bioactive fabric created by deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} sol with Ag/Cu. • 30% increase the abrasion resistance of the thin coating fabric.

  18. Superlattice assembly of graphene oxide (GO) and titania nanosheets: fabrication, in situ photocatalytic reduction of GO and highly improved carrier transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xingke; Ma, Renzhi; Ozawa, Tadashi C.; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Funatsu, Asami; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2014-11-01

    Two different kinds of two-dimensional (2D) materials, graphene oxide (GO) and titanium oxide nanosheets (Ti0.87O20.52-), were self-assembled layer-by-layer using a polycation as a linker into a superlattice film. Successful construction of an alternate molecular assembly was confirmed by atomic force microscopy and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy as well as X-ray diffraction analysis. Exposure of the resulting film to UV light effectively promoted photocatalytic reduction of GO as well as decomposition of the polycation, which are due to their intimate molecular-level contact. The reduction completed within 3 hours, bringing about a decrease of the sheet resistance by ~106. This process provides a clean and mild route to reduced graphene oxide (rGO), showing advantages over other chemical and thermal reduction processes. A field-effect-transistor device was fabricated using the resulting superlattice assembly of rGO/Ti0.87O20.52- as a channel material. The rGO in the film was found to work as a unipolar n-type conductor, which is in contrast to ambipolar or unipolar p-type behavior mostly reported for rGO films. This unique property may be associated with the electron doping effect from Ti0.87O20.52- nanosheets. A significant improvement in the conductance and electron carrier mobility by more than one order of magnitude was revealed, which may be accounted for by the heteroassembly with Ti0.87O20.52- nanosheets with a high dielectric constant as well as the better 2D structure of rGO produced via the soft photocatalytic reduction.Two different kinds of two-dimensional (2D) materials, graphene oxide (GO) and titanium oxide nanosheets (Ti0.87O20.52-), were self-assembled layer-by-layer using a polycation as a linker into a superlattice film. Successful construction of an alternate molecular assembly was confirmed by atomic force microscopy and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy as well as X-ray diffraction analysis. Exposure of the resulting film to UV light

  19. Corrigendum to "Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improving carbon dioxide yields" [J. Power Sources 268 (5 December 2014) 439-442

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The authors regret that Equation (5) is incorrect and has resulted in errors in Fig. 4 and the efficiencies stated on p. 442. The corrected equation, figure and text are presented below. In addition, the title should be 'Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improve carbon dioxide yields', and the reversible cell potential quoted on p. 441 should be 1.14 V. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  20. Improvement of the cycling performance of LiCoO2 with assistance of cross-linked PAN for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xinhe; Shen, Lanyao; Wu, Bin; Zuo, Zicheng; Mu, Daobin; Wu, Borong; Zhou, Henghui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cross-linked PAN coating was prepared without damaging the surface of LiCoO 2 . • The coating layer owns good electronic conductivity and mechanical strength. • The cross-linked PAN coating layer is more sufficient than Al 2 O 3 coating. • It shows much improved cyclability than that of bare and Al 2 O 3 coated LiCoO 2 . - Abstract: LiCoO 2 has been widely used in lithium ion batteries for digital electronic products. However, the limited cycling performance under high cut-off voltage hinders its commercial application. Many metal oxides and/or phosphorus coating have been reported to improve the cycling performance of LiCoO 2 . In this paper, we report on cross-linked PAN coated LiCoO 2 composite as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries. The coating layer was obtained by intermolecular crosslinking of PAN polymer chain by heat treatment at high temperature in air. The air heating process avoids the possible damage arising from the carbon thermal reduction to the surface structure of LiCoO 2 . Electrochemical test indicates that the LiCoO 2 with the cross-linked PAN coating layer shows much improved cycle performance compared with that of bare and Al 2 O 3 coated LiCoO 2 . These findings might also open new avenues to explore polymer coating for other cathode materials of lithium ion batteries

  1. World nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    A coloured pull-out wall chart is presented showing the fuel cycle interests of the world. Place names are marked and symbols are used to indicate regions associated with uranium or thorium deposits, mining, milling, enrichment, reprocessing and fabrication. (UK)

  2. Fabricated Elastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Giselle C; Aghaei-Ghareh-Bolagh, Behnaz; Brackenreg, Edwin P; Hiob, Matti A; Lee, Pearl; Weiss, Anthony S

    2015-11-18

    The mechanical stability, elasticity, inherent bioactivity, and self-assembly properties of elastin make it a highly attractive candidate for the fabrication of versatile biomaterials. The ability to engineer specific peptide sequences derived from elastin allows the precise control of these physicochemical and organizational characteristics, and further broadens the diversity of elastin-based applications. Elastin and elastin-like peptides can also be modified or blended with other natural or synthetic moieties, including peptides, proteins, polysaccharides, and polymers, to augment existing capabilities or confer additional architectural and biofunctional features to compositionally pure materials. Elastin and elastin-based composites have been subjected to diverse fabrication processes, including heating, electrospinning, wet spinning, solvent casting, freeze-drying, and cross-linking, for the manufacture of particles, fibers, gels, tubes, sheets and films. The resulting materials can be tailored to possess specific strength, elasticity, morphology, topography, porosity, wettability, surface charge, and bioactivity. This extraordinary tunability of elastin-based constructs enables their use in a range of biomedical and tissue engineering applications such as targeted drug delivery, cell encapsulation, vascular repair, nerve regeneration, wound healing, and dermal, cartilage, bone, and dental replacement. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Improving the efficiency of heat supply systems on the basis of plants operating on organic Rankine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomin, I. N.; Daminov, A. Z.; Sadykov, R. A.

    2017-11-01

    Results of experimental and analytical studies of the plant main element - plant turbomachine (turbo-expander) operating on organic Rankine cycle were obtained for facilities of the heat supply systems of small-scale power generation. At simultaneous mathematical modeling and experimental studies it was found that the best working medium to be used in the turbomachines of these plants is Freon R245fa which has the most suitable calorimetric properties to be used in the cycle. The mathematical model of gas flow in the turbomachine was developed. The main engineering dependencies to calculate the optimal design parameters of the turbomachine were obtained. The engineering problems of providing the minimum axial size of the turbomachine impeller were solved and the main design elements were unified.

  4. Prospects for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of emissions and life cycle costs for natural gas vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Terenchenko, A. S.; Luksho, V. A.; Karpukhin, K. E.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the experimental investigation of the possibilities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy efficiency of engines that use natural gas as the main fuel and the analysis of economic efficiency of use of dual fuel engines in vehicles compared to conventional diesel. The results of experimental investigation of a 190 kW dual-fuel engine are presented; it is shown that quantitative and qualitative working process control may ensure thermal efficiency at the same level as that of the diesel engine and in certain conditions 5...8% higher. The prospects for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been assessed. The technical and economic evaluation of use of dual fuel engines in heavy-duty vehicles has been performed, taking into account the total life cycle. It is shown that it is possible to reduce life cycle costs by two times.

  5. Three cycles of water deficit from seed to young plants of Moringa oleifera woody species improves stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Rebeca; Oliveira, Marciel T; Santos, Mauro G

    2013-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess whether recurring water stress occurring from seed germination to young plants of Moringa oleifera Lam. are able to mitigate the drought stress effects. Germination, gas exchange and biochemical parameters were analysed after three cycles of water deficit. Young plants were used 50 days after germination under three osmotic potentials (0.0, -0.3 and -0.4 MPa). For each germination treatment, control (irrigated) and stressed (10% of water control) plants were compared for a total of six treatments. There were two cycles of drought interspersed with 10 days of rehydration. The young plants of M. oleifera showed increased tolerance to repeated cycles of drought, maintaining high relative water content (RWC), high water use efficiency (WUE), increased photosynthetic pigments and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes. There was rapid recovery of the photosynthetic rate during the rehydration period. The stressed plants from the -0.3 and -0.4 MPa treatments showed higher tolerance compared to the control plants. The results suggest that seeds of M. oleifera subjected to mild water deficit have had increased the ability for drought tolerance when young plant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Stirling Microregenerators Fabricated and Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2004-01-01

    A mesoscale Stirling refrigerator patented by the NASA Glenn Research Center is currently under development. This refrigerator has a predicted efficiency of 30 percent of Carnot and potential uses in electronics, sensors, optical and radiofrequency systems, microarrays, and microsystems. The mesoscale Stirling refrigerator is most suited to volume-limited applications that require cooling below the ambient or sink temperature. Primary components of the planar device include two diaphragm actuators that replace the pistons found in traditional-scale Stirling machines and a microregenerator that stores and releases thermal energy to the working gas during the Stirling cycle. Diaphragms are used to eliminate frictional losses and bypass leakage concerns associated with pistons, while permitting reversal of the hot and cold sides of the device during operation to allow precise temperature control. Three candidate microregenerators were fabricated under NASA grants for initial evaluation: two constructed of porous ceramic, which were fabricated by Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, and one made of multiple layers of nickel and photoresist, which was fabricated by Polar Thermal Technologies. The candidate regenerators are being tested by Johns Hopkins Applied Physics in a custom piezoelectric-actuated test apparatus designed to produce the Stirling refrigeration cycle. In parallel with the regenerator testing, Johns Hopkins is using deep reactive ion etching to fabricate electrostatically driven, comb-drive diaphragm actuators. These actuators will drive the Stirling cycle in the prototype device. The top photograph shows the porous ceramic microregenerators. Two microregenerators were fabricated with coarse pores and two with fine pores. The bottom photograph shows the test apparatus parts for evaluating the microregenerators, including the layered nickel-and-photoresist regenerator fabricated using LIGA techniques.

  7. Computational modelling of buckling of woven fabrics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anandjiwala, RD

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available for reducing unit production cost is critically important if garment industries in developed countries are keen to improve their competitiveness vis-à-vis low labour cost countries. The mechanics of the buckling behaviour of woven fabric started... of woven fabric. INTRODUCTION The buckling, bending and drape behaviours of a woven fabric influence its performance during actual use and during the process of making-up into the end product. These properties are important, particularly when the fabric...

  8. Fabric strain sensor integrated with CNPECs for repeated large deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Weijing

    Flexible and soft strain sensors that can be used in smart textiles for wearable applications are much desired. They should meet the requirements of low modulus, large working range and good fatigue resistance as well as good sensing performances. However, there were no commercial products available and the objective of the thesis is to investigate fabric strain sensors based on carbon nanoparticle (CNP) filled elastomer composites (CNPECs) for potential wearing applications. Conductive CNPECs were fabricated and investigated. The introduction of silicone oil (SO) significantly decreased modulus of the composites to less than 1 MPa without affecting their deformability and they showed good stability after heat treatment. With increase of CNP concentration, a percolation appeared in electrical resistivity and the composites can be divided into three ranges. I-V curves and impedance spectra together with electro-mechanical studies demonstrated a balance between sensitivity and working range for the composites with CNP concentrations in post percolation range, and were preferred for sensing applications only if the fatigue life was improved. Due to the good elasticity and failure resist property of knitted fabric under repeated extension, it was adopted as substrate to increase the fatigue life of the conductive composites. After optimization of processing parameters, the conductive fabric with CNP concentration of 9.0CNP showed linear I-V curves when voltage is in the range of -1 V/mm and 1 V/mm and negligible capacitive behavior when frequency below 103 Hz even with strain of 60%. It showed higher sensitivity due to the combination of nonlinear resistance-strain behavior of the CNPECs and non-even strain distribution of knitted fabric under extension. The fatigue life of the conductive fabric was greatly improved. Extended on the studies of CNPECs and the coated conductive fabrics, a fabric strain sensor was designed, fabricated and packaged. The Young's modulus of

  9. Work plan for improving the DARWIN2.3 depleted material balance calculation of nuclides of interest for the fuel cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzo Axel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available DARWIN2.3 is the reference package used for fuel cycle applications in France. It solves the Boltzmann and Bateman equations in a coupling way, with the European JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library, to compute the fuel cycle values of interest. It includes both deterministic transport codes APOLLO2 (for light water reactors and ERANOS2 (for fast reactors, and the DARWIN/PEPIN2 depletion code, each of them being developed by CEA/DEN with the support of its industrial partners. The DARWIN2.3 package has been experimentally validated for pressurized and boiling water reactors, as well as for sodium fast reactors; this experimental validation relies on the analysis of post-irradiation experiments (PIE. The DARWIN2.3 experimental validation work points out some isotopes for which the depleted concentration calculation can be improved. Some other nuclides have no available experimental validation, and their concentration calculation uncertainty is provided by the propagation of a priori nuclear data uncertainties. This paper describes the work plan of studies initiated this year to improve the accuracy of the DARWIN2.3 depleted material balance calculation concerning some nuclides of interest for the fuel cycle.

  10. Work plan for improving the DARWIN2.3 depleted material balance calculation of nuclides of interest for the fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Axel; Vaglio-Gaudard, Claire; Martin, Julie-Fiona; Noguère, Gilles; Eschbach, Romain

    2017-09-01

    DARWIN2.3 is the reference package used for fuel cycle applications in France. It solves the Boltzmann and Bateman equations in a coupling way, with the European JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library, to compute the fuel cycle values of interest. It includes both deterministic transport codes APOLLO2 (for light water reactors) and ERANOS2 (for fast reactors), and the DARWIN/PEPIN2 depletion code, each of them being developed by CEA/DEN with the support of its industrial partners. The DARWIN2.3 package has been experimentally validated for pressurized and boiling water reactors, as well as for sodium fast reactors; this experimental validation relies on the analysis of post-irradiation experiments (PIE). The DARWIN2.3 experimental validation work points out some isotopes for which the depleted concentration calculation can be improved. Some other nuclides have no available experimental validation, and their concentration calculation uncertainty is provided by the propagation of a priori nuclear data uncertainties. This paper describes the work plan of studies initiated this year to improve the accuracy of the DARWIN2.3 depleted material balance calculation concerning some nuclides of interest for the fuel cycle.

  11. Application of the Combined Cycle LWR-Gas Turbine to PWR for NPP Life Extension Safety Upgrade and Improving Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu. N.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, some of the most important problem for the nuclear industry are life extension, advance competitiveness and safety of aging LWR NPPs. Based on results of studies performed in the USA (Battelle Memorial Institute) and in Russia (NIKIET), a new power technology, using a combined cycle gas-turbine facility CCGT - LWR, so called TD-Cycle, can significantly help in resolution of some problems of nuclear power industry. The nuclear steam and gas topping cycle is used for re-powering a light water pressurized reactor of PWR or VVER type. An existing NPP is topped with a gas turbine facility with a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) generating steam from waste heat. The superheated steam of high pressure (P=90-165 bar, T=500-550 C) generated in the HRSG, is expanded in a high pressure (HP) turbine for producing electricity. The HP turbine can work on one shaft with the the gas turbine or at one shaft with intermediate (IP) or low (LP) pressure parts of the main nuclear steam turbine, or with a separate electric generator. The exhausted steam from the HP turbine is injected into the steam mixer where it is mixed with the saturated steam from the NPP steam generator (SG). The mixer is intended to superheat the main nuclear steam and should be characterized by minimum losses during mixing superheated and saturated steam. Steam from the mixer superheated by 20-60 C directs to the existing IP turbine, and then, through a separator-reheater flows into the LP turbine. Feed water re-heaters of LP and HP are actually unchanged in this case. Feed water extraction to the HRSG is supplied after one of LP water heaters. This proposal is intended to re-power existing LWR NPPs. To minimize cost, the IP and LP turbines and electric generator would remain the same. The reactor thermal power and fast neutron flux to the reactor vessel would decrease by 30-50 percent of nominal values. The external peripheral row of fuel elements can be replaced with metal absorber rods to

  12. Highly conductive bridges between graphite spheres to improve the cycle performance of a graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu [IM and T Ltd., Advanced Research Center, Saga University, Yoga-machi 1341, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Umeno, Tatsuo; Mizuma, Koutarou [Research Center, Mitsui Mining Co. Ltd., Hibiki-machi 1-3, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu 808-0021 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, Yoga-machi 1341, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2008-01-10

    Spherical carbon-coated natural graphite (SCCNG) is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries, but the smooth surface of graphite spheres is difficult to wet with an aqueous binder solution, and lacks electrical contacts. As a result, the cycle performance of such a graphite anode material is not satisfactory. An effective method has been introduced to tightly connect adjacent SCCNG particles by a highly conductive binder, viz. acetylene black bridges. The effect of the conductive bridges on the cyclability of SCCNG electrode has been investigated. (author)

  13. Investigation into rationalization of low decontamination pellet fuel fabrication plant configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Kazuhiko; Yoshimura, Tadahiro; Hoshino, Yasushi; Munekata, Hideki; Tamaki, Yoshihisa

    2005-02-01

    In feasibility studies on commercialized FBR cycle system, a comprehensive system investigation and properties evaluation for candidate FBR cycle systems has been implemented through view point of safety, economics, environmental burden reduction, non-proliferation resistivity, etc. As part of these studies, an investigation into rationalization of low decontamination pellet fuel fabrication plant configuration was carried out. Until last fiscal year, conceptual design studies of the fuel fabrication plant in 200t-HM/y scale were conducted, and system properties data concerning economics and environmental burden reduction of fuel fabrication plant was acquired. In addition to this, 50t-HM/y scale plant was also schematically studied. In this fiscal year, a rationalization study on conceptual design of 50t-HM/y scale plant was conducted with main aim of economic improvement, and the 200t-HM/y scale plant design was revised based on the recent R and D progress. The system properties data concerning economics and environmental burden reduction of fuel fabrication plant was also acquired. In both case of the 50t-HM/y and 200t-HM/y scale plant, it was suggested that the equipment costs were reduced in several percentages because of reduction of maintenance equipments and cut in line number at the pellet fabrication process although granulation process fro denitration converted powder and O/M control process for pellets were added. System properties data for comparative evaluation of candidate fuel fabrication systems was also prepared. (author)

  14. Measurements and modeling of CO2 concentration and isotopes to improve process-level understanding of Arctic and boreal carbon cycling. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeling, Ralph F. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography

    2017-09-29

    The major goal of this project was to improve understanding of processes that control the exchanges of CO2 between the atmosphere and the land biosphere on decadal and longer time scales. The approach involves measuring the changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and the isotopes of CO2 (13C/12C and 18O/16O) at background stations and uses these and other datasets to challenge and improve numerical models of the earth system. The project particularly emphasized the use of these data to improve understanding of changes occurring in boreal and arctic ecosystems over the past 50 years and to seek from these data improved understanding of large-scale processes impacting carbon cycling, such as the responses to warming, CO2 fertilization, and disturbance. The project also led to advances in the understanding of changes in water-use efficiency of land ecosystems globally based on trends in 13C/12C. The core element of this project was providing partial support for continuing measurements of CO2 concentrations and isotopes from the Scripps CO2 program, initiated by C. D. Keeling in the 1960s. The measurements included analysis of flasks collected at an array of ten stations distributed from the Arctic to the Antarctic. The project also supported modeling studies and interpretive work to help understand the origins of the large ~50% increase in the amplitude of the atmospheric CO2 cycle detected at high northern latitudes between 1960 and present and to understand the long-term trend in carbon 13C/12C of CO2. The seasonal cycle work was advanced through collaborations with colleagues at MPI Jena and Imperial College

  15. How physical modelling can improve Life Cycle Inventory accuracy and allow predictive LCA: an application to the steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirgaux, O.; Ablitzer, D.; Iosif, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing traditional iron and steelmaking processes from an environmental point of view and developing breakthrough eco-efficient processes for the future are major challenges for the steel industry today. In the framework of the challenging European project ULCOS, which stands for Ultra Low CO 2 Steelmaking, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was chosen to assess breakthrough processes that could be part of the future iron and steel making landscape and to compare them to the reference classical integrated steel-mill. To carry out such a study we propose a new methodological concept which combines LCA thinking with physicochemical process modelling. Physicochemical models were developed for each processes of the classical integrated steelmaking route in order to generate the data required to draw the Life Cycle Inventory of the route. Such a method bypasses the traditional data collection and brings accuracy to the inventory by introducing rigorous mass and energy balances into the methodology. In addition it was shown that such an approach allows testing and assessing different operational practices of the processes in order to optimise the use of energy and the CO 2 emissions, which showed that it can be used as a powerful tool for eco-conception of processes. (authors)

  16. An Ethology of Urban Fabric(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2014-01-01

    The article explores a non-metaphorical understanding of urban fabric(s), shifting the attention from a bird’s eye perspective to the actual, textural manifestations of a variety of urban fabric(s) to be studied in their real, processual, ecological and ethological complexity within urban life. We...... effectuate this move by bringing into resonance a range of intersecting fields that all deal with urban fabric(s) in complementary ways (interaction design and urban design activism, fashion, cultural theory, philosophy, urban computing)....

  17. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Gas turbine performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    The part-load performance of gas and steam turbine combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry on the gas turbine part...... of various components within gas turbines. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. When both gas turbine configurations are running in part-load using fuel flow control, the results indicate better part......-load performance for the two-shaft gas turbine. Reducing the load this way is accompanied by a much larger decrease in exhaust gas temperature for the single-shaft gas turbine than for the two-shaft configuration. As used here, the results suggest that variable geometry generally deteriorates the gas turbine part...

  18. Part 5. Fuel cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; McFarlane, H.F.; Amundson, P.I.; Goin, R.W.; Webster, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the FBR fuel cycle study that supported US contributions to the INFCE are presented. Fuel cycle technology is reviewed from both generic and historical standpoints. Technology requirements are developed within the framework of three deployment scenarios: the reference international, the secured area, and the integral cycle. Reprocessing, fabrication, waste handling, transportation, and safeguards are discussed for each deployment scenario. Fuel cycle modifications designed to increase proliferation defenses are described and assessed for effectiveness and technology feasibility. The present status of fuel cycle technology is reviewed and key issues that require resolution are identified

  19. Automated breeder fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H.; Frederickson, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Project is to develop remotely operated equipment for the processing and manufacturing of breeder reactor fuel pins. The SAF line will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The fabrication and support systems of the SAF line are designed for computer-controlled operation from a centralized control room. Remote and automated fuel fabriction operations will result in: reduced radiation exposure to workers; enhanced safeguards; improved product quality; near real-time accountability, and increased productivity. The present schedule calls for installation of SAF line equipment in the FMEF beginning in 1984, with qualifying runs starting in 1986 and production commencing in 1987. 5 figures

  20. Improvement in high-voltage and high rate cycling performance of nickel-rich layered cathode materials via facile chemical vapor deposition with methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyuk Son, In; Park, Kwangjin; Hwan Park, Jong

    2017-01-01

    Nickel-rich layered-oxide materials are considered promising candidates for application as cathode material in high-energy lithium ion batteries. However, their cycling performance at high voltages and rate conditions require further improvement for the purpose of commercialization. Here, we report on the facile surface modification of nickel-rich layered oxide by chemical vapor deposition with methane which yields a conductive and protective artificial solid electrolyte interphase layer consisting of amorphous carbon, alkyl lithium carbonate, and lithium carbonate. We examine the mechanism of the protective layer formation and structural deformation of the nickel-rich layered oxide during chemical vapor deposition with methane. Via optimizing the reaction conditions, we improve the electrical conductivity as well as the interfacial stability of the nickel-rich layered oxide without inducing structural deformation. The surface-modified nickel-rich layered oxide exhibits an improved performance due to the resulting enhanced rate capability, high initial efficiency, and long cycle life at high voltage (>4.5 V).

  1. Final technical report. A sodium-cycle based organism with improved membrane resistance aimed at increasing the efficiency of energy biotransformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Kim

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the project was to express in E. coli components that would allow a formation of oxidative phosphorylation based on a sodium cycle. This would improve the resistance of cells to organic solvents, detergents and other toxins. The author cloned and expressed the nqr operon FR-om H. influenzae in E. coli. Experiments with membrane vesicles indicated the presence of the functional recombinant sodium pumping NADH dehydrogenase. A gene for a hybrid E. coli/P.modestum ATPase was constructed which will enable one to co-express a sodium ATPsynthase together with a sodium NADH dehydrogenase

  2. Progress in evaluation and improvement in nondestructive examination reliability for inservice inspection of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and characterize fabrication flaws in reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, S.R.; Bowey, R.E.; Good, M.S.; Friley, J.R.; Kurtz, R.J.; Simonen, F.A.; Taylor, T.T.; Heasler, P.G.; Andersen, E.S.; Diaz, A.A.; Greenwood, M.S.; Hockey, R.L.; Schuster, G.J.; Spanner, J.C.; Vo, T.V.

    1991-10-01

    This paper is a review of the work conducted under two programs. One (NDE Reliability Program) is a multi-year program addressing the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for the inservice inspection (ISI) of light water reactor components. This program examines the reliability of current NDE, the effectiveness of evolving technologies, and provides assessments and recommendations to ensure that the NDE is applied at the right time, in the right place with sufficient effectiveness that defects of importance to structural integrity will be reliably detected and accurately characterized. The second program (Characterizing Fabrication Flaws in Reactor Pressure Vessels) is assembling a data base to quantify the distribution of fabrication flaws that exist in US nuclear reactor pressure vessels with respect to density, size, type, and location. These programs will be discussed as two separate sections in this report. 4 refs., 7 figs

  3. The Miller cycle effects on improvement of fuel economy in a highly boosted, high compression ratio, direct-injection gasoline engine: EIVC vs. LIVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tie; Gao, Yi; Wang, Jiasheng; Chen, Ziqian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • At high load, LIVC is superior over EIVC in improving fuel economy. • The improvement with LIVC is due to advanced combustion phasing and increased pumping work. • At low load, EIVC is better than LIVC in improving fuel economy. • Pumping loss with EIVC is smaller than with LIVC at low load. • But heat release rate with EIVC is slower than with LIVC. - Abstract: A combination of downsizing, highly boosting and direct injection (DI) is an effective way to improve fuel economy of gasoline engines without the penalties of reduced torque or power output. At high loads, however, knock problem becomes severer when increasing the intake boosting. As a compromise, geometric compression ratio (CR) is usually reduced to mitigate knock, and the improvement of fuel economy is discounted. Application of Miller cycle, which can be realized by either early or late intake valve closing (EIVC or LIVC), has the potential to reduce the effective CR and suppress knock. In this paper, the effects of EIVC and LIVC on the fuel economy of a boosted DI gasoline production engine reformed with a geometric CR of 12.0 are experimentally compared at low and high loads. Compared to the original production engine with CR 9.3, at the high load operation, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) is improved by 4.7% with CR12.0 and LIVC, while the effect of EIVC on improving BSFC is negligibly small. At the low load operation, combined with CR12.0, LIVC and EIVC improve the fuel economy by 6.8% and 7.4%, respectively, compared to the production engine. The mechanism behind the effects of LIVC and EIVC on improving the fuel economy is discussed. These results will be a valuable reference for engine designers and researchers

  4. Application of the combined cycle LWR-gas turbine to PWR for NPP life extension, safety upgrade and improving economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.N.; Gabaraev, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The unconventional technology to extend the lifetime for the NPPs now in operation and make a construction of new NPPs cheaper - erection of steam-gas toppings to the nuclear power units - is considered in the paper. Application of the steam-gas toppings permits through reducing power of ageing reactors to extend lifetime of nuclear power unit, enhance its safety and at the same time to keep full load operation of NPP turbine and other balance-of-plant equipment. Proposed technology is examined for Russian VVER-440 reactor as an example and, also, as a pilot project, for Russian boiling VK-50 reactor now in operation Application of the steam-gas topping permits: extend the service life of ageing VVER-440 reactor by 10...15 years; use the turbine and other NPP balance-of-plant equipment at full power; increase the efficiency of combined cycle up to 48% and more; enhance the safety of NPP operation; utilize NPP balance-of-plant equipment after reactor decommissioning; perform the cost-effective operation in maneuvering modes; increase capacity factor of the plant. The construction of pilot project on the basis of the VK-50 reactor will allow not only to demonstrate new technology but also to attain appreciable economic effect including that obtained due to using the available reserves of the NPP turbine. (author)

  5. Potential Fuel Economy Improvements from the Implementation of cEGR and CDA on an Atkinson Cycle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Present the implementation of cEGR and CDA on an Atkinson engine and use steady state fuel consumption maps to estimate the technologies’ potential fuel economy improvements over the FTP and Highway tests. In addition to use fuel weighted modes to determine possible fuel economy...

  6. Continuous Improvement in the Public School Context: Understanding How Educators Respond to Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Wachen, John; Cannata, Marisa; Cohen-Vogel, Lora

    2017-01-01

    The last 5 years have witnessed growing support amongst government institutions and educational foundations for applying continuous improvement research (CIR) in school settings. CIR responds to the challenge of implementing effective educational innovations at scale by working with practitioners in local contexts to understand "what works,…

  7. Continuous Improvement in the Public School Context: Understanding Educator Responses to Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Wachen, John; Cannata, Marisa; Cohen-Vogel, Lora

    2017-01-01

    The last 5 years have witnessed growing support amongst government institutions and educational foundations for applying continuous improvement research (CIR) in school settings. CIR responds to the challenge of implementing effective educational innovations at scale by working with practitioners in local contexts to understand ''what works, for…

  8. Functional electrical stimulation cycling does not improve mobility in people with acquired brain injury and its effects on strength are unclear: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide G de Sousa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Question: Does 4 weeks of active functional electrical stimulation (FES cycling in addition to usual care improve mobility and strength more than usual care alone in people with a sub-acute acquired brain injury caused by stroke or trauma? Design: Multi centre, randomised, controlled trial. Participants: Forty patients from three Sydney hospitals with recently acquired brain injury and a mean composite strength score in the affected lower limb of 7 (SD 5 out of 20 points. Intervention: Participants in the experimental group received an incremental, progressive, FES cycling program five times a week over a 4-week period. All participants received usual care. Outcome measures: Outcome measures were taken at baseline and at 4 weeks. Primary outcomes were mobility and strength of the knee extensors of the affected lower limb. Mobility was measured with three mobility items of the Functional Independence Measure and strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. Secondary outcomes were strength of the knee extensors of the unaffected lower limb, strength of key muscles of the affected lower limb and spasticity of the affected plantar flexors. Results: All but one participant completed the study. The mean between-group differences for mobility and strength of the knee extensors of the affected lower limb were –0.3/21 points (95% CI –3.2 to 2.7 and 7.5 Nm (95% CI –5.1 to 20.2, where positive values favoured the experimental group. The only secondary outcome that suggested a possible treatment effect was strength of key muscles of the affected lower limb with a mean between-group difference of 3.0/20 points (95% CI 1.3 to 4.8. Conclusion: Functional electrical stimulation cycling does not improve mobility in people with acquired brain injury and its effects on strength are unclear. Trial registration: ACTRN12612001163897. [de Sousa DG, Harvey LA, Dorsch S, Leung J, Harris W (2016 Functional electrical stimulation cycling does not improve

  9. Use of a small molecule cell cycle inhibitor to control cell growth and improve specific productivity and product quality of recombinant proteins in CHO cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhimei; Treiber, David; McCarter, John D; Fomina-Yadlin, Dina; Saleem, Ramsey A; McCoy, Rebecca E; Zhang, Yuling; Tharmalingam, Tharmala; Leith, Matthew; Follstad, Brian D; Dell, Brad; Grisim, Brent; Zupke, Craig; Heath, Carole; Morris, Arvia E; Reddy, Pranhitha

    2015-01-01

    The continued need to improve therapeutic recombinant protein productivity has led to ongoing assessment of appropriate strategies in the biopharmaceutical industry to establish robust processes with optimized critical variables, that is, viable cell density (VCD) and specific productivity (product per cell, qP). Even though high VCD is a positive factor for titer, uncontrolled proliferation beyond a certain cell mass is also undesirable. To enable efficient process development to achieve consistent and predictable growth arrest while maintaining VCD, as well as improving qP, without negative impacts on product quality from clone to clone, we identified an approach that directly targets the cell cycle G1-checkpoint by selectively inhibiting the function of cyclin dependent kinases (CDK) 4/6 with a small molecule compound. Results from studies on multiple recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines demonstrate that the selective inhibitor can mediate a complete and sustained G0/G1 arrest without impacting G2/M phase. Cell proliferation is consistently and rapidly controlled in all recombinant cell lines at one concentration of this inhibitor throughout the production processes with specific productivities increased up to 110 pg/cell/day. Additionally, the product quality attributes of the mAb, with regard to high molecular weight (HMW) and glycan profile, are not negatively impacted. In fact, high mannose is decreased after treatment, which is in contrast to other established growth control methods such as reducing culture temperature. Microarray analysis showed major differences in expression of regulatory genes of the glycosylation and cell cycle signaling pathways between these different growth control methods. Overall, our observations showed that cell cycle arrest by directly targeting CDK4/6 using selective inhibitor compound can be utilized consistently and rapidly to optimize process parameters, such as cell growth, qP, and glycosylation profile in

  10. Exogenous Calcium Alleviates Photoinhibition of PSII by Improving the Xanthophyll Cycle in Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Leaves during Heat Stress under High Irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sha; Wang, Fang; Guo, Feng; Meng, Jing-Jing; Li, Xin-Guo; Dong, Shu-Ting; Wan, Shu-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium (Ca) serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. The effect of exogenous calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] (6 mM) on the dissipation of excess excitation energy in the photosystem II (PSII) antenna, especially on the level of D1 protein and the xanthophyll cycle in peanut plants under heat (40°C) and high irradiance (HI) (1 200 µmol m−2 s−1) stress were investigated. Compared with the control plants [cultivated in 0 mM Ca(NO3)2 medium], the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in Ca2+-treated plants showed a slighter decrease after 5 h of stress, accompanied by higher non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), higher expression of antioxidative genes and less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Meanwhile, higher content of D1 protein and higher ratio of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) were also detected in Ca2+-treated plants under such stress. These results showed that Ca2+ could help protect the peanut photosynthetic system from severe photoinhibition under heat and HI stress by accelerating the repair of D1 protein and improving the de-epoxidation ratio of the xanthophyll cycle. Furthermore, EGTA (a chelant of Ca ion), LaCl3 (a blocker of Ca2+ channel in cytoplasmic membrane), and CPZ [a calmodulin (CaM) antagonist] were used to analyze the effects of Ca2+/CaM on the variation of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) (%) and the expression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE). The results indicated that CaM, an important component of the Ca2+ signal transduction pathway, mediated the expression of the VDE gene in the presence of Ca to improve the xanthophyll cycle. PMID:23940721

  11. Exogenous calcium alleviates photoinhibition of PSII by improving the xanthophyll cycle in peanut (Arachis hypogaea leaves during heat stress under high irradiance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Yang

    Full Text Available Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium (Ca serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. The effect of exogenous calcium nitrate [Ca(NO32] (6 mM on the dissipation of excess excitation energy in the photosystem II (PSII antenna, especially on the level of D1 protein and the xanthophyll cycle in peanut plants under heat (40°C and high irradiance (HI (1 200 µmol m(-2 s(-1 stress were investigated. Compared with the control plants [cultivated in 0 mM Ca(NO32 medium], the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm in Ca(2+-treated plants showed a slighter decrease after 5 h of stress, accompanied by higher non-photochemical quenching (NPQ, higher expression of antioxidative genes and less reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation. Meanwhile, higher content of D1 protein and higher ratio of (A+Z/(V+A+Z were also detected in Ca(2+-treated plants under such stress. These results showed that Ca(2+ could help protect the peanut photosynthetic system from severe photoinhibition under heat and HI stress by accelerating the repair of D1 protein and improving the de-epoxidation ratio of the xanthophyll cycle. Furthermore, EGTA (a chelant of Ca ion, LaCl3 (a blocker of Ca(2+ channel in cytoplasmic membrane, and CPZ [a calmodulin (CaM antagonist] were used to analyze the effects of Ca(2+/CaM on the variation of (A+Z/(V+A+Z (% and the expression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE. The results indicated that CaM, an important component of the Ca(2+ signal transduction pathway, mediated the expression of the VDE gene in the presence of Ca to improve the xanthophyll cycle.

  12. Combination of acid-resistor and -scavenger improves the SEI stability and cycling ability of tin–nickel battery anodes in LiPF6-containing electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Myeong-Ho; Nguyen, Cao Cuong; Hong, Sukhyun; Kwon, Yo Han; Woo, Sang-Wook; Kim, Je Young; Song, Seung-Wan

    2013-01-01

    Control of electrode–electrolyte interfacial reactivity and the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer is a key technology for high performance rechargeable lithium batteries. Here we present the first report on a promising interfacial approach for Sn–Ni electrode that the use of acid-resisting and -scavenging fluorine-dopant on Sn combined with acid-scavenging trimethyl phosphite electrolyte additive to LiPF 6 -contiaing carbonate-based organic electrolyte improves the interfacial stability of Sn to acidic electrolyte species. As a result, a stable SEI layer consisting of a plenty of carbonate decomposition products forms and cycling ability significantly improves, in contrast to less efficient SEI formation and rapid performance fade for the electrodes without fluorine-dopant or trimethyl phosphite additive

  13. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  14. Reliability improvement of a-Si:H thin film transistors on plastic substrate with saturation in deep state after multiple bending cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.H.; Chen, P.-G.; Hsu, C.-C.

    2013-01-01

    For flexible electronic applications, the disordered bonds of a-Si:H may generate a redistribution of trapped states with mechanical strain. During mechanical strain, the deep states are redistributed in a Gaussian distribution and are dissimilar to ordinary acceptor-like deep states, which manifest with exponential distributions. The redistributed deep states may saturate with multiple mechanical bending cycles, and it would improve the reliability with drain current stress of a-Si:H TFTs (thin film transistors) on flexible substrates. We conclude that it is possible to produce low-cost and highly uniform active-matrix organic light emitting diodes systems for use in flexible display applications using a-Si:H TFTs array backplanes. - Highlights: • The stress stability of a-Si:H TFTs (thin-film transistors) was improved after bending cycles. • The saturated deep states after bending were confirmed. • The simulation and extracted gap state density of a-Si:H TFT under strain was calculated

  15. An improved model to evaluate thermodynamic solar plants with cylindrical parabolic collectors and air turbine engines in open Joule–Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Vittorio; Imineo, Francesco; Marinelli, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    An improved model to analyze the performance of solar plants operating with cylindrical parabolic collectors and atmospheric air as heat transfer fluid in an open Joule–Brayton cycle is presented. In the new model, the effect of the incident angle modifier is included, to take into account the variation of the optical efficiency with the incidence angle of the irradiance, and the effect of the reheating of the fluid also has been studied. The analysis was made for two operating modes of the plants: with variable air flow rate and constant inlet temperature to the turbine and with constant flow rate and variable inlet temperature to the turbine, with and without reheating of the fluid in the solar field. When reheating is used, the efficiency of the plant is increased. The obtained results show a good performance of this type of solar plant, in spite of its simplicity; it is able to compete well with other more complex plants operating with different heat transfer fluids. - Highlights: ► An improved model to calculate an innovative CPS solar plant is presented. ► The plant works with air in an open Joule–Brayton cycle. ► The reheating of the air increases the thermodynamic efficiency. ► The plant is very simple and competes well with other more complex solar plants

  16. Advanced fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with the fabrication of advanced fuels, such as mixed oxides for Pressurized Water Reactors or mixed nitrides for Fast Breeder Reactors. Although an extensive production experience exists for the mixed oxides used in the FBR, important work is still needed to improve the theoretical and technical knowledge of the production route which will be introduced in the future European facility, named Melox, at Marcoule. Recently, the feasibility of nitride fuel fabrication in existing commercial oxide facilities was demonstrated in France. The process, based on carbothermic reduction of oxides with subsequent comminution of the reaction product, cold pressing and sintering provides (U, Pu)N pellets with characteristics suitable for irradiation testing. Two experiments named NIMPHE 1 and 2 fabricated in collaboration with ITU, Karlsruhe, involve 16 nitride and 2 carbide pins, operating at a linear power of 45 and 73 kW/m with a smear density of 75-80% TD and a high burn-up target of 15 at%. These experiments are currently being irradiated in Phenix, at Marcoule. (orig.)

  17. Final Report: Modifications and Optimization of the Organic Rankine Cycle to Improve the Recovery of Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, Donna Post [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zia, Jalal [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This research and development (R&D) project exemplifies a shared public private commitment to advance the development of energy efficient industrial technologies that will reduce the U.S. dependence upon foreign oil, provide energy savings and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a Direct Evaporator for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for the conversion of waste heat from gas turbine exhaust to electricity. In conventional ORCs, the heat from the exhaust stream is transferred indirectly to a hydrocarbon based working fluid by means of an intermediate thermal oil loop. The Direct Evaporator accomplishes preheating, evaporation and superheating of the working fluid by a heat exchanger placed within the exhaust gas stream. Direct Evaporation is simpler and up to 15% less expensive than conventional ORCs, since the secondary oil loop and associated equipment can be eliminated. However, in the past, Direct Evaporation has been avoided due to technical challenges imposed by decomposition and flammability of the working fluid. The purpose of this project was to retire key risks and overcome the technical barriers to implementing an ORC with Direct Evaporation. R&D was conducted through a partnership between the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and General Electric (GE) Global Research Center (GRC). The project consisted of four research tasks: (1) Detailed Design & Modeling of the ORC Direct Evaporator, (2) Design and Construction of Partial Prototype Direct Evaporator Test Facility, (3) Working Fluid Decomposition Chemical Analyses, and (4) Prototype Evaluation. Issues pertinent to the selection of an ORC working fluid, along with thermodynamic and design considerations of the direct evaporator, were identified. The FMEA (Failure modes and effects analysis) and HAZOP (Hazards and operability analysis) safety studies performed to mitigate risks are described, followed by a discussion of the flammability analysis of the

  18. Study on the fuel cycle cost of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300). Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takei, Masanobu; Katanishi, Shoji; Nakata, Tetsuo; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Oda, Takefumi; Izumiya, Toru [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    In the basic design of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300), reduction of the fuel cycle cost has a large benefit of improving overall plant economy. Then, fuel cycle cost was evaluated for GTHTR300. First, of fuel fabrication for high-temperature gas cooled reactor, since there was no actual experience with a commercial scale, a preliminary design for a fuel fabrication plant with annual processing of 7.7 ton-U sufficient four GTHTR300 was performed, and fuel fabrication cost was evaluated. Second, fuel cycle cost was evaluated based on the equilibrium cycle of GTHTR300. The factors which were considered in this cost evaluation include uranium price, conversion, enrichment, fabrication, storage of spent fuel, reprocessing, and waste disposal. The fuel cycle cost of GTHTR300 was estimated at about 1.07 yen/kWh. If the back-end cost of reprocessing and waste disposal is included and assumed to be nearly equivalent to LWR, the fuel cycle cost of GTHTR300 was estimated to be about 1.31 yen/kWh. Furthermore, the effects on fuel fabrication cost by such of fuel specification parameters as enrichment, the number of fuel types, and the layer thickness were considered. Even if the enrichment varies from 10 to 20%, the number of fuel types change from 1 to 4, the 1st layer thickness of fuel changes by 30 {mu}m, or the 2nd layer to the 4th layer thickness of fuel changes by 10 {mu}m, the impact on fuel fabrication cost was evaluated to be negligible. (author)

  19. A service evaluation and improvement project: a three year systematic audit cycle of the physiotherapy treatment for Lateral Epicondylalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Paul A; Selfe, James

    2018-06-01

    To improve outcomes of physiotherapy treatment for patients with Lateral Epicondylalgia. A systematic audit and quality improvement project over three phases, each of one year duration. Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust Teaching Hospital Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy out-patients department. n=182. Phase one - individual discretion; Phase two - strengthening as a core treatment however individual discretion regarding prescription and implementation; Phase three - standardised protocol using high load isometric exercise, progressing on to slow combined concentric & eccentric strengthening. Global Rating of Change Scale, Pain-free grip strength, Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation, Tampa Scale of Kinesophobia-11. Phase three demonstrated a reduction in the average number of treatments by 42% whilst improving the number of responders to treatment by 8% compared to phase one. Complete cessation of non-evidence based treatments was also observed by phase three. Strengthening should be a core treatment for LE. Load setting needs to be sufficient. In phase three of the audit a standardised tendon loading programme using patient specific high load isometric exercises into discomfort/pain demonstrated a higher percentage of responders compared to previous phases. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    The utilization of the thorium fuel cycle has long since been considered attractive owing to the excellent neutronic characteristics of 233 U, and the widespread and cheap thorium resources. Rapidly increasing uranium prices, public reluctance for widespread Pu recycling and expected delays for the market penetration of fast breeders have led to a reconsideration of the thorium fuel cycle merits. In addition, problems associated with reprocessing and waste handling, particularly with re-fabrication by remote handling of 233 U, are certainly not appreciably more difficult than for Pu recycling. To divert from uranium as a nuclear energy source it seems worth while intensifying future efforts for closing the Th/ 233 U fuel cycle. HTGRs are particularly promising for economic application. However, further research and development activities should not concentrate on this reactor type alone. Light- and heavy-water-moderated reactors, and even future fast breeders, may just as well take advantage of a demonstrated thorium fuel cycle. (author)

  1. Aspects of the fast reactors fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, D.M.

    1982-06-01

    The fuel cycle for fast reactors, is analysed, regarding the technical aspects of the developing of the reprocessing stages and the fuel fabrication. The environmental impact of LMFBRs and the waste management of this cycle are studied. The economic aspects of the fuel cycle, are studied too. Some coments about the Brazilian fast reactors programs are done. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Towards a more sustainable transport infrastructure: how spatial geological data can be utilized to improve early stage Life cycle assessment of road infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Miliutenko, Sofiia; Björklund, Anna; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Toller, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Environmental impacts during the life cycle stages of transport infrastructure are substantial, including among other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as resource and energy use. For transport infrastructure to be sustainable, such issues need to be integrated in the planning process. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is required by the European Union (EU) in order to ensure that all environmental aspects are considered during planning of road infrastructure projects. As a part of this process, the European Commission has suggested the use of the tool life cycle assessment (LCA) for assessing life cycle energy use and GHG emissions. When analyzing life cycle impacts of the road infrastructure itself, it was shown that earthworks and materials used for the road construction have a big share in the total energy use and GHG emissions. Those aspects are largely determined by the geological conditions at the site of construction: parameters such as soil thickness, slope, bedrock quality and soil type. The geological parameters determine the amounts of earthworks (i.e. volumes of soil and rock that will be excavated and blasted), transportation need for excavated materials as well as the availability of building materials. The study presents a new geographic information system (GIS)-based approach for utilizing spatial geological data in three dimensions (i.e. length, width and depth) in order to improve estimates on earthworks during the early stages of road infrastructure planning. Three main methodological steps were undertaken: mass balance calculation, life cycle inventory analysis and spatial mapping of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use. The proposed GIS-based approach was later evaluated by comparing with the actual values of extracted material of a real road construction project. The results showed that the estimate of filling material was the most accurate, while the estimate for excavated soil and blasted rock had a wide variation from

  3. Transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The author first recalls that the French nuclear industry works within the frame defined by international treaties and laws which ensure rigor and transparency. He gives some explanations for the resorting to Russian installations and for reprocessed uranium recycling (among them: supply security for the French nuclear industry, strategy of complete use of uranium energetic potential). Then, he outlines how the French State must further improve transparency and pedagogy about radioactive waste and material management. A technical appendix is provided, describing the fuel cycle (natural uranium extraction, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, irradiation, used fuel processing, reprocessed uranium recycling, plutonium recycling in MOX, waste storage), giving an overview of the international supply context (concurrence and security needs), discussing valorization perspectives for materials which are not used in the current fuel cycle, describing the various aspects of radioactive waste management for the various types of wastes (long life, low or high activity for example), describing the control performed by public authorities and organisations

  4. Rearrangement of fuel assemblies in the RBMK type reactors to flatten power distribution and improve the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mityaev, Yu.I.; Vikulov, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    A possibility of increasing the burnup of uranium fuel unloaded from the RBMK type reactors is investigated. Three variants of a two-zone reactor-refueling are considered: 1. the simplest variant of continuous refueling used at present, when the central and peripherical reactor zones are additionally fueled independently by similar fuel assemblies (FA); 2. the variant under which new FA are loaded to the peripherical zone and are used there up to the same burnup as in the first case, then all the peripherical FA (PFA) are rearranged to the centre and they are used there up to maximum burnup; 3. the same as in the second variant, but not all the PFA are rearranged to the centre but only FA with small fuel burnup. It is shown by calculation that average fuel burnup for the third refueling variant is several per cent higher at the optimal burnup of rearranged FA. Besides, flattening of fuel channel power is improved in this case, that permits to increase uranium enrichment and burnup at the same maximum power. It essentially improves economic parameters of the reactor. It is concluded that realization of the considered variant of fuel refueling will produce the most essential effect for reactors refueled without shutdown

  5. The quality challenge for fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannegrace, J.-P.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel fabrication is a key segment of the nuclear fuel cycle, since safe and economic operation of reactors is highly dependent on the quality of the fuel. Achieving and controlling quality is, therefore, of paramount importance to fuel fabricators dominating nearly every aspect of the business. The quality policy, concepts and assurance system at three French plants are outlined. The need for integrated inspection, process optimization and good employee motivation is stressed. (author)

  6. Structure and yarn sensor for fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, D.K.; Allgood, G.O.; Mooney, L.R.; Duncan, M.G.; Turner, J.C.; Treece, D.A.

    1998-10-20

    A structure and yarn sensor for fabric directly determines pick density in a fabric thereby allowing fabric length and velocity to be calculated from a count of the picks made by the sensor over known time intervals. The structure and yarn sensor is also capable of detecting full length woven defects and fabric. As a result, an inexpensive on-line pick (or course) density measurement can be performed which allows a loom or knitting machine to be adjusted by either manual or automatic means to maintain closer fiber density tolerances. Such a sensor apparatus dramatically reduces fabric production costs and significantly improves fabric consistency and quality for woven or knitted fabric. 13 figs.

  7. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to produce actionable findings: a rapid-cycle evaluation approach to improving implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Rosalind E; Crosson, Jesse C; O'Malley, Ann S; Cromp, DeAnn; Taylor, Erin Fries

    2017-02-10

    Much research does not address the practical needs of stakeholders responsible for introducing health care delivery interventions into organizations working to achieve better outcomes. In this article, we present an approach to using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to guide systematic research that supports rapid-cycle evaluation of the implementation of health care delivery interventions and produces actionable evaluation findings intended to improve implementation in a timely manner. To present our approach, we describe a formative cross-case qualitative investigation of 21 primary care practices participating in the Comprehensive Primary Care (CPC) initiative, a multi-payer supported primary care practice transformation intervention led by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Qualitative data include observational field notes and semi-structured interviews with primary care practice leadership, clinicians, and administrative and medical support staff. We use intervention-specific codes, and CFIR constructs to reduce and organize the data to support cross-case analysis of patterns of barriers and facilitators relating to different CPC components. Using the CFIR to guide data collection, coding, analysis, and reporting of findings supported a systematic, comprehensive, and timely understanding of barriers and facilitators to practice transformation. Our approach to using the CFIR produced actionable findings for improving implementation effectiveness during this initiative and for identifying improvements to implementation strategies for future practice transformation efforts. The CFIR is a useful tool for guiding rapid-cycle evaluation of the implementation of practice transformation initiatives. Using the approach described here, we systematically identified where adjustments and refinements to the intervention could be made in the second year of the 4-year intervention. We think the approach we describe has broad

  8. Improvement on p-type CVD diamond semiconducting properties by fabricating thin heavily-boron-doped multi-layer clusters isolated each other in unintentionally boron-doped diamond layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, Osamu; Tabuchi, Tomohiro; Ito, Toshimichi

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a new fabrication process to decrease the effective activation energy of B atoms doped in diamond without a significant decrease in the carrier mobility by fabricating heavily B-doped clusters with very low mobility which are embedded in lightly-B-doped diamond layers. The resistivities of the heavily B-doped and unintentionally B-doped diamond stacked layers had almost no temperature dependence, suggesting the presence of an impurity-band conduction in these diamond layers. On the other hand, the resistivities of the samples after the embedding growth process of the stacked layers that had been appropriately divided to innumerable small clusters by means of a suitable etching process increased with decreasing the temperature from 330 to 130 K. The effective activation energies and Hall mobilities at room temperature of both samples were estimated to be 0.21 eV, 106 cm2 V-1 s-1 for micron-sized clusters and 0.23 eV, 470 cm2 V-1 s-1 for nano-sized clusters, respectively, indicating that the diamond film structure fabricated in this work is effective for the improvement of the p-type performance for the B-doped CVD diamond.

  9. TL sensitivity constancy of quartz upon UV+(β,γ) irradiation cycle: An improvement on dating methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) sensivitivy of natural quartz (beaches, paleobeaches and fixed dunes) to Beta and Gamma rays has been studied in a temperature range between 250-400 0 C, before and after bleaching by solar irradiation. A first TL glow growth curve was obtained through Beta irradiation of 'as found' samples and a second glow growth curve was obtained by bleaching through solar irradiation the TL acquired either through an excitation Gamma dose or through environmental radiation to finally re-irradiate the samples under Beta rays. Experimental results showing the constancy of sensitivity, for doses of until about 10K rads, are the basis for a proposal to improve TL dating methodology expanding its present limits. (Author) [pt

  10. Enamel coated steel reinforcement for improved durability and life-cycle performance of concrete structures: microstructure, corrosion, and deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fujian

    This study is aimed (a) to statistically characterize the corrosion-induced deterioration process of reinforced concrete structures (concrete cracking, steel mass loss, and rebar-concrete bond degradation), and (b) to develop and apply three types of enamel-coated steel bars for improved corrosion resistance of the structures. Commercially available pure enamel, mixed enamel with 50% calcium silicate, and double enamel with an inner layer of pure enamel and an outer layer of mixed enamel were considered as various steel coatings. Electrochemical tests were respectively conducted on steel plates, smooth bars embedded in concrete, and deformed bars with/without concrete cover in 3.5 wt.% NaCl or saturated Ca(OH)2 solution. The effects of enamel microstructure, coating thickness variation, potential damage, mortar protection, and corrosion environment on corrosion resistance of the steel members were investigated. Extensive test results indicated that corrosion-induced concrete cracking can be divided into four stages that gradually become less correlated with corrosion process over time. The coefficient of variation of crack width increases with the increasing level of corrosion. Corrosion changed the cross section area instead of mechanical properties of steel bars. The bond-slip behavior between the corroded bars and concrete depends on the corrosion level and distribution of corrosion pits. Although it can improve the chemical bond with concrete and steel, the mixed enamel coating is the least corrosion resistant. The double enamel coating provides the most consistent corrosion performance and is thus recommended to coat reinforcing steel bars for concrete structures applied in corrosive environments. Corrosion pits in enamel-coated bars are limited around damage locations.

  11. Taurine supplementation improves economy of movement in the cycle test independently of the detrimental effects of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulucio, Dailson; Costa, Bruno M; Santos, Caleb G M; Nogueira, Fernando; Koch, Alexander; Machado, Marco; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Pompeu, Fernando Ams

    2017-12-01

    Taurine (TA) ingestion has been touted as blunting the deleterious effects of ethanol (ET) ingestion on motor performance. This study investigated the effects of ingestion of 0.6 mL·kg -1 of ET, 6 grams of TA, and ethanol in combination with taurine (ET+TA) on economy of movement (EM) and heart rate (HR). Nine volunteers, five female (22 ± 3 years) and four male (26 ± 5 years), participated in a study that used a counterbalanced experimental design. EM and HR were measured for 6 min while the subjects were pedalling at a fixed load 10% below the anaerobic threshold. The blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was similar between ET and ET+TA treatments at 30 min after ingestion and after exercise (12.3 mmol·L -1 vs. 13.7 mmol·L -1 , and 9.7 mmol • L -1 vs 10.9 mmol·L -1 , respectively). EM was significantly different among treatments, with lower mL·W -1 following ingestion of TA (-7.1%, p<0.001) than placebo and ET+TA (-2.45%, p=0.001) compared to ET. HR (bpm) was significantly (p<0.05) higher for ET (137 ± 14 bpm) than the other three treatments (placebo = 129 ± 14 bpm; TA = 127 ± 11 bpm; TA+ET = 133 ± 12 and ET = 137 ± 14 bpm). Taurine improved EM when compared to placebo or ET, and reduced HR when compared to ET. The combination of ET+TA also enhanced EM compared to placebo, and reduced HR in comparison to ET alone. Therefore, these findings indicate that taurine improves EM and counteracts ethanol-induced increases in HR during submaximal exercise.

  12. Fabrication of hierarchical graphene@Fe3O4@SiO2@polyaniline quaternary composite and its improved electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Zhu, Jianfeng; Yang, Haibo; Wang, Fen; Qin, Yi; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Pei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene@Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @polyaniline hierarchical structures have been fabricated. • The reflection loss of the composites is below −10 dB in 10.5–16.3 GHz. • The maximum absorption of the composites is −40.7 dB at 12.5 GHz. - Abstract: Hierarchical graphene@Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @polyaniline quaternary composite is fabricated subtly. Their microwave absorption properties are also investigated in the 2–18 GHz frequency range. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) reveal that Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @polyaniline core@shell@shell heteronanostructures are densely covered on the surfaces of graphene, and form hierarchical structures. Compared with two-dimensional binary nanocomposites of graphene@Fe 3 O 4 , the hierarchical structure exhibits enhanced EM absorption in terms of both the maximum reflection loss value and the absorption bandwidth. The maximum reflection loss value can reach −40.7 dB at 12.5 GHz with a thickness of 2.5 mm and the bandwidth corresponding to the reflection loss below −10 dB is 5.8 GHz (from 10.5 to 16.3 GHz)

  13. Polymorphous computing fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw [Los Alamos, NM; Gokhale, Maya B [Los Alamos, NM; McCabe, Kevin Peter [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  14. Using Targeted Active-Learning Exercises and Diagnostic Question Clusters to Improve Students' Understanding of Carbon Cycling in Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Welch, Nicole Turrill

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used targeted active-learning activities to help students improve their ways of reasoning about carbon flow in ecosystems. The results of a validated ecology conceptual inventory (diagnostic question clusters [DQCs]) provided us with information about students' understanding of and reasoning about transformation of inorganic and organic carbon-containing compounds in biological systems. These results helped us identify specific active-learning exercises that would be responsive to students' existing knowledge. The effects of the active-learning interventions were then examined through analysis of students' pre- and postinstruction responses on the DQCs. The biology and non–biology majors participating in this study attended a range of institutions and the instructors varied in their use of active learning; one lecture-only comparison class was included. Changes in pre- to postinstruction scores on the DQCs showed that an instructor's teaching method had a highly significant effect on student reasoning following course instruction, especially for questions pertaining to cellular-level, carbon-transforming processes. We conclude that using targeted in-class activities had a beneficial effect on student learning regardless of major or class size, and argue that using diagnostic questions to identify effective learning activities is a valuable strategy for promoting learning, as gains from lecture-only classes were minimal. PMID:22383618

  15. Application of autoclaving-cooling cycling treatment to improve resistant starch content of corn-based rice analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, B.; Muslihudin, M.; Akmal, S.

    2018-01-01

    Resistant starch is one important component determining the characteristics of a functional food. The aim of the research was to determine the cooling time optimum in the autoclaving-cooling treatment to increase the resistance starch content corn-based rice analogues, with 6 level of cooling time (0 hours/control, 12 hours, 24 hours, 36 hours, 48 hours and 60 hours). The results showed that cooling at 4°C for 60 hours would increase the resistant starch content (6.27% to 15.38%), dietary fiber content (14.53% to 20.17%); and decrease the digestible starch content (61.81% to 52.70%). Cooling time level at 4°C for 24 hours, would increase the sensory score of corn-based rice analogues then back down until cooling time level of 60 hours. Microscopic analysis of granular structure using SEM indicated that cooling time had a linear correlation with cracks intensity on the granule surface of the corn-based rice analogues. The high content of resistant starch showed that the application of cooling time level at 4°C for 24 hours would improve the functional properties of corn-based rice analogues with sensory characteristics remain favorable to panelists.

  16. Using targeted active-learning exercises and diagnostic question clusters to improve students' understanding of carbon cycling in ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Welch, Nicole Turrill

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used targeted active-learning activities to help students improve their ways of reasoning about carbon flow in ecosystems. The results of a validated ecology conceptual inventory (diagnostic question clusters [DQCs]) provided us with information about students' understanding of and reasoning about transformation of inorganic and organic carbon-containing compounds in biological systems. These results helped us identify specific active-learning exercises that would be responsive to students' existing knowledge. The effects of the active-learning interventions were then examined through analysis of students' pre- and postinstruction responses on the DQCs. The biology and non-biology majors participating in this study attended a range of institutions and the instructors varied in their use of active learning; one lecture-only comparison class was included. Changes in pre- to postinstruction scores on the DQCs showed that an instructor's teaching method had a highly significant effect on student reasoning following course instruction, especially for questions pertaining to cellular-level, carbon-transforming processes. We conclude that using targeted in-class activities had a beneficial effect on student learning regardless of major or class size, and argue that using diagnostic questions to identify effective learning activities is a valuable strategy for promoting learning, as gains from lecture-only classes were minimal.

  17. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, K; Zmijewski, P; Krawczyk, K; Czajkowska, A; Kęska, A; Kapuściński, P; Mazurek, T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%-75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions.

  18. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mazurek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME. Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n=24 or CME; n=24 of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p<0.001, similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME, despite body mass not changing significantly (p=0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME. A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively. A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p=0.018 and p=0.018; a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p<0.001, but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p=0.022. Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions.

  19. ADVANCED MONITORING TO IMPROVE COMBUSTION TURBINE/COMBINED CYCLE CT/(CC) RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY (RAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Angello

    2003-09-30

    Power generators are concerned with the maintenance costs associated with the advanced turbines that they are purchasing. Since these machines do not have fully established operation and maintenance (O&M) track records, power generators face financial risk due to uncertain future maintenance costs. This risk is of particular concern, as the electricity industry transitions to a competitive business environment in which unexpected O&M costs cannot be passed through to consumers. These concerns have accelerated the need for intelligent software-based diagnostic systems that can monitor the health of a combustion turbine in real time and provide valuable information on the machine's performance to its owner/operators. Such systems would interpret sensor and instrument outputs, correlate them to the machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, forward projections of servicing intervals, estimate remaining component life, and identify faults. EPRI, Impact Technologies, Boyce Engineering, and Progress Energy have teamed to develop a suite of intelligent software tools integrated with a diagnostic monitoring platform that will, in real time, interpret data to assess the ''total health'' of combustion turbines. The Combustion Turbine Health Management System (CTHM) will consist of a series of dynamic link library (DLL) programs residing on a diagnostic monitoring platform that accepts turbine health data from existing monitoring instrumentation. The CTHM system will be a significant improvement over currently available techniques for turbine monitoring and diagnostics. CTHM will interpret sensor and instrument outputs, correlate them to a machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, project servicing intervals, and estimate remaining component life. In addition, it will enable real-time anomaly detection and diagnostics of performance and mechanical faults, enabling power producers to more accurately predict critical

  20. Improvement in light-output efficiency of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs fabricated on stripe patterned sapphire substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.J.; Hsu, T.C.; Kuo, H.C.; Wang, S.C.; Yang, Y.L.; Yen, S.N.; Chu, Y.T.; Shen, Y.J.; Hsieh, M.H.; Jou, M.J.; Lee, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells near ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated on a patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) with parallel stripe along the sapphire direction by using low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The forward- and reverse-bias electrical characteristics of the stripe PSS LEDs are, respectively, similar and better than those of conventional LEDs on sapphire substrate. The output power of the epoxy package of stripe PSS LED was 20% higher than that of the conventional LEDs. The enhancement of output power is due not only to the reduction of dislocation density but also to the release of the guided light in LEDs by the geometric shape of the stripe PSS, according to the ray-tracing analysis

  1. Prognostic Markers in Core-Binding Factor AML and Improved Survival with Multiple Consolidation Cycles of Intermediate/High-dose Cytarabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabahran, Ashvind; Tacey, Mark; Fleming, Shaun; Wei, Andrew; Tate, Courtney; Marlton, Paula; Wight, Joel; Grigg, Andrew; Tuckfield, Annabel; Szer, Jeff; Ritchie, David; Chee, Lynette

    2018-05-02

    Core-binding factor acute myeloid leukaemia (CBF AML) defined by t(8;21)(q22;q22) or inv(16)(p13q22)/t(16;16)(p13;q22) has a favourable prognosis, however 30-40% of patients still relapse after chemotherapy. We sought to evaluate risk factors for relapse in a de novo CBF AML cohort. A retrospective review of patients from 4 Australian tertiary centres from 2001-2012, comprising 40 t(8;21) and 30 inv(16) AMLs. Multivariate analysis identified age (p=0.032) and WCC>40 (p=0.025) as significant predictors for inferior OS and relapse respectively. Relapse risk was higher in the inv(16) group vs the t(8;21) group (57% vs 18%, HR 4.31, 95% CI: 1.78-10.42, p=0.001). Induction therapy had no bearing on OS or relapse free survival (RFS) however, consolidation treatment with >3 cycles of intermediate/high dose cytarabine improved OS (p=0.035) and relapse-free survival (RFS) (p=0.063). 5 patients demonstrated post-treatment stable q PCR positivity without relapse. (1)>3 consolidation cycles of intermediate/ high-dose cytarabine improves patient outcomes. (2)Age and inv(16) CBF AML subtype are predictors of inferior OS and RFS respectively. (3)Stable low-level MRD by qPCR does not predict relapse. (4)Similar OS in the inv(16) cohort compared to the t(8;21) cohort, despite a higher relapse rate, confirms salvageability of relapsed disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Some Nanometal Oxides Using Microwave Technique and Their Application to Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gouda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the synthesis of some nanometal oxides via microwave irradiation technique and their application to augment multifunctional properties of cotton fabric. Cotton fabrics containing nanometal oxides were prepared via a thiol-modification of cotton fabric samples and then dipped into the metal salt solutions precursors and transferred to the microwave oven. The surface morphology and quantitative analysis of the obtained modified cotton fabrics containing nanometal oxides were studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled with high energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX. The shape and distribution of nanometal oxide inside the fabric samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy of cross-section fabric samples. The iron oxide nanoparticles had a nanosphere with particle size diameter 15–20 nm, copper oxide nanoparticles had a nanosphere with particle size diameter 25–30 nm, and cobalt oxide nanoparticles had a nanotube-like shape with a length of 100–150 nanometer and a diameter of ~58 nanometer, whereas the manganese oxide nanoparticles had a linear structure forming nanorods with a diameter of 50–55 nanometer and a length of 70–80 nanometers. Antibacterial activity was evaluated quantitatively against gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, UV-protection activity was analyzed using UV-DRS spectroscopy, and flame retardation of prepared fabric samples was evaluated according to the limiting oxygen index (LOI. Results revealed that the prepared fabric sample containing nanometal oxide possesses improved antibacterial, LOI, and UV-absorbing efficiency. Moreover, the metal oxide nanoparticles did not leach out the fabrics by washing even after 30 laundering washing cycles.

  3. Current developments of fuel fabrication technologies at the plutonium fuel production facility, PFPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, K.; Aono, S.; Yamaguchi, T.; Deguchi, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, JNC, designed, constructed and has operated the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility, PFPF, at the JNC Tokai Works to supply MOX fuels to the proto-type Fast Breeder Reactor, FBR, 'MONJU' and the experimental FBR 'JOYO' with 5 tonMOX/year of fabrication capability. Reduction of personal radiation exposure to a large amount of plutonium is one of the most important subjects in the development of MOX fabrication facility on a large scale. As the solution of this issue, the PFPF has introduced automated and/or remote controlled equipment in conjunction with computer controlled operation scheme. The PFPF started its operation in 1988 with JOYO reload fuel fabrication and has demonstrated MOX fuel fabrication on a large scale through JOYO and MONJU fuel fabrication for this decade. Through these operations, it has become obvious that several numbers of equipment initially installed in the PFPF need improvements in their performance and maintenance for commercial utilization of plutonium in the future. Furthermore, fuel fabrication of low density MOX pellets adopted in the MONJU fuel required a complete inspection because of difficulties in pellet fabrication compared with high density pellet for JOYO. This paper describes new pressing equipment with a powder recovery system, and pellet finishing and inspection equipment which has multiple functions, such as grinding measurements of outer diameter and density, and inspection of appearance to improve efficiency in the pellet finishing and inspection steps. Another development of technology concerning an annular pellet and an innovative process for MOX fuel fabrication are also described in this paper. (author)

  4. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: fabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing uranium-233 and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, J.W.; Blanco, R.E.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Seagren, R.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-06-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from model High-Temperature Gas-Cooled (HTGR) fuel fabrication plants and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term ''as low as reasonably achievable'' as it applies to these nuclear facilities. The base cases of the two model plants, a fresh fuel fabrication plant and a refabrication plant, are representative of current proposed commercial designs or are based on technology that is being developed to fabricate uranium, thorium, and graphite into fuel elements. The annual capacities of the fresh fuel plant and the refabrication plant are 450 and 245 metric tons of heavy metal (where heavy metal is uranium plus thorium), as charged to about fifty 1000-MW(e) HTGRs. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base case plants in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The capital and annual costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding reductions in dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, the cost/benefit of each case, calculated as additional cost of radwaste system divided by the reduction in dose commitment, is tabulated or the dose commitment is plotted with cost as the variable. The status of each of the radwaste treatment methods is discussed. 48 figures, 74 tables

  5. Quality assurance in the fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmayan, P.

    1995-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the evolutions that FBFC Franco Belge de Fabrication de Combustible has initiated in order to make a further step in improving quality: 1. Improving each personnel's involment and responsability towards quality. 2. Incorporating quality assurance in a total quality management policy, involving both the fabrication teams of FBFC and the design teams of Framatome in order to improve quality. (orig./HP)

  6. A novel akermanite/poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) porous composite scaffold fabricated via a solvent casting-particulate leaching method improved by solvent self-proliferating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yao; Zhang, Mengjiao; Chen, Xianchun; Pu, Ximing; Liao, Xiaoming; Huang, Zhongbing; Yin, Guangfu

    2017-08-01

    Desirable scaffolds for tissue engineering should be biodegradable carriers to supply suitable microenvironments mimicked the extracellular matrices for desired cellular interactions and to provide supports for the formation of new tissues. In this work, a kind of slightly soluble bioactive ceramic akermanite (AKT) powders were aboratively selected and introduced in the PLGA matrix, a novel l-lactide modified AKT/poly (lactic- co -glycolic acid) (m-AKT/PLGA) composite scaffold was fabricated via a solvent casting-particulate leaching method improved by solvent self-proliferating process. The effects of m-AKT contents on properties of composite scaffolds and on MC3T3-E1 cellular behaviors in vitro have been primarily investigated. The fabricated scaffolds exhibited three-dimensional porous networks, in which homogenously distributed cavities in size of 300-400 μm were interconnected by some smaller holes in a size of 100-200 μm. Meanwhile, the mechanical structure of scaffolds was reinforced by the introduction of m-AKT. Moreover, alkaline ionic products released by m-AKT could neutralize the acidic degradation products of PLGA, and the apatite-mineralization ability of scaffolds could be largely improved. More valuably, significant promotions on adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 have been observed, which implied the calcium, magnesium and especially silidous ions released sustainably from composite scaffolds could regulate the behaviors of osteogenesis-related cells.

  7. Nuclear power and its fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    A series of viewgraphs describes the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear power, covering reactor types, sources of uranium, enrichment of uranium, fuel fabrication, transportation, fuel reprocessing, and radioactive wastes

  8. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarin, L.

    2002-01-01

    This book treats of the different aspects of the industrial operations linked with the nuclear fuel, before and after its use in nuclear reactors. The basis science of this nuclear fuel cycle is chemistry. Thus a recall of the elementary notions of chemistry is given in order to understand the phenomena involved in the ore processing, in the isotope enrichment, in the fabrication of fuel pellets and rods (front-end of the cycle), in the extraction of recyclable materials (residual uranium and plutonium), and in the processing and conditioning of wastes (back-end of the fuel cycle). Nuclear reactors produce about 80% of the French electric power and the Cogema group makes 40% of its turnover at the export. Thus this book contains also some economic and geopolitical data in order to clearly position the stakes. The last part, devoted to the management of wastes, presents the solutions already operational and also the research studies in progress. (J.S.)

  9. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter explains the distinction between fissile and fertile materials, examines briefly the processes involved in fuel manufacture and management, describes the alternative nuclear fuel cycles and considers their advantages and disadvantages. Fuel management is usually divided into three stages; the front end stage of production and fabrication, the back end stage which deals with the fuel after it is removed from the reactor (including reprocessing and waste treatment) and the stage in between when the fuel is actually in the reactor. These stages are illustrated and explained in detail. The plutonium fuel cycle and thorium-uranium-233 fuel cycle are explained. The differences between fuels for thermal reactors and fast reactors are explained. (U.K.)

  10. Controllable Fabrication of Amorphous Co-Ni Pyrophosphates for Tuning Electrochemical Performance in Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Ning; He, Yulu; Liang, Bo; Ma, Renzhi; Liu, Xiaohe

    2016-09-07

    Incorporation of two transition metals offers an effective method to enhance the electrochemical performance in supercapacitors for transition metal compound based electrodes. However, such a configuration is seldom concerned in pyrophosphates. Here, amorphous phase Co-Ni pyrophosphates are fabricated as electrodes in supercapacitors. Through controllably adjusting the ratios of Co and Ni as well as the calcination temperature, the electrochemical performance can be tuned. An optimized amorphous Ni-Co pyrophosphate exhibits much higher specific capacitance than monometallic Ni and Co pyrophosphates and shows excellent cycling ability. When employing Ni-Co pyrophosphates as positive electrode and activated carbon as a negative electrode, the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor cell exhibits favorable capacitance and cycling ability. This study provides facile methods to improve the transition metal pyrophosphate electrodes for efficient electrodes in electrochemical energy storage devices.

  11. Process for fabricating mixed-oxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmaleh, D.; Giraudel, A.

    1975-01-01

    A physical-chemical process for fabricating homogeneous powders suitable for sintering is described. It can be applied to the synthesis of all mixed oxides having mutually compatible and water soluble salts. As a specific example, the fabrication of lead titanate-zirconate powders used to make hot pressed ceramics is described. These ceramics show improved piezoelectric properties [fr

  12. Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics with enhanced stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bi, E-mail: xubi@dhu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Science & Technology of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ding, Yinyan; Qu, Shaobo [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Cai, Zaisheng, E-mail: zshcai@dhu.edu [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics were prepared. • Water and hexadecane contact angels reach to 164.4° and 156.3°, respectively. • Nanoporous organically modified silica alcogel particles were synthesized. • The superamphiphobic cotton fabrics exhibit enhanced stability against abrasion, laundering and acid. - Abstract: Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics were prepared by alternately depositing organically modified silica alcogel (ormosil) particles onto chitosan precoated cotton fabrics and subsequent 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyltrimethoxysilane (PFOTMS) modification. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images reveal that the ormosil particles display a fluffy, sponge-like nanoporous structure, and the entire cotton fiber surface is covered with highly porous networks. PFOTMS acts as not only a modifier to lower the surface energy of the cotton fabric but also a binder to enhance the coating stability against abrasion and washing. The treated cotton fabrics show highly liquid repellency with the water, cooking oil and hexadecane contact angels reaching to 164.4°, 160.1° and 156.3°, respectively. Meanwhile, the treated cotton fabrics exhibit good abrasion resistance and high laundering durability, which can withstand 10,000 cycles of abrasion and 30 cycles of machine wash without apparently changing the superamphiphobicity. The superamphiphobic cotton fabric also shows high acid stability, and can withstand 98% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Moreover, the superamphiphobic coating has almost no influence on the other physical properties of the cotton fabrics including tensile strength, whiteness and air permeability. This durable non-wetting surface may provide a wide range of new applications in the future.

  13. Sulfur cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Microbes, especially bacteria, play an important role in oxidative and reductive cycle of sulfur. The oxidative part of the cycle is mediated by photosynthetic bacteria in the presence of light energy and chemosynthetic forms in the absence of light...

  14. Tensile property improvement of TWIP-cored three-layer steel sheets fabricated by hot-roll-bonding with low-carbon steel or interstitial-free steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaeyeong; Kim, Jung-Su; Kang, Minju; Sohn, Seok Su; Cho, Won Tae; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Sunghak

    2017-01-01

    TWIP-cored three-layer steel sheets were newly fabricated by hot rolling of TWIP steel sheet surrounded by low-carbon (LC) or interstitial-free (IF) steel sheets. TWIP/LC or TWIP/IF interfaces were well bonded without pores or voids, while a few pearlites were thinly formed along the interfaces. The strengths and elongation of the TWIP-cored sheets increased as the volume fraction of TWIP-cored region increased, and were also well matched with the ones calculated by a rule of mixtures based on volume fraction or force fraction. According to digital image correlation and electron back-scatter diffraction analyses, very high strain hardening effect in the initial deformation stage and active twin formation in the interfacial region beneficially affected the overall homogeneous deformation in the TWIP-cored sheets without any yield point phenomenon occurring in the LC sheet and serrations occurring in the TWIP sheet, respectively. These TWIP-cored sheets can cover a wide range of yield strength, tensile strength, and ductility levels, e.g., 320~498 MPa, 545~878 MPa, and 48~54%, respectively, by controlling the volume fraction of TWIP-cored region, and thus present new applications to multi-functional automotive steel sheets requiring excellent properties.

  15. Toward improvement of the properties of parts manufactured by FFF (fused filament fabrication) through understanding the influence of temperature and rheological behaviour on the coalescence phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriar, Bakrani Balani; France, Chabert; Valerie, Nassiet; Arthur, Cantarel; Christian, Garnier

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the printing temperature ranges of PLA and PEEK, two semi-crystalline thermoplastics, have been investigated for the Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) process. The printing range, comprised between the melting temperature and the degradation of each polymer, is 160°C to 190°C for PLA and 350°C to 390°C for PEEK. The complex viscosity has been measured for both polymers within the printing range. The kinetics of coalescence has been registered by measuring the bonding length between two filaments of the same polymer according to the temperature. At 167°C, the filaments of PLA reached the maximum value of bonding length. For PEEK, the filaments reached the maximum value of bonding length at 380°C. For the both materials, the final height of the filament is 80% of the initial diameter. The comparison of the obtained results with experimental study and predictive model shows a good agreement when the polymer is totally in fusion state.

  16. Fabrication and improved photoelectrochemical properties of a transferred GaN-based thin film with InGaN/GaN layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dezhong; Xiao, Hongdi; Gao, Qingxue; Yang, Xiaokun; Luan, Caina; Mao, Hongzhi; Liu, Jianqiang; Liu, Xiangdong

    2017-08-17

    Herein, a lift-off mesoporous GaN-based thin film, which consisted of a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer and an n-GaN layer, was fabricated via an electrochemical etching method in a hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution for the first time and then transferred onto quartz or n-Si substrates, acting as photoanodes during photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting in a 1 M NaCl aqueous solution. Compared to the as-grown GaN-based film, the transferred GaN-based thin films possess higher and blue-shifted light emission, presumably resulting from an increase in the surface area and stress relaxation in the InGaN/GaN layer embedded on the mesoporous n-GaN. The properties such as (i) high photoconversion efficiency, (ii) low turn-on voltage (-0.79 V versus Ag/AgCl), and (iii) outstanding stability enable the transferred films to have excellent PEC water splitting ability. Furthermore, as compared to the film transferred onto the quartz substrate, the film transferred onto the n-Si substrate exhibits higher photoconversion efficiency (2.99% at -0.10 V) due to holes (h + ) in the mesoporous n-GaN layer that originate from the n-Si substrate.

  17. Large-scale fuel cycle centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, S.H.; Black, K.M.

    1977-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has considered the nuclear energy center concept for fuel cycle plants in the Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey - 1975 (NECSS-75) -- an important study mandated by the U.S. Congress in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 which created the NRC. For the study, NRC defined fuel cycle centers to consist of fuel reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants, and optional high-level waste and transuranic waste management facilities. A range of fuel cycle center sizes corresponded to the fuel throughput of power plants with a total capacity of 50,000 - 300,000 MWe. The types of fuel cycle facilities located at the fuel cycle center permit the assessment of the role of fuel cycle centers in enhancing safeguarding of strategic special nuclear materials -- plutonium and mixed oxides. Siting of fuel cycle centers presents a considerably smaller problem than the siting of reactors. A single reprocessing plant of the scale projected for use in the United States (1500-2000 MT/yr) can reprocess the fuel from reactors producing 50,000-65,000 MWe. Only two or three fuel cycle centers of the upper limit size considered in the NECSS-75 would be required in the United States by the year 2000 . The NECSS-75 fuel cycle center evaluations showed that large scale fuel cycle centers present no real technical difficulties in siting from a radiological effluent and safety standpoint. Some construction economies may be attainable with fuel cycle centers; such centers offer opportunities for improved waste management systems. Combined centers consisting of reactors and fuel reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants were also studied in the NECSS. Such centers can eliminate not only shipment of plutonium, but also mixed oxide fuel. Increased fuel cycle costs result from implementation of combined centers unless the fuel reprocessing plants are commercial-sized. Development of plutonium-burning reactors could reduce any

  18. ITER Central Solenoid Module Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    The fabrication of the modules for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) has started in a dedicated production facility located in Poway, California, USA. The necessary tools have been designed, built, installed, and tested in the facility to enable the start of production. The current schedule has first module fabrication completed in 2017, followed by testing and subsequent shipment to ITER. The Central Solenoid is a key component of the ITER tokamak providing the inductive voltage to initiate and sustain the plasma current and to position and shape the plasma. The design of the CS has been a collaborative effort between the US ITER Project Office (US ITER), the international ITER Organization (IO) and General Atomics (GA). GA’s responsibility includes: completing the fabrication design, developing and qualifying the fabrication processes and tools, and then completing the fabrication of the seven 110 tonne CS modules. The modules will be shipped separately to the ITER site, and then stacked and aligned in the Assembly Hall prior to insertion in the core of the ITER tokamak. A dedicated facility in Poway, California, USA has been established by GA to complete the fabrication of the seven modules. Infrastructure improvements included thick reinforced concrete floors, a diesel generator for backup power, along with, cranes for moving the tooling within the facility. The fabrication process for a single module requires approximately 22 months followed by five months of testing, which includes preliminary electrical testing followed by high current (48.5 kA) tests at 4.7K. The production of the seven modules is completed in a parallel fashion through ten process stations. The process stations have been designed and built with most stations having completed testing and qualification for carrying out the required fabrication processes. The final qualification step for each process station is achieved by the successful production of a prototype coil. Fabrication of the first

  19. Status of the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle demonstration and waste management practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, R.W.; Goff, K.M.; McFarlane, H.F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past few years, Argonne National Laboratory has been preparing for the demonstration of the fuel cycle for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), an advanced reactor concept that takes advantage of the properties of metallic fuel and liquid metal cooling to offer significant improvements in reactor safety and operations, fuel-cycle economics, environmental protection, and safeguards. The IFR fuel cycle, which will be demonstrated at Argonne-West in Idaho, employs a pyrometallurgical process using molten salts and liquid metals to recover actinides from spent fuel. The required facility modifications and process equipment for the demonstration are nearing completion. Their status and the results from initial fuel fabrication work, including the waste management aspects, are presented. Additionally, estimated compositions of the various process waste streams have been made, and characterization and treatment methods are being developed. The status of advanced waste processing equipment being designed and fabricated is described

  20. Fabrication of Robust and Antifouling Superhydrophobic Surfaces via Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chao-Hua; Guo, Xiao-Jing; Ma, Jian-Zhong; Jia, Shun-Tian

    2015-04-22

    Superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of fluorinated methacrylates on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics. The hydrophobicity of the PET fabric was systematically tunable by controlling the polymerization time. The obtained superhydrophobic fabrics showed excellent chemical robustness even after exposure to different chemicals, such as acid, base, salt, acetone, and toluene. Importantly, the fabrics maintained superhydrophobicity after 2500 abrasion cycles, 100 laundering cycles, and long time exposure to UV irradiation. Also, the surface of the superhydrophobic fabrics showed excellent antifouling properties.

  1. Sintering furnace for remote fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.W.

    1978-10-01

    Component testing and evaluation of a chemical vapor deposition Re/W muffle has been initiated. Hydrogen permeation testing and thermal cycling behavior will be evaluated. Fabrication of prototype 10-12 Kg furnace is scheduled for completion late in 1979, at which time testing of the system will be initiated

  2. [Cycling in Zagreb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Stipan; Krapac, Ladislav; Krapac, Josip

    2007-01-01

    Cycling in Zagreb, as means of urban transport inside and outside the city, has a bright past, hazy presence but a promising future. Every day, aggressive citizens who lack urban traffic culture mistreat many cyclists but also many pedestrians. Sedentary way of living, unhealthy eating habits and inadequate recreation would surely be reduced if Zagreb had a network of cycling tracks (190 cm) or lanes (80 cm). Main city roads were constructed at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, the lack of cycling tracks is particularly evident in terms of missing connections between northern and southern parts of the city. Transportation of bikes in public vehicles, parking of bikes as well as cycling along the foot of the mountains Medvednica and Zumberacko gorje is not adequately organized. Better organization is necessary not only because of the present young generation but also because of the young who will shortly become citizens of the EU, where cycling is enormously popular. Cycling tourism is not known in Zagreb, partly due to inadequate roads. The surroundings of Zagreb are more suitable for cycling tourism and attractive brochures and tourist guides offer information to tourists on bikes. Professional, acrobatic and sports cycling do not have a tradition in Zagreb and in Croatia. The same holds true for recreational cycling and indoor exercise cycling. The authors discuss the impact of popularization of cycling using print and electronic media. The role of district and local self-government in the construction and improvement of traffic roads in Zagreb is very important. It is also significant for the implementation of legal regulations that must be obeyed by all traffic participants in order to protect cyclists, the most vulnerable group of traffic participants besides passengers. Multidisciplinary action of all benevolent experts would surely increase safety and pleasure of cycling in the city and its surroundings. This would also help reduce daily stress and

  3. Fabrication of Durably Superhydrophobic Cotton Fabrics by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment with a Siloxane Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The surface treatment of fabrics in an atmospheric environment may pave the way for commercially viable plasma modifications of fibrous matters. In this paper, we demonstrate a durably superhydrophobic cotton cellulose fabric prepared in a single-step graft polymerization of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO by N2 and O2 atmospheric pressure plasma. We systematically investigated effects on contact angle (CA and surface morphology of the cotton fabric under three operational parameters: precursor value; ionization gas flow rate; and plasma cycle time. Surface morphology, element composition, chemical structure and hydrophobic properties of the treated fabric were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, EDS, FTIR and CA on the fabrics. The results indicated that a layer of thin film and nano-particles were evenly deposited on the cotton fibers, and graft polymerization occurred between cellulose and HMDSO. The fabric treated by O2 plasma exhibited a higher CA of 162° than that treated by N2 plasma which was about 149°. Furthermore, the CA of treated fabrics decreased only 0°~10° after storing at the ambient conditions for four months, and treated fabrics could also endure the standard textile laundering procedure in AATCC 61-2006 with minimum change. Therefore, this single-step plasma treatment method is shown to be a novel and environment-friendly way to make durable and superhydrophobic cotton fabrics.

  4. Fabrication and Optimization of Self-Microemulsions to Improve the Oral Bioavailability of Total Flavones of Hippophaë rhamnoides L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruixue; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Zhou, Lin; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to improve the oral bioavailability of a poorly soluble functional food ingredient, the total flavones of Hippophaë rhamnoides L. (TFH). A self-microemulsion drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was developed to overcome the problems of poor absorption of TFH in vivo. The optimal SMEDDS significantly enhanced the solubility of TFH up to 530 times compared to that in water. The mean droplet size was 61.76 nm with uniform distribution. And the loaded system was stable at 25 °C for 3 mo with transparent appearance. The in vitro release of TFH from SMEDDS was faster and more complete than that from suspension. After oral administration of TFH-SMEDDS in rats, the relative bioavailability of TFH was dramatically improved for 3.09 times compared with the unencapsulated form. The investigation indicated the potential application of SMEDDS as a vehicle to improve the oral bioavailability of TFH. The lipid-based nanotechnology, namely self-microemulsion drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was used to improve the bioavailability and oral delivery of total flavones of Hippophaë rhamnoides L. (TFH). The relevant bioavailability of TFH could be remarkably 3-fold improved by the optimized SMEDDS. The SMEDDS produced via a simple one-step process for poorly soluble TFH to achieve a significant improvement in the bioavailability, may endorse the promising utilization of TFH in functional foods as well as pharmaceutical fields with an enhanced absorption in vivo. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. The fuel cycle scoping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, G.D.; Malone, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Scoping System (FCSS) was created to fill the need for a scoping tool which provides the utilities with the ability to quickly evaluate alternative fuel management strategies, tails assay choices, fuel fabrication quotes, fuel financing alternatives, fuel cycle schedules, and other fuel cycle perturbations. The FCSS was specifically designed for PC's that support dBASE-III(TM), a relational data base software system by Ashton-Tate. However, knowledge of dBASE-III is not necessary in order to utilize the FCSS. The FCSS is menu driven and can be utilized as a teaching tool as well as a scoping tool

  6. Some alternatives to the mixed oxide fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Eschbach, E.A.; Goldsmith, S.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Rohrmann, C.A.; Widrig, R.D.

    1977-02-01

    While on initial examination each of the six fuel cycle concepts (tandem cycle, extended burnup, fuel rejuvenation, coprocessing, partial reprocessing, and thorium) described in the report may have some potential for improving safeguards, none of the six appears to have any other major or compelling advantages over the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel cycle. Compared to the MOX cycle, all but coprocessing appear to have major disadvantages, including severe cost penalties. Three of the concepts-tandem, extended burnup, and rejuvenation--share the basic problems of the throwaway cycle (GESMO Alternative 6): without reprocessing, high-level waste volumes and costs are substantially increased, and overall uranium utilization decreases for three reasons. First, the parasitic fission products left in the fuel absorb neutrons in later irradiation steps reducing the overall neutronic efficiencies of these cycles. Second, discarded fuel still has sufficient fissile values to warrant recycle. Third, perhaps most important, the plutonium needed for breeder start-up will not be available; without the breeder, uranium utilization would drop by about a factor of sixty. Two of the concepts--coprocessing and partial reprocessing--involve variations of the basic MOX fuel cycle's chemical reprocessing step to make plutonium diversion potentially more difficult. These concepts could be used with the MOX fuel cycle or in conjunction with the tandem, extended burnup and rejuvenation concepts to eliminate some of the problems with those cycles. But in so doing, the basic impetus for those cycles--elimination of reprocessing for safeguards purposes--no longer exists. Of all the concepts considered, only coprocessing--and particularly the ''master blend'' version--appears to have sufficient promise to warrant a more detailed study. The master blend concept could possibly make plutonium diversion more difficult with minimal impact on the reprocessing and MOX fuel fabrication operations

  7. Improving the reliability of open-cycle water systems: Application of biofouling surveillance and control techniques to sediment and corrosion fouling at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.I.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1987-03-01

    Biofouling surveillance and control techniques are evaluated for their applicability to sediment and corrosion fouling and suggestions are given to improve their effectiveness. Alternate techniques to better detect and control sedimentation and corrosion are also evaluated. Environmental conditions that allow biofouling, sedimentation, and corrosion to occur are summarized. A correlation between sediment and corrosion is identified and the causes are described. Environmental regulations, especially those in the Clean Water Act of 1977, are reviewed to identify those that may limit or prevent the use of surveillance and control techniques described in this report. Flow velocity is the major design factor that determines whether or not biofouling, sedimentation, and corrosion will occur. Monitoring flow conditions can provide early warning of conditions that will allow fouling to occur. Visual inspection is the most common and most effective technique for identifying the cause and extent of fouling in the open-cycle water system. Most biofouling control techniques in current use are not effective against sediment and corrosion. Frequent, high-velocity flushing of cooling loops may effectively remove sediment and reduce under-sediment corrosion. Alternate biocide treatments such as targeted chlorination or the use of ozone or 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilo propionamide (DBNPA) may also be effective in reducing under-sediment corrosion

  8. Analysis and design of a high-linearity receiver RF front-end with an improved 25%-duty-cycle LO generator for WCDMA/GSM applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Song; Li Weinan; Huang Yumei; Hong Zhiliang

    2012-01-01

    A fully integrated receiver RF front-end that meets WCDMA/GSM system requirements is presented. It supports SAW-less operation for WCDMA. To improve the linearity in terms of both IP3 and IP2, the RF front-end is comprised of multiple-gated LNAs with capacitive desensitization, current-mode passive mixers with the proposed IP2 calibration circuit and reconfigurable Tow-Thomas-like biquad TIAs. A new power-saving multi-mode divider with low phase noise is proposed to provide the 4-phase 25%-duty-cycle LO. In addition, a constant-g m biasing with a non-chip resistor is adopted to make the conversion gain invulnerable to the process and temperature variations of the transimpedance. This RF front-end is integrated in a receiver with an on-chip frequency synthesizer in 0.13 μm CMOS. The measurement results show that owing to this high-linearity RF front-end, the receiver achieves −6 dBm IIP3 and better than +60 dBm IIP2 for all modes and bands. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  9. Fabrication of zein nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecha, Jarupat

    resins. The soft lithography technique was mainly used to fabricate micro and nanostructures on zein films. Zein material well-replicated small structures with the smallest size at sub micrometer scale that resulted in interesting photonic properties. The bonding method was also developed for assembling portable zein microfluidic devices with small shape distortion. Zein-zein and zein-glass microfluidic devices demonstrated sufficient strength to facilitate fluid flow in a complex microfluidic design with no leakage. Aside from the fabrication technique development, several potential applications of this environmentally friendly microfluidic device were investigated. The concentration gradient manipulation of Rhodamine B solution in zein-glass microfluidic devices was demonstrated. The diffusion of small molecules such as fluorescent dye into the wall of the zein microfluidic channels was observed. However, with this formulation, zein microfluidic devices were not suitable for cell culture applications. This pioneer study covered a wide spectrum of the implementation of the two nanotechnology approaches to advance zein biomaterial which provided proof of fundamental concepts as well as presenting some limitations. The findings in this study can lead to several innovative research opportunities of advanced zein biomaterials with broad applications. The information from the study of zein nanocomposite structure allows the packaging industry to develop the low cost biodegradable materials with physical property improvement. The information from the study of the zein microfluidic devices allows agro-industry to develop the nanotechnology-enabled microfluidic sensors fabricated entirely from biodegradable polymer for on-site disease or contaminant detection in the fields of food and agriculture.

  10. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of the INSTAR [INertial STorage And Recovery] System: A Flywheel-based, High Power Energy Storage System for Improved Hybrid Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Talancon, Daniel Raul

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of the INSTAR system: a high-power, cost-effective energy storage system designed to improve HEV regenerative braking capabilities by combining chemical batteries with an electromechanical flywheel. This combination allows the regenerative braking system in hybrid vehicles to recapture more available braking energy at a lower battery pack charging current, increasing vehicle energy efficiency while also potentially increasing battery life.A prototype flyw...

  11. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle for use in establishing ''as low as practicable'' guides: fabrication of light-water reactor fuels containing plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenier, W.S.; Blanco, R.E.; Dahlman, R.C.; Finney, B.C.; Kibbey, A.H.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1975-05-01

    A cost-benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model light-water plutonium recycle reactor fuel fabrication plant, and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term ''as low as practicable'' in relation to limiting the release of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities. The base case model plant is representative of current plant technology and has an annual capacity of 300 metric tons of LWR plutonium recycle fuel. Additional radwaste treatment equipment is added to the base case plants in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The cost for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose commitment are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, radiological dose is plotted vs the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Some of the technology used in the advanced cases is in an early stage of development and is not suitable for immediate use. The methodology used in estimating the costsand the radiological doses, detailed calculations, and tabulations are presented in Appendixes A and B. (U.S.)

  12. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle for use in establishing ''as low as practicable'' guides: fabrication of light-water reactor fuel from enriched uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechin, W.H.; Blanco, R.E.; Dahlman, R.C.; Finney, B.C.; Lindauer, R.B.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1975-05-01

    A cost-benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model enriched-uranium, light-water reactor (LWR) fuel fabrication plant, and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term ''as low as practicable'' in relation to limiting the release of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities. The base case model plant is representative of current plant technology and has an annual capacity of 1500 metric tons of LWR fuel. Additional radwaste treatment equipment is added to the base case plants in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The cost for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose commitment are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, radiological dose is plotted vs the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Some of the technology used in the advanced cases is in an early stage of development and is not suitable for immediate use. The methodology used in estimating the costs and the radiological doses, detailed calculations, and tabulations are presented in Appendix A and ORNL-4992. (U.S.)

  13. Fuel cycles for the 80's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Papers presented at the American Nuclear Society's topical meeting on the fuel cycle are summarized. Present progress and goals in the areas of fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing, spent fuel storage, accountability, and safeguards are reported. Present governmental policies which affect the fuel cycle are also discussed. Individual presentations are processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  14. Survey of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zech, H.J.; Pickert, F.K.

    1975-01-01

    A brief outline of the technical aspects of the fuel cycle, starting from the mining of uranium up to fuel element fabrication, is followed by a more detailed description of the management of the outer fuel cycle. This includes the system of contracts and their reciprocal technical and chronological interdepence, as well as financial aspects, market conditions and trends. (RB) [de

  15. Design of Cycle 3 of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 2013-23: Part 2: Science plan for improved water-quality information and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Gary L.; Belitz, Kenneth; Demas, Charlie R.; Essaid, Hedeff I.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Hoos, Anne B.; Lee, Casey J.; Munn, Mark D.; Wolock, David W.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a science strategy for the third decade of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, which since 1991, has been responsible for providing nationally consistent information on the quality of the Nation's streams and groundwater; how water quality is changing over time; and the major natural and human factors that affect current water quality conditions and trends. The strategy is based on an extensive evaluation of the accomplishments of NAWQA over its first two decades, the current status of water-quality monitoring activities by USGS and its partners, and an updated analysis of stakeholder priorities. The plan is designed to address priority issues and national needs identified by NAWQA stakeholders and the National Research Council (2012) irrespective of budget constraints. This plan describes four major goals for the third decade (Cycle 3), the approaches for monitoring, modeling, and scientific studies, key partnerships required to achieve these goals, and products and outcomes that will result from planned assessment activities. The science plan for 2013–2023 is a comprehensive approach to meet stakeholder priorities for: (1) rebuilding NAWQA monitoring networks for streams, rivers, and groundwater, and (2) upgrading models used to extrapolate and forecast changes in water-quality and stream ecosystem condition in response to changing climate and land use. The Cycle 3 plan continues approaches that have been central to the Program’s long-term success, but adjusts monitoring intensities and study designs to address critical information needs and identified data gaps. Restoration of diminished monitoring networks and new directions in modeling and interpretative studies address growing and evolving public and stakeholder needs for water-quality information and improved management, particularly in the face of increasing challenges related to population growth, increasing demands for water, and changing land use and climate

  16. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  17. On acyclicity of games with cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Klas Olof Daniel; Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Gurvich, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    We study restricted improvement cycles (ri-cycles) in finite positional n-person games with perfect information modeled by directed graphs (di-graphs) that may contain directed cycles (di-cycles). We assume that all these di-cycles form one outcome c, for example, a draw. We obtain criteria...